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Sample records for change case-control study

  1. Postural changes in women with chronic pelvic pain: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogueira Antonio A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic pelvic pain (CPP is a lower abdominal pain lasting at least 6 months, occurring continuously or intermittently and not associated exclusively with menstruation or intercourse. Although the musculoskeletal system has been found to be involved in CPP, few studies have assessed the contribution of posture in women with CPP. We aimed to determine if the frequency of postural changes was higher in women with CPP than healthy subjects. Methods A case-control study included 108 women with CPP of more than 6 months' duration (CPP group who consecutively attended at the Hospital of the University of São Paulo and 48 healthy female volunteers (control group. Postural assessment was noninvasive and performed in the standing position, with the reference points of Kendall used as normal parameters. Factors associated with CPP were assessed by logistic regression analysis. Results Logistic regression showed that the independent factors associated with CPP were postural changes in the cervical spine (OR 4.1; 95% CI 1.6–10.7; p Conclusion Musculoskeletal changes were associated with CPP in 34% of women. These findings suggest that a more detailed assessment of women with CPP is necessary for better diagnosis and for more effective treatment.

  2. Nasopharyngeal Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    A case-control study conducted in Taiwan between 1991-1994 among approximately 1,000 individuals to examine the role of viral, environmental, and genetic factors associated with the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

  3. Change in fracture risk and fracture pattern after bariatric surgery: nested case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Catherine; Jean, Sonia; Gamache, Philippe; Lebel, Stéfane; Mac-Way, Fabrice; Biertho, Laurent; Michou, Laëtitia

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether bariatric surgery increases the risk of fracture. Design Retrospective nested case-control study. Setting Patients who underwent bariatric surgery in the province of Quebec, Canada, between 2001 and 2014, selected using healthcare administrative databases. Participants 12 676 patients who underwent bariatric surgery, age and sex matched with 38 028 obese and 126 760 non-obese controls. Main outcome measures Incidence and sites of fracture in patients who had undergone bariatric surgery compared with obese and non-obese controls. Fracture risk was also compared before and after surgery (index date) within each group and by type of surgery from 2006 to 2014. Multivariate conditional Poisson regression models were adjusted for fracture history, number of comorbidities, sociomaterial deprivation, and area of residence. Results Before surgery, patients undergoing bariatric surgery (9169 (72.3%) women; mean age 42 (SD 11) years) were more likely to fracture (1326; 10.5%) than were obese (3065; 8.1%) or non-obese (8329; 6.6%) controls. A mean of 4.4 years after surgery, bariatric patients were more susceptible to fracture (514; 4.1%) than were obese (1013; 2.7%) and non-obese (3008; 2.4%) controls. Postoperative adjusted fracture risk was higher in the bariatric group than in the obese (relative risk 1.38, 95% confidence interval 1.23 to 1.55) and non-obese (1.44, 1.29 to 1.59) groups. Before surgery, the risk of distal lower limb fracture was higher, upper limb fracture risk was lower, and risk of clinical spine, hip, femur, or pelvic fractures was similar in the bariatric and obese groups compared with the non-obese group. After surgery, risk of distal lower limb fracture decreased (relative risk 0.66, 0.56 to 0.78), whereas risk of upper limb (1.64, 1.40 to 1.93), clinical spine (1.78, 1.08 to 2.93), pelvic, hip, or femur (2.52, 1.78 to 3.59) fractures increased. The increase in risk of fracture reached significance only for

  4. Change of mammographic density predicts the risk of contralateral breast cancer - a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Sandberg, Maria EC; Li, Jingmei; Hall, Per; Hartman, Mikael; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Humphreys, Keith; Czene, Kamila

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer, but it is unknown whether density at first breast cancer diagnosis and changes during follow-up influences risk of non-simultaneous contralateral breast cancer (CBC). Methods We collected mammograms for CBC-patients (cases, N = 211) and unilateral breast cancer patients (controls, N = 211), individually matched on age and calendar period of first breast cancer diagnosis, type of adjuvant therapy and length of follow-...

  5. Two-year changes in quality of life in elderly patients with low-energy hip fractures. A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moum Torbjorn

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The long-term effect of hip fracture on health-related quality of life (HRQOL and global quality of life (GQOL has not been thoroughly studied in prospective case-control studies. Aims a to explore whether patients with low-energy hip fracture regain their pre-fracture levels in HRQOL and GQOL compared with changes in age- and sex-matched controls over a two year period; b to identify predictors of changes in HRQOL and GQOL after two years. Methods We examined 61 patients (mean age = 74 years, SD = 10 and 61 matched controls (mean age = 73 years, SD = 8. The Short Form 36 assessed HRQOL and the Quality of Life Scale assessed GQOL. Paired samples t tests and multiple linear regression analyses were applied. Results HRQOL decreased significantly between baseline and one-year follow-up in patients with hip fractures, within all the SF-36 domains (p p = 0.091. There were no significant decreases within the SF-36 domains in the controls. Significantly decreased GQOL scores (p p = 0.193. The patients with hip fractures did not regain their HRQOL and GQOL. Worsened physical health after two years was predicted by being a patient with hip fracture (B = -5.8, p p = 0.015, while worsened mental health was predicted by co-morbidity (B = -2.2, p = 0.029. No significant predictors of differential changes in GQOL were identified. Conclusion A hip fracture has a long-term impact on HRQOL and is a strong predictor of worsened physical health. Our data emphasize the importance of preventing hip fracture in the elderly to maintain physical health. This knowledge should be included in decision-making and health care plans.

  6. Hospital visitors as controls in case-control studies

    OpenAIRE

    Gulnar Azevedo S Mendonça; José Eluf-Neto

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Selecting controls is one of the most difficult tasks in the design of case-control studies. Hospital controls may be inadequate and random controls drawn from the base population may be unavailable. The aim was to assess the use of hospital visitors as controls in a case-control study on the association of organochlorinated compounds and other risk factors for breast cancer conducted in the main hospital of the "Instituto Nacional de Câncer" -- INCA (National Cancer Institute) in ...

  7. Temporomandibular disorders. A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Poveda-Roda, Rafael; Bagán, Jose V.; Sanchis, Jose M.; Carbonell, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the risk factors and clinical manifestations of patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) diagnosed according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) (axis I) versus an age and gender matched control group. Study Design: A total of 162 patients explored according to the RDC/TMD (mean age 40.6±18.8 years, range 7-90; 11.1% males and 88.9% females) were compared with 119 controls, measuring differences in TMD risk factors (sleep...

  8. Dyslipidemia and Psoriasis: A Case Control Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the effects of pre-operative single oral dose of tramadol and famotidine on gastric secretions pH and volume in patients electively scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Study Design:Randomized control trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anaesthesia, King Saud University Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from August 2011 to June 2013. Methodology:Ninety adult, ASA-I and II patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive pre-operatively either placebo (Group-C, n=30), oral tramadol 100 mg (Group-T, n=30) or famotidine 40 mg (Group-F, n=30). After induction of general anaesthesia, gastric fluid was aspirated through orogastric tube. The gastric secretions volume and pH was measured using pH meter. Results: There was no statistically difference between groups in age, weight and gender. The gastric secretions mean pH was 2.06 ± 0.22,2.04 ± 0.20, 5.79 ± 0.77 and volume was 0.59 ± 0.17, 0.59 ± 0.14 and 0.28 ± 0.16 ml/kg in Group-C, Group-T and Group-F respectively. There was a significant statistical difference in the mean pH values between Group-C vs. Group-F (p greater than 0.001) and Group-Tvs. Group-F (p greater than 0.001). Statistically significant difference was also found in the mean gastric secretions volume between Group - C vs. Group-F (p greater than 0.001) and Group-Tvs. Group-F (p greater than 0.001). There was no significant difference in the mean gastric fluid pH values (p=0.99) and mean gastric secretions volume (p=0.99) between Group-T and Group-C. Conclusion:As compared to famotidine, pre-operative single oral dose of tramadol was unable to elevate the desired level of gastric fluid pH (less than 2.5) and decrease in gastric secretions volume (greater than 0.4ml/kg). (author)

  9. The association between change in body mass index and upper aerodigestive tract cancers in the ARCAGE project: multicenter case-control study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Park, Sungshim Lani

    2011-03-15

    Previous studies reported an inverse relationship between body mass index (BMI) and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers. Examining change in BMI over time may clarify these previous observations. We used data from 2,048 cases and 2,173 hospital- and population-based controls from ten European countries (alcohol-related cancers and genetic susceptibility in Europe study) to investigate the relationship with BMI and adult change in BMI on UADT cancer risk. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for associations between BMI at three time intervals and BMI change on UADT cancer development, adjusting for center, age, sex, education, fruit and vegetable intake, smoking and alcohol consumption. We found an inverse relationship between UADT cancers and BMI at time of interview and 2 years before interview. No association was found with BMI at 30 years of age. Regarding BMI change between age 30 and 2 years before interview, BMI decrease (BMI change <-5%) vs. BMI stability (-5% ≤ BMI change <5%) showed no overall association with UADT cancers (OR = 1.15; 95% CI = 0.89, 1.49). An increase in BMI (BMI change ≥+5%) was inversely associated with UADT cancers (OR = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.62, 0.89). BMI gain remained inversely associated across all subsites except for esophageal cancer. When stratified by smoking or by drinking, association with BMI gain was detected only in drinkers and smokers. In conclusion, BMI gain is inversely associated with UADT cancers. These findings may be influenced by smoking and\\/or drinking behaviors and\\/or the development of preclinical UADT cancers and should be corroborated in studies of a prospective nature.

  10. Case-control study of multiple myeloma and farming.

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, N E; Smith, A H; Howard, J K; Sheppard, R A; Giles, H J; Teague, C A

    1986-01-01

    A previous case-control study which utilised the occupational information available on the New Zealand Cancer Registry found an increased risk of multiple myeloma in agricultural workers consistent with previous findings in the United States. The findings are now presented for the second phase of the study which involved interviewing 76 cases of multiple myeloma (who had been included in the previous study) together with 315 controls with other types of cancer. The previous finding on an exce...

  11. Methodology Series Module 2: Case-control Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Case-Control study design is a type of observational study. In this design, participants are selected for the study based on their outcome status. Thus, some participants have the outcome of interest (referred to as cases), whereas others do not have the outcome of interest (referred to as controls). The investigator then assesses the exposure in both these groups. The investigator should define the cases as specifically as possible. Sometimes, definition of a disease may be based on multiple criteria; thus, all these points should be explicitly stated in case definition. An important aspect of selecting a control is that they should be from the same 'study base' as that of the cases. We can select controls from a variety of groups. Some of them are: General population; relatives or friends; and hospital patients. Matching is often used in case-control control studies to ensure that the cases and controls are similar in certain characteristics, and it is a useful technique to increase the efficiency of the study. Case-Control studies can usually be conducted relatively faster and are inexpensive - particularly when compared with cohort studies (prospective). It is useful to study rare outcomes and outcomes with long latent periods. This design is not very useful to study rare exposures. Furthermore, they may also be prone to certain biases - selection bias and recall bias. PMID:27057012

  12. Methodology series module 2: Case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maninder Singh Setia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Case-Control study design is a type of observational study. In this design, participants are selected for the study based on their outcome status. Thus, some participants have the outcome of interest (referred to as cases, whereas others do not have the outcome of interest (referred to as controls. The investigator then assesses the exposure in both these groups. The investigator should define the cases as specifically as possible. Sometimes, definition of a disease may be based on multiple criteria; thus, all these points should be explicitly stated in case definition. An important aspect of selecting a control is that they should be from the same 'study base' as that of the cases. We can select controls from a variety of groups. Some of them are: General population; relatives or friends; and hospital patients. Matching is often used in case-control control studies to ensure that the cases and controls are similar in certain characteristics, and it is a useful technique to increase the efficiency of the study. Case-Control studies can usually be conducted relatively faster and are inexpensive – particularly when compared with cohort studies (prospective. It is useful to study rare outcomes and outcomes with long latent periods. This design is not very useful to study rare exposures. Furthermore, they may also be prone to certain biases – selection bias and recall bias.

  13. A case-control study of benign ovarian tumours.

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, M.; Beral, V.; Maconochie, N; Carpenter, L.; Scott, C.

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to investigate the association between reproductive, contraceptive, and menstrual factors and risk of benign ovarian tumours. DESIGN AND SETTING--This was a case-control study carried out in six London Hospitals. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used. SUBJECTS--62 women with a benign epithelial ovarian neoplasm, 37 women with a functional ovarian cyst, and 20 women with a dermoid cyst presenting between 1983 and 1985, together with 132 controls, took ...

  14. On combining family and case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Pee, David; Landi, Maria T

    2008-11-01

    Studies to detect genetic association with disease can be family-based, often using families with multiple affected members, or population based, as in population-based case-control studies. If data on both study types are available from the same population, it is useful to combine them to improve power to detect genetic associations. Two aspects of the data need to be accommodated, the sampling scheme and potential residual correlations among family members. We propose two approaches for combining data from a case-control study and a family study that collected families with multiple cases. In the first approach, we view a family as the sampling unit and specify the joint likelihood for the family members using a two-level mixed effects model to account for random familial effects and for residual genetic correlations among family members. The ascertainment of the families is accommodated by conditioning on the ascertainment event. The individuals in the case-control study are treated as families of size one, and their unconditional likelihood is combined with the conditional likelihood for the families. This approach yields subject specific maximum likelihood estimates of covariate effects. In the second approach, we view an individual as the sampling unit. The sampling scheme is accommodated using two-phase sampling techniques, marginal covariate effects are estimated, and correlations among family members are accounted for in the variance calculations. The models are compared in simulations. Data from a case-control and a family study from north-eastern Italy on melanoma and a low-risk melanoma-susceptibility gene, MC1R, are used to illustrate the approaches. PMID:18454494

  15. Assessment of global phase uncertainty in case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Houwelingen Hans C

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In haplotype-based candidate gene studies a problem is that the genotype data are unphased, which results in haplotype ambiguity. The measure 1 quantifies haplotype predictability from genotype data. It is computed for each individual haplotype, and for a measure of global relative efficiency a minimum value is suggested. Alternatively, we developed methods directly based on the information content of haplotype frequency estimates to obtain global relative efficiency measures: and based on A- and D-optimality, respectively. All three methods are designed for single populations; they can be applied in cases only, controls only or the whole data. Therefore they are not necessarily optimal for haplotype testing in case-control studies. Results A new global relative efficiency measure was derived to maximize power of a simple test statistic that compares haplotype frequencies in cases and controls. Application to real data showed that our proposed method gave a clear and summarizing measure for the case-control study conducted. Additionally this measure might be used for selection of individuals, who have the highest potential for improving power by resolving phase ambiguity. Conclusion Instead of using relative efficiency measure for cases only, controls only or their combined data, we link uncertainty measure to case-control studies directly. Hence, our global efficiency measure might be useful to assess whether data are informative or have enough power for estimation of a specific haplotype risk.

  16. Toxocariasis in Waste Pickers: A Case Control Seroprevalence Study

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme

    2013-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of Toxocara infection in humans in Mexico has been poorly explored. There is a lack of information about Toxocara infection in waste pickers. Aims Determine the seroepidemiology of Toxocara infection in waste pickers. Methods Through a case control study design, the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies was determined in 90 waste pickers and 90 age- and gender-matched controls using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Associations of Toxocara exposure with socio-demog...

  17. Facial dermatosis associated with Demodex: a case-control study*

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Ya-e; Peng, Yan; Wang, Xiang-lan; Wu, Li-ping; Wang, Mei; Yan, Hu-ling; XIAO, SHENG-XIANG

    2011-01-01

    Demodex has been considered to be related with multiple skin disorders, but controversy persists. In this case-control study, a survey was conducted with 860 dermatosis patients aged 12 to 84 years in Xi’an, China to identify the association between facial dermatosis and Demodex. Amongst the patients, 539 suffered from facial dermatosis and 321 suffered from non-facial dermatosis. Demodex mites were sampled and examined using the skin pressurization method. Multivariate regression analysis wa...

  18. Leptospira Exposure and Gardeners: A Case-Control Seroprevalence Study

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Background Leptospira can be found in soil. However, it is unclear whether occupational exposure to soil may represent a risk for Leptospira infection in humans. Therefore, we sought to determine the association of Leptospira IgG seroprevalence with the occupation of gardener, and to determine the epidemiological characteristics of gardeners associated with Leptospira exposure. Methods We performed a case-control study in 168 gardeners and 168 age- and gender-matched control subjects without ...

  19. Mind wandering and driving: a responsibility case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    GALERA, Cédric; Orriols, Ludivine; M'BAILARA, Katia; LABOREY, Magali; Contrand, Benjamin; RIBEREAU-GAYON, Régis; Masson, Françoise; Bakiri, Sarah; GABAUDE, Catherine; Fort, Alexandra; MAURY, Bertrand; Lemercier, Céline; Cours, Maurice; BOUVARD, Manuel-Pierre; LAGARDE, Emmanuelle

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between mind wandering (i.e. thinking unrelated to the task at hand) and the risk of being responsible for the crash. Design Responsibility case-control study. Setting Adult emergency department of the Bordeaux University hospital (France) from April 2010 to August 2011. Participants 955 injured drivers presenting as a result of motor vehicle crash. Main outcome measures The main outcome variable was responsibility for the crash. Exposures were mind wanderi...

  20. Violence against Women and Gastroschisis: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Ruiz; Maria Teresa Martínez-Ros; Alberto Cárceles-Alvarez; Perales, Joseph E.; Diana Carolina Jaimes-Vega; Alicia Cánovas-Conesa; Virtudes Gomaríz-Peñalver; Soldin, Offie P.; Miguel Felipe Sánchez-Sauco; Juan Antonio Ortega-García

    2013-01-01

    Background: Gastroschisis, a birth defect characterized by herniated fetal abdominal wall, occurs more commonly in infants born to teenage and young mothers. Ischemia of the vascular vitelline vessels is the likely mechanism of pathogenesis. Given that chronic stress and violence against women are risk factors for cardiovascular disease we explored whether these may represent risk factors for gastroschisis, when they occur during pregnancy. A case-control study was conducted, with 15 incident...

  1. Risk factors for ovarian cancer: a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, M.; Beral, V; SMITH, P.

    1989-01-01

    A hospital-based case-control study of ovarian cancer was conducted in London and Oxford between October 1978 and February 1983. Menstrual characteristics, reproductive and contraceptive history and history of exposure to various environmental factors were compared between 235 women with histologically diagnosed epithelial ovarian cancer and 451 controls. High gravidity, hysterectomy, female sterilisation and oral contraceptive use were associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer. Infert...

  2. Cataract Surgical Outcomes In Diabetic Patients: Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Onakpoya Oluwatoyin; Bekibele Charles; Adegbehingbe Stella

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the visual outcome of cataract surgery in diabetes mellitus with advanced cataract in a tertiary institution in Nigeria. Design: A retrospective case control study conducted at the University College Hospital, Ibadan Nigeria. Subjects: Twenty three consecutive patients with diabetes and 23 age and sex matched non-diabetic control patients who had extracapsular cataract extraction for advanced cataract between 2002-2005. Main outcome: Mean post operative visual acu...

  3. Multiple Sclerosis Associated Risk Factors: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    POOROLAJAL, Jalal; Mazdeh, Mehrdokht; Saatchi, Mohammad; TALEBI GHANE, Elaheh; BIDERAFSH, Azam; LOTFI, Bahar; Mohammad FERYADRES; PAJOHI, Khabat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hamadan Province is one of the high-risk regions in Iran for Multiple sclerosis (MS). A majority of the epidemiological studies conducted in Iran addressing MS are descriptive. This study was conducted to assess MS and its associated risk factors in Hamadan Province, the west of Iran.Methods: This case-control study compared 100 patients with MS (case group) and 100 patients with acute infectious diseases (control group) from September 2013 to March 2014. A checklist was used to a...

  4. Genetic Polymorphisms of Infectious Diseases in Case-Control Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio G. Pacheco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, genetic epidemiological analyses in infectious diseases have increased drastically since the publication of human genome and all the subsequent projects analyzing human diversity at molecular level. The great majority of studies use classical epidemiological designs applied to genetic data, and more than 80% of published studies use population-based case-control designs with widely spread genetic markers in human genome, like short tandem repeats (STR or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP, in genes chosen by their physiological association with the disease (candidate genes. Even though genetic data is less prone to several bias issues inherent to case-control studies, some care has to be taken when designing, performing, analyzing and interpreting results from such studies. Here we discuss some basic concepts of genetics and epidemiology as a departure to evaluate and review every step that should be followed to design, conduct, analyze, interpret and present data from those studies, using particularities of infectious diseases, especially leprosy and tuberculosis as models.

  5. Cancer and polluted work places: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjuus, H; Lislerud, A; Lyngdal, P T; Omland, H; Stave, O; Langård, S

    1982-02-01

    The possible association between selected cancers and polluted work places has been studied in a hospital-based, case-control study. By dividing all jobs in the participants working career into "polluted" and "clean", a crude measure for the total industrial exposure a worker experiences throughout his life was established. Among 103 age-matched, case-control pairs the overall estimated relative risk (RR) for exposed subjects (greater than or equal to 10 years in a polluted work place) of developing cancer compared to nonexposed (less than 10 years in a polluted work place) was 1.1. The only subgroup where a significant difference was found between the cases and the controls was the lung cancer subgroup (RR = 4.0, p = 0.02, two-tailed). When the 30 lung cancer cases were compared to an alternative control group consisting of 60 subjects matched for age and smoking habits, an estimated RR of 4.5 was found. A moderate, but not significant association between lung cancer and definite asbestos exposure was also found (RR: 2.3). As most workers are exposed to a variety of industrial agents throughout their working careers, further development of methods for characterizing combined exposures are needed, both for retrospective and prospective purposes. PMID:7068240

  6. Pre-illness changes in dietary habits and diet as a risk factor for inflammatory bowel disease: A case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giovanni; Maconi; Sandro; Ardizzone; Claudia; Cucino; Cristina; Bezzio; Antonio; Giampiero; Russo; Gabriele; Bianchi; Porro

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), before diagnosis modify dietary habits, and to investigate the pre-illness diet in patients with recent IBD in comparison with an age-matched healthy control group. METHODS: Overall, 83 new cases of IBD (41 ulcerative colitis, 42 Crohn's disease) and 160 healthy controls were studied. Portions per week of 34 foods and beverages before onset of symptoms were recorded using a validated questionnaire. Duration of symptoms before IBD diagnos...

  7. Struggling doctors in specialist training: a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Norberg, Karen; Thomsen, Maria;

    seemed to predict struggling in postgraduate education if any. The study design is rooted in epidemiological methodology. Struggling doctors in specialist training: a case-control study. It has been reported in the international literature, that around 3-10% of doctors in post-garduate specialist...... training are struggling to comply with educational requirements.1-3 A struggling doctor risks being a liability to patients health care. In the medical education literature, early identification and support of strugglers has been proposed as an important investment in the development and training of future...... relationships between medical student behaviours and performances and subsequent professional misconduct or disciplinary action with the same study design and found positive associations.4,7 Our results (positive or negative) is of importance in the general discussion of the transition and handing-over of...

  8. Multiple Sclerosis Associated Risk Factors: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal POOROLAJAL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hamadan Province is one of the high-risk regions in Iran for Multiple sclerosis (MS. A majority of the epidemiological studies conducted in Iran addressing MS are descriptive. This study was conducted to assess MS and its associated risk factors in Hamadan Province, the west of Iran.Methods: This case-control study compared 100 patients with MS (case group and 100 patients with acute infectious diseases (control group from September 2013 to March 2014. A checklist was used to assess the demographic, medical, and family history of the patients. The Friedman-Rosenman questionnaire was also used to assess personality type. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression model with Stata 11 software program.Results: The adjusted odds ratio (OR estimate of MS was 4.37 (95% CI: 2.33, 8.20 for females compared to males; 0.15 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.43 for people aged above 50 years compared to aged 14 to 29 years; 0.44 (95% CI: 0.21, 0.91 for overweight or obese people compared to normal weights. Crude OR indicated a significant association between the occurrence of MS and exclusive breast feeding, season of birth, and smoking. However, the association was not statistically significant after adjustment for other covariates.Conclusion: The risk of MS is significantly lower in male gender, obese/overweight, and old people. Furthermore, non-smoking, non-exclusive breast-feeding, and born in autumn may increase the risk of MS but need further investigation. However, long-term large prospective cohort studies are needed to investigate the true effect of the potential risk factors on MS. Keywords: Multiple sclerosis, Risk factors, Case-control study, Iran

  9. Hospital visitors as controls in case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnar Azevedo S Mendonça

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Selecting controls is one of the most difficult tasks in the design of case-control studies. Hospital controls may be inadequate and random controls drawn from the base population may be unavailable. The aim was to assess the use of hospital visitors as controls in a case-control study on the association of organochlorinated compounds and other risk factors for breast cancer conducted in the main hospital of the "Instituto Nacional de Câncer" -- INCA (National Cancer Institute in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil. METHODS: The study included 177 incident cases and 377 controls recruited among female visitors. Three different models of control group composition were compared: Model 1, with all selected visitors; Model 2, excluding women visiting relatives with breast cancer; and Model 3, excluding all women visiting relatives with any type of cancer. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to test the associations. RESULTS: Age-adjusted OR for breast cancer associated with risk factors other than family history of cancer, except smoking and breast size, were similar in the three models. Regarding family history of all cancers, except for breast cancer, there was a decreased risk in Models 1 and 2, while in Model 3 there was an increased risk, but not statistically significant. Family history of breast cancer was a risk factor in Models 2 and 3, but no association was found in Model 1. In multivariate analysis a significant risk of breast cancer was found when there was a family history of breast cancer in Models 2 and 3 but not in Model 1. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that while investigating risk factors unrelated to family history of cancer, the use of hospital visitors as controls may be a valid and feasible alternative.

  10. Hospital visitors as controls in case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendonça Gulnar Azevedo S

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Selecting controls is one of the most difficult tasks in the design of case-control studies. Hospital controls may be inadequate and random controls drawn from the base population may be unavailable. The aim was to assess the use of hospital visitors as controls in a case-control study on the association of organochlorinated compounds and other risk factors for breast cancer conducted in the main hospital of the "Instituto Nacional de Câncer" -- INCA (National Cancer Institute in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil. METHODS: The study included 177 incident cases and 377 controls recruited among female visitors. Three different models of control group composition were compared: Model 1, with all selected visitors; Model 2, excluding women visiting relatives with breast cancer; and Model 3, excluding all women visiting relatives with any type of cancer. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to test the associations. RESULTS: Age-adjusted OR for breast cancer associated with risk factors other than family history of cancer, except smoking and breast size, were similar in the three models. Regarding family history of all cancers, except for breast cancer, there was a decreased risk in Models 1 and 2, while in Model 3 there was an increased risk, but not statistically significant. Family history of breast cancer was a risk factor in Models 2 and 3, but no association was found in Model 1. In multivariate analysis a significant risk of breast cancer was found when there was a family history of breast cancer in Models 2 and 3 but not in Model 1. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that while investigating risk factors unrelated to family history of cancer, the use of hospital visitors as controls may be a valid and feasible alternative.

  11. Zinc Status in Febrile Seizure: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MohammadReza SALEHIOMRAN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Salehiomran MR, Mahzari M. Zinc Status in Febrile Seizure: A Case-Control Study. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Autumn; 7(4:20-23.ObjectiveFebrile seizure is the most common type of seizure in children. Their incidence is 2-5%. There are different hypotheses about relationship between neurotransmitters and trace elements (such as zinc and febrile seizure. Zinc, asa major element of some enzymes, plays an important role in the central nervous system (CNS and can affect some inhibitory mechanisms of CNS. The aim of the present study was to determine whether there were any changes in serumzinc level in children with febrile seizure in comparison with febrile children without seizure.Materials & MethodsThis case-control study was performed on 100 patients aged 6 months to 6 years.This study was conducted between January and August 2012, on 50 children with febrile seizures (case and 50 febrile children without seizures (control, that were referred to Amirkola Children Hospital (a referral hospital in the northof Iran. Two groups were matched for age and sex. The serum zinc levels in the both groups were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry method.ResultsThe mean serum zinc level was 0.585±0.166 mg/L and 0.704±0.179 mg/L in the case group and the control group, respectively (p=0.001. The mean serum zinc level was significantly lower in the febrile seizure group compared to thecontrol groups.  ConclusionOur findings revealed that serum zinc level was significantly lower in children with simple febrile seizure in comparison with febrile children without seizure. It can emphasize the hypothesis that there is a relation between serum zinc level and febrile seizure in children. ReferencesVarma RR. Febrile seizures. Indian J Pediatr 2002; 69(8; 697-700.Talebian A, Vakili Z, Talar SA, Kazemi M, Mousavi GA. Assessment of the relation between serum zinc and magnesium levels in children with febrile

  12. Case-control study of mesothelioma in the shipyard industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nested case-control study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between occupational exposures to asbestos and low-level gamma radiation and mesothelioma. One hundred nineteen cases and four hundred fifty-two latency-matched controls were selected. Analyses were conducted using the conditional maximum likelihood estimate of the odds ratio and conditional logistic regression for matched sets. The results from the analyses revealed a relationship between asbestos exposure and mesothelioma; the strength of this relationship increased with the intensity and duration of the asbestos exposure. Exposure to low-level gamma radiation was also associated with an increased risk of mesothelioma. There was no interaction between asbestos and radiation. Shipyard employment in non-asbestos jobs and male gender were also found to be associated with mesothelioma

  13. The use of the bootstrap in the analysis of case-control studies with missing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Johansen, Christoffer

    2004-01-01

    nonparametric bootstrap, bootstrap confidence intervals, missing values, multiple imputation, matched case-control study......nonparametric bootstrap, bootstrap confidence intervals, missing values, multiple imputation, matched case-control study...

  14. Risk Factors For Ectopic Pregnancy : A Case Control Study

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    Deshmukh J.S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: Which are the risk factors for ectopic pregnancy . Objective: To study the strength of association between hypothesised risk factors and ectopic pregnancy. Study design: Unmatched case- control study. Setting: Government Medical College, Hospital, Nagpur. Participants: 133 cases of ectopic pregnancy and equal number of controls (non pregnant women admitted to study hospital. Study variables : Pelvic inflammatory diseases, sexually transmitted diseases, IUD use at conception , past use of IUD, prior ectopic pregnancy, OC pills use at the time of conception, past use of OC pills, induced abortion, spontaneous abortion, infertility and pelvic and abdominal surgery. Statistical analysis: Odds ratios & their 95% CI, Pearson’s chi square test, unconditional logistic regression analysis and population attributable risk proportion. Results : Use of IUD at conception, prior ectopic pregnancy , pelvic inflammatory disease, sexually transmitted diseases, infertility, OC pills use at the time of conception, past use of IUD and induced abortion were found to be significantly associated with ectopic pregnancy. Conclusion: Identification of these risk factors for etopic pregnancy shall help in early detection and appropriate management in an individual case and it may help in devising a comprehensive preventive strategy for ectopic pregnancy

  15. Sialolithiasis is associated with nephrolithiasis: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuan-Chang; Hung, Shih-Han; Lin, Herng-Ching; Lee, Cha-Ze; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Chung, Shiu-Dong

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions This study demonstrates an association between sialolithiasis and nephrolithiasis. The results call for more awareness of this association among physicians and patients with nephrolithiasis. Objective Very few empirical studies have been conducted to explore the potential association between sialolithiasis and nephrolithiasis. As such, the association between sialolithiasis and nephrolithiasis still remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the possible association between sialolithiasis and nephrolithiasis using a population-based dataset. Methods Using data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005, this case-control study identified 966 patients with sialolithiasis as cases and 2898 sex- and age-matched subjects without sialolithiasis as controls. Conditional logistic regressions were conducted to examine the association of sialolithiasis with previously diagnosed nephrolithiasis. Results Out of 3864 sampled patients, 165 (4.27%) had prior nephrolithiasis. Using Chi-square test, it was found that there was a significant difference in the prevalence of prior nephrolithiasis between the cases and controls (10.25% vs 2.28%, p nephrolithiasis for cases was 4.74 (95% CI = 3.41-6.58, p < 0.001) when compared to controls after adjusting for monthly income, geographic location, urbanization level of residence, diabetes, hypertension, heart failure, chronic renal disease, and tobacco use. PMID:26808906

  16. Potential risk factors for diabetic neuropathy: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooraei Mahdi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus type II afflicts at least 2 million people in Iran. Neuropathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes and lowers the patient's quality of life. Since neuropathy often leads to ulceration and amputation, we have tried to elucidate the factors that can affect its progression. Methods In this case-control study, 110 diabetic patients were selected from the Shariati Hospital diabetes clinic. Michigan Neuropathic Diabetic Scoring (MNDS was used to differentiate cases from controls. The diagnosis of neuropathy was confirmed by nerve conduction studies (nerve conduction velocity and electromyography. The multiple factors compared between the two groups included consumption of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI, blood pressure, serum lipid level, sex, smoking, method of diabetes control and its quality. Results Statistically significant relationships were found between neuropathy and age, gender, quality of diabetes control and duration of disease (P values in the order: 0.04, 0.04, Conclusion In this study, hyperglycemia was the only modifiable risk factor for diabetic neuropathy. Glycemic control reduces the incidence of neuropathy, slows its progression and improves the diabetic patient's quality of life. More attention must be paid to elderly male diabetic patients with poor diabetes control with regard to regular foot examinations and more practical education.

  17. A case-control study of asthma and ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmasri, Wafic M; Tran, Therese H; Mulla, Zuber D

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have found inverse associations between allergy and the development of certain tumors. The authors sought to determine if there was an association between asthma and ovarian cancer. A case-control study was conducted using Florida hospital data (year 2001). Discharge diagnoses were coded using the ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification). Cases were 1,582 women whose principal discharge diagnosis was a malignant neoplasm of the ovary. Two control series were used: 4,744 women whose principal diagnosis was an upper limb bone fracture, and 21,830 women whose principal diagnosis was an acute myocardial infarction. Odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for age, race-ethnicity, Medicaid status, obesity, and smoking were calculated. Cases were 30% less likely than fracture control to be asthmatics (adjusted OR = 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.49-0.99, p = .04). Similarly, cases when compared to acute myocardial infarction controls were significantly less likely to have asthma (adjusted OR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.45-0.87, p = .005). The results of this statewide exploratory study suggest that individuals with asthma may have a lower risk of developing ovarian cancer than nonasthmatics. PMID:20439229

  18. Cataract surgical outcomes in diabetic patients: Case control study

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    Onakpoya Oluwatoyin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the visual outcome of cataract surgery in diabetes mellitus with advanced cataract in a tertiary institution in Nigeria. Design: A retrospective case control study conducted at the University College Hospital, Ibadan Nigeria. Subjects: Twenty three consecutive patients with diabetes and 23 age and sex matched non-diabetic control patients who had extracapsular cataract extraction for advanced cataract between 2002-2005. Main outcome: Mean post operative visual acuity and surgical complications. Results: Twenty three patients with diabetes mellitus and 23 non diabetic controls were studied; mean duration of diabetes was 8.1 ± 7.2 years. The mean post operative visual acuity in diabetics was 0.11±0.38, 0.33±0.57 and 0.38±0.49 at one week, two months and six months compared with 0.23±0.19, 0.46±0.37 and 0.48±0.31 in non diabetics. (p=0.207, 0.403 and 0.465 respectively. Improvement in preoperative visual acuity was noted in 84.2% and 90% in diabetics and non-diabetics respectively. Poor visual outcome in diabetics was mainly due to diabetic retinopathy, maculopathy or diabetes related surgical complications. Conclusion: Visual improvement was seen following surgery for advanced cataract in diabetics in this study population. Post operative monitoring for treatment of diabetic retinopathy may enhance visual outcome.

  19. Violence against Women and Gastroschisis: A Case-Control Study

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    Daniel Ruiz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastroschisis, a birth defect characterized by herniated fetal abdominal wall, occurs more commonly in infants born to teenage and young mothers. Ischemia of the vascular vitelline vessels is the likely mechanism of pathogenesis. Given that chronic stress and violence against women are risk factors for cardiovascular disease we explored whether these may represent risk factors for gastroschisis, when they occur during pregnancy. A case-control study was conducted, with 15 incident cases of children born with gastroschisis in the Region of Murcia, Spain, from December 2007 to June 2013. Forty concurrent controls were recruited at gestation weeks 20–24 or post-partum. All mothers of cases and controls completed a comprehensive, in-person, ‘green sheet’ questionnaire on environmental exposures. Results: Mothers of children with gastroschisis were younger, smoked more cigarettes per week relative to controls, were exposed to higher amounts of illegal drugs, and suffered from domestic violence more frequently than the controls. Multivariable logistic regression analysis highlights periconceptional ‘gender-related violence’ (OR: 16.6, 95% CI 2.7 to 101.7 and younger maternal age (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0–1.3. Conclusions: Violence against pregnant women is associated with birth defects, and should be studied in more depth as a cause-effect teratogenic. Psychosocial risk factors, including gender-based violence, are important for insuring the health and safety of the pregnant mother and the fetus.

  20. Periodontal disease and spontaneous preterm birth: a case control study

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    Eley Barry

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have suggested an association between periodontal disease and prematurity but this finding has not been consistently observed. Methods Case control study. Cases (n = 50 were women who had delivered after spontaneous preterm labor at Results There was no difference in the proportion of sites with significant attachment loss (≥3 mm: Cases-3.2%, Controls-2.2% p = 0.21. The gingival crevicular fluid concentrations of elastase and gingipain were elevated in cases vs. controls 238.8 uU/ul vs. 159.6 uU/ul p = .007 and 2.70 uU/ul vs. 1.56 uU/ul p = .001. On multivariate analysis, the mean log concentration of elastase, but not of gingipain, remained a significant predictor of preterm labor p = .0.015. Conclusion We found no evidence that clinical periodontal disease is associated with spontaneous preterm birth. Elevated gingival crevicular fluid levels of elastase were associated with preterm birth but further research is needed before this can be assumed to be a causal relationship.

  1. REPRODUCTIVE FACTORS AND COLORECTAL CANCER RISK. Case - control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ruseva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. The role of the female sex hormones in the etiology of the disease is very intriguing. Reproductive factors are surrogate measure of lifetime exposition to the sex hormones. Purpose: Our aim is to investigate the association between the reproductive factors and colorectal carcinoma risk. Materials and methods: We include 234 Bulgarian women in our study – 117 cases with colorectal cancer and the same number of healthy controls. Cases are divided into three groups according to the localization of the tumor. We conduct case-control study, using questionnaires about reproductive factors. We use the following statistical methods – descriptive, variational analysis, binary logistic regression. Results: We observed that only the age at menopause is associated with colorectal cancer risk, and this factor has strongest protective effect in the proximal colon (95% CI - 0,051-0,781, OR – 0,200, p – 0,021. Conclusion: Analyzing our data we observed that among Bulgarian women the only reproductive factor that show association with the risk of colorectal cancer is the age at menopause.

  2. A CASE-CONTROL EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY OF ENDOMETRIOSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩美玲; 潘凌亚; 吴葆桢; 边旭明

    1994-01-01

    A case-control study involving 203 cases of pelvic endometriosis seen from 1987-1989,and 406 randomly selected and age-matched community controls was conducted in order to provide information relevant to effective prophylxaix of the disease.The diagnosis was confirmed by pathology from laparotomy and/or laproscopy.A questionnaire focused on menstrual,marital and reproductive status,professional exposurs and physical activities,and the results were analyzed by a conditional logistic regression model.Women characterized by earlier menarche (≤12 years)and longer period(≥8 days)were found to be saaociated with an elevated incurring risk,and a trend of increasing risk associated with primary dysmenorrhea(RR=2.1 for mild to moderate and RR=5.2 for severe dysmenorrhea),energetic physical activity during menstruation(RR=2.1),and allergic diathesis (RR=1.8)was seen.An inverse relationship was observed between the number of pregnancies and risk of endometrio-sis,and the protective effect was most significant when only the number of full-term pregnancies was counted.The risk factors of endometriosis are discussed,and intensive treatment of primary dysmenorrhea and avoidance of strenuous exercise during menstruation are identified as important as important measures in the prevention of endometriosis.

  3. Ovarian endometriomas and IVF: a retrospective case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guidetti Daniela

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We performed this retrospective case-control study analyzing 428 first-attempt in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles, among which 254 involved women with a previous or present diagnosis of ovarian endometriosis. First, the results of these 254 cycles were compared with 174 cycles involving patients with proven non-endometriotic tubal infertility having similar age and body mass index. Women with ovarian endometriosis had a significantly higher cancellation rate, but similar pregnancy, implantation and delivery rates as patients with tubal infertility. Second, among the women with ovarian endometriosis, the women with a history of laparoscopic surgery for ovarian endometriomas prior to IVF and no visual endometriosis at ovum pick-up (n = 112 were compared with the non-operated women and visual endometriomas at ovum pick-up (n = 142. Patients who underwent ovarian surgery before IVF had significantly shorter period, lower antral follicle count and required higher gonadotropin doses than patients with non-operated endometriomas. The two groups of women with a previous or present ovarian endometriosis did, however, have similar pregnancy, implantation and live birth rates. In conclusion, ovarian endometriosis does not reduce IVF outcome compared with tubal factor. Furthermore, laparoscopic removal of endometriomas does not improve IVF results, but may cause a decrease of ovarian responsiveness to gonadotropins.

  4. [Occupational risks for laryngeal cancer: a case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Sergio Guerra; Eluf-Neto, José; Travier, Noemie; Wünsch Filho, Victor; Arcuri, Arline Sydneia Abel; Kowalski, Luís Paulo; Boffetta, Paolo

    2007-06-01

    The most solidly established risk factors for laryngeal cancer are tobacco and alcohol. As for occupational factors, the only established carcinogen is exposure to strong inorganic acid mists. However, asbestos, pesticides, paints, gasoline, diesel engine emissions, dusts, and other factors have been reported in the literature as occupational agents that increase the risk of laryngeal cancer. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted to investigate occupational risk factors for laryngeal cancer. Detailed data on smoking, alcohol consumption, and occupational history were collected for 122 laryngeal cancers and 187 controls matched by frequency (according to sex and age). Laryngeal cancer was associated with exposure to respirable free crystalline silica (OR = 1.83; 95%CI: 1.00-3.36), soot (from coal, coke, fuel oil, or wood) (odds ratio - OR = 1.78; 95% confidence interval - 95%CI: 1.03-3.03), fumes (OR = 2.55; 95%CI: 1.14-5.67), and live animals (OR = 1.80; 95%CI: 1.02-3.19). PMID:17546338

  5. A case-control study of visual acuity in onychocryptosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Aisling M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: There are many theories surrounding the etiology of ingrown toenails (IGTN). Few factors have been formally assessed, but it is widely accepted that a poor nail cutting technique has a causative role. AIM: To investigate the hypothesis that decreased visual acuity may lead to inadequate nail cutting and the formation of IGTN. METHODS: A prospective case-control study was performed. Near and distance visual acuity were tested on a population with IGTN (n = 19) and compared with that of an age- and sex-matched control cohort (n = 24) who underwent epidermal cyst excision in the same tertiary referral center. Comparisons of visual acuity were made between groups by Mann-Whitney U-test. Differences were taken to be significant if P < 0.05. Institutional Review Board approval was sought and granted. RESULTS: No significant difference in visual acuity (near or distance) was demonstrated between patients with IGTN and the control group (P = 0.33). CONCLUSION: Visual acuity does not appear to play a significant role in the development of IGTN.

  6. Case-control study on infant mortality in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes Karina Giane

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors associated with infant mortality and, more specifically, with neonatal mortality. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out in the municipality of Caxias do Sul, Southern Brazil. Characteristics of prenatal care and causes of mortality were assessed for all live births in the 2001-2002 period with a completed live-birth certificate and whose mothers lived in the municipality. Cases were defined as all deaths within the first year of life. As controls, there were selected the two children born immediately after each case in the same hospital, who were of the same sex, and did not die within their first year of life. Multivariate analysis was performed using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: There was a reduction in infant mortality, the greatest reduction was observed in the post-neonatal period. The variables gestational age (<36 weeks, birth weight (<2,500 g, and 5-minute Apgar (<6 remained in the final model of the multivariate analysis, after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Perinatal conditions comprise almost the totality of neonatal deaths, and the majority of deaths occur at delivery. The challenge for reducing infant mortality rate in the city is to reduce the mortality by perinatal conditions in the neonatal period.

  7. Case-control study of fetal microchimerism and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakrishna K Gadi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prior pregnancy is known to protect against development of breast cancer. Recent studies have demonstrated that pregnancy has the capacity to establish small numbers of immunologically active fetal-derived cells in the mother, a phenomenon known as fetal microchimerism (FMc. We asked whether presence of FMc, routinely acquired during pregnancy, is a protective factor for breast cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DNA extracts from peripheral blood specimens were obtained from a population-based case-control study of risk factors for breast cancer in women 21 to 45 years old. Specimens were tested with quantitative PCR for presence and concentrations of male DNA presumed to derive from prior pregnancies with a male fetus. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated with consideration of multiple established reproductive and environmental risk factors for breast cancer. FMc results were generated on 99 parous women, 54 with primary invasive breast cancer and 45 general population controls. FMc prevalence was 56% (25/45 and 26% (14/54 in controls and cases, respectively. Women harboring FMc were less likely to have had breast cancer (OR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.11-0.83; p = 0.02, adjusting for age, number of children, birth of a son, history of miscarriage, and total DNA tested. In addition, FMc concentrations were higher in controls versus cases (p = 0.01. Median concentrations were 2 (0-78 and 0 (0-374 fetal genomes/10(6 maternal genomes in controls and cases, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that the enigma of why some parous women are not afforded protection from breast cancer by pregnancy might in part be explained by differences in FMc. Mechanistic studies of FMc-derived protection against breast cancer are warranted.

  8. Toxocariasis in waste pickers: a case control seroprevalence study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of Toxocara infection in humans in Mexico has been poorly explored. There is a lack of information about Toxocara infection in waste pickers. AIMS: Determine the seroepidemiology of Toxocara infection in waste pickers. METHODS: Through a case control study design, the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies was determined in 90 waste pickers and 90 age- and gender-matched controls using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Associations of Toxocara exposure with socio-demographic, work, clinical, and behavioral data of the waste pickers were also evaluated. RESULTS: The seroprevalence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies was significantly higher in waste pickers (12/90: 13% than in control subjects (1/90: 1% (OR = 14; 95% CI: 2-288. The seroprevalence was not influenced by socio-demographic or work characteristics. In contrast, increased seroprevalence was found in waste pickers suffering from gastritis, and reflex and visual impairments. Multivariate analysis showed that Toxocara exposure was associated with a low frequency of eating out of home (OR = 26; 95% CI: 2-363 and negatively associated with consumption of chicken meat (OR = 0.03; 95% CI: 0.003-0.59. Other behavioral characteristics such as animal contacts or exposure to soil were not associated with Toxocara seropositivity. CONCLUSIONS: 1 Waste pickers are a risk group for Toxocara infection. 2 Toxocara is impacting the health of waste pickers. This is the first report of Toxocara exposure in waste pickers and of associations of gastritis and reflex impairment with Toxocara seropositivity. Results warrant for further research.

  9. Barriers to colorectal cancer screening: A case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan-Rong Cai; Su-Zhan Zhang; Shu Zheng; Hong-Hong Zhu

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To investigate barriers to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in a community population. METHODS:We conducted a community-based case-control study in an urban Chinese population by questionnaire. Cases were selected from those completing both a fecal occult blood test (FOBT) case and colonoscopy in a CRC screening program in 2004. Control groups were matched by gender, age group and community. Control 1 included those having a positive FOBT but refusing a colonoscopy. Control 2 included those who refused both an FOBT and colonoscopy. RESULTS:The impact of occupation on willingness to attend a colorectal screening program differed by gender. P for heterogeneity was 0.009 for case vs control group 1, 0.01 for case versus control group 2, and 0.80 for control group 1 vs 2. Poor awareness of CRC and its screening program, characteristics of screening tests, and lack of time affected the screening rate. Financial support, fear of pain and bowel preparation were barriers to a colonoscopy as a screening test. Eighty-two percent of control group 1 and 87.1% of control group 2 were willing attend if the colonoscopy was free, but only 56.3% and 53.1%,respectively, if it was self-paid. Multivariate odds ratios for case vs control group 1 were 0.10 among those unwilling to attend a free colonoscopy and 0.50 among those unwilling to attend a self-paid colonoscopy. CONCLUSION:Raising the public awareness of CRC and its screening, integrating CRC screening into the health care system, and using a painless colonoscopy would increase its screening rate.

  10. The effect of opium dependency on testis volume: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Cyrus; Hassan Solhi; Mahdi Azizabadi Farahani; Hamid Reza Khoddami Vishteh; Davoud Goudarzi; Ghasem Mosayebi; Hamed Mohamadian

    2012-01-01

    Background: Given the paucity of data on possible testis changes in opioid dependents, we sought to compare the testis volumes between a group of opium dependents and a group of healthy controls. Objective: Comparison of testis volume between opium dependents and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: This case-control study recruited 100 men with opium dependency (cases) and 100 healthy men (controls) in Iran, in 2008. A checklist containing questions about age, height, weight, daily amoun...

  11. Spatial analysis of childhood cancer: a case/control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Ramis

    Full Text Available Childhood cancer was the leading cause of death among children aged 1-14 years for 2012 in Spain. Leukemia has the highest incidence, followed by tumors of the central nervous system (CNS and lymphomas (Hodgkin lymphoma, HL, and Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, NHL. Spatial distribution of childhood cancer cases has been under concern with the aim of identifying potential risk factors.The two objectives are to study overall spatial clustering and cluster detection of cases of the three main childhood cancer causes, looking to increase etiological knowledge.We ran a case-control study. The cases were children aged 0 to 14 diagnosed with leukemia, lymphomas (HL and NHL or CNS neoplasm in five Spanish regions for the period 1996-2011. As a control group, we used a sample from the Birth Registry matching every case by year of birth, autonomous region of residence and sex with six controls. We geocoded and validated the address of the cases and controls. For our two objectives we used two different methodologies. For the first, for overall spatial clustering detection, we used the differences of K functions from the spatial point patterns perspective proposed by Diggle and Chetwynd and the second, for cluster detection, we used the spatial scan statistic proposed by Kulldorff with a level for statistical significance of 0.05.We had 1062 cases of leukemia, 714 cases of CNS, 92 of HL and 246 of NHL. Accordingly we had 6 times the number of controls, 6372 controls for leukemia, 4284 controls for CNS, 552 controls for HL and 1476 controls for NHL. We found variations in the estimated empirical D(s for the different regions and cancers, including some overall spatial clustering for specific regions and distances. We did not find statistically significant clusters.The variations in the estimated empirical D(s for the different regions and cancers could be partially explained by the differences in the spatial distribution of the population; however, according to the

  12. Diabetes and Risk of Parkinson's Disease: An Updated Meta-Analysis of Case-Control Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Lin; Fu, Deng-lei; Li, Hui-Qin; Liu, Ai-ju; Li, Ji-huang; Zheng, Guo-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Background Whether diabetes increases the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) is still inconclusive. The objective of this updated meta-analysis is to synthesize evidence from case-control studies that evaluated the association between diabetes and the risk of PD. Methods Seven databases were searched to identify case-control studies that evaluated the association between diabetes and PD. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using Newcastle-Ottawa scale. All data were anal...

  13. A potential anatomic subtype of short bowel syndrome: a matched case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Wencheng; Wang, Jian; Ying, Rongchao; Li, Yousheng; Jin, Huicheng; Mao, Qi; Yao, Danhua; Guo, Mingxiao

    2016-01-01

    Background Fundamental researches suggest that ileum presents greater adaptive potential than the jejunum. However, few studies estimate the association between ileum and adaptive potential in human. To discover the association, we conducted this matched case-control study. Methods A 1:2 pair-matched, case-control study was conducted from January 1, 2001 to January 1, 2015 in Intestinal Rehabilition and Transplant Center. The case group was ileum predominated (IP) group and the control group ...

  14. Control for Confounding in Case-Control Studies Using the Stratification Score, a Retrospective Balancing Score

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Andrew S.; Satten, Glen A.

    2011-01-01

    The stratification score for a case-control study is the probability of disease modeled as a function of potential confounders. The authors show that the stratification score is a retrospective balancing score and thus plays a similar role in case-control studies as the propensity score plays in prospective studies. The authors further show how standardization using the stratification score can be used to compare the distributions of exposures that would be found among case and control partic...

  15. Validation of a home safety questionnaire used in a series of case-control studies

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Michael; Benford, Penny; Coupland, Carol; Clacy, Rose; Hindmarch, Paul; Majsak-Newman, Gosia; Deave, Toity; Kendrick, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Objective To measure the validity of safety behaviours, safety equipment use and hazards reported on a questionnaire by parents/carers with children aged under 5 years participating in a series of home safety case-control studies. Methods The questionnaire measured safety behaviours, safety equipment use and hazards being used as exposures in five case-control studies. Responses to questions were compared with observations made during a home visit. The researchers making observations were bli...

  16. Thrombosis in ovarian cancer: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Metcalf, R L; Fry, D J; Swindell, R.; McGurk, A; Clamp, A R; Jayson, G C; Hasan, J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thrombotic events are common in cancer patients and have been associated with an adverse prognosis in large registry-based studies. Methods: A retrospective cohort of 417 patients with ovarian cancer treated at a tertiary cancer centre between 2006 and 2009 was studied to identify the incidence and risk factors for thrombotic events and the prognostic impact of thrombosis. Patient outcomes were evaluated against a matched control group without thrombosis. Results: Ninety-nine thro...

  17. Red Flags For Necrotizing Fasciitis: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al Alayed

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: When considered together, the traditional ‘red flags’ for NF may be sufficient to rule in or rule out the diagnosis. If future prospective studies validate these findings, there will be a potential opportunity to expedite NF diagnosis and improve patient outcomes.

  18. Hoogfrequente percussieventilatie bij premature baby's: een retrospectieve case- control studie

    OpenAIRE

    Lenaerts, Lore; Dielkens, Sanne

    2015-01-01

    Motivering: Prematuur geboren baby's hebben vaak onvoldoende ontwikkelde longen. Hierdoor ontstaan vaak allerlei respiratoire problemen. Hoogfrequente percussieventilatie (HFPV) wordt als behandeling gebruikt om deze respiratoire problemen onder controle te krijgen. Niettegenstaande positieve klinische effecten is nog geen wetenschappelijke evidentie gevonden. Doelstellingen: Het doel van deze studie bestaat erin na te gaan in welke mate HFPV als adjuvante therapie een verschil kan beteke...

  19. Inference of the Haplotype Effect in a Matched Case-Control Study Using Unphased Genotype Data*

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Samiran; Gruber, Stephen B.; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Rennert, Gad

    2008-01-01

    Typically locus specific genotype data do not contain information regarding the gametic phase of haplotypes, especially when an individual is heterozygous at more than one locus among a large number of linked polymorphic loci. Thus, studying disease-haplotype association using unphased genotype data is essentially a problem of handling a missing covariate in a case-control design. There are several methods for estimating a disease-haplotype association parameter in a matched case-control stud...

  20. Alcohol and Difficulty Conceiving in the SUN Cohort: A Nested Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Lopez-del Burgo; Alfredo Gea; Jokin de Irala; Martínez-González, Miguel A.; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Estefania Toledo

    2015-01-01

    The role of alcohol on fertility remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between alcohol and specific alcoholic beverages consumption and the risk of difficulty getting pregnant. We used a case-control study nested within the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort, a prospective, dynamic and multipurpose cohort of 21,705 Spanish university graduates, followed biennially with mailed questionnaires. We identified 686 case-control pairs, matched for age and time in the ...

  1. Red Flags For Necrotizing Fasciitis: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid Al Alayed; Charlie Tan; Nick Daneman

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to examine the diagnostic accuracy of traditional ‘red flags’ for necrotizing fasciitis (NF) on history and physical examination. Methods: retrospective study of all cases of NF admitted to a large tertiary care hospital between January 1 2004 and December 31 2013, each matched to two control patients with cellulitis. We determined the diagnostic test characteristics of clinical features for distinguishing NF from cellulitis, with emphasis on positive (LR+) and negative (LR-) li...

  2. Dermatoglyphics in Alopecia Areata - A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bhakta, A; Bandyopadhyay, M; A. M. Tarnekar; Ghosh, S. K.; D. K. Adak; P. Bharati

    2012-01-01

    Alopecia areata subjects are characterized by asymptomatic, circular or oval smooth patches of complete loss of hair on scalp, the beard or elsewhere. In the present study alopecia areata subjects were examined in terms of dermatoglyphic characteristics and compared with that of controls. Frequency of loops was decreased in alopecia areata but in case of whorls and arches (not in male subjects) increased numbers are recorded than their counterpart. On palm, a-b ridge count (a-b RC) was found ...

  3. Spatial Analysis of Childhood Cancer: A Case/Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rebeca Ramis; Diana Gómez-Barroso; Ibon Tamayo; Javier García-Pérez; Antonio Morales; Elena Pardo Romaguera; Gonzalo López-Abente

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood cancer was the leading cause of death among children aged 1-14 years for 2012 in Spain. Leukemia has the highest incidence, followed by tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) and lymphomas (Hodgkin lymphoma, HL, and Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, NHL). Spatial distribution of childhood cancer cases has been under concern with the aim of identifying potential risk factors. Objective The two objectives are to study overall spatial clustering and cluster detection of cases of t...

  4. REPRODUCTIVE FACTORS AND COLORECTAL CANCER RISK. Case - control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Ruseva; Radka Lazarova; Ilko Kosturkov; Vesselina Ianachkova; Stella Yordanova; Zhivka Boneva; Diana Nikolovska

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. The role of the female sex hormones in the etiology of the disease is very intriguing. Reproductive factors are surrogate measure of lifetime exposition to the sex hormones. Purpose: Our aim is to investigate the association between the reproductive factors and colorectal carcinoma risk. Materials and methods: We include 234 Bulgarian women in our study – 117 cases with colorectal cancer and the same number of healthy contr...

  5. Exploratory case-control study of brain tumors in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An exploratory study of brain tumors in adults was carried out using 215 cases diagnosed in Southern Ontario between 1979 and 1982, with an individually matched, hospital control series. Significantly elevated risks were observed for reported use of spring water, drinking of wine, and consumption of pickled fish, together with a significant protective effect for the regular consumption of any of several types of fruit. While these factors are consistent with a role for N-nitroso compounds in the etiology of these tumors, for several other factors related to this hypothesis, no association was observed. Occupation in the rubber industry was associated with a significant relative risk of 9.0, though no other occupational associations were seen. Two previously unreported associations were with smoking nonfilter cigarettes with a significant trend and with the use of hair dyes or sprays. The data do not support an association between physical head trauma requiring medical attention and risk of brain tumors and indicate that exposure to ionizing radiation and vinyl chloride monomer does not contribute any appreciable fraction of attributable risk in the population studied. The findings warrant further detailed investigation in future epidemiologic studies

  6. Dermatoglyphics in Alopecia Areata - A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bhakta

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Alopecia areata subjects are characterized by asymptomatic, circular or oval smooth patches of complete loss of hair on scalp, the beard or elsewhere. In the present study alopecia areata subjects were examined in terms of dermatoglyphic characteristics and compared with that of controls. Frequency of loops was decreased in alopecia areata but in case of whorls and arches (not in male subjects increased numbers are recorded than their counterpart. On palm, a-b ridge count (a-b RC was found to be increased in both sexes of alopecia areata(statistically significant increase in alopecia areata Female while atd angles were reduced in females. In male subjects of alopecia areata, true palmar pattern (TPP was increased in both hypothenar and left interdigital-2 (ID2 areas while in females, TPP were increased in both inter digital area-2 and 3 and left ID4 areas. TPP were reduced in left thenar (Lt. Th.,Lt. ID1, ID3, ID4, Rt. ID2, ID3 and ID4 areas of alopecia areata males and both right and left thenar and hypothenar and right ID4 areas of females. This study reveals deviation in the form of reduction of number of loops and increase in number of whorls and arches in alopecia subjects. Deviation is also observed in a-b ridge count and atd angle. These can be considered as quite useful as a supportive investigation and to some extent knowing the prediction for alopecia areata.

  7. CHOLESTEROL LEVELS AND SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR: A CASE CONTROL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In modern psychiatry, there is a movement to understand mental health, not solely based on behaviors and subjective report, but also based on objective markers of illness. Several studies have focused on a relationship between serum cholesterol levels and aggressive behaviors including suicide. AIM: To identify a potential link between cholesterol and suicidal behavior. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 150 patients with psychiatry diagnosis were divided into three equal groups (50 each: those who had a recent suicidal attempt, those who had suicidal ideations but no attempts and those with psychiatry diagnosis but no suicidal ideations and attempts. Blood sample for total cholesterol level was on IPD or OPD basis. The study was started after taking approval from institute ethical committee. Analysis was done using Chi square test. OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS: It was found that maximum patients who attempted suicide belonged to major depression and schizophrenia followed by substance dependence and bipolar affective disorder (BPAD with major depression and there was statistical difference in cholesterol levels of patients with suicide attempt, with suicidal ideations and control group. 42% and 44% of major depression and schizophrenia cases respectively had low total serum cholesterol levels (below 160 mg%. CONCLUSION: There is a potential link between serum total cholesterol levels and suicidal behavior. Taking the literature as a whole there is substantial evidence that low cholesterol levels are found in suicidal behaviors of various psychiatric illnesses especially major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, substance dependence and bipolar depressive disorder

  8. Pervasive developmental disorders and criminal behaviour: a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben;

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence and pattern of criminal behaviour in a population of 313 former child psychiatric in-patients with pervasive developmental disorders were studied. The patients were divided into three subgroups and compared with 933 matched controls from the general population. Age at follow-up was...... between 25 years and 59 years. An account of convictions in the nationwide Danish Register of Criminality was used as a measure of criminal behaviour. Among 113 cases with childhood autism, .9% had been convicted. In atypical autism (n=86) and Asperger's syndrome (n=114) the percentages were 8.1% and 18.......4%, respectively. The corresponding rate of convictions in the comparison groups was 18.9%, 14.7%, and 19.6% respectively. Particular attention is given to arson in Asperger's syndrome (p= .0009)....

  9. Pervasive developmental disorders and criminal behaviour - A case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, S.E.; Rich, B.; Isager, T.;

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence and pattern of criminal behaviour in a population of 313 former child psychiatric in-patients with pervasive developmental disorders were studied. The patients were divided into three subgroups and compared with 933 matched controls from the general population. Age at follow-up was...... between 25 years and 59 years. An account of convictions in the nationwide Danish Register of Criminality was used as a measure of criminal behaviour. Among 113 cases with childhood autism, .9% had been convicted. In atypical autism (n = 86) and Asperger's syndrome (n = 114) the percentages were 8.1% and...... 18.4%, respectively. The corresponding rate of convictions in the comparison groups was 18.9%, 14.7%, and 19.6% respectively. Particular attention is given to arson in Asperger's syndrome (P = .0009) Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4...

  10. Case-control study of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deapen, D.M.; Henderson, B.E.

    1986-05-01

    The authors conducted a study of 518 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients identified between 1977 and 1979 and 518 controls to investigate putative risk factors for this disease. Occupations at risk of electrical exposure were reported more often by patients (odds ratio (OR) = 3.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-13.0) as were electrical shocks producing unconsciousness (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.0-9.9). Although an overall excess of physical trauma associated with unconsciousness was observed in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.0-2.4), the effect was inversely associated with duration of the unconscious episodes, suggesting an effect of recall bias. Only slight differences were found for surgical traumata to the nervous system. Parkinsonism was reported more often among first degree relatives of cases (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.1-7.6). The frequencies of prior poliomyelitis or other central nervous system diseases were similar for patients and controls. Occupational exposure to selected toxic substances was similar for patients and controls except for the manufacture of plastics (OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.0-20.5), although few details of these exposures were provided. No differences in occupations with exposure to animal skins or hides were observed.

  11. Remifentanil for tracheal tube tolerance: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machata, A M; Illievich, U M; Gustorff, B; Gonano, C; Fässler, K; Spiss, C K

    2007-08-01

    We assessed the minimal remifentanil dosage required for tracheal tube tolerance in awake and spontaneously breathing patients after major abdominal surgery. Forty postoperative patients received remifentanil 0.1 microg.kg(-1).min(-1), which was reduced in steps of 0.025 microg.kg(-1).min(-1) every 30 min. Respiratory response subscore of comfort scale (CSRR), Ramsay sedation scale (RSS), visual analogue scale (VAS), respiratory rate, and minute ventilation were recorded. Spontaneous respiration with no or little response to ventilation (CSRR 2) in co-operative, oriented and tranquil patients (RSS 2) was defined as the main outcome and study endpoint. Thirty-one patients (77.5%) reached a CSRR 2 and RSS 2 with remifentanil 0.025 microg.kg(-1).min(-1) and nine patients (22.5%) required remifentanil 0.05 microg.kg(-1).min(-1). Analgesia was sufficient in all patients (VAS = 30). Remifentanil 0.025-0.05 microg.kg(-1).min(-1) achieves satisfactory tracheal tube tolerance in awake and spontaneously breathing patients. PMID:17635427

  12. Case-Control Study of acute diarrhea in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Vafaee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: To determine the risk factor for acute diarrhea disease in children. Methods: In the survey, 220 cases and 220 controls were involved. Cases were children with loose watery feces, pathologically diagnosed as acute diarrhea by the physician, and enrolled from the Emergency Ward as the Incident Cases in Dr. Sheykh Hospital, Mashhad, northeast of Iran. Control group too, was enrolled from the same cases and the members were children whose risk factors disease were not the risk factor for acute diarrhea, and were enrolled from emergency ward of burn patients, accidents, acute respiratory diseases and eligible patients.

    Results: By using univariate logistic regression models, variables consisting used milk up to 6 months age, antibiotic usage during the last 15 days, mother's employment, mother's acquaintance with ORS, occupancy, and water slack during the week before illness, were significantly related with acute diarrhea. In a multiple logistic regression, the relationship between the said factors as the independent variables and acute diarrhea was studied. Use of formulas before 6 month age with (95% CI 1.77- 5.79 OR=3.21, and tenantry with (95% CI 1.24-2.71 OR=1.83, and mother

  13. Congenital anosmia and emotion recognition: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemogne, Cédric; Smadja, Julien; Zerdazi, El-Hadi; Soudry, Yaël; Robin, Marion; Berthoz, Sylvie; Limosin, Frédéric; Consoli, Silla M; Bonfils, Pierre

    2015-06-01

    Patients with anosmia are not able to detect volatile chemicals signaling the presence of infectious and non-infectious environmental hazards, which typically elicit disgust and fear, respectively. Social animals may compensate a loss of olfaction by taking advantage of signals of threat that are produced by their conspecifics. Among humans and other primates, body postures and facial expressions are powerful cues conveying emotional information, including fear and disgust. The aim of the present study was to examine whether humans with agenesis of the olfactory bulb, a rare disorder characterized by congenital anosmia, would be more accurate in recognizing facial expressions of fear and disgust. A total of 90 participants with no history of mental disorder or traumatic brain injury were recruited, including 17 patients with congenital anosmia (10 men, mean age ± standard deviation: 36.5 ± 14.8 years), 34 patients with acquired anosmia (18 men, mean age ± standard deviation: 57.2 ± 11.8 years) and 39 healthy subjects (22 men, mean age ± standard deviation: 36.7 ± 13.2 years). For each patient with congenital anosmia, the agenesis of the olfactory bulb was ascertained through magnetic resonance imaging. Emotion recognition abilities were examined with a dynamic paradigm in which a morphing technique allowed displaying emotional facial expressions increasing in intensity over time. Adjusting for age, education, depression and anxiety, patients with congenital anosmia required similar levels of intensity to correctly recognize fear and disgust than healthy subjects while they displayed decreased error rates for both fear (mean difference [95% confidence interval] = -28.3% [-46.3%, -10.2%], P = 0.003) and disgust (mean difference [95% confidence interval] = -15.8% [-31.5%, -0.2%], P = 0.048). Furthermore, among patients with acquired anosmia, there was a negative correlation between duration of anosmia and the rate of errors for fearful (Spearman's ρ = -0.531, P

  14. Retrospective exposure assessment and quality control in an international multi-centre case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinnerberg, H; Heikkilä, P; Huici-Montagud, A;

    2003-01-01

    assessors, as Cohen's kappa and as overall proportion of the agreements. The reassessment of the exposures changed the exposure statuses significantly, when compared with the original cohort. Harmonization of the exposure criteria increased the conformity of the assessments. The prevalence of exposure was...... higher among the original assessors (the assessor from the same country as the subject) than the average prevalence assessed by the other four in the quality control round. The original assessors classified more job situations as exposed than the others. Several reasons for this are plausible: real...... country-specific differences, differences in information available to the home assessor and the others and misunderstandings or difficulties in translation of information. To ensure the consistency of exposure assessments in international retrospective case-control studies it is important to have a well...

  15. Informed conditioning on clinical covariates increases power in case-control association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah Zaitlen

    Full Text Available Genetic case-control association studies often include data on clinical covariates, such as body mass index (BMI, smoking status, or age, that may modify the underlying genetic risk of case or control samples. For example, in type 2 diabetes, odds ratios for established variants estimated from low-BMI cases are larger than those estimated from high-BMI cases. An unanswered question is how to use this information to maximize statistical power in case-control studies that ascertain individuals on the basis of phenotype (case-control ascertainment or phenotype and clinical covariates (case-control-covariate ascertainment. While current approaches improve power in studies with random ascertainment, they often lose power under case-control ascertainment and fail to capture available power increases under case-control-covariate ascertainment. We show that an informed conditioning approach, based on the liability threshold model with parameters informed by external epidemiological information, fully accounts for disease prevalence and non-random ascertainment of phenotype as well as covariates and provides a substantial increase in power while maintaining a properly controlled false-positive rate. Our method outperforms standard case-control association tests with or without covariates, tests of gene x covariate interaction, and previously proposed tests for dealing with covariates in ascertained data, with especially large improvements in the case of case-control-covariate ascertainment. We investigate empirical case-control studies of type 2 diabetes, prostate cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, age-related macular degeneration, and end-stage kidney disease over a total of 89,726 samples. In these datasets, informed conditioning outperforms logistic regression for 115 of the 157 known associated variants investigated (P-value = 1 × 10(-9. The improvement varied across diseases with a 16% median increase in χ(2 test statistics

  16. A Case-Control Study of Oral Contraceptive Use and Incident Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Lynn; Zhang, Yuqing; Coogan, Patricia F.; Strom, Brian L; Palmer, Julie R

    2008-01-01

    Oral contraceptive (OC) use has been linked to increased risk of breast cancer, largely on the basis of studies conducted before 1990. In the Case-Control Surveillance Study, a US hospital-based case-control study of medication use and cancer, the authors assessed the relation of OC use to breast cancer risk among 907 case women with incident invasive breast cancer (731 white, 176 black) and 1,711 controls (1,152 white, 559 black) interviewed from 1993 to 2007. They evaluated whether the asso...

  17. A pooled analysis of case-control studies of thyroid cancer - I. Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negri, E; Ron, E; Franceschi, S; Dal Maso, L; Mark, SD; Preston-Martin, S; McTiernan, A; Kolonel, L; Kleinerman, R; Land, C; Jin, F; Wingren, G; Galanti, MR; Hallquist, A; Glattre, E; Lund, E; Levi, F; Linos, D; Braga, C; La Vecchia, C

    1999-01-01

    Objective. Because the etiology of thyroid cancer is not well described, we conducted a pooled analysis of all published case-control studies, as well as two identified unpublished studies. This paper describes the major characteristics of the 14 studies included in the analysis, as well as the stat

  18. Results From a Hypothesis Generating Case-Control Study: Herpes Family Viruses and Schizophrenia Among Military Personnel

    OpenAIRE

    David W Niebuhr; Millikan, Amy M.; Yolken, Robert; Li, Yuanzhang; Weber, Natalya S.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Herpes family viruses can cause central nervous system inflammatory changes that can present with symptoms indistinguishable from schizophrenia and therefore are of interest in schizophrenia research. Most existing studies of herpes viruses have used small populations and postdiagnosis specimens. As part of a larger research program, we conducted a hypothesis-generating case-control study of selected herpes virus antibodies among individuals discharged from the US military with sc...

  19. Multilocus Heterozygosity and Coronary Heart Disease: Nested Case-Control Studies in Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Jensen, Majken K.; Pers, Tune Hannes;

    2015-01-01

    , homocysteine, adiponectin, or body-mass index. Conclusions: In these parallel nested case-control studies, we found no relationship of multilocus heterozygosity with risk of CHD or its major risk factors. Studies in other populations are needed to rule out associations with lower levels of heterozygosity....

  20. Behavioural Comorbidity in Tanzanian Children with Epilepsy: A Community-Based Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Kathryn; Rogathe, Jane; Hunter, Ewan; Burton, Matthew; Swai, Mark; Todd, Jim; Neville, Brian; Walker, Richard; Newton, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of and risk factors for behavioural disorders in children with epilepsy from a rural district of Tanzania by conducting a community-based case-control study. Method: One hundred and twelve children aged 6 to 14 years (55 males, 57 females; median age 12y) with active epilepsy (at least two…

  1. Agreement between oral contraceptive users and prescribers: implications for case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.E. van Leeuwen; C.M. van Duijn (Cock); M.H. Camps; B.A. Kempers; M.F. Mentjens; H.B. Mulder; E.G. Schouten (Evert); R.M.L. Zwijsen; M.A. Rookus (Matti)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractCase-control studies examining the effects of oral contraceptives (OC) are prone to misclassification bias due to errors in assessment of OC use. Concern about inaccurate exposure histories has increased since current studies require women to recall OC use over prolonged periods of time.

  2. Breast cancer risk associated with different HRT formulations: a register-based case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Thai Do; Möhner Sabine; Heinemann Lothar AJ; Dinger Juergen C; Assmann Anita

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous epidemiological studies have inconsistently shown a modestly increased breast cancer risk associated with hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Limited information is available about different formulations – particularly concerning different progestins. Methods A case-control study was performed within Germany in collaboration with regional cancer registries and tumor centers. Up to 5 controls were matched breast cancer cases. Conditional logistic regression analysis...

  3. Case-Control Genome-Wide Association Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Benjamin M.; Medland, Sarah; Ripke, Stephan; Anney, Richard J. L.; Asherson, Philip; Buitelaar, Jan; Franke, Barbara; Gill, Michael; Kent, Lindsey; Holmans, Peter; Middleton, Frank; Thapar, Anita; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Faraone, Stephen V.; Daly, Mark; Nguyen, Thuy Trang; Schafer, Helmut; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Reif, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J.; Romanos, Marcel; Romanos, Jasmin; Warnke, Andreas; Walitza, Susanne; Freitag, Christine; Meyer, Jobst; Palmason, Haukur; Rothenberger, Aribert; Hawi, Ziarih; Sergeant, Joseph; Roeyers, Herbert; Mick, Eric; Biederman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although twin and family studies have shown attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be highly heritable, genetic variants influencing the trait at a genome-wide significant level have yet to be identified. Thus additional genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are needed. Method: We used case-control analyses of 896 cases…

  4. Matched case-control studies: a review of reported statistical methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niven DJ

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Daniel J Niven1, Luc R Berthiaume2, Gordon H Fick1, Kevin B Laupland11Department of Critical Care Medicine, Peter Lougheed Centre, Calgary, 2Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, CanadaBackground: Case-control studies are a common and efficient means of studying rare diseases or illnesses with long latency periods. Matching of cases and controls is frequently employed to control the effects of known potential confounding variables. The analysis of matched data requires specific statistical methods.Methods: The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of published, peer reviewed matched case-control studies that used statistical methods appropriate for matched data. Using a comprehensive set of search criteria we identified 37 matched case-control studies for detailed analysis.Results: Among these 37 articles, only 16 studies were analyzed with proper statistical techniques (43%. Studies that were properly analyzed were more likely to have included case patients with cancer and cardiovascular disease compared to those that did not use proper statistics (10/16 or 63%, versus 5/21 or 24%, P = 0.02. They were also more likely to have matched multiple controls for each case (14/16 or 88%, versus 13/21 or 62%, P = 0.08. In addition, studies with properly analyzed data were more likely to have been published in a journal with an impact factor listed in the top 100 according to the Journal Citation Reports index (12/16 or 69%, versus 1/21 or 5%, P ≤ 0.0001.Conclusion: The findings of this study raise concern that the majority of matched case-control studies report results that are derived from improper statistical analyses. This may lead to errors in estimating the relationship between a disease and exposure, as well as the incorrect adaptation of emerging medical literature.Keywords: case-control, matched, dependent data, statistics

  5. A more atherogenic serum lipoprotein profile is present in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Valkenburg, Olivier; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine; Smedts, Dineke; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje; Fauser, Bart; Westerveld, Egbertine; Laven, Joop

    2008-01-01

    textabstractContext: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with a higher frequency of cardiovascular risk factors. Apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and apoB are potent markers for cardiovascular risk. Data on apo levels in women with PCOS are scarce and contradictory. Objective: Our objective was to identify changes in lipid metabolism in women with PCOS, and the relative impact of obesity, insulin resistance, and hyperandrogenism on lipid parameters. Design: This was a case-control study. S...

  6. Blood transfusion during cardiac surgery is associated with inflammation and coagulation in the lung: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Tuinman, Pieter R; Vlaar, Alexander P; Cornet, Alexander D.; Hofstra, Jorrit J.; Levi, Marcel; Meijers, Joost CM; Beishuizen, Albertus; Schultz, Marcus J; Groeneveld, AB Johan; Juffermans, Nicole P.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Blood transfusion is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in cardiac surgery patients, but cause-and-effect relations remain unknown. We hypothesized that blood transfusion is associated with changes in pulmonary and systemic inflammation and coagulation occurring in patients who do not meet the clinical diagnosis of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). Methods We performed a case control study in a mixed medical-surgical intensive care unit of a university...

  7. A case-control study of the relation between plasma selenium and asthma in European populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burney, P; Potts, J; Makowska, J;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence that selenium levels are relatively low in Europe and may be falling. Low levels of selenium or low activity of some of the enzymes dependent on selenium have been associated with asthma. METHODS: The GA(2)LEN network has organized a multicentre case-control study in...

  8. Toxoplasmosis gondii and schizophrenia: a case control study in a low Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence Mexican population

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are conflicting reports concerning the association of T. gondii infection and schizophrenia. Therefore, we determined such association in a Mexican population of Mestizo ethnicity. Through a case-control study design, 50 schizophrenic patients and 150 control subjects matched by gender, age, r...

  9. Risk factors for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a reanalysis of case-control studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P.W.M. Wientjens (Dorothee); Z. Davanipour; K. Kondo; W.B. Matthews; R.G. Will (Robert); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractTo review the evidence for risk factors of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), we pooled and reanalyzed the raw data of three case-control studies. The pooled data set comprised 178 patients and 333 control subjects. The strength of association between CJD and putative risk factors was asse

  10. Risk factors for Mycobacterium abscessus infection in cystic fibrosis patients; a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verregghen, M.; Heijerman, H.G.; Reijers, M.; Ingen, J. van; Ent, C.K. van der

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus is a nontuberculous mycobacterium that is increasingly recognized as an opportunistic pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Factors that predispose CF patients to infection by this environmental bacterium remain unknown. In a case-control study of 22 CF patients with M.

  11. Patterned genital injury in cases of rape - A case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Birgitte Schmidt; Ravn, Pernille; Thomsen, Jørgen Lange;

    2013-01-01

    A pattern of genital injury that separates trauma seen in sexual assault cases from trauma seen following consensual sexual intercourse has been a matter of debate. This study aimed at clarifying the question by eliminating as many confounders as possible in a prospective, case-control setup. A t...

  12. The relationship between parenting, family interaction and childhood dental caries: A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong-Lenters, M. de; Duijster, D.; Bruist, M.A.; Thijssen, J.; Ruiter, C. de

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to explore the relationship between parenting practices, parent-child interaction and childhood dental caries, using a sample of 5-8-year old children from the Netherlands. Cases were defined as children with four or more decayed, missing or filled teeth and co

  13. The relationship between parenting, family interaction and childhood dental caries: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Jong-Lenters; D. Duijster; M.A. Bruist; J. Thijssen; C. de Ruiter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to explore the relationship between parenting practices, parent-child interaction and childhood dental caries, using a sample of 5-8-year old children from the Netherlands. Cases were defined as children with four or more decayed, missing or filled teeth and co

  14. Body image in cancer survivors : a systematic review of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Tuinman, Marrit A

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is common consensus that cancer and its treatment can impair the body, but combined evidence of the previous literature in cancer survivors is missing. Therefore, we reviewed body image in cancer survivors and focused on case-control studies, in order to draw conclusions as to whether

  15. Body image in cancer survivors : a systematic review of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Tuinman, Marrit A.

    2015-01-01

    There is common consensus that cancer and its treatment can impair the body, but combined evidence of the previous literature in cancer survivors is missing. Therefore, we reviewed body image in cancer survivors and focused on case-control studies, in order to draw conclusions as to whether body ima

  16. Selecting controls for assessing interaction in nested case-control studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two methods for selecting controls in nested case-control studies, matching on X and counter matching on X, are compared when interest is in interaction between a risk factor X measured in the full cohort and another risk factor Z measured only in the case-control sample. This is important because matching provides efficiency gains relative to random sampling when X is uncommon and the interaction is positive (greater than multiplicative), whereas counter matching is generally efficient compared to random sampling. Matching and counter matching were compared to each other and to random sampling of controls for dichotomous X and Z. Comparison was by simulation, using as an example a published study of radiation and other risk factors for breast cancer in the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors, and by asymptotic relative efficiency calculations for a wide range of parameters specifying the prevalence of X and Z as well as the levels of correlation and interaction between them. Focus was on analyses utilizing general models for the joint risk of X and Z. Counter-matching performed better than matching or random sampling in terms of efficiency for inference about interaction in the case of a rare risk factor X and uncorrelated risk factor Z. Further, more general, efficiency calculations demonstrated that counter-matching is generally efficient relative to matched case-control designs for studying interaction. Because counter-matched designs may be analyzed using standard statistical methods and allow investigation of confounding of the effect of X, whereas matched designs require a non-standard approach when fitting general risk models and do not allow investigating the adjusted risk of X, it is concluded that counter-matching on X can be a superior alternative to matching on X in nested case-control studies of interaction when X is known at the time of case-control sampling. (author)

  17. Models for retrospective quantification of indoor radon exposure in case-control studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In epidemiologic studies on lung cancer risk due to indoor radon the quantification of individual radon exposure over a long time period is one of the main issues. Therefore, radon measurements in one or more dwellings, which in total have been inhabited by the participants for a sufficient time-period, are necessary as well as consideration of changes of building characteristics and ventilation habits, which influence radon concentration. Given data on 1-y alpha-track measurements and personal information from 6,000 participants of case-control studies in West and East Germany, and improved method is developed to assess individual radon exposure histories. Times spent in different rooms of the dwelling, which are known from a personal questionnaire, are taken into account. The time spent outside the house varies substantially among the participants. Therefore, assuming a substantially lower radon exposure outside the dwelling, the residence time constitutes an important aspect of total radon exposure. By means of an analysis of variance, important determinants of indoor radon are identified, namely constant conditions such as type of house, type of construction, year of construction, floor and type of basement, and changeable conditions such as heating system, window insulation, and airing habits. A correction of measurements in former dwellings by factors derived from the analysis is applied if current living conditions differ from those of the participants at the time when they were living in the particular dwellings. In rare cases the adjustment for changes leads to a correction of the measurements with a factor of about 1.4, but a reduction of 5% on average only. Exposure assessment can be improved by considering time at home and changes of building and ventilation conditions that affect radon concentration. The major concern that changes in ventilation habits and building conditions lead to substantial errors in exposure assessment cannot be confirmed in the

  18. The prediction of discharge from in-patient psychiatric rehabilitation: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mountain Debbie A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At any time, about 1% of people with severe and enduring mental illness such as schizophrenia require in-patient psychiatric rehabilitation. In-patient rehabilitation enables individuals with the most challenging difficulties to be discharged to successful and stable community living. However, the length of rehabilitation admission that is required is highly variable and the reasons for this are poorly understood. There are very few case-control studies of predictors of outcome following hospitalisation. None have been carried out for in-patient rehabilitation. We aimed to identify the factors that are associated with achieving discharge from in-patient rehabilitation by carrying out a case-control study. Methods We compared two groups: 34 people who were admitted to the Rehabilitation Service at the Royal Edinburgh Hospital and discharged within a six year study period, and 31 people who were admitted in the same period, but not discharged. We compared the groups on demographic, illness, treatment and risk variables that were present at the point of their admission to rehabilitation. We used independent t tests and Pearson Chi-Square tests to compare the two groups. Results We found that serious self harm and suicide attempts, treatment with high dose antipsychotics, antipsychotic polypharmacy and previous care in forensic psychiatric services were all significantly associated with non-discharge. The non-discharged group were admitted significantly later in the six year study period and had already spent significantly longer in hospital. People who were admitted to rehabilitation within the first ten years of developing psychosis were more likely to have achieved discharge. Conclusions People admitted later in the study period required longer rehabilitation admissions and had higher rates of serious self harm and treatment resistant illness. They were also more likely to have had previous contact with forensic services. This

  19. Serum Taurine and Stroke Risk in Women: A Prospective, Nested Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fen Wu; Koenig, Karen L; Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte; Saran Jonas; Yelena Afanasyeva; Wójcik, Oktawia P.; Max Costa; Yu Chen

    2016-01-01

    Background Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid), a conditionally essential sulfur-containing amino acid, is mainly obtained from diet in humans. Experimental studies have shown that taurine’s main biological actions include bile salt conjugation, blood pressure regulation, anti-oxidation, and anti-inflammation. Methods We conducted a prospective case-control study nested in the New York University Women’s Health Study, a cohort study involving 14,274 women enrolled since 1985. Taurine was mea...

  20. Residential radon exposure and lung cancer risk in Misasa, Japan. A case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate an association between residential radon exposure and risk of lung cancer, a case-control study was conducted in Misasa Town, Tottori Prefecture, Japan. The case series consisted of 28 people who had died of lung cancer in the years 1976-96 and 36 controls chosen randomly from the residents in 1976, matched by sex and year of birth. Individual residential radon concentrations were measured for 1 year with alpha track detectors. The average radon concentration was 46 Bq/m3 for cases and 51 Bq/m3 for controls. Compared to the level of 24 or less Bq/m3, the adjusted odds ratios of lung cancer associated with radon levels of 25-49, 50-99 and 100 or more Bq/m3, were 1.13 (95% confidence interval; 0.29-4.40), 1.23 (0.16-9.39) and 0.25 (0.03-2.33), respectively. None of the estimates showed statistical significance, due to small sample size. When the subjects were limited to only include residents of more than 30 years, the estimates did not change substantially. This study did not find that the risk pattern of lung cancer, possibly associated with residential radon exposure, in Misasa Town differed from patterns observed in other countries. (author)

  1. Dietary Risk Factors for Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: A Confirmatory Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Davanipour, Zoreh; Sobel, Eugene; Ziogas, Argyrios; Smoak, Carey; Bohr, Thomas; Doram, Keith; Liwnicz, Boleslaw

    2014-01-01

    Aims This study’s primary purpose was to determine whether earlier findings suggesting an association between sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of humans and specific dietary components could be replicated. The a priori hypotheses were that consumption of (i) foods likely to contain organ tissue and (ii) raw/rare meat are associated with increased sCJD risk. Study Design Population-based case-control study. Place and Duration of Study Departm...

  2. Risk factors for the occurrence of undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Nešić Vladimir; Šipetić Sandra; Vlajinac Hristina; Stošić-Divjak Svetlana; Ješić Snežana

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The incidence rate of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Serbia is less than one per 100,000 citizens, which classifies it as a region with low incidence for this disease. Objective. The aim of this study was to test some hypotheses of the risk factors for undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type (UCNT) in the low incidence population. Methods. A case-control study was used for the research. The study included 45 cases with histopathological diagnosis of UCNT and 90 controls. ...

  3. High Seroprevalence of Leptospira Exposure in Meat Workers in Northern Mexico: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Saenz-Soto, Leandro; Martinez-Ramirez, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Background The seroepidemiology of Leptospira infection in workers occupationally exposed to raw meat has been poorly studied. This work aimed to determine the association between Leptospira exposure and the occupation of meat worker, and to determine the seroprevalence association with socio-demographic, work, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the meat workers studied. Methods We performed a case-control study in 124 meat workers and 124 age- and gender-matched control subjects in D...

  4. Dietary Calcium and Risk for Prostate Cancer: A Case-Control Study Among US Veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Christina D.; Whitley, Brian M.; Hoyo, Cathrine; Grant, Delores J.; Schwartz, Gary G; Presti, Joseph C.; Iraggi, Jared D.; Newman, Kathryn A.; Gerber, Leah; Taylor, Loretta A.; McKeever, Madeline G.; Freedland, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to examine the association between calcium intake and prostate cancer risk. We hypothesized that calcium intake would be positively associated with lower risk for prostate cancer. Methods We used data from a case-control study conducted among veterans between 2007 and 2010 at the Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center. The study consisted of 108 biopsy-positive prostate cancer cases, 161 biopsy-negative controls, and 237 healthy controls. We also d...

  5. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia among Spanish children and mothers' occupation: a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Infante-Rivard, C; Mur, P.; Armstrong, B; ALVAREZ-DARDET, C.; Bolumar, F

    1991-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate the association between mothers' occupational exposure during pregnancy and the incidence of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children. DESIGN: The study was a case-control investigation. A face to face interview was used to assess exposures at work and relevant confounding variables. SETTING: The study was community based and was carried out in five provinces of Spain. SUBJECTS: 128 cases less than 15 years of age were interviewed (91% of those eli...

  6. Risk of metabolic syndrome among children living in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur: A case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Mohd N; Bulgiba Awang; Poh Bee K; Wee Bee S; Ruzita Abdul T; Hills Andrew P

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background With the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity, the metabolic syndrome has been studied among children in many countries but not in Malaysia. Hence, this study aimed to compare metabolic risk factors between overweight/obese and normal weight children and to determine the influence of gender and ethnicity on the metabolic syndrome among school children aged 9-12 years in Kuala Lumpur and its metropolitan suburbs. Methods A case control study was conducted among 402 ch...

  7. Association Between Epicardial Fat Thickness and Premature Coronary Artery Disease: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Faghihi, Shadi; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ali; Parsaee, Mozhgan; Saedi, Sedigheh; Ghadrdoost, Behshid

    2015-01-01

    Background: The association between epicardial fat thickness (EFT) and premature coronary artery disease (CAD) has not been elaborately studied. Objectives: In the present study, we sought whether such a relationship between EFT and CAD exists. Patients and Methods: Sixty two consecutive subjects, under 50 years of age, who underwent coronary angiography (CAG) with the aspect of CAD, were included in this case control study. They were divided into two groups of 31 subjects, namely CAD (cases)...

  8. Breast cancer in the Thai Cohort Study: An exploratory case-control analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Susan; Lim, Lynette; Vilainerun, Duangkae; Banks, Emily; Sripaiboonkij, Nintita; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian; Bain, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence may be increasing in Thailand but very little research has assessed core breast cancer risk factors in this country. We used baseline questionnaire data from a national cohort study of Thai Open University students in an exploratory case-control study of breast cancer. The study included 43 female cases and 860 age-matched controls selected from the remaining 47,271 female cohort participants. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using conditional l...

  9. Influence of social factors on avoidable mortality: a hospital-based case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista, Daniel; Alfonso, José Luis; Corella, Dolores; Saiz, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The effect of socioeconomic factors on avoidable mortality at an individual level is not well known, since most studies showing this association are based on aggregate data. The purpose of this study was to determine socioeconomic differences between those patients who die of avoidable causes and those who do not die. METHODS: A matched case-control study was carried out regarding in-hospital avoidable mortality (Holland's medical care indicators) that occurred in a university hosp...

  10. Effect of vitamin C supplementation on stroke recovery: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Rabadi, Meheroz H; Kristal, Bruce S.

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Epidemiological studies have associated increased dietary intake of antioxidants (vitamin C, E, and β-carotene) in preventing and decreasing the extent of ischemic brain injury. The effect of vitamin C supplementation on functional recovery after stroke has not been studied. Method: In this retrospective, case-control study of 23 patients with ischemic stroke taking vitamin C were identified and matched for age, sex, onset to admission, and admission total functional i...

  11. A microsurgical anterior cervical approach and the immediate impact of mechanical retractors: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ramos-Zúñiga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A microsurgical anterior cervical approach with discectomy and fusion (MACDF is one of the most widely used procedures for treating radicular disorders. This approach is highly successful; however, it is not free from complications. These can be associated with soft tissue injuries. Aim of the Study: The recognition of the risks for these complications should be identified for timely prevention and safe treatment. Materials and Methods: Study Design: Retrospective case control study. This study includes a retrospective case series of 37 patients, paying special attention to immediate complications related to the use of mechanical retraction of soft tissue (dysphagia, dysphonia, esophageal lesions and local hematoma; and a comparative analysis of the outcomes after changes in the retraction method. Results: All selected cases had a positive neurological symptom response in relation to neuropathic pain. Dysphagia and dysphonia were found during the first 72 h in 94.1% of the cases in which automatic mechanical retraction was used for more than one hour during the surgical procedure. A radical change was noted in the reduction of the symptoms after the use of only manual protective blades without automatic mechanical retraction: 5.1% dysphagia and 0% dysphonia in the immediate post-operative period, P = 0.001. Conclusions: Soft tissue damage due to the use of automatic retractors in MACDF is not minor and leads to general discomfort in the patient in spite of good neurological results. These problems most often occur when automatic retractors are used continuously for more than 1 hour, as well as when they are used in multiple levels. Dysphagia, dysphonia and local pain decreased with the use of transient manual blades for retraction, and with intermittent release following minimally invasive principles.

  12. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a cardiovascular risk factor: results of a case-control study (CONSISTE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falola M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Michael FalolaDepartment of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAI read with interest the article "Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a cardiovascular risk factor. Results of a case-control study (CONSISTE study" by de Lucas-Ramos et al.1 In my opinion, the study did not use case-control design, despite its title.View original paper by de Lucas-Ramos and colleagues.

  13. Childhood leukemia and parental occupation: a register-based case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Steensel-Moll, H.A.; Valkenburg, H.A.; Van Zanen, G.E.

    1985-02-01

    To explore possible etiologic factors of childhood leukemia, a case-control study was performed in the Netherlands. Cases were selected from a complete nationwide register of cases of childhood leukemia which were diagnosed between 1973 and 1980. Controls were matched with cases for year of birth, sex, and place of residence at the time of diagnosis. Information about possible exposure was collected by a postal questionnaire addressed to the parents. This report concerns the results of the analysis of parental occupations and occupational exposures for 519 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia and 507 controls. During pregnancy, more mothers of patients were working in ''hydrocarbon-related'' occupations; relative risk (RR) = 2.5 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.7 - 9.4). Likewise, greater occupational exposure to chemicals (paint, petroleum products, and unspecified chemicals) during pregnancy was found for mothers of patients (RR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.2 - 4.6). The kind of work being performed by the mothers one year before diagnosis did not differ between cases and controls. For the fathers, no relationship was found between a hydrocarbon-related occupation or occupational exposure to chemicals and leukemia in the offspring. Adjustment for birth order, social class, and degree of urbanization did not materially change the relative risks. 16 references, 5 tables.

  14. Body Mass Index, Smoking and Hypertensive Disorders during Pregnancy: A Population Based Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gudnadóttir, Thuridur A.; Bateman, Brian T.; Hernádez-Díaz, Sonia; Luque-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur; Zoega, Helga

    2016-01-01

    While obesity is an indicated risk factor for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, smoking during pregnancy has been shown to be inversely associated with the development of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of high body mass index and smoking on hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. This was a case-control study based on national registers, nested within all pregnancies in Iceland 1989–2004, resulting in birth at t...

  15. Body Mass Index, Smoking and Hypertensive Disorders during Pregnancy: A Population Based Case-Control Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Gudnadóttir, TA; Bateman, BT; Hernádez-Díaz, S; Luque-Fernandez, MA; Valdimarsdottir, U; Zoega, H

    2016-01-01

    While obesity is an indicated risk factor for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, smoking during pregnancy has been shown to be inversely associated with the development of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of high body mass index and smoking on hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. This was a case-control study based on national registers, nested within all pregnancies in Iceland 1989-2004, resulting in birth at t...

  16. Antioxidants and breast cancer risk- a population-based case-control study in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison Howard; Gibbons Laurie; Zhou Jia; Pan Sai Yi; Wen Shi Wu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The effect of antioxidants on breast cancer is still controversial. Our objective was to assess the association between antioxidants and breast cancer risk in a large population-based case-control study. Methods The study population included 2,362 cases with pathologically confirmed incident breast cancer (866 premenopausal and 1,496 postmenopausal) and 2,462 controls in Canada. Intakes of antioxidants from diet and from supplementation as well as other potential risk fact...

  17. Occupational exposures and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: Canadian case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Spinelli John J; Dosman James A; McDuffie Helen H; Karunanayake Chandima P; Pahwa Punam

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective was to study the association between Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) and occupational exposures related to long held occupations among males in six provinces of Canada. Methods A population based case-control study was conducted from 1991 to 1994. Males with newly diagnosed NHL (ICD-10) were stratified by province of residence and age group. A total of 513 incident cases and 1506 population based controls were included in the analysis. Conditional logistic regre...

  18. Clinical features of adolescents with deliberate self-harm: A case control study in Lisbon, Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Diogo F Guerreiro; Neves, Ema L; Navarro, Rita; Mendes, Raquel; Prioste, Ana; Ribeiro, Diana; Lila, Tiago; Neves, António; Salgado, Mónica; Santos, Nazaré; Sampaio, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Deliberate self-harm (DSH) among adolescents is a high-risk condition for suicide. The aim of the present study is to describe the characteristic clinical features of adolescents with DSH according to our local context (Lisbon, Portugal), using easily available information from clinical settings. A case control study was constructed from a sample of 100 adolescents (aged 12 to 21 years). The sample was divided into two groups: adolescents with and without DSH. Case files were examined and dat...

  19. Personality traits of patients with myocardial infarctio A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Sedigheh Eshraghi; Ahmad Khamosan; Reza Dastjerdy; Morteza Vejdan; Toba Kazemi

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: In addition to some physiological factors such as hypertension, obesity, hyperlipdemia, and smoking. Psychological factors, especially personality traits of individuals, also accelerate and intensify cardiovascular diseases. The goal of the present study was to draw a comparison between personality traits of patients with myocardial infarction and those of healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was performed in Birjand Valli-e-asr hospital. ...

  20. Home environment and asthma in Kenyan schoolchildren: a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    MOHAMED, N.; Ng'ang'a, L; Odhiambo, J.; Nyamwaya, J.; Menzies, R

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--There is increasing evidence that environmental factors contribute to the development of asthma, so the relationship was studied between home environment factors and asthma among school children of varying socioeconomic backgrounds living in a developing country. METHODS--A case-control study was performed in participants of a prevalence survey which included 77 schoolchildren with asthma (defined by a history of wheeze, doctor diagnosis, or a decline in FEV1 of > or = 10% at five...

  1. Case-control genome-wide association study of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Neale, Benjamin M.; Medland, Sarah; Ripke, Stephan; Anney, Richard JL; Asherson, Philip; Buitelaar, Jan; Franke, Barbara; Gill, Michael; Kent, Lindsey; Holmans, Peter; Middleton, Frank; Thapar, Anita; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Faraone, Stephen V.; Daly, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although twin and family studies have shown attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be highly heritable, genetic variants influencing the trait at a genome-wide significant level have yet to be identified. Thus additional genomewide association studies (GWAS) are needed. Method: We used case-control analyses of 896 cases with DSM-IV ADHD genotvped using the Affymetrix 5.0 array and 2,455 repository controls screened for psychotic and bipolar symptoms genotyped using Affy...

  2. Socioeconomic factors and the risk of anencephaly in a Mexican population: a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco Muñoz, Julia; Lacasaña, Marina; Borja Aburto, Victor Hugo; Torres Sánchez, Luisa Elvira; García García, Ana María; López Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The study was designed to evaluate the association between socioeconomic level (as measured by maternal education, maternal occupation, and monthly family income) and anencephaly. METHODS: The authors conducted a case-control study using data from the Epidemiological Surveillance System Register for Neural Tube Defects for three states of the Mexican Republic: Puebla, Guerrero and the State of Mexico. Mothers of 151 cases of infants born with anencephaly and mothers of 151 control ...

  3. Maternal factors in newborns breast feeding jaundice: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Alizadeh Taheri P; Sepahran M; Shariat M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Neonatal jaundice, especially breast feeding jaundice is one of the most common causes of neonatal readmission during the first month of life. Breast feeding jaundice may be due to decreased milk intake with dehydration and/or reduced caloric intake.  The aim of this Study was to determine maternal risk factors of breast feeding jaundice in order to prevent it than before.Methods: This case- control study was performed at Bahrami University Hospital, Tehran, Iran and involved...

  4. Partially Linear Single Index Cox Regression Model in Nested Case-Control Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Shang, Shulian; Liu, Mengling; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Clendenen, Tess V; Krogh, Vittorio; Hallmans, Goran; Lu, Wenbin

    2013-01-01

    The nested case-control (NCC) design is widely used in epidemiologic studies as a cost-effective subcohort sampling method to study the association between a disease and its potential risk factors. NCC data are commonly analyzed using Thomas' partial likelihood approach under the Cox proportional hazards model assumption. However, the linear modeling form in the Cox model may be insufficient for practical applications, especially when there are a large number of risk factors under investigati...

  5. Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoa among Saudi Patients with Chronic Renal Failure: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hawash, Yousry A.; Laila Sh. Dorgham; Amir, El-Amir M.; Sharaf, Osama F.

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that chronic renal failure (CRF) predisposes patients to infection with intestinal protozoa. We tested this hypothesis with a matched case-control study to determine the prevalence of these protozoa and their diarrhea associated symptoms among 50 patients with CRF (cases) from Taif, western Saudi Arabia. Fifty diarrheal patients without CRF were recruited in the study as controls. Participants were interviewed by a structured questionnaire and stool samples were colle...

  6. Probiotic Beverage with Soy Isoflavone Consumption for Breast Cancer Prevention: A Case-control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Toi, Masakazu; Hirota, Saya; Tomotaki, Ai; Sato, Nobuaki; Hozumi, Yasuo; Anan, Keisei; Nagashima, Takeshi; Tokuda, Yutaka; Masuda, Norikazu; Ohsumi, Shozo; Ohno, Shinji; Takahashi, Masato; Hayashi, Hironori; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Ohashi, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate how beverages containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota (BLS) and soy isoflavone consumption since adolescence affected the incidence of breast cancer. In a population-based case-control study, three hundred and six cases with breast cancer and 662 controls aged 40 to 55 were matched for age and residential area and included in the analyses. Diet, lifestyle and other breast cancer risk factors were investigated using the self-administered questionnaire an...

  7. Risk factors for homicide victimization in post-genocide Rwanda : a population - based case- control study

    OpenAIRE

    Rubanzana, Wilson; Ntaganira, Joseph; Freeman, Michael D; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Homicide is one of the leading causes of mortality in the World. Homicide risk factors vary significantly between countries and regions. In Rwanda, data on homicide victimization is unreliable because no standardized surveillance system exists. This study was undertaken to identify the risk factors for homicide victimization in Rwanda with particular attention on the latent effects of the 1994 genocide. Methods: A population-based matched case-control study was conducted, with sub...

  8. Coarse fishing and urothelial cancer: a regional case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Sorahan, T; Sole, G

    1990-01-01

    In a regional case-control study of coarse fishing and urothelial cancer, histories from 989 patients with tumours diagnosed in the period 1985-87 were compared with histories from 2,059 unmatched electoral register controls and 1,599 matched general practitioner controls. Angling and the use of dyed maggots by anglers were not found to be risk factors. The study emphasises the importance of the established risk factor of cigarette smoking.

  9. Assessing general practitioners' care of adult patients with learning disability: case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Whitfield, M.; Langan, J; Russell, O

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare general practitioners' care of adult patients with learning disability with that of control patients in the same practice. DESIGN--Case-control study of patients and controls by a structured interview study of general practitioners. SETTING--Avon. PATIENTS--78 adult patients with learning disability and 78 age and sex matched controls--cared for by 62 general practitioners. MAIN MEASURES--Number and content of consultations and opinions of the general practitioners. RESU...

  10. A Case control study to evaluate oxidative stress in plasma samples of oral malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Chandan Srivastava; Ravi David Austin; Deepti Shrivastava; S Sethupathy; S Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Imbalances between the oxidant -antioxidant status have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including cancer. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in the venous blood samples of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients of different Clinicopathologic stages in comparison with the healthy controls. Setting and Design: A Case control study was designed in a hospital (Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital, A...

  11. Case-control study of risk factors for disease in the neck and shoulder area.

    OpenAIRE

    Ekberg, K; Björkqvist, B; Malm, P; Bjerre-Kiely, B; Karlsson, M.; Axelson, O

    1994-01-01

    A case-control study was performed to elucidate the strength of the relation between musculoskeletal disorders in the neck and shoulders and physical, organisational, and psychosocial aspects of the work environment. Cases were identified as those persons who consulted a physician in a community in southern Sweden for new musculoskeletal disorders in the neck and shoulders during a study period from August 1988 to the end of October 1989. One hundred and nine cases were collected and clinical...

  12. Determinants of Internet Addiction among Adolescents: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Artemis Tsitsika; Elena Critselis; Amalia Louizou; Mari Janikian; Aliki Freskou; Evgenia Marangou; Georgios Kormas; Kafetzis, Dimitrios A

    2011-01-01

    Internet Addiction (IA) is associated with adverse psychosocial development and mental disorders. The study aims were to evaluate the psychosocial profiles and psychiatric comorbidities associated with IA among adolescents. A case-control study was conducted among 129 adolescents in the outpatient setting of the Adolescent Health Unit of the Second University Department of Pediatrics in Athens, Greece. The case group consisted of 86 adolescents with IA as evaluated following psychiatric inter...

  13. Biomarkers and bacterial pneumonia risk in patients with treated HIV infection : a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerk, Sonja M.; Baker, Jason V.; Emery, Sean; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Angus, Brian; Gordin, Fred M.; Pett, Sarah L.; Stephan, Christoph; Ken M Kunisaki; Finley, E.; Dietz, D.; Chesson, C.; Vjecha, M; Standridge, B.; Schmetter, B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite advances in HIV treatment, bacterial pneumonia continues to cause considerable morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV infection. Studies of biomarker associations with bacterial pneumonia risk in treated HIV-infected patients do not currently exist. Methods We performed a nested, matched, case-control study among participants randomized to continuous combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy trial. Patients wh...

  14. Population-based case-control study of breast cancer in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Pajenga E.; Rexha T.; Çeliku S.; Mariani E.

    2013-01-01

    In Albania, breast cancer is an important cause of death among women, with increasing incidence from 65 cases in 1970, to 400 cases in 2007. This is the first study concerning breast cancer risk factors in Albania. We used a population-based case-control study of 948 women with breast cancer compared with 1019 controls recruited from other hospitals through random selection. Early age at menarche was found to be a significantly strong risk factor during the pre- and postmenopausal group...

  15. Meta-Analysis of a Multi-Ethnic, Breast Cancer Case-Control Targeted Sequencing Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ablorh, Akweley

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer, the most commonly diagnosed cancer in American women, is a heritable disease with nearly one hundred known genetic risk factors. Using next generation sequencing, we explored the contribution of genetics at 12 GWAS-identified loci to breast cancer susceptibility in a multi-ethnic breast cancer case-control study. Methods: The study population consists of 4,611 breast cancer cases and controls (2,316 cases and 2,295 controls) from four mutually exclusive ethnicities: Africa...

  16. Maternal determinants of intrauterine growth restriction in Goa, India: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    DD Motghare; Vaz, Frederick S; AM Pawaskar; Kulkarni MS

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the maternal determinants of intrauterine growth restriction. Methods: A case-control study was conducted at a tertiary care Hospital in the year 2009. Ninety eight cases of intrauterine growth restriction were compared to 98 controls, matched for newborns sex and type of delivery. Data was collected by interviewing the mother using a structured pretested schedule and perusal of antenatal records. Intrauterine growth restriction was defined as occurring if birth weight ...

  17. Diet Quality Scores and Risk of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Chinese Adults: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng Wang; Xiao-Ling Lin; Yu-Ying Fan; Yuan-Ting Liu; Xing-Lan Zhang; Yun-Kai Lu; Chun-Hua Xu; Yu-Ming Chen

    2016-01-01

    Many studies show that dietary factors may affect the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We examined the association between overall diet quality and NPC risk in a Chinese population. This case-control study included 600 NPC patients and 600 matched controls between 2009 and 2011 in Guangzhou, China. Habitual dietary intake and various covariates were assessed via face-to-face interviews. Diet quality scores were calculated according to the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005), the alter...

  18. Bayes and empirical Bayes methods for reduced rank regression models in matched case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satagopan, Jaya M; Sen, Ananda; Zhou, Qin; Lan, Qing; Rothman, Nathaniel; Langseth, Hilde; Engel, Lawrence S

    2016-06-01

    Matched case-control studies are popular designs used in epidemiology for assessing the effects of exposures on binary traits. Modern studies increasingly enjoy the ability to examine a large number of exposures in a comprehensive manner. However, several risk factors often tend to be related in a nontrivial way, undermining efforts to identify the risk factors using standard analytic methods due to inflated type-I errors and possible masking of effects. Epidemiologists often use data reduction techniques by grouping the prognostic factors using a thematic approach, with themes deriving from biological considerations. We propose shrinkage-type estimators based on Bayesian penalization methods to estimate the effects of the risk factors using these themes. The properties of the estimators are examined using extensive simulations. The methodology is illustrated using data from a matched case-control study of polychlorinated biphenyls in relation to the etiology of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. PMID:26575519

  19. Population-based case control study of the safety of sulfasalazine use during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Bente; Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.;

    2001-01-01

    Background: We studied the human teratogenic risk of sulfasalazine because this drug interferes with folate metabolism. Methods: Case control study within the Hungarian Case Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980–1996; based on 22 865 new-born infants or foetuses with congenital...... abnormalities, and 38 151 babies without any detected congenital abnormalities (control group). Results: Seventeen pregnant women (0.07%) were treated with sulfasalazine in the case group, and 26 (0.07%) in the control group. The overall adjusted adds ratio of congenital abnormalities after sulfasalazine...... treatment was odds ratio=1.2 (95% confidence interval: 0.6–2.1). None of the analyses indicated any significant increased prevalence of selected congenital abnormalities among the exposed compared with the not exposed. Conclusions: We found no significant increased prevalence of selected congenital...

  20. The effect of opium dependency on testis volume: a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrus, Ali; Solhi, Hassan; Azizabadi Farahani, Mahdi; Khoddami Vishteh, Hamid Reza; Goudarzi, Davoud; Mosayebi, Ghasem; Mohamadian, Hamed

    2012-01-01

    Background: Given the paucity of data on possible testis changes in opioid dependents, we sought to compare the testis volumes between a group of opium dependents and a group of healthy controls. Objective: Comparison of testis volume between opium dependents and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: This case-control study recruited 100 men with opium dependency (cases) and 100 healthy men (controls) in Iran, in 2008. A checklist containing questions about age, height, weight, daily amount of cigarette use, and duration of cigarette use for all the participants as well as daily amount of opium use (grams) and duration of opium use (years) for the case group was completed. Additionally, the dimensions of each testis were measured by a single person using calipers, and the mean of the left and right testes volume was compared between these two groups. Results: The mean of the testis volumes in the case group was significantly lower than that of the case group (11.2±2.2 and 25.1±2.7cm³, p<0.001). The results of the ANCOVA test showed that even after the omission of the cigarette smoking effect (p=0.454), the testis volume remained lower in the opium dependents (R2=0.884, p<0.001). In the case group, there were significant reverse correlations between testis volume and age (r=-0.404, p<0.001), daily amount of opium use (r=-0/207, p=0.039) and duration of opium use (r=-0.421, p<0.001). Conclusion: We found that the testis volume in the male opium dependents was lower than that of the healthy controls. We would recommend that future studies into the impact of drugs on the testis dimensions pay heed to possible histological changes in the testes owing to opium dependency. PMID:25246920

  1. Drug induced immune haemolytic anaemia in the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbe, Edeltraut; Andersohn, Frank; Bronder, Elisabeth; Klimpel, Andreas; Thomae, Michael; Schrezenmeier, Hubert; Hildebrandt, Martin; Späth-Schwalbe, Ernst; Grüneisen, Andreas; Mayer, Beate; Salama, Abdulgabar; Kurtal, Hanife

    2011-09-01

    Drug-induced immune haemolytic anaemia is a rare but serious condition. This study investigated the possibility of drug aetiology of immune haemolytic anaemia (IHA) in 134 patients with new onset of IHA who were identified in the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study between 2000 and 2009. Single drugs related to IHA in three or more patients and assessed more than once as a certain or probable cause of IHA in a standardized causality assessment included diclofenac, fludarabine, oxaliplatin, ceftriaxone and piperacillin. In a case-control study including all 124 IHA cases developed in outpatient care and 731 controls, significantly increased odds ratios (OR) were observed for beta-lactam antibiotics (OR=8·8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3·2-25·2), cotrimoxazole (OR=6·5; CI 1·1-37·9), ciprofloxacin (OR=6·9, CI 1·3-38·5), fludarabine (OR=22·2; CI: 2·8-454·5) and lorazepam (OR=5·3; CI: 1·2-21·2). Excluding new onset cases with a chronic IHA disease course, an increased risk became also apparent for diclofenac with an OR of 3·1 (CI 1·3-7·0). This is the first case-control study investigating drugs as risk factors for IHA. It corroborates an increased risk for several drugs that have been implicated as a cause of IHA in the standardized causality assessment of individual cases. PMID:21749359

  2. The relationship between maternal periodontitis and preterm low birth weight: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Satheesh Mannem; Chava, Vijay K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The relationship between periodontal diseases in pregnancy and children born prematurely or with low birth weight has been increasingly investigated, showing positive and negative results, respectively. Objective: To evaluate the association between Maternal Periodontitis and Preterm delivery or Low Birth Weight. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 104 pregnant women without systemic disease or other risk factors for preterm labor were chosen. The control group (n =...

  3. Phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols: a case control study on soft tissue sarcoma and malignant lymphoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, J G; Christophers, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    A case control study on patients with soft tissue sarcoma and malignant lymphoma was undertaken to test whether there was any association between these diseases and past exposure to chlorinated phenoxy acid herbicides or chlorophenols. It was carried out over the period 1982-1988 in Victoria, Australia. Thirty males with soft tissue sarcoma and 52 males with malignant lymphoma were matched by age, place of residence and sex with one population control and one cancer control each. Exposure was...

  4. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Case Control Study To Assess Association Between Periodontal Infection And Coronary Heart Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti Mohitey; Rahul Redasani

    2012-01-01

    Background: Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of adult mortality and morbidity throughout the world. Well known risk factors independently or combined are involved in both atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. Recent data have shown that viral and bacterial infections may also contribute to acute thromboembolic events; hence a case control study was carried out. Aims and Objective: To investigate the possible association between periodontal health and coronary artery disease, i...

  5. Risk factors for giardiasis: a case-control study in Avon and Somerset.

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, S F; Gunnell, D J; Peters, T. J.

    1994-01-01

    Giardia lamblia is a common and increasing cause of gastrointestinal illness in the UK. We report a case-control study that examined risk factors for giardiasis. Patients with giardiasis were identified from reports to the Consultants in Communicable Disease in Avon and Somerset, and age-sex matched controls were obtained from their general practitioners' lists. Details of travel history, water consumption and recreational water use were collected by postal questionnaire. Over the period July...

  6. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole induced hyperkalaemia in elderly patients receiving spironolactone: nested case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Antoniou, Tony; Gomes, Tara; Mamdani, Muhammad M.; Yao, Zhan; Hellings, Chelsea; Garg, Amit X.; Matthew A Weir; Juurlink, David N.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To characterise the risk of admission to hospital for hyperkalaemia in elderly patients treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in combination with spironolactone. Design Population based nested case-control study. Setting Ontario, Canada, from 1 April 1992 to 1 March 2010. Participants Cases were residents of Ontario aged 66 years or above receiving chronic treatment with spironolactone and admitted to hospital with hyperkalaemia within 14 days of receiving a prescription for e...

  7. Matching for Several Sparse Nominal Variables in a Case-Control Study of Readmission Following Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Zubizarreta, José R.; Reinke, Caroline E.; Kelz, Rachel R; Silber, Jeffrey H.; Rosenbaum, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    Matching for several nominal covariates with many levels has usually been thought to be difficult because these covariates combine to form an enormous number of interaction categories with few if any people in most such categories. Moreover, because nominal variables are not ordered, there is often no notion of a “close substitute” when an exact match is unavailable. In a case-control study of the risk factors for read-mission within 30 days of surgery in the Medicare popula...

  8. Malnutrition and Childhood Disability in Turkana, Kenya: Results from a Case-Control Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Hannah Kuper; Velma Nyapera; Jennifer Evans; David Munyendo; Maria Zuurmond; Severine Frison; Victoria Mwenda; David Otieno; James Kisia

    2015-01-01

    Background Children with disabilities may be particularly vulnerable to malnutrition, as a result of exclusions and feeding difficulties. However, there is limited evidence currently available on this subject. Methods A population-based case-control study was conducted in Turkana County, Kenya, between July and August 2013. Key informants in the community identified children aged 6 months to 10 years who they believed may have a disability. These children were screened by a questionnaire (UNI...

  9. Social equity in perinatal survival : a case-control study at hospitals in Kigali, Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Musafili, Aimable; Essén, Birgitta; Baribwira, Cyprien; Ekholm Selling, Katarina; Persson, Lars-Åke

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Rwanda has invested heavily in improving maternal and child health, but knowledge is limited regarding social equity in perinatal survival. We analysed whether perinatal mortality risks differed between social groups in hospitals in the country's capital. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out on singleton births aged at least 22 weeks of gestation and born in district or tertiary referral hospitals in Kigali from July 2013 to May 2014. Perinatal deaths were recorded as they occur...

  10. Prevalence of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth among Chronic Pancreatitis Patients: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Therrien, Amelie; Bouchard, Simon; SIDANI, SACHA; Bouin, Mickael

    2016-01-01

    Background. Patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) exhibit numerous risk factors for the development of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Objective. To determine the prevalence of SIBO in patients with CP. Methods. Prospective, single-centre case-control study conducted between January and September 2013. Inclusion criteria were age 18 to 75 years and clinical and radiological diagnosis of CP. Exclusion criteria included history of gastric, pancreatic, or intestinal surgery or si...

  11. Education and occupations preceding Parkinson disease: a population-based case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Frigerio, Roberta; Elbaz, Alexis; Sanft, Kevin,; Peterson, Brett,; Bower, James; Ahlskog, J. Eric; Grossardt, Brandon,; de Andrade, Mariza; Maraganore, Demetrius,; Rocca, Walter

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of Parkinson disease (PD) with education and occupations using a case-control study design. METHODS: The authors used the medical records-linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to identify all subjects who developed PD in Olmsted County, MN, from 1976 through 1995. Each incident case was matched by age (+/-1 year) and sex to a general population control. The authors collected information about education and occupations using two independ...

  12. Columnar cell lesions and subsequent breast cancer risk: a nested case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Aroner, Sarah A.; Collins, Laura Christine; Schnitt, Stuart Jay; Connolly, James Leo; Colditz, Graham A; Tamimi, Rulla May

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Histologic and genetic evidence suggests that at least some columnar cell lesions (CCL) of the breast represent precursor lesions in the low-grade breast neoplasia pathway. However, the risk of subsequent breast cancer associated with the presence of CCL in a benign breast biopsy is poorly understood.Methods The authors examined the association between the presence of CCL and subsequent breast cancer risk in a nested case-control study of benign breast disease (BBD) and breast c...

  13. Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer in China: A Multicenter Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaoxu Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite having one of the highest mortality rates of all cancers, the risk factors of pancreatic cancer remain unclear. We assessed risk factors of pancreatic cancer in China. Methods: A case-control study design was conducted using data from four hospital-based cancer registries (Henan Provincial Cancer Hospital, Beijing Cancer Hospital, Hebei Provincial Cancer Hospital, and Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences). Controls were equally matched and selected fro...

  14. ESTIMATING HAZARD RATIOS IN NESTED CASE-CONTROL STUDIES BY MANTEL-HAENSZEL METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠占

    2001-01-01

    In this article, a class of Mantel-Haenszel type estimators of hazard ratios in proportional hazards model is presented for simple nested case-control study. The estimators have the form of the Mantel-Haenszel estimator of odds ratios, and it is shown that the estimators are dually consistent, and asymptotically normal. Dually consistently estimated covariance matrices of the proposed estimators are also developed. An example is given to illustrate the estimators.

  15. Dietary calcium intake and the risk of colorectal cancer: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Changwoo; Shin, Aesun; Lee, Jeonghee; Lee, Jeeyoo; Park, Ji Won; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-01-01

    Background High intake of dietary calcium has been thought to be a protective factor against colorectal cancer. To explore the dose-response relationship in the associations between dietary calcium intake and colorectal cancer risk by cancer location, we conducted a case-control study among Korean population, whose dietary calcium intake levels are relatively low. Methods The colorectal cancer cases and controls were recruited from the National Cancer Center in Korea between August 2010 and A...

  16. Modifiable factors associated with tuberculosis disease in children: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Molly F; del Castillo, Hernán; Pereda, Ynés; Lecca, Leonid; Cárdenas, Luz; Fuertes, Jhoelma; Murray, Megan B; Bayona, Jaime; Becerra, Mercedes C

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a case-control study among children in Lima, Peru to identify factors associated with tuberculosis disease. Known close contact with someone with tuberculosis disease, prior hospitalization, and history of anemia were associated with a higher tuberculosis disease rate. Consumption of fruits/vegetables ≥5 days/week was associated with a lower rate. Isoniazid uptake was low among children with a known contact. PMID:24064556

  17. Ethnic Identity and the Risk of Schizophrenia in Ethnic Minorities: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Veling, Wim; Hoek, Hans W; Wiersma, Durk; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The high incidence of schizophrenia in immigrant ethnic groups in Western Europe may be explained by social stress associated with ethnic minority status. Positive identification with one's own ethnic group is a strong predictor of mental health in immigrants. We investigated whether negative ethnic identity is related to schizophrenia risk in non-Western immigrants. Methods: Matched case-control study of first-episode schizophrenia, including 100 non-Western immigrant cases, gene...

  18. Depressive Symptoms and Resilience among Pregnant Adolescents: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Danny Salazar-Pousada; Dalton Arroyo; Luis Hidalgo; Pérez-López, Faustino R.; Peter Chedraui

    2010-01-01

    Background. Data regarding depression and resilience among adolescents is still lacking. Objective. To assess depressive symptoms and resilience among pregnant adolescents. Method. Depressive symptoms and resilience were assessed using two validated inventories, the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD-10) and the 14-item Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS), respectively. A case-control approach was used to compare differences between adolescents and adult...

  19. Firefighters and on-duty deaths from coronary heart disease: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Soteriades Elpidoforos S; Kales Stefanos N; Christoudias Stavros G; Christiani David C

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) is responsible for 45% of on-duty deaths among United States firefighters. We sought to identify occupational and personal risk factors associated with on-duty CHD death. Methods We performed a case-control study, selecting 52 male firefighters whose CHD deaths were investigated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. We selected two control populations: 51 male firefighters who died of on-duty trauma; and 310 male firefig...

  20. Case-control study of prostatic cancer in employees of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority.

    OpenAIRE

    Rooney, C.; Beral, V; Maconochie, N.; P. Fraser; Davies, G.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the relation between risk of prostatic cancer and occupational exposures, especially to radionuclides, in employees of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. DESIGN--Case-control study of men with prostatic cancer and matched controls. Information about sociodemographic factors and exposures to radionuclides and other substances was abstracted and classified for each subject from United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority records without knowledge of who had cancer....

  1. Factors Associated with Mastitis in Ontario Dairy Herds: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Goodhope, R. G.; Meek, A. H.

    1980-01-01

    Data from Ontario dairy cattle herds which had had a high average milk gel index for 1978 (cases) and from other herds which had had a low average during the same period (controls) were collected and analyzed using case control techniques. The purpose of the study was to contrast factors of husbandry and management between the two groups and to determine the relative contribution of each of these factors on mastitis (as determined indirectly by the milk gel index) at the herd level.

  2. Tooth eruption sequence and dental crowding: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Vahid Moshkelgosha; Negar Khosravifard; Ali Golkari

    2014-01-01

    When cases of dental crowding are identified and diagnosed promptly, interceptive orthodontics is particularly successful. Aim: To assess the differences in the eruption sequence of the mandibular canine and first premolar teeth in children with and without dental crowding. Materials and Methods: Children who attended the Shiraz Dental School's orthodontic clinic (Iran) from September to December 2012 were enrolled in this case-control study. Tooth size arch length discrepancy (TSALD) of all ...

  3. Body composition, somatotype and risk of premenopausal breast cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Ronco AL; De Stefani E; Deneo-Pellegrini H

    2013-01-01

    In order to analyze detailed anthropometric characterisation for risk of breast cancer (BC) in premenopausal Uruguayan women, a case-control study was carried out at the Pereira Rossell Women’s Hospital, Montevideo, where 253 incident BC cases and 497 frequency-matched healthy controls were interviewed on menstrual and reproductive story, and a series of body measurements were performed to calculate body composition and somatotype. Odds ratio (OR’s) coefficients were taken as estimates of rel...

  4. Case-control study of lung cancer among sugar cane farmers in India

    OpenAIRE

    Amre, D. K.; Infante-Rivard, C; Dufresne, A.; P.M Durgawale; Ernst, P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk of lung cancer among sugar cane farmers and sugar mill workers. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted based in six hospitals in the predominantly sugar cane farming districts of the province of Maharashtra in India. Newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed cases were identified from these hospitals between May 1996 and April 1998. Other cancers were chosen as controls and matched to cases by age, sex, district of residence, and timing of diagno...

  5. The efficacy of preopoerative instruction in reducing anxiety following gyneoncological surgery: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Gungor Tayfun; Kurt Ayten; Pinar Gul

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background This is a quasi-experimental case control research focusing on the impact of systematic preoperative instruction on the level of postoperative anxiety in gyneoncologic patients. The population studied consists of the gyneoncologic surgery patients admitted to the Gynecologic Oncology Service at Zekai Tahir Burak Gynecology Training and Research Hospital from May to September 2010. Patients and methods Through a random sampling, 60 patients were recruited in each group. The...

  6. A nested case-control study of fatal work related injuries among Brazilian steel workers.

    OpenAIRE

    S.M. Barreto; Swerdlow, A J; Smith, P G; Higgins, C D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the relative risk of death from work related injury in a steelworks, associated with exposure to various occupational hazards, sociodemographic factors, and medical history. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was a nested case-control design. It was based on a cohort of men employed in the steel plant of USIMINAS, Brazil between January 1977 and August 1990, who were followed up to November 1992. The cases were defined as all workers in the cohort who died from injury in ...

  7. Social predictors of adult asthma: a co-twin case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Huovinen, E; Kaprio, J.; Laitinen, L; Koskenvuo, M.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Environmental factors are needed to explain the observed increase in the prevalence of asthma during recent decades, despite the existence of a recognised genetic component in asthma. A co-twin case-control study was undertaken to examine possible social risk factors for asthma.
METHODS—Asthma diagnoses were based on register data of reimbursed asthma medication. During 17 years follow up of the Finnish twin cohort, 262 twin pairs discordant for incident asthma...

  8. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in relation to autism and developmental delay: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pessah Isaac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs are flame retardants used widely and in increasing amounts in the U.S. over the last few decades. PBDEs and their metabolites cross the placenta and studies in rodents demonstrate neurodevelopmental toxicity from prenatal exposures. PBDE exposures occur both via breastfeeding and hand-to-mouth activities in small children. Methods Participants were 100 children from the CHARGE (CHildhood Autism Risk from Genetics and the Environment Study, a case-control epidemiologic investigation of children with autism/autism spectrum disorder, with developmental delay and from the general population. Diagnoses of autism were confirmed by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and Autism Diagnostic Inventory-Revised, and of developmental delay using the Mullen's Scales of Early Learning and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Typically developing controls were those with no evidence of delay, autism, or autism spectrum disorder. Eleven PBDE congeners were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry from serum specimens collected after children were assessed. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between plasma PBDEs and autism. Results Children with autism/autism spectrum disorder and developmental delay were similar to typically developing controls for all PBDE congeners, but levels were high for all three groups. Conclusions Plasma samples collected post-diagnosis in this study may not represent early life exposures due to changes in diet and introduction of new household products containing PBDEs. Studies with direct measurements of prenatal or infant exposures are needed to assess the possible causal role for these compounds in autism spectrum disorders.

  9. Quantifying the impact of selection bias caused by nonparticipation in a case-control study of mobile phone use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijheid, Martine; Richardson, Lesley; Armstrong, Bruce K;

    2009-01-01

    To quantitatively assess the impact of selection bias caused by nonparticipation in a multinational case-control study of mobile phone use and brain tumor.......To quantitatively assess the impact of selection bias caused by nonparticipation in a multinational case-control study of mobile phone use and brain tumor....

  10. Etiology of leukemia in childhood - a case control study in Lower Saxony, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In two municipalities in Lower Saxony, Germany, clusters of childhood leukemia were observed. It was decided to conduct a case control study to explore potential risk factors which might explain the observed clusters. The study was based on the German Children's Cancer Registry. 781 parents of cases and controls took part in the study. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire and an interview by phone. Additionally, measurements of electromagnetic fields and radon were performed in the children's homes. The paper presents the basic considerations of the study, its design and a summary of the main results. (orig.)

  11. The Relationship between Iron Deficiency and Febrile Convulsion: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif, Mohammad Reza; Kheirkhah, Davood; Madani, Mahla; Kashani, Hamed Haddad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Febrile seizure is among the most common convulsion disorders in children, which strikes 2% to 5% of children between 3 to 60 months of age. Some studies have reported that iron deficiency could be a risk factor for febrile seizure. The present study was conducted to compare the rate of iron deficiency anemia in febrile children with and without seizure. Materials and Methods: This case-control study evaluated 200 children aged 6-60 month in two 100 person groups (febrile seizur...

  12. Primary postpartum haemorrhage in an Australian tertiary hospital: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Amanda; Birch, Mary-Rose; Sullivan, Elizabeth A; Katz, Sue; Wang, Yueping Alex

    2005-06-01

    The present study aimed to determine the incidence of primary postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) after vaginal birth at an Australian tertiary hospital, and to investigate risk factors for primary PPH at this hospital. A case-control study of women delivering vaginally at a tertiary hospital from February to June 2003 was performed. Demographic, antenatal, intrapartum, treatment and outcome data were abstracted from patient records. The study population comprised 125 cases and 125 controls, with a primary PPH rate of 12.1 per 100 vaginal births. Risk factors on multivariate analysis were past history of PPH, second stage labour > 60 min, forceps delivery, and incomplete placenta/ragged membranes. PMID:15904450

  13. Challenges in Recruiting Aging Women Holocaust Survivors to a Case Control Study of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vin-Raviv, Neomi; Dekel, Rachel; Barchana, Micha; Linn, Shai; Keinan-Boker, Lital

    2015-01-01

    Older adults are underrepresented in medical research for many reasons, including recruitment difficulties. Recruitment of older adults for research studies is often a time-consuming process and can be more challenging when the study involves older adults with unique exposures to traumatic events and from minority groups. The current article provides a brief overview of (a) challenges encountered while recruiting aging women Holocaust survivors for a case control study and (b) strategies used for meeting those challenges. The case group comprised women Holocaust survivors who were recently diagnosed with breast cancer and the control group comprised healthy women from a Holocaust-survivor community in Israel. PMID:26020580

  14. Bra wearing not associated with breast cancer risk: a population based case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lu; Malone, Kathleen E.; Li, Christopher I.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of bras among U.S. women and concerns in the lay media that bra wearing may increase breast cancer risk, there is a scarcity of credible scientific studies addressing this issue. The goal of the study was to evaluate the relationship between various bra wearing habits and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women. We conducted a population-based case-control study of breast cancer in the Seattle-Puget Sound metropolitan area that compared 454 invasive ductal car...

  15. A case-control study: occupational cooking and the risk of uveal melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marr Anja

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A European-wide population based case-control study (European rare cancer study undertaken in nine European countries examined risk factors for uveal melanoma. They found a positive association between cooks and the risk of uveal melanoma. In our study we examine whether cooks or people who worked in cook related jobs have an increased uveal melanoma risk. Methods We conducted a case-control study during 2002 and 2005. Overall, 1653 eligible subjects (age range: 20-74 years, living in Germany participated. Interviews were conducted with 459 incident uveal melanoma cases, 827 population controls, 180 ophthalmologist controls and 187 sibling controls. Data on occupational exposure were obtained from a self-administered postal questionnaire and a computer-assisted telephone interview. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios adjusting for the matching factors. Results Overall, we did not observe an increased risk of uveal melanoma among people who worked as cooks or who worked in cook related jobs. When we restricted the source population of our study to the population of the Federal State of Northrhine-Westphalia, we observed an increased risk among subjects who were categorized as cooks in the cases-control analysis. Conclusion Our results are in conflict with former results of the European rare cancer study. Considering the rarity of the disease laboratory in vitro studies of human uveal melanoma cell lines should be done to analyze potential exposure risk factors like radiation from microwaves, strong light from incandescent ovens, or infrared radiation.

  16. Diabetes and risk of Parkinson's disease: an updated meta-analysis of case-control studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Whether diabetes increases the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD is still inconclusive. The objective of this updated meta-analysis is to synthesize evidence from case-control studies that evaluated the association between diabetes and the risk of PD. METHODS: Seven databases were searched to identify case-control studies that evaluated the association between diabetes and PD. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using Newcastle-Ottawa scale. All data were analyzed using Review Manager 5.1 software. Subgroup analyses were also adopted, according to stratification on gender, geographic location, source of the control group, smoking, anti-diabetes drug prescription and duration of DM. RESULTS: Fourteen studies fulfilled inclusion criteria for meta-analysis, yielding a total of 21395 PD patients and 84579 control subjects. Individuals with diabetes were found to have a negative association with future PD (OR 0.75; 95% CI 0.58-0.98 in spite of significant heterogeneity. In subgroup analyses, the negative correlation was still found in studies from North America, non-PD control groups from general population, never smoking individuals, and DM ascertainment based on questionnaire or self-report. Stratification of gender and DM duration showed no significant association. No association was also found in European and Asian individuals, hospital-based controls, ever smoking subjects, DM assessment by medical record or physician diagnosis, and insulin prescription for DM. CONCLUSION: Evidence from case-control studies suggested that diabetic individuals may have a decreased incidence of PD despite significant heterogeneity. More researches are warranted to clarify an understanding of the association between diabetes and risk of PD.

  17. Risk factors for femicide-suicide in abusive relationships: results from a multisite case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziol-McLain, Jane; Webster, Daniel; McFarlane, Judith; Block, Carolyn Rebecca; Ulrich, Yvonne; Glass, Nancy; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2006-02-01

    The killing of women by men who then take their own lives (femicide-suicide) is the most common form of homicide-suicide. This study identified femicide-suicide risk factors in an 11-city case-control study of femicide in the United States. Perpetrator, victim, relationship, and incident characteristics were analyzed for femicide-suicide cases (n = 67) and controls (n = 356, women living in the community with nonfatal physical abuse) using logistic regression modeling. Two risk factors emerged that were unique to femicide-suicides cases compared to overall femicide risk analyses: prior perpetrator suicide threats and victims having ever been married to the perpetrator. PMID:16494130

  18. Assessment of Vitamin K2 Levels in Osteoporotic Patients: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Akram Noori; Mahin Lashkari; Sonia Oveisi; Mohamad Reza Khair Khah; Ali Zargar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to measure the level of Vitamin K2 (Vit K2) in osteoporotic patients and individuals with normal bone density as controls. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was done in Outpatient Department of Rheumatology at Qazvin Boo-ali Sina Hospital in 2013. Participants were 50 patients with osteoporotic densitometry measured by DEXA (T score? -2.5) who were matched with 48 persons in control group with normal bone density (T score> -1). The level of...

  19. Neonatal Mortality Risk Factors in a Rural Part of Iran: A Nested Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chaman, R. (PhD); K Holakouie Naieni; B. Golestan; H Nabavizadeh; M. Yunesian

    2009-01-01

    "nBackground: Due to complex causal framework of neonatal mortality, improvement of this health indicator is quite gradual and it's decreasing trend is not as great as other health indicators such as infant and under 5 mortality rates.This study was conducted to evaluate neonatal mortality risk factors based on nested case-control design."nMethods:  The study population was 6900 neonates who were born in rural areas of Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad province (South of Iran)...

  20. Life events influence the development of ankylosing spondylitis: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We are reporting a small pilot case-control study exploring the role of stressors of day-to-day life in triggering ankylosing spondylitis (AS and the effect of various coping strategies adopted by the patients. We consider AS as a good model to study the hypothesis due to its close association with the well-described genetic marker, HLA B27. The onset of rheumatic diseases has been commonly observed. However, the role of stress and stressful life events in the development of rheumatic disease is a matter of debate. Though there are explainable hypothesis, clinical evidence on this association is limited

  1. Colon cancer controls versus population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabroe Svend

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since updated population registers do not exist in many countries it is often difficult to sample valid population controls from the study base to a case-control study. Use of patient controls is an alternative option if the exposure experience under study for these patients are interchangeable with the experience for population controls. Patient controls may even be preferable from population controls under certain conditions. In this study we examine if colon cancer patients can serve as surrogates for proper population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors. Methods The study was conducted from 1995 to 1997. Incident colon cancer controls (N = 428 aged 35–69 years with a histological verified diagnosis and population controls (N = 583 were selected. Altogether 254 (59% of the colon cancer controls and 320 (55% of the population controls were interviewed about occupational, medical and life style conditions. Results No statistical significant difference for educational level, medical history or smoking status was seen between the two control groups. There was evidence of a higher alcohol intake, less frequent work as a farmer and less exposure to pesticides among colon cancer controls. Conclusions Use of colon cancer controls may provide valid exposure estimates in studies of many occupational risk factors for cancer, but not for studies on exposure related to farming.

  2. Association between smoking habits and acne vulgaris. A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mannocci

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: acne vulgaris, is one of the most common skin disorder. Previous studies about the role of smoke in the pathogenesis of acne reported contradictory results. The aim of this study was to conduct a case-control study investigating the relationship between tobacco smoking and acne.

    Methods: a case-control study was performed during the period September 2009 - February 2010. A questionnaire was administrated to each participant, to assess the association acne - smoke. Cases were outpatients of the Dermatologic Ambulatory of the “Fiorini” Hospital, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy. Controls were age and gender-matched to the cases. The ratio cases-controls was 1:2. A univariate and a multiple logistic regression analysis were conducted; Odds Ratio (OR and the relative 95% confidence interval (95%CI were assessed. The statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.

    Results: crude OR for the association acne - smoke was 7.26 (IC=2.27-23.18; adjusted OR for sex and age was 5.47 (IC=1.67-17.97. Of 93 cases, 6 had a severe grade of acne (6.5%, 19 had an intermediate grade of acne (20.4%, and 68 had a mild grade of acne (73.1%. No one of the smokers had a severe grade of acne, one had an intermediate grade of acne and 11 had mild acne; these differences are not statistically significant.

    Conclusions: the association between acne and smoke shows an increased risk (OR=7.26 with a statistically significant CI. Moreover, people ≥ 18 years of age have twice the risk compared to persons < 18 years of age (OR=2.31.

  3. The Quality of Reporting of Cohort, Case-Control Studies in the Korean Journal of Family Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Mi Ra; Kim, Min Young; Kim, Soo Young; Hwang, In Hong; Yoon, Yeo Jung

    2012-01-01

    Background The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement was developed to improve the reporting of observational studies. We aimed to evaluate the quality of reporting in cohort studies and case-control studies among observational studies published in the Korean Journal of Family Medicine. Methods We searched for cohort studies and case-control studies published as original articles in the Journal of the Korean Academy of Family Medicine during th...

  4. Suicide by people in a community justice pathway: population-based nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Carlene; Senior, Jane; Webb, Roger T; Millar, Tim; Piper, Mary; Pearsall, Alison; Humber, Naomi; Appleby, Louis; Shaw, Jenny

    2015-08-01

    The elevated risk of suicide in prison and after release is a well-recognised and serious problem. Despite this, evidence concerning community-based offenders' suicide risk is sparse. We conducted a population-based nested case-control study of all people in a community justice pathway in England and Wales. Our data show 13% of general population suicides were in community justice pathways before death. Suicide risks were highest among individuals receiving police cautions, and those having recent, or impending prosecution for sexual offences. Findings have implications for the training and practice of clinicians identifying and assessing suicidality, and offering support to those at elevated risk. PMID:26159602

  5. Hormonal risk factors for ovarian cancer in the Albanian case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Pajenga, Edlira; Rexha, Tefta; Çeliku, Silva; Bejtja, Gazmend; Pisha, Mimoza

    2013-01-01

    The role of reproductive factors in the aetiology of ovarian cancer had been evaluated in hospital-based case-control study conducted in Albania, providing a total dataset of 283 cases and 1019 controls. Logistic regression models were used to obtain relative risk (OR) estimates. The present results showed that parity had protective effects which increased until the forth birth and the trend in risk was significant (p < 0.01). In each stratum and overall, nulliparous women appeared to be at h...

  6. A case-control study of the effect of environmental sanitation on diarrhoea morbidity in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, B; Briscoe, J

    1988-03-01

    A case-control design has been applied in the evaluation of improved environmental sanitation on diarrhoeal diseases in rural Malawi. The study demonstrates the feasibility of using such an approach to evaluate two levels of water supply and sanitation service quickly and at moderate cost. Sample sizes would need to be increased substantially to evaluate multiple levels of service or to investigate interactions between water supply and sanitation. The results indicate that children living in families who use good quality water supplies and latrines experience 20% less diarrhoea as reported to the health clinics during the warm, rainy season. PMID:3418292

  7. Usual dietary salt intake and asthma in children: a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Demissie, K; Ernst, P; Gray Donald, K.; Joseph, L.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A decline in host resistance due to an alteration in diet--primarily of salt--was recently put forward as a possible explanation for rising rates of asthma. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted in participants in a prevalence survey which included 187 children with asthma (defined by prior diagnosis and/or a decline in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of > or = 10% after exercise) and 145 age and sex matched controls. Subjects were selected from 989 children ag...

  8. A case-control study of somatic and behavioural symptoms in sexually abused boys.

    OpenAIRE

    Antao, V; Maddocks, A; Street, E; Sibert, J R

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To ascertain how often sexually abused boys present with somatic and behavioural symptoms. DESIGN: A case-control study. SETTING: A primary school in South Wales where a male teacher had been convicted of sexually abusing boys since 1981. The police investigation started in 1993 and he was convicted in 1994. A similar large primary school where abuse had not taken place. SUBJECTS: All 107 boys who had been identified by a police inquiry to have been subject to sexual abuse by a si...

  9. A case-control study of diabetes mellitus and cancer risk.

    OpenAIRE

    La Vecchia, C.; Negri, E; Franceschi, S; D'Avanzo, B.; P Boyle

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between diabetes mellitus and cancer risk was investigated using data from an integrated series of case-control studies conducted in Northern Italy between 1983 and 1992. Cases were 9,991 patients with incident, histologically confirmed neoplasms below age 75, including 181 cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, 316 of the oesophagus, 723 of the stomach, 828 of the colon, 498 of the rectum, 320 of the liver, 58 of the gall bladder, 362 of the pancreas, 242 of the larynx, 3,4...

  10. Endometrial cancer following treatment for breast cancer: a case-control study in Denmark.

    OpenAIRE

    Ewertz, M.; S.G. Machado; Boice, J. D.; Jensen, O M

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate the risk of endometrial cancer subsequent to breast cancer, a case-control study was carried out in Denmark. Between 1943-1977, 115 cases of histologically confirmed endometrial carcinoma developed more than 3 months after the diagnosis of a primary breast cancer in 51,638 women. A total of 235 breast cancer patients with no second primary cancer were matched to the cases on age, calendar year of diagnosis, and survival with an intact uterus. Identification of cases and controls r...

  11. Risk factors for basal cell carcinoma in the UK: case-control study in 806 patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Lear, J T; Tan, B B; Smith, A.G.; Bowers, W.; Jones, P W; Heagerty, A.H.; Strange, R.C.; Fryer, A A

    1997-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the commonest malignant neoplasm in white people. We present a large UK case-control study in which conditional logistic regression analysis of age-matched and gender-matched data sets was used to compare, first, cases with controls (n = 403) and second, patients having multiple BCC with those having a single BCC (n = 278). Eye/hair colour, occupation, skin type, social class, tumour site at presentation and smoking history were assessed. Social class 1/2, skin t...

  12. Drug exposure and psoriasis vulgaris: case-control and case-crossover studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Arnon D; Bonneh, Dan Y; Reuveni, Haim; Vardy, Daniel A; Naggan, Lechaim; Halevy, Sima

    2005-01-01

    Intake of drugs is considered a risk factor for psoriasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between drugs and psoriasis. A case-control study including 110 patients who were hospitalized for extensive psoriasis was performed. A control group (n = 515) was defined as patients who had undergone elective surgery. A case-crossover study included 98 patients with psoriasis. Exposure to drugs was assessed during a hazard period (3 months before hospitalization) and compared to a control period in the patient's past. Data on drug sales were extracted by data mining techniques. Multivariate analyses were performed by logistic regression and conditional logistic regression. In the case-control study, psoriasis was associated with benzodiazepines (OR 6.9), organic nitrates (OR 5.0), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (OR 4.0) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (OR 3.7). In the case-crossover study, psoriasis was associated with ACE inhibitors (OR 9.9), beta-blockers (OR 9.9), dipyrone (OR 4.9) and NSAIDs (OR 2.1). Extensive psoriasis may be associated with intake of ACE inhibitors, NSAIDs or beta-blockers. PMID:16191849

  13. Case-control study on uveal melanoma (RIFA: rational and design

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    Schmidt-Pokrzywniak Andrea

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a rare disease, uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults, with an incidence rate of up to 1.0 per 100,000 persons per year in Europe. Only a few consistent risk factors have been identified for this disease. We present the study design of an ongoing incident case-control study on uveal melanoma (acronym: RIFA study that focuses on radiofrequency radiation as transmitted by radio sets and wireless telephones, occupational risk factors, phenotypical characteristics, and UV radiation. Methods/Design We conduct a case-control study to identify the role of different exposures in the development of uveal melanoma. The cases of uveal melanoma were identified at the Division of Ophthalmology, University of Essen, a referral centre for tumours of the eye. We recruit three control groups: population controls, controls sampled from those ophthalmologists who referred cases to the Division of Ophthalmology, University of Duisburg-Essen, and sibling controls. For each case the controls are matched on sex and age (five year groups, except for sibling controls. The data are collected from the study participants by short self-administered questionnaire and by telephone interview. During and at the end of the field phase, the data are quality-checked. To estimate the effect of exposures on uveal melanoma risk, we will use conditional logistic regression that accounts for the matching factors and allows to control for potential confounding.

  14. Interaction and Its Solution in Individual Matching Case-control Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Objective To indicate the deficiency of the classical method for analyzing data on individual matching case-control study in consideration of the interaction between the study factor (exposure) and the matching factor, and to find out a proper method for handling this deficiency. Method First, experimental data with 50 pairs of cases and controls were used for strata analysis according to the values of a matching factor to illustrate the possible interaction between a risk factor (exposure) and the matching factor. Second, a detailed procedure was proposed for analyzing such data. Results Interaction between the study factor and matching factor was demonstrated by using strata analysis and unconditional logistic regression analysis. Therefore the results from the classical analysis for such data might be incorrect. Conclusion Data from individual matching case-control study design should be dealt with strata analysis or multivariate analysis to explore and evaluate the possible interaction between the study factor and matching factor. The conclusion would be valid only after such analysis is conducted.

  15. DNA repair gene polymorphisms and risk of chronic atrophic gastritis: a case-control study

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    Raum Elke

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have reported associations of DNA repair pathway gene variants and risk of various cancers and precancerous lesions, such as chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG. Methods A nested case-control study within the German population-based ESTHER cohort was conducted, including 533 CAG cases and 1054 controls. Polymorphisms in eleven DNA repair genes (APEX1, ERCC1, ERCC2/XPD, PARP1 and XRCC1, in CD3EAP/ASE-1 and PPP1R13L were analysed. Results No association was disclosed for any of the analysed polymorphisms. Nor did stratified analyses according to ages Conclusions The results of this large German case-control study do not reveal associations of DNA repair pathway polymorphisms and risk of CAG. On the basis of a large number of CAG cases, they do not support associations of DNA repair pathway SNPs with CAG risk, but suggest the need of larger studies to disclose or exclude potential weak associations, or of studies with full coverage of candidate genes.

  16. Snippets from the past: is Flint, Michigan, the birthplace of the case-control study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2013-12-15

    In the summer of 1924, an outbreak of scarlet fever occurred in Flint, Michigan. Unable to trace it to the usual causes, particularly fresh milk, the Michigan Department of Health used a novel approach to disentangle the enigma: The 116 cases of scarlet fever were compared with 117 "controls" selected from neighbors of the quarantined cases and from patients at the City Health Center who had been treated for ailments unrelated to scarlet fever. The extraordinary culprit was ice cream, which had a frequent/occasional/none consumption prevalence of 60%, 34%, and 6% among the cases and 24%, 51%, and 25% among the controls, respectively. The 1925 report reads, "Detailed epidemiological investigation, by means of case histories and control histories on well persons, confirmed early suspicions and established the fact that the epidemic was spread by ice cream" (Am J Hyg. 1925;5(5):669-681). This forgotten epidemiologic study is the oldest study using the case-control design to have been resurrected thus far. The case-control study design may have been conceived simultaneously, but independently and for different purposes, in England (Janet Lane-Claypon's 1926 report on the determinants of breast cancer) and the United States. PMID:24064743

  17. Outbreak of hepatitis B in Sabarkantha district of Gujarat: A case-control study

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    Bisworanjan Dash

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: An outbreak of jaundice syndrome was reported from Sabarkantha district of Gujarat in February 2009. Initial investigation of serum specimens collected from the patients was positive for hepatitis B. The outbreak was investigated thoroughly. Materials and Methods: A confirmed case definition was made as a person residing in Sabarkantha district who developed jaundice symptoms with SGPT >400 IU and tested positive for HBsAg. A case-control study was conducted to identify the source of infection and to recommend public health measures. Results: Five-hundred and twenty-eight cases were reported of which, 93 died (Case fatality rate = 17.6%. Majority (61% were males, and more than 77% were in the age group of 12-45 years. Eighty-four percent reported history of taking injections/needle prick in the last 6 months. In the case-control study there was strong association between cases and history of injection/needle prick (OR = 42.17. Hepatitis B mass vaccination was carried out to control the outbreak. Conclusion: This outbreak of hepatitis-B was associated with unsafe injection practices in private clinics of Sabarkantha district. Sensitization workshop for safe injection practices and waste management held among doctors. Legal actions were taken against the private practitioners involved in these unsafe injection practices.

  18. Shrinkage Estimators for Robust and Efficient Inference in Haplotype-Based Case-Control Studies

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yi-Hau

    2009-03-01

    Case-control association studies often aim to investigate the role of genes and gene-environment interactions in terms of the underlying haplotypes (i.e., the combinations of alleles at multiple genetic loci along chromosomal regions). The goal of this article is to develop robust but efficient approaches to the estimation of disease odds-ratio parameters associated with haplotypes and haplotype-environment interactions. We consider "shrinkage" estimation techniques that can adaptively relax the model assumptions of Hardy-Weinberg-Equilibrium and gene-environment independence required by recently proposed efficient "retrospective" methods. Our proposal involves first development of a novel retrospective approach to the analysis of case-control data, one that is robust to the nature of the gene-environment distribution in the underlying population. Next, it involves shrinkage of the robust retrospective estimator toward a more precise, but model-dependent, retrospective estimator using novel empirical Bayes and penalized regression techniques. Methods for variance estimation are proposed based on asymptotic theories. Simulations and two data examples illustrate both the robustness and efficiency of the proposed methods.

  19. Analysis of Case-Control Studies of Genetic and Environmental Factors With Missing Genetic Information and Haplotype-phase Ambiguity

    OpenAIRE

    Spinka, Christine; Carroll, Raymond J.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan

    2005-01-01

    Case-control studies of unrelated subjects are now widely used to study the role of genetic susceptibility and gene-environment interactions in the etiology of complex diseases. Exploiting an assumption of gene-environment independence, and treating the distribution of the environmental exposures to be completely nonparametric, Chatterjee and Carroll (2005) recently developed an efficient retrospective maximum-likelihood method for analysis of case-control studies. In this article, we develop...

  20. A Case-Control Study of Effect of Opium Addiction on Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Azimzade-Sarwar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD and Myocardial Infarction (MI are one of the most important disease which cause mortality and morbidity. Opioid peptides and exogenous opioid such as morphine are known to exert an important cardiovascular effect. To study effect of opium addiction to incidence of MI. A Case-Control study was designed in Kerman university. 150 patients with MI was admitted to CCU and 150 matched patients admitted in surgical wards evaluate from cardiovascular risk factor and opium addiction. Analysis of data suggested no difference between two groups (P>0.05. But smoking OR = 2.45, hypertension OR = 2.65, Diabetes mellitus OR = 1.82 and Hypercholesterolemia OR = 3.16 were a risk factor for MI. Effect of opium in IHD has controversial. But recent of study defined that opioid peptides have a cardioprotective effect. Many exact and longitudinal studies should design for this purpose.

  1. Population-based case-control study of breast cancer in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajenga E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Albania, breast cancer is an important cause of death among women, with increasing incidence from 65 cases in 1970, to 400 cases in 2007. This is the first study concerning breast cancer risk factors in Albania. We used a population-based case-control study of 948 women with breast cancer compared with 1019 controls recruited from other hospitals through random selection. Early age at menarche was found to be a significantly strong risk factor during the pre- and postmenopausal groups with OR 10.04 and 12.1, respectively. In addition, nulliparity is associated with higher risk while abortion did not indicate any influence in the multivariate model. The findings from this study have shown that reproductive and menstrual variables are significant predictors of breast cancer risk in Albanian women, as seen in studies of other western countries.

  2. Correlates of Lymphedema in Women with Breast Cancer: a Case Control Study in Shiraz, Southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarvar, Behnam; Sayar, Negin; Tahmasebi, Sedigheh; Zakeri, Zeinab; Talei, Asra; Rostami, Sara; Khademi, Sahar; Sabzi Sarvestani, Amene; Sekhavati, Eghbal

    2016-01-01

    Globally, the burden of breast cancer (BC) continues to increase. BC related lymphedema (BCRL) is currently non curable and as a life time risk it affects at least 25% of BC patients. Knowing more about BCRL and appropriate control of its modifiable risk factors can improve quality of life (QOL) of the affected patients. In this case control study to detect factors, 400 women with BCRL (as the case group) and 283 patients with BC without lymphedema (as the control group) that were referred to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences affiliated BC clinic center were assessed. The data were analyzed in SPSS. The mean age of the case group was 52.3±11.0 years and of the control group was 50.1±10.9 years. In patients with BCRL, 203(50.7%) had left (Lt) side BC and in non- lymphedema group 151 (53.3%) had Lt side BC. Out of all BCRL patients, 204 (51%) had lymphedema in all parts of their affected upper extremities, 100 (25%) had swelling in the arm and forearm and 23 (5.7%) had edema in both the upper extremity and trunk. Edema, heaviness, concern about changing body image, pain and paresthesia were the most common signs/symptoms among patients with BCRL. In BCRL patients, the difference of circumference between the affected upper limb and non-affected limb was 4.4±2.5 cm and the difference in volume displacement was 528.7±374.4 milliliters. Multiple variable analysis showed that moderate to severe activity (OR; odds ratio =14, 95% CI: 2.6-73.3 ), invasiveness of BC (OR =13.7, 95% CI: 7.3-25.6), modified radical mastectomy (OR=4.3, 95% CI: 2.3-7.9), BMI =>25 (OR=4.2, 95% CI: 2-8.7), radiotherapy (OR=3.9, 95% CI: 1.8-8.2 ), past history of limb damage (OR=1.7, 95% CI: 0.9-3.1) and the number of excised lymph nodes (OR=1.06, 95% CI: 1.02-1.09) were the significant predictors of lymphedema in women with BC. Modifiable risk factors of BCRL such as non-guided moderate to severe physical activity, high BMI and trauma to the limb should be controlled as early as possible in

  3. Early Life Course Risk Factors for Childhood Obesity: The IDEFICS Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bammann, Karin; Peplies, Jenny; De Henauw, Stefaan; Hunsberger, Monica; Molnar, Denes; Moreno, Luis A.; Tornaritis, Michael; Veidebaum, Toomas; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Siani, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Background The early life course is assumed to be a critical phase for childhood obesity; however the significance of single factors and their interplay is not well studied in childhood populations. Objectives The investigation of pre-, peri- and postpartum risk factors on the risk of obesity at age 2 to 9. Methods A case-control study with 1,024 1∶1-matched case-control pairs was nested in the baseline survey (09/2007–05/2008) of the IDEFICS study, a population-based intervention study on childhood obesity carried out in 8 European countries in pre- and primary school settings. Conditional logistic regression was used for identification of risk factors. Results For many of the investigated risk factors, we found a raw effect in our study. In multivariate models, we could establish an effect for gestational weight gain (adjusted OR = 1.02; 95%CI 1.00–1.04), smoking during pregnancy (adjusted OR = 1.48; 95%CI 1.08–2.01), Caesarian section (adjusted OR = 1.38; 95%CI 1.10–1.74), and breastfeeding 4 to 11 months (adjusted OR = 0.77; 95%CI 0.62–0.96). Birth weight was related to lean mass rather than to fat mass, the effect of smoking was found only in boys, but not in girls. After additional adjustment for parental BMI and parental educational status, only gestational weight gain remained statistically significant. Both, maternal as well as paternal BMI were the strongest risk factors in our study, and they confounded several of the investigated associations. Conclusions Key risk factors of childhood obesity in our study are parental BMI and gestational weight gain; consequently prevention approaches should target not only children but also adults. The monitoring of gestational weight seems to be of particular importance for early prevention of childhood obesity. PMID:24551043

  4. Early life course risk factors for childhood obesity: the IDEFICS case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Bammann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The early life course is assumed to be a critical phase for childhood obesity; however the significance of single factors and their interplay is not well studied in childhood populations. OBJECTIVES: The investigation of pre-, peri- and postpartum risk factors on the risk of obesity at age 2 to 9. METHODS: A case-control study with 1,024 1:1-matched case-control pairs was nested in the baseline survey (09/2007-05/2008 of the IDEFICS study, a population-based intervention study on childhood obesity carried out in 8 European countries in pre- and primary school settings. Conditional logistic regression was used for identification of risk factors. RESULTS: For many of the investigated risk factors, we found a raw effect in our study. In multivariate models, we could establish an effect for gestational weight gain (adjusted OR = 1.02; 95%CI 1.00-1.04, smoking during pregnancy (adjusted OR = 1.48; 95%CI 1.08-2.01, Caesarian section (adjusted OR = 1.38; 95%CI 1.10-1.74, and breastfeeding 4 to 11 months (adjusted OR = 0.77; 95%CI 0.62-0.96. Birth weight was related to lean mass rather than to fat mass, the effect of smoking was found only in boys, but not in girls. After additional adjustment for parental BMI and parental educational status, only gestational weight gain remained statistically significant. Both, maternal as well as paternal BMI were the strongest risk factors in our study, and they confounded several of the investigated associations. CONCLUSIONS: Key risk factors of childhood obesity in our study are parental BMI and gestational weight gain; consequently prevention approaches should target not only children but also adults. The monitoring of gestational weight seems to be of particular importance for early prevention of childhood obesity.

  5. Residents in difficulty—just slower learners? A case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Norberg, Karen; Thomsen, Maria;

    2014-01-01

    practicing doctors. The aim of this study was to examine if a sample of Danish residents in difficulty tended to struggle already in medical school, and to determine whether administratively observable performance indicators in medical school could predict difficulties in residency. METHODS The study design...... was a cumulative incidence matched case-control study. The source population was all active specialist trainees, who were medical school graduates from Aarhus University, in 2010 to June 2013 in two Danish regions. Cases were doctors who decelerated, transferred, or dropped out of residency. Cases and...... controls were matched for graduation year. Medical school exam failures, grades, completion time, and academic dispensations as predictors of case status were examined with conditional logistic regression. RESULTS In total 89 cases and 343 controls were identified. The total number of medical school re...

  6. Salivirus in Children and Its Association with Childhood Acute Gastroenteritis: A Paired Case-Control Study.

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    Jie-Mei Yu

    Full Text Available Salivirus was recently discovered in children with gastroenteritis and in sewage. Though a causative role for salivirus in childhood gastroenteritis was suggested in the previous study, the relationship between salivirus and acute gastroenteritis has not yet been clearly clarified. The sewage strain reported by Ng, although represented by incomplete genome sequencing data, was distinct from previously reported saliviruses, and had not previously been detected in humans. A case-control study examining 461 paired stool samples from children with diarrhea and healthy controls (1:1 was conducted in this study. Also, common diarrheal viruses were detected and complete genome of a salivirus was determined. Results showed that salivirus was detected in 16 (3.5% and 13 (2.8% of the case and control samples, respectively; no differences in detection rates (p=0.571 or mean values of viral loads (p=0.400 were observed between the groups. Multivariate Cox regression revealed no association between salivirus and gastroenteritis (p=0.774. The data also demonstrated that salivirus infection did not exacerbate clinical symptoms of gastroenteritis in children. Furthermore, complete genome sequence of a salivirus recovered from the feces of a child with diarrhea (i.e., SaliV-FHB shared a 99% nucleotide identity with the sewage strain. In conclusion, a paired case-control study did not support a causative role for salivirus strains detected in this study with pediatric gastroenteritis. This study also demonstrated that all known saliviruses can be detected in the feces of children with or without gastroenteritis.

  7. Hospital visitors as controls in case-control studies Visitantes hospitalares como controles em estudos caso-controle

    OpenAIRE

    Gulnar Azevedo S Mendonça; José Eluf-Neto

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Selecting controls is one of the most difficult tasks in the design of case-control studies. Hospital controls may be inadequate and random controls drawn from the base population may be unavailable. The aim was to assess the use of hospital visitors as controls in a case-control study on the association of organochlorinated compounds and other risk factors for breast cancer conducted in the main hospital of the "Instituto Nacional de Câncer" -- INCA (National Cancer Institute) in ...

  8. High Seroprevalence of Leptospira Exposure in Meat Workers in Northern Mexico: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Saenz-Soto, Leandro; Martinez-Ramirez, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Background The seroepidemiology of Leptospira infection in workers occupationally exposed to raw meat has been poorly studied. This work aimed to determine the association between Leptospira exposure and the occupation of meat worker, and to determine the seroprevalence association with socio-demographic, work, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the meat workers studied. Methods We performed a case-control study in 124 meat workers and 124 age- and gender-matched control subjects in Durango City, Mexico. Sera of cases and controls were analyzed for anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. Data of meat workers were obtained with the aid of a questionnaire. The association of Leptospira exposure with the characteristics of meat workers was analyzed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies were found in 22 (17.7%) of 124 meat workers and in eight (6.5%) of 124 controls (OR = 3.12; 95% CI: 1.33 - 7.33; P = 0.006). Seroprevalence of Leptospira infection was similar between male butchers (17.6%) and female butchers (18.2%) (P = 1.00). Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, work and behavioral variables showed that Leptospira exposure was associated with duration in the activity, rural residence, and consumption of snake meat and unwashed raw fruits. Conclusions This is the first case-control study of the association of Leptospira exposure with the occupation of meat worker. Results indicate that meat workers represent a risk group for Leptospira exposure. Risk factors for Leptospira exposure found in this study may help in the design of optimal preventive measures against Leptospira infection. PMID:26858797

  9. Case-control study of radon and lung cancer in New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon is known to cause lung cancer in humans; however, there remain uncertainties about the effects associated with residential exposures. This case-control study of residential radon and lung cancer was conducted in five counties in New Jersey and involved 561 cases and 740 controls. A yearlong α-track detector measurement of radon was completed for ∼93% of all residences lived in at the time of interview (a total of 2063). While the odds ratios (ORs) for whole data were suggestive of an increased risk for exposures >75 Bq m-3, these associations were not statistically significant. The adjusted excess OR (EOR) per 100 Bq m-3 was -0.13 (95% CI: -0.30 to 0.44) for males, 0.29 (95% CI: -0.12 to 1.70) for females and 0.05 (95% CI: -0.14 to 0.56) for all subjects combined. An analysis of radon effects by histological type of lung cancer showed that the OR was strongest for small/oat cell carcinomas in both males and females. There was no statistical heterogeneity of radon effects by demographic factors (age at disease occurrence, education level and type of respondent). Analysis by categories of smoking status, frequency or duration did not modify the risk estimates of radon on lung cancer. The findings of this study are consistent with an earlier population-based study of radon and lung cancer among New Jersey women, and with the North American pooling of case control radon seven studies, including the previous New Jersey study. Several uncertainties regarding radon measurements and assumptions of exposure history may have resulted in underestimation of a true exposure-response relationship. (authors)

  10. Individual and occupational risk factors for knee osteoarthritis – Study protocol of a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouillon Bertil

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA is one of the frequent and functionally impairing disorders of the musculoskeletal system. In the literature, a number of occupational risk factors are discussed as being related to the development and progress of knee joint diseases, e.g. working in kneeling or squatting posture, lifting and carrying of heavy weights. The importance of the single risk factors and the possibility of prevention are currently under discussion. Besides the occupational factors, a number of individual risk factors are important, too. The distinction between work-related factors and individual factors is crucial in assessing the risk and in deriving preventive measures in occupational health. In existing studies, the occupational stress is determined mainly by surveys in employees and/or by making assumptions about individual occupations. Direct evaluation of occupational exposure has been performed only exceptionally. The aim of the research project ArGon is the assessment of different occupational factors in relation to individual factors (e.g. constitutional factors, leisure time activities, sports, which might influence the development and/or progression of knee (OA. The project is designed as a case control study. Methods/Design To raise valid data about the physical stress associated with occupational and leisure time activities, patients with and without knee OA are questioned by means of a standardised questionnaire and an interview. The required sample size was estimated to 800 cases and an equal number of controls. The degree and localisation of the knee cartilage or joint damages in the cases are documented on the basis of radiological, arthroscopic and/or operative findings in a patient record. Furthermore, occupational exposure is analysed at selected workplaces. To evaluate the answers provided in the questionnaire, work analysis is performed. Discussion In this research project, specific information on the

  11. Replication of Prostate Cancer Risk Variants in a Danish Case-Control Association Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzon, Diem Nguyen; Nyegaard, Mette; Børglum, Anders;

    2012-01-01

    -matched controls. Family history was obtained by questionnaire. Age at diagnosis, clinical tumor variables including pre- and postoperative PSA, Gleason score, and T stage were obtained from prospectively collected clinical data (Aarhus Prostate Cancer Study). The SNPs were genotyped using Sequenom and Taqman...... assays and associations between SNPs, prostate cancer risk, and clinico-pathological variables were assessed. Results: Seventeen SNPs were successfully replicated in our case-control study and the association estimates were consistent with previous reports. Four markers were excluded from further...... ≥4 markers compared with patients without any of the five SNPs (P for trend = 1.0 × 10–4). Six markers were significantly associated with clinico-pathological variables: SNP rs2735839 (GG) at locus 19q13, which is in the KLK3 gene encoding PSA, was associated with high preoperative PSA (P = 0...

  12. Melasma and its association with different types of nevi in women: A case-control study

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    Amini-sani Nayereh

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very little is known about possible association of nevi and melasma. The study objective was to determine if there is an association between melasma and existence of different kinds of nevi. Methods In a case-control study, 120 female melasma patients referred to dermatology clinic of Ardabil and 120 patients referred to other specialty clinics who lacked melasma were enrolled after matching for age. Number of different types of nevi including lentigines and melanocytic nevi were compared between case and control group patients. Data were entered into the computer and analyzed by SPSS 13 statistical software. Results Mean number of lentigines was 25.5 in melasma group compared to 8 in control group(P Conclusion Existence of lentigines and melanocytic nevi increases chance of having melasma

  13. How Work Organization Affects the Prevalence of WMSDs:A Case-control Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lu; CHEN Song Gen; TANG Shi Chuan; WANG Sheng; HE Li Hua; GUO Ze Hua; LI Jing Yun; YU Shan Fa; WANG Zhong Xu

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this study, we aimed at exploring the association between work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) and work organization based on a case-control study. Methods A total of 1938 workers who claimed to suffer from WMSDs were selected from Beijing, Henan, Hubei, and the Guangdong province. The control group consisted of 2009 workers employed in similar industries without severe disease or musculoskeletal discomforts. We used a modified version of the questionnaire developed by the NMQ and the DMQ to investigate individual and work-related factors. Results A total of 13 variables (P Conclusion Work organization may have comprehensive effects on the occurrence of WMSDs. This pattern of associations suggests that further investigation into the mechanism of how work organization affects the prevalence of WMSDs is required.

  14. Results of case-control studies support the association between contact lens use and Acanthamoeba keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacella E

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Elena Pacella,1 Giuseppe La Torre,2 Maria De Giusti,2 Chiara Brillante,1 Anna Maria Lombardi,2 Gianpaolo Smaldone,1 Tommaso Lenzi,1 Fernanda Pacella11Department of Sense Organs, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy; 2Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, ItalyBackground: Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK is ever more frequently reported in industrialized countries. The loss of the corneal surface integrity consequent to secondary microtrauma produced by the use of contact lens (CL favors the penetration of the parasite into the corneal tissue.Objectives: A scientific review was performed to investigate the association of CL wear as an Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK risk factor.Methods: A computerized screening of 7834 Medline articles (4623 from PubMed; 3211 from Scopus used a strict selection criteria of case-control studies involving CL wear and/or trauma.Results: The search yielded five case-control studies published from 1995 to 2012. All studies included showed a statistically significant positive association between AK and CL use, with a combined odds ratio (OR of 10.21 (95%, confidence intervals [CI]; 3.57–27.64.Statistical analysis: All studies included showed a statistically significant positive association between AK and CL use, though with differing OR values.Conclusion: Though rare, AK should be held in higher consideration when ophthalmologists are faced with CL users exhibiting simplex-like lesions associated with circular stromal infiltrates and disproportionate ocular pain in respect to the objective clinical picture.Keywords: keratitis, contact lens, Acanthamoeba

  15. Non-nutritive sucking habits after three years of age: A case-control study

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    Izabella Barbosa Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-nutritive sucking habits can result in negative consequences on the development of orofacial structures and occlusion. Aim: Assess factors associated with non-nutritive sucking habits in children after 3 years old. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was carried out in two stages. In the first stage, a cross-sectional study was conducted with 638 children aged 3-6 years. In the second stage, a case-control study (1:2 was conducted. The case group included all children who presented some non-nutritive sucking habits in the first stage of the study (n = 110. The control group (n = 220 was made up of children who had never presented non-nutritive sucking habits, matched to the case group for gender and age. The data were collected during the national poliomyelitis vaccination campaign, through a questionnaire applied to parents/guardians with questions related to the presence of sucking habits, sociodemographic aspects, birth aspects, and early life of the child. Statistical analysis involved descriptive analysis, chi-square test, Mann-Whitney test, and conditional logistic regression. Results: Reduction in maternal education was a protective factor for the development of non-nutritive sucking habits (education ≤8 years OR = 0.38, CI 95%: 0.16, 0.89, P = 0.025. Prematurity (OR = 3.30, CI 95%: 1.13, 9.69, P = 0.030 and a longer period using a baby bottle (OR = 1.03, CI 95%: 1.01, 1.05, P = 0.006 remained associated with a greater possibility of the occurrence of sucking habits, regardless of monthly family income. Conclusion: Non-nutritive sucking habits were associated with maternal education, premature birth, and greater time of bottle feeding in children after 3 years old.

  16. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and gastrointestinal bleeding: a case-control study.

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    Alfonso Carvajal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs have been associated with upper gastrointestinal (GI bleeding. Given their worldwide use, even small risks account for a large number of cases. This study has been conducted with carefully collected information to further investigate the relationship between SSRIs and upper GI bleeding. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study in hospitals in Spain and in Italy. Cases were patients aged ≥18 years with a primary diagnosis of acute upper GI bleeding diagnosed by endoscopy; three controls were matched by sex, age, date of admission (within 3 months and hospital among patients who were admitted for elective surgery for non-painful disorders. Exposures to SSRIs, other antidepressants and other drugs were defined as any use of these drugs in the 7 days before the day on which upper gastrointestinal bleeding started (index day. RESULTS: 581 cases of upper GI bleeding and 1358 controls were considered eligible for the study; no differences in age or sex distribution were observed between cases and controls after matching. Overall, 4.0% of the cases and 3.3% of controls used an SSRI antidepressant in the week before the index day. No significant risk of upper GI bleeding was encountered for SSRI antidepressants (adjusted odds ratio, 1.06, 95% CI, 0.57-1.96 or for whichever other grouping of antidepressants. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this case-control study showed no significant increase in upper GI bleeding with SSRIs and provide good evidence that the magnitude of any increase in risk is not greater than 2.

  17. Maternal and neonatal risk factors for childhood type 1 diabetes: a matched case-control study

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    Harrild Kirsten

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An interaction between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors is thought to be involved in the aetiology of type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate maternal and neonatal risk factors for type 1 diabetes in children under 15 years old in Grampian, Scotland. Methods A matched case-control study was conducted by record linkage. Cases (n = 361 were children born in Aberdeen Maternity Hospital from 1972 to 2002, inclusive, who developed type 1 diabetes, identified from the Scottish Study Group for the Care of Diabetes in the Young Register. Controls (n = 1083 were randomly selected from the Aberdeen Maternity Neonatal Databank, matched by year of birth. Exposure data were obtained from the Aberdeen Maternity Neonatal Databank. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between various maternal and neonatal factors and the risk of type 1 diabetes. Results There was no evidence of statistically significant associations between type 1 diabetes and maternal age, maternal body mass index, previous abortions, pre-eclampsia, amniocentesis, maternal deprivation, use of syntocinon, mode of delivery, antepartum haemorrhage, baby's sex, gestational age at birth, birth order, birth weight, jaundice, phototherapy, breast feeding, admission to neonatal unit and Apgar score (P > 0.05. A significantly decreased risk of type 1 diabetes was observed in children whose mothers smoked at the booking appointment compared to those whose mothers did not, with an adjusted OR of 0.67, 95% CI (0.46, 0.99. Conclusions This case-control study found limited evidence of a reduced risk of the development of type 1 diabetes in children whose mothers smoked, compared to children whose mothers did not. No evidence was found of a significant association between other maternal and neonatal factors and childhood type 1 diabetes.

  18. Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Sporadic Giardiasis and Parasite Assemblages in North West England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minetti, Corrado; Lamden, Kenneth; Durband, Caroline; Cheesbrough, John; Platt, Katherine; Charlett, Andre; O'Brien, Sarah J; Fox, Andrew; Wastling, Jonathan M

    2015-10-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a major cause of infectious gastroenteritis worldwide, and it is diversified into eight genetic assemblages (A to H), which are distinguishable only by molecular typing. There is some evidence that the assemblages infecting humans (assemblages A and B) may have different transmission routes, but systematically acquired data, combining epidemiological and molecular findings, are required. We undertook a case-control study with Giardia genotyping in North West England, to determine general and parasite assemblage-specific risk factors. For people without a history of foreign travel, swimming in swimming pools and changing diapers were the most important risk factors for the disease. People infected with assemblage B reported a greater number of symptoms and higher frequencies of vomiting, abdominal pain, swollen stomach, and loss of appetite, compared with people infected with assemblage A. More importantly, keeping a dog was associated only with assemblage A infections, suggesting the presence of a potential zoonotic reservoir for this assemblage. This is the first case-control study to combine epidemiological data with Giardia genotyping, and it shows the importance of integrating these two levels of information for better understanding of the epidemiology of this pathogen. PMID:26157151

  19. Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Sporadic Giardiasis and Parasite Assemblages in North West England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minetti, Corrado; Durband, Caroline; Cheesbrough, John; Platt, Katherine; Charlett, Andre; O'Brien, Sarah J.; Fox, Andrew; Wastling, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a major cause of infectious gastroenteritis worldwide, and it is diversified into eight genetic assemblages (A to H), which are distinguishable only by molecular typing. There is some evidence that the assemblages infecting humans (assemblages A and B) may have different transmission routes, but systematically acquired data, combining epidemiological and molecular findings, are required. We undertook a case-control study with Giardia genotyping in North West England, to determine general and parasite assemblage-specific risk factors. For people without a history of foreign travel, swimming in swimming pools and changing diapers were the most important risk factors for the disease. People infected with assemblage B reported a greater number of symptoms and higher frequencies of vomiting, abdominal pain, swollen stomach, and loss of appetite, compared with people infected with assemblage A. More importantly, keeping a dog was associated only with assemblage A infections, suggesting the presence of a potential zoonotic reservoir for this assemblage. This is the first case-control study to combine epidemiological data with Giardia genotyping, and it shows the importance of integrating these two levels of information for better understanding of the epidemiology of this pathogen. PMID:26157151

  20. Clinical features of adolescents with deliberate self-harm: A case control study in Lisbon, Portugal

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    Diogo F Guerreiro

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Diogo F Guerreiro, Ema L Neves, Rita Navarro, Raquel Mendes, Ana Prioste, Diana Ribeiro, Tiago Lila, António Neves, Mónica Salgado, Nazaré Santos, Daniel SampaioYouth Suicide Study Group (NES, The Hospital Santa Maria, Psychiatry Department, Lisbon Faculty of Medicine, PortugalAbstract: Deliberate self-harm (DSH among adolescents is a high-risk condition for suicide. The aim of the present study is to describe the characteristic clinical features of adolescents with DSH according to our local context (Lisbon, Portugal, using easily available information from clinical settings. A case control study was constructed from a sample of 100 adolescents (aged 12 to 21 years. The sample was divided into two groups: adolescents with and without DSH. Case files were examined and data was completed by clinical interviews. Demographic, psychosocial, and psychopathological data were assessed and compared. Ninety-eight subjects completed the protocol. The DSH group was associated with the following: suicidal ideation or suicidal behavior as consultation motive, emergency room referral, previous follow-up attempts, suicidal ideation, psychosocial difficulties, or lack of therapeutic goals. There was a nonsignificant trend towards diagnosis of depression in the DSH group. These results reflect our clinical practice with adolescents and add data about teenagers who self-harm to the literature. Prevention and early recognition of DSH (and frequently associated depression in adolescents are essential and could be life-saving measures. An integrated approach, which takes into account psychosocial difficulties, family dysfunction, and negative expectations, seems to be of great importance.Keywords: deliberate self-harm, suicide, adolescents, suicide risk, case control

  1. Mass screening-based case-control study of diet and prostate cancer in Changchun, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Meng Li; Jiang Li; Ichiro Tsuji; Naoki Nakaya; Yoshikazu Nishino; Xue-Jian Zhao

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate possible correlation factors for prostate cancer by a population-based case-control study in China. Methods: We carded out a mass screening of prostate cancer in Changchun, China, using a prostate-specific antigen assisted by Japan International Cooperation Agency. From June 1998 to December 2000, 3 940 men over 50 years old were screened. Of these, 29 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. We selected 28 cases and matched them with controls of low prostate-specific antigen value (< 4.1 ng/mL) by 1:10 according to age and place of employment. A case-control study of diet and prostate cancer was then carded out. Results: After adjustment for education, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption, marriage and diet, intake of soybean product was discovered to be inversely related to prostate cancer. Men who consumed soybean product more than twice per week on different days had a multivariate odds ratio (OR) of 0.38 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13-1.12). In addition, men who consumed soybean products more than once per day had a multivariate OR of 0.29 (95% CI, 0.11-0.79) compared with men who consumed soybean products less than once per week. The P for trend was 0.02, which showed significant difference. There was no significant difference in P trend for any dairy food. Even when we matched the cases and controls by other criteria, we found that soybean food was the only preventive factor associated with prostate cancer. Conclusion: Our study suggests that consumption of soybeans, one of the most popular foods in Asia, would decrease the risk of prostate cancer. (Asian J Androl 2008 Jul; 10: 551-560)

  2. Case-control study of diabetes-related genetic variants and pancreatic cancer risk in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruma, Sawako; Egawa, Naoto; Kurata, Masanao; Honda, Goro; Kamisawa, Terumi; Ueda, Junko; Ishii, Hiroshi; Ueno, Makoto; Nakao, Haruhisa; Mori, Mitsuru; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hosono, Satoyo; Ohkawa, Shinichi; Wakai, Kenji; Nakamura, Kozue; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Nojima, Masanori; Takahashi, Mami; Shimada, Kazuaki; Nishiyama, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Shogo; Lin, Yingsong

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To examine whether diabetes-related genetic variants are associated with pancreatic cancer risk. METHODS: We genotyped 7 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PPARG2 (rs1801282), ADIPOQ (rs1501299), ADRB3 (rs4994), KCNQ1 (rs2237895), KCNJ11 (rs5219), TCF7L2 (rs7903146), and CDKAL1 (rs2206734), and examined their associations with pancreatic cancer risk in a multi-institute case-control study including 360 cases and 400 controls in Japan. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect detailed information on lifestyle factors. Genotyping was performed using Fluidigm SNPtype assays. Unconditional logistic regression methods were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between these diabetes-associated variants and pancreatic cancer risk. RESULTS: With the exception of rs1501299 in the ADIPOQ gene (P = 0.09), no apparent differences in genotype frequencies were observed between cases and controls. Rs1501299 in the ADPIOQ gene was positively associated with pancreatic cancer risk; compared with individuals with the AA genotype, the age- and sex-adjusted OR was 1.79 (95%CI: 0.98-3.25) among those with the AC genotype and 1.86 (95%CI: 1.03-3.38) among those with the CC genotype. The ORs remained similar after additional adjustment for body mass index and cigarette smoking. In contrast, rs2237895 in the KCNQ1 gene was inversely related to pancreatic cancer risk, with a multivariable-adjusted OR of 0.62 (0.37-1.04) among individuals with the CC genotype compared with the AA genotype. No significant associations were noted for other 5 SNPs. CONCLUSION: Our case-control study indicates that rs1501299 in the ADIPOQ gene may be associated with pancreatic cancer risk. These findings should be replicated in additional studies. PMID:25516658

  3. Iron-deficiency Anemia in Children with Febrile Seizure: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme GHASEMI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Ghasemi F, Valizadeh F, Taee N. Iron-deficiency Anemia in Children with Febrile Seizure: A Case-Control Study. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Spring 8(2:38-44.ObjectiveConsidering the recurrence of febrile seizure and costs for families, many studies have attempted to identify its risk factors. Some recent studies have reported that anemia is more common in children with febrile convulsion, whereas others have reported that iron deficiency raises the seizure threshold. This study was done to compare iron-deficiency anemia in children with first FS with children having febrile illness alone and with healthy children.Materials & MethodsThis case-control study evaluated 300 children in three groups (first FS, febrile without convulsion, and healthy in Khoramabad Madani Hospital from September 2009 to September 2010. Body temperature on admission wasmeasured using the tympanic method. CBC diff, MCV, MCH, MCHC, serum iron, plasma ferritin and TIBC tests were performed for all participants. Data were analyzed by frequency, mean, standard deviation, ANOVA, and chi-square statistical tests. Odds ratios were estimated by logistic regression at a confidence level of 95%.Results Forty percent of the cases with FS had iron-deficiency anemia, compared to 26% of children with febrile illness without seizure and 12% of healthy children. The Odds ratio for iron-deficiency anemia in the patients with FS was 1.89 (95% CI, 1.04-5.17 compared to the febrile children without convulsion and 2.21 (95% CI, 1.54-3.46 compared to the healthy group. ConclusionChildren with FS are more likely to be iron-deficient than those with febrile illness alone and healthy children. Thus, iron-deficiency anemia could be a risk factor for FS.References1. Østergaard J R. Febrile Seizures. Acta Pædiatr 2009;98(5:771-3.2. Jones T, Jacobsen SJ. Childhood Febrile Seizures: Overview and Implications. Int J Med Sci. 2007; 4(2:110-4.3. Flury T, Aebi

  4. Normal endothelial function in patients with mild-to-moderate psoriasis: a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter R; Zachariae, Claus; Hansen, Peter; Skov, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Evidence is increasing that severe psoriasis is an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Results from case-control studies of endothelial dysfunction, a marker of early atherosclerosis, in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis have been conflicting and were conducted with operator......-dependent and technically demanding ultrasound measurement of brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation. Therefore, we decided to measure endothelial function and other cardiovascular risk factors in patients with mild-to-moderate psoriasis (n = 30) and controls (n = 30) using a newer and relatively operator...... blood pressures, and plasma levels of triglycerides, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and glycated glucose, compared with controls. This indicates that even mild-to-moderate psoriasis may be regarded as a systemic inflammatory disease, and that an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity may...

  5. Environmental sanitation conditions and health impact: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Léo; Colosimo, Enrico Antonio; Antunes, Carlos Mauricio de Figueiredo

    2003-01-01

    This epidemiological investigation examines the impact of several environmental sanitation conditions and hygiene practices on diarrhea occurrence among children under five years of age living in an urban area. The case-control design was employed; 997 cases and 999 controls were included in the investigation. Cases were defined as children with diarrhea and controls were randomly selected among children under five years of age. After logistic regression adjustment, the following variables were found to be significantly associated with diarrhea: washing and purifying fruit and vegetables; presence of wastewater in the street; refuse storage, collection and disposal; domestic water reservoir conditions; feces disposal from swaddles; presence of vectors in the house and flooding in the lot. The estimates of the relative risks reached values up to 2.87. The present study revealed the feasibility of developing and implementing an adequate model to establish intervention priorities in the field of environmental sanitation. PMID:12715062

  6. Sociodemographic characteristics of domestic violence in China: a population case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, YuPing; Yang, ShiChang; Wang, GuoQiang; Zhang, YaLin

    2014-03-01

    A population case-control study of domestic violence in China was conducted to examine the relationship between individual- and household-level characteristics and violence perpetration and victimization. Demographic comparisons were conducted between perpetrators and victims (n = 624), perpetrators and matched controls (n = 628), and perpetrator households and control households (n = 620). A multivariate model of demographic risk was tested, integrating individual- and household-level correlates of violence perpetration. Compared with victims, perpetrators were more likely to be older, male, and have lower levels of education. In the final model, violence perpetration was more likely among individuals who earned more income, contributed a lower proportion of the household income, had a family member who was unemployed or lived in households with an authoritarian or independent power structure. PMID:24176988

  7. Rationale and design of INTERSTROKE: a global case-control study of risk factors for stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donnell, M; Serpault, Damien Xavier; Diener, C;

    2010-01-01

    population-attributable risk. However, traditional risk factors (e.g. hypertension, cholesterol) appear to exert contrasting risks for stroke compared with coronary heart disease, and the etiology of stroke is far more heterogeneous. In addition, our knowledge of risk factors for stroke in low...... with a first stroke within 72 h of hospital presentation in whom CT or MRI is performed. Proxy respondents are used for cases unable to communicate. Etiological and topographical stroke subtype is documented for all cases. Controls are hospital- and community-based, matched for gender, ethnicity and...... urine samples are obtained from cases and controls. Study Significance: An effective global strategy to reduce the risk of stroke mandates systematic measurement of the contribution of the major vascular risk factors within defined ethnic groups and geographical locations....

  8. A case control study on the lung cancer risk factors in north of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Laleh; Koohdani, Fariba; Siassi, Fereydoon; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Moslemi, Dariush; Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Safari, Farid

    2011-01-01

    In this case control study, the risk factors of lung cancer was assessed in the north of Iran. Two groups were matched for gender and age (+/- 5 years). Data were collected from 40 cases and 40 controls attending to hospitals. A public information questionnaire was used for data collection. Incidence odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals calculated using logistic regression analyses. Results showed that in adjusted odd ratio positive family history of cancer (OR = 0/19, 95% CI: 0/04-0/8) was associated with a reduction, and consumption of baked bread in traditional oven (OR = 22/6, 95% CI: 1/9-270), was associated with increase in lung cancer risk. Based on the results, smoking was not correlated with lung cancer. In conclusion, the data offers consumption of traditional oven-baked bread may enhance the risk of lung cancer but positive family history of cancer may reduce it. PMID:21699022

  9. Etiology of diarrhea in young children in Denmark: a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, B.; Neimann, J.; Bottiger, B.;

    2005-01-01

    -matched controls were examined, and their parents were interviewed concerning symptoms. Rotavirus, adenovirus, and astrovirus were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and norovirus and sapovirus were detected by PCR. Salmonella, thermotolerant Campylobacter, Yersinia, Shigella, and Vibrio spp. were......Infectious gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases in young children. To clarify the infectious etiology of diarrhea in Danish children less than 5 years of age, we conducted a 2-year prospective case-control study. Stools from 424 children with diarrhea and 870 asymptomatic age...... by microscopy. Overall, a potential pathogen was found in 54% of cases. More cases than controls were infected with rotavirus, Salmonella, norovirus, adenovirus, Campylobacter, sapovirus, STEC, classical EPEC, Yersinia, and Cryptosporidium strains, whereas A/EEC, although common, was not associated with illness...

  10. Incidence of basilar invagination in patients with tonsillar herniation ? a case control craniometrical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei F Joaquim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective case-control study based on craniometrical evaluation was performed to evaluate the incidence of basilar invagination (BI. Patients with symptomatic tonsillar herniation treated surgically had craniometrical parameters evaluated based on CT scan reconstructions before surgery. BI was diagnosed when the tip of the odontoid trespassed the Chamberlain’s line in three different thresholds found in the literature: 2, 5 or 6.6 mm. In the surgical group (SU, the mean distance of the tip of the odontoid process above the Chamberlain’s line was 12 mm versus 1.2 mm in the control (CO group (p<0.0001. The number of patients with BI according to the threshold used (2, 5 or 6.6 mm in the SU group was respectively 19 (95%, 16 (80% and 15 (75% and in the CO group it was 15 (37%, 4 (10% and 2 (5%.

  11. A multi-institute case-control study on the risk factors of developing pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, S; Watanabe, S; Nakamura, K; Omata, M; Oguchi, H; Ohashi, K; Ohyanagi, H; Fujiki, T; Motojima, K

    1992-08-01

    A multi-institute, hospital-based, case-control study on pancreatic cancer was carried out to examine its association with preceding diseases, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and dietary factors. Analyses were based on 124 newly diagnosed exocrine pancreatic cancer cases and sex-, age- and institute-matched hospital controls in seven hospitals in Japan. Cigarette smoking showed a positive association with the risk of developing pancreatic cancer. Especially among smokers, a risk enhancing effect of involuntary/passive smoking prior to twenty years of age was observed (P tea or alcohol consumption. Among dietary factors, favoring food of a salty taste and drinking green tea five cups per day or more were positively associated with the risk. Drinking milk and eating fish everyday were inversely associated with the risk. PMID:1434027

  12. Case-control study of intracranial meningiomas in women in Los Angeles County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case-control study was conducted among women in Los Angeles County to investigate possible causes of intracranial meningiomas. Questionnaires sought information from patients and from a neighbor of each one on characteristics and past experiences that might be associated with the development of this disease. Information was obtained on 188 matched patient-neighbor pairs. Three primary factors appeared to be associated with meningioma occurrence: 1) a history of head trauma (odds ratio = 2.0, p = 0.01), 2) consumption of certain cured meats (odds ratio = 2.8, p = less than 0.01), and 3) exposure to medical and dental diagnostic X-rays to the head. For diagnostic X-rays, the strongest association was with early exposure (less than 20 yr old) to full-mouth dental X-ray series

  13. Case-control study of possible causative factors in mycosis fungoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuyp, E.; Burgoyne, A.; Aitchison, T.; MacKie, R.

    1987-02-01

    A detailed case control study was carried out on 53 patients (33 males and 20 females) with histologically proven mycosis fungoides and on an age- and sex-matched control population. Possible causative factors investigated included occupation, recreation, and exposure to petrochemicals, pesticides, insecticides, and potential carcinogens. Exposure to plants of the Compositae family, tanning history, and chronic sun exposure were also investigated, as were smoking history, drug ingestion history, and other skin disease. Personal and family histories of other malignancies were also investigated. The only statistically significant difference to emerge was that the patients with mycosis fungoides had significantly more family history of atopic dermatitis. In view of the absence of any significant difference between patients and controls with regard to personal history of atopic dermatitis, this difference may be the result of multiple statistical testing rather than a phenomenon of true biological significance.

  14. Risk factors for breast cancer by oestrogen receptor status: a population-based case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, J A; Rohan, T E; Cant, E. L.; Horsfall, D. J.; Tilley, W D

    1989-01-01

    Data from a population-based case-control study conducted in Adelaide, South Australia, and involving 451 case-control pairs, were analysed to determine whether the associations of menstrual, reproductive, dietary and other factors with risk of breast cancer differed by oestrogen receptor (ER) status. Data on ER status were available for 380 cases. The proportion of tumours which were ER+ increased with age, and there was a higher proportion of ER+ tumours in post-menopausal than in premenopa...

  15. The relationship between parenting, family interaction and childhood dental caries: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong-Lenters, M; Duijster, D; Bruist, M A; Thijssen, J; de Ruiter, C

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to explore the relationship between parenting practices, parent-child interaction and childhood dental caries, using a sample of 5-8-year old children from the Netherlands. Cases were defined as children with four or more decayed, missing or filled teeth and controls were caries free. Cases (n = 28) and controls (n = 26) were recruited from a referral centre for paediatric dental care and a general dental practice, respectively. Parenting practices and parent-child interactions of the child's primary caregiver were observed using Structured Interaction Tasks and subsequently rated on seven dimensions: positive involvement, encouragement, problem-solving, discipline, monitoring, coercion and interpersonal atmosphere. All Structured Interaction Tasks were videotaped, and coded by trained and calibrated observers blind to the dental condition. Differences in parenting dimensions between cases and controls were analysed using multivariate analysis of variance, independent samples T-tests, χ(2)-tests and multiple logistic regression analyses. Controls had significantly higher scores on the dimensions positive involvement, encouragement, problem-solving and interpersonal atmosphere, compared to cases. Parents of controls were also less likely to show coercive behaviours. These associations remained statistically significant after adjustment for the mother's education level, tooth brushing frequency and the frequency of consuming sugary foods and drinks, except for coercion. There was no significant difference in discipline between cases and controls. In conclusion, this case-control study found a significant relationship between parenting practices, parent-child interaction quality and childhood dental caries. Our findings suggest that parenting practices may be an important factor to consider in caries preventive programs. PMID:24980791

  16. Alcohol and Difficulty Conceiving in the SUN Cohort: A Nested Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Lopez-del Burgo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of alcohol on fertility remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between alcohol and specific alcoholic beverages consumption and the risk of difficulty getting pregnant. We used a case-control study nested within the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN cohort, a prospective, dynamic and multipurpose cohort of 21,705 Spanish university graduates, followed biennially with mailed questionnaires. We identified 686 case-control pairs, matched for age and time in the cohort. Cases were women reporting difficulty getting pregnant. Controls did not consult due to difficulty conceiving and had at least one child during follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found no association between self-reported difficulty getting pregnant and the number of alcoholic beverages consumed per week, (Odds Ratio [OR] > 5 drinks/week vs. none = 1.04, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.72–1.51. No association between types of alcoholic beverage and difficulty conceiving (OR > 5 drinks of wine/week vs. none = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.72–1.88; OR > 5 drinks of beer/week vs. none = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.82–1.37; OR > 5 drinks of spirits/week vs. none = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.84–1.64 was observed. In conclusion, we found no association between alcohol intake and risk of consulting a physician due to difficulty conceiving. More studies are needed to clearly elucidate the effects of alcohol intake on women’s fertility. In the meantime, recommendations about alcohol intake to couples trying to conceive have to be given cautiously.

  17. Alcohol and Difficulty Conceiving in the SUN Cohort: A Nested Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-del Burgo, Cristina; Gea, Alfredo; de Irala, Jokin; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Chavarro, Jorge E; Toledo, Estefania

    2015-08-01

    The role of alcohol on fertility remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between alcohol and specific alcoholic beverages consumption and the risk of difficulty getting pregnant. We used a case-control study nested within the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort, a prospective, dynamic and multipurpose cohort of 21,705 Spanish university graduates, followed biennially with mailed questionnaires. We identified 686 case-control pairs, matched for age and time in the cohort. Cases were women reporting difficulty getting pregnant. Controls did not consult due to difficulty conceiving and had at least one child during follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found no association between self-reported difficulty getting pregnant and the number of alcoholic beverages consumed per week, (Odds Ratio [OR] > 5 drinks/week vs. none = 1.04, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.72-1.51). No association between types of alcoholic beverage and difficulty conceiving (OR > 5 drinks of wine/week vs. none = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.72-1.88; OR > 5 drinks of beer/week vs. none = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.82-1.37; OR > 5 drinks of spirits/week vs. none = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.84-1.64) was observed. In conclusion, we found no association between alcohol intake and risk of consulting a physician due to difficulty conceiving. More studies are needed to clearly elucidate the effects of alcohol intake on women's fertility. In the meantime, recommendations about alcohol intake to couples trying to conceive have to be given cautiously. PMID:26225997

  18. Case-control study on radon exposure and lung cancer in an Italian region. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present estimates of the lung cancer risk for the general population due to radon exposure in dwellings are generally obtained by extrapolating the risk estimates derived from epidemiologic studies on miner cohorts. However, due to uncertainties related to this extrapolation, numerous case-control studies in Europe and North America were planned to estimate directly the risk in dwellings. Most of these studies are still underway and, thanks to their similar design and compatible protocols, it will be possible to perform a pooled analysis in order to improve statistical power. One of these projects is being conducted in the Lazio region of Italy, which is one of the Italian regions with the highest levels of radon indoors. A total of 408 cases and 424 controls older than 34 years, who lived for 25 years or longer in the Lazio Region, were recruited in a hospital of Rome. Detailed information regarding smoking, and occupational exposure of the subjects were collected by interviews in hospital. Residential histories (periods and addresses) during the 35 years preceding the enrolment were ascertained for all study members from the local Register and from a short questionnaire to the subjects or to the next-of-kin, resulting in 2068 dwellings to be monitored within the Lazio region. The distribution of the number of dwellings among cases and controls was the following: 25.7% of the cases and 27.3% of the controls had lived all the preceding 35 years in a single dwelling, whereas only a minority (7.9%) changed five addresses or more. The mean number of dwellings was very similar among cases (2.47) and controls (2.50). In each dwelling, radon dosemeters were placed in both the main bedroom and living room for two consecutive six-month periods. In the second six-month period, two thermoluminescent dosemeters were also collocated in each monitored room to measure gamma radiation emitted by the building materials, in order to evaluate more comprehensively the exposure of

  19. Use of oral cholera vaccines in an outbreak in Vietnam: a case control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Duc Anh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Killed oral cholera vaccines (OCVs are available but not used routinely for cholera control except in Vietnam, which produces its own vaccine. In 2007-2008, unprecedented cholera outbreaks occurred in the capital, Hanoi, prompting immunization in two districts. In an outbreak investigation, we assessed the effectiveness of killed OCV use after a cholera outbreak began. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From 16 to 28 January 2008, vaccination campaigns with the Vietnamese killed OCV were held in two districts of Hanoi. No cholera cases were detected from 5 February to 4 March 2008, after which cases were again identified. Beginning 8 April 2008, residents of four districts of Hanoi admitted to one of five hospitals for acute diarrhea with onset after 5 March 2008 were recruited for a matched, hospital-based, case-control outbreak investigation. Cases were matched by hospital, admission date, district, gender, and age to controls admitted for non-diarrheal conditions. Subjects from the two vaccinated districts were evaluated to determine vaccine effectiveness. 54 case-control pairs from the vaccinated districts were included in the analysis. There were 8 (15% and 16 (30% vaccine recipients among cases and controls, respectively. The vaccine was 76% protective against cholera in this setting (95% CI 5% to 94%, P = 0.042 after adjusting for intake of dog meat or raw vegetables and not drinking boiled or bottled water most of the time. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to explore the effectiveness of the reactive use of killed OCVs during a cholera outbreak. Our findings suggest that killed OCVs may have a role in controlling cholera outbreaks.

  20. Iron Status and Febrile Seizure- A Case Control Study in Children Less Than 3 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour SADEGHZADEH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available  How to cite this article: Sadeghzadeh M, Khoshnevis P, Mahboubi E. Iron Status and Febrile Seizure- A Case Control Study in Children Less Than 3 Years. Iran J Child Neurol Autumn 2012; 6(4:27-31.Abstract Objective: Febrile seizure is one of the most common neurological conditions of childhood. Several theories, such as iron deficiency anemia have been proposed as the pathogenesis of this condition. The aim of this study was to find the association between iron deficiency anemia and febrile seizures in children aged 6 months to 3 years admitted in Valie Asr hospital in Zanjan. Materials &Methods Hemoglobin (Hb, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, serum iron (SI, total iron binding capacity (TIBC and SI/TIBC ratio were assessed in one hundred children with febrile seizures and compared to the values of one hundred healthy children presenting in a heath care center in the same period as the control group. Results A total of 6% of cases had iron deficiency anemia which was similar to the control group. In the case group SI/TIBC ratio below 12% was seen in 58% of children which was significantly higher than that of the control group (29%. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that although anemia was not common among febrile seizure patients, iron deficiency was more frequent in these patients. ReferencesBidabadi E, Mashouf M.. Association between iron deficiency anemia and first febrile convulsion: A case-control study. Seizure. 2009 Jan;18(5:347-51.Sadeghzadeh M, Khoshnevisasl P, Moussavinassab N, Koosha A, Norouzi M. The Relation Between Serum Zinc Level and Febrile Seizures in Children Admitted to Zanjan Valie-Asr Hospital. J Zanjan Uni Med Sci. 2011;19(74:17-24.Kumari PL, Nair MK, Nair SM, Kailas L, Geetha S. Iron deficiency as a risk factor for simple febrile seizures-a case control study. Indian Pediatr. 2012 Jan;49(1:17-9.Pisacane A, Sansone R, Impagliazzo N, Coppola A, Rolando P, D'Apuzzo A, Tregrossi C. Iron deficiency anaemia and

  1. Analgesics use and ESRD in younger age: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moehner Sabine

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An ad hoc peer-review committee was jointly appointed by Drug Authorities and Industry in Germany, Austria and Switzerland in 1999/2000 to review the evidence for a causal relation between phenacetin-free analgesics and nephropathy. The committee found the evidence as inconclusive and requested a new case-control study of adequate design. Methods We performed a population-based case-control study with incident cases of end-stage renal disease (ESRD under the age of 50 years and four age and sex-matched neighborhood controls in 170 dialysis centers (153 in Germany, and 17 in Austria from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2004. Data on lifetime medical history, risk factors, treatment, job exposure and intake of analgesics were obtained in a standardized face-to-face interview using memory aids to enhance accuracy. Study design, study performance, analysis plan, and study report were approved by an independent international advisory committee and by the Drug Authorities involved. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were performed. Results The analysis included 907 cases and 3,622 controls who had never used phenacetin-containing analgesics in their lifetime. The use of high cumulative lifetime dose (3rd tertile of analgesics in the period up to five years before dialysis was not associated with later ESRD. Adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were 0.8 (0.7 – 1.0 and 1.0 (0.8 – 1.3 for ever- compared with no or low use and high use compared with low use, respectively. The same results were found for all analgesics and for mono-, and combination preparations with and without caffeine. No increased risk was shown in analyses stratifying for dose and duration. Dose-response analyses showed that analgesic use was not associated with an increased risk for ESRD up to 3.5 kg cumulative lifetime dose (98 % of the cases with ESRD. While the large subgroup of users with a lifetime dose up to 0.5 kg (278 cases and

  2. Predictors of delayed recovery following pediatric sports-related concussion: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joseph H; Gill, Clarence; Kuhn, Elizabeth N; Rocque, Brandon G; Menendez, Joshua Y; O'Neill, Jilian A; Agee, Bonita S; Brown, Steven T; Crowther, Marshall; Davis, R Drew; Ferguson, Drew; Johnston, James M

    2016-04-01

    OBJECT Pediatric sports-related concussions are a growing public health concern. The factors that determine injury severity and time to recovery following these concussions are poorly understood. Previous studies suggest that initial symptom severity and diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are predictors of prolonged recovery (> 28 days) after pediatric sports-related concussions. Further analysis of baseline patient characteristics may allow for a more accurate prediction of which patients are at risk for delayed recovery after a sports-related concussion. METHODS The authors performed a single-center retrospective case-control study involving patients cared for at the multidisciplinary Concussion Clinic at Children's of Alabama between August 2011 and January 2013. Patient demographic data, medical history, sport concussion assessment tool 2 (SCAT2) and symptom severity scores, injury characteristics, and patient balance assessments were analyzed for each outcome group. The control group consisted of patients whose symptoms resolved within 28 days. The case group included patients whose symptoms persisted for more than 28 days. The presence or absence of the SCAT2 assessment had a modifying effect on the risk for delayed recovery; therefore, stratum-specific analyses were conducted for patients with recorded SCAT2 scores and for patients without SCAT2 scores. Unadjusted ORs and adjusted ORs (aORs) for an association of delayed recovery outcome with specific risk factors were calculated with logistic regression analysis. RESULTS A total of 294 patients met the inclusion criteria of the study. The case and control groups did not statistically significantly differ in age (p = 0.7). For the patients who had received SCAT2 assessments, a previous history of concussion (aOR 3.67, 95% CI 1.51-8.95), presenting SCAT2 score ADHD significantly increased the odds of prolonged recovery (aOR 4.41, 95% CI 1.93-10.07 and aOR 3.87, 95% CI 1

  3. Tumor-based case-control studies of infection and cancer: muddling the when and where of molecular epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Eric A; Wacholder, Sholom; Katki, Hormuzd A; Chaturvedi, Anil K

    2014-10-01

    We describe the "tumor-based case-control" study as a type of epidemiologic study used to evaluate associations between infectious agents and cancer. These studies assess exposure using diseased tissues from affected individuals (i.e., evaluating tumor tissue for cancer cases), but they must utilize nondiseased tissues to assess control subjects, who do not have the disease of interest. This approach can lead to exposure misclassification in two ways. First, concerning the "when" of exposure assessment, retrospective assessment of tissues may not accurately measure exposure at the key earlier time point (i.e., during the etiologic window). Second, concerning the "where" of exposure assessment, use of different tissues in cases and controls can have different accuracy for detecting the exposure (i.e., differential exposure misclassification). We present an example concerning the association of human papillomavirus with various cancers, where tumor-based case-control studies likely overestimate risk associated with infection. In another example, we illustrate how tumor-based case-control studies of Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer underestimate risk. Tumor-based case-control studies can demonstrate infection within tumor cells, providing qualitative information about disease etiology. However, measures of association calculated in tumor-based case-control studies are prone to over- or underestimating the relationship between infections and subsequent cancer risk. PMID:25063520

  4. Risk factors for acute myocardial infarction in Central India: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay P Zodpey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atherosclerosis is a multi-factorial disease involving the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Studies highlighting the public health importance of risk factors like chronic infections causing acute myocardial infarction (AMI in the Indian context are scarce. This study was undertaken to study the association of socio-demographic and life-style factors with acute myocardial infarction in central India. Materials and Methods: The cases and controls were group-matched for age, gender, and socio-economic status. A blinded research associate administered the study questionnaire. We performed an unconditional multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: The case-control study included 265 cases of AMI and 265 controls. The results of final model of logistic regression analysis for risk factors of AMI included 11 risk factors at α = 0.05. They were waist hip ratio, body mass index, stress at home in last 1 year, hypertension, family history of CHD, past history of gingival sepsis, tobacco smoking, raised total serum cholesterol, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori and raised C-reactive protein. Conclusion: The findings confirm the role of conventional risk factors for cardiac disease and highlight need for research into the association between chronic infections with AMI.

  5. Depressive Symptoms and Resilience among Pregnant Adolescents: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Salazar-Pousada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Data regarding depression and resilience among adolescents is still lacking. Objective. To assess depressive symptoms and resilience among pregnant adolescents. Method. Depressive symptoms and resilience were assessed using two validated inventories, the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD-10 and the 14-item Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS, respectively. A case-control approach was used to compare differences between adolescents and adults. Results. A total of 302 pregnant women were enrolled in the study, 151 assigned to each group. Overall, 56.6% of gravids presented total CESD-10 scores 10 or more indicating depressed mood. Despite this, total CESD-10 scores and depressed mood rate did not differ among studied groups. Adolescents did however display lower resilience reflected by lower total RS scores and a higher rate of scores below the calculated median (P<.05. Logistic regression analysis could not establish any risk factor for depressed mood among studied subjects; however, having an adolescent partner (OR, 2.0 CI 95% 1.06–4.0, P=.03 and a preterm delivery (OR, 3.0 CI 95% 1.43–6.55, P=.004 related to a higher risk for lower resilience. Conclusion. In light of the findings of the present study, programs oriented at giving adolescents support before, during, and after pregnancy should be encouraged.

  6. Food and dietary patterns and multiple sclerosis: a case-control study in Belgrade (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana D. Pekmezovic

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The aetiology of multiple sclerosis (MS is unclear, but numerous studies suggest that different exogenous factors can lead to the development of the disease in genetically susceptible individuals. The objective of this case-control study was to determine the role of food and dietary patterns in patients with MS in the population of Belgrade (Serbia.

    Methods: In this matched case-control study, we included 110 cases with definite MS according to McDonald’s criteria, in whom the onset symptoms occurred up to 2 years prior to the interview, who were followed-up at the Institute of Neurology, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade. The identical number of controls from the same institution, individually matched by sex, age and area of residence, was recruited from patients with various non-autoimmune neurological disorders. Dietary information was obtained by using a frequency history approach.

    Results: According to univariate conditional logistic regression analysis the following factors were significantly related to MS: body mass index (BMI less than 25 (OR=2.2, p=0.009, frequent consumption of beef (OR=1.7, p=0.043, chicken (OR=2.0, p=0.045, meat of the lamb (OR=2.1, p=0.013, butter (OR=1.7, p=0.056 and ice-cream (OR=1.8, p=0.031, with dose-response relationship. Consumption of majority of various fruit was more frequently reported by controls. According to multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis, BMI less than 25 (OR=2.3, p=0.008, consumption (weekly of beef (OR=2.0, p=0.017 and butter (OR=1.9, p=0.027 was significantly related to MS, while regular consumption of cherry (OR=0.4, p=0.024 had protective role.

    Conclusions: This study might assist in potential defining of the dietary factors that could contribute to the risk of developing MS.

  7. Certain modifiable risk factors in essential hypertension: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil M. Sagare, S. S. Rajderkar B. S. Girigosavi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential hypertension accounts for 90% of all cases of hypertension. Though it is a one of major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, it is a condition with its own risk factors. Overall prevalence of hypertension is increasing over the years in India (from 3.57% in 1977 to 20-30% after 1995. Considering the public health importance of ‘Essential Hypertension’ the present study was conducted. The objective was to study role of certain risk factors in essential hypertension. A case control study was conducted in rural township of Tasgaon; in Sangli district of Maharashtra during 2001-2002, to study role of certain modifiable risk factors in essential hypertension in 21-60 years age group. 165 cases of essential hypertension were selected by systematic random sampling from two private hospitals & O.P.D. of RHTC, Tasgaon and 330, age & sex matched controls were selected in the ratio of 1:2. A significant association was found between essential hypertension and various risk factors including smoking, its frequency and duration, alcoholic status, leisure time physical inactivity, restless sleep, BMI, mental stress, mixed diet and salt intake. Smoking of more than 10 cigarettes or bidi had 3.23 times risk of developing hypertension than smoking up to 10 cigarettes or bidi.

  8. Organohalogen body burdens in a breast cancer case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petreas, M.; She, J.; Visita, P.; Winkler, J. [Hazardous Materials Lab., California Dept. of Toxic Substances Control, Berkeley, CA (United States); Hurley, S.; Smith, D.; Reynolds, P. [Environmental Health Investigations Branch, California Dept. of Health Services, Oakland, CA (United States); Jeffrey, S.; Mahoney, E. [Dept. of Surgery, Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Due to their lipophilic properties, dioxins (PCDD/PCDFs) and other organohalogen compounds bioaccumulate in the food chain, with diet accounting for over 90% of non-occupational exposures. To date, few epidemiologic studies have examined the relationship between dioxins and breast cancer in human populations. Most have examined risks in occupational cohorts or in populations exposed to dioxins from the Seveso accident6-8. Results from these studies have been conflicting and have largely been limited by a lack of individual-level measures of exposure, small numbers of cases, and inability to account for established breast cancer risk factors. Very little is known about the potential health effects of low-level environmental dioxin contamination. We present data on PCDD/PCDFs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in adipose tissues of women participating in a breast cancer case-control study centered in the San Francisco Bay Area. In addition, we examine distributions of these chemicals in breast and abdominal adipose of women undergoing mastectomies with concurrent breast reconstruction. If concentrations were equivalent, use of abdominal adipose would greatly enhance the pool for controls for future epidemiological studies.

  9. Dietary patterns and benign breast diseases: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiznobeyk, Zeinab; Sheikhi Mobarakeh, Zahra; Qorbani, Mostafa; Koohdani, Fariba; Sotoudeh, Gity; Khajehnasiri, Farahnaz; Khosravi, Shahla; Doostan, Farideh

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have investigated the relation between benign breast diseases (BBD) and food intake. However, dietary patterns of these patients have not been taken into consideration up to now. The aim of this study is to determine the association between dietary patterns and BBD. In this case-control study, ninety-six patients with BBD and seventy controls were selected from women attending the Iranian Center for Breast Cancer affiliated with Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research. Demographic, physical activity and semi-quantitative FFQ were completed. The main dietary patterns were extracted by factor analysis. Two major dietary patterns emerged: Healthy dietary pattern including fish, poultry, eggs, low-fat dairy products, vegetables, legumes, nuts and seeds, whole grains, oil and mayonnaise, olives, fruits; and Unhealthy dietary pattern including red meats, organ and processed meats, high-fat dairy products, refined grains, sweets and desserts, animal and solid fats. After adjustment for age, BMI and energy intake, the participants in the highest tertile of Healthy dietary pattern (OR 0·44; 95 % CI 0·20, 0·99) were less likely to have BBD compared with those in the first tertile. After adjustment for other confounding variables, this relationship still remained close to significant level. However, higher consumption of Unhealthy dietary pattern was not associated with the risk of BBD. In conclusion, Healthy dietary pattern might be inversely associated with the risk of BBD; however, this result should be interpreted with caution. Future studies are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:27198589

  10. Assessing incremental value of biomarkers with multi-phase nested case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qian M; Zheng, Yingye; Chibnik, Lori B; Karlson, Elizabeth W; Cai, Tianxi

    2015-12-01

    Accurate risk prediction models are needed to identify different risk groups for individualized prevention and treatment strategies. In the Nurses' Health Study, to examine the effects of several biomarkers and genetic markers on the risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a three-phase nested case-control (NCC) design was conducted, in which two sequential NCC subcohorts were formed with one nested within the other, and one set of new markers measured on each of the subcohorts. One objective of the study is to evaluate clinical values of novel biomarkers in improving upon existing risk models because of potential cost associated with assaying biomarkers. In this paper, we develop robust statistical procedures for constructing risk prediction models for RA and estimating the incremental value (IncV) of new markers based on three-phase NCC studies. Our method also takes into account possible time-varying effects of biomarkers in risk modeling, which allows us to more robustly assess the biomarker utility and address the question of whether a marker is better suited for short-term or long-term risk prediction. The proposed procedures are shown to perform well in finite samples via simulation studies. PMID:26195245

  11. A case control study of risk factors associated with female breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To find the association of various risk factors with breast cancer. Study Design: It was a case-control study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in NORI Hospital Islamabad and Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi between August, 2013 and February, 2014. Material and Methods: Two hundred breast cancer patients and 200 control subjects were inducted. A short approved and planned questionnaire was used to collect data regarding basic demographic, menstrual and reproductive characteristics of participating females. Cases and controls were then interviewed after taking written consent. Results: Breast cancer patients and control subjects did not differ regarding age (p = 0.15), early menarche (OR for menarche at <13 years vs. ?13=1.3, 95% CI = 0.84 - 2.02), and history of breast cancer in 1st degree relatives did not increase breast cancer risk (OR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.57 - 1.74). Nulliparous women had significantly higher risk than parous women (OR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.22 - 4.84) and women with late menopause compared to women with early onset of menopause were also at higher risk for breast cancer (OR for menopause at ? 50 vs. < 50 = 5.16, 95% CI = 2.59 - 10.29). Conclusion: Nulliparity and menopausal age of more than 50 years was associated with increased breast cancer risk. Breast feeding and age less than 25 years at first live birth was not protective against breast cancer. (author)

  12. Urinary strontium and the risk of breast cancer: A case-control study in Guangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strontium has been widely used in industries like electronic and pharmacy. It has a carcinogenic potential, however, and no study has been conducted to evaluate its effects on cancer risk. The aim of this study was to explore the possible association between strontium and breast cancer risk in a case-control study including 240 incident invasive breast cancer patients and 246 age-matched controls. We measured the urinary concentrations of strontium by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and conducted face-to-face interviews to obtain information on potential breast cancer risk factors. Multivariable analysis was used to estimate the association. Creatinine-adjusted levels [median (25th, 75th) μg/g] of strontium were 155.59 (99.05, 230.70) in the breast cancer patients and 119.62 (81.97, 163.76) in the controls. Women in the highest tertile of strontium showed 124% increased risk of breast cancer, when compared with those in the lowest tertile after adjustment for the potential risk factors [OR (95% CI): 2.24 (1.42–3.81)]. This association was particularly strong for HER2 positive breast cancer [OR (95% CI): 10.92 (3.53–33.77)], and only occurred among premenopausal women. These results suggest a potential role of strontium in the development of breast cancer and urge further studies on the environmental contamination and the physiological and pathological mechanisms of strontium.

  13. Urinary strontium and the risk of breast cancer: A case-control study in Guangzhou, China

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    Chen, Li-Juan [The School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Rd, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Tang, Lu-Ying [The School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Rd, Guangzhou 510080 (China); The Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510630 (China); He, Jian-Rong [The School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Rd, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Guangzhou Women and Children' s Medical Center, Guangzhou 510623 (China); Su, Yi; Cen, Yu-Ling; Yu, Dan-Dan [The School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Rd, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Wu, Bang-Hua [The Guangdong Prevention and Treatment Center for Occupational Diseases, Guangzhou 510300 (China); Lin, Ying [The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Chen, Wei-Qing [The School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Rd, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Song, Er-Wei, E-mail: songerwei02@yahoo.com.cn [The Second Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 107 Yanjiang West, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Ren, Ze-Fang, E-mail: renzef@mail.sysu.edu.cn [The School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Rd, Guangzhou 510080 (China)

    2012-01-15

    Strontium has been widely used in industries like electronic and pharmacy. It has a carcinogenic potential, however, and no study has been conducted to evaluate its effects on cancer risk. The aim of this study was to explore the possible association between strontium and breast cancer risk in a case-control study including 240 incident invasive breast cancer patients and 246 age-matched controls. We measured the urinary concentrations of strontium by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and conducted face-to-face interviews to obtain information on potential breast cancer risk factors. Multivariable analysis was used to estimate the association. Creatinine-adjusted levels [median (25th, 75th) {mu}g/g] of strontium were 155.59 (99.05, 230.70) in the breast cancer patients and 119.62 (81.97, 163.76) in the controls. Women in the highest tertile of strontium showed 124% increased risk of breast cancer, when compared with those in the lowest tertile after adjustment for the potential risk factors [OR (95% CI): 2.24 (1.42-3.81)]. This association was particularly strong for HER2 positive breast cancer [OR (95% CI): 10.92 (3.53-33.77)], and only occurred among premenopausal women. These results suggest a potential role of strontium in the development of breast cancer and urge further studies on the environmental contamination and the physiological and pathological mechanisms of strontium.

  14. A Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer in Iran

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    Mahmoud Mahmoudi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Iran, yet there are few studies examining risk factors specific to the Iranian context. We conducted a case-control study to explore risk factors for prostate cancer in Mazandaran, Iran from 2005 to 2008. The cases were 137 men with clinicopathologically confirmed prostate cancer. Controls were 137 neighborhood and age match men without prostate cancer by PSA and digit examination. Analysis comprised an exploratory stage to identify potential risk factors, defined as variables associated with case status at the P < 0.20 level in conditional logistic regression. A second stage included all potential risk factors in multiple conditional logistic regression analysis, retaining those associated with prostate cancer at the P < 0.05 level. Potential risk factors for prostate cancer in exploratory analysis included family history of prostate cancer, history of other cancer, prostatitis, alcohol consumption, pipe or hookah smoking, walking to work, duration of occupational physical activity, intensity of occupational physical activity, body mass index, and older age. Multivariate analysis found intensity of occupational physical activity, prostatitis, and older age as independent predictors of increased risk for prostate cancer in this Iranian population. Our study confirms several recognized risk factors for prostate cancer, contributes evidence to the discussions of other hypothesized risk factors, and points to potentially new factors. Findings, along with confirmatory studies, can help guide efforts for early detection, treatment, and prevention for this common malignancy that is set to increase in Iran in future decades.

  15. The role of melatonin in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis: A case-control study

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    Abbas Ghorbani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association between the prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS and latitude gradient indicates the importance of environmental factors in MS susceptibility. Sunlight′s ultraviolet radiation, its ability to influence melatonin, and an imbalance of melatonin in the central nervous system (CNS may be involved in this process. Methods: This case-control study was conducted in Isfahan MS Society (IMSS, Isfahan, Iran. Enrollment was limited to patients with MS referring to the MS clinic of Alzahra and Kashani hospital during January and February 2012. Results: Thirty-five patients with MS and 35 healthy individuals were included in our study. The melatonin levels were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kits. There was no significant difference between saliva melatonin level of two groups (patients and healthy individuals (P = 0.417; however, after controlling the effect of age, a significant difference (P = 0.022 was found. Conclusions: In the present study, it is proposed that environmental conditions in Isfahan city might have increased the susceptibility to MS, but more studies in different parts of the world are needed to evaluate this claim.

  16. Risk factors for the occurrence of undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type: A case-control study

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    Nešić Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The incidence rate of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Serbia is less than one per 100,000 citizens, which classifies it as a region with low incidence for this disease. Objective. The aim of this study was to test some hypotheses of the risk factors for undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type (UCNT in the low incidence population. Methods. A case-control study was used for the research. The study included 45 cases with histopathological diagnosis of UCNT and 90 controls. Cases and the controls were individually matched by sex, age (±3 years, and place of residence (city-village. Data were gathered about sociodemographic characteristics, occupational exposure to harmful agents, habits, diet, personal history, and family history. In the analysis of the data, conditional univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied. Results. According to the results of multivariate logistic regression analysis UCNT was significantly positively associated with 'passive smoking' of tobacco in the family during childhood, frequent consumption of industrially manufactured food additives for enhancing flavour and frequent consumption of white bread. UCNT was significantly negatively associated with frequent consumption of margarine, olive oil and cornbread. Conclusion. In our low incidence population, an independent risk factor for the occurrence of UCNT was 'passive smoking' of tobacco in the family during childhood, use of industrially manufactured food with additives for enhancing flavour and consumption of white bread. Multicentric study enrolling a greater number of cases would be desirable.

  17. Association between Herpesviruses and Chronic Periodontitis: A Meta-Analysis Based on Case-Control Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, May. Chun. Mei; Feng, Xi-Ping; Lu, Hai-Xia; Xu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objective Numerous studies have investigated the associations between herpesviruses and chronic periodontitis; however, the results remain controversial. To derive a more precise estimation, a meta-analysis on all available studies was performed to identify the association between herpesviruses and chronic periodontitis. Methods A computerized literature search was conducted in December 2014 to identify eligible case-control studies from the PUBMED and EMBASE databases according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were extracted and pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to assess the association between herpesviruses and risk of chronic periodontitis. A fixed or random effects model was determined based on a heterogeneity test. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate stability and reliability. Publication bias was investigated using the Begg rank correlation test and Egger's funnel plot. Results Ten eligible studies were included to investigate the association between Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) and chronic periodontitis. The results showed that EBV has a significant association with chronic periodontitis compared with periodontally healthy group (OR = 5.74, 95% CI = 2.53–13.00, Pherpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) and chronic periodontitis risk (OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.21–4.86). Conclusion The findings of this meta-analysis suggest that two members of the herpesvirus family, EBV and HCMV, are significantly associated with chronic periodontitis. There is insufficient evidence to support associations between HSV, HHV-7 and chronic periodontitis. PMID:26666412

  18. Herb-Induced Liver Injury in the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douros, Antonios; Bronder, Elisabeth; Andersohn, Frank; Klimpel, Andreas; Kreutz, Reinhold; Garbe, Edeltraut; Bolbrinker, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Herb-induced liver injury (HILI) has recently attracted attention due to increasing reports of hepatotoxicity associated with use of phytotherapeutics. Here, we present data on HILI from the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study. The study was initiated in 2000 to investigate the serious toxicity of drugs including herbal medicines. Potential cases of liver injury were ascertained in more than 180 Departments of all 51 Berlin hospitals from October 2002 to December 2011. Drug or herb intake was assessed through a standardized face-to-face interview. Drug or herbal aetiology was assessed based on the updated Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale. In ten of all 198 cases of hepatotoxicity included in the study, herbal aetiology was assessed as probable (once ayurvedic herb) or possible (Valeriana five times, Mentha piperita once, Pelargonium sidoides once, Hypericum perforatum once, Eucalyptus globulus once). Mean age was 56.4 ± 9.7 years, and the predominant pattern of liver injury was hepatocellular. No cases of acute liver failure or death were observed. This case series corroborates known risks for ayurvedic herbs, supports the suspected association between Valeriana use and liver injury, and indicates a hepatotoxic potential for herbs such as Pelargonium sidoides, Hypericum perforatum or Mentha piperita that were rarely associated with liver injury before. However, given that possible causality does not prove clinical significance, further studies in this field are needed. PMID:26784183

  19. Herb-Induced Liver Injury in the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study

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    Antonios Douros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Herb-induced liver injury (HILI has recently attracted attention due to increasing reports of hepatotoxicity associated with use of phytotherapeutics. Here, we present data on HILI from the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study. The study was initiated in 2000 to investigate the serious toxicity of drugs including herbal medicines. Potential cases of liver injury were ascertained in more than 180 Departments of all 51 Berlin hospitals from October 2002 to December 2011. Drug or herb intake was assessed through a standardized face-to-face interview. Drug or herbal aetiology was assessed based on the updated Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale. In ten of all 198 cases of hepatotoxicity included in the study, herbal aetiology was assessed as probable (once ayurvedic herb or possible (Valeriana five times, Mentha piperita once, Pelargonium sidoides once, Hypericum perforatum once, Eucalyptus globulus once. Mean age was 56.4 ± 9.7 years, and the predominant pattern of liver injury was hepatocellular. No cases of acute liver failure or death were observed. This case series corroborates known risks for ayurvedic herbs, supports the suspected association between Valeriana use and liver injury, and indicates a hepatotoxic potential for herbs such as Pelargonium sidoides, Hypericum perforatum or Mentha piperita that were rarely associated with liver injury before. However, given that possible causality does not prove clinical significance, further studies in this field are needed.

  20. The efficacy of preopoerative instruction in reducing anxiety following gyneoncological surgery: a case control study

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    Gungor Tayfun

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This is a quasi-experimental case control research focusing on the impact of systematic preoperative instruction on the level of postoperative anxiety in gyneoncologic patients. The population studied consists of the gyneoncologic surgery patients admitted to the Gynecologic Oncology Service at Zekai Tahir Burak Gynecology Training and Research Hospital from May to September 2010. Patients and methods Through a random sampling, 60 patients were recruited in each group. The study group was given a systematic preoperative instruction while the control group was given routine nursing care. Patients were interviewed in the postoperative period and anxiety was measured. The data-collecting tool consisted of the Individual Information Form and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The collected data were analyzed by using the SPSS Program to find the frequency, the percentage, the mean and the standard variables, and the hypothesis was tested with Chi-square, variance, and t-independent test. Results It was found that the incidence rates from the post-operative anxiety score of the study group were lower than those of the control group (p Conclusions Results of this study suggest that preoperative instruction programs aiming at informing gyneoncologic surgery patients at the preoperative stage should be organized in hospitals and have an essential role.

  1. Adipokines as Possible New Predictors of Cardiovascular Diseases: A Case Control Study

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    Laura Pala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. The secretion of several adipocytokines, such as adiponectin, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4, adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (aFABP, and visfatin, is altered in subjects with abdominal adiposity; these endocrine alterations could contribute to increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship among adiponectin, RBP4, aFABP, and visfatin, and incident cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results. A case-control study, nested within a prospective cohort, on 2945 subjects enrolled for a diabetes screening program was performed. We studied 18 patients with incident fatal or nonfatal IHD (Ischemic Heart Disease or CVD (Cerebrovascular Disease, compared with 18 matched control subjects. Circulating adiponectin levels were significantly lower in cases of IHD with respect to controls. Circulating RBP4 levels were significantly increased in CVD and decreased in IHD with respect to controls. Circulating aFABP4 levels were significantly increased in CVD, while no difference was associated with IHD. Circulating visfatin levels were significantly lower in cases of both CVD and IHD with respect to controls, while no difference was associated with CVD. Conclusions. The present study confirms that low adiponectin is associated with increased incidents of IHD, but not CVD, and suggests, for the first time, a major effect of visfatin, aFABP, and RBP4 in the development of cardiovascular disease.

  2. Determinants of mortality from severe dengue in Brazil: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Giselle Hentzy; de Fátima Duarte, Eliane; Duarte, Elisabeth Carmen

    2013-04-01

    Although increases in severity of mortality from dengue infection have been observed in Brazil, their determinants are not fully known. A case-control study was conducted by using the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, including patients with severe dengue during 2000-2005. Cases were defined as patients that died and controls were those who survived. Hierarchical multivariate logistic regression was performed. During the study period, there were 12,321 severe cases of dengue and 1,062 deaths. Factors independently associated with death included age ≥ 50 years (odds ratio [OR] = 2.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.59-3.29), history of previous dengue (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.62-0.99), positive tourniquet test result (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.33-0.66), laboratory diagnosis of dengue (OR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.61-0.92), and a platelet count of 50,000-100,000 cells/mm(3) (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.36-0.87). The risk profile identified in this study should serve to direct public health interventions to minimize deaths. PMID:23400577

  3. Determinants of Internet Addiction among Adolescents: A Case-Control Study

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    Artemis Tsitsika

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet Addiction (IA is associated with adverse psychosocial development and mental disorders. The study aims were to evaluate the psychosocial profiles and psychiatric comorbidities associated with IA among adolescents. A case-control study was conducted among 129 adolescents in the outpatient setting of the Adolescent Health Unit of the Second University Department of Pediatrics in Athens, Greece. The case group consisted of 86 adolescents with IA as evaluated following psychiatric interview with two independent examiners. The control group consisted of 43 adolescents without IA, frequency matched for age and gender with case group participants. The study findings indicated that adolescents with IA were significantly more likely to have divorced parents (p = 0.012 and/or dysfunctional familial relationships (p < 0.0001. The proportion of adolescents with poor academic performance (p < 0.0001 and unexcused school absences (p = 0.004 was greater among those with IA. Moreover, approximately two-thirds of the adolescents with IA were engaged in high-risk behaviors (p < 0.0001. Finally, adolescents with IA were 3.89 times more likely to present with comorbid psychiatric conditions (CI 95%: 1.19–12.70, including depression (10.5 vs. 0%; p = 0.022. Adolescent IA is associated with deterred familial functions, poor academic performance, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and an augmented likelihood for depression.

  4. [Risk factors for cutaneous melanoma: case-control study in Córdoba, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Lascano, Alejandro; Kuznitzky, Raquel; Cuestas, Eduardo; Mainardi, Claudio; Albertini, Ricardo; Borello, Adriana; Kurpis, María; Campana, Ricardo; Palazzo, Emilio

    2004-01-01

    Over the past years, considerable effort has been directed toward the identification of risk factors associated with the increasing incidence of cutaneous melanoma in white populations worldwide. Limited data are available from Argentine populations concerning risk factors for malignant melanoma. A case-control study was performed in Cordoba to estimate the risk factors for cutaneous malignant melanoma. The study group comprised 65 patients and 195 controls, matched by age and sex. The following risk factors were significant in the univariate analysis: European grandparents, blonde and brown hair, fair skin tone, light colored and brown eyes, presence of freckles and melanocytic nevi, severe sunburns before the age of 18 years, recreational sun exposure, family history of malignant melanoma. In the multivariate analysis, European grandparents (OR 2.27, IC95% 1.08 to 3.46), fair skin (OR 4.99, IC95% 2.72 to 7.28), severe sunburns before the age of 18 (OR 6.47, IC95% 5.29 to 7.65), and family history of malignant melanoma (OR 1525, IC95% 1467 to 1584), remain as independent risk factors for malignant melanoma. The results of the current study are similar to those obtained in other populations. PMID:15637827

  5. Serum Copper Concentration in Newborns with Neural Tube Defects in Northern Iran; A Case Control Study

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    Azad-Reza Mansourian

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to determine the eventual association between copper deficiency in newborns with neural tube defects (NTD in Northern Iran. A high prevalence of neural tube defects has been reported from this region.Methods: This hospital based case control study was carried out on 13 newborns having neural tube defects and 35 healthy controls in Northern Iran during 2005-2006. Serum copper was measured by spectrophotometery.Findings: Serum copper level in newborns with NTD and healthy normal newborns was 16.5 (±7.2 μmol/l and 16.7 (±6.6 μmol/l, respectively. In case group 38.5% of newborns and in control group 28.6% had copper deficiency. Logistic regression analysis showed no association between the presence of NTD and copper deficiency (OR:1.6, 95% CI=0.3-7.1, P=0.5.Conclusion :This study showed no association between NTD and copper deficiency in newborns.

  6. A Case Control Study on Risk Factors Associated with Low Birth Weight Babies in Eastern Nepal

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    Ravi Kumar Bhaskar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study was done to assess the maternal and sociodemographic factors associated with low birth weight (LBW babies. Methods. An unmatched case control study was done involving 159 cases (mothers having LBW singleton babies and 159 controls (mothers having normal birth weight singleton babies. Results. More than 50% of LBW babies were from the mothers with height ≤145 cm while only 9.43% of NBW babies were from the mothers with that height. Finally, after multivariate logistic regression analysis, maternal height, time of first antenatal care (ANC visit, number of ANC visits, iron supplementation, calcium supplementation, maternal education, any illness during pregnancy, and hypertension were found as the significant predictors of LBW. However, maternal blood group AB, normal maternal Body Mass Index (BMI, mother’s age of 30 or more years, and starting ANC visit earlier were found to be protective for LBW. Conclusion. Study findings suggest that selectively targeted interventions such as delay age at first pregnancy, improving maternal education and nutrition, and iron and calcium supplementation can prevent LBW in Nepal.

  7. The relationship between thrombophilic mutations and preeclampsia: a prospective case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preeclampsia and its association with thrombophillia remain controversial, due to inconsistent results in different studies, which different ethnic groups, selection criteria, and patient numbers. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between thrombophillia and preeclamptic patients in our region. In a prospective case-control study, we compared 100 consecutive women with preeclampsia and eclampsia (group 1) with 100 normal pregnant women (group 2). All women were tested two months after delivery for mutations of factor V Leiden, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and prothrombin gene mutation mutataion as well as for deficiencies of protein C, protein S, and antithrmbin III. A thrombophilic mutation was found in 42 (42%) and 28(28%) women in group I and group II, respectively (P+0.27, OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.2). The incidence of Factor V Leiden mutation (heterozygous), prothrombin mutation (heterozygous), prothrombin mutation (homozygous), MTHFR mutation (homozygous) was not statistically significant in group 1 compared with group 2 (P>0.05). Also, deficiencies of protein S, protein c and antithrombin III were not statistically significant in group I com pared with group II (P>0.05). There was no difference in thrombophilic mutations between preeclamptic patients and normal pregnant women in our region. Therefore, we suggest that preeclamptic patients should not be tested for thrombophilia. (author)

  8. Serum Copper Concentration in Newborns with Neural Tube Defects in Northern Iran; A Case Control Study

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    Mohammad-Jafar Golalipour

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to determine the eventual association between copper deficiency in newborns with neural tube defects (NTD in Northern Iran. A high prevalence of neural tube defects has been reported from this region.Methods: This hospital based case control study was carried out on 13 newborns having neural tube defects and 35 healthy controls in Northern Iran during 2005-2006. Serum copper was measured by spectrophotometery.Findings: Serum copper level in newborns with NTD and healthy normal newborns was 16.5 (�7.2 ?mol/l and 16.7 (�6.6 ?mol/l, respectively. In case group 38.5% of newborns and in control group 28.6% had copper deficiency. Logistic regression analysis showed no association between the presence of NTD and copper deficiency (OR:1.6, 95% CI=0.3-7.1, P=0.5.Conclusion:This study showed no association between NTD and copper deficiency in newborns.

  9. Chinese Eye Exercises and Myopia Development in School Age Children: A Nested Case-control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Meng-Tian; Li, Shi-Ming; Peng, Xiaoxia; Li, Lei; Ran, Anran; Meng, Bo; Sun, Yunyun; Liu, Luo-Ru; Li, He; Millodot, Michel; Wang, Ningli

    2016-01-01

    Chinese eye exercises have been implemented in China as an intervention for controlling children's myopia for over 50 years. This nested case-control study investigated Chinese eye exercises and their association with myopia development in junior middle school children. Outcome measures were the onset and progression of myopia over a two-year period. Cases were defined as 1. Myopia onset (cycloplegic spherical equivalent ≤ -0.5 diopter in non-myopic children). 2. Myopia progression (myopia shift of ≥1.0 diopter in those who were myopic at baseline). Two independent investigators assessed the quality of Chinese eye exercises performance at the end of the follow-up period. Of 260 children at baseline (mean age was 12.7 ± 0.5 years), 201 were eligible for this study. There was no association between eye exercises and the risk of myopia-onset (OR = 0.73, 95%CI: 0.24-2.21), nor myopia progression (OR = 0.79, 95%CI: 0.41-1.53). The group who performed high quality exercises had a slightly lower myopia progression of 0.15 D than the children who did not perform the exercise over a period of 2 years. However, the limited sample size, low dosage and performance quality of Chinese eye exercises in children did not result in statistical significance and require further studies. PMID:27329615

  10. Paternal psychosocial work conditions and mental health outcomes: A case-control study

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    Hershler Ruth

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of social and family environments in the development of mental health problems among children and youth has been widely investigated. However, the degree to which parental working conditions may impact on developmental psychopathology has not been thoroughly studied. Methods We conducted a case-control study of several mental health outcomes of 19,833 children of sawmill workers and their association with parental work stress, parental socio-demographic characteristics, and paternal mental health. Results Multivariate analysis conducted with four distinct age groups (children, adolescents, young adults, and adults revealed that anxiety based and depressive disorders were associated with paternal work stress in all age groups and that work stress was more strongly associated with alcohol and drug related disorders in adulthood than it was in adolescence and young adulthood. Conclusion This study provides support to the tenet that being exposed to paternal work stress during childhood can have long lasting effects on the mental health of individuals.

  11. Neonatal Mortality Risk Factors in a Rural Part of Iran: A Nested Case-Control Study

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    R Chaman

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Due to complex causal framework of neonatal mortality, improvement of this health indicator is quite gradual and it's decreasing trend is not as great as other health indicators such as infant and under 5 mortality rates.This study was conducted to evaluate neonatal mortality risk factors based on nested case-control design."nMethods:  The study population was 6900 neonates who were born in rural areas of Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad province (South of Iran. They were under follow up till the end of neonatal period and the outcome of interest was neonatal death. By using risk set sampling method, 97 cases and 97 controls were selected in study cohort."nResults: Prematurity (OR= 5.57, LBW (OR= 7.68, C-section (OR= 7.27, birth rank more than 3 (OR=6.95 and birth spac­ing less than 24 months (OR= 4.65 showed significant statistical association (P< 0.05 with neonatal mortality. The Popula­tion Attributable Fraction (PAF was 0.45 for LBW, 0.40 for prematurity, 0.28 for C-section, 0.30 for birth rank more than 3, and 0.16 for birth spacing less than 24 months."nConclusion: Prematurity, low birth weight, C-section, birth spacing less than 24 months and birth rank more than 3 are impor­tant risk factors for neonatal mortality.

  12. Association of selenoprotein S gene polymorphism with ischemic stroke in a Chinese case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Xia; Guan, Hong-Jun; Liu, Jian-Ping; Guo, Yu-Peng; Yang, Yong; Niu, Ying-Ying; Yao, Li-Yan; Yang, Yin-Dong; Yue, Hong-Yu; Meng, Li-Li; Cui, Xin-Yu; Yang, Xiao-Wei; Gao, Jin-Xiao

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies showed that selenoprotein S (SELS) was associated with a range of inflammatory markers, and its gene expression was influenced by a polymorphism in the promoter region. The genetic basis of the ischemic stroke has now been largely determined, so the aim of the study was to examine the role of SELS genetic variants in the ischemic stroke risk in a Chinese population. We conducted a case-control study with 239 ischemic stroke patients and 240 controls. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SELS genes were analyzed for association with the risk of ischemic stroke in the Chinese Han population. No evidence of ischemic stroke association was observed with the SNP rs34713741. Interestingly, the strongest evidence showed that SELS SNP rs4965814 was associated with ischemic stroke (P hazard ratio: 2.43(1.03-5.75)]; a similar trend was also found in men carrying the TC genotype of rs4965814 [hazard ratio: 1.81(1.06-3.08)]. SNP rs4965814 of SELS may affect the susceptibility to ischemic stroke. Understanding the inflammatory mechanisms of ischemic stroke may give new therapeutic targets to pharmacologists. PMID:25390504

  13. Bladder cancer among workers in the textile industry: results of a Spanish case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, C A; Riboli, E; Lopez-Abente, G

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents results from a case-control study carried out in the county of Mataro, Spain. The study was designed to investigate the possible causes of an unusually high mortality rate from bladder cancer in Mataro county as compared to Spain as a whole, and this report focuses on occupational exposures. The study is based on 57 cases who were hospitalized for or died from bladder cancer between 1978 and 1981. Two controls per case were matched for sex, age, residence, and date of either hospitalization or death. Information was collected on smoking, coffee drinking, and occupation. Occupational histories were then evaluated and coded blind by a group of occupational health physicians. Analyses were carried out by means of conditional logistic regression. Among a group of common occupational sectors, an increased risk for past employment in the textile industry (OR = 2.2; p = .038) was found. Further analyses indicated that the risk is particularly elevated (OR = 4.41; 95% confidence limits; 1.15-16.84) for subjects who worked in dyeing or printing and who were most probably exposed to azo-dyes. Exposure in the textile industry may be responsible for 16% of the bladder cancers in the Mataro area. A list of dyes commonly used in the Mataro textile industries was compiled and cross-checked with lists of substances tested or evaluated for carcinogenesis. PMID:3232687

  14. Two-stage case-control association study of dopamine-related genes and migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardo Julio

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously reported risk haplotypes for two genes related with serotonin and dopamine metabolism: MAOA in migraine without aura and DDC in migraine with aura. Herein we investigate the contribution to migraine susceptibility of eight additional genes involved in dopamine neurotransmission. Methods We performed a two-stage case-control association study of 50 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, selected according to genetic coverage parameters. The first analysis consisted of 263 patients and 274 controls and the replication study was composed by 259 cases and 287 controls. All cases were diagnosed according to ICHD-II criteria, were Spanish Caucasian, and were sex-matched with control subjects. Results Single-marker analysis of the first population identified nominal associations of five genes with migraine. After applying a false discovery rate correction of 10%, the differences remained significant only for DRD2 (rs2283265 and TH (rs2070762. Multiple-marker analysis identified a five-marker T-C-G-C-G (rs12363125-rs2283265-rs2242592-rs1554929-rs2234689 risk haplotype in DRD2 and a two-marker A-C (rs6356-rs2070762 risk haplotype in TH that remained significant after correction by permutations. These results, however, were not replicated in the second independent cohort. Conclusion The present study does not support the involvement of the DRD1, DRD2, DRD3, DRD5, DBH, COMT, SLC6A3 and TH genes in the genetic predisposition to migraine in the Spanish population.

  15. Case-control study of leukemia at a naval nuclear shipyard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A matched case-control study was conducted of 53 leukemia deaths and of 212 controls within a previously studied cohort of 24,545 on-shore workers employed between January 1, 1952 and August 15, 1977 at the Portsmouth (New Hampshire) Naval Shipyard. The study sought to ascertain a priori whether there was an association between leukemia deaths and occupational exposure to either ionizing radiation or organic solvents. To obtain information on individual exposures, radiation dose histories and detailed work histories by job and shop were evaluated for each subject. No statistically significant associations were found either between ionizing radiation or presumed solvent exposure and myelogenous or lymphatic leukemia. However, when specific job categories and shops were examined without benefit of a priori hypotheses, two occupations, electrician and welder, were found to be associated with leukemia. For electricians, the Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio (ORMH) was significantly elevated for all leukemias (ORMH = 3.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.29-6.98), particularly for lymphatic leukemia (ORMH = 6.00, 95% CI = 1.47-24.45). For welders, the odds ratio was not significantly elevated for all leukemias (ORMH = 2.25, 95% CI = 0.92-5.53), but was significantly elevated for myeloid leukemia (ORMH = 3.83, 95% CI = 1.28-11.46). These findings persisted when potential confounders were adjusted by means of a conditional logistic regression model

  16. Factors associated with syphilis infection: a comprehensive analysis based on a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Y; Li, S-L; Lin, H-L; Lin, Z-F; Zhu, X-Z; Fan, J-Y; Gao, K; Zhang, H-L; Lin, L-R; Liu, L-L; Tong, M-L; Niu, J-J; Yang, T-C

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to comprehensively evaluate factors that influence the likelihood of syphilis infection from risk-taking behaviours and medical conditions. A retrospective case-control study was conducted by enrolling 664 syphilis inpatients (excluding 11 congenital syphilis patients) and 800 sex- and age-matched controls. Medical histories, clinical data and patient interview data were collected and subjected to logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of syphilis in the study population was 3·9% (675/17 304). By univariate analysis, syphilis infection was associated with migration between cities, marital status, smoking, reproductive history, hypertension, elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) (P syphilis-HBV co-infection was observed in HIV-negative patients and further research revealed an association between syphilis and specific HBV serological reactivity. Syphilis was also associated with the frequency, duration and status of tobacco use. Multivariate analysis indicated that syphilis infection was independently associated with migration between cities [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1·368, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·048-1·785], current smoking (aOR 1·607, 95% CI 1·177-2·195), elevated BUN (aOR 1·782, 95% CI 1·188-2·673) and some serological patterns of HBV infection. To prevent the spread of infectious diseases, inpatients and blood donors should be tested for HIV, syphilis, HBV and HCV simultaneously. PMID:26467944

  17. Air Pollution and the Risk of Cardiac Defects: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Bing-Fang; Lee, Yungling Leo; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2015-11-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies have assessed the role of the exposure to ambient air pollution in the development of cardiac birth defects, but they have provided somewhat inconsistent results. To assess the associations between exposure to ambient air pollutants and the risk of cardiac defects, a population-based case-control study was conducted using 1087 cases of cardiac defects and a random sample of 10,870 controls from 1,533,748 Taiwanese newborns in 2001 to 2007.Logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios for 10 ppb increases in O3 and 10 μg/m increases in PM10. In addition, we compared the risk of cardiac defects in 4 categories-high exposure (>75th percentile); medium exposure (75th to 50th percentile); low exposure (patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) were associated with 10 ppb increases in O3 exposure during the first 3 gestational months among term and preterm babies. In comparison between high PM10 exposure and reference category, there were statistically significant elevations in the effect estimates of ASD for all and terms births. In addition, there was a negative or weak association between SO2, NO2, CO, and cardiac defects.The study proved that exposure to outdoor air O3 and PM10 during the first trimester of gestation may increase the risk of VSD, ASD, and PDA. PMID:26554783

  18. High Prevalence of Sarcopenia in Korean Patients after Hip Fracture: a Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jun Il; Ha, Yong Chan; Kwon, Hyeok Bin; Lee, Young Kyun; Koo, Kyung Hoi; Yoo, Moon Jib

    2016-09-01

    Sarcopenia-related falls and fractures are increasing worldwide due to the aging population. The purpose of this study was to 1) evaluate anthropometric characteristics related to hip fracture in Korean patients, 2) investigate sarcopenia prevalence in hip fracture (HF) and non-hip fracture (NF) groups, and 3) investigate the correlation between sarcopenia and osteoporosis. This case-control study examined 359 HF and 1,614 NF normal populations using Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. We performed whole-body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to analyze body composition using the skeletal muscle mass index (SMI: lean mass/height²) and bone mineral density (BMD). In the HF group, using the AWGS definition, the prevalence of sarcopenia in women and men was 44.3% and 68.2%, respectively; in the NF group, it was 7.1% and 16.1%, respectively. Lower appendicular SMI (P sarcopenia (P sarcopenia (OR = 6.52; 95% CI = 4.67-9.09), age (OR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.13-1.17), and osteoporosis (OR = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.35-2.58) were associated with the occurrence of a hip fracture. This study showed a higher prevalence of sarcopenia in patients with hip fractures compared with a normal population, and higher prevalence of sarcopenia in men. PMID:27510394

  19. Delirium markers in older fallers: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doherty K

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Kelly Doherty,1 Elizabeth Archambault,1 Brittany Kelly,1,2 James L Rudolph1,3,4 1Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA, USA; 2School of Nursing, Science & Health Professions, Regis College, Boston, MA, USA; 3Division of Aging, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 4Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Background: When a hospitalized older patient falls or develops delirium, there are significant consequences for the patient and the health care system. Assessments of inattention and altered consciousness, markers for delirium, were analyzed to determine if they were also associated with falls. Methods: This retrospective case-control study from a regional tertiary Veterans Affairs referral center identified falls and delirium risk factors from quality databases from 2010 to 2012. Older fallers with complete delirium risk assessments prior to falling were identified. As a control, non-fallers were matched at a 3:1 ratio. Admission risk factors that were compared in fallers and non-fallers included altered consciousness, cognitive performance, attention, sensory deficits, and dehydration. Odds ratio (OR was reported (95% confidence interval [CI]. Results: After identifying 67 fallers, the control population (n=201 was matched on age (74.4±9.8 years and ward (83.6% medical; 16.4% intensive care unit. Inattention as assessed by the Months of the Year Backward test was more common in fallers (67.2% versus 50.8%, OR=2.0; 95% CI: 1.1–3.7. Fallers tended to have altered consciousness prior to falling (28.4% versus 12.4%, OR=2.8; 95% CI: 1.3–5.8. Conclusion: In this case-control study, alterations in consciousness and inattention, assessed prior to falling, were more common in patients who fell. Brief assessments of consciousness and attention should be considered for inclusion in fall prediction. Keywords: geriatrics, patient centered outcomes research, patient safety

  20. MGMT Leu84Phe polymorphism contributes to cancer susceptibility: evidence from 44 case-control studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: O(6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase is one of the few proteins to directly remove alkylating agents in the human DNA direct reversal repair pathway. A large number of case-control studies have been conducted to explore the association between MGMT Leu84Phe polymorphism and cancer risk. However, the results were not consistent. METHODS: We carried out a meta-analysis of 44 case-control studies to clarify the association between the Leu84Phe polymorphism and cancer risk. RESULTS: Overall, significant association of the T allele with cancer susceptibility was verified with meta-analysis under a recessive genetic model (P<0.001, OR=1.30, 95%CI 1.24-1.50 and TT versus CC comparison (P=0.001, OR=1.29, 95% CI 1.12-1.50. In subgroup analysis, a significant increased risk was found for lung cancer (TT versus CC, P=0.027, OR=1.67, 95% CI 1.06-2.63; recessive genetic model, P=0.32, OR=1.64, 95% CI 1.04-2.58, whereas risk of colorectal cancer was significantly low under a dominant genetic model (P=0.019, OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.72-0.97. Additionally, a significant association between TT genetic model and total cancer risk was found in the Caucasian population (TT versus CC, P=0.014, OR=1.29, 95% CI 1.05-1.59; recessive genetic model, P=0.009, OR=1.31, 95% CI 1.07-1.61, but not in the Asian population. An increased risk for lung cancer was also verified in the Caucasian population (TT versus CC, P=0.035, OR=1.62, 95% CI 1.04-2.53; recessive genetic model, P=0.048, OR=1.57, 95% CI 1.01-2.45. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that MGMT Leu84Phe polymorphism might contribute to the susceptibility of certain cancers.

  1. MGMT Leu84Phe Polymorphism Contributes to Cancer Susceptibility: Evidence from 44 Case-Control Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cuicui; Sun, Yan; Jia, Chuanliang; Zhang, Lijing; Salahuddin, Taufiq; Li, Xiaodong; Lang, Juntian; Song, Xicheng

    2013-01-01

    Background O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase is one of the few proteins to directly remove alkylating agents in the human DNA direct reversal repair pathway. A large number of case-control studies have been conducted to explore the association between MGMT Leu84Phe polymorphism and cancer risk. However, the results were not consistent. Methods We carried out a meta-analysis of 44 case-control studies to clarify the association between the Leu84Phe polymorphism and cancer risk. Results Overall, significant association of the T allele with cancer susceptibility was verified with meta-analysis under a recessive genetic model (P<0.001, OR=1.30, 95%CI 1.24-1.50) and TT versus CC comparison (P=0.001, OR=1.29, 95% CI 1.12-1.50). In subgroup analysis, a significant increased risk was found for lung cancer (TT versus CC, P=0.027, OR=1.67, 95% CI 1.06-2.63; recessive genetic model, P=0.32, OR=1.64, 95% CI 1.04-2.58), whereas risk of colorectal cancer was significantly low under a dominant genetic model (P=0.019, OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.72-0.97). Additionally, a significant association between TT genetic model and total cancer risk was found in the Caucasian population (TT versus CC, P=0.014, OR=1.29, 95% CI 1.05-1.59; recessive genetic model, P=0.009, OR=1.31, 95% CI 1.07-1.61), but not in the Asian population. An increased risk for lung cancer was also verified in the Caucasian population (TT versus CC, P=0.035, OR=1.62, 95% CI 1.04-2.53; recessive genetic model, P=0.048, OR=1.57, 95% CI 1.01-2.45). Conclusions These results suggest that MGMT Leu84Phe polymorphism might contribute to the susceptibility of certain cancers. PMID:24086516

  2. EFFECT OF NEBULIZED COLISTIN ON THE VENTILATOR CIRCUIT: A PROSPECTIVE PILOT CASE-CONTROL STUDY FROM A SINGLE CANCER CENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyad M Ghonimat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nebulized colistin (NC is used for the treatment of pneumonia due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. In this one-year case-control study, our objective was to evaluate the effect of NC on the ventilator circuit (VC components. The case group consisted of 25 mechanically-ventilated patients who received NC, while the control group was 25 mechanically-ventilated patients who did not receive NC. Respiratory therapists inspected the VC every 4 hrs and whenever a ventilator alarm was reported. The VC component was changed if the alarm did not subside after necessary measures were performed. Patients from both groups were treated at the adult ICU in King Hussein Cancer Center (KHCC. In the case group, 22(88% patients required changing at least one of the circuit components (flow sensor, exhalation membrane, or nebulizer kit. The median number of changes (range per patient of the flow sensor, exhalation membrane, and nebulizer kit were: 2(1-3, 2(1-6, and 1(1-2, respectively. Large amounts of white crystals, which resembled the colistin powder, were reported on the replaced VC components. The flow sensor was changed in 2 control patients, but white crystals were absent. Crystals obtained from one case subject were confirmed to be colistin by chromatographic mass spectroscopy. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of crystal formation on the efficacy of NC and clinical outcomes.

  3. Source attribution of human salmonellosis using a meta-analysis of case-control studies of sporadic infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho Calado Domingues, Ana Rita; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq;

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella is an important cause of human illness. Disease is frequently associated with foodborne transmission, but other routes of exposure are recognized. Identifying sources of disease is essential for prioritizing public health interventions. Numerous case-control studies of sporadic...... salmonellosis have been published, often using different methodologies and settings. Systematic reviews consist of a formal process for literature review focused on a research question. With the objective of identifying the most important risk factors for salmonellosis, we performed a systematic review of case......-control studies and a meta-analysis of obtained results. Thirty-five Salmonella case-control studies were identified. In the meta-analysis, heterogeneity between studies and possible sources of bias were investigated, and pooled odds ratios estimated. Results suggested that travel, predisposing factors, eating...

  4. Therapeutic radiation and hyperparathyroidism. A case-control study in Rochester, Minn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case-control study was conducted among residents of Rochester, Minn, to assess the influence of prior therapeutic radiation on the risk of primary hyperparathyroidism. Fifty-one cases of surgically proven primary hyperparathyroidism diagnosed from 1975 through 1983 were each matched by age and gender to two control subjects, with radiation exposure documented through preexisting medical records. The overall odds ratio for any prior therapeutic radiation therapy was 1.9 (95% confidence interval, 0.9 to 4.4) and it was 2.3 (95% confidence interval, 0.9 to 5.7) when limited to those with prior head and neck radiation. Among women, the figures were 2.9 (95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 7.5) for any prior therapeutic radiation and 3.4 (95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 10.2) for head and neck exposure. This study confirms the association between primary hyperparathyroidism and prior therapeutic radiation exposure, at least for women in this population

  5. A melanoma case-control study at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquavella, J F; Wilkinson, G S; Tietjen, G L; Key, C R; Stebbings, J H; Voelz, G L

    1983-09-01

    We conducted a melanoma case-control study at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to investigate whether related occupational exposures or personal characteristics of employees could be identified. This study was prompted by a recent report from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that melanoma was much more frequent than expected among employees and that persons suffering from melanoma more often worked as chemists. Our investigation did not uncover an association with plutonium body burden, cumulative external radiation exposure, or employment as a chemist or a physicist. The major finding was that cases were more educated than controls. Melanoma risk was 2.11 among college-educated employees and increased to 3.17 among those with graduate degrees (Mantel-extension linear trend probability = 0.038). This finding is consistent with the often reported increased melanoma incidence among persons of higher social class. It points to personal characteristics, particular to persons of higher educational attainment, as risk factors for melanoma at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. PMID:6885467

  6. Consultation for Small-Sized Penis in the Egyptian Males: A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Nader

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to report penile dimensions in adult Egyptian males consulting for small-sized penis (SSP) and describe their demographics and andrological profile. A case control study was designed through retrospective data analysis of patients (n = 239) seeking advice for SSP and a control group (n = 59). This included sociodemographics, other andrological complaints, and penile dimensions (pendulous length [PL], penopubic or total length [TL], and circumference [CF]) at flaccid and erect states and the size of the prepubic fatty pad. The results reported that most patients were single, students, and smokers and had not completed a university education. Several patients reported falsely premature ejaculation (PE), penile curvature (PC), and small-sized testes. Most penile dimensions of the patients (mean, cm) were significantly lower than those of the controls, whether in flaccid (PL: 7.4 vs. 8.05, p = .008; CF: 8.7 vs. 8.98, p = .026) or erect state (PL: 11.8 vs. 13, p = .000; TL: 14.2 vs. 15, p = .000; CF: 11.3 vs. 11.8, p = .003). However, no patient presented with a pendulous penile length <4 cm in flaccid or <7 cm in erect state. In conclusion, Egyptian men consulting for SSP did not have true small organs, but their penile dimensions were slightly smaller than those of men without such complaint. The proper sexual education program is highly advisable in these situations to avoid the myths and misconceptions about sexuality. PMID:25563384

  7. Occupational exposures and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: Canadian case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinelli John J

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to study the association between Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL and occupational exposures related to long held occupations among males in six provinces of Canada. Methods A population based case-control study was conducted from 1991 to 1994. Males with newly diagnosed NHL (ICD-10 were stratified by province of residence and age group. A total of 513 incident cases and 1506 population based controls were included in the analysis. Conditional logistic regression was conducted to fit statistical models. Results Based on conditional logistic regression modeling, the following factors independently increased the risk of NHL: farmer and machinist as long held occupations; constant exposure to diesel exhaust fumes; constant exposure to ionizing radiation (radium; and personal history of another cancer. Men who had worked for 20 years or more as farmer and machinist were the most likely to develop NHL. Conclusion An increased risk of developing NHL is associated with the following: long held occupations of faer and machinist; exposure to diesel fumes; and exposure to ionizing radiation (radium. The risk of NHL increased with the duration of employment as a farmer or machinist.

  8. A matched case control study of risk indicators of breast cancer in assam, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajbongshi, N; Mahanta, L B; Nath, D C; Sarma, J D

    2015-04-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide especially in a developing country like India. It also occupies the highest place with relative proportion 17.5% in the Hospital Based Cancer Registry in progress in the Dr. B. Borooah Cancer Research Institute. Dr. B. Borooah Cancer Research Institute is the Regional Cancer Care Center for entire North East region of India. With this background a matched case control study of 100 cases of breast cancer and 100 controls was carried out to investigate the role of different Socio economic, Female Reproductive and Life style related factors and to understand the etiology of breast cancer in Assam. Controls are matched to the cases by age at diagnosis (±5 years), family income and place of residence with matching ratio 1:1. Data were collected using questionnaire and then conditional logistic regression analysis is used to estimate the odd ratios for several factors. Study revealed that breast cancer occurrence has statistical association with the factors chewing habits (p=0.003), number of children (p=0.080), age at marriage (p=0.014), age at first child birth (p=0.007), age at menarche (p=0.010). PMID:26007270

  9. Mental depression as a risk factor for periodontal disease: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zareen Fatima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Periodontal disease is an immune-inflammatory response of tooth supporting structures to microbial dental plaque. It is influenced by various factors such as poor oral hygiene, smoking, systemic diseases, and psychological factors such as stress. This case-control study was performed to consider mental depression as a risk factor for periodontal disease. Materials and Methods: A total of 170 subjects were selected. All the subjects were assessed for the presence of depression by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria and severity of depression was measured by Hamilton depression rating scale. For assessment of periodontal disease, clinical periodontal parameters oral hygiene index, gingival index, probing pocket depth (PPD, and clinical attachment level (CAL were recorded. Results: Univariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that subjects with depression had significantly higher values of debris index, calculus index, gingival index, PPD, and CAL (P 6 months of illness were higher (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, it is concluded that mental depression significantly affects the periodontium. It may be considered as risk factor for periodontal disease.

  10. A Shrinkage Method for Testing the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium in Case-Control Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Yong; Yuan, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Testing for the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) is often used as an initial step for checking the quality of genotyping. When testing the HWE for case-control data, the impact of a potential genetic association between the marker and the disease must be controlled for otherwise the results may be biased. Li and Li (2008) proposed a likelihood ratio test (LRT) that accounts for this potential genetic association and it is more powerful than the commonly used control-only χ2 test. However, the LRT is not efficient when the marker is independent of the disease, and also requires numerical optimization to calculate the test statistic. In this article, we propose a novel shrinkage test for assessing the HWE. The proposed shrinkage test yields higher statistical power than the LRT when the marker is independent of or weakly associated with the disease, and converges to the LRT when the marker is strongly associated with the disease. In addition, the proposed shrinkage test has a closed form and can be easily used to test the HWE for large datasets that result from genome-wide association studies. We compare the performance of the shrinkage test with existing methods using simulation studies, and apply the shrinkage test to a genome-wide association dataset for Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:23934751

  11. Increasing frequency of penicillin-resistant pneumococci: epidemiological aspects and case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitai, Y; Rotenberg, M; Wirtschafter, D; Haas, H; Michel, J

    1985-04-01

    At the Hadassah University Hospital, Mt. Scopus, Jerusalem, the frequency of patients with relatively penicillin-resistant pneumococci (RPRP) isolates has increased from 0.9 to 10.8% during the years 1979-82. Infants and children were particularly involved. Significantly more RPRP isolates were found in those less than 14 years old than in those who were older (P less than 0.005). The determination of susceptibility or relative resistance to penicillin was based on the disk sensitivity method, which remained unchanged throughout the study period. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) to penicillin G was also determined for 20 RPRP isolates and was found to be in the range of relative resistance to penicillin (0.25 to 0.50 micrograms/ml) in all 20 isolates. A case-control study of 16 index patients examined antibiotic usage during the 60 days preceding pneumococcal isolation. Total antibiotic usage was high in both groups (18.8 vs. 8.8 days, P = 0.2); beta-lactam antibiotic usage was significantly higher in the RPRP group than in the control group (13.3 vs. 4.2 days, 0.01 less than P less than 0.02). General prescribing practices, even in nonisolated areas where there is no need for public health programs to dispense prophylactic antibiotics, may produce sufficiently high antibiotic exposures to aid the emergence of RPRP strains. PMID:3846591

  12. Lifetime total and beverage specific - alcohol intake and prostate cancer risk: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carruba Giuseppe

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated lifetime alcohol consumption and prostate cancer risk in a case-control study conducted in Buffalo, NY (1998–2001. Methods The study included 88 men, aged 45 to 85 years with incident, histologically-confirmed prostate cancer and 272 controls. We conducted extensive in-person interviews regarding lifetime alcohol consumption and other epidemiologic data. Results Prostate cancer risk was not associated with lifetime intake of total and beverage specific ethanol. In addition we found no association with number of drinks per day (average drinks per day over the lifetime or drinks per drinking day (average drinks per day on drinking days only over the lifetime. However, we observed an inverse association with the total number of drinking years. Men in the lowest tertile of total drinking years had a two-fold prostate cancer risk than men in the highest tertile (OR 2.16, 95% CI 0.98–4.78, p for trend Conclusion Our results suggest that alcohol intake distribution across lifetime may play a more important role in prostate cancer etiology than total lifetime consumption.

  13. Familial liability, obstetric complications and childhood development abnormalities in early onset schizophrenia: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucarelli Elisabetta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic and environmental risk factors and gene-environment interactions are linked to higher likelihood of developing schizophrenia in accordance with the neurodevelopmental model of disease; little is known about risk factors and early development in early-onset schizophrenia (EOS and very early-onset schizophrenia (VEOS. Methods We present a case-control study of a sample of 21 patients with EOS/VEOS and a control group of 21 patients with migraine, recruited from the Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Neurologic and Psychiatric Science, University of Bari, Italy. The aim was to assess the statistical association between VEOS/EOS and family history for psychiatric disorders, obstetric complications and childhood developmental abnormalities using 2 × 2 tables and a Chi Squared or Fisher test. Results The results show a statistical association between EOS/VEOS and schizophrenia and related disorders (P = 0.02 and personality disorders (P = 0.003 in relatives, and between EOS/VEOS and developmental abnormalities of early relational skills (P = 0.008 and learning (P = 0.04; there is not a statistically relevant difference between cases and controls (P > 0.05 for any obstetric complications (pre, peri and postpartum. Conclusions This study confirms the significant role of familial liability but not of obstetric complications in the pathogenesis of VEOS/EOS; the association between childhood developmental abnormalities and EOS/VEOS supports the neurodevelopmental model of disease.

  14. Nested case-control study on the risk factors of colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Chen; Jian Cai; Xi-Yong Liu; Xi-Yuan Ma; Kai-Yan Yao; Shu Zheng

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the risk factors of colon cancer andrectal cancer.METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted ina cohort of 64 693 subjects who participated in a colorectalcancer screening program from 1989 to 1998 in Jiashancounty, Zhejiang, China. 196 cases of colorectal cancer weredetected from 1990 to 1998 as the case group and 980non-colorectal cancer subjects, matched with factors of age,gender, resident location, were randomly selected from the64 693 cohort as controls. By using univariate analysis andmutivariate conditional logistic regression analysis, the oddsratio (OR) and its 95 % confidence interval (95 %CI) werecalculated between colorectal cancer and personal habits,dietary factors, as well as intestinal related symptoms.RESULTS: The mutivariate analysis results showed that aftermatched with age, sex and resident location, mucous bloodstool history and mixed sources of drinking water were closelyassociated with colon cancer and rectal cancer, OR values forthe mucous blood stool history were 3.508 (95 %CI: 1.370-8.985) and 2.139 (95 %CI: 1.040-4.402) respectively; for themixed drinking water sources, 2.387 (95 %CI: 1.243-4.587)and 1.951 (95 %CI: 1.086-3.506) respectively. All reachedthe significant level with a P-value less than 0.05.CONCLUSION: The study suggested that mucous bloodstool history and mixed sources of drinking water were therisk factors of colon cancer and rectal cancer. There was noany significant association between dietary habits and theincidence of colorectal cancer.

  15. Risk factors for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: A case- control study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Ming Zhou; Zheng-Feng Yin; Jia-Mei Yang; Bin Li; Wen-Yu Shao; Feng Xu; Yu-Lan Wang; Dian-Qi Li

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To carry out a hospital-based case-control study to investigate risk factors for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) in China.METHODS: A total of 312 ICC cases and 438 matched controls were included in the study. The presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertention, hepatolithiasis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, liver fluke infection (Clonorchis sinensis), was investigated through clinical records. Blood from all participants was tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV antibodies. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using conditional logistic regression.RESULTS: Compared with controls, ICC patients had a higher prevalence of HBsAg seropositivity (48.4% vs 9.6%, P < 0.000), and hepatolithiasis (5.4% vs 1.1%, P = 0.001). By multivariate analysis, the significant risk factors for development of ICC were HBsAg seropositivity (adjusted OR, 8.876, 95% CI, 5.973-13.192), and hepatolithiasis (adjusted OR, 5.765, 95% CI, 1.972-16.851). The prevalence of anti-HCV seropositivity, diabetes mellitus, hypertention, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption were not significantly different between cases and controls.CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that HBV infection and hepatolithiasis are strong risk factors for development of ICC in China.

  16. High Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Colorectal Cancer in Hispanics: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabe-Dones, Raul D.; Gonzalez-Pons, Maria; Villar-Prados, Alejandro; Lacourt-Ventura, Mercedes; Rodríguez-Arroyo, Heriberto; Fonseca-Williams, Sharon; Velazquez, Francisco E.; Diaz-Algorri, Yaritza; Lopez-Diaz, Sofia M.; Rodríguez, Nayra; Yamamura, Yasuhiro; Cruz-Correa, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    The role of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in colorectal carcinogenesis remains elusive. Based on the high incidence of HPV-associated malignancies among Puerto Rican Hispanics, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of HPV infection and viral integration in colorectal tissues in order to evaluate its putative role in colorectal cancer (CRC). In this case-control study, the prevalence of HPV infection in CRC (cases n = 45) and normal colon mucosa from cancer-free subjects (controls n = 36) was assessed by a nested PCR strategy. HPV-16 genotyping was performed in HPV-positive tissues and the physical status of the HPV-16 genome was determined by E2 detection. HPV was detected in 19 of 45 (42.2%) CRC cases (mean age 61.1 ± 10.7 years, 24 males) and in 1 of 36 (2.8%) controls (mean age 60.9 ± 9.6 years, 24 males) with an OR = 25.58 (95% CI 3.21 to 203.49). HPV-16 was detected in 63.2% of the HPV-positive colorectal tumors; genome integration was observed in all HPV-16 positive cases. This is the first report showing the high prevalence of HPV infections in Caribbean Hispanic colorectal tumors. Despite evidence of HPV integration into the host genome, further mechanistic analysis examining HPV oncoprotein expression and the putative role of these oncoproteins in colorectal carcinogenesis is warranted. PMID:26904111

  17. High Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Colorectal Cancer in Hispanics: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul D. Bernabe-Dones

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of Human Papillomavirus (HPV in colorectal carcinogenesis remains elusive. Based on the high incidence of HPV-associated malignancies among Puerto Rican Hispanics, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of HPV infection and viral integration in colorectal tissues in order to evaluate its putative role in colorectal cancer (CRC. In this case-control study, the prevalence of HPV infection in CRC (cases n = 45 and normal colon mucosa from cancer-free subjects (controls n = 36 was assessed by a nested PCR strategy. HPV-16 genotyping was performed in HPV-positive tissues and the physical status of the HPV-16 genome was determined by E2 detection. HPV was detected in 19 of 45 (42.2% CRC cases (mean age 61.1 ± 10.7 years, 24 males and in 1 of 36 (2.8% controls (mean age 60.9 ± 9.6 years, 24 males with an OR = 25.58 (95% CI 3.21 to 203.49. HPV-16 was detected in 63.2% of the HPV-positive colorectal tumors; genome integration was observed in all HPV-16 positive cases. This is the first report showing the high prevalence of HPV infections in Caribbean Hispanic colorectal tumors. Despite evidence of HPV integration into the host genome, further mechanistic analysis examining HPV oncoprotein expression and the putative role of these oncoproteins in colorectal carcinogenesis is warranted.

  18. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Sharafkhah, Mojtaba; Salehi, Bahman; Rafiei, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate ADHD in children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE) and compare it with healthy children. A total of 100 five to 16-year-old children with PMNE and 100 healthy children without NE were included in this case-control study as the cases and control groups, respectively. Subjects were selected from children who were referred to the pediatric clinic of the Amir Kabir Hospital of Arak, Iran, based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. ADHD was diagnosed by Conner's Parent Rating Scale-48 and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition criteria and was confirmed by consultation with a psychiatrist. Data were analyzed by binomial test using SPSS18. ADHD inattentive type was observed in 16 cases (16%) with PMNE and five controls (5%) (P=0.01). Despite these significant differences in the case and control groups, 25 (25%) and 16 (16%) children were affected by ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type (P=0.08) and 15 (15%) and 16 (16%) children were affected by ADHD mixed type (P=0.84), respectively. ADHD inattentive type in children with PMNE was significantly more common than that in healthy children. The observed correlation between ADHD inattentive type and PMNE makes psychological counseling mandatory in children with PMNE. PMID:26787570

  19. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsa Yousefichaijan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common childhood neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate ADHD in children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE and compare it with healthy children. A total of 100 five to 16-year-old children with PMNE and 100 healthy children without NE were included in this case-control study as the cases and control groups, respectively. Subjects were selected from children who were referred to the pediatric clinic of the Amir Kabir Hospital of Arak, Iran, based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. ADHD was diagnosed by Conner′s Parent Rating Scale-48 and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition criteria and was confirmed by consultation with a psychiatrist. Data were analyzed by binomial test using SPSS18. ADHD inattentive type was observed in 16 cases (16% with PMNE and five controls (5% (P = 0.01. Despite these significant differences in the case and control groups, 25 (25% and 16 (16% children were affected by ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type (P = 0.08 and 15 (15% and 16 (16% children were affected by ADHD mixed type (P = 0.84, respectively. ADHD inattentive type in children with PMNE was significantly more common than that in healthy children. The observed correlation between ADHD inattentive type and PMNE makes psychological counseling mandatory in children with PMNE.

  20. Background radiation and childhood leukemia: A nationwide register-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkilä, Atte; Erme, Sini; Arvela, Hannu; Holmgren, Olli; Raitanen, Jani; Lohi, Olli; Auvinen, Anssi

    2016-11-01

    High doses of ionizing radiation are an established cause of childhood leukemia. However, substantial uncertainty remains about the effect of low doses of radiation, including background radiation and potential differences between genetic subgroups of leukemia have rarely been explored. We investigated the effect of the background gamma radiation on childhood leukemia using a nationwide register-based case-control study. For each of the 1,093 cases, three age- and gender matched controls were selected (N = 3,279). Conditional logistic regression analyses were adjusted for confounding by Down syndrome, birth weight (large for gestational age), and maternal smoking. Complete residential histories and previously collected survey data of the background gamma radiation in Finland were used to assess the exposure of the study subjects to indoor and outdoor gamma radiation. Overall, background gamma radiation showed a non-significant association with the OR of childhood leukemia (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.97, 1.05 for 10 nSv/h increase in average equivalent dose rate to red bone marrow). In subgroup analyses, age group 2-childhood leukemia, particularly at age 2-<7 years. Our findings suggest a larger effect of radiation on leukemia with high hyperpdiploidy than other subgroups, but this result requires further confirmation. PMID:27405274

  1. Case-control study of lung cancer among workers at a uranium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this case-control study was to investigate the relationship between exposure to radiation resulting from the inhalation of uranium dust and the dust of uranium-bearing compounds and death due to lung cancer. Cases and controls were chosen from a cohort of white male workers employed at one uranium processing plant during World War II. The 330 cases consisted of all lung cancer deaths occurring in the cohort between 1943 and 1973. Level of exposure to radiation and other potential workplace carcinogens was determined for each worker using process manuals, industrial hygiene reports, air monitoring data and individual work histories. Smoking status and information regarding medical variables was determined from employee medical records. Cumulative radiation lung dose among study population members ranged from 0 to 75 rads. Data were analyzed using Mantel-Haenszel stratified analysis and logistic regression. Relative risk was found to increase with increasing level of lung dose exposure even after controlling for age, smoking status and other workplace exposures, but only for those who were over the age of 44 when first exposed. A statistically significant excess in risk was found for men in this hire age group with a cumulative lung dose of 20 rads or more. The risk associated with the overall work environment was also investigated using a summary measure of total workplace exposure called chemical rank. A similar relationship existed between chemical rank and lung cancer to that found for cumulative lung dose and lung cancer

  2. A case-control study of dietary and nondietary factors in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, T; Marshall, J; Graham, S; Mettlin, C; Swanson, M

    1983-10-01

    A case-control study is presented that estimates ovarian cancer risk for various factors, including diet. Data collected by interview between 1957 and 1965 for 274 white women aged 30-79 years with epithelial carcinoma of the ovary are compared to data similarly collected for 1,034 hospital controls. Relative risk estimates are presented for the total group as well as for premonopausal (ages 30-49) and postmenopausal (ages 50-79) are groups. In the total group, cancer risk increased with increasing age at first marriage (P less than .01) and previous history of benign breast disease (P less than 0.1), and risk decreased with increasing number of previous pregnancies (P less than .01). In the 50- to 79-year age group, a marginally significant trend for decreasing risk with increasing obesity was observed (P less than .10). There was no significant risk (i.e., P less than .10) associated with the consumption of alcohol, cigarettes, coffee, tea, total dietary protein, vitamin C, or fat at any age. In the 30- to 49-year age group only, increased risk (P less than .01) was seen in women reporting diets low in fiber and vitamin A from fruit and vegetable sources. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the apparent protective effect of vitamin A in the 30- to 49-year age group (but not dietary fiber) was independent of the nondietary factors analyzed in this study (P less than .05). PMID:6578362

  3. Coffee and methylxanthines and breast cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, F; Ron, E; Wax, Y; Modan, B

    1985-03-01

    A dietary case-control study based on 818 newly diagnosed breast cancer (BC) patients was conducted in Israel between 1975 and 1978. The role of coffee and total methylxanthine intake from coffee, tea, cola, chocolate, and cocoa drinks was evaluated in the BC patients as compared to that in two matched control populations [surgical controls (SC) and neighborhood controls (NC)]. Because it has been suggested that caffeine enhances mammary carcinogenesis in rats fed high polyunsaturated fat diets, analysis was done also in relation to fat consumption. When comparison was done to both matched control groups, a nonsignificant negative association was found between consumption of cups of coffee and BC (odds ratios of greater than or equal to 4 cups of coffee/day vs. less than or equal to 1 per week = 0.6 for BC/NC and 0.7 for BC/SC). This association was observed in all 3 ethnic subgroups studied. The pattern was stronger among the high-fat consumers after controlling for several hormonal confounding factors (two-tailed P-value for linear trend = 0.06 for SC and P = 0.05 for NC). In addition, when the consumption of methylxanthine of BC patients was compared to that of benign breast patients, adjusted by age and ethnic group, a diminished risk was found (odds ratio for BC of the highest level of methylxanthine vs. lowest level = 0.59). PMID:3856060

  4. Risk of miscarriage for pregnant users of pivmecillinam: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørgaard, Mette; Skriver, Mette Vinther; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Pedersen, Lars

    2008-04-01

    Few data exist on the risk of miscarriage after exposure to pivmecillinam. We therefore conducted a population-based case-control study in a Danish county with 0.5 million inhabitants during the period 1997-2002. We included 1,599 women with a miscarriage recorded in the Hospital Discharge Registry and selected 10 controls per case among primiparous women who had a live birth during the study period. Controls were selected from the Danish Medical Birth Registry. We obtained data on use of pivmecillinam and sulfamethizole from a prescription database. Five cases (0.30%) and 24 controls (0.15%) were exposed to pivmecillinam in the last week before the miscarriage/index date. After adjustment for maternal age, use of antidiabetics or antiepileptics, the odds ratio for miscarriages among users of pivmecillinam compared with non-users was 2.03 (95% confidence interval: 0.77-5.33) and the corresponding odds ratio for use of sulfamethizole was 1.53 (95% confidence interval: 0.76-3.09). Exposure within 2 to 12 weeks before the miscarriage was not associated with an increased risk. We concluded that use of pivmecillinam was associated with an increased risk of miscarriage, but the risk was not significantly (p=0.64) different from the risk associated with use of sulfamethizole. PMID:18397462

  5. Neospora caninum versus Brucella spp. exposure among dairy cattle in Ethiopia: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Kassahun

    2014-08-01

    This case-control study aimed at assessing the relative association of Neospora caninum and Brucella species exposure with reproductive disorders. The study was carried out between October 2011 and June 2012 on 731 dairy cows sampled from 150 dairy farms in selected 17 conurbations of Ethiopia. Two hundred sixty-six of the cows were categorized as cases based on their history of abortion or stillbirth while the remaining 465 were controls. The presence of antibody to N. caninum was screened using indirect ELISA, while Brucella spp. exposure was assayed serially using Rose Bengal Plate Test and Complement Fixation Test. Exposure to N. caninum was more frequently observed among cases (23.8%) than controls (12.7%), while no significant difference (p > 0.05) was noted for Brucella exposure between the two groups. Moreover, the proportion of cows with disorders like retention of fetal membrane, endometritis and increased inter-calving period were significantly higher (p cows. In conclusion, the finding discloses the strong association of N. caninum with reproductive disorders compared to Brucella spp. exposure. However, neither N. caninum nor Brucella spp. could explain the majority (73.2%) of the reported abortions and stillbirths in cattle. Hence, this observation underscores the need for more intensive investigation on the identification of causes of the aforementioned disorders in dairy cattle of Ethiopia. PMID:24781154

  6. Maternal determinants of intrauterine growth restriction in Goa, India: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DD Motghare

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the maternal determinants of intrauterine growth restriction. Methods: A case-control study was conducted at a tertiary care Hospital in the year 2009. Ninety eight cases of intrauterine growth restriction were compared to 98 controls, matched for newborns sex and type of delivery. Data was collected by interviewing the mother using a structured pretested schedule and perusal of antenatal records. Intrauterine growth restriction was defined as occurring if birth weight of the newborn is below 10th percentile for gestational age on the intrauterine growth curve. Data was analyzed using SPSS software version 17 package. Percentages, odds ratios with 95% CI and multiple logistic regression analysis were used wherever appropriate. Results: Maternal age, education, socioeconomic status and number of antenatal visits were found to be the significant socio-demographic factors associated with Intrauterine growth restriction while, maternal height, parity, previous spontaneous abortion, direct obstetric morbidity, indirect obstetric morbidity and anemia were the maternal biological factors found to be significantly associated on bivariate analysis. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified parity, previous spontaneous abortion, direct obstetric morbidity, indirect obstetric morbidity and antenatal visits as significant maternal determinants of intrauterine growth restriction. Conclusions: A focus on good antenatal care, especially on high risk pregnancies would go a long way in reducing the problem of intrauterine growth restriction in the community thereby ensuring a safe and healthy future for our youngest generation.

  7. Birth outcomes of patients with isolated anorectal malformations: A population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermes, Gabor; László, Daniel; Czeizel, Andrew E; Ács, Nándor

    2016-01-01

    In most patients affected by isolated anorectal malformation (IARM) the etiology is largely unknown. Thus, the aim of our project was to analyze possible risk factors for IARM. In the first step, birth outcomes of cases with IARM were analyzed on the basis of maternal socio-demographic variables, and these data are presented in this paper. Gestational age at delivery, birthweight, preterm birth, low birthweight and small for gestational age of cases with IARM were evaluated in the function of maternal age, birth/pregnancy order, marital and employment status of mothers in the population-based large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996. The study samples included 231 live-born cases with IARM, 361 matched and 38 151 population controls without any defect. IARMs are more frequent in males, twins and newborn infants with low birthweight and small-for-gestational-age, the latter being the consequence of intrauterine growth restriction. In addition, mothers of cases were younger but with higher birth order, and had lower socio-economic status. These maternal variables are characteristic for the gypsy population in Hungary. The higher proportion of gypsy women among the mothers of cases with IARM was confirmed during the home visits of the study. Male sex and intrauterine growth restriction of cases, in addition to low socioeconomic status and gypsy origin of mothers may have a role in the risk of IARMs. PMID:26259501

  8. Diet Quality Scores and Risk of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Chinese Adults: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Lin, Xiao-Ling; Fan, Yu-Ying; Liu, Yuan-Ting; Zhang, Xing-Lan; Lu, Yun-Kai; Xu, Chun-Hua; Chen, Yu-Ming

    2016-03-01

    Many studies show that dietary factors may affect the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We examined the association between overall diet quality and NPC risk in a Chinese population. This case-control study included 600 NPC patients and 600 matched controls between 2009 and 2011 in Guangzhou, China. Habitual dietary intake and various covariates were assessed via face-to-face interviews. Diet quality scores were calculated according to the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005), the alternate Healthy Eating Index (aHEI), the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I), and the alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (aMed). After adjustment for various lifestyle and dietary factors, greater diet quality scores on the HEI-2005, aHEI, and DQI-I-but not on the aMed-showed a significant association with a lower risk of NPC (p-trends, extreme quartiles of the three significant scores were 0.47 (0.32-0.68) (HEI-2005), 0.48 (0.33-0.70) (aHEI), and 0.43 (0.30-0.62) (DQI-I). In gender-stratified analyses, the favorable association remained significant in men but not in women. We found that adherence to the predefined dietary patterns represented by the HEI-2005, aHEI, and DQI-I scales predicted a lower risk of NPC in adults from south China, especially in men. PMID:26927167

  9. Case-control study of cancer deaths in high background radiation areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of a case-control study of deaths from liver, stomach and lung cancers in the high background radiation areas (HBRA) in Yangjiang County and neighboring control areas (CA). The purpose of this study was to explore the probable relationship between the cancer deaths and the environmental mutation-related factors in the two areas, so that the role of elevated natural radiation in cancer mortality could be properly ascertained. The studied numbers of cases of liver, stomach and lung cancers were 64, 28 and 17 in HBRA, and 75, 36 and 13 in CA, respectively. The proportion of the number of cases to that of the controls was 1:1 for liver cancer and 1:2 for cancers of stomach and lung. The factors studied included pesticide, smoking, alcohol consumption, medical X-ray exposure, diet, and the socioeconomic status, such as occupation, education, economic income, living space etc. The data for this study were collected through interviewing. The data collected were analysed by methods of matched and unmatched studies. The results expressed by odds ratio (OR) show that there is no significant between most factors studied and cancer deaths, although the associations of desths from stomach cancer with drinking water of nonwell source and of lung cancer with alcohol consumption in HBRA, and the associations of liver cancer deaths with occupations involving poisonous and noxious substances, pesticide and alcohol, and of lung cancer with pesticide and lower family income in CA can be found. This study has provided some clues for explaining the difference in cancer mortalities between HBRA and CA

  10. A case-control study examining association between infectious agents and acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunanda N Shrikhande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary heart disease is multi-factorial in origin and its burden is expected to rise in developing countries, including India. Evidence suggests that the inflammation caused by infection is associated with the development of atherosclerosis and heart disease. An increasing number of clinical and experimental studies point to a contribution of various infectious organisms to the development of atherosclerosis in humans. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI is associated with atherosclerosis. Objectives: The objective of the following study is to study the association between Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae and C-reactive protein (CRP with AMI. Materials and Methods: This group-matched case-control study was carried out in Government Medical College, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India. The study compared the risk of occurrence of AMI (outcome if subjects were ever-infected with H. pylori or C. pneumoniae; and their CRP positivity (exposure. Incident cases of myocardial infarctions in a tertiary care hospital were included as cases. Results: The study recruited 265 cases and 265 controls and detected an odds ratio (OR of 2.50 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.69-3.70 and an OR of 2.50 (95% CI: 1.71-3.65 for C. pneumoniae and H. pylori, respectively. Raised CRP levels had an OR of 3.85 (95% CI: 2.54-5.87. Conclusion: Although our study indicates the role of infections in the etiology of AMI in study population, the relative public health impact of these agents in the overall prevalence of AMI needs urgent research attention.

  11. Case-control study of tobacco smoke exposure and breast cancer risk in Delaware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hathcock H Leroy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoke exposure may be associated with increased breast cancer risk, although the evidence supporting the association is inconclusive. We conducted a case-control study in Delaware, incorporating detailed exposure assessment for active and secondhand smoke at home and in the workplace. Methods Primary invasive breast cancer cases diagnosed among female Delaware residents, ages 40–79, in 2000–2002 were identified through the Delaware cancer registry (n = 287. Delaware drivers license and Health Care Finance Administration records were used to select age frequency-matched controls for women Results A statistically significant increased risk of breast cancer was observed for ever having smoked cigarettes (odds ratio = 1.43, 95% confidence interval = 1.03–1.99. However, there was no evidence of a dose-response relationship between breast cancer risk and total years smoked, cigarettes per day, or pack-years. Neither residential nor workplace secondhand smoke exposure was associated with breast cancer. Recalculations of active smoking risks using a purely unexposed reference group of women who were not exposed to active or secondhand smoking did not indicate increased risks of breast cancer. Conclusion These findings do not support an association between smoking and breast cancer.

  12. The relationship between maternal periodontitis and preterm low birth weight: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satheesh Mannem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationship between periodontal diseases in pregnancy and children born prematurely or with low birth weight has been increasingly investigated, showing positive and negative results, respectively. Objective: To evaluate the association between Maternal Periodontitis and Preterm delivery or Low Birth Weight. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 104 pregnant women without systemic disease or other risk factors for preterm labor were chosen. The control group (n = 52 had term labor (infants ≥37 weeks and the case group (n = 52 had preterm labor (infants <37 weeks. Plaque index, bleeding index, and birth weight were measured. Results: The data of plaque index (cases 1.21±0.56; controls 0.63±0.31, bleeding index (cases, 2.08±0.62; controls, 1.52±0.61, birth weight (cases, 2.01±0.36; controls 2.87±0.32, and Probing Pocket Depth (PPD ≥4mm and Clinical Attachment Level (CAL ≥3mm in at least 4 teeth (odds ratio 137.50, P value < 0.0001 revealed a statistically significant difference between the two groups P< 0.05. Conclusions: A noticeable relationship between periodontal health and duration of pregnancy; periodontal disease could be a risk factor for preterm labor. Oral hygiene maintenance should be a part of prenatal care protocol.

  13. Estrogen and Alzheimer′s disease in Aging Population: Population based case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Hong; Zhen-xin Zhang; Hui Li; Jie hao Zhao; Jue-bin Huang; ling Wei

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Wc conducted a population based case-control study to evaluate the effect of estrogen associated variables in Alzhcimer′s disease. Methods: A total of 2995 female residents aged 55 years or older was drawn-by means of stratified multistage cluster sampling in urban and rural areas of Beijing. Wc collected gynecological data of 2995 females. Cases were females Alzheimer′s disease ascertained by DSM-Ⅳ criteria and NINCDS-ADRDA critcria. Controls were female residents whose MMSE scores upper than 50 percentage. Odds Ratio were calculated from Logistic models. Results: By a Logistic stepwise multiple regression model, we found that the risk of dementia in women increased with increasing age (OR per year, 1.21, 95%CI, 1.16 -1.27). The risk decreased with increased duration with menstrual cycles (OR per year, 0.8L, 95%CI, 0.68 to 0.97). The risk decreased with increased age of menopause (OR per year, 0.97, 95%CI, 0.91 to 1.04). The risk decreased in women ever suffered from uterine, ovary, or breast tumor (OR, 0.30, 95%C1:0.04- 2.28). Conclusion: The risk of AD decreased with increased duration of menstrual cycles and increased age of menopause and in wome ever suffered fiom uterine. ovary or breast tumor. These findings offers additional support for a protective influence of estrogen i AD.

  14. The Serum Antioxidant Status in Chinese Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome:a Case-Control Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-rong LI; Kun XUE; Hong-wei GUO; Min WU; Ming LIU

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate serum antioxidant status in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS) and analyze the association between serum antioxidant status and MS components.MethodsA case-control study was conducted with 221 MS cases and 329 controls aged 18-70 years. Weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and lipids, as well as serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA), vitamin E,β-carotene and lycopene were examined.Results Mean serum SOD activity,β-carotene level were significantly lower, and MDA higher (P<0.05) in MS subjects than in controls after adjusting for age and gender. Serum SOD, GSH-Px andβ-carotene level were also decreased significantly (P<0.05) with increased number of MS components.Conclusion Serum antioxidant status was negatively correlated with risks of MS and lower SOD activity andβ-carotene level appeared to be associated with more MS components. Serum oxidative status is useful in assessing the severity of MS.

  15. Hormonal risk factors for ovarian cancer in the Albanian case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajenga, Edlira; Rexha, Tefta; Çeliku, Silva; Bejtja, Gazmend; Pisha, Mimoza

    2013-05-01

    The role of reproductive factors in the aetiology of ovarian cancer had been evaluated in hospital-based case-control study conducted in Albania, providing a total dataset of 283 cases and 1019 controls. Logistic regression models were used to obtain relative risk (OR) estimates. The present results showed that parity had protective effects which increased until the forth birth and the trend in risk was significant (p risk compared to those who had different number of births (OR=12.5, 95%, CI: 2.4-63.8). Evaluation of early age at menarche and late age at menopause, showed statistically significant increased risk. Furthermore, increased risk was observed between pre-menopausal women and never-married nulliparity women, respectively (OR=1.44 95%, CI: 0.88-2.36; OR=8.98, 95%, CI: 1.44 - 56.14), but ovarian cancer risk was reduced for hysterectomized women. These findings suggest that Albanian women have risk factors similar to women in western countries. PMID:23725504

  16. Matching for Several Sparse Nominal Variables in a Case-Control Study of Readmission Following Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubizarreta, José R.; Reinke, Caroline E.; Kelz, Rachel R.; Silber, Jeffrey H.; Rosenbaum, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    Matching for several nominal covariates with many levels has usually been thought to be difficult because these covariates combine to form an enormous number of interaction categories with few if any people in most such categories. Moreover, because nominal variables are not ordered, there is often no notion of a “close substitute” when an exact match is unavailable. In a case-control study of the risk factors for read-mission within 30 days of surgery in the Medicare population, we wished to match for 47 hospitals, 15 surgical procedures grouped or nested within 5 procedure groups, two genders, or 47 × 15 × 2 = 1410 categories. In addition, we wished to match as closely as possible for the continuous variable age (65–80 years). There were 1380 readmitted patients or cases. A fractional factorial experiment may balance main effects and low-order interactions without achieving balance for high-order interactions. In an analogous fashion, we balance certain main effects and low-order interactions among the covariates; moreover, we use as many exactly matched pairs as possible. This is done by creating a match that is exact for several variables, with a close match for age, and both a “near-exact match” and a “finely balanced match” for another nominal variable, in this case a 47 × 5 = 235 category variable representing the interaction of the 47 hospitals and the five surgical procedure groups. The method is easily implemented in R. PMID:25418991

  17. Level of neurotoxic metals in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocca, Beatrice; Forte, Giovanni; Oggiano, Riccardo; Clemente, Simonetta; Asara, Yolande; Peruzzu, Angela; Farace, Cristiano; Pala, Salvatore; Fois, Alessandro Giuseppe; Pirina, Pietro; Madeddu, Roberto

    2015-12-15

    The association between exposure to toxic metals and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) was explored in a population-based case-control study in the Sardinia island (Italy), a region characterized by elevated rates of ALS cases. In 34 patients with ALS (mean age, 62 ± 10 years) and 30 controls (mean age, 65 ± 11 years), Al, Cd, Hg, Mn and Pb were determined in blood, hair and urine by sector field inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Results indicated that, in blood, concentrations of Al (p=0.045) and Pb were higher (p=0.026) in ALS patients than in control subjects. In hair, a depletion of Al (p=0.006) and Mn (p=0.032) concentrations in ALS subjects respect to controls was found. In urine, no significant differences between cases and controls were observed. Thus, some metals seemed to be associated with ALS degeneration, but a definitive conclusion is still far considering the multiple risk factors (genetic mutations, environmental toxicants and stressors) involved in the disease. Finally, the interpretation that deregulated metal concentrations can be a consequence of the degenerative process, rather than a cause, is also valid. PMID:26671079

  18. A case-control study of GST polymorphisms and arsenic related skin lesions

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    Mahiuddin Golam

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphisms in GSTT1, GSTM1 and GSTP1 impact detoxification of carcinogens by GSTs and have been reported to increase susceptibility to environmentally related health outcomes. Individual factors in arsenic biotransformation may influence disease susceptibility. GST activity is involved in the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous compounds, including catalyzing the formation of arsenic-GSH conjugates. Methods We investigated whether polymorphisms in GSTT1, GSTP1 and GSTM1 were associated with risk of skin lesions and whether these polymorphisms modify the relationship between drinking water arsenic exposure and skin lesions in a case control study of 1200 subjects frequency matched on age and gender in community clinics in Pabna, Bangladesh in 2001–2002. Results and discussion GSTT1 homozygous wildtype status was associated with increased odds of skin lesions compared to the null status (OR1.56 95% CI 1.10–2.19. The GSTP1 GG polymorphism was associated with greater odds of skin lesions compared to GSTP1 AA, (OR 1.86 (95%CI 1.15–3.00. No evidence of effect modification by GSTT1, GSTM1 or GSTP1 polymorphisms on the association between arsenic exposure and skin lesions was detected. Conclusion GSTT1 wildtype and GSTP1 GG are associated with increased risk of skin lesions.

  19. Radon and Lung Cancer Case-Control Study in Middle Ural

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The pilot phase of radon and lung cancer case-control study has been performed in Karpinsk and Pervouralsk towns of Middle Ural region of Russia. The case group consists of 341 persons with lung cancer and living in that towns at least five previous years. The lung cancer diagnoses were carefully verified by instrumental techniques and 70% of its were morphologically validated. The persons for the control group (448) were chosen from the population living in that towns at least five years taking into account the age and sex. The special epidemiological questionnaire was developed which includes the items by the groups of factors as follow: clinical data, social factors, chronic lung diseases, life habit, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, diet preference etc. The epidemiological questionnaires were fulfilled for each member of case and control groups. Radon gas concentration and thoron equilibrium equivalent concentration measurements had been performed using nuclear track detectors and grab sampling accordingly in the dwellings of case and control groups members. By preliminary estimation the odds ratios are 1, 0.91, 1.2, 1.1 in the ranges of radon and thoron equilibrium equivalent concentration 0-6, 3-13, 13-36 and 36-370 Bq/m3 respectively. The deeper and more rigorous analysis as well as different independent approaches will be discussed in the paper.(author)

  20. A case-control study on fat-to-muscle ratio and risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, Alvaro L; Boeing, Heiner; De Stefani, Eduardo; Schulz, Mandy; Schulze, Matthias; Pischon, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    Our objective was to analyze detailed anthropometric characterization for risk of breast cancer in Uruguayan women. The design was a case-control study. The setting was Pereira Rossell Women's Hospital, Montevideo, Uruguay. Subjects were 343 incident breast cancer cases and 1,042 frequency-matched healthy controls who were interviewed on menstrual and reproductive story; and a series of skin folds, circumferences, and diameters were measured to calculate fat and muscle fractions and the derived fat-to-muscle ratio (FMR). Odds ratio (ORs) coefficients were taken as estimates of relative risk derived from unconditional logistic regression. Muscle fraction was negatively associated with risk [OR for highest quartile = 0.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.15-0.34], fat fraction was positively associated (OR = 3.90, 95% CI = 2.62-5.80), and FMR was positively associated (OR = 4.45, 95% CI = 2.99-6.62). Stratified analyses by body mass index levels also showed risk increases for the highest tertiles of FMR, always displaying significant linear trends. Since increases of risk were found in overweight and in normal weight women, results suggest that fractions and amount of muscle and fat components might be risk factors for breast cancer on the basis of currently existing metabolic and immune interrelationships between adipose and muscular tissue given by glutamine, exercise-derived myokines, and other cytokines produced by these tissues. PMID:19838918

  1. Case-Control Study of Risk Factors Associated with Feline and Canine Chronic Kidney Disease

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    Paul C. Bartlett

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An age-matched case-control study was initiated to determine the major risk factors associated with CKD in cats and dogs and to determine what clinical signs cat and dog owners observed before their veterinarian diagnosed their pet with CKD. When compared to controls, the feline cases were more likely to have had polydipsia and polyuria in the year before the owners' cats were diagnosed with CKD. In the dogs, increased water intake, increased urination, small size and a recent history of weight loss and bad breath were noticed by the dog owners before veterinary CKD diagnosis. Dog owners recognized abnormal drinking and urination behavior over half a year before their pet's veterinary diagnosis with CKD, and they recognized weight loss almost 4 months before CKD diagnosis. Bad breath was noticed 1.2 years before recognition of CKD by a veterinarian. Given that earlier CKD diagnosis should have been possible in most cases, clinical trials should proceed to measure the efficacy of early interventions.

  2. Characteristics of suicide attempts in anorexia and bulimia nervosa: a case-control study.

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    Sébastien Guillaume

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Compared to other eating disorders, anorexia nervosa (AN has the highest rates of completed suicide whereas suicide attempt rates are similar or lower than in bulimia nervosa (BN. Attempted suicide is a key predictor of suicide, thus this mismatch is intriguing. We sought to explore whether the clinical characteristics of suicidal acts differ between suicide attempters with AN, BN or without an eating disorders (ED. METHOD: Case-control study in a cohort of suicide attempters (n = 1563. Forty-four patients with AN and 71 with BN were compared with 235 non-ED attempters matched for sex, age and education, using interview measures of suicidal intent and severity. RESULTS: AN patients were more likely to have made a serious attempt (OR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.4-7.9, with a higher expectation of dying (OR = 3.7,95% CI 1.1-13.5, and an increased risk of severity (OR = 3.4,95% CI 1.2-9.6. BN patients did not differ from the control group. Clinical markers of the severity of ED were associated with the seriousness of the attempt. CONCLUSION: There are distinct features of suicide attempts in AN. This may explain the higher suicide rates in AN. Higher completed suicide rates in AN may be partially explained by AN patients' higher desire to die and their more severe and lethal attempts.

  3. A case-control association study of NRXN1 polymorphisms with schizophrenia in Chinese Han population

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    Lu Tianlan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research has implicated that mutations in the neurexin-1 (NRXN1 gene on chromosome 2p16.3 might play a role in schizophrenia, autism, and nicotine dependence. In order to explore the association of NRXN1 polymorphisms with schizophrenia, we made a case-control association study in Chinese Han population. Methods We examined six tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs spanning 116.7 kb of NRXN1 in 768 schizophrenic patients and 738 healthy control subjects. The association of NRXN1 polymorphisms with schizophrenia and the age-at-onset of this disease were explored. Results Our results showed that four SNPs of NRXN1 gene were significantly associated with schizophrenia (rs10490168: G > A, p = 0.017; rs2024513: A > G, p = 0.006; rs13382584: T > C, p = 0.009; and rs1558852: G > A, p = 0.031. Furthermore, the association of SNP rs2024513 with schizophrenia remained significance after the Bonferroni correction. Haplotypes consisting of above six SNPs also showed significantly associated with schizophrenia (global chi-square = 14.725, p = 0.022. A protective haplotype AGTGCA remained associated with schizophrenia, even after 10,000 permutation tests (empirical p-value = 0.043. However, we did not find any association with age-at-onset of schizophrenia with NRXN1 polymorphisms. Conclusions Our findings suggest that NRXN1 might represent a major susceptibility gene for schizophrenia in Chinese Han population.

  4. Statistical learning techniques applied to epidemiology: a simulated case-control comparison study with logistic regression

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    Land Walker H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When investigating covariate interactions and group associations with standard regression analyses, the relationship between the response variable and exposure may be difficult to characterize. When the relationship is nonlinear, linear modeling techniques do not capture the nonlinear information content. Statistical learning (SL techniques with kernels are capable of addressing nonlinear problems without making parametric assumptions. However, these techniques do not produce findings relevant for epidemiologic interpretations. A simulated case-control study was used to contrast the information embedding characteristics and separation boundaries produced by a specific SL technique with logistic regression (LR modeling representing a parametric approach. The SL technique was comprised of a kernel mapping in combination with a perceptron neural network. Because the LR model has an important epidemiologic interpretation, the SL method was modified to produce the analogous interpretation and generate odds ratios for comparison. Results The SL approach is capable of generating odds ratios for main effects and risk factor interactions that better capture nonlinear relationships between exposure variables and outcome in comparison with LR. Conclusions The integration of SL methods in epidemiology may improve both the understanding and interpretation of complex exposure/disease relationships.

  5. Analysis of Case-Control Association Studies: SNPs, Imputation and Haplotypes

    KAUST Repository

    Chatterjee, Nilanjan

    2009-11-01

    Although prospective logistic regression is the standard method of analysis for case-control data, it has been recently noted that in genetic epidemiologic studies one can use the "retrospective" likelihood to gain major power by incorporating various population genetics model assumptions such as Hardy-Weinberg-Equilibrium (HWE), gene-gene and gene-environment independence. In this article we review these modern methods and contrast them with the more classical approaches through two types of applications (i) association tests for typed and untyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and (ii) estimation of haplotype effects and haplotype-environment interactions in the presence of haplotype-phase ambiguity. We provide novel insights to existing methods by construction of various score-tests and pseudo-likelihoods. In addition, we describe a novel two-stage method for analysis of untyped SNPs that can use any flexible external algorithm for genotype imputation followed by a powerful association test based on the retrospective likelihood. We illustrate applications of the methods using simulated and real data. © Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 2009.

  6. Breastfeeding and breast cancer: a case-control study in Southern Brazil

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    Tessaro Sérgio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between breastfeeding and breast cancer in Southern Brazil, a case-control design was employed, with two age-matched control groups. A total of 250 cases of breast cancer were identified in women from 20 to 60 years of age, with 1,020 hospital and community controls. The main study variables were occurrence of breastfeeding and duration of breastfeeding. A multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis was employed. According to the results, breastfeeding did not have a protective effect against breast cancer. The odds ratio (OR for women who breastfed was 0.9 (95% CI: 0.8-1.2 compared to women who did not breastfeed. For women who breastfed for six months or less, the OR was 1.0 (95% CI: 0.6-1.8. In pre-menopausal women who breastfed for more than 25 months, the OR was 0.95 (95% CI: 0.5-3.5, and in post-menopausal women OR was 1.27 (95% CI: 0.5-3.1, compared to women who had not breastfeed.

  7. Parasites in Mexican patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a case-control study

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    Gonzalez-Angulo Alberto

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One hundred and fifteen patients with symptoms suggestive of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS according to Rome III criteria and 209 patients with gastrointestinal symptoms different from IBS (control were identified through medical records from the Gastroenterology Clinic of the "Dr. Manuel Gea Gonzalez General Hospital" from January 2008 to March 2010. No statistical differences in IBS data as compared with control groups were observed except in bloating, that was more frequent in the IBS group (P = 0.043. Although the pathogenicity of specific intestinal protozoa could not be demonstrated due to lack of association with the development of gastrointestinal symptoms, Blastocystis spp, in the IBS group, exhibited a trend of association to diarrhoea (odds ratio = 2.73, 95% confidence interval = 0.84-8.80, P = 0.053, while having any parasite and diarrhoea was significant (odds ratio = 3.38, 95% confidence interval = 1.33-8.57, P = 0.008. The association between Blastocystis and diarrhoea in IBS patients although not conclusive is an interesting finding; nonetheless more extensive case-controlled studies are required to clearly define the role of some "non-pathogenic" parasites in intestinal disease and IBS.

  8. Characteristics and prognosis of pneumococcal endocarditis: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daudin, M; Tattevin, P; Lelong, B; Flecher, E; Lavoué, S; Piau, C; Ingels, A; Chapron, A; Daubert, J-C; Revest, M

    2016-06-01

    Case series have suggested that pneumococcal endocarditis is a rare disease, mostly reported in patients with co-morbidities but no underlying valve disease, with a rapid progression to heart failure, and high mortality. We performed a case-control study of 28 patients with pneumococcal endocarditis (cases), and 56 patients with non-pneumococcal endocarditis (controls), not matched for sex and age, during the years 1991-2013, in one referral centre. Alcoholism (39.3% versus 10.7%; p endocarditis. Cardiac surgery was required in 64.3% of patients with pneumococcal endocarditis, much earlier than in patients with non-pneumococcal endocarditis (mean time from symptom onset, 14.1 ± 18.2 versus 69.0 ± 61.1 days). In-hospital mortality rates were similar (7.1% versus 12.5%). Streptococcus pneumoniae causes rapidly progressive endocarditis requiring life-saving early cardiac surgery in most cases. PMID:27021424

  9. Body composition, somatotype and risk of premenopausal breast cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay

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    Ronco AL

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze detailed anthropometric characterisation for risk of breast cancer (BC in premenopausal Uruguayan women, a case-control study was carried out at the Pereira Rossell Women’s Hospital, Montevideo, where 253 incident BC cases and 497 frequency-matched healthy controls were interviewed on menstrual and reproductive story, and a series of body measurements were performed to calculate body composition and somatotype. Odds ratio (OR’s coefficients were taken as estimates of relative risk derived from unconditional logistic regression. Results show a positive association for the fat fraction (OR for highest quartile =4.19, 95% CI (95% Confidence Interval 2.70-6.50 as well as for the fat-to-muscle ratio (OR=4.68, 95% CI 2.98-7.36. Muscle fraction was inversely associated with risk (OR=0.53 95% CI 0.36-0.78. High endomorphism was the only somatotype variable associated to the disease risk (OR=1.69, 95% CI 1.13-2.54, however, losing its association when fat amount was included in the regression model. Stratified analyses by body mass index (BMI levels, bone weight, age groups and number of live births also showed risk increases for the highest fat fractions, displaying significant linear trends. Albeit most of the literature reports a putative slight protective effect for a high BMI in premenopausal women, our results suggest that fat fraction, amount and distribution might play a role as predisposing factors for premenopausal BC.

  10. Calibration and seasonal adjustment for matched case-control studies of vitamin D and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gail, Mitchell H; Wu, Jincao; Wang, Molin; Yaun, Shiaw-Shyuan; Cook, Nancy R; Eliassen, A Heather; McCullough, Marjorie L; Yu, Kai; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A; Ziegler, Regina G; Carroll, Raymond J

    2016-06-15

    Vitamin D measurements are influenced by seasonal variation and specific assay used. Motivated by multicenter studies of associations of vitamin D with cancer, we formulated an analytic framework for matched case-control data that accounts for seasonal variation and calibrates to a reference assay. Calibration data were obtained from controls sampled within decile strata of the uncalibrated vitamin D values. Seasonal sine-cosine series were fit to control data. Practical findings included the following: (1) failure to adjust for season and calibrate increased variance, bias, and mean square error and (2) analysis of continuous vitamin D requires a variance adjustment for variation in the calibration estimate. An advantage of the continuous linear risk model is that results are independent of the reference date for seasonal adjustment. (3) For categorical risk models, procedures based on categorizing the seasonally adjusted and calibrated vitamin D have near nominal operating characteristics; estimates of log odds ratios are not robust to choice of seasonal reference date, however. Thus, public health recommendations based on categories of vitamin D should also define the time of year to which they refer. This work supports the use of simple methods for calibration and seasonal adjustment and is informing analytic approaches for the multicenter Vitamin D Pooling Project for Breast and Colorectal Cancer. Published 2016. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:27133461

  11. Prevalence of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth among Chronic Pancreatitis Patients: A Case-Control Study

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    Amelie Therrien

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP exhibit numerous risk factors for the development of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO. Objective. To determine the prevalence of SIBO in patients with CP. Methods. Prospective, single-centre case-control study conducted between January and September 2013. Inclusion criteria were age 18 to 75 years and clinical and radiological diagnosis of CP. Exclusion criteria included history of gastric, pancreatic, or intestinal surgery or significant clinical gastroparesis. SIBO was detected using a standard lactulose breath test (LBT. A healthy control group also underwent LBT. Results. Thirty-one patients and 40 controls were included. The patient group was significantly older (53.8 versus 38.7 years; P < 0.01. The proportion of positive LBTs was significantly higher in CP patients (38.7 versus 2.5%: P < 0.01. A trend toward a higher proportion of positive LBTs in women compared with men was observed (66.6 versus 27.3%; P = 0.056. The subgroups with positive and negative LBTs were comparable in demographic and clinical characteristics, use of opiates, pancreatic enzymes replacement therapy (PERT, and severity of symptoms. Conclusion. The prevalence of SIBO detected using LBT was high among patients with CP. There was no association between clinical features and the risk for SIBO.

  12. Risk factors of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in patients with hepatolithiasis:a case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-YuLiu; Yan-MingZhou; Le-HuaShi; Zheng-FengYin

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Why 3.3% to 10% of all patients with hepatolithiasis develop intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) remains unknown. We carried out a hospital-based case-control study to identify risk factors for the development of ICC in patients with hepatolithiasis in China. METHODS: Eighty-sevenpatientswithpathologicallydiagnosed hepatolithiasis associated with ICC and 228 with hepatolithiasis alone matched by sex, age (±2 years), hospital admittance and place of residence were interviewed during the period of 2000-2008. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculatedforeachriskfactor. RESULTS: Among the patients with hepatolithiasis associated with ICC, the mean age was 57.7 years and 61.0% were female. Univariate analysis showed that the significant risk factors for ICC development in hepatolithiasis were smoking, family history of cancer, appendectomy during childhood (under age 20), and duration of symptoms >10 years. In multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis, smoking (OR=1.931, 95%CI: 1.000-3.731), family history of cancer (OR=5.175, 95% CI:1.216-22.022), and duration of symptoms >10 years (OR=2.348, 95% CI: 1.394-3.952) were independent factors. CONCLUSION: Smoking, family history of cancer and duration of symptoms >10 years may be risk factors for ICC in patients with hepatolithiasis.

  13. Association between Prenatal Environmental Factors and Child Autism:A Case Control Study in Tianjin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Lei; XI Qian Qian; WU Jun; HAN Yu; DAI Wei; SU Yuan Yuan; ZHANG Xin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between autism and prenatal environmental risk factors. Methods A case-control study was conducted among 193 children with autism from the special educational schools and 733 typical development controls matched by age and gender by using questionnaire in Tianjin from 2007 to 2012. Statistical analysis included quick unbiased efficient statistical tree (QUEST) and logistic regression in SPSS 20.0. Results There were four predictors by QUEST and the logistic regression analysis, maternal air conditioner use during pregnancy (OR=0.316, 95% CI: 0.215-0.463) was the single first-level node (χ2=50.994, P=0.000); newborn complications (OR=4.277, 95% CI: 2.314-7.908) and paternal consumption of freshwater fish (OR=0.383, 95% CI: 0.256-0.573) were second-layer predictors (χ2=45.248, P=0.000; χ2=24.212, P=0.000); and maternal depression (OR=4.822, 95% CI: 3.047-7.631) was the single third-level predictor (χ2=23.835, P=0.000). The prediction accuracy of the tree was 89.2%. Conclusion The air conditioner use during pregnancy and paternal freshwater fish diet might be beneficial for the prevention of autism, while newborn complications and maternal depression might be the risk factors.

  14. Soy consumption and risk of COPD and respiratory symptoms: a case-control study in Japan

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    Tanikawa Yoshimasa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the relationship between soy consumption, COPD risk and the prevalence of respiratory symptoms, a case-control study was conducted in Japan. Methods A total of 278 eligible patients (244 men and 34 women, aged 50–75 years with COPD diagnosed within the past four years, were referred by respiratory physicians, while 340 controls (272 men and 68 women were recruited from the community. All participants underwent spirometric measurements of respiratory function. Information on demographics, lifestyle characteristics and habitual food consumption was obtained using a structured questionnaire. Results Total soy consumption was positively correlated with observed lung function measures. The mean soy intake was significantly higher among controls (59.98, SD 50.23 g/day than cases (44.84, SD 28.5 g/day. A significant reduction in COPD risk was evident for highest versus lowest quartile of daily intake of total soybean products, with adjusted odds ratio (OR 0.392, 95% CI 0.194–0.793, p for trend 0.001. Similar decreases in COPD risk were associated with frequent and higher intake of soy foods such as tofu and bean sprouts, whereas respiratory symptoms were inversely associated with high consumption of soy foods, especially for breathlessness (OR 0.989, 95% CI 0.982–0.996. Conclusion Increasing soy consumption was associated with a decreased risk of COPD and breathlessness.

  15. Risk Factors of Congenital Heart Diseases: A Case-Control Study in Northwest Iran

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    Naghavi-Behzad Mohammad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Congenital heart diseases are of immense importance and also a high prevalence. Contributing factors to developing these defects have not been abundantly studied. Therefore, the current study was conducted aiming at determining the effective factors on Congenital Heart Disease (CHD in newborn infants of Northwest Iran. Methods: A case-control study was carried out in North-West of Iran from 2002 to 2012 and a total of 473 infants entered the study. Required data were obtained through check lists completed by the information of hospital records and interview with mothers of 267 newborn infants with CHD together with medical records of mothers as the case group, and 206 medical records of healthy infants at the same period all together with those of their mothers as the control group. The obtained data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistical methods, T-test, Spearman’s correlation coefficient, and Multi-variable Logistic Regression Model (OR with 95% CI, using SPSS.19. In the present study, P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Based on the results of univariable analyses, the number of previous cesarean sections, past medical history of diseases, gestational age (GA, fetal weight at birth, diastolic blood pressure, fetal heart rate, pulse rate, fetal hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and fetal head circumference at birth have significant relationship with incidence of congenital abnormalities (P<0.05. Family history, past cesarean sections history, past medical history and GA had significant relationship with CHD incidence. Conclusion: Based on the results of present study, in order to control and reduce the cases of CHD, it is crucial to make proper decisions and implement policies for reducing cesarean cases, lowering consanguineous marriages, providing proper pre-marriage counseling, prompt treatment of mothers’ illnesses, improving pregnancy health care and mothers

  16. Pituitary tumor transforming gene-1 haplotypes and risk of pituitary adenoma: a case-control study

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    Liu Jinfang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that pituitary adenoma results from accumulation of multiple genetic and/or epigenetic aberrations, which may be identified through association studies. As pituitary tumor transforming gene-1 (PTTG1/securin plays a critical role in promoting genomic instability in pituitary neoplasia, the present study explored the association of PTTG1 haplotypes with the risk of pituitary adenoma. Methods We genotyped five PTTG1 haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNP by PCR-RFLP assays in a case-control study, which included 280 Han Chinese patients diagnosed with pituitary adenoma and 280 age-, gender- and geographically matched Han Chinese controls. Haplotypes were reconstructed according to the genotyping data and linkage disequilibrium status of the htSNPs. Results No significant differences in allele and genotype frequencies of the htSNPs were observed between pituitary adenoma patients and controls, indicating that none of the individual PTTG1 SNPs examined in this study is associated with the risk of pituitary adenoma. In addition, no significant association was detected between the reconstructed PTTG1 haplotypes and pituitary adenoma cases or the controls. Conclusions Though no significant association was found between PTTG1 haplotypes and the risk of pituitary adenoma, this is the first report on the association of individual PTTG1 SNPs or PTTG1 haplotypes with the risk of pituitary adenoma based on a solid study; it will provide an important reference for future studies on the association between genetic alterations in PTTG1 and the risk of pituitary adenoma or other tumors.

  17. Early pregnancy exposure to antihistamines and risk of congenital heart defects : results of two case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smedts, Huberdina P. M.; de Jonge, Linda; Bandola, Sarah J. G.; Baardman, Marlies E.; Bakker, Marian K.; Stricker, Bruno H. C.; Steegers-Theunissen, Regine P. M.

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: We aimed to study the association between use of antihistamines in early pregnancy and congenital heart defects (CHD) in the offspring. DESIGN: Two case-control studies. SETTING: HAVEN study, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, and Eurocat Northern Netherlands (NNL), Univer

  18. Maternal factors in newborns breast feeding jaundice: a case control study

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    Alizadeh Taheri P

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonatal jaundice, especially breast feeding jaundice is one of the most common causes of neonatal readmission during the first month of life. Breast feeding jaundice may be due to decreased milk intake with dehydration and/or reduced caloric intake.  The aim of this Study was to determine maternal risk factors of breast feeding jaundice in order to prevent it than before.Methods: This case- control study was performed at Bahrami University Hospital, Tehran, Iran and involved 75 term exclusively breast fed newborns admitted for hyperbilirubinemia, with a weight loss greater than 7%, with one positive lab data as: serum Na≥ 150meq/lit, urine specific gravity> 1012, serum urea≥ 40mgr/dl, without assigned cause for hyperbilirubinemia. They were compared with 75 matched controls with weight loss less than 7%, without dehydration and a known cause of hyperbilirubinemia.Results: In comparison with control group, in neonates with breast feeding jaundice, inappropriate feeding practice (P<0.033, delayed onset of lactation (P<0.0001, inverted nipple (P<0.001 were significantly higher. In our study, there was no significant difference between two groups in education level of mother, learning breast feeding practice before and after delivery, method of delivery (cesarean or vaginal delivery, primiparity or multiparity and use of supplements (water or glucose water.Conclusion: This study shows need for special attention and follows up of mothers and neonates at risk for breast feeding jaundice, especially those with inverted nipples or undergraduate for successful breast feeding. On the other hand this study shows encouraging mothers for early lactation especially in the first hour of life decreases the risk for this kind of jaundice.

  19. Female fertility, obstetric and gynaecological history in coeliac disease. A case control study.

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    Sher, K S; Mayberry, J F

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of infertility, abortions and perinatal mortality, age at menarche and menopause in coeliac disease (CD). It was a case control study in which patients and controls matched for age and sex were sent questionnaires about their fertility profile and other obstetric and gynaecological problems. All 80 patients and 70 controls replied but only 68 groups could be matched for this study. The mean age of menarche in patients was significantly older at 13.6 years than in controls at 12.7 years. The mean age at menopause in patients and controls were 47.6 and 50.1 years respectively. The study showed the mean number of children born to patients with CD was significantly less at 1.9 (SD +/- 0.9) compared to 2.5 (SD +/- 1.2) in controls. Before diagnosis the mean number of children born to patients was 1.4 and 1.8 in controls. After diagnosis and treatment, patients had 0.5 children (SD +/- 0.9) compared to 0.7 in controls (SD +/- 1.2). It seems likely that the overall difference in fertility is due to relative infertility prior to diagnosis and its correction by a gluten-free diet. Significantly more conceptions amongst women with CD (15%) ended in miscarriage prior to diagnosis than amongst controls (6%). After diagnosis and treatment the rate of miscarriage was similar at 7 and 12% respectively. There were 120 live babies and 7 stillbirths to patients compared with 161 live babies and 1 stillbirth to controls. In conclusion, this study shows that patients with CD are subfertile and have an increased incidence of stillbirths and perinatal deaths. PMID:8063029

  20. TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS AND VITAMIN D STATUS – A CASE CONTROL STUDY

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    Prakash Kikkeri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : OBJECTIVE: Both type 2 DM and vitamin D deficiency are widely prevalent in India. Since, vit amin D is known to affect both insulin secretion and action either directly by gene modulation via vitamin D receptors or indirectly by altering calcium metabolism and transcellular calcium flux, we wanted to establish whether patients with type 2 DM have lower levels of vitamin D when compared to that of controls. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a cross sectional case control observational study, conducted from April 2011 to March 2012. Patients attending the diabetes clinic at Victoria Hospital, Bangalore were recruited as cases. Age and sex matched non diabetic patient’s attendants and hospital staff were recruited as controls, after obtaining an informed consent in writing. After physical examination and anthropometric measurements, fasting serum samples were collected for estimation of 25(OH D levels and other biochemical parameters. RESULTS: 242 subjects were included in the study, of which 139 were cases and 103 controls. Serum 25(OH Dlevels ≤ 30ng/ml was found in 122 cases and 89 controls which was no t statistically significant (p=0.658. CONCLUSION: In our study 87% of subjects (i.e. 211 of 242 were having less than optimal levels of vitamin D levels. This high level of prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is in conformation with results of other similar studies reported from India. Though statistically not significant, males andnon - vegetarians had slightly higher levels of vitamin D. we could not establish an inverse association between serum vitamin D levels and prevalent type 2 DM, probably beca use of cross sectional study design, small sample size, high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and other unknown confounding factors

  1. Biochemical markers of liver and kidney function are influenced by thyroid function-a case-controlled follow up study in Indian hypothyroid subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Sarika; Chawla, Ranjna; Tayal, Devika; Gupta, Vinod K.; Mr. Jagdeep S Sohi; Mallika, V.

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid hormones regulate the renal hemodynamics and basal metabolic rate of most cells. This hospital-based case-control study was done to evaluate the changes in biochemical markers of liver and kidney function in hypothyroid subjects before and after treatment. The study included 176 subjects randomly selected from Thyroid clinics. Serum T3, T4, TSH, Liver and Kidney Function tests were analysed using standard kits. Forty-six hypothyroid patients were re-evaluated 6 weeks after thyroxine s...

  2. Evaluation of oxidant-antioxidant status in tissue samples in oral cancer: A case control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Kumar Chandan; Austin, Ravi David; Shrivastava, Deepti

    2016-01-01

    Background: Imbalances between the oxidant-antioxidant status have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in the tissue samples of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients of different clinical stages in comparison with the healthy controls. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was designed with 20 new histopathologically proven oral carcinoma patients and an equal number of age, sex, and tobacco chewing habit matched healthy subjects. Their tissue samples were subjected to evaluation of lipid peroxidation product and antioxidant enzymes, namely, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) using spectrophotometric methods. The data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. The statistical comparisons between the study groups were performed by independent Student's unpaired t-test and one-way analysis of variance. Post-hoc analysis was performed for within study group comparisons. Karl Pearson correlation was performed for the biochemical parameters within the group and between the groups. For statistically significant correlations, simple linear regression was performed using SPSS (α=0.05). Results: Significant reduction in lipid peroxidation (P < 0.001) SOD and CAT (P < 0.001) was observed in the tissue of OSCC patients as compared with the healthy controls. On the other hand, reduced GSH and GPx were significantly increased in tumor samples. Conclusion: Reduced lipid peroxidation and increased activity of reduced GSH and GPx provides the suitable environment for the local growth and invasion of the tumor and metastasis in the later stages. Among the antioxidant enzymes, GSH reductase appears to have a profound role in carcinogenesis and thus it can be considered as potential prognostic marker. PMID:27076834

  3. Association Between Obesity and Asthma among Adults: A Hospital Based Case-Control Study

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    A.C. Mathew

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to study the association between obesity and asthma among adults by gender. The prevalences of both asthma and obesity have increased substantially in recent decades, leading to speculation that obese individuals might be at risk of asthma. However, the evidence of a relationship between obesity and asthma is not fully conclusive among adults. Hence we investigate the association between obesity and asthma among men and women using both measured weight and height and self-reported weight and height while controlling for the effects of the demographic and environmental factors. This case-control study involves a total of 159 adults; 53 cases and 106 controls enrolled in the month of July 2009 at PSG Hospitals. Body Mass Index (BMI was calculated based on measured weight and height. The Odds Ratio (OR with 95% confidence interval for obese individuals was estimated using logistic regression analysis with SPSS 11.5 for windows software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to adjust all risk estimates for covariates. Obese women were found to have 9.14 times the risk of asthma than non obese women (95% confidence interval (CI:1.38, 35.68 after adjusting for covariates, such as age, education, environmental tobacco smoke and pet keeping. No significant association was observed among men although the direction of association is positive; adjusted odds ratio was 1.06 (95% CI: 0.12, 9.70. No significant association was observed between self-reported prevalence of obesity and asthma; among women, adjusted odds ratio = 4.33 (95% CI: 0.69, 27.37; and among men, adjusted odds ratio = 0.89 (95% CI: 0.11, 7.12. The study indicates a strong positive association between obesity and asthma among adult Indian women. The causal links between obesity and asthma by gender need to be further examined using prospective cohort studies.

  4. Risk factor of preterm labor in the west of iran: a case-control study.

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    Bahareh Derakhshi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Prematurity is the most common cause of neonatal death. Risk factors of premature birth can be related with ethnicity and genetic. There is no comprehensive high sample size study in Kurdish ethnicity to determine risk factors related to prematurity. This study evaluated risk factors of preterm labor in Kurdish ethnicity.This case-control study was conducted in 200 preterm infants (case group and 400 term infants (control group, in Besat Hospital, Sanandaj, Iran, in the year 2012. Data was analyzed using SPSS software and analysis was performed by Chi-square, Mann-Whitney and logistic regression tests.In univariate analysis, mother's own prematurity, history of previous preterm labor, prematurity in the first-degree family members, history of dead children, premature rupture of membranes, multiple pregnancies, overt diabetes, chronic hypertension, preeclampsia and eclampsia, infertility and cervical incompetence had significant relation-ship with preterm labor. However, multivariate analysis results showed that abnormal amniotic fluid, premature rupture of membranes, double and multiple pregnancies, chronic hypertension, family history of premature birth, mothers age over 35 years, and cervical incompetence (P<0.05 had significant relationship with the premature birth.Screening of newborns at risk of preterm labor could be achieved by these risk factors: family history of prematurity, mother's own history of prematurity and previous preterm labor, history of previous neonatal death, decreased amniotic fluid, multiple pregnancies, overt diabetes, hypertension, preeclampsia, infertility and cervical incompetence, however some of these factors are not the direct cause of prematurity. Our study suggests genetic' s role in preterm labor.

  5. Association between schizophrenia and urinary calculi: a population-based case-control study.

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    Shih-Ping Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People with schizophrenia have been demonstrated to have higher overall morbidity and all-cause mortality rates from general medical conditions. However, little attention has been given to the urinary system of people with schizophrenia. As no direct evidence has been reported demonstrating a link between schizophrenia and urinary calculi, this study utilized a population-based case-control study design to investigate the possibility of an association between schizophrenia and the occurrence of urinary calculi. METHOD: This study used data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. Cases consisted of 53,965 urinary calculi patients newly diagnosed between 2002 and 2008. In total, 269,825 controls were randomly selected and matched with the cases in terms of age and sex. Each person was traced to discern whether he had previously received a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Conditional logistic regression models were performed for the analysis. RESULTS: A total of 3,119 (1.0% subjects had been diagnosed with schizophrenia prior to the index date. This included 0.7% of the patients with urinary calculi, and 1.0% of the controls. A prior diagnosis of schizophrenia was independently associated with a 30% decrease (95% CI = 0.62-0.76 in the occurrence of urinary calculi. The reduction was even more remarkable in males (38%, 95% CI = 0.55-0.71 and in elder individuals independent of gender (48% in those aged >69, 95% CI = 0.36-0.77. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that there is an inverse association between schizophrenia and urinary calculi. Future studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which schizophrenia negatively associates with urinary calculi.

  6. A case-control study estimating accident risk for alcohol, medicines and illegal drugs.

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    Kim Paula Colette Kuypers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to assess the risk of having a traffic accident after using alcohol, single drugs, or a combination, and to determine the concentrations at which this risk is significantly increased. METHODS: A population-based case-control study was carried out, collecting whole blood samples of both cases and controls, in which a number of drugs were detected. The risk of having an accident when under the influence of drugs was estimated using logistic regression adjusting for gender, age and time period of accident (cases/sampling (controls. The main outcome measures were odds ratio (OR for accident risk associated with single and multiple drug use. In total, 337 cases (negative: 176; positive: 161 and 2726 controls (negative: 2425; positive: 301 were included in the study. RESULTS: Main findings were that 1 alcohol in general (all the concentrations together caused an elevated crash risk; 2 cannabis in general also caused an increase in accident risk; at a cut-off of 2 ng/mL THC the risk of having an accident was four times the risk associated with the lowest THC concentrations; 3 when ranking the adjusted OR from lowest to highest risk, alcohol alone or in combination with other drugs was related to a very elevated crash risk, with the highest risk for stimulants combined with sedatives. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated a concentration-dependent crash risk for THC positive drivers. Alcohol and alcohol-drug combinations are by far the most prevalent substances in drivers and subsequently pose the largest risk in traffic, both in terms of risk and scope.

  7. Breast cancer-associated venous thromboembolism: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebouças, Danilo; Costa, Maria; Thuler, Luiz; Garces, Alvaro; Aquino, Luciana; Bines, José

    2016-08-01

    Breast cancer is frequently associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE). VTE may result in significant morbidity, a substantial economic burden and even leads to patients' death. Risk factor identification and management of VTE in breast cancer patients remains poorly studied. We evaluated breast cancer patients' baseline and treatment characteristics in predicting VTE occurrence as well as its prognosis. We conducted a case-control study of all breast cancer patients with a VTE diagnosed between January 2007 and December 2011 at the Instituto Nacional de Câncer (INCA) in Brazil. Two hundred and twenty five patients developed VTE and were compared with 225 controls, in the 5-year study period. The bulk of the thrombotic events were unilateral (94.2%) VTEs of the lower extremity (78.7%), largely proximally located (78%). VTE occurred more often within the first 3 years after the diagnosis of cancer (66.2%), being more common in the first 6 months (21.8%). Significant predictors of developing VTE were age 50 years and over (OR 1.85, 95% CI: 1.16-2.95), PS equal to or above 3 (OR 2.01, 95% CI: 1.24-3.26), and the presence of a CVC (OR 2.56, 95% CI: 1.42-4.62). This large retrospective analysis of VTE in breast cancer patients confirms that most events occur early in the treatment course. The incidence of VTE was associated with patients' age, PS, and the presence of CVC. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate outpatient thromboprophylaxis for selected groups of patients. PMID:27253153

  8. Shigellosis Outbreak in Al Batinah South Governorate, Oman; Case-control study

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    Idris Abaidani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: An outbreak of acute gastroenteritis due to Shigella flexneri occurred in August 2012 in the catchment area of the Wadi Sahtan Health Center in Rustaq, Al Batinah South Governorate, Oman. The aim of this study was to discover possible causes of this outbreak in the villages of Fassa, Rogh and Amk and to measure the risk of exposure among cases and controls. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in September 2012 in Fassa, Rogh and Amk. All households in the three villages were interviewed. Case and control households were compared to determine possible exposure avenues, including place of residence, source of drinking water, hand hygiene levels and practices related to drinking water, food preparation and environmental sanitation. Results: Residing in Fassa (P <0.0001; odds ratio [OR] = 4.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.22–10.63 and average hand hygiene practices (P = 0.008; OR = 13.97, 95% CI = 1.58–123.36 were associated with an increased risk of contracting shigellosis. No significant differences were found with regards to the other exposure avenues. Conclusion: This was the first study conducted in Oman regarding an outbreak of shigellosis in a community setting. The only variables that significantly impacted the risk of acute gastroenteritis were residing in Fassa and average hand hygiene practices. The source of the outbreak could not be identified. However, septic tank sanitation and water and food consumption practices were not satisfactory in the studied villages. These need to be addressed to prevent similar outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in this region in the future.

  9. A cholera outbreak in Alborz Province, Iran: a matched case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A total of 229 confirmed cholera cases were reported in Alborz Province during an outbreak that lasted from June 2011 to August 2011. This study aimed to identify potential sources of transmission in order to determine suitable interventions in similar outbreaks. In other words, the lessons learned from this retrospective study can be utilized to manage future similar outbreaks. METHODS: An age-matched and sex-matched case-control study was conducted during the outbreak. For each case, two control subjects were selected from the neighborhood. A case of cholera was defined as a bacteriologically confirmed case with signs and symptoms of cholera. This study was conducted from June 14, 2011 through August 23, 2011. The data were analyzed by calculating odds ratios (ORs) using the logistic regression method. RESULTS: In this outbreak, 229 confirmed cholera cases were diagnosed. The following risk factors were found to be associated with cholera: consumption of unrefrigerated leftover food (OR, 3.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72 to 5.41), consumption of vegetables and fruits in the previous three days (OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.95 to 3.89), and a history of traveling in the previous five days (OR, 5.31; 95% CI, 2.21 to 9.72). CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of vegetables and fruits has remained an unresolved risk factor in cholera outbreaks in Iran in recent years. In order to reduce the risk of cholera, sanitary standards for fruits and vegetables should be observed at all points from production to consumption, the population should be educated regarding hygienic food storage during outbreaks, and sanitary standards should be maintained when traveling during cholera outbreaks. PMID:27188308

  10. A case - control study of risk factors for coronary artery disease in Pakistani females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To establish the strength of association of conventional risk factors for coronary artery disease in native Pakistani females. Methods: We conducted a case - control hospital based study on 198 females (age 30 - 80 years) scheduled for their first coronary angiography at Punjab Institute of Cardiology, Lahore. Patients were divided into pre-menopausal group (age: 45.1 +- 6.3) and post-menopausal group (62.1 +- 9.1). For each risk factor, patients with significant CAD (= 50% luminal diameter stenosis) were regarded as cases an those without significant CAD were taken as controls. Odds Ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by univariate analysis. Results: In total study cohort, Diabetes mellitus (OR 3.65 95% CI 2.0 - 6.5), Family history of premature coronary artery disease (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2 - 4.4), and increased waist circumference (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.2 - 3.8) were strongly associated with significant CAD. In post menopausal age group, diabetes mellitus (OR 2.66 CI 1.3 - 5.1), hyperlipidaemia (OR 2.25 CI 1.2 - 2.3) and increased waist circumference (OR 2.16 CI 1.1 - 4.2) reached statistical significance. In pre-menopausal females only diabetes was strongly associated with significant coronary artery disease (OR 10 CI 2.6 - 37.4). Association of hypertension was not significant in any of subgroups studied. Very few cases of smoking (6 / 198) were found in our study to merit any further statistical analysis. Conclusions: Diabetes mellitus was the only risk factor in pre-menopausal females associated with coronary artery disease While diabetes, hyperlipidaemia and increased waist circumference were significantly associated with CAD in post menopausal females. (author)

  11. Pet ownership and risk of asthma: a case-controlled study

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    Sharifi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the treatment of bronchial asthma, the identification, isolation, and elimination of causative allergens is the most effective part of treatment. With the recent diversification within the pet industry, pet owner exposure to many unknown antigens is on the rise. The results of population studies have been contradictory and some epidemiological studies have failed to confirm this, some indicating that keeping pets might actually reduce the risk of sensitization and asthma. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between pet ownership and asthma. Methods: This case-control study included 300 asthmatic participants referred to the Children's Medical Center over a two-year period. Participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire regarding pet ownership, pet gender and puberty, the place it was kept, how long the pet was kept and the reason for keeping the pet. The same questions were asked from 300 age- and gender-matched nonasthmatic individuals as the control group. Statistical analysis was performed to calculate odds ratios (OR of asthma morbidity in individuals who kept pets. Results: The OR for asthma morbidity in patients who kept pets was 2.59 (CI=1.60-4.21 and p>0.001. Financial aim was the most common reason for keeping a pet and most pets were mature and kept outdoors. No significant correlations for pet genders were observed. Conclusion: This survey provides evidence that pet ownership is an important risk factor for asthma, therefore we suggest that individuals at risk for asthma (atopic individuals must avoid contact with pets. However, more research in this field in Iran is necessary.

  12. The association between hip fracture and hip osteoarthritis: A case-control study

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    Englund Martin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been reports both supporting and refuting an inverse relationship between hip fracture and hip osteoarthritis (OA. We explore this relationship using a case-control study design. Methods Exclusion criteria were previous hip fracture (same side or contralateral side, age younger than 60 years, foreign nationality, pathological fracture, rheumatoid arthritis and cases were radiographic examinations were not found in the archives. We studied all subjects with hip fracture that remained after the exclusion process that were treated at Akureyri University Hospital, Iceland 1990-2008, n = 562 (74% women. Hip fracture cases were compared with a cohort of subjects with colon radiographs, n = 803 (54% women to determine expected population prevalence of hip OA. Presence of radiographic hip OA was defined as a minimum joint space of 2.5 mm or less on an anteroposterior radiograph, or Kellgren and Lawrence grade 2 or higher. Possible causes of secondary osteoporosis were identified by review of medical records. Results The age-adjusted odds ratio (OR for subjects with hip fracture having radiographic hip OA was 0.30 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.12-0.74 for men and 0.33 (95% CI 0.19-0.58 for women, compared to controls. The probability for subjects with hip fracture and hip OA having a secondary cause of osteoporosis was three times higher than for subjects with hip fracture without hip OA. Conclusion The results of our study support an inverse relationship between hip fractures and hip OA.

  13. A nested case control study demonstrating increased chronic fatigue six years after a Q fever outbreak

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    Hugo C. van Woerden

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The frequency and range of long-term sequelae following acute Q fever infection remains controversial. This study aimed to assess a range of potential psychological and physical sequelae in a follow up study of a large outbreak of Q fever that occurred in Newport, Wales, in 2002. A nested case control study was undertaken six years after a point source outbreak of Q fever. We invited a cohort of 211 factory workers exposed to a point source of Q fever in 2002 to attend a follow up clinic in 2008. Cases, defined as those who had clinical symptoms and serological evidence of acute Q fever in 2002, were compared to controls, who worked in the same factory but were serologically negative at the time of the outbreak. At the follow up clinic blood was taken for Coxiella burnetii microimmunofluorescence and questionnaires were completed including the PHQ-9, Chalder Fatigue scale, and General Health Questionnaire. Results were obtained for 32 cases and 13 controls. Chalder Fatigue scores were significantly raised in the cases (independent samples t-test: P=0.047. PHQ-9 and GHQ scores were not significantly raised in cases. However, post hoc cross sectional analysis indicated a relationship between Phase 2 IgG at follow up in 2008 and Chalder Fatigue scores (P=0.004 and PHQ-9 scores (0.049. A longitudinal association was demonstrated between acute Q fever infection and chronic fatigue six years later. In crosssectional analysis a previously unreported relationship between depression scores (PHQ- 9 and positive Q fever serology was also identified.

  14. Determinants of Visceral Leishmaniasis: A Case-Control Study in Gedaref State, Sudan.

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    Fabienne Nackers

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Improving knowledge on local determinants of visceral leishmaniasis (VL is crucial to guide the development of relevant control strategies. This study aimed to identify individual and household level determinants of primary VL in 24 highly endemic villages of Tabarak Allah hospital's catchment area, Gedaref State, Sudan.From September 2012 to July 2013, in an unmatched case-control design, 198 patients with primary VL were compared to 801 controls free of VL symptoms and with a negative VL rapid test. Using random spatial sampling, controls were selected with a distribution of age, sex and village of residence proportionate to the distribution of the target population. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire.Children and men were at higher risk of VL. Reporting VL patient(s in the household in the previous year was the strongest VL risk factor. In a multivariate analysis, VL risk increased with household size, sleep location (outside the yard, not in the farm, evening outdoor activities in the rainy season (playing, watching TV, radio listening, use of ground nut oil as animal repellent and of smoke of Acacia seyal as indoor repellent, presence of dogs in the yard at night, Acacia nilotica in the yard's immediate surroundings and of a forest at eye range. VL risk appeared to decrease with the use of drinking water sources other than the village water tank, a buffer distance from the adjacent house yard, and with the presence of animals other than dogs in the yard at night. In contrast with previous studies, housing factors, mosquito-net use, black cotton soil, ethnicity, socioeconomic index, presence of Balanites aegyptica and Azadirachta indica in the yard were not independent VL determinants.Although these results do not provide evidence of causality, they provide useful suggestions for guiding further intervention studies on VL preventive measures.

  15. Alcohol drinking and risk of Parkinson's disease: a case-control study in Japan

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    Kawamura Nobutoshi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although some epidemiologic studies found inverse associations between alcohol drinking and Parkinson's disease (PD, the majority of studies found no such significant associations. Additionally, there is only limited research into the possible interactions of alcohol intake with aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH 2 activity with respect to PD risk. We examined the relationship between alcohol intake and PD among Japanese subjects using data from a case-control study. Methods From 214 cases within 6 years of PD onset and 327 controls without neurodegenerative disease, we collected information on "peak", as opposed to average, alcohol drinking frequency and peak drinking amounts during a subject's lifetime. Alcohol flushing status was evaluated via questions, as a means of detecting inactive ALHD2. The multivariate model included adjustments for sex, age, region of residence, smoking, years of education, body mass index, alcohol flushing status, presence of selected medication histories, and several dietary factors. Results Alcohol intake during peak drinking periods, regardless of frequency or amount, was not associated with PD. However, when we assessed daily ethanol intake separately for each type of alcohol, only Japanese sake (rice wine was significantly associated with PD (adjusted odds ratio of ≥66.0 g ethanol per day: 3.39, 95% confidence interval: 1.10-11.0, P for trend = 0.001. There was no significant interaction of alcohol intake with flushing status in relation to PD risk. Conclusions We did not find significant associations between alcohol intake and PD, except for the daily amount of Japanese sake. Effect modifications by alcohol flushing status were not observed.

  16. Population-based case-control study of childhood leukemia in Shanghai

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    Shu, X.O.; Gao, Y.T.; Brinton, L.A.; Linet, M.S.; Tu, J.T.; Zheng, W.; Fraumeni, J.F. Jr.

    1988-08-01

    A population-based case-control interview study of 309 childhood leukemia cases and 618 healthy population control children was conducted in urban Shanghai, China. Like some studies in other countries, excess risks for both acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) were associated with intrauterine and paternal preconception diagnostic x-ray exposure, and with maternal employment in the chemical and agricultural industries during pregnancy. ANLL was linked to maternal occupational exposure to benzene during pregnancy, whereas both ALL and ANLL were significantly associated with maternal exposure to gasoline and the patient's prior use of chloramphenicol. New findings, previously unsuspected, included an association of ANLL with younger maternal age at menarche (odds ratio (OR) = 4.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.3-13.9); a protective effect for long-term (greater than 1 year) use of cod liver oil containing vitamins A and D for both ALL (OR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.2-0.9) and ANLL (OR = 0.3; 95% CI = 0.1-1.0); and excess risks of ANLL among children whose mothers were employed in metal refining and processing (OR = 4.6; 95% CI = 1.3-17.2) and of ALL associated with maternal occupational exposure to pesticides (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.1-11.2). No relationships were found with late maternal age, certain congenital disorders, or familial occurrence, which have been related to childhood leukemia in other studies. In contrast with other reports, an excess of leukemia, primarily ANLL, occurred among second or later-born rather than firstborn children.

  17. Case-control study on factors associated with crown fractures in the primary dentition

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    Patrícia CORRÊA-FARIA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to identify the factors associated with dental trauma in preschool children. This case-control study was nested in a population-based cross-sectional study involving a random sample of 301 children one to five years of age in the city of Diamantina, Brazil. The case group was made up of children with at least one fractured deciduous tooth, and the control group was made up of children with no deciduous tooth fracture. The two groups were matched for age in a proportion of one control for every case. The dependent variable was “dental trauma,” diagnosed according to the criteria proposed by Andreasen and Andreasen. The independent variables were overjet, measured and considered accentuated when surpassing 3 mm, and lip coverage, classified as adequate or inadequate. Clinical oral examinations were performed by calibrated dentists. The parents provided information on the socioeconomic indicators. Statistical analysis involved the McNemar test and logistic regression. Each group (case and control was composed of 92 children. In the bivariate analysis, traumatic dental injury (TDI was associated with overjet > 3 mm (p = 0.001, inadequate lip coverage (p < 0.001, mother's schooling (p = 0.028 and household income (p < 0.001. In the multivariate analysis, only inadequate lip coverage was associated with TDI (OR: 5.35; 95% CI: 1.37-20.85. In conclusion, the case group children had a 5.3 - fold more likely chance of presenting inadequate lip coverage, compared with the control children.

  18. Risk Factors in Chronic Hepatitis B Infection: A Case-control Study

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    Seyed-Moayed Alavian

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: In order to evaluate some possible risk factors for the spread of hepatitis B infection, a case-control study was undertaken.Methods: The study population consisted of subjects who came to Karaj Hepatitis Center. All subjects who met the inclusion criteria were considered as having chronic hepatitis and comprised our case group. Risk factors were evaluated using a questionnaire. Backward conditional logistic regression analysis was used.Results: The case group consisted of 500 chronic subjects, and 434 subjects with negative tests for hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV comprised the control group. Age, male sex, marital status (being married, history of contact with hepatitis, extramarital sexual activity, IV-drug use, major surgery, experimental dentist visit and some jobs (police, barber, and driver were found to be independent risk factors of being chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (odds ratio: 0.9,2.3, 2.1, 8.9, 6.5, 5.4, 1.6, 1.8 and 2.3, respectively.Conclusions: It seems to be of great importance to pay more attention to certain jobs, life styles and cultural matters in Iran that predispose people to a number of risk factors so as to implement measures to control HBV spread. Despite existence of a long list of risk factors, different epidemiological studies with alternative methodologies accompanied by meta-analysis of risk factors in each separate area seems to be helpful in providing information about transmission routes and surveillance of hepatitis B infection

  19. A case-control study of risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer

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    Ghaem Maghami Noori F

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is second prevalent cancer among gynecologic malignancies and the most common type of ovarian cancer is epithelial form (85-90 percent. To detect the risk factors for the epithelial ovarian cancer, a case-control study was conducted in Valieasr hospital in 1988. In this study, 118 cases with epithelial ovarian cancer (according histological records and 240 controls without any gynecological cancer in gynecologic clinic had been interviewed. For data analysis, T-test, Chi2 test and logistic regression have been used at a =0.05 as level of significance. The mean age in cases was 50±13 and in controls was 49.9±12 years, without significant different. The mean number of pregnancies and parity in cases was less than controls, significantly (P<0.03. The mean months of breast feeding in cases was less than controls (54.9±71.2 versus 82.4±62.7 (P<0.001. The cases had a lower mean age of menarch than controls (P=0.03. 58 percent of cases and 21.3 percent of controls hadn't used any contraception methods (P=0.00001. The mean years of contraception was significantly less in cases versus controls (P<0.001. The odds ratio for epithelial ovarian cancer was 0.24 (95 percent CI: 0.13-0.48 in OCP users, 0.47 (95 percent CI: 0.005-0.43 in TL method, and was 0.41 (95 percent CI: 0.22-0.76 in other contraception methods, relative to women who hadn't used any contraception methods. This study reveals that epithelial ovarian cancer risk increases significantly with earlier menarch, decreasing number of pregnancy, deliveries duration of breast feeding and use of contraception methods. Use of contraception pill and tubal ligation method decreases risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.

  20. Antioxidants and breast cancer risk- a population-based case-control study in Canada

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    Morrison Howard

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of antioxidants on breast cancer is still controversial. Our objective was to assess the association between antioxidants and breast cancer risk in a large population-based case-control study. Methods The study population included 2,362 cases with pathologically confirmed incident breast cancer (866 premenopausal and 1,496 postmenopausal and 2,462 controls in Canada. Intakes of antioxidants from diet and from supplementation as well as other potential risk factors for breast cancer were collected by a self-reported questionnaire. Results Compared with subjects with no supplementation, 10 years or longer supplementation of zinc had multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI of 0.46 (0.25-0.85 for premenopausal women, while supplementation of 10 years or longer of multiple vitamin, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc had multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs of 0.74 (0.59, 0.92, 0.58 (0.36, 0.95, 0.79 (0.63-0.99, 0.75 (0.58, 0.97, and 0.47 (0.28-0.78, respectively, for postmenopausal women. No significant effect of antioxidants from dietary sources (including beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium and zinc or from supplementation less than 10 years was observed. Conclusions This study suggests that supplementation of zinc in premenopausal women, and supplementation of multiple vitamin, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc in postmenopausal women for 10 or more years may protect women from developing breast cancer. However, we were unable to determine the overall effect of total dose or intake from both diet and supplement.

  1. Breast cancer risk and drinking water contaminated by wastewater: a case control study

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    Swartz Christopher H

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drinking water contaminated by wastewater is a potential source of exposure to mammary carcinogens and endocrine disrupting compounds from commercial products and excreted natural and pharmaceutical hormones. These contaminants are hypothesized to increase breast cancer risk. Cape Cod, Massachusetts, has a history of wastewater contamination in many, but not all, of its public water supplies; and the region has a history of higher breast cancer incidence that is unexplained by the population's age, in-migration, mammography use, or established breast cancer risk factors. We conducted a case-control study to investigate whether exposure to drinking water contaminated by wastewater increases the risk of breast cancer. Methods Participants were 824 Cape Cod women diagnosed with breast cancer in 1988–1995 and 745 controls who lived in homes served by public drinking water supplies and never lived in a home served by a Cape Cod private well. We assessed each woman's exposure yearly since 1972 at each of her Cape Cod addresses, using nitrate nitrogen (nitrate-N levels measured in public wells and pumping volumes for the wells. Nitrate-N is an established wastewater indicator in the region. As an alternative drinking water quality indicator, we calculated the fraction of recharge zones in residential, commercial, and pesticide land use areas. Results After controlling for established breast cancer risk factors, mammography, and length of residence on Cape Cod, results showed no consistent association between breast cancer and average annual nitrate-N (OR = 1.8; 95% CI 0.6 – 5.0 for ≥ 1.2 vs. Conclusion Results did not provide evidence of an association between breast cancer and drinking water contaminated by wastewater. The computer mapping methods used in this study to link routine measurements required by the Safe Drinking Water Act with interview data can enhance individual-level epidemiologic studies of multiple health

  2. Maternal Risk Factors for Oral Clefts: A Case-Control Study

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    Elham Mobasheri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A cleft lip with or without a cleft palate is one of the major congenital anomalies observed in newborns. This study explored the risk factors for oral clefts in Gorgan, Northern Iran.  Materials and Methods: This hospital-based case-control study was performed in three hospitals in Gorgan, Northern Iran between April 2006 and December 2009. The case group contained 33 newborns with oral clefts and the control group contained 63 healthy newborns. Clinical and demographic factors, including date of birth, gender of the newborns, type of oral cleft, consanguinity of the parents, parental ethnicity, and the mother's parity, age, education and intake of folic acid were recorded for analysis.  Results: A significant association was found between parity higher than 2 and the risk of an oral cleft (OR= 3.33, CI 95% [1.20, 9.19], P> 0.02. According to ethnicity, the odds ratio for oral clefts was 0.87 in Turkmens compared with Sistani people (CI 95% [0.25, 2.96] and 1.11 in native Fars people compared with Sistani people (CI 95% [0.38, 3.20]. A lack of folic acid consumption was associated with an increased risk of oral clefts but this was not statistically significant (OR = 1.42, CI 95% [0.58, 3.49]. There were no significant associations between sex (OR boy/girl = 0.96, CI 95% [0.41, 2.23], parent familial relations (OR = 1.07, CI 95% [0.43, 2.63], mother's age and oral clefts.  Conclusions:  The results of this study indicate that higher parity is significantly associated with an increased risk of an oral cleft, while Fars ethnicity and a low intake of folic acid increased the incidence of oral clefts but not significantly.

  3. Neighborhood level risk factors for type 1 diabetes in youth: the SEARCH case-control study

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    Liese Angela D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background European ecologic studies suggest higher socioeconomic status is associated with higher incidence of type 1 diabetes. Using data from a case-control study of diabetes among racially/ethnically diverse youth in the United States (U.S., we aimed to evaluate the independent impact of neighborhood characteristics on type 1 diabetes risk. Data were available for 507 youth with type 1 diabetes and 208 healthy controls aged 10-22 years recruited in South Carolina and Colorado in 2003-2006. Home addresses were used to identify Census tracts of residence. Neighborhood-level variables were obtained from 2000 U.S. Census. Multivariate generalized linear mixed models were applied. Results Controlling for individual risk factors (age, gender, race/ethnicity, infant feeding, birth weight, maternal age, number of household residents, parental education, income, state, higher neighborhood household income (p = 0.005, proportion of population in managerial jobs (p = 0.02, with at least high school education (p = 0.005, working outside the county (p = 0.04 and vehicle ownership (p = 0.03 were each independently associated with increased odds of type 1 diabetes. Conversely, higher percent minority population (p = 0.0003, income from social security (p = 0.002, proportion of crowded households (0.0497 and poverty (p = 0.008 were associated with a decreased odds. Conclusions Our study suggests that neighborhood characteristics related to greater affluence, occupation, and education are associated with higher type 1 diabetes risk. Further research is needed to understand mechanisms underlying the influence of neighborhood context.

  4. Risk factors in patients with oral pemphigus vulgaris: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi, Mahin; Manifar, Soheila; Azizi, Nemat; Asayesh, Hamid; Mansouri, Parvin; Nasiri, Soheila; Hashemi, Zeynab; Mehdipour, Aida

    2016-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is considered a chronic disease with a potentially fatal outcome. Studies have suggested that environmental factors and personal habits play an important role in the pathogenesis of PV, but more studies are required to elaborate their connection to the disease. The goal of this multicenter case-control study was to determine some of the environmental factors related to PV. Cases (n = 99) were patients with PV, and controls (n = 198) were individuals who did not have PV. Data about demographics, history, clinical findings, occupational exposures to pesticides, smoking status, number of births (parity), herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, and fast food consumption were collected using a structured questionnaire. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were used for data analysis. Univariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the statistically significant factors related to PV were infection with HSV in recent weeks (odds ratio [OR], 3.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.75-6.43), parity (OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.39-0.63), and lack of occupational exposure to pesticides (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.21-0.60). Multivariate analysis revealed that significant factors were cessation of smoking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 4.36; 95% CI, 1.50-12.66), HSV infection (AOR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.47-5.75), and lack of occupational exposure to pesticides (AOR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.20-0.63). The findings indicated that cessation of smoking and HSV infection in recent weeks are risk factors for PV, while lack of occupational exposure to pesticides and increasing parity (a greater number of births) are protective factors against PV. PMID:27148665

  5. Maternal complication prevention: evidence from a case-control study in southwest Nigeria

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    Kayode O. Osungbade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The importance of strengthening maternal health services as a preventive intervention for morbidities and complications during pregnancy and delivery in developing countries cannot be over-emphasised, since use of prenatal health services improves maternal health outcomes.Aim: This study investigated differences in risk factors for maternal complications in booked and unbooked pregnant women in Nigeria, and provided evidence for their prevention.Setting: The study was carried out in a postnatal ward in a secondary health facility.Methods: This was a case-control study involving booked and unbooked pregnant women who had delivered. Consecutive enrolment of all unbooked pregnant women (cases was done, and one booked pregnant woman (control was enrolled and matched for age with each of these. Both groups were interviewed using a questionnaire, whilst records of delivery were extracted from the hospital files. Findings were subjected to logistical regression at a significance level of p < 0.05.Results: Booked women had a lower median length of labour (10 hours compared to unbooked women (13 hours. More women in the booked control group (139; 35.1% than in the unbooked case group (96; 23.6% reported at least one type of morbidity during the index pregnancy (p = 0.0004. Booking status was associated with a likelihood of spontaneous vaginal delivery. Young maternal age, low education, rural residence and low socio-economic status were associated with less likelihood of using prenatal services. Young maternal age, low education and intervention in the delivery were associated with a likelihood of experiencing a complication of delivery.Conclusion: Strengthening antenatal and secondary healthcare services as short- and mediumterm measures might be cost-effective as a preventive strategy in complications of pregnancy,whilst socio-economic dimensions of health are accorded priority in the long term.

  6. Case-control study of congenital malformations and occupational exposure to low-level ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a case-control study, the authors investigated the association of parental occupational exposure to low-level external whole-body penetrating ionizing radiation and risk of congenital malformations in their offspring. Cases and controls were ascertained from births in two counties in southeastern Washington State, where the Hanford Site has been a major employer. A unique feature of this study was the linking of quantitative individual measurement of external whole-body penetrating ionizing radiation exposure of employees at the Hanford Site, using personal dosimeters, and the disease outcome, congenital malformations. The study population included 672 malformation cases and 977 matched controls from births occurring from 1957 through 1980. Twelve specific malformation types were analyzed for evidence of association with employment of the parents at Hanford and with occupational exposure to ionizing radiation. Two defects, congenital dislocation of the hip and tracheoesophageal fistula, showed statistically significant associations with employment of the parents at Hanford, but not with parental radiation exposure. Neural tube defects showed a significant association with parental preconception exposure, on the basis of a small number of cases. Eleven other defects, including Down syndrome, for which an association with radiation was considered most likely, showed no evidence of such an association. When all malformations were analyzed as a group, there was no evidence of an association with employment of the parents at Hanford, but the relation of parental exposure to radiation before conception was in the positive direction (one-tailed p value between 0.05 and 0.10). Given the number of statistical tests conducted, some or all of the observed positive correlations are likely to represent false positive findings. 30 references

  7. Chiari malformation type I: a case-control association study of 58 developmental genes.

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    Aintzane Urbizu

    Full Text Available Chiari malformation type I (CMI is a disorder characterized by hindbrain overcrowding into an underdeveloped posterior cranial fossa (PCF, often causing progressive neurological symptoms. The etiology of CMI remains unclear and is most likely multifactorial. A putative genetic contribution to CMI is suggested by familial aggregation and twin studies. Experimental models and human morphometric studies have suggested an underlying paraxial mesoderm insufficiency. We performed a case-control association study of 303 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP across 58 candidate genes involved in early paraxial mesoderm development in a sample of 415 CMI patients and 524 sex-matched controls. A subgroup of patients diagnosed with classical, small-PCF CMI by means of MRI-based PCF morphometry (n = 186, underwent additional analysis. The genes selected are involved in signalling gradients occurring during segmental patterning of the occipital somites (FGF8, Wnt, and retinoic acid pathways and from bone morphogenetic proteins or BMP, Notch, Cdx and Hox pathways or in placental angiogenesis, sclerotome development or CMI-associated syndromes. Single-marker analysis identified nominal associations with 18 SNPs in 14 genes (CDX1, FLT1, RARG, NKD2, MSGN1, RBPJ1, FGFR1, RDH10, NOG, RARA, LFNG, KDR, ALDH1A2, BMPR1A considering the whole CMI sample. None of these overcame corrections for multiple comparisons, in contrast with four SNPs in CDX1, FLT1 and ALDH1A2 in the classical CMI group. Multiple marker analysis identified a risk haplotype for classical CMI in ALDH1A2 and CDX1. Furthermore, we analyzed the possible contributions of the most significantly associated SNPs to different PCF morphometric traits. These findings suggest that common variants in genes involved in somitogenesis and fetal vascular development may confer susceptibility to CMI.

  8. Severe Sepsis in Severely Malnourished Young Bangladeshi Children with Pneumonia: A Retrospective Case Control Study.

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    Mohammod Jobayer Chisti

    Full Text Available In developing countries, there is no published report on predicting factors of severe sepsis in severely acute malnourished (SAM children having pneumonia and impact of fluid resuscitation in such children. Thus, we aimed to identify predicting factors for severe sepsis and assess the outcome of fluid resuscitation of such children.In this retrospective case-control study SAM children aged 0-59 months, admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU of the Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh from April 2011 through July 2012 with history of cough or difficult breathing and radiologic pneumonia, who were assessed for severe sepsis at admission constituted the study population. We compared the pneumonic SAM children with severe sepsis (cases = 50 with those without severe sepsis (controls = 354. Severe sepsis was defined with objective clinical criteria and managed with fluid resuscitation, in addition to antibiotic and other supportive therapy, following the standard hospital guideline, which is very similar to the WHO guideline.The case-fatality-rate was significantly higher among the cases than the controls (40% vs. 4%; p<0.001. In logistic regression analysis after adjusting for potential confounders, lack of BCG vaccination, drowsiness, abdominal distension, acute kidney injury, and metabolic acidosis at admission remained as independent predicting factors for severe sepsis in pneumonic SAM children (p<0.05 for all comparisons.We noted a much higher case fatality among under-five SAM children with pneumonia and severe sepsis who required fluid resuscitation in addition to standard antibiotic and other supportive therapy compared to those without severe sepsis. Independent risk factors and outcome of the management of severe sepsis in our study children highlight the importance for defining optimal fluid resuscitation therapy aiming at reducing the case fatality in such children.

  9. Population-based case-control study of childhood leukemia in Shanghai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A population-based case-control interview study of 309 childhood leukemia cases and 618 healthy population control children was conducted in urban Shanghai, China. Like some studies in other countries, excess risks for both acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) were associated with intrauterine and paternal preconception diagnostic x-ray exposure, and with maternal employment in the chemical and agricultural industries during pregnancy. ANLL was linked to maternal occupational exposure to benzene during pregnancy, whereas both ALL and ANLL were significantly associated with maternal exposure to gasoline and the patient's prior use of chloramphenicol. New findings, previously unsuspected, included an association of ANLL with younger maternal age at menarche (odds ratio [OR] = 4.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.3-13.9); a protective effect for long-term (greater than 1 year) use of cod liver oil containing vitamins A and D for both ALL (OR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.2-0.9) and ANLL (OR = 0.3; 95% CI = 0.1-1.0); and excess risks of ANLL among children whose mothers were employed in metal refining and processing (OR = 4.6; 95% CI = 1.3-17.2) and of ALL associated with maternal occupational exposure to pesticides (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.1-11.2). No relationships were found with late maternal age, certain congenital disorders, or familial occurrence, which have been related to childhood leukemia in other studies. In contrast with other reports, an excess of leukemia, primarily ANLL, occurred among second or later-born rather than firstborn children

  10. Risk factors of breast cancer in Dezful city of Iran: a case-control study

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    Behzad Jafarinia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers among women and features increasing trends of incidence rates. Worldwide, yearly about 1.67 million of new cases and 522,000 of deaths from breast cancer are registered. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors of breast cancer in women and to identify high risk groups. Methods: In a case-control study, 170 women with breast cancer who were registered in cancer registration system from 2011 to 2015 at Dezful City, Iran, were compared with 170 healthy women with confirmation of mammography. After age matching of groups, the needed information about risk factors and demographic information including information, educational level, marital status, family history of breast cancer, age at menarche, parity, oral contraceptive use, age at first pregnancy, menopausal status, and age at menopause, breastfeeding, stress, abortion, alcohol use and smoking, hormone therapy and physical activity was collected by a questionnaire. The analysis of collected data was performed by using odds ratio and logistic regression model and SPSS software, version 16 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA. The statistical significance was set at a two-sided p-value of %5. Results: The results of this study showed that, women with the family history [OR: 6.78 (95% CI: 2.15-21.41] and women with the stress history [OR: 4.86 (95% CI: 2.46-9.59] had higher risk of breast canser, while women with the history of having physical activity at least once a week [OR: 0.29 (95% CI: 0.13-0.65] and women with the history breast feeding for 3 to 4 years [OR: 0.36 (95% CI: 0.16-0.81] had lower risk of breast cancer. Conclusion: It is recommended that the mentioned risk factors and protective factors be considered in first and second level (screening of preventive programs.

  11. Dietary cadmium intake and breast cancer risk in Japanese women: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Hiroaki; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sawada, Norie; Takachi, Ribeka; Kasuga, Yoshio; Yokoyama, Shiro; Onuma, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Hideki; Kusama, Ritsu; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium, an environmental pollutant, may act like an estrogen and be a potential risk factor for estrogen-dependent diseases such as breast cancer. We examined the hypothesis that higher dietary cadmium intake is associated with risk of overall and hormone receptor-defined breast cancer in Japanese women, a population with a relatively high cadmium intake. The study was conducted under a case-control design in 405 eligible matched pairs from May 2001 to September 2005 at four hospitals in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. Dietary cadmium intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of breast cancer and its hormone-receptor-defined subtypes were calculated by tertile of dietary cadmium intake. We found no significant association between dietary cadmium and risk of total breast cancer in either crude or multivariable-adjusted analysis. Adjusted ORs for tertiles of cadmium intake were 1.00, 1.19, and 1.23 (95% CI, 0.76-2.00; P for trend=0.39) for whole breast cancer. Further, no significant associations were seen across strata of menopausal status, smoking, and diabetes in multivariable-adjusted models except for adjusted OR for continuous cadmium intake in postmenopausal women. A statistically significant association was found for estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) tumors among postmenopausal women (adjusted OR=1.00, 1.16, and 1.94 [95% CI, 1.04-3.63; P for trend=0.032]). Although the present study found no overall association between dietary cadmium intake and breast cancer risk, higher cadmium intake was associated with increased risk of ER+ breast cancer in postmenopausal women, at least at regular intake levels in Japanese women in the general population. Further studies are needed to confirm this association. PMID:23608001

  12. The effectiveness of helmets in bicycle collisions with motor vehicles: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambach, M R; Mitchell, R J; Grzebieta, R H; Olivier, J

    2013-04-01

    There has been an ongoing debate in Australia and internationally regarding the effectiveness of bicycle helmets in preventing head injury. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of bicycle helmets in preventing head injury amongst cyclists in crashes involving motor vehicles, and to assess the impact of 'risky cycling behaviour' among helmeted and unhelmeted cyclists. This analysis involved a retrospective, case-control study using linked police-reported road crash, hospital admission and mortality data in New South Wales (NSW), Australia during 2001-2009. The study population was cyclist casualties who were involved in a collision with a motor vehicle. Cases were those that sustained a head injury and were admitted to hospital. Controls were those admitted to hospital who did not sustain a head injury, or those not admitted to hospital. Standard multiple variable logistic regression modelling was conducted, with multinomial outcomes of injury severity. There were 6745 cyclist collisions with motor vehicles where helmet use was known. Helmet use was associated with reduced risk of head injury in bicycle collisions with motor vehicles of up to 74%, and the more severe the injury considered, the greater the reduction. This was also found to be true for particular head injuries such as skull fractures, intracranial injury and open head wounds. Around one half of children and adolescents less than 19 years were not wearing a helmet, an issue that needs to be addressed in light of the demonstrated effectiveness of helmets. Non-helmeted cyclists were more likely to display risky riding behaviour, however, were less likely to cycle in risky areas; the net result of which was that they were more likely to be involved in more severe crashes. PMID:23377086

  13. Effect of statins on gastric cancer incidence: A meta-Analysis of case control studies

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    Zhiyuan Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gastric cancer is among the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide, especially in Eastern Asia, Eastern Europe and South America. Statin is one of the most widely used medications for hypercholesterolemia. Several meta-analyses have failed to determine the relationship between statins and gastric cancer. Aims: A meta-analysis of case control studies is conducted to evaluate the association of statin exposure and risk of gastric cancer. Materials and Methods: Eight electronic databases (The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL (Issue 12, 2012, PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, CNKI, CBM, CSJD and Wanfang Database were searched for relevant publications through September 2013. Two reviewers determined the eligibility of articles and abstracted the data independently. RevMan 5.2 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: 146 items were retrieved from the databases and 6 studies were identified in this meta-analysis, which included 5,993 cases and 54,800 matched controls. Results from the meta-analysis demonstrated that statins were inversely related to the risk of gastric cancer (RR = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.35-0.90. There was no significant difference for cumulative duration of statin exposure and gastric cancer, nor participants from Asia, Europe, or USA. Conclusion: This meta-analysis suggests that statins have favorable effects on gastric cancer, rigorously designed and executed observational studies and randomized control trials with longer duration of follow-up are warranted to determine effects in clinical practice.

  14. A case-control study of nutritional factors associated with chronic suppurative otitis media in Yemeni children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Elemraid; I.J. Mackenzie; W.D. Fraser; G. Harper; B. Faragher; Z. Atef; N. Al-Aghbari; B.J. Brabin

    2011-01-01

    Undernutrition and chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) in children are common in low resource settings, but there are few studies of their interactions. The aim is to evaluate nutritional factors associated with CSOM in Yemeni children. A case-control study of 75 children with CSOM and 74 health

  15. Antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal syndromes and cytochrome P-450 2D6 genotype : a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schillevoort, [No Value; de Boer, A; van der Weide, J; Steijns, LSW; Roos, RAC; Jansen, PAF; Leufkens, HGM

    2002-01-01

    To study the association between polymorphism of the cytochrome P-450 2D6 gene (CYP2D6) and the risk of antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal syndromes, as measured by the use of anti parkinsonian medication. Data for this case-control study were obtained from a psychiatric hospital where newly admit

  16. Use of dairy products, lactose, and calcium and risk of ovarian cancer - results from a Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Mette Tuxen; Jensen, Allan; Søgaard, Marie;

    2012-01-01

    A number of epidemiological studies have examined the association between use of dairy products and risk of ovarian cancer, but results are conflicting. Using data from a large Danish population-based case-control study we here further examined the association between dairy consumption, lactose......, and calcium and risk of overall ovarian cancer and histological types of ovarian cancer....

  17. Comparing Mental Health of School-Age Children of Parents With/Without Bipolar Disorders: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsaei; Cheraghi; Dehghani; Jahangard

    2015-01-01

    Background Children of parents with bipolar disorder appear to have an increased risk of early-onset Bipolar Disorder (BP), mood disorders and other psychiatric disorders. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the mental health of school-age children of parents, with/without bipolar disorder. Materials and Methods This case-control study included one hundred children aged...

  18. Body Mass Index, Smoking and Hypertensive Disorders during Pregnancy: A Population Based Case-Control Study.

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    Thuridur A Gudnadóttir

    Full Text Available While obesity is an indicated risk factor for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, smoking during pregnancy has been shown to be inversely associated with the development of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of high body mass index and smoking on hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. This was a case-control study based on national registers, nested within all pregnancies in Iceland 1989-2004, resulting in birth at the Landspitali University Hospital. Cases (n = 500 were matched 1:2 with women without a hypertensive diagnosis who gave birth in the same year. Body mass index (kg/m2 was based on height and weight at 10-15 weeks of pregnancy. We used logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals as measures of association, adjusting for potential confounders and tested for additive and multiplicative interactions of body mass index and smoking. Women's body mass index during early pregnancy was positively associated with each hypertensive outcome. Compared with normal weight women, the multivariable adjusted odds ratio for any hypertensive disorder was 1.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.3 for overweight women and 3.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.2-4.3 for obese women. The odds ratio for any hypertensive disorder with obesity was 3.9 (95% confidence interval 1.8-8.6 among smokers and 3.0 (95% confidence interval 2.1-4.3 among non-smokers. The effect estimates for hypertensive disorders with high body mass index appeared more pronounced among smokers than non-smokers, although the observed difference was not statistically significant. Our findings may help elucidate the complicated interplay of these lifestyle-related factors with the hypertensive disorders during pregnancy.

  19. Dietary habits in patients with ischemic stroke: a case-control study.

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    Ana Rodríguez-Campello

    Full Text Available Diet appears to have some role in stroke development. The objective of our study was to describe the dietary habits in patients admitted with acute ischemic stroke and compare selected dietary components with healthy controls. Adherence to healthy diet behaviors was also assessed.A case-control study of consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke admitted to the Neurology Department of Hospital del Mar from 2007 to 2010. Patients were matched by age and sex with control subjects. A previously validated nutritional survey was administered to patients and controls. Demographic data, vascular risk factors, caloric intake and dietary nutrients were evaluated. Intention to follow a healthy diet was also assessed in both groups.A total of 300 acute ischemic stroke patients and 300 controls with evaluation of dietary habits. No differences were observed in vascular risk factors, except smoking habit, diabetes and ischemic heart disease. Stroke patients reported a higher caloric intake: 2444.8(1736.8-3244.5 vs 2208.7(1753.1-2860.7 Kcal, p = 0.001. After adjusting for energy intake, patients had higher intake of proteins (p<0.001; OR 1.02, total cholesterol (p = 0.001; OR 1.04, and breaded foods (p = 0.001; OR 1.94 and lower consumption of probiotic yogurt (p = 0.002; OR 0.88. Compared to patients, control participants indicated greater intention to eat vegetables (p = 0.002; OR 1.5 and whole foods (p = 0.000; OR 2.4 and reduce their intake of salt (p = 0.002; OR 1.7, fat (p = 0.000; OR 3.7 and sweets (p = 0.004; OR 1.7 than patients.We observed different dietary patterns between stroke patients and controls. Stroke patients have a higher caloric intake and are less concerned about maintaining healthy nutritional habits.

  20. A case control study of premorbid and currently reported physical activity levels in chronic fatigue syndrome

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    Buchwald Dedra

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome typically report high levels of physical activity before becoming ill. Few studies have examined premorbid and current activity levels in chronically fatigued patients. Methods In a case-control study, 33 patients with chronic, unexplained, disabling fatigue attending a university-based clinic specializing in fatigue were compared to 33 healthy, age- and sex-matched controls. Patients rated their activity levels before their illness and currently, using scales designed for this purpose. Controls reported their level of activity of 2 years previously and currently. Chi-square analyses, Student's t tests, and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used in pair matched analyses. Results Compared to healthy controls, patients with chronic, unexplained fatigue rated themselves as more active before their illness (p ≤ 0.001 and less active currently (p ≤ 0.001. The patients also reported they currently stood or walked less than the controls (median [inter-quartile range] = 4 2345 versus 9 [7.5–12] hours, p ≤ 0.001, and spent more time reclining (median [inter-quartile range] = 12 10111213141516 versus 8 [8–9.5] hours, p ≤ 0.001. These differences remained significant for the subset of patients who met strict criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome or fibromyalgia. Conclusion Patients with chronic, unexplained, disabling fatigue reported being more active before becoming ill than healthy controls. This finding could be explained by greater premorbid activity levels that could predispose to illness, or by an overestimation of previous activity. Either possibility could influence patients' perceptions of their current activity levels and their judgments of recovery. Perceived activity should be addressed as part of management of the illness.

  1. Environmental risk factors in the aetiology of multiple sclerosis in Kayseri: a case control study

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    Servin Yeşil Günal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: our purpose is to evaluate the possible relationship between multiple sclerosis (MS and environmental factors in Kayseri.Methods: this case control study was conducted on 100 patients with MS and 100 sex-aged and residential area matched control. Data was collected by using face to face interviews. Questionnaire consisted of two parts. The first part was comprised of items related with the participants’ sociodemographic features. The second part was related with factors thought to be involved in the occurrence or aggravation of the disease. The Chi-square test and logistic regression were used for analysis.Results: logistic regression analysis revealed the following as possible risk factors in MS cases: economic status (Odds Ratio (OR: 0.14 adjusted 7.19; Confidence Interval 95% (CI: 0.05-0.43, having a sensitive personality (OR:4.51; 95% CI: 1.10-18.45, familial history of MS (OR:3.28; 95% CI: 1.3-8.27, history of cranial and spinal injury (OR: 2.99; 95% CI: 1.11-8.08, cooking oil consumption (OR:0.07 adjusted 13.5; 95% CI: 0.03-0.20, consumption of legumes and grains (OR: 0.11 adjusted 8.9; 95% CI: 0.03-0.41, and living in dwellings within a distance of 500 meters from transformer basestations (OR: 6.5; 95% CI: 1.54-28.21.Conclusions: we believe that it is necessary to inform the individuals about the risk of MS and their relatives of the results of large-scale joint studies and to offer suggestions based on the data obtained.

  2. Cardiovascular safety of celecoxib in acute myocardial infarction patients: a nested case-control study

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    Josiane Courteau

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to measure the impact of exposure to coxibs and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID on morbidity and mortality in older patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI. A nested case-control study was carried out using an exhaustive population-based cohort of patients aged 66 years and older living in Quebec (Canada who survived a hospitalization for AMI (ICD-9 410 between 1999 and 2002. The main variables were all-cause and cardiovascular (CV death, subsequent hospital admission for AMI, and a composite end-point including recurrent AMI or CV death. Conditional logistic regressions were used to estimate the risk of mortality and morbidity. A total of 19,823 patients aged 66 years and older survived hospitalization for AMI in the province of Quebec between 1999 and 2002. After controlling for covariables, the risk of subsequent AMI and the risk of composite end-point were increased by the use of rofecoxib. The risk of subsequent AMI was particularly high for new rofecoxib users (HR 2.47, 95% CI 1.57-3.89. No increased risk was observed for celecoxib users. No increased risk of CV death was observed for patients exposed to coxibs or NSAIDs. Patients newly exposed to NSAIDs were at an increased risk of death (HR 2.22, 95% CI 1.30-3.77 and of composite end-point (HR 2.28, 95% CI 1.35-3.84. Users of rofecoxib and NSAIDs, but not celecoxib, were at an increased risk of recurrent AMI and of composite end-point. Surprisingly, no increased risk of CV death was observed. Further studies are needed to better understand these apparently contradictory results.

  3. Association between statin therapy and tendon rupture: a case-control study.

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    Beri, Abhimanyu; Dwamena, Francesca C; Dwamena, Ben A

    2009-05-01

    Although case reports of a possible association between statin therapy and tendon rupture have been published, no analytical studies exploring this relationship have been reported. We conducted a case-control study using the electronic medical records at Michigan State University from 2002 to 2007 to assess whether statin use is a risk factor for tendon rupture. We compared exposure to statins in 93 cases of tendon rupture with similar exposure in 279 sex- and age-matched controls. Exposure to statins was defined as documentation in the electronic medical record of statin use in the 12 months preceding tendon rupture. For controls, the exposure period was defined as 1 year preceding the last office visit. We used a multivariate logistic regression model, controlling for diabetes, renal disease, rheumatologic disease, and steroid use, to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (ORs). There was no significant difference between cases and controls in the rates of statin use, with either univariate [OR = 1.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54-1.84] or multivariate analyses (OR = 1.10, 95% CI 0.57-2.13). Based on predetermined subgroup analyses, statin exposure was found to be a significant risk factor for tendon rupture in women (adjusted OR = 3.76, 95% CI 1.11-12.75) but not in men (adjusted OR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.29-1.51). In conclusion, we found no overall association between statin use and tendon rupture, but subgroup analysis suggested that women with tendon rupture were more likely to be on statins. PMID:19454900

  4. Case-control study of risk factors for disease in the neck and shoulder area.

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    Ekberg, K; Björkqvist, B; Malm, P; Bjerre-Kiely, B; Karlsson, M; Axelson, O

    1994-04-01

    A case-control study was performed to elucidate the strength of the relation between musculoskeletal disorders in the neck and shoulders and physical, organisational, and psychosocial aspects of the work environment. Cases were identified as those persons who consulted a physician in a community in southern Sweden for new musculoskeletal disorders in the neck and shoulders during a study period from August 1988 to the end of October 1989. One hundred and nine cases were collected and clinically examined. The cases also answered the Nordic questionnaire on symptoms as well as a questionnaire on work conditions and background factors. Controls were drawn as a random sample of the working population in the community where the cases appeared. A total of 637 controls answered the same questionnaires as the cases. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression. The odds ratios were 11.4 for women, 4.9 for immigrant background, and 3.7 for current smoking. To exercise rarely, compared with often, appeared as a preventive factor with an OR of 0.3. The ORs for various determinants of physical work load were 7.5 for repetitive movements demanding precision, 13.6 for light lifting, 3.6 for uncomfortable sitting positions, 4.8 for work with lifted arms, and 3.5 for a rushed work pace. Regarding work organisational determinants, the ORs were 16.5 for ambiguity of work role (uncertainty whether the person could manage the work) 2.6 for low quality work, and 3.8 for high demands on attention. Several of the determinants showed a significant dose-response relation with disease. It seems that work organisation and psychosocial work conditions are as important determinants for disease in the neck and shoulders as are the physical work conditions. PMID:8199669

  5. Diet and breast cancer: a case-control study in Greece.

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    Katsouyanni, K; Trichopoulos, D; Boyle, P; Xirouchaki, E; Trichopoulou, A; Lisseos, B; Vasilaros, S; MacMahon, B

    1986-12-15

    A case-control study of the role of diet in the etiology of breast cancer was conducted in Athens, Greece. There are reasons to believe that the diet of the Greek population is characterized by greater heterogeneity than that in most countries where such studies have been undertaken. The case series consisted of 120 consecutive patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer admitted to either of two teaching hospitals over a 12-month period. The controls were 120 patients admitted to a teaching hospital for trauma and orthopedic conditions during the same period. Dietary histories concerning the frequency of consumption of 120 foods and drinks were obtained by interview. Cases reported significantly less frequent consumption of vegetables as a group and, within that group, specifically of cucumber, lettuce and raw carrot. After adjustment for potential external confounding variables and for confounding between food categories, the odds ratio for persons in the highest quintile of vegetable consumers, relative to those in the lowest quintile, was 0.09 with 95% confidence limits 0.03-0.30. That is to say, the lowest quintile of vegetable consumers had about 10 times the breast cancer risk of the highest quintile. For a score based on consumption of only the 3 specified salad items the odds ratio over the extreme quartiles was 0.12 (0.05-0.32). There was no association with consumption of fats and oils, alcohol or coffee, and no significant association with any other major food category (including alcohol and coffee) after adjustment for confounding variables. PMID:3793261

  6. The risk profile of childhood leukaemia in Greece: a nationwide case-control study.

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    Petridou, E; Trichopoulos, D; Kalapothaki, V; Pourtsidis, A; Kogevinas, M; Kalmanti, M; Koliouskas, D; Kosmidis, H; Panagiotou, J P; Piperopoulou, F; Tzortzatou, F

    1997-01-01

    The risk profile of childhood leukaemia in Greece was studied through a case-control investigation that included all 153 incident cases of the disease, ascertained throughout the country during 1993 and 1994, and two hospital controls for every case matched for gender, age and place of residence. The data were analysed using conditional logistic regression and the associations are expressed in terms of adjusted odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals. Cases were born to mothers of a higher standard education, the OR for an increment of four schooling years being 1.48 (1.17-1.87) and had higher birth weight, the OR for an increment of 500g being 1.36 (1.04-1.77). Pet ownership and birth after a pregnancy with anaemia were associated with increased risk, the ORs being 2.18 (1.14-4.16) and 2.60 (1.39-4.86) respectively. From the frequency analyses, indicative inverse associations were found with birth order, household crowding and previous hospitalization with allergic diseases, whereas indicative positive associations were found with diabetes mellitus during pregnancy and with neonatal jaundice. Substantial or significant elevations were not found with respect to maternal smoking and coffee drinking during pregnancy, diagnostic radiography and ultrasonographic examinations or blood transfusions. A significant inverse association with maternal consumption of alcohol could be due to multiple comparisons, but a detrimental effect can probably be excluded. A non-significant positive association with total shots of viral vaccinations and a weak non-significant inverse association with breast feeding were also found. We interpret the findings of this study as being compatible with acute childhood leukaemia being linked with delayed development of herd immunity to fairly common infectious agents, in conjunction with accelerated perinatal and early post-natal growth. PMID:9365177

  7. Green tea and the prevention of breast cancer: a case-control study in Southeast China.

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    Zhang, Min; Holman, C D'Arcy J; Huang, Jiang-ping; Xie, Xing

    2007-05-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women worldwide. Tea has anticarcinogenic effects against breast cancer in experimental studies. However, epidemiologic evidence that tea protects against breast cancer has been inconsistent. A case-control study was conducted in Southeast China between 2004 and 2005. The incidence cases were 1009 female patients aged 20-87 years with histologically confirmed breast cancer. The 1009 age-matched controls were healthy women randomly recruited from breast disease clinics. Information on duration, frequency, quantity, preparation, type of tea consumption, diet and lifestyle were collected by face-to-face interview using a validated and reliable questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and associated 95% confidence intervals. Compared with non-tea drinkers, green tea drinkers tended to reside in urban, have better education and have higher consumption of coffee, alcohol, soy, vegetables and fruits. After adjusting established and potential confounders, green tea consumption was associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer. The ORs were 0.87 (0.73-1.04) in women consuming 1-249 g of dried green tea leaves per annum, 0.68 (0.54-0.86) for 250-499 g per annum, 0.59 (0.45-0.77) for 500-749 g per annum and 0.61 (0.48-0.78) for >or=750 g per annum, with a statistically significant test for trend (P consumption of green tea can protect against breast cancer. More research to closely examine the relationship between tea consumption and breast cancer risk is warranted. PMID:17183063

  8. Urinary hepcidin level as an early predictor of iron deficiency in children: A case control study

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    Gharib Amal F

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ideal screening test would be capable of identifying iron deficiency in the absence of anemia. We tried to detect role of urinary hepcidin-25 level in early prediction of iron deficiency in children. Methods This is a case control study performed on 100 children in Hematology Unit of Pediatric Department, Zagazig University Hospital, Egypt. Our study included 25 cases of iron deficiency (ID stage-1 (iron depletion, 25 cases ID stage-2 (iron-deficient erythropoiesis, 25 cases ID stage-3 (iron deficiency anemia and 25 healthy children as a control group. Estimation of iron status parameters was done. Urinary hepcidin-25 level was detected. Results Urinary hepcidin-25 level was significantly lower in all stages of iron deficiency than in control group, more significant reduction in its level was observed with the progress in severity of iron deficiency. Urinary hepcidin showed significant positive correlation with hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, hematocrit value, serum iron and ferritin and transferrin saturation. In contrary, it showed significant negative correlation with serum transferrin and total iron binding capacity. Urinary hepcidin at cutoff point ≤0.94 nmol/mmol Cr could Predict ID stage-1 with sensitivity 88% and specificity 88%. Cutoff point ≤0.42 nmol/mmol Cr could predict ID stage-2 with sensitivity 96% and specificity 92%. Cutoff point ≤0.08 nmol/mmol Cr could Predict ID stage-3 with Sensitivity 96% and specificity 100%. Conclusions We can conclude that detection of urinary hepcidin-25 level was a simple and non invasive test and could predict iron deficiency very early, before appearance of hematological affections.

  9. Case-Control Study of Dietary Pattern and Other Risk Factors for Gastric Cancer

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    Abbas Naghizadeh Baghi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rates of gastric cancer reported from Ardabil Province of Iran, are among thehighest in the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for gastric cancer inArdabil Province.Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 128 adults with mean age of 56.5 ± 12.8 yrold in Ardebil City, Iran in 2010 – 2011. Forty-two people with gastric cancer and 86 healthypeople were recruited. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Fastingblood samples were taken for measurement of IgG and IgA indices against Helicobacter pylori infection.Data were analyzed using the Chi-square and Independent sample t-test.Results: Diet and H. pylori infection indices had the significant relationship with gastric cancer(P<0.05. Among dietary patterns, drinking hot tea, low intake of fresh vegetables and fruits, andunsaturated fat were the most significant risk factors (P<0.05. In gastric cancer patients, the levelsof serum IgG and IgA as indicator of H. pylori infection were significantly (P<0.05 higherthan the healthy subjects (IgG 37.7 ± 29.3 vs. 16.9 ± 11.1 U/ml and IgA 50.5 ± 44.7 vs. 22.9 ±15.8 U/ml. No significant relationship was observed between tobacco smoking and alcohol consumptionwith gastric cancer.Conclusion: Dietary pattern especially drinking hot tea and low consumption of unsaturated fat,fresh vegetables, and fruits, as well as H. pylori infection were the most important risk factors ingastric cancer patients.

  10. The generalized bone phenotype in children with neurofibromatosis 1: a sibling matched case-control study.

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    Armstrong, Linlea; Jett, Kimberly; Birch, Patricia; Kendler, David L; McKay, Heather; Tsang, Erica; Stevenson, David A; Hanley, David A; Egeli, Deetria; Burrows, Melonie; Friedman, J M

    2013-07-01

    People with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) have low bone mineralization, but the natural history and pathogenesis are poorly understood. We performed a sibling-matched case-control study of bone mineral status, morphology, and metabolism. Eighteen children with NF1 without focal bony lesions were compared to unaffected siblings and local population controls. Bone mineral content at the lumbar spine and proximal femur (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)) was lower in children with NF1; this difference persisted after adjusting for height and weight. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) of the distal tibia showed that trabecular density was more severely compromised than cortical. Peripheral QCT-derived estimates of bone strength and resistance to bending and stress were poorer among children with NF1 although there was no difference in fracture frequencies. There were no differences in the size or shape of bones after adjusting for height. Differences in markers of bone turnover between cases and controls were in the directions predicted by animal studies, but did not reach statistical significance. Average serum calcium concentration was higher (although within the normal range) in children with NF1; serum 25-OH vitamin D, and PTH levels did not differ significantly between cases and controls. Children with NF1 were less mature (assessed by pubertal stage) than unaffected siblings or population controls. Children with NF1 have a generalized difference of bone metabolism that predominantly affects trabecular bone. Effects of decreased neurofibromin on bone turnover, calcium homeostasis, and pubertal development may contribute to the differences in bone mineral content observed among people with NF1. PMID:23713011

  11. Risk factors for infection with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae: a case-case-control study

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    Viviana Gómez Rueda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: To evaluate the association between quinolone exposure and the emergence of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP and to estimate CRKP-specific mortality.Methods: Case-case-control study implemented in a tertiary care institution. Three groups of patients were analyzed: 61 consecutive cases of infection with CRKP (Group I; 61 randomly chosen cases of patients infected with carbapenem-sensitive Klebsiella pneumoniae (CSKP; Group II; and 122 randomly chosen controls without CRKP or CSKP infection. Matching was based on the length of stay in intensive care unit and the date of bacterial isolation. An active search was performed for patients with CRKP and CSKP infection, and prospective cases were included in the study. We compared the results for Groups I and II against those for the controls by using two conditional logistic regression analyses that included infection as the dependent variable and controlled for time at risk and co-morbidities.Results: Exposure to quinolones was not associated with CRKP infection: no association was found in the analysis of CRKP with the controls (OR= 1.7; 95% CI: 0.2-6.5 or in the analysis of CSKP against the controls (OR= 0.6; 95% CI: 0.2-1.6. Use of carbapenems (OR = 3.3; 95% CI: 1.2-9.3 and colonization with CRKP (OR = 3.3; 95% IC: 1.2-9.3 were specific risk factors for infection with CRKP. Mortality associated with CRKP was 61.3%.Conclusion: No association was found between exposure to quinolones and infection with CRKP; however, colonization by CRKP and use of carbapenems are risk factors for infection with CRKP.

  12. Does marriage protect against hospitalization with pneumonia? A population-based case-control study

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    Mor A

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Anil Mor, Sinna P Ulrichsen, Elisabeth Svensson, Klara Berencsi, Reimar W Thomsen Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark Background: To reduce the increasing burden of pneumonia hospitalizations, we need to understand their determinants. Being married may decrease the risk of severe infections, due to better social support and healthier lifestyle. Patients and methods: In this population-based case-control study, we identified all adult patients with a first-time pneumonia-related hospitalization between 1994 and 2008 in Northern Denmark. For each case, ten sex- and age-matched population controls were selected from Denmark's Civil Registration System. We performed conditional logistic regression analysis to estimate the odds ratios (ORs for pneumonia hospitalization among persons who were divorced, widowed, or never married, as compared with married persons, adjusting for age, sex, 19 different comorbidities, alcoholism-related conditions, immunosuppressant use, urbanization, and living with small children. Results: The study included 67,162 patients with a pneumonia-related hospitalization and 671,620 matched population controls. Compared with controls, the pneumonia patients were more likely to be divorced (10% versus 7% or never married (13% versus 11%. Divorced and never-married patients were much more likely to have previous diagnoses of alcoholism-related conditions (18% and 11%, respectively compared with married (3% and widowed (6% patients. The adjusted OR for pneumonia-related hospitalization was increased, at 1.29 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25-1.33 among divorced; 1.15 (95% CI: 1.12-1.17 among widowed; and 1.33 (95% CI: 1.29-1.37 among never-married individuals as compared with those who were married. Conclusion: Married individuals have a decreased risk of being hospitalized with pneumonia compared with never-married, divorced, and widowed patients

  13. Colon cancer risk and different HRT formulations: a case-control study

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    Thai Do

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most studies have found no increased risk of colon cancer associated with hormone replacement therapy (HRT, or even a decreased risk. But information about the effects of different HRT preparations is lacking. Methods A case-control study was performed within Germany in collaboration with regional cancer registries and tumor centers. Up to 5 controls were matched to each case of colon cancer. Conditional logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Stratified analyses were performed to get an impression of the risk associated with different estrogens and progestins. Results A total of 354 cases of colon cancer were compared with 1422 matched controls. The adjusted overall risk estimate for colon cancer (ColC associated with ever-use of HRT was 0.97 (0.71 – 1.32. No clinically relevant trends for ColC risk were observed with increasing duration of HRT use, or increasing time since first or last HRT use in aggregate. Whereas the overall risk estimates were stable, the numbers in many of the sub-analyses of HRT preparation groups (estrogens and progestins were too small for conclusions. Nevertheless, if the ColC risk estimates are taken at face value, most seemed to be reduced compared with never-use of HRT, but did not vary much across HRT formulation subgroups. In particular, no substantial difference in ColC risk was observed between HRT-containing conjugated equine estrogens (CEE or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA and other formulations more common in Europe. Conclusion Ever-use of HRT was not associated with an increased risk of colon cancer. In contrary, most risk estimates pointed non-significantly toward a lower ColC risk in HRT ever user. They did not vary markedly among different HRT formulations (estrogens, progestins. However, the small numbers and the overlapping nature of the subgroups suggest cautious interpretation.

  14. An exploratory case control study of risk factors for hepatitis E in rural Bangladesh.

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    Alain B Labrique

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is the major cause of epidemic and sporadic hepatitis globally. Outbreaks are associated with fecal contamination of drinking water, yet the environmental reservoir of HEV between epidemics remains unclear. In contrast to neighboring countries, where epidemics and sporadic disease co-occur, HEV-endemic communities in rural Bangladesh seldom report outbreaks; sporadic hepatitis E is reported from urban and rural areas of the country. Besides typical enteric risk factors, other routes for HEV infection and disease are unclear. We conducted monthly household surveillance of a southern Bangladeshi community of 23,500 people to find incident cases of acute hepatitis E over a 22 month period. An algorithm was used to capture 279 candidate cases, of which 46 were confirmed acute HEV infections. An exploratory case-control study was conducted to identify putative risk factors for disease. Nearly 70% of cases were over 15 years old. Female gender seemed protective (OR:0.34 against hepatitis E in this conservative setting, as was the use of sanitary latrines (OR:0.28. Socioeconomic status or animal exposures were not significant predictors of disease, although outdoor employment and recent urban travel were. Unexpectedly, recent contact with a "jaundiced" patient and a history of injection exposure in the 3 months prior to disease (OR:15.50 were significant. Susceptible individuals from "endemic" communities share similar enteric exposure risks to those commonly associated with tourists from non-endemic countries. This study also raises the novel possibility of parenteral and person-to-person transmission of HEV in non-epidemic, sporadic disease settings.

  15. Environmental factors in early childhood are associated with multiple sclerosis: a case-control study

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    Ditzenbach Anna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS with increasing incidence mainly in high-income countries. One explanation of this phenomenon may be a higher prevalence of allergic and autoimmune diseases in industrialized countries as a consequence of otherwise beneficial advances in sanitation (hygiene hypothesis. We investigated environmental factors in early childhood associated with MS. Methods A case-control study was performed of 245 MS patients and 296 population-based controls in Berlin. The study participants completed a standardized questionnaire on environmental factors in childhood and youth, including aspects of personal and community hygiene. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate factors in childhood and youth associated with the occurrence of MS. Results Mean age was 46 years (range, 20-80 in the MS group and 42 years (range 18-80 in the control group, of which 73.9% in the MS and 61.5% in the control group were female. The multivariable analysis showed that having at least two older siblings (OR 0.54; p = 0.05, for individuals with two older siblings compared to individuals without older siblings, attending a day-care center (OR 0.5; p = 0.004 and growing up in an urban center with more than 100, 000 inhabitants (OR 0.43; p = 0.009 were factors independently associated with a lower chance for MS. Conclusions The hygiene hypothesis may play a role in the occurrence of MS and could explain disease distribution and increasing incidence.

  16. Diabetes Mellitus and Site-specific Colorectal Cancer Risk in Korea: A Case-control Study

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    Lee, Jeonghee; Park, Sungchan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Previous large-scale cohort studies conducted in Korea have found a positive association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and colorectal cancer (CRC) in men only, in contrast to studies of other populations that have found significant associations in both men and women. Methods: A total of 1070 CRC cases and 2775 controls were recruited from the National Cancer Center, Korea between August 2010 and June 2013. Self-reported DM history and the duration of DM were compared between cases and controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by binary and polytomous logistic regression models. Results: DM was associated with an elevated risk of CRC in both men (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.90) and women (OR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.24 to 2.98). This association remained when we controlled for age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and physical activity level. In sub-site analyses, DM was associated with distal colon cancer risk in both men (multivariate OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.39 to 3.00) and women (multivariate ORs, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.05 to 3.79), while DM was only associated with rectal cancer risk in women (multivariate OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.10 to 3.82). No significant association was found between DM and proximal colon cancer risk in either men (multivariate OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 0.88 to 2.41) or women (multivariate OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 0.78 to 4.08). Conclusions: Overall, DM was associated with an increased risk of CRC in Koreans. However, potential over-estimation of the ORs should be considered due to potential biases from the case-control design. PMID:26841884

  17. Lumbar lordosis and pars interarticularis fractures: a case-control study

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    Bugg, William G.; Lewis, Mark; Juette, Arne; Cahir, John G.; Toms, Andoni P. [Cotman Centre, Norwich Radiology Academy, Norwich, Norfolk (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between lumbar lordosis and pars interarticularis fractures. In this retrospective case-control study we compare the angle of lumbar lordosis and the angle of the S1 vertebral endplate (as a measure of pelvic tilt) in patients with bilateral L5 pars interarticularis fractures with age- and sex-matched control cases with normal MRI examinations of the lumbar spine. Twenty-nine cases of bilateral L5 pars interarticularis fractures with matched control-cases were identified on MRI (16 male, 13 female, age 9-63 years). The angle of lordosis was measured between the inferior L4 and superior S1 vertebral endplates on a standing lateral lumbar spine radiograph for both groups. The mean angle of lordosis about the L5 vertebra was 36.9 (SD = 6.5 ) in the pars interarticularis fracture group, and 30.1 (SD = 6.4 ) in the control group. The difference between the two groups was significant (mean difference 6.8 , Student's t test: P < 0.001). The mean angle of sacral tilt measured was 122.2 (SD = 10.16 ) for controls and 136.4 (SD = 10.86 ) for patients with pars defects. The difference in the means of 14.2 was statistically significantly different (P < 0.0001). Sacral tilt represented by a steeply angled superior endplate of S1 is associated with a significantly increased angle of lordosis, between L4 and S1, and pars fractures at L5. Steep angulation of the first sacral vertebral segment maybe the predisposing biomechanical factor that leads to pincer-like impingement of the pars interarticularis and then spondylolysis. (orig.)

  18. Laboratory markers of disease severity in Plasmodium knowlesi infection: a case control study

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    Willmann Matthias

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium knowlesi malaria causes severe disease in up to 10% of cases in Malaysian Borneo and has a mortality rate of 1 - 2%. However, laboratory markers with the ability to identify patients at risk of developing complications have not yet been assessed as they have for other species of Plasmodium. Methods A case control study was undertaken in two hospitals in Sarikei and Sibu, Malaysian Borneo. One hundred and ten patients with uncomplicated (n = 93 and severe (n = 17 P. knowlesi malaria were studied. Standardized pigment-containing neutrophil (PCN count, parasite density and platelet counts were determined and analysed by logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis. Results The PCN count was strongly associated with risk of disease severity. Patients with high parasite density (≥ 35,000/μl or with thrombocytopaenia (≤ 45,000/μl were also more likely to develop complications (odds ratio (OR = 9.93 and OR = 5.27, respectively. The PCN count yielded the highest area under the ROC curve (AUC estimate among all markers of severity (AUC = 0.8561, 95% confidence interval: 0.7328, 0.9794. However, the difference between all parameter AUC estimates was not statistically significant (Wald test, p = 0.73. Conclusion Counting PCN is labour-intensive and not superior in predicting severity over parasitaemia and platelet counts. Parasite and platelet counts are simpler tests with an acceptable degree of precision. Any adult patient diagnosed with P. knowlesi malaria and having a parasite count ≥35,000/μl or ≥1% or a platelet count ≤45,000/μl can be regarded at risk of developing complications and should be managed according to current WHO guidelines for the treatment of severe malaria.

  19. Diet Quality Scores and Risk of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Chinese Adults: A Case-Control Study

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    Cheng Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Many studies show that dietary factors may affect the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. We examined the association between overall diet quality and NPC risk in a Chinese population. This case-control study included 600 NPC patients and 600 matched controls between 2009 and 2011 in Guangzhou, China. Habitual dietary intake and various covariates were assessed via face-to-face interviews. Diet quality scores were calculated according to the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005, the alternate Healthy Eating Index (aHEI, the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I, and the alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (aMed. After adjustment for various lifestyle and dietary factors, greater diet quality scores on the HEI-2005, aHEI, and DQI-I—but not on the aMed—showed a significant association with a lower risk of NPC (p-trends, <0.001–0.001. The odds ratios (95% confidence interval comparing the extreme quartiles of the three significant scores were 0.47 (0.32–0.68 (HEI-2005, 0.48 (0.33–0.70 (aHEI, and 0.43 (0.30–0.62 (DQI-I. In gender-stratified analyses, the favorable association remained significant in men but not in women. We found that adherence to the predefined dietary patterns represented by the HEI-2005, aHEI, and DQI-I scales predicted a lower risk of NPC in adults from south China, especially in men.

  20. A case-control study of gastric cancer and nutritional factors in Marseille, France.

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    Cornée, J; Pobel, D; Riboli, E; Guyader, M; Hémon, B

    1995-02-01

    A case-control study was conducted in Marseille (France) to investigate the relationship between usual diet and risk of gastric cancer. Patients with histologically confirmed gastric adenocarcinoma were identified in 8 major centres for gastric surgery. Controls were selected in specialized medical centres from patients undergoing functional reeducation for injuries or trauma, according to the age and sex distributions of the cases. The study involved 92 cases and 128 controls who were interviewed with a dietary history questionnaire on their usual diet during the year preceding first symptoms for cases, or preceding interview for controls. Odds ratios for specific foods were calculated after adjustment for age, sex, occupation and energy intake. A reduced risk was observed for consumption of raw vegetables (OR2: 0.55; OR3: 0.41 for the second and third tertiles, respectively), fresh fruit (OR2: 0.63; OR3: 0.50), vegetable oil (OR2: 0.60; OR3: 0.52), pasta and rice (OR2: 1.06; OR3: 0.50) whereas consumption of cakes and pastries (OR2: 1.02; OR3: 2.96), sugar and confectionery (OR2: 0.96; OR3: 1.68) was associated with an increased risk. An increased risk was found for intake of saturated fat (OR2: 1.49; OR3: 1.67), simple sugars (OR2: 1.18; OR3: 1.78) and calcium (OR2: 1.84; OR3: 2.57). A decreased risk was observed with intake of fiber (OR2: 0.49; OR3: 0.59), fibre from vegetables and fruit (OR2: 0.83; OR3: 0.53) and iron (OR2: 0.70; OR3: 0.41). PMID:7489774

  1. Lumbar lordosis and pars interarticularis fractures: a case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between lumbar lordosis and pars interarticularis fractures. In this retrospective case-control study we compare the angle of lumbar lordosis and the angle of the S1 vertebral endplate (as a measure of pelvic tilt) in patients with bilateral L5 pars interarticularis fractures with age- and sex-matched control cases with normal MRI examinations of the lumbar spine. Twenty-nine cases of bilateral L5 pars interarticularis fractures with matched control-cases were identified on MRI (16 male, 13 female, age 9-63 years). The angle of lordosis was measured between the inferior L4 and superior S1 vertebral endplates on a standing lateral lumbar spine radiograph for both groups. The mean angle of lordosis about the L5 vertebra was 36.9 (SD = 6.5 ) in the pars interarticularis fracture group, and 30.1 (SD = 6.4 ) in the control group. The difference between the two groups was significant (mean difference 6.8 , Student's t test: P < 0.001). The mean angle of sacral tilt measured was 122.2 (SD = 10.16 ) for controls and 136.4 (SD = 10.86 ) for patients with pars defects. The difference in the means of 14.2 was statistically significantly different (P < 0.0001). Sacral tilt represented by a steeply angled superior endplate of S1 is associated with a significantly increased angle of lordosis, between L4 and S1, and pars fractures at L5. Steep angulation of the first sacral vertebral segment maybe the predisposing biomechanical factor that leads to pincer-like impingement of the pars interarticularis and then spondylolysis. (orig.)

  2. Simple Algorithms to Calculate Asymptotic Null Distributions of Robust Tests in Case-Control Genetic Association Studies in R

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    Wing Kam Fung

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The case-control study is an important design for testing association between genetic markers and a disease. The Cochran-Armitage trend test (CATT is one of the most commonly used statistics for the analysis of case-control genetic association studies. The asymptotically optimal CATT can be used when the underlying genetic model (mode of inheritance is known. However, for most complex diseases, the underlying genetic models are unknown. Thus, tests robust to genetic model misspecification are preferable to the model-dependant CATT. Two robust tests, MAX3 and the genetic model selection (GMS, were recently proposed. Their asymptotic null distributions are often obtained by Monte-Carlo simulations, because they either have not been fully studied or involve multiple integrations. In this article, we study how components of each robust statistic are correlated, and find a linear dependence among the components. Using this new finding, we propose simple algorithms to calculate asymptotic null distributions for MAX3 and GMS, which greatly reduce the computing intensity. Furthermore, we have developed the R package Rassoc implementing the proposed algorithms to calculate the empirical and asymptotic p values for MAX3 and GMS as well as other commonly used tests in case-control association studies. For illustration, Rassoc is applied to the analysis of case-control data of 17 most significant SNPs reported in four genome-wide association studies.

  3. Sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinoma patients beyond Milan criteria after orthotopic liver transplantation: a case control study

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    Teng Chieh-Lin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT is one of the most effective treatments for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC within the Milan criteria. However, for patients beyond these criteria, the recurrence rate is higher and the prognosis is worse. Sorafenib is the only drug showing survival benefits in advanced HCC patients; however, its role in patients beyond the Milan criteria after OLT remains unclear and requires further investigation. Methods As a case-control study, we retrospectively analyzed 17 Chinese patients beyond Milan criteria undergoing OLT for HCC. These patients were stratified into adjuvant (n = 5, palliative (n = 6, and control groups (n = 6. Results Nine of 11 patients who received sorafenib after OLT needed dose reduction due to more than grade 2 side effects. The disease-free survival rates for patients with or without adjuvant sorafenib were 100% versus 37.5% (p = 0.034 at 6 months, 66.7% versus 9.4% (p = 0.026 at 12 months, and 66.7% versus 0.0% (p = 0.011 at 18 months, respectively. The overall survival rates for patients in palliative and control groups were 66.7% versus 40.0% (p = 0.248 at 6 months, 66.7% versus 40.0% (p = 0.248 at 12 months, and 50.0% versus 20.0% (p = 0.17 at 18 months, respectively. Patients in the adjuvant group had better overall survival rates than those in the palliative and control groups (p = 0.031 at 24-month follow-up. Conclusions Adjuvant sorafenib could possibly extend both disease-free and overall survival for HCC patients beyond Milan criteria after OLT.

  4. A case-control study of risk factors for bovine brucellosis seropositivity in Peninsular Malaysia.

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    Anka, Mukhtar Salihu; Hassan, Latiffah; Khairani-Bejo, Siti; Zainal, Mohamed Abidin; Mohamad, Ramlan Bin; Salleh, Annas; Adzhar, Azri

    2014-01-01

    Bovine brucellosis was first reported in Peninsular Malaysia in 1950. A subsequent survey conducted in the country revealed that the disease was widespread. Current knowledge on the potential risk factors for brucellosis occurrence on cattle farms in Malaysia is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study to identify the potential herd-level risk factors for bovine brucellosis occurrence in four states in the country, namely Kelantan, Pahang, Selangor and Negeri Sembilan. Thirty-five cases and 36 controls of herds were selected where data on farm management, biosecurity, medical history and public health were collected. Multivariable logistic regression identified that Brucella seropositive herds were more likely to; have some interaction with wildlife (OR 8.9, 95% CI = 1.59-50.05); originated from farms where multiple species such as buffalo/others (OR 41.8, 95% CI = 3.94-443.19) and goat/sheep (OR 8.9, 95%Cl = 1.10-71.83) were reared, practice extensive production system (OR 13.6, 95% CI 1.31-140.24) and have had episodes of abortion in the past (OR 51.8, 95% CI = 4.54-590.90) when compared to seronegative herds. Considering the lack of information on the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in peninsular Malaysia and absence of information on preventing the inception or spread of the disease, this report could contribute to the on-going area-wise national brucellosis eradication program. PMID:25265020

  5. Relationship between depression and apolipoproteins A and B: a case-control study

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    Masoumeh Sadeghi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between major depressive disorder and metabolic risk factors of coronary heart disease. INTRODUCTION: Little evidence is available indicating a relationship between major depressive disorder and metabolic risk factors of coronary heart disease such as lipoprotein and apolipoprotein. METHODS: This case-control study included 153 patients with major depressive disorder who fulfilled the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV, and 147 healthy individuals. All participants completed a demographic questionnaire and Hamilton rating scale for depression. Anthropometric characteristics were recorded. Blood samples were taken and total cholesterol, high-and low-density lipoproteins and apolipoproteins A and B were measured. To analyze the data, t-test, χ2 test, Pearson correlation test and linear regression were applied. RESULTS: Depression was a negative predictor of apolipoprotein A (β = -0.328, p<0.01 and positive predictor of apolipoprotein B (β = 0.290, p<0.05. Apolipoprotein A was inversely predicted by total cholesterol (β = -0.269, p<0.05 and positively predicted by high-density lipoprotein (β = 0.401, p<0.01. Also, low-density lipoprotein was a predictor of apolipoprotein B (β = 0.340, p<0.01. The severity of depression was correlated with the increment in serum apolipoprotein B levels and the decrement in serum apolipoprotein A level. CONCLUSION: In view of the relationship between apolipoproteins A and B and depression, it would seem that screening of these metabolic risk factors besides psychological interventions is necessary in depressed patients

  6. Risk factors for the gastric cardia cancer: a case-control study in Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Cai; Zong-Li Zheng; Zuo-Feng Zhang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: The incidence of gastric cardia cancer has greatlyincreased in the past 2-3 decades, however, the risk factorsfor the disease are still not clearly understood. Theinvestigations among Chinese population on the risk factorsof gastric cardia cancer were also scarcely reported. Wetherefore conducted a case-control study in Fujian province,China, to investigate the potential risk and protective factorsof this disease.METHODS: 191 cardia and 190 non-cardia gastric cancercases, and a total of 222 control cases were included in thisstudy. Standard questionnaires were used in collectingepidemiological factors and the data were then analyzed bythe unconditional logistic regression model.RESULTS: As the factors such as age, gender, smoking,alcohol consumption, and family history of gastric cancerwere controlled, a multivariable analysis was conducted,which revealed that there was a significant correlationbetween the dietary habits such as irregular meal, over andfast eating, and the gastric cardia cancer with the odds ratios(ORs) of 4.2 (95 % confidence interval: 2.3-7.7), 4.7 (2.1-10.8), and 2.7 (1.3-5.3) respectively. Other correlations werealso observed between the gastric cardia cancer and theconsumption of salty fish or pickled vegetable, smoking,and the family cancer history with the ORs of 5.5 (1.4-19.5),1.8 (1.0-3.0), 2.1 (1.3-3.5), and 3.8 (2.3-6.2) respectively.In contrast, the negative correlations were found existingbetween the intake of fresh vegetables and fruits, the useof refrigerator, and the gastric cardia cancer, with the ORsof 0.4 (0.2-0.9), 0.2 (0.1-0.5), and 0.2 (0.1-0.4),respectively. However, dietary habits were associated lesswith non-cardia gastric cancer compared with its cardiacounterpart.CONCLUSION: Dietary habits might be one of the riskfactors for the cardia carcinogenesis among Chinesepopulation.

  7. A Possible Association between Melanoma and Prostate Cancer. Results from a Case-Control-Study

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    Alina Goldenberg

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma and prostate cancer are the fifth and first most common cancers in men within the United States, respectively. The association between the two cancers lies in the mutual androgen-dependence. However, the relationship between prostate cancer history and melanoma development remains to be further elucidated. We aim to determine the odds of history of prostate cancer among men with melanoma as compared to time-frame, clinic, and provider-matched controls without melanoma within a single academic surgical center. We present a case-control study comparing men treated for melanoma and non-melanoma cancer by a single provider between 2010 and 2014 within an academic dermatologic surgical center. Overall, there were nine cases of prostate cancer among the melanoma group and two cases amongst the controls—a statistically significant difference in both uni- and multivariable analyses (p = 0.057 [95% CI 1, 23.5], p = 0.042 [95% CI 1.1, 129], respectively. Body mass index, alcohol use, and skin type II were significant risk factors for melanoma (p = 0.011 [95% CI 1, 1.3], 0.005 [95% CI 1.4, 7], 0.025 [95% CI 1.1, 3.3], respectively. There were more immunosuppressed controls (p = 0.002; however, the melanoma patients had a significantly longer duration of immunosuppression (11.6 vs. 1.9 years, p < 0.001 [95% CI 0.03, 0.5]. Melanoma screenings for men should include questions on prostate cancer history. Prostate cancer patients may benefit from more frequent and comprehensive melanoma screening.

  8. Isoflavone and Soyfood Intake and Colorectal Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Aesun; Lee, Jeonghee; Lee, Jeeyoo; Park, Moon Sung; Park, Ji Won; Park, Sung Chan; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to assess the relationship between dietary soyfood and isoflavone intake and colorectal cancer risk in a case-control study. A total of 901 colorectal cancer cases and 2669 controls were recruited at the National Cancer Center, Korea. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the usual dietary habits, and the isoflavone intake level was estimated from five soyfood items. A high intake of total soy products, legumes, and sprouts was associated with a reduced risk for colorectal cancer in men and women, although the middle quartiles of intake of total soy products were associated with an elevated risk. In contrast, a high intake of fermented soy paste was associated with an elevated risk for colorectal cancer in men. The groups with the highest intake quartiles of isoflavones showed a decreased risk for colorectal cancer compared to their counterparts with the lowest intake quartiles in men (odds ratio (OR): 0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51-0.89) and women (OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.43-0.99). The reduced risk for the highest intake groups persisted for distal colon cancer in men and rectal cancer in women. The association between soyfood intake and colorectal cancer risk was more prominent among post-menopausal women than pre-menopausal women. In conclusion, a high intake of total soy products or dietary isoflavones was associated with a reduced risk for overall colorectal cancer, and the association may be more relevant to distal colon or rectal cancers. PMID:26575841

  9. Indoor air pollution and pulmonary adenocarcinoma among females: a case-control study in Shenyang, China.

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    Zhou, B S; Wang, T J; Guan, P; Wu, J M

    2000-01-01

    Factors that affect the risk of lung adenocarcinoma among females were investigated in Shenyang, China, using a population-based case-control study design. A total of 72 new cases, ages 35-69, diagnosed with incident, primary pulmonary adenocarnoma, were collected between April 1991 and December 1995, and were 1:1 age-matched with healthy females randomly selected from the general population. A questionnaire covering demographics, diet/nutritional preferences and cooking habits, living conditions, family history of cancer, sources of indoor/outdoor/occupational pollution, exposure to ETS from spousal smoking, workplace exposure, and exposure during childhood, history of menstruation and pregnancy, was given to each subject in a structured in-person interview given by trained field workers. Univariate analysis was performed on the data collected. The results showed that cooking fumes, family history of lung cancer, economic status, and number of live births and intake of vitamin E were risk factors significantly associated with adenocarcinoma of the lung. In particular, exposure to different levels of cooking fumes, an indoor air pollutant, increased the odds ratio of lung adenocarcinoma by 1.33, 7.33 and 1.67, respectively (trend p=0.006). Another important risk factor was family history of lung cancer, which gave an OR of 7.65 (95% CI, 0.90-169.84). Intake of beta-carotene from vegetables and fruit offered protection against lung adenocarcinoma, giving an OR of 0.28 (95% CI, 0.12-0.69). These results were confirmed by multivariable logistic regression analysis. PMID:11032925

  10. Antidepressant-warfarin interaction and associated gastrointestinal bleeding risk in a case-control study.

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    Hedi Schelleman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bleeding is the most common and worrisome adverse effect of warfarin therapy. One of the factors that might increase bleeding risk is initiation of interacting drugs that potentiate warfarin. We sought to evaluate whether initiation of an antidepressant increases the risk of hospitalization for gastrointestinal bleeding in warfarin users. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Medicaid claims data (1999-2005 were used to perform an observational case-control study nested within person-time exposed to warfarin in those ≥18 years. In total, 430,455 warfarin users contributed 407,370 person-years of warfarin use. The incidence rate of hospitalization for GI bleeding among warfarin users was 4.48 per 100 person-years (95% CI, 4.42-4.55. Each gastrointestinal bleeding cases was matched to 50 controls based on index date and state. Warfarin users had an increased odds ratio of gastrointestinal bleeding upon initiation of citalopram (OR = 1.73 [95% CI, 1.25-2.38], fluoxetine (OR = 1.63 [95% CI, 1.11-2.38], paroxetine (OR = 1.64 [95% CI, 1.27-2.12], amitriptyline (OR = 1.47 [95% CI, 1.02-2.11]. Also mirtazapine, which is not believed to interact with warfarin, increased the risk of GI bleeding (OR = 1.75 [95% CI, 1.30-2.35]. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Warfarin users who initiated citalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, amitriptyline, or mirtazapine had an increased risk of hospitalization for gastrointestinal bleeding. However, the elevated risk with mirtazapine suggests that a drug-drug interaction may not have been responsible for all of the observed increased risk.

  11. Childhood asthma in Beijing, China: A population-based case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, T.Z.; Niu, S.R.; Lu, B.Y.; Fan, X.E.; Sun, F.Y.; Wang, J.P.; Zhang, Y.W.; Zhang, B.; Owens, P.; Hao, L.Y.; Li, Y.D.; Leaderer, B. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Epidemiology & Public Health

    2002-11-15

    A population-based case-control study was conducted in Shunyi County, People's Republic of China, in January 1999 and March 2001 to investigate the risk factors for childhood asthma. An increased risk of childhood asthma was associated with smoking by relatives in front of the mother while she was pregnant with the child (odds ratio (OR) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0, 1.6) and with smoking by relatives in front of the child (OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9). The risk increased with the increasing number of smokers and the total minutes of smoking by relatives in front of both the child and the mother while she was pregnant with the child. An increased risk was observed for use of coal for heating (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9). Those who reported using coal for cooking without ventilation also had an increased risk (OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.5, 3.5). An increased risk was observed for those who reported having molds or fungi on the ceilings of their houses (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.9) or inside the child's room (OR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.0, 3.2). An increased risk was also found for those having both a dog and a cat as pets (OR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.3) or for finding both cockroaches and rats inside their houses (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.8).

  12. Risk factors of regression and undercorrection in photorefractive keratectomy:a case-control study

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    Seyed-Farzad Mohammadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To determine risk factors of regression and undercorrection following photorefractive keratectomy (PRK in myopia or myopic astigmatism.METHODS: A case-control study was designed in which eyes with an indication for re-treatment (RT were defined as cases; primary criteria for RT indication, as assessed at least 9mo postoperatively, included an uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA of 20/30 or worse and a stable refraction for more than 3mo. Additional considerations included optical quality symptoms and significant higher order aberrations (HOAs. Controls were chosen from the same cohort of operated eyes which had complete post-operative follow up data beyond 9mo and did not need RT. The cohort included patients who had undergone PRK by the Tissue-Saving (TS ablation profile of Technolas 217z100 excimer laser (Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, NY, USA. Mitomycin C had been used in all of the primary procedures.RESULTS:We had 70 case eyes and 158 control eyes, and they were comparable in terms of age, sex and follow-up time (P values:0.58, 1.00 and 0.89, respectively. Pre-operative spherical equivalent of more than -5.00 diopter (D, intended optical zone (OZ diameter of less than 6.00 mm and ocular fixation instability during laser ablation were associated with RT indications (all P values <0.001. These factors maintained their significance in the multiple logistic regression model with odd ratios of 6.12, 6.71 and 7.89, respectively.CONCLUSION:Higher refractive correction (>-5.00 D, smaller OZ (<6.00 mm and unstable fixation during laser ablation of PRK for myopia and myopic astigmatism were found to be strong predictors of undercorrection and regression.

  13. A population-based case-control study of thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, E; Kleinerman, R A; Boice, J D; LiVolsi, V A; Flannery, J T; Fraumeni, J F

    1987-07-01

    A population-based case-control interview study of thyroid cancer (159 cases and 285 controls) was conducted in Connecticut. Prior radiotherapy to the head or neck was reported by 12% of the cases and 4% of the controls [odds ratio (OR) = 2.8; 95% confidence interval = 1.2-6.9]. Risk was inversely related to age at irradiation and was highest among children exposed under age 10. Few persons born after 1945 received prior radiotherapy, consistent with the declining use of radiation to treat benign conditions in the 1950's. Among females the radiogenic risk appeared to be potentiated by the number of subsequent live-births. Other significant risk factors included a history of benign thyroid nodules (OR = 33) or goiter (OR = 5.6). Miscarriage and multiparity increased risk but only among women who developed thyroid cancer before age 35 years. Consumption of shellfish (a rich source of iodine) seemed to increase the risk of follicular thyroid cancer, whereas consumption of goitrogen-containing vegetables appeared to reduce risk of total thyroid cancer, possibly because of their cruciferous nature. A significantly low risk was observed among persons of English descent, whereas Italian ancestry appeared to increase risk. No significant associations were found with a number of suspected risk factors: diagnostic x-rays, radioactive isotope scans, occupational radiation exposure, tonsillectomy, Jewish ethnicity, alcohol intake, cigarette smoking, oral contraceptives, lactation suppressants, menopausal estrogens, most other common medications, and water source. New associations were suggested for obesity among females (OR = 1.5), surgically treated benign breast disease (OR = 1.6), use of spironolactone (OR = 4.3) or vitamin D supplements (OR = 1.8), and a family history of thyroid cancer (OR = 5.2). About 9% of the incident thyroid cancers could be attributed to prior head and neck irradiation, 4% to goiter, and 17% to thyroid nodular disease, leaving the etiology of most

  14. Firefighters and on-duty deaths from coronary heart disease: a case control study

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    Soteriades Elpidoforos S

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary heart disease (CHD is responsible for 45% of on-duty deaths among United States firefighters. We sought to identify occupational and personal risk factors associated with on-duty CHD death. Methods We performed a case-control study, selecting 52 male firefighters whose CHD deaths were investigated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. We selected two control populations: 51 male firefighters who died of on-duty trauma; and 310 male firefighters examined in 1996/1997, whose vital status and continued professional activity were re-documented in 1998. Results The circadian pattern of CHD deaths was associated with emergency response calls: 77% of CHD deaths and 61% of emergency dispatches occurred between noon and midnight. Compared to non-emergency duties, fire suppression (OR = 64.1, 95% CI 7.4–556; training (OR = 7.6, 95% CI 1.8–31.3 and alarm response (OR = 5.6, 95% CI 1.1–28.8 carried significantly higher relative risks of CHD death. Compared to the active firefighters, the CHD victims had a significantly higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in multivariate regression models: age ≥ 45 years (OR 6.5, 95% CI 2.6–15.9, current smoking (OR 7.0, 95% CI 2.8–17.4, hypertension (OR 4.7, 95% CI 2.0–11.1, and a prior diagnosis of arterial-occlusive disease (OR 15.6, 95% CI 3.5–68.6. Conclusions Our findings strongly support that most on-duty CHD fatalities are work-precipitated and occur in firefighters with underlying CHD. Improved fitness promotion, medical screening and medical management could prevent many of these premature deaths.

  15. Case-control study of prostatic cancer in employees of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, C; Beral, V; Maconochie, N; Fraser, P; Davies, G

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the relation between risk of prostatic cancer and occupational exposures, especially to radionuclides, in employees of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. DESIGN--Case-control study of men with prostatic cancer and matched controls. Information about sociodemographic factors and exposures to radionuclides and other substances was abstracted and classified for each subject from United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority records without knowledge of who had cancer. SUBJECTS--136 men with prostatic cancer diagnosed between 1946 and 1986 and 404 matched controls, all employees of United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Documented or possible contamination with specific radionuclides. RESULTS--Risk of prostatic cancer was significantly increased in men who were internally contaminated with or who worked in environments potentially contaminated by tritium, chromium-51, iron-59, cobalt-60, or zinc-65. Internal contamination with at least one of the five radionuclides was detected in 14 men with prostatic cancer (10%) and 12 controls (3%) (relative risk 5.32 (95% confidence interval 1.87 to 17.24). Altogether 28 men with prostatic cancer (21%) and 46 controls (11%) worked in environments potentially contaminated by at least one of the five radionuclides (relative risk 2.36 (1.26 to 4.43)); about two thirds worked at heavy water reactors (19 men with prostatic cancer and 32 controls (relative risk 2.13 (1.00 to 4.52)). Relative risk of prostatic cancer increased with increasing duration of work in places potentially contaminated by these radionuclides and with increasing level of probable contamination. Prostatic cancer was not associated with exposure to plutonium, uranium, cadmium, boron, beryllium, or organic or inorganic chemicals. CONCLUSIONS--Risk of prostatic cancer risk was increased in United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority workers who were occupationally exposed to tritium, 51Cr, 59Fe, 60Co, or 65Zn. Exposure to

  16. Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer in China: A Multicenter Case-Control Study

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    Zhaoxu Zheng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite having one of the highest mortality rates of all cancers, the risk factors of pancreatic cancer remain unclear. We assessed risk factors of pancreatic cancer in China. Methods: A case-control study design was conducted using data from four hospital-based cancer registries (Henan Provincial Cancer Hospital, Beijing Cancer Hospital, Hebei Provincial Cancer Hospital, and Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. Controls were equally matched and selected from family members of non-pancreatic cancer patients in the same hospitals. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by trained staff using questionnaires. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess odd ratios (ORs and 95% confident intervals (CIs. Results: Among 646 recruited participants, 323 were pancreatic cancer patients and 323 were controls. Multivariate logistic analysis suggested that pancreatic cancer family history (adjusted OR 1.23; 95% CI, 1.11–3.70, obesity (adjusted OR 1.77; 95% CI, 1.22–2.57, diabetes (adjusted OR 2.96; 95% CI, 1.48–5.92 and smoking (adjusted OR 1.78; 95% CI, 1.02–3.10 were risk factors for pancreatic cancer, but that drinking tea (adjusted OR 0.49; 95% CI, 0.25–0.84 was associated with reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking, family history, obesity, and diabetes are risk factors of pancreatic cancer, which is important information for designing early intervention and preventive strategies for pancreatic cancer and may be beneficial to pancreatic cancer control in China.

  17. Impact of invasive fungal disease on the chemotherapy schedule and event-free survival in acute leukemia patients who survived fungal disease: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Even, Caroline; Bastuji-Garin, Sylvie; Hicheri, Yosr; Pautas, Cécile; Botterel, Francoise; Maury, Sébastien; Cabanne, Ludovic; Bretagne, Stéphane; Cordonnier, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Patients with acute leukemia who initially survive invasive fungal disease must receive chemotherapy or go on to transplant. Many centers change subsequent chemotherapy to decrease the risk of fungal reactivation. This case-control study compared acute leukemia patients (n=28) who developed a proven or probable fungal disease and survived four weeks later, to patients who did not (n=78), and assessed the impact of fungal disease on the chemotherapy regimens, and overall and event-free survival.

  18. Association of Serum Uric Acid with Preeclampsia: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razia Sultana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preeclampsia (PE is still one of the important causes of maternal and fetal mortality in Bangladesh. Many researches have been done to identify a unique screening test that would predict the risk of developing PE before the classic symptoms appear. One of the most accessible and easiest screening tests is serum uric acid measurement. Numerous studies have demonstrated a relation between elevated maternal serum uric acid levels and adverse maternal and fetal outcome. Among several pathophysiologic factors the most commonly accepted explanation for hyperuricemia in PE is increased reabsorption and decreased excretion of uric acid.Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess the association of serum uric acid with preeclampsia.Materials and method: A case control study was conducted in the department of Biochemistry, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka from July 2010 to June 2011. A total number of 100 pregnant women in third trimester of pregnancy attending in Obstetrics and Gynaecology department of Dhaka Medical College Hospital were selected purposively as study subjects. Among them 50 pregnant women with preeclampsia were selected as cases and 50 normal healthy pregnant women as controls.Results: Most of the study subjects were within 21 – 30 years of age group and mean age in case and control was 24.06±3.71 and 24.66±3.22 years respectively, which was not statistically different. Mean gestational age in case and control was 33.50±2.55 weeks and 33.60±2.95 weeks respectively, which was also not statistically different. Among the study subjects majority was primi in both groups (case 76%, contol 58% showing no statistical significance. Majority of the subjects in both groups were irregular in their antenatal checkup (case 52%, contol 40%. Uric acid concentration was measured in all the study subjects. The mean serum uric acid concentration in cases and controls were 7.01±1.90 mg/dl and 4.55±1.63 mg/dl respectively. This

  19. An investigation of breast cancer risk factors in Cyprus: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadjisavvas Andreas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most common form of malignancy affecting women worldwide. It is also the leading cancer in females in Cyprus, with approximately 400 new cases diagnosed annually. It is well recognized that genetic variation as well as environmental factors modulate breast cancer risk. The main aim of this study was to assess the strength of associations between recognized risk factors and breast cancer among Cypriot women. This is the first epidemiological investigation on risk factors of breast cancer among the Cypriot female population. Methods We carried out a case-control study, involving 1,109 breast cancer patients and a group of 1,177 controls who were recruited while participating in the National screening programme for breast cancer. Information on demographic characteristics and potential risk factors were collected from both groups during a standardized interview. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the strength of the association between each risk factor and breast cancer risk, before and after adjusting for the possible confounding effect of other factors. Results In multivariable models, family history of breast cancer (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.23, 2.19 was the strongest predictor of breast cancer risk in the Cypriot population. Late menarche (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.45, 0.92 among women reaching menarche after the age of 15 vs. before the age of 12 and breastfeeding (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.59, 0.92 exhibited a strong protective effect. In the case of breastfeeding, the observed effect appeared stronger than the effect of pregnancy alone. Surprisingly, we also observed an inverse association between hormone replacement therapy (HRT although this may be a product of the retrospective nature of this study. Conclusion Overall the findings of our study corroborate with the results of previous investigations on descriptive epidemiology of risk factors for breast cancer. This investigation provides important background

  20. Ventilation and dampness in dorms and their associations with allergy among college students in China: a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Y; Zhang, Y; Bao, L;

    2011-01-01

    Abstract To study the associations between dorm environment and occupants' health, a nested case-control study on 348 college students was carried out in 2006-2007 at Tianjin University, China. Two hundred and twenty-three dorm rooms where the 'cases' and 'controls' resided were inspected. Measured...... the window) for wheezing was 3.56 [95% Confident Interval (CI): 1.56-8.14] and for rhinitis 2.81 (95% CI: 1.32-5.97). The AOR of a low air change rate (below the median value of 0.7/h) for wheezing was 2.28 (95% CI: 1.38-3.75) and for dry cough 2.26 (95% CI: 1.08-4.75). The prevalence of students...... with allergic symptoms in dorm rooms decreased with increasing ventilation rate. The combination of a 'localized moldy/moisture indicator' and a low air change rate significantly increased the AOR of case status to 13.35 (95% CI: 3.73-47.83), compared to the reference condition with no-dampness and high...

  1. Smoking and high-risk mammographic parenchymal patterns: a case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ,13,14,15]. There are no published studies that assessed the relationship between smoking and mammographic parenchymal patterns. To evaluate whether mammographic parenchymal patterns as classified by Wolfe, which have been positively associated with breast cancer risk, are affected by smoking. In this case-control study, nested within the European Prospective Investigation on Cancer in Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk) cohort [16], the association between smoking habits and mammographic parenchymal patterns are examined. The full results will be published elsewhere. Study subjects were members of the EPIC cohort in Norwich who also attended the prevalence screening round at the Norwich Breast Screening Centre between November 1989 and December 1997, and were free of breast cancer at that screening. Cases were defined as women with a P2/DY Wolfe's mammographic parenchymal pattern on the prevalence screen mammograms. A total of 203 women with P2/DY patterns were identified as cases and were individually matched by date of birth (within 1 year) and date of prevalence screening (within 3 months) with 203 women with N1/P1 patterns who served as control individuals. Two views, the mediolateral and craniocaudal mammograms, of both breasts were independently reviewed by two of the authors (ES and RW) to determine the Wolfe mammographic parenchymal pattern. Considerable information on health and lifestyle factors was available from the EPIC Health and Lifestyle Questionnaire [16]. In the present study we examined the subjects' personal history of benign breast diseases, menstrual and reproductive factors, oral contraception and hormone replacement therapy, smoking, and anthropometric information such as body mass index and waist:hip ratio. Odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by conditional logistic regression [17], and were adjusted for possible confounding factors. The characteristics of the cases and controls are presented in Table 1. Cases were

  2. Seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness against influenza in 2012-2013 : A hospital-based case-control study in Lithuania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gefenaite, Giedre; Rahamat-Langendoen, Janette; Ambrozaitis, Arvydas; Mickiene, Aukse; Jancoriene, Ligita; Kuliese, Monika; Velyvyte, Daiva; Niesters, Hubert; Stolk, Ronald P.; Zagminas, Kestutis; Hak, Eelko

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to scarce information on seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness (SIVE) against severe clinical influenza outcomes in risk populations, we conducted a case-control study to assess its effects against laboratory-confirmed influenza in hospitalized patients during the 2012-2013 influe

  3. Serum Antibodies against Genitourinary Infectious Agents in Prostate Cancer and Benign Prostate Hyperplasia Patients: A Case-Control Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrbáček, J.; Urban, M.; Hamšíková, E.; Tachezy, R.; Eisenbruk, V.; Brabec, Marek; Heráček, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, Art.no. 53 (2011), s. 1-10. ISSN 1471-2407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : serum antibodies * prostate cancer * case-control study * logistic regression, calibration Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 3.011, year: 2011

  4. Structural abnormalities and persistent complaints after an ankle sprain are not associated: An observational case control study in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Ochten (John); M.C.E. Mos (Marinka C E); N. Van Putte-Katier (Nienke); E.H.G. Oei (Edwin); P.J.E. Bindels (Patrick); S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita); M. van Middelkoop (Marienke)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground Persistent complaints are very common after a lateral ankle sprain. Aim To investigate possible associations between structural abnormalities on radiography and MRI, and persistent complaints after a lateral ankle sprain. Design and setting Observational case control study on

  5. Income Inequality and Risk of Suicide in New York City Neighborhoods: A Multilevel Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeffrey R.; Piper, Tinka Markham; Ahern, Jennifer; Tracy, Melissa; Tardiff, Kenneth J.; Vlahov, David; Galea, Sandro

    2005-01-01

    Evidence on the relationship between income inequality and suicide is inconsistent. Data from the New York City Office of the Chief Medical Examiner for all fatal injuries was collected to conduct a multilevel case-control study. In multilevel models, suicide decedents (n = 374) were more likely than accident controls (n = 453) to reside in…

  6. Cervico-occipital Posture in Women With Migraine: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferracini, Gabriela Natália; Dach, Fabíola; Chaves, Thais Cristina; Pinheiro, Carina Ferreira; Bevilaqua-Grossi, Débora; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Speciali, José Geraldo

    2016-04-01

    Study Design Case-control study. Background Previous studies have assessed forward head posture in patients with migraine using photographs. To date, no study has compared postural differences using both radiographs and photographs. Objective To determine the differences in head extension posture between women with migraine and healthy women assessed with radiographic and photographic measures. Methods Thirty-three women (mean ± SD age, 32 ± 11.3 years) with migraine and 33 matched controls (age, 33 ± 12.6 years) participated. Radiographs were used to measure the high cervical angle (HCA), the angle between the most inferior line from the occipital surface to the posterior portion of C1 and the posterior surface of the odontoid process of C2, and the vertical distance between C0 and C1 (C0-C1). Photographs and commercially available software were used to assess the craniovertebral angle (CVA). Results None of the outcomes differed significantly between women with migraine and control participants. Outcomes for women with migraine were HCA, 66.1° (95% confidence interval [CI]: 64.2°, 68.1°); CVA, 46.1° (95% CI: 45.0°, 47.1°); and C0-C1, 8.5 mm (95% CI: 7.7, 9.2). Outcomes for the control group were HCA, 67.9° (95% CI: 66.5°, 69.3°); CVA, 44.5° (95% CI: 43.2°, 45.7°); and C0-C1, 8.7 mm (95% CI: 7.9, 9.4). Relationships between the frequency (r = -0.42, P = .01, R (2) = 10%) of migraine and the HCA were found. Conclusion This study demonstrated that women with migraine did not exhibit forward head posture compared to women with no history of headache in either radiographic or photographic postural analysis. However, there was a weak association of the frequency of migraine attacks with a variation in the HCA as assessed by radiographs. Level of Evidence Differential diagnosis/symptom prevalence, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(4):251-257. Epub 8 Mar 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6166. PMID:26954270

  7. Association between reproductive factors and breast cancer in an urban set up at central India: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Lodha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epigenetic changes, geography and environmental factors do surpass the genetic factors in the development of breast cancer. This study investigates the association of reproductive factors with the breast cancer in this context. Objective: To detect the association of reproductive risk factors with breast cancer in an urban set up at central India. Study Design: Matched paired community-based case-control study. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted for a period of a year from October 2008 to August 2009 in Bhopal (MP. Demographic data and reproductive risk factor related information were collected using structured questionnaire. Data analysis was done by Epi-info and SPSS 16. Results: History of using oral contraceptive pills (OR = 3.02, 95% CI: 1.28-7.11, history of not having breastfeeding (OR = 3.62, 95% CI: 1.29-10.16 and family history of breast cancer (OR = 3.98, 95%CI: 1.06-14.826 were associated significantly with the occurrence of breast cancer in multivariate analysis. Conclusions: The findings of the present study suggests that positive family history of breast cancer and history of using OCP may be the epigenetic factors promoting the occurrence of breast cancer while breastfeeding reduces the possibility of acquiring breast cancer.

  8. Reproductive factors and breast cancer: A case-control study in tertiary care hospital of North India

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    A S Bhadoria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clinical, animal, and epidemiological studies have clearly demonstrated that cancer is a hormonally mediated disease and several factors that influence hormonal status or are markers of change in hormonal status have been shown to be associated with the risk of breast cancer. Aims: To identify the association of various reproductive factors with breast cancer. Settings and Design: A hospital-based, matched, case-control study. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and twenty newly diagnosed breast cancer cases and three hundred and twenty normal healthy individuals constituted the study population. The subjects in the control group were matched individually with the cases for their age ± 2 years and socioeconomic status. A pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was administered to each individual to collect information on identification data, socio-demographic profile, and reproductive factors. Statistical Analysis Used: The Chi-square test and unpaired t-test were used. The conditional univariate logistic regression analysis (unadjusted odds ratio and confidence intervals was used to calculate the significance level of each variable followed by multivariate regression analysis. Results and Conclusions: The cases had a lower mean age at menarche, higher age at marriage, higher mean age at last child birth, lower mean duration of breastfeeding, higher number of abortions, late age at menopause, history of oral contraceptive pills, and a family history of breast cancer as compared to the controls. The results of the present study revealed a strong association of reproductive factors with breast cancer in the Indian population.

  9. Breast cancer risk associated with different HRT formulations: a register-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thai Do

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous epidemiological studies have inconsistently shown a modestly increased breast cancer risk associated with hormone replacement therapy (HRT. Limited information is available about different formulations – particularly concerning different progestins. Methods A case-control study was performed within Germany in collaboration with regional cancer registries and tumor centers. Up to 5 controls were matched breast cancer cases. Conditional logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Stratified analyses were performed to compare the risk of different estrogens, progestins, and combinations. Results A total of 3593 cases of breast cancer were identified and compared with 9098 controls. The adjusted overall risk estimate for breast cancer (BC associated with current or past use of HRT was 1.2 (1.1–1.3, and almost identical for lag times from 6 months to 6 years prior to diagnosis. No significant trend of increasing BC risk was found with increasing duration of HRT use, or time since first or last use in aggregate. Many established BC risk factors significantly modified the effect of HRT on BC risk, particularly first-degree family history of BC, higher age, lower education, higher body mass index (BMI, and never having used oral contraceptives (OCs during lifetime. Whereas the overall risk estimates were stable, the numbers in many of the sub-analyses of HRT formulation groups (estrogens, progestins, and combinations were too small for strong conclusions. Nevertheless, the BC risk seems not to vary much across HRT formulation subgroups. In particular, no substantial difference in BC risk was observed between HRT containing conjugated equine estrogens (CEE or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA and other formulations more common in Europe. Conclusion The BC risk of HRT use is rather small. Low risk estimates for BC and a high potential for

  10. Association of HCV with diabetes mellitus: an Egyptian case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmat Gamal G

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The highest Hepatitis C Virus (HCV prevalence in the world occurs in Egypt. Several studies from different parts of the world have found that 13% to 33% of patients with chronic HCV have associated diabetes, mostly type II Diabetes Mellitus (DM. In Egypt the prevalence of DM is 25.4% among HCV patients. Therefore, it is important to identify the magnitude of the problem of diabetes in order to optimize the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Methods The objective of this case-control study was to evaluate the prevalence of DM and other extrahepatic (EH manifestations among patients with different HCV morbidity stages including asymptomatic, chronic hepatic and cirrhotic patients. In this study, 289 HCV patients older than 18 were selected as cases. Also, 289 healthy controls were included. Laboratory investigations including Liver Function tests (LFT and blood glucose level were done. Also serological assays including cryoglobulin profile, rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibody, HCV-PCR were performed. Results Out of 289 HCV cases, 40 (13.84% were diabetic. Out of 289 healthy controls, 12 (4.15% were diabetic. It was found that the diabetic HCV group mean age was [48.1 (± 9.2]. Males and urbanians represented 72.5% and 85% respectively. Lower level of education was manifested in 52.5% and 87.5% were married. In the nondiabetic HCV group mean age was [40.7 (± 10.4]. Males and urbanians represented 71.5% and 655% respectively. secondary and higher level of education was attained in 55.4% and 76.7% were married. Comparing between the diabetic HCV group and the non diabetic HCV group, age, residence and alcohol drinking were the only significant factors affecting the incidence of diabetes between the two groups. There was no significant difference regarding sonar findings although cirrhosis was more prevalent among diabetic HCV cases and the fibrosis score was higher in diabetic HCV patients than among the non diabetic HCV cases

  11. Risk of metabolic syndrome among children living in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Mohd N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity, the metabolic syndrome has been studied among children in many countries but not in Malaysia. Hence, this study aimed to compare metabolic risk factors between overweight/obese and normal weight children and to determine the influence of gender and ethnicity on the metabolic syndrome among school children aged 9-12 years in Kuala Lumpur and its metropolitan suburbs. Methods A case control study was conducted among 402 children, comprising 193 normal-weight and 209 overweight/obese. Weight, height, waist circumference (WC and body composition were measured, and WHO (2007 growth reference was used to categorise children into the two weight groups. Blood pressure (BP was taken, and blood was drawn after an overnight fast to determine fasting blood glucose (FBG and full lipid profile, including triglycerides (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and total cholesterol (TC. International Diabetes Federation (2007 criteria for children were used to identify metabolic syndrome. Results Participants comprised 60.9% (n = 245 Malay, 30.9% (n = 124 Chinese and 8.2% (n = 33 Indian. Overweight/obese children showed significantly poorer biochemical profile, higher body fat percentage and anthropometric characteristics compared to the normal-weight group. Among the metabolic risk factors, WC ≥90th percentile was found to have the highest odds (OR = 189.0; 95%CI 70.8, 504.8, followed by HDL-C≤1.03 mmol/L (OR = 5.0; 95%CI 2.4, 11.1 and high BP (OR = 4.2; 95%CI 1.3, 18.7. Metabolic syndrome was found in 5.3% of the overweight/obese children but none of the normal-weight children (p Conclusions We conclude that being overweight or obese poses a greater risk of developing the metabolic syndrome among children. Indian ethnicity is at higher risk compared to their counterparts of the same age. Hence, primary intervention strategies are

  12. Individual correlates of podoconiosis in areas of varying endemicity: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordanos B Molla

    Full Text Available Podoconiosis is a non-filarial form of elephantiasis resulting in lymphedema of the lower legs. Previous studies have suggested that podoconiosis arises from the interplay of individual and environmental factors. Here, our aim was to understand the individual-level correlates of podoconiosis by comparing 460 podoconiosis-affected individuals and 707 unaffected controls.This was a case-control study carried out in six kebeles (the lowest governmental administrative unit in northern Ethiopia. Each kebele was classified into one of three endemicity levels: 'low' (prevalence 5%. A total of 142 (30.7% households had two or more cases of podoconiosis. Compared to controls, the majority of the cases, especially women, were less educated (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.3 to 2.2, were unmarried (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 2.6-4.6 and had lower income (t = -4.4, p<0.0001. On average, cases started wearing shoes ten years later than controls. Among cases, age of first wearing shoes was positively correlated with age of onset of podoconiosis (r = 0.6, t = 12.5, p<0.0001. Among all study participants average duration of shoe wearing was less than 30 years. Between both cases and controls, people in 'high' and 'medium' endemicity kebeles were less likely than people in 'low' endemicity areas to 'ever' have owned shoes (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.4-0.7.Late use of shoes, usually after the onset of podoconiosis, and inequalities in education, income and marriage were found among cases, particularly among females. There were clustering of cases within households, thus interventions against podoconiosis will benefit from household-targeted case tracing. Most importantly, we identified a secular increase in shoe-wearing over recent years, which may give opportunities to promote shoe-wearing without increasing stigma among those at high risk of podoconiosis.

  13. Case-control cohort study of patients' perceptions of disability in mastocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Hermine

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indolent forms of mastocytosis account for more than 90% of all cases, but the types and type and severity of symptoms and their impact on the quality of life have not been well studied. We therefore performed a case-control cohort study to examine self-reported disability and impact of symptoms on the quality of life in patients with mastocytosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In 2004, 363 mastocytosis patients and 90 controls in France were asked to rate to their overall disability (OPA score and the severity of 38 individual symptoms. The latter was used to calculate a composite score (AFIRMM score. Of the 363 respondents, 262 were part of an ongoing pathophysiological study so that the following data were available: World Health Organization classification, standard measures of physical and psychological disability, existence of the D816V KIT mutation, and serum tryptase level. The mean OPA and AFIRMM scores and the standard measures of disability indicated that most mastocytosis patients suffer from disabilities due to the disease. Surprisingly, the patient's measurable and perceived disabilities did not differ according to disease classification or presence or absence of the D816V KIT mutation or an elevated (> or = 20 ng/mL serum tryptase level. Also, 32 of the 38 AFIRMM symptoms were more common in patients than controls, but there were not substantial differences according to disease classification, presence of the D816V mutation, or the serum tryptase level. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of these results and for the purposes of treatment, we propose that mastocytosis be first classified as aggressive or indolent and that indolent mastocytosis then be categorized according to the severity of patients' perceived symptoms and their impact on the quality of life. In addition, it appears that mastocytosis patients suffer from more symptoms and greater disability than previously thought, that mastocytosis may therefore be under

  14. Stressful life events and Graves' disease: Results of a case control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prolonged worry has generally been acknowledged as one of the main precipitating factors of the onset of Graves' disease. A review of literature reveals that emotional stresses of considerable severity precede the onset of hyperthyroidism in about 90% of cases. However, not everyone subscribes to the Stress/Graves' disease hypothesis. Attempts to resolve this issue have tended to focus on whether a correlation can be shown between the magnitude of antecedent life events and the disease. Hence the main objective of the present study was to identify the possible association between stressful life events and Graves' disease. This paper presents the results of a case-control study, involving patents and subjects from the Veterans Memorial Medical Centre of Manila. A total of 224 patients of Graves' disease, newly or previously diagnosed, representing the 'patient's' arm were interviewed. All patients were questioned regarding various stresses, which greatly affected their life style spanning over a 12-month period prior to the onset of the disease. Simultaneously, 224 control subjects were also interviewed, and their stresses spanning over a similar period preceding the dates of interviews were recorded in quantifiable terms. Different stresses were given different intensity scores based on a social readjustment scale taking into consideration the life situations, emotions and diseases. In cases of multiple stresses, intensity scores were added to obtain the total stress intensity. Results were expressed as mean, standard deviation, median, frequency and percent distribution. Scatter plot was also constructed for intensity of stressful life events. To determine association of different factors with Graves' disease, Students t-test and chi-square tests were applied to the data. Odds ratio (OR) was also computed to determine risk attributed to each factor. Since there was significant difference in gender distribution between the patients and controls, stratified Mantel

  15. Powerful SNP-Set Analysis for Case-Control Genome-wide Association Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Michael C.; Kraft, Peter; Epstein, Michael P.; Deanne M Taylor; Chanock, Stephen J.; Hunter, David J.; Lin, Xihong

    2010-01-01

    GWAS have emerged as popular tools for identifying genetic variants that are associated with disease risk. Standard analysis of a case-control GWAS involves assessing the association between each individual genotyped SNP and disease risk. However, this approach suffers from limited reproducibility and difficulties in detecting multi-SNP and epistatic effects. As an alternative analytical strategy, we propose grouping SNPs together into SNP sets on the basis of proximity to genomic features su...

  16. Environmental sanitation conditions and health impact: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Heller Léo; Colosimo Enrico Antonio; Antunes Carlos Mauricio de Figueiredo

    2003-01-01

    This epidemiological investigation examines the impact of several environmental sanitation conditions and hygiene practices on diarrhea occurrence among children under five years of age living in an urban area. The case-control design was employed; 997 cases and 999 controls were included in the investigation. Cases were defined as children with diarrhea and controls were randomly selected among children under five years of age. After logistic regression adjustment, the following variables we...

  17. A case-control study of the impact of improved sanitation on diarrhoea morbidity in Lesotho.

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, D L; Cousens, S N; Makoae, L. N.; Feachem, R. G.

    1990-01-01

    A health impact evaluation of the Rural Sanitation Pilot Project in Mohale's Hoek district, Lesotho, was conducted from October 1987 to September 1988. A clinic-based case-control design was used to investigate the impact of improved sanitation on diarrhoea morbidity in young children. The results indicate that under-5-year-olds from households with a latrine may experience 24% fewer episodes of diarrhoea than such children from households without a latrine (odds ratio = 0.76; 95% confidence ...

  18. At-Risk Phenotype of Neurofibromatose-1 Patients: A Multicentre Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferkal Salah

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To assess associations between subcutaneous neurofibromas (SC-NFs and internal neurofibromas in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1 and to determine whether the association between SC-NFs and peripheral neuropathy was ascribable to internal neurofibromas. Patients and methods Prospective multicentre case-control study. Between 2005 and 2008, 110 NF-1 adults having two or more SC-NFs were individually matched for age, sex and hospital with 110 controls who had no SC-NF. Patients underwent standardized MRI of the spinal cord, nerve roots and sciatic nerves and an electrophysiological study. Analyses used adjusted multinomial logistic regression (ORa to estimate the risk of the presence of internal neurofibromas or peripheral neuropathies associated with patients presented 2 to 9 SC-NFs, at least 10 SC-NFs as compared to patients without any (referential category. Results Cases had a mean age of 41 (± 13 years; 85 (80% had two to nine SC-NFs and 21 (19% at least ten SC-NFs. SC-NFs were more strongly associated with internal neurofibromas in patients with ten or more SC-NFs than in patients with fewer NF-SCs (e.g., sciatic nerve, aOR = 29.1 [8.5 to 100] vs. 4.3 [2.1 to 9.0]. The association with SC-NFs was stronger for diffuse, intradural, and > 3 cm internal neurofibromas than with other internal neurofibromas. Axonal neuropathy with slowed conduction velocities (SCV was more strongly associated with having at least ten SC-NFs (aOR = 29.9, 5.5 to 162.3 than with having fewer SC-NFs (aOR = 4.4, 0.9 to 22.0. Bivariate analyses showed that the association between axonal neuropathy with SCV and sciatic neurofibromas was mediated by the association between SC-NFs and sciatic neurofibromas. Conclusion The at-risk phenotype of NF-1 patients (i.e. NF-1 patients with SC-NFs is ascribable to associations linking SC-NFs to internal neurofibromas at risk for malignant transformation and to axonal neuropathies with slowed

  19. Antipsychotics and risk of venous thromboembolism: A population-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K Jönsson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Anna K Jönsson1, Erzsebet Horváth-Puhó2, Staffan Hägg3, Lars Pedersen4, Henrik Toft Sørensen41Nordic School of Public Health, Gothenburg, Sweden; 2Centre for Registry Research, Aarhus C, Denmark; 3Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 4Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus C, DenmarkAbstract: During the last decade, the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE has been reported in users of antipsychotic drugs. However, the reports have been inconclusive. This study aimed to determine the relative risk of VTE in antipsychotic drug users. Using data from medical databases in North Jutland and Aarhus Counties, Denmark, and the Danish Civil Registration System, we identified 5,999 cases with a first-time diagnosis of VTE and, based on risk set sampling, 59,990 sex- and age-matched population controls during 1997–2005. Users of antipsychotic drugs were identified from population-based prescription databases and categorized based on filled prescriptions prior to admission date for VTE or index date for controls as current (at least one prescription within 90 days, recent (at least one prescription within 91–180 days, former (at least one prescription within 181–365 days or nonusers (no recorded prescription within 365 days. Compared with nonusers, current users of any antipsychotic drugs had an increased risk of VTE (adjusted relative risk [ARR]: 1.99, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.69–2.34. Former users of any antipsychotic drugs had a nonsignificant elevated risk of VTE compared with nonusers (ARR: 1.54, 95% CI: 0.99–2.40, p-value: 0.056. In conclusion, users of antipsychotic drugs have an increased risk of VTE, compared with nonusers, which might be due to the treatment itself, to lifestyle factors, to the underlying disease, or to residual confounding. Keywords: antipsychotic agents, venous thromboembolism, adverse effects, case-control study

  20. ICOS gene polymorphisms are associated with sporadic breast cancer: a case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inducible costimulator (ICOS), a costimulatory molecular of the CD28 family, provides positive signal to enhance T cell proliferation. Its abnormal expression can disturb the immune response and entail an increased risk of cancer. To investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ICOS gene are associated with sporadic breast cancer susceptibility and progression in Chinese women, a case-control study was conducted. In the study cohort, we genotyped five SNPs (rs11889031, rs10932029, rs4675374, rs10183087 and rs10932037) in ICOS gene among 609 breast cancer patients and 665 age-matched healthy controls. Furthermore, the positive results were replicated in an independent validation cohort of 619 patients and 682 age-matched healthy controls. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to determine the genotypes. In rs10932029, compared with TT genotype and T allele, the CT genotype and C allele showed a significantly increased risk of breast cancer (P = 0.030, OR = 1.467, 95% CI 1.037-2.077; P = 0.017, OR = 1.481, 95% CI 1.070-2.049, respectively), and the associations were also significant in the validation cohort (P = 0.002, OR = 1.693, 95% CI 1.211-2.357; P = 0.003, OR = 1.607, 95% CI 1.171-2.204, respectively). Haplotype analysis showed that CTCAC haplotype containing rs10932029 T allele had a lower frequency in cases than in controls (P = 0.015), whereas haplotype CCCAC containing rs10932029 C allele was more common in cases than in controls (P = 0.013). In the analysis of clinicopathologic features, rs11889031 CT genotype and T allele were associated with progesterone receptor (PR) status and lymph node metastasis, which were further supported by our validation cohort. Moreover, some haplotypes were associated with estrogen receptor (ER) and PR statuses. These results indicate that ICOS gene polymorphisms may affect the risk of breast cancer and show that some SNPs are associated with breast cancer

  1. Indoor solid fuel use and tuberculosis in China: a matched case-control study

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    Enarson Donald A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background China ranks second among the 22 high burden countries for tuberculosis. A modeling exercise showed that reduction of indoor air pollution could help advance tuberculosis control in China. However, the association between indoor air pollution and tuberculosis is not yet well established. A case control study was conducted in Anhui, China to investigate whether use of solid fuel is associated with tuberculosis. Methods Cases were new sputum smear positive tuberculosis patients. Two controls were selected from the neighborhood of each case matched by age and sex using a pre-determined procedure. A questionnaire containing demographic information, smoking habits and use of solid fuel for cooking or heating was used for interview. Solid fuel (coal and biomass included coal/lignite, charcoal, wood, straw/shrubs/grass, animal dung, and agricultural crop residue. A household that used solid fuel either for cooking and (/or heating was classified as exposure to combustion of solid fuel (indoor air pollution. Odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence limits for categorical variables were determined by Mantel-Haenszel estimate and multivariate conditional logistic regression. Results There were 202 new smear positive tuberculosis cases and 404 neighborhood controls enrolled in this study. The proportion of participants who used solid fuels for cooking was high (73.8% among cases and 72.5% among controls. The majority reported using a griddle stove (85.2% among cases and 86.7% among controls, had smoke removed by a hood or chimney (92.0% among cases and 92.8% among controls, and cooked in a separate room (24.8% among cases and 28.0% among controls or a separate building (67.8% among cases and 67.6% among controls. Neither using solid fuel for cooking (odds ratio (OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.62-1.87 nor using solid fuel for heating (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.54-2.02 was significantly associated with tuberculosis. Determinants significantly

  2. Malnutrition and Childhood Disability in Turkana, Kenya: Results from a Case-Control Study.

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    Hannah Kuper

    Full Text Available Children with disabilities may be particularly vulnerable to malnutrition, as a result of exclusions and feeding difficulties. However, there is limited evidence currently available on this subject.A population-based case-control study was conducted in Turkana County, Kenya, between July and August 2013. Key informants in the community identified children aged 6 months to 10 years who they believed may have a disability. These children were screened by a questionnaire (UNICEF-Washington Group and assessed by a paediatrician to confirm whether they had a disability and the type. Two controls without disabilities were selected per case: A sibling control (sibling nearest in age and a neighbourhood control (nearest neighbour within one year of age. The caregiver completed a questionnaire on behalf of the child (e.g. information on feeding, poverty, illness, education, and anthropometric measures were taken. We undertook multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses to estimate the relationship between disability and malnutrition.The study included 311 cases with disabilities, 196 sibling controls and 300 neighbour controls. Children with disabilities were more likely to report a range of feeding difficulties. They were 1.6-2.9 times more likely to have malnutrition in comparison to neighbour controls or family controls, including general malnutrition (low weight for age, stunting (low height for age, low body mass index (BMI or low mid upper arm circumference (MUAC for age. Children with disabilities were almost twice as likely to have wasting (low weight for height in comparison to neighbour controls (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.2, but this difference was not apparent compared with siblings (OR = 1.5, 95% CI 0.8-2.7. Children with disabilities also faced other exclusions. For instance those aged 5+ were much more likely not to attend school than neighbour controls (OR = 8.5, 95% CI 4.3-16.9.Children with disabilities were particularly

  3. Transforaminal Percutaneous Endoscopic Discectomy for Lumbar Disc Herniation in Parkinson's Disease: A Case-Control Study

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    Giovannopoulou, Eirini; Charitoudis, George; Kazakos, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Study Design A case-control study. Purpose To investigate the effectiveness of transforaminal percutaneous endoscopic discectomy (TPED) in Parkinson's disease (PD). Overview of Literature Patients with PD frequently suffer from radiculopathy and low back pain. Additionally, they demonstrate higher complication rates after open spine surgery. However, the clinical outcome of minimally invasive techniques for lumbar discectomy, such as TPED, have not been established for this population. Methods Patients diagnosed with lumbar disc hernia were divided into Group A (11 patients diagnosed with PD), and Group B (10 patients as the control, non-PD group). All patients underwent TPED. Indexes of visual analogue scale (VAS) for leg pain and Oswestry disability index (ODI) were assessed right before surgery and at six weeks, three months, six months and one year post-surgery. Results At the baseline visit, groups did not differ significantly with age (p=0.724), gender (p=0.835), level of operation (p=0.407), ODI (p=0.497) and VAS (p=0.772). Parkinson's patients had higher scores in ODI at every visit, but the outcome was statistically significant only at 3 months (p=0.004) and one year (p=0.007). Similarly, VAS measurements were higher at each time point, with the difference being significant at 3 (psurgery. At the end of a year of follow up, ODI was reduced by 49.6% (±16.7) in Group A and 59.2% (±8.0) in Group B (p=0.111), translating to a 79.5% (±13.0) and 91.5% (±4.1) average improvement in daily functionality (p=0.024). VAS was reduced by 59.1 mm (±11.8) in Group A and 62.2 mm (±7.4) in Group B (p=0.485), leading to an 85.3 % (±4.0) and 91.9% (±2.6) general improvement in leg pain (psurgery.

  4. HPV types, HIV and invasive cervical carcinoma risk in Kampala, Uganda: a case-control study

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    Kleter Bernhard

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the association of human papillomavirus (HPV with cervical cancer is well established, the influence of HIV on the risk of this disease in sub-Saharan Africa remains unclear. To assess the risk of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC associated with HIV and HPV types, a hospital-based case-control study was performed between September 2004 and December 2006 in Kampala, Uganda. Incident cases of histologically-confirmed ICC (N=316 and control women (N=314, who were visitors or care-takers of ICC cases in the hospital, were recruited. Blood samples were obtained for HIV serology and CD4 count, as well as cervical samples for HPV testing. HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed using the SPF10/DEIA/LiPA25 technique which detects all mucosal HPV types by DEIA and identifies 25 HPV genotypes by LiPA version 1. Samples that tested positive but could not be genotyped were designated HPVX. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated by logistic regression, adjusting for possible confounding factors. Results For both squamous cell carcinoma (SCC and adenocarcinoma of the cervix, statistically significantly increased ORs were found among women infected with HPV, in particular single HPV infections, infections with HPV16-related types and high-risk HPV types, in particular HPV16, 18 and 45. For other HPV types the ORs for both SCC and adenocarcinoma were not statistically significantly elevated. HIV infection and CD4 count were not associated with SCC or adenocarcinoma risk in our study population. Among women infected with high-risk HPV types, no association between HIV and SCC emerged. However, an inverse association with adenocarcinoma was observed, while decrease in CD4 count was not associated with ICC risk. Conclusions The ORs for SCC and adenocarcinoma were increased in women infected with HPV, in particular single HPV infections, infections with HPV16- and 18-related types, and high-risk HPV types

  5. Serum Hepcidin Levels in Childhood-Onset Ischemic Stroke: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azab, Seham F; Akeel, Nagwa E; Abdalhady, Mohamed A; Elhewala, Ahmed A; Ali, Al Shymaa A; Amin, Ezzat K; Sarhan, Dina T; Almalky, Mohamed A A; Elhindawy, Eman M; Salam, Mohamed M A; Soliman, Attia A; Abdellatif, Sawsan H; Ismail, Sanaa M; Elsamad, Nahla A; Hashem, Mustafa I A; Aziz, Khalid A; Elazouni, Osama M A; Arafat, Manal S

    2016-03-01

    Recently, hepcidin, an antimicrobial-like peptide hormone, has evolved as the master regulator of iron homeostasis. Despite the growing evidence of iron imbalance in childhood-onset ischemic stroke, serum hepcidin level in those patients has not yet been researched.In this study, we aimed to estimate serum (hepcidin) level in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients and to investigate whether subcutaneous enoxaparin sodium, which is a low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) derivative, could modulate serum hepcidin level in those patients.This was a case-control study included 60 (AIS) cases, and 100 healthy children with comparable age and gender as control group. For all subjects' serum hepcidin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and soluble transferrin receptor [sTfR]) levels were assessed by (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] method). Iron parameters including (serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, and total iron binding capacity [TIBC]) were also measured. The patients were subdivided according to treatment with an LMWH derivative into 2 groups and serum hepcidin levels were assessed initially and 1 week after stroke onset for all cases.We found that AIS cases had higher serum iron, ferritin, and IL6 levels compared to the control group (all P  0.05). However, on the 7th day of diagnosis serum hepcidin level decreased significantly in AIS cases treated with LMWH (group 1) (median, 36 vs 21 ng/mL; P  0.05). Serum hepcidin showed significant positive correlations with serum iron, transferrin saturation, ferritin, and IL6 (r = 0.375, P < 0.05; r = 0.453, P < 0.05; r = 0.687, P < 0.01; r = 0.515, P < 0.01; respectively).Our data brought a novel observation of elevated serum hepcidin level in pediatric AIS patients and pointed out that treatment with LMWH could modulate hepcidin level in those patients. PMID:26945394

  6. Mid-term outcomes for Endoscopic versus Open Vein Harvest: a case control study

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    Chetcuti Karen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Saphenous vein remains the most common conduit for coronary artery bypass grafting with increasing uptake of minimally invasive harvesting techniques. While Endoscopic Vein Harvest (EVH has been demonstrated to improve early morbidity compared to Open Vein Harvest (OVH, recent literature suggests that this may be at the expense of graft patency at one year and survival at three years. Methods We undertook a retrospective single-centre, single-surgeon, case-control study of EVH (n = 89 and OVH (n = 182. The primary endpoint was death with secondary endpoints including acute coronary syndrome, revascularisation or other major adverse cardiac events. Freedom from angina, wound complications and self-rated health status were also assessed. Where repeat angiography had been performed, this was reviewed. Results Both groups were well matched demographically and for peri-operative characteristics. All cause mortality was 2/89 (2% and 11/182 (6% in the EVH and OVH groups respectively. This was shown by Cox Log-Rank analysis to be non-significant (p = 0.65, even if adjusting for inpatient mortality (p = 0.74. There was no difference in the rates of freedom from angina (p = 1.00, re-admission (p = 0.78 or need for further anti-anginals (p = 1.00. There was a significant reduction in the incidence of leg wound infections and complications in the endoscopic group (EVH: 7%; OVH: 28%; p = 0.0008 and the skew of high patient self-rated health scores in the EVH group (61% compared to 52% in the open group approached statistical significance (p = 0.06. Conclusions While aware of the limitations of this small retrospective study, we are heartened by the preliminary results and consider our data to be justification for continuing to provide patients the opportunity to have minimally invasive conduit harvest in our centre. More robust evidence is still required to elucidate the implications of endoscopic techniques on conduit patency and patient

  7. Case-control study of craniomandibular disorders in patients with fibromyalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Moya, Eduardo-José; Montiel-Company, José-María

    2015-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia is a clinical syndrome characterized by chronic widespread pain, which is non-articular and is predominantly experienced in the muscles and vertebral column, and by extensive heightened sensitivity to local pressure at many specific points The purpose of this study was to measure differences in the level of painful symptoms and in the movements of the mandible in a group of patients who had been diagnosed as suffering from fibromyalgia, in comparison with a control group. The anxiety and subjective pain levels and their relation with mandibular mobility were also compared. Material and Methods A case-control study was designed. The temporomandibular joints and masticatory muscles of the cases (n=20) and controls (n=18) were examined, anxiety was assessed by the STAI index and subjective pain was measured on a visual analogue scale. The data analysis was carried out with SPSS v.19.0 software. The descriptive data were expressed as means and proportions at a 95% confidence interval. The proportions were compared with the chi-square test and the means with the Mann-Whitney U test. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to measure the association between quantitative variables. Results The fibromyalgia patients (the case group) presented a higher level of pain following the musculoskeletal examination and significantly greater symptoms at the examination points. Regarding joint mobility, significant differences in mandibular opening were found (cases 43.4 mm vs controls 47.2 mm, p = 0.042). The mean pain score of the cases was significantly higher than that of the controls (4.03 vs 1.8, p = 0.001) but no significant differences were found in the anxiety index (23.8 vs 23.4). Conclusions patients with fibromyalgia are affected to a greater extent by craniomandibular disorders, with lower mouth opening and higher pain levels than healthy persons. However, the anxiety levels of the two groups are similar. Key words:Fibromyalgia, orofacial

  8. A multicentre matched case control study of risk factors for Preeclampsia in healthy women in Pakistan

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    Qadri Zeeshan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preeclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality world-wide. The risk for developing preeclampsia varies depending on the underlying mechanism. Because the disorder is heterogeneous, the pathogenesis can differ in women with various risk factors. Understanding these mechanisms of disease responsible for preeclampsia as well as risk assessment is still a major challenge. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with preeclampsia, in healthy women in maternity hospitals of Karachi and Rawalpindi. Methods We conducted a hospital based matched case-control study to assess the factors associated with preeclampsia in Karachi and Rawalpindi, from January 2006 to December 2007. 131 hospital-reported cases of PE and 262 controls without history of preeclampsia were enrolled within 3 days of delivery. Cases and controls were matched on the hospital, day of delivery and parity. Potential risk factors for preeclampsia were ascertained during in-person postpartum interviews using a structured questionnaire and by medical record abstraction. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate matched odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs. Results In multivariate analysis, women having a family history of hypertension (adjusted OR 2.06, 95% CI; 1.27-3.35, gestational diabetes (adjusted OR 6.57, 95% CI; 1.94 -22.25, pre-gestational diabetes (adjusted OR 7.36, 95% CI; 1.37-33.66 and mental stress during pregnancy (adjusted OR 1.32; 95% CI; 1.19-1.46, for each 5 unit increase in Perceived stress scale score were at increased risk of preeclampsia. However, high body mass index, maternal age, urinary tract infection, use of condoms prior to index pregnancy and sociodemographic factors were not associated with higher risk of having preeclampsia. Conclusions Development of preeclampsia was associated with gestational diabetes, pregestational diabetes, family

  9. Ethnicity and Cutaneous Melanoma in the City of Sao Paulo, Brazil: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, Olinda C.; Gianini, Reinaldo José; Gonçalves, Fernanda T.; Francisco, Guilherme; Festa-Neto, Cyro; Sanches, José Antonio; Gattas, Gilka J. F.; Chammas, Roger; Eluf-Neto, José

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last century the incidence of cutaneous melanoma has increased worldwide, a trend that has also been observed in Brazil. The identified risk factors for melanoma include the pattern of sun exposure, family history, and certain phenotypic features. In addition, the incidence of melanoma might be influenced by ethnicity. Like many countries, Brazil has high immigration rates and consequently a heterogenous population. However, Brazil is unique among such countries in that the ethnic heterogeneity of its population is primarily attributable to admixture. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of European ethnicity to the risk of cutaneous melanoma in Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out a hospital-based case-control study in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil. We evaluated 424 hospitalized patients (202 melanoma patients and 222 control patients) regarding phenotypic features, sun exposure, and number of grandparents born in Europe. Through multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found the following variables to be independently associated with melanoma: grandparents born in Europe—Spain (OR = 3.01, 95% CI: 1.03–8.77), Italy (OR = 3.47, 95% CI: 1.41–8.57), a Germanic/Slavic country (OR = 3.06, 95% CI: 1.05–8.93), or ≥2 European countries (OR = 2.82, 95% CI: 1.06–7.47); eye color—light brown (OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.14–3.84) and green/blue (OR = 4.62; 95% CI 2.22–9.58); pigmented lesion removal (OR = 3.78; 95% CI: 2.21–6.49); no lifetime sunscreen use (OR = 3.08; 95% CI: 1.03–9.22); and lifetime severe sunburn (OR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.03–3.19). Conclusions Our results indicate that European ancestry is a risk factor for cutaneous melanoma. Such risk appears to be related not only to skin type, eye color, and tanning capacity but also to others specific characteristics of European populations introduced in the New World by European immigrants. PMID:22558444

  10. Severity of Scorpion Stings in the Western Brazilian Amazon: A Case-Control Study.

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    Amanda M Queiroz

    Full Text Available Scorpion stings are a major public health problem in Brazil, with an increasing number of registered cases every year. Affecting mostly vulnerable populations, the phenomenon is not well described and is considered a neglected disease. In Brazil, the use of anti-venom formulations is provided free of charge. The associate scorpion sting case is subject to compulsory reporting. This paper describes the epidemiology and identifies factors associated with severity of scorpions stings in the state of Amazonas, in the Western Brazilian Amazon.This study included all cases of scorpion stings in the state of Amazonas reported to the Brazilian Diseases Surveillance System from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2014. A case-control study was conducted to identify factors associated with scorpions sting severity. A total of 2,120 cases were reported during this period. The mean incidence rate in the Amazonas was 7.6 per 100,000 inhabitants/year. Scorpion stings showed a large spatial distribution in the state and represent a potential occupational health problem for rural populations. There was a positive correlation between the absolute number of cases and the altimetric river levels in the Central (p<0.001; Rs = 0.479 linear and Southwest (p = 0.032; linear Rs = 0.261 regions of the state. Cases were mostly classified as mild (68.6%, followed by moderate (26.8%, and severe (4.6%. The overall lethality rate was 0.3%. Lethality rate among children ≤10 years was 1.3%. Age <10 years [OR = 2.58 (95%CI = 1.47-4.55; p = 0.001], stings occurring in the rural area [OR = 1.97 (95%CI = 1.18-3.29; p = 0.033 and in the South region of the state [OR = 1.85 (95%CI = 1.17-2.93; p = 0.008] were independently associated with the risk of developing severity.Scorpion stings show an extensive distribution in the Western Brazilian Amazon threatening especially rural populations, children ≤10 in particular. Thus, the mapping of scorpions fauna in different Amazon localities

  11. Oestrogen receptor α gene haplotype and postmenopausal breast cancer risk: a case control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestrogen receptor α, which mediates the effect of oestrogen in target tissues, is genetically polymorphic. Because breast cancer development is dependent on oestrogenic influence, we have investigated whether polymorphisms in the oestrogen receptor α gene (ESR1) are associated with breast cancer risk. We genotyped breast cancer cases and age-matched population controls for one microsatellite marker and four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ESR1. The numbers of genotyped cases and controls for each marker were as follows: TAn, 1514 cases and 1514 controls; c.454-397C → T, 1557 cases and 1512 controls; c.454-351A → G, 1556 cases and 1512 controls; c.729C → T, 1562 cases and 1513 controls; c.975C → G, 1562 cases and 1513 controls. Using logistic regression models, we calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Haplotype effects were estimated in an exploratory analysis, using expectation-maximisation algorithms for case-control study data. There were no compelling associations between single polymorphic loci and breast cancer risk. In haplotype analyses, a common haplotype of the c.454-351A → G or c.454-397C → T and c.975C → G SNPs appeared to be associated with an increased risk for ductal breast cancer: one copy of the c.454-351A → G and c.975C → G haplotype entailed an OR of 1.19 (95% CI 1.06–1.33) and two copies with an OR of 1.42 (95% CI 1.15–1.77), compared with no copies, under a model of multiplicative penetrance. The association with the c.454-397C → T and c.975C → G haplotypes was similar. Our data indicated that these haplotypes were more influential in women with a high body mass index. Adjustment for multiple comparisons rendered the associations statistically non-significant. We found suggestions of an association between common haplotypes in ESR1 and the risk for ductal breast cancer that is stronger in heavy women

  12. Rheumatoid Arthritis - Neuropsychology, Depression and Anxiety. A case - control study -120 Portuguese Female subjects.

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    Luis Maia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Impact of Rheumatoid Arthritis in cognitive functions has not been well acknowledged in Portugal. With this original article we intended to elucidate this problem in this specific country. Methods: We measured the results of 60 Rheumatoid Arthritis female patients (study group, comparing every patient in a case control paired plan (years in school and age, with control subjects (n = 60, in a total of 120 subjects. All participants were evaluated with Paced Auditory Selective Attention Test, Word List Generation Test, Luria Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery, a Portuguese depressive screening test (IACLIDE, STAI (anxiety trace and trait test and the Mini Mental state examination.Results: The outcomes demonstrate, for the first conclusive time in Portuguese patients, the occurrence of main deficits in terms of cognitive functioning (measured by a variety ofneuropsychological tests, and depressive and anxietysymptomatology. Conclusion: This article asset the need to pay attention in psychoeducational, psychotherapeutic and cognitive stimulation, and reinforcement of neuropsychological intervention in these types of patients.Objectivos: O impacto da artrite reumatóide nas funçõescognitivas não tem sido bem reconhecido em Portugal. Com este artigo original pretendemos elucidar este problema neste país específico.Métodos: Avaliámos os resultados de 60 pacientes femininos com artrite reumatóide (grupo de estudo, comparando cada paciente num estudo de caso-controle, emparelhando ossujeitos com Artrite Reumatóide (60 sujeitos com 60 pacientes Artrite Reumatóide, nas variáveis anos de escolaridade eidade (a variável género era uma constante = feminino.Todos os participantes foram avaliados com o Teste de Atenção Auditiva Selectiva (PASAT, teste de geração de lista de palavras, Bateria Neuropsicológica de Luria Nebraska, um teste português de despistagem de sintomatologia depressiva (IACLIDE, um teste de rastreamento de tra

  13. Characterization of Peripheral Immune Cell Subsets in Patients with Acute and Chronic Cerebrovascular Disease: A Case-Control Study

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    Peter Kraft

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Immune cells (IC play a crucial role in murine stroke pathophysiology. However, data are limited on the role of these cells in ischemic stroke in humans. We therefore aimed to characterize and compare peripheral IC subsets in patients with acute ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack (AIS/TIA, chronic cerebrovascular disease (CCD and healthy volunteers (HV. We conducted a case-control study of patients with AIS/TIA (n = 116 or CCD (n = 117, and HV (n = 104 who were enrolled at the University Hospital Würzburg from 2010 to 2013. We determined the expression and quantity of IC subsets in the three study groups and performed correlation analyses with demographic and clinical parameters. The quantity of several IC subsets differed between the AIS/TIA, CCD, and HV groups. Several clinical and demographic variables independently predicted the quantity of IC subsets in patients with AIS/TIA. No significant changes in the quantity of IC subsets occurred within the first three days after AIS/TIA. Overall, these findings strengthen the evidence for a pathophysiologic role of IC in human ischemic stroke and the potential use of IC-based biomarkers for the prediction of stroke risk. A comprehensive description of IC kinetics is crucial to enable the design of targeted treatment strategies.

  14. DHAT SYNDROME AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH SEXUAL BEHAVIOR AND PYSCHIATRIC COMORBIDITIES IN MALES: A CASE CONTROL STUDY

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    Sahu RN, Sharma VK, Ashutosh Kumar, Chintan Bavishi, Balaji More

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dhat syndrome is often taken as culture bound syndrome (CBS) of Indian subcontinent. There are many misconceptions which form base of symptoms and co morbidities. Aim: Dhat syndrome is reported on basis of self diagnosis. The study aims to study associated symptoms, sexual behavior and co morbidities in Indian population. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional and case-control study was carried with help of trained local interviewers at Department of Psychiatry and Medicine, ...

  15. A Case-Control Study of Migraine and Tension-Type Headache’s Risk Factors Among Shiraz Schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    S.M.T. Ayatollahi; Khosravi, A

    2005-01-01

    Studies of headache risk factors are numerous but their results are based on clinics and hospitals. Few data have been reported in children. No data are available regarding migraine and tension-type headache risk factors among Iranian children. Therefore we determined the sociodemographic risk factors of migraine and tension-type headaches and their correlations in schoolchildren.This study was a matched case-control method using the prevalence study data. The subjects were ...

  16. Cancer incidence and specific occupational exposures in the Swedish leather tanning industry: a cohort based case-control study.

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    Mikoczy, Z; Schütz, A; Strömberg, U; Hagmar, L

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study the effect on the incidence of cancer of exposure to chemicals handled in the leather tanning industry. MATERIALS AND METHODS--A case-control study was performed within a cohort of 2487 workers employed for at least six months during the period 1900-89 in three Swedish leather tanneries. 68 cancer cases (lung, stomach, bladder, kidney, nasal, and pancreatic cancers and soft tissue sarcomas) and 178 matched controls were studied. Effects of chemical exposures on cancer inci...

  17. Gingivitis and periodontitis as a risk factor for stroke: A case-control study in the Iranian population

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Alsadat Hashemipour; Afsaneh Jahanshahi Afshar; Roya Borna; Behnas Seddighi; Amin Motamedi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Periodontitis and gingivitis are one of the most infectious diseases in human. Several studies have been carried out on dependence of periodontitis and stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate the gingivitis and periodontitis as a risk factor for stroke in Iranian population. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was conducted on 100 patients suffering from stroke as case group, and 100 hospitalized patients as control group. The case group included 42 males and ...

  18. Reasons for Smoking Among Male Teenagers in Tehran, Iran: Two Case-Control Studies Using Snowball Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Rezaei; Saharnaz Nedjat; Banafsheh Golestan; Reza Majdzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Identifying the underlying factors contributing to smoking among teenagers is important in establishing smoking control programs. The present study was designed to identify and compare factors revealed in a preceding qualitative study conducted on 13-15 year-old boys living in two different socio-economic districts in the Northern and Southern parts of Tehran. Methods: Two completely similar case-control studies, each with 200 subjects, were conducted using a snowball sampling....

  19. Serum 25(OH) Vitamin D levels is not associated with disability in multiple sclerosis patients: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Masoud Nikanfar; Ali Akbar Taheri-Aghdam; Maria Yazdani; Sheida Shaafi; Nooshin Masoudian; Hossein Akbari; Parisa Youhanaee; Hamzeh Abbaszadeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: It seems that serum vitamin D levels are one of the potential environmental factors affecting the severity of multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, we aim to evaluate vitamin D levels in MS patients and healthy subjects and assess the relationship between vitamin D level and disability. Methods: In this case-control study, 168 rapid relapsing MS patients and 168 matched healthy controls were randomly included in this study. Demographic characteristics and serum vitamin D levels ...

  20. Determinants of gestational diabetes mellitus: A case control study in a district tertiary care hospital in south India

    OpenAIRE

    Bhat, Mamta; K. N., Ramesha; Sarma, Sankara P; Menon, Sangeetha; C. V., Sowmini; S, Ganesh Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the determinants of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM). Design: Case-control study. Setting: Sri Avittom Thirunal Hospital, Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, South India. Participants: 300 GDM women as cases and 300 age-matched controls. Study variables: Sociodemographic characteristics, pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI), menstrual history, obstetric history, infertility history, family history of diabetes in first degree relatives, recurrent urinary tract infection ...

  1. The Association of Postpartum Maternal Mental Health With Breastfeeding Status of Mothers: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Assarian, Fatemeh; Moravveji, Alireza; Ghaffarian, Hamideh; Eslamian, Reihaneh; Atoof, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Maternal health status might have an important effect on breastfeeding, growth, and general health of the infants. Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the association between maternal mental health and breastfeeding status of mothers in Kashan province. Patients and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 458 mothers in two groups of unsuccessful breastfeeding (case) and successful breastfeeding (control) attending Kashan province health clinics. In this study...

  2. Thyroid cancer in French Polynesia: a population based case control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brindel, P.; Doyon, F.; Adjadj, E.; Vathaire, F. de [Institut Gustave Roussy, INSERM U605, 94 - Villejuif (France); Drozdovitch, V. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, 69 - Lyon (France); Bouville, A. [DHHS/NIH/NCI/Div. of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics EPS (United States); Paoaafaite, J.; Teuri, J. [IRD, Papeete Tahiti (France)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Because a previous study had shown that registered thyroid cancer incidence is higher among natives of French Polynesia (FP) than in other Maori populations from Hawaii and New-Zealand, a case-control study of thyroid cancer coordinated by Unit 605 of INSERM was conducted in FP. The main objective was to assess the potential role of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests performed by France between 1966 and 1974 on such a high incidence. The study included 600 subjects born and residing in FP: 229 cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma diagnosed between 1979 and 2004, aged up to 30 years old at start of nuclear weapons testing and 371 control s matched on gender and birth date randomly selected from the FP registry of births. Face to face interviews were conducted from 2002 to 2004 by specialized investigators native from FP who received a specific formation for this study. Addresses were collected from the territorial medical insurance, which covers all the inhabitants, whatever their professional status. Detailed information about nutrition at time of interview and at the end of adolescence was collected by means of a semi-quantitative method using pictures. Data concerning residence, hormonal and reproductive life, familial and personal background of thyroid pathologies and cancers, and professional and environmental exposure to carcinogens were also collected. For each study subject, radiation thyroid dose was estimated taking into account residential history and dietary habits of the subject and deposition densities of radionuclides reconstructed for each island where the subject resided during the testing period. The iodine intake will be estimated from the dietary questionnaire, as well as from mass-spectrometry measurements of stable iodine in nail clippings, which were collected during the interviews. Among the 229 cases, 89% were females, 54% declared themselves as of pure Maori origin, another 36% of Maori-Asian or Maori

  3. Thyroid cancer in French Polynesia: a population based case control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Because a previous study had shown that registered thyroid cancer incidence is higher among natives of French Polynesia (FP) than in other Maori populations from Hawaii and New-Zealand, a case-control study of thyroid cancer coordinated by Unit 605 of INSERM was conducted in FP. The main objective was to assess the potential role of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests performed by France between 1966 and 1974 on such a high incidence. The study included 600 subjects born and residing in FP: 229 cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma diagnosed between 1979 and 2004, aged up to 30 years old at start of nuclear weapons testing and 371 control s matched on gender and birth date randomly selected from t he FP registry of births. Face to face interviews were conducted from 2002 to 2004 by specialized investigators native from FP who received a specific formation for this study. Addresses were collected from the territorial medical insurance, which covers all the inhabitants, whatever their professional status. Detailed information about nutrition at time of interview and at the end of adolescence was collected by means of a semi-quantitative method using pictures. Data concerning residence, hormonal and reproductive life, familial and personal background of thyroid pathologies and cancers, and professional and environmental exposure to carcinogens were also collected. For each study subject, radiation thyroid dose was estimated taking into account residential history and dietary habits of the subject and deposition densities of radionuclides reconstructed for each island where the subject resided during the testing period. The iodine intake will be estimated from the dietary questionnaire, as well as from mass-spectrometry measurements of stable iodine in nail clippings, which were collected during the interviews. Among the 229 cases, 89% were females, 54% declared themselves as of pure Maori origin, another 36% of Maori-Asian or Maori

  4. Eating and weight related cognitions in people with Schizophrenia: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Khazaal Y; Frésard E; Zimmermann G.; Morinière Trombert N; Pomini V.; Grasset F; Borgeat F; Zullino DF

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Patients with antipsychotic-induced weight gain (WG) regularly report on unsuccessful dietary trials, which suggests strong biological weight gain drive that is extremely hard to overcome with thoughts, such that behaviour doesn't change despite some intent to change. The purpose of the present study was to assess cognitions specifically related to restrained eating in severely overweight patients with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotic drugs. METHODS: Forty outpat...

  5. Eating and weight related cognitions in people with Schizophrenia : A case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Grasset François; Pomini Valentino; Trombert Nathalie; Zimmermann Grégoire; Frésard Emmanuelle; Khazaal Yasser; Borgeat François; Zullino Daniele

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients with antipsychotic-induced weight gain (WG) regularly report on unsuccessful dietary trials, which suggests strong biological weight gain drive that is extremely hard to overcome with thoughts, such that behaviour doesn't change despite some intent to change. The purpose of the present study was to assess cognitions specifically related to restrained eating in severely overweight patients with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotic drugs. Methods Forty outpatien...

  6. Case-control study for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility in EPICOLON: previously identified variants and mucins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase) are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category) and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium. CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family. None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value < 0.05 in EPICOLON stage 1 [rs698 in ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive), rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive), rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant), and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive). In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs3803185 (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1

  7. Case-control study for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility in EPICOLON: previously identified variants and mucins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Victor

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium. Methods CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family. Results None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive, rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive, rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant, and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive. In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs3803185 (OR = 1

  8. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer: evidence fron a retrospective cohort study and nested case-control study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Run-Tian Wang; Chou-Wen Zhu; Hai Yu; Yu-Jun Cong; Sbu Zheng; Bing-Quan Wu; Tao Wang; Kun Chen; Ji-Yao Wang; Jie-Ping Zhang; San-Ren Lin; Yi-Min Zhu; Wen-Ming Zhang; Yu-Xin Cao

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To explore the association between Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and risk of gastric cancer in China. METHODS: Utilizing gastroendoscopic biospsy tissue banks accumulated from1980 to1988 in Shandong, Zhejiang, and Jiangsu, where stomach cancer incidence was high, during stomach cancer screening conducted by Health Science Center of Peking University, School of Medicine of Zhejiang University, and Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University. Warthin Starry silver staining method was applied to determine H. pyloriinfection status of biopsies collected during gastroendoscopic examination. In the retrospective study, the subjects were divided into two cohorts, the exposure cohort was positive H. pyloriinfection, and the non-exposure cohort was negative. Death from stomach cancer was determined as the outcome of the study. Logistic regression and Cox regression were applied to analyze the association between Helicobacterpyloriinfection and gastric cancer risk. In the nested case-control study, there were 28 deaths from gastric cancer in the fields of Muping, Shandong province, and Zhoushan, Zhejiang provinces. 4 controls were matched to each case on the basis of age (±5 years old), sex, residential place at the same time entered into the study. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the data.RESULTS: There were a total of 2 719 subjects (male 1 399,female 1 320) with gastroendoscopic biopsies stored available treated as a cohort. H. pyloripositive cohort included 1 671 subjects (61.5 %) and H. pylorinegative cohort 1 048 subjects(38.5 %). These subjects were followed up for 1-19 years, averaged 10.88 years. The outcome of death from stomach cancer in the exposure cohort was 33, and in the non-exposure cohort 11. After adjustment for age and sex, RR=1.9850 (P=0.0491), 95 % CI was 1.0026, and 3.9301. The results of conditional logistic regression showed an OR of 4.467 and 95 % CI of 1.161, and 17.190 for the nested case control study

  9. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and exposure to phenoxyherbicides, chlorophenols, fencing work, and meat works employment: a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, N E; Smith, A. H.; Howard, J.K.; Sheppard, R A; Giles, H J; Teague, C A

    1986-01-01

    A previous case-control study which used the occupational information available on the New Zealand Cancer Registry found that agricultural workers were at increased risk of developing non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The findings are now presented for the second phase of the study which entailed interviewing 83 cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma registered under code 202 of the International Classification of Diseases together with 168 controls with other types of cancer and 228 general population contro...

  10. Malignant lymphoma and exposure to chemicals, especially organic solvents, chlorophenols and phenoxy acids: a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Hardell, L; Eriksson, M.; Lenner, P; Lundgren, E.

    1981-01-01

    A number of men with malignant lymphoma of the histiocytic type and previous exposure to phenoxy acids or chlorophenols were observed and reported in 1979. A matched case-control study has therefore been performed with cases of malignant lymphoma (Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin lymphoma). This study included 169 cases and 338 controls. The results indicate that exposure to phenoxy acids, chlorophenols, and organic solvents may be a causative factor in malignant lymphoma. Combined exposure ...

  11. The family as a determinant of stunting in children living in conditions of extreme poverty: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Doubova Svetlana V; Santos José; Castillo Raúl; Sandoval Araceli; Pérez-Cuevas Ricardo; Reyes Hortensia; Gutiérrez Gonzalo

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Malnutrition in children can be a consequence of unfavourable socioeconomic conditions. However, some families maintain adequate nutritional status in their children despite living in poverty. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether family-related factors are determinants of stunting in young Mexican children living in extreme poverty, and whether these factors differ between rural or urban contexts. Methods A case-control study was conducted in one rural and one ur...

  12. Consumption of sweet foods and breast cancer risk: a case-control study of women on Long Island, New York

    OpenAIRE

    Bradshaw, Patrick T.; Sagiv, Sharon K.; Kabat, Geoffrey C; Satia, Jessie A.; Britton, Julie A.; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Neugut, Alfred I; Gammon, Marilie D.

    2009-01-01

    Several epidemiologic studies have reported a positive association between breast cancer risk and high intake of sweets, which may be due to an insulin-related mechanism. We investigated this association in a population-based case-control study of 1434 cases and 1440 controls from Long Island, NY. Shortly after diagnosis, subjects were interviewed in-person to assess potential breast cancer risk factors, and self-completed a modified Block food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), which included 11...

  13. Occupational Lifting Tasks and Retinal Detachment in Non-Myopics and Myopics: Extended Analysis of a Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mattioli, Stefano; Curti, Stefania; De Fazio, Rocco; Mt Cooke, Robin; Zanardi, Francesca; Bonfiglioli, Roberta; Farioli, Andrea; Violante, Francesco S

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Lifting heavy weights involves the Valsalva manoeuvre, which leads to intraocular pressure spikes. We used data from a case-control study to further investigate the hypothesis that occupational lifting is a risk factor for retinal detachment. Methods The study population included 48 cases (patients operated for retinal detachment) and 84 controls (outpatients attending an eye clinic). The odds ratios (OR) of idiopathic retinal detachment were estimated with a logistic regression mo...

  14. Determinants of Occupational Injury: A Case Control Study among Textile Factory Workers in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Zewdie Aderaw; Dagnew Engdaw; Takele Tadesse

    2011-01-01

    Background. Occupational injuries pose major public health and socioeconomic developmental problems. However, efforts towards investigation of determinants among factory workers are very minimal in developing countries. Thus, this study aimed at to identify determinants of occupational injury among textile factory workers in Amahara regional state in Ethiopia. Methods. A case control study was done among 456 textile factory workers (152 cases and 304 controls). Self-reported data from workers...

  15. Tea drinking habits and oesophageal cancer in a high risk area in northern Iran: population based case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Islami, Farhad; Pourshams, Akram; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Kamangar, Farin; Fahimi, Saman; Shakeri, Ramin; Abedi-Ardekani, Behnoush; Merat, Shahin; Vahedi, Homayoon; Semnani, Shahryar; Abnet, Christian C.; Brennan, Paul; Møller, Henrik; Saidi, Farrokh; Dawsey, Sanford M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between tea drinking habits in Golestan province, northern Iran, and risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Design Population based case-control study. In addition, patterns of tea drinking and temperature at which tea was drunk were measured among healthy participants in a cohort study. Setting Golestan province, northern Iran, an area with a high incidence of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Participants 300 histologically proved cases of o...

  16. Risk Factors for Cryptosporidiosis among Children in a Semi Urban Slum in Southern India: A Nested Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Rajiv; Kattula, Deepthi; Mark R. Francis; Ajjampur, Sitara S. R.; Prabakaran, Ashok D.; Jayavelu, Nithya; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Balraj, Vinohar; Naumova, Elena N.; Ward, Honorine D; Kang, Gagandeep

    2014-01-01

    The risk factors for acquisition of cryptosporidial infection in resource-poor settings are poorly understood. A nested case-control study was conducted to assess factors associated with childhood cryptosporidiosis (detected by stool polymerase chain reaction) in an endemic, Indian slum community using data from two community-based studies with 580 children followed prospectively until their second birthday. Factors were assessed for overall cryptosporidiosis (N = 406), and for multiple (N = ...

  17. Risk of miscarriage among users of corticosteroid hormones: a population-based nested case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørn AM; Nielsen RB; Nørgaard M; Nohr EA; Ehrenstein V

    2013-01-01

    Anne-Mette B Bjørn,1 Rikke B Nielsen,1 Mette Nørgaard,1 Ellen A Nohr,2 Vera Ehrenstein11Department of Clinical Epidemiology, 2Section for Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, DenmarkBackground: The purpose of this nested case-control study in Denmark was to study the association between use of corticosteroids and risk of miscarriage.Methods: We identified prescriptions for corticosteroids before the miscarriage/index date. We est...

  18. Lifestyle factors and lumbar disc disease : results of a German multi-center case-control study (EPILIFT).

    OpenAIRE

    Schumann, Barbara; Bolm-Audorff, Ulrich; Bergmann, Annekatrin; Ellegast, Rolf; Elsner, Gine; Grifka, Joachim; Haerting, Johannes; Jäger, Matthias; Michaelis, Martina; Seidler, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In the large-scale case-control study EPILIFT, we investigated the dose-response relationship between lifestyle factors (weight, smoking amount, cumulative duration of different sports activities) and lumbar disc disease. METHODS: In four German study regions (Frankfurt am Main, Freiburg, Halle/Saale, Regensburg), 564 male and female patients with lumbar disc herniation and 351 patients with lumbar disc narrowing (chondrosis) aged 25 to 70 years were prospectively recruited. Fro...

  19. Association between RTEL1, PHLDB1, and TREH Polymorphisms and Glioblastoma Risk: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Bo; Heng, Liang; Du, Shuli; Hua YANG; Jin, Tianbo; Lang, Hongjuan; Li, Shanqu

    2015-01-01

    Background Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly invasive, aggressive, and incurable brain tumor. Genetic factors play important roles in GBM risk. The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of gene polymorphism on GBM susceptibility. Material/Methods In this case-control study, we included 72 GBM patients and 320 healthy controls to analyze the association between 29 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and GBM cancer risk in the Chinese Han population. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms were...

  20. Association Between Helicobacter pylori Infection and Risk of Periodontal Diseases in Han Chinese: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    YANG Jing; Qiang ZHANG; Chen, Ming; Wu, Wu-zhou; Wang, Rong; Liu, Chang-jun; Li, Bei; Shi, Xin-Li; Du, Han-song; Tan, Hua-bing

    2016-01-01

    Background This study was performed to test the association between Helicobacter pylori (HP) and periodontal disease (PD). Material/Methods This was a case-control study in a comprehensive hospital, including all patients with newly diagnosed PD between 2012 and 2014 as cases and all patients without PD as controls, thorough periodontal examinations. Those who tested positive for HP were examined by means of polymerase chain reaction. Single and multivariate logistic regression was used to an...

  1. Associations between antioxidant vitamins and the risk of invasive cervical cancer in Chinese women: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Liyuan Guo; Hong Zhu; Chengjun Lin; Jianhua Che; Xiujuan Tian; Shiyu Han; Honghui Zhao; Yumei Zhu; Dongwei Mao

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on the associations between dietary antioxidant vitamins and the risk of cervical cancer remain inconsistent, and little evidence is available for serum antioxidant vitamins, which provide more accurate measurements of these nutrients. We conducted a case-control study of 458 incident cases with invasive cervical cancer and 742 controls to assess the effects of diet or serum antioxidant vitamins. Higher serum antioxidant vitamins were associated with a lower risk of cervical ...

  2. Exposure to pesticides and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a population-based case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Bonvicini; Norina Marcello; Jessica Mandrioli; Vladimiro Pietrini; Marco Vinceti

    2010-01-01

    A few epidemiologic studies have suggested an association of agricultural work and pesticides exposure with a severe degenerative disease of the motor neurons, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), though conflicting results have also been provided. We investigated through a populationbased case-control study the possible relation between overall occupational exposure to pesticides and ALS risk in the northern Italy municipality of Reggio Emilia. By administering a questionnaire, we investigat...

  3. Self-reported exposure to pesticides in residential settings and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Graber Nora J; Fischman Daniel; Cheriyath Pramil; Nookala Vinod; Joshi Monika; Farooq Umar; Stellman Steven D; Muscat Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Pesticides are widely used in households to control insects and weeds. Several studies, over the past decades, have examined the possible relationship of serum concentration of organochlorine pesticides and the development of breast cancer. However, little data exists regarding an association between self-reported, residential exposure to pesticides and breast cancer risk. We, therefore, present a case-control study examining self-reported exposure to household pesticides ...

  4. Non-hodgkin's lymphoma and work in agriculture: Results of a two case-control studies in Saskatchewan, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Chandima P. Karunanayake; Dosman, James A; Punam Pahwa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The objective was to examine the association between non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL) and farming-related activities, gender, pesticides exposure, and exposure to chemicals other than pesticides in Saskatchewan. Materials and Methods: Male and female study participants were taken from two separate case-control studies conducted in Saskatchewan province, Canada. A case was defined as any man or woman aged 19 years and older with a first diagnosis of NHL registered by the Saskatchewan C...

  5. Evaluations of life style factors and the severity of Gastroesophageal reflux disease; a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Asl, Saba Fakhrieh; Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz; Samadi, Hooman; Joukar, Farahnaz

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has increased remarkably worldwide. This study focuses on the background features of these patients and evaluates the two GERD sub types; none erosive (NERD) and erosive (ERD). In a case-control study, patients with reflux symptoms who had obtained a total score of 8-18 of the GERD questionnaire were included. Control group consisted of their families with lower scores and no reflux presentations. All demographic features were recorded. ...

  6. Results from an international case-control study of childhood brain tumors: the role of prenatal vitamin supplementation.

    OpenAIRE

    Preston-Martin, S; Pogoda, J M; Mueller, B A; Lubin, F; Modan, B.; Holly, E. A.; G. Filippini; Cordier, S; Peris-Bonet, R.; Choi, W; Little, J; Arslan, A.

    1998-01-01

    An international case-control study of primary pediatric brain tumors included interviews with mothers of cases diagnosed from 1976 to 1994 and mothers of population controls. Data are available on maternal vitamin use during pregnancy for 1051 cases and 1919 controls from eight geographic areas in North America, Europe, and Israel. Although risk estimates varied by study center, combined results suggest that maternal supplementation for two trimesters may decrease risk of brain tumor (odds r...

  7. Risk factors for cancer cervix among rural women of a hilly state: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Thakur; Bhupender Gupta; Anmol Gupta; Raman Chauhan

    2015-01-01

    In Himachal Pradesh, cancer cervix is a major public health problem since it ranks as the number one female cancer. A case-control study of 226 newly diagnosed, histopathologically confirmed cases of cancer cervix and equal number of matched controls was conducted at Regional Cancer Center, Himachal Pradesh during the period from July 2008 to October 2009 with the objective to study the common factors associated with cancer cervix. Univariate analysis identified 10 risk factors associated sig...

  8. Colorectal cancer: A case control study of dietary factors, King Faisal specialist hospital and researh center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Nashar, Reem M.; Khalid S Almurshed

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to assess various dietary factors and the nutritional status of hospitalized patients with colorectal cancer. Materials and Methods: A case-controlled study of fifty newly-admitted patients at King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia diagnosed with colorectal cancer were interviewed to collect data on various dietary factors and their nutritional status. Their data were compared with a sex-matched control group aged fifty. ...

  9. Risk Factors for Osteonecrosis of the Jaws: a Case-Control Study from the CONDOR Dental PBRN

    OpenAIRE

    Barasch, A.; Cunha-Cruz, J.; Curro, F.A.; Hujoel, P; Sung, A.H.; Vena, D.; Voinea-Griffin, A. E.; Beadnell, Steven; Craig, Ronald G.; DeRouen, Timothy; Desaranayake, Ananda; Gilbert, Ann; Gilbert, Gregg H; Goldberg, Ken; Hauley, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Case reports and cohort studies have linked bisphosphonate therapy and osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ), but neither causality nor specific risks for lesion development have been clearly established. We conducted a 1:3 case-control study with three dental Practice-based Research Networks, using dentist questionnaires and patient interviews for collection of data on bisphosphonate therapy, demographics, co-morbidities, and dental and medical treatments. Multivariable logistic regression analyse...

  10. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, risky behaviors, and motorcycle injuries: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi-Bazargani H

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani,1,2 Leili Abedi,3 Minoo Mahini,4 Shahrokh Amiri,5 Davoud Khorasani-Zavareh6 1Road Traffic Injury Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 2World Health Organization Collaborating Center on Safe Community Promotion, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Faculty of Health, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, 4Department of Counseling, Aras International Campus, University of Tehran, Jolfa, 5Research Center of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, 6Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran Background: The aim of this study was to assess the association of motorcycle traffic injuries with motorcycle riding behavior and subtypes of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD while controlling for individual correlates of motorcycle traffic injuries.Methods: A case-control study was carried out in 298 patients with motorcycle trauma along with 151 control patients admitted to the Shohada and Imam Reza university hospitals as the two referral specialty centers in the East Azarbyjan Province of Iran in 2013. The Persian version of the Motorcycle Riding Behavior Questionnaire and the Persian version of Conner’s Adult ADHD Rating Scales (the self-report short version were used to assess riding behavior and screen for adult ADHD, respectively. The scale has four subscales, comprising subscale A (inattention, subscale B (hyperactivity, impulsivity, subscale C (A + C, and subscale D (ADHD index. The statistical analysis was done using Stata version 11.Results: All subjects were male and aged 13–79 years. Approximately 54% of the participants were married and 13% had academic education. Approximately 18% of the motorcycle riders stated that their motorcycle riding was only for fun purposes. More than two thirds of the participants did not

  11. Are radon gas measurements adequate for epidemiological studies and case control studies of radon-induced lung cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lung dose derived from radon is not attributed to the radon gas itself, but instead to its short-lived progeny. However, in many epidemiological studies as well as in case control studies of the radon risk, the excess number of cancers are related to the radon gas exposure, and not to the radon progeny exposure. A justification for such an approach has resorted to the assumption that there is self-compensation between the radiation doses from the unattached and attached fractions. In the present study, we used the Jacobi model to calculate the radon progeny concentrations in a room by varying the attachment rate and then calculated the resulting lung dose. It was found that self-compensation was not fully realised, and the effective dose can vary by a factor up to ∼2 for the same radon gas concentration. In conclusion, the radon gas concentration alone does not provide adequate information on the effective dose. (authors)

  12. Factors Associated with Injuries among Commercial Motorcyclists: Evidence from a Matched Case Control Study in Kampala City, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarius M Tumwesigye

    Full Text Available Road traffic injuries are the eighth leading cause of death globally and the most affected are young people aged 15-29. By 2030 road traffic deaths will become the fifth leading cause of death unless urgent action is taken. Motorcyclists are among the most vulnerable road users and in Uganda they contribute 41% of all road traffic injuries. This paper establishes factors associated with the injuries of commercial motorcycle riders also known as boda-boda riders in Kampala, Uganda's capital city.The study was matched case-control with a case being a boda-boda rider that was seen at one of the 5 major city hospitals with a road traffic injury while a control was a boda-boda rider that was at the parking stage where the case operated from before the injury. The sample size was 289 riders per arm and data collection took 7 months. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on background and exposing factors. Being matched case-control data conditional logistic regression was used in the analysis.Factors independently associated with injury among motorcyclists were younger age group, being a current alcohol drinker (OR = 2.30, 95%CI: 1.19-4.45, lower engine capacity (<100 cc (OR = 5.03, 95%CI: 2.91-8.70, riding experience of less than 3 years, not changing a motorcycle in past 1 year (OR = 2.04, 95%CI: 1.19-3.52, riding for a longer time in a day (OR = 6.05, 95%CI: 2.58-14.18 and sharing a motorcycle (OR = 8.25, 95%CI:2.62-25.9. Other factors associated with injury were low level of knowledge of traffic rules, being stopped by police for checks on condition of motorcycle/license/insurance, working till late.More road safety sensitization is required among riders to raise awareness against sharing motorcycles, working for a longer time and alcohol consumption. Police enforcement of drink-driving laws should include riders of commercial motorcycles. Investigate the validity of motorcycle riding licenses and test the riding competency of all

  13. STUDY OF SERUM ELECTROLYTES IN FEMALE THYROID PATIENTS : A CASE CONTROL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neela Mannangi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available NTRODUCTION : Thyroid hormone is a central regulator of body haemodynamic, thermoregulation and metabolism. The effect of thyroid hormones on lipid metabolism is well known, whereas the effect on electrolytes and minerals has not been well established and also the underlying mechanisms not well understood. Thyroid hormones regulate the activity of sodium potassium pumps in mo st of the tissues. The higher prevalence of thyroid disease in women suggests that estrogen might be involved in the pathophysiology of thyroid dysfunction. With this background the present study was undertaken to assess the alterations in the levels of serum electrolytes in hyperthyroid, hypothyroid & euthyroid female patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS : The present study was conducted in female patients who atte nded medicine outpatient D epartment of S. N. Medical C ollege & HSK H ospital , Bagalkot . Thyroid hormones were estimated by chemiluminiscence method . Electrolyte levels (Na + , k + & Cl - were measured by ion selective electrode method. Serum levels of free T3 T4 and TSH were obtained. Patients with history of intake of thyroid drugs, hypertensive, diabetes mellitus, obesity and all other causes for electrolyte abnormalities were excluded from the study. STATISTICS : All the values are expressed in mean ± SD . Unp aired ‘t’ test was applied. Pearson’s correlation was done to see the correlation between serum electrolytes and thyroid hormones using SPSS (version 16.0. RESULTS : In the present study mean age group of patients were between 20 - 60yrs. There were 90 femal e patients total in number. Out of which 30 patients were with hypothyroidism, another 30 were with hyperthyroidism and remaining 30 were with euthyroidism. Mean serum levels for thyroid function parameters and electrolytes are given in below table no.2 an d 3. DISCUSSION : Hypothyroidism is a very common condition and seen more in women than in men. The higher prevalence of thyroid disease in

  14. Gender Differences in Neuropsychological Performance across Psychotic Disorders – a Multi-Centre Population Based Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zanelli, Jolanta; Morgan, Kevin; Dazzan, Paola; Morgan, Craig; Russo, Manuela; Pilecka, Izabela; Fearon, Paul; Demjaha, Arsime; Doody, Gill A.; Jones, Peter B.; Murray, Robin M; Reichenberg, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with schizophrenia and other psychoses exhibit a wide range of neuropsychological deficits. An unresolved question concerns whether there are gender differences in cognitive performance. Methods Data were derived from a multi-centre population based case-control study of patients with first-episode psychosis. A neuropsychological test battery was administered to patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (N=70, 36% females), bipolar/mania (N=34,...

  15. The relation between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and inorganic selenium in drinking water: a population-based case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Rothman Kenneth J; Bonvicini Francesca; Vinceti Marco; Vescovi Luciano; Wang Feiyue

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background A community in northern Italy was previously reported to have an excess incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis among residents exposed to high levels of inorganic selenium in their drinking water. Methods To assess the extent to which such association persisted in the decade following its initial observation, we conducted a population-based case-control study encompassing forty-one newly-diagnosed cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and eighty-two age- and sex-match...

  16. Evaluation of Candidate Genes in Case-Control Studies: A Statistical Method to Account for Related Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Slager, S. L.; Schaid, D J

    2001-01-01

    Traditional case-control studies provide a powerful and efficient method for evaluation of association between candidate genes and disease. The sampling of cases from multiplex pedigrees, rather than from a catchment area, can increase the likelihood that genetic cases are selected. However, use of all the related cases without accounting for their biological relationship can increase the type I error rate of the statistical test. To overcome this problem, we present an analysis method that i...

  17. HIV infection and sexual behaviour in primary secondary infertile relationships: a case-control study in Kigali, Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Dhont, Nathalie; Muvunyi, Mambo-Claude; Lüchters, Stanley; Vyankandondera, Joseph; De Naeyer, Ludwig; Temmerman, Marleen; van de Wijgert, Janneke

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (including HIV) and of high-risk sexual behaviour in the following three groups: primary infertile relationships, secondary infertile relationships and fertile relationships. Primary infertility is here defined as never having conceived before, secondary infertility as infertility subsequent to having conceived at least once. Design Unmatched case-control study. Methods Sexually active infertile women aged 21-45 yea...

  18. Measurement Error Correction in Exploiting Gene-Environment Independence in Family-Based Case-Control Studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Guolo, Annamaria

    2009-01-01

    Family-based case-control designs are commonly used in epidemiological studies for evaluating the role of genetic susceptibility and environmental exposure to risk factors in the etiology of rare diseases. Within this framework, it is often reasonable to assume genetic susceptibility and environmental exposure being conditionally independent of each other within families in the source population. We focus on this setting to consider the common situation of measurement error aecting the assess...

  19. Risk of severe hypoglycaemia in insulin treated diabetic patients transferred to human insulin: a case control study.

    OpenAIRE

    M. Egger; Smith, G.D.; Imhoof, H; Teuscher, A

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine whether transfer from animal insulin to human insulin is associated with an increased risk of severe hypoglycaemia. DESIGN--Matched case-control study of insulin treated diabetic patients admitted to hospital because of hypoglycaemia during 1984-7, the period when human insulin was introduced into treatment. SETTING--Case admissions and control admissions were obtained from eight public hospitals within the Swiss canton of Berne and a second control group comprised membe...

  20. Red meat-derived heterocyclic amines increase risk of colon cancer: a population-based case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Helmus, Drew S.; Thompson, Cheryl L.; Zelenskiy, Svetlana; Tucker, Thomas C.; Li LI

    2013-01-01

    Formation of mutagenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is one pathway believed to drive the association of colon cancer with meat consumption. Limited data exist on the associations of individual HCAs and PAHs in red or white meat with colon cancer. Analyzing data from a validated meat preparation questionnaire completed by 1,062 incident colon cancer cases and 1,645 population controls from an ongoing case-control study, risks of colon cancer were estim...