WorldWideScience

Sample records for change annual technical

  1. KWL Lingen nuclear plant. Technical annual report 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical annual report 2015 on the Lingen nuclear plant covers the following issues: report on the segments operation, process engineering, safety engineering, licensing and supervising procedures, operational data, radiation protection, radioactive materials, and in-service inspections.

  2. Technical innovation and industrial change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical development is leading by rationalization at economical stagnation to a decrease in the working volume. The economical difficulties are based on the discrepancy between the offer of goods and services as well as the actual demand. The demand of common goods is growing compared to the consumption goods, which will decrease. The therefore necessary structure change requires a high standard of governmental efforts and social consensus. (orig.)

  3. 2003 Chemical Engineering Division annual technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    national importance. Included among them are: Advanced lithium-ion and lithium-polymer batteries for transportation and other applications, Fuel cells, including the use of an oxidative reformer with gasoline as the fuel supply, Production and storage technologies critical to the hydrogen economy, Stable nuclear waste forms suitable for storage in a geological repository, Threat attribution and training relative to radioactive dispersal devices (''dirty bombs''), and Aqueous and pyrochemical processes for the disposition of spent nuclear fuel. Other important programs are focused in superconductivity, catalysis, nanotechnology, and nuclear materials. During fiscal year 2003, CMT had an annual operating budget of approximately $36 million. Of that, more than 90% was from DOE and the remainder from other government agencies and private industry. Displayed below is an overview organization chart of the Division. A complete organization chart appears at the end of this report. In this annual report we present an overview of the technical programs together with representative highlights. The report is not intended to be comprehensive or encyclopedic, but to serve as an indication of the condition and status of the Division

  4. Technical Direction and Laboratories Fiscal Year 1999 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report summarize achievements and list reports issued by members of TDandL, NHC group during Fiscal Year (FY) 1999, (October 1, 1998 through September 30, 1999). This report, issued by this organization, describes work in support of the Hanford Site and other U S . Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) programs. It includes information on the organization make-up, interfaces, and mission of the group. The TDandL is a group of highly qualified personnel with diverse disciplines (primarily chemistry specialties) that provide process, analytical, and in-situ chemistry services to engineering customers. This year of operation and interfaces with other contract organizations consumed considerable administrative efforts. Attention was directed to the technical challenges presented by the changing roles, responsibilities, and priorities of Hanford programs

  5. Energy Biased Technical Change: A CGE Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Löschel, Andreas; Otto, Vincent M.; Rob B. Dellink

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies energy bias in technical change. For this purpose, we develop a computable general equilibrium model that builds on endogenous growth models. The model explicitly captures links between energy, the rate and direction of technical change, and the economy. We derive the equilibrium determinants of biased technical change and show the importance of feedback in technical change, substitution possibilities between final goods, and general-equilibrium effects for the equilibrium ...

  6. Inertial fusion research: Annual technical report, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research activities undertaken at KMS Fusion (KMSF) during 1985. It is organized into three main technical sections; the first covers fusion experiments and theoretical physics, the second is devoted to progress in materials development and target fabrication, and the third describes laser technology research. These three individual sections have been cataloged separately

  7. 1981 inertial fusion research annual technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report consists of the following two topics: (1) target fabrication technology, and (2) fusion experiments. The first section is reported by the following seven areas: (1) characterization, (2) fuel shell technology, (3) polymer technology, (4) lithium foil development, (5) precision etch technology, (6) analytical instrumentation, and (7) target fabrication. The second area is reported by the following topics: (1) experiments, (2) plasma theory, (3) code development and simulation, and (4) lasers and optics

  8. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Chemical Technology (CMT) Division is a diverse technical organization with principal emphases in environmental management and development of advanced energy sources. The Division conducts research and development in three general areas: (1) development of advanced power sources for stationary and transportation applications and for consumer electronics, (2) management of high-level and low-level nuclear wastes and hazardous wastes, and (3) electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The Division also performs basic research in catalytic chemistry involving molecular energy resources, mechanisms of ion transport in lithium battery electrolytes, and the chemistry of technology-relevant materials and electrified interfaces. In addition, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, which conducts research in analytical chemistry and provides analytical services for programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and other organizations. Technical highlights of the Division`s activities during 1997 are presented.

  9. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    CMT is a diverse technical organization with principal emphases in environmental management and development of advanced energy sources. It conducts R&D in 3 general areas: development of advanced power sources for stationary and transportation applications and for consumer electronics, management of high-level and low-level nuclear wastes and hazardous wastes, and electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The Division also performs basic research in catalytic chemistry involving molecular energy resources, mechanisms of ion transport in lithium battery electrolytes, materials chemistry of electrified interfaces and molecular sieves, and the theory of materials properties. It also operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, which conducts research in analytical chemistry and provides analytical services for programs at ANL and other organizations. Technical highlights of the Division`s activities during 1996 are presented.

  10. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chemical Technology (CMT) Division is a diverse technical organization with principal emphases in environmental management and development of advanced energy sources. The Division conducts research and development in three general areas: (1) development of advanced power sources for stationary and transportation applications and for consumer electronics, (2) management of high-level and low-level nuclear wastes and hazardous wastes, and (3) electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The Division also performs basic research in catalytic chemistry involving molecular energy resources, mechanisms of ion transport in lithium battery electrolytes, and the chemistry of technology-relevant materials and electrified interfaces. In addition, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, which conducts research in analytical chemistry and provides analytical services for programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and other organizations. Technical highlights of the Division's activities during 1997 are presented

  11. 1998 Chemical Technology Division Annual Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, J.P.; Einziger, R.E.; Gay, E.C.; Green, D.W.; Miller, J.F.

    1999-08-06

    The Chemical Technology (CMT) Division is a diverse technical organization with principal emphases in environmental management and development of advanced energy sources. The Division conducts research and development in three general areas: (1) development of advanced power sources for stationary and transportation applications and for consumer electronics, (2) management of high-level and low-level nuclear wastes and hazardous wastes, and (3) electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The Division also performs basic research in catalytic chemistry involving molecular energy resources, mechanisms of ion transport in lithium battery electrolytes, and the chemistry of technology-relevant materials. In addition, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, which conducts research in analytical chemistry and provides analytical services for programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and other organizations. Technical highlights of the Division's activities during 1998 are presented.

  12. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CMT is a diverse technical organization with principal emphases in environmental management and development of advanced energy sources. It conducts R ampersand D in 3 general areas: development of advanced power sources for stationary and transportation applications and for consumer electronics, management of high-level and low-level nuclear wastes and hazardous wastes, and electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The Division also performs basic research in catalytic chemistry involving molecular energy resources, mechanisms of ion transport in lithium battery electrolytes, materials chemistry of electrified interfaces and molecular sieves, and the theory of materials properties. It also operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, which conducts research in analytical chemistry and provides analytical services for programs at ANL and other organizations. Technical highlights of the Division's activities during 1996 are presented

  13. Proceedings of the 1991 SPE annual technical conference and exhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the proceedings of the 1991 SPE annual Technical Conference and Exhibition with some of the following topics: Arctic biomediation; A case study; A comparison of cementation logging tools in a full-scale simulator; Transient aspects of unloading oil wells through gas lift valves; A better environmental management system

  14. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division`s activities during 1994 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) technology for fluidized-bed combustion; (3) methods for treatment of hazardous waste and mixed hazardous/radioactive waste; (4) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; (5) processes for separating and recovering transuranic elements from waste streams, concentrating radioactive waste streams with advanced evaporator technology, and producing {sup 99}Mo from low-enriched uranium for medical applications; (6) electrometallurgical treatment of the many different types of spent nuclear fuel in storage at Department of Energy sites; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also conducts basic research in catalytic chemistry associated with molecular energy resources and novel ceramic precursors; materials chemistry of superconducting oxides, electrified metal/solution interfaces, molecular sieve structures, and impurities in scrap copper and steel; and the geochemical processes involved in mineral/fluid interfaces and water-rock interactions occurring in active hydrothermal systems. In addition, the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the technical programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL).

  15. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) technology for fluidized-bed combustion and coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics; (3) methods for treatment of hazardous waste, mixed hazardous/radioactive waste, and municipal solid waste; (4) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; (5) processes for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste streams, treating water contaminated with volatile organics, and concentrating radioactive waste streams; (6) recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in the Integral Fast Reactor (EFR); (7) processes for removal of actinides in spent fuel from commercial water-cooled nuclear reactors and burnup in IFRs; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials (corium; Fe-U-Zr, tritium in LiAlO2 in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also conducts basic research in catalytic chemistry associated with molecular energy resources and novel' ceramic precursors; materials chemistry of superconducting oxides, electrified metal/solution interfaces, and molecular sieve structures; and the geochemical processes involved in water-rock interactions occurring in active hydrothermal systems. In addition, the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the technical programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

  16. Chemical Technology Division, Annual technical report, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division`s activities during 1991 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) technology for fluidized-bed combustion and coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics; (3) methods for treatment of hazardous and mixed hazardous/radioactive waste; (4) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; (5) processes for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste streams; (6) recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR); (7) processes for removal of actinides in spent fuel from commercial water-cooled nuclear reactors and burnup in IFRs; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also conducts basic research in catalytic chemistry associated with molecular energy resources; chemistry of superconducting oxides and other materials of interest with technological application; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, catalysis, and high-temperature superconductivity; and the geochemical processes involved in water-rock interactions occurring in active hydrothermal systems. In addition, the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the technical programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL).

  17. Chemical Technology Division, Annual technical report, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1991 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) technology for fluidized-bed combustion and coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics; (3) methods for treatment of hazardous and mixed hazardous/radioactive waste; (4) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; (5) processes for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste streams; (6) recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR); (7) processes for removal of actinides in spent fuel from commercial water-cooled nuclear reactors and burnup in IFRs; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also conducts basic research in catalytic chemistry associated with molecular energy resources; chemistry of superconducting oxides and other materials of interest with technological application; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, catalysis, and high-temperature superconductivity; and the geochemical processes involved in water-rock interactions occurring in active hydrothermal systems. In addition, the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the technical programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL).

  18. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1994 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) technology for fluidized-bed combustion; (3) methods for treatment of hazardous waste and mixed hazardous/radioactive waste; (4) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; (5) processes for separating and recovering transuranic elements from waste streams, concentrating radioactive waste streams with advanced evaporator technology, and producing 99Mo from low-enriched uranium for medical applications; (6) electrometallurgical treatment of the many different types of spent nuclear fuel in storage at Department of Energy sites; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also conducts basic research in catalytic chemistry associated with molecular energy resources and novel ceramic precursors; materials chemistry of superconducting oxides, electrified metal/solution interfaces, molecular sieve structures, and impurities in scrap copper and steel; and the geochemical processes involved in mineral/fluid interfaces and water-rock interactions occurring in active hydrothermal systems. In addition, the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the technical programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

  19. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battles, J.E.; Myles, K.M.; Laidler, J.J.; Green, D.W.

    1993-06-01

    In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) technology for fluidized-bed combustion and coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics; (3) methods for treatment of hazardous waste, mixed hazardous/radioactive waste, and municipal solid waste; (4) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; (5) processes for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste streams, treating water contaminated with volatile organics, and concentrating radioactive waste streams; (6) recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in the Integral Fast Reactor (EFR); (7) processes for removal of actinides in spent fuel from commercial water-cooled nuclear reactors and burnup in IFRs; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials (corium; Fe-U-Zr, tritium in LiAlO{sub 2} in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also conducts basic research in catalytic chemistry associated with molecular energy resources and novel` ceramic precursors; materials chemistry of superconducting oxides, electrified metal/solution interfaces, and molecular sieve structures; and the geochemical processes involved in water-rock interactions occurring in active hydrothermal systems. In addition, the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the technical programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL).

  20. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1985 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in areas that include the following: (1) advanced batteries - mainly lithium-alloy/metal sulfide and sodium/sulfur; (2) advanced fuel cells with molten carbonate or solid oxide electrolytes; (3) corrosion-protective coatings for high-strength steel; (4) coal utilization, including the heat and seed recovery technology for coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics plants and the technology for fluidized-bed combustion; (5) methodologies for recovery of energy from municipal waste; (6) nuclear technology related to waste management, the recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in a sodium-cooled fast reactor, and proof of breeding in a light water breeder reactor; and (7) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also has a program in basic chemistry research in the areas of catalytic hydrogenation and catalytic oxidation; materials chemistry for associated and ordered solutions at high temperatures; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, surface science, and catalysis; the thermochemistry of zeolites and related silicates; and the geochemical processes responsible for trace-element migration within the earth's crust. The Division continued to be the major user of the technical support provided by the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at ANL

  1. Chemical Technology Division, Annual technical report, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1991 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) technology for fluidized-bed combustion and coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics; (3) methods for treatment of hazardous and mixed hazardous/radioactive waste; (4) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; (5) processes for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste streams; (6) recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR); (7) processes for removal of actinides in spent fuel from commercial water-cooled nuclear reactors and burnup in IFRs; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also conducts basic research in catalytic chemistry associated with molecular energy resources; chemistry of superconducting oxides and other materials of interest with technological application; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, catalysis, and high-temperature superconductivity; and the geochemical processes involved in water-rock interactions occurring in active hydrothermal systems. In addition, the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the technical programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

  2. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-06-01

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1986 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in areas that include the following: (1) high-performance batteries - mainly lithium-alloy/metal sulfide and sodium/sulfur; (2) aqueous batteries (lead-acid, nickel/iron, etc.); (3) advanced fuel cells with molten carbonate or solid oxide electrolytes; (4) coal utilization, including the heat and seed recovery technology for coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics plants, the technology for fluidized-bed combustion, and a novel concept for CO/sub 2/ recovery from fossil fuel combustion; (5) methods for recovery of energy from municipal waste; (6) methods for the electromagnetic continuous casting of steel sheet; (7) techniques for treatment of hazardous waste such as reactive metals and trichloroethylenes; (8) nuclear technology related to waste management, a process for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste, and the recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in a sodium-cooled fast reactor; and (9) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also has a program in basic chemistry research in the areas of catalytic hydrogenation and catalytic oxidation; materials chemistry for associated and ordered solutions at high temperatures; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, surface science, and catalysis; the thermochemistry of zeolites and related silicates; and the geochemical processes responsible for trace-element migration within the earth's crust. The Division continued to be the major user of the technical support provided by the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at ANL. 127 refs., 71 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Chemical technology division: Annual technical report 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-05-01

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1987 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) high-performance batteries--mainly lithium-alloy/metal sulfide and sodium/sulfur; (2) aqueous batteries (lead-acid, nickel/iron, etc.); (3) advanced fuel cells with molten carbonate or solid oxide electrolytes; (4) coal utilization, including the heat and seed recovery technology for coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics plants and the technology for fluidized-bed combustion; (5) methods for the electromagnetic continuous casting of steel sheet and for the purification of ferrous scrap; (6) methods for recovery of energy from municipal waste and techniques for treatment of hazardous organic waste; (7) nuclear technology related to a process for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste, the recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in a sodium-cooled fast reactor, and waste management; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also has a program in basic chemistry research in the areas of fluid catalysis for converting small molecules to desired products; materials chemistry for liquids and vapors at high temperatures; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, high-temperature superconductivity, and catalysis; the thermochemistry of various minerals; and the geochemical processes responsible for trace-element migration within the earth's crust. The Division continued to be the major user of the technical support provided by the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at ANL. 54 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Divisions's activities during 1988 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) high-performance batteries (mainly lithium-alloy/metal sulfide, sodium/metal chloride, and sodium/sulfur); (2) aqueous batteries (lead-acid, nickel/iron, etc.); (3) advanced fuel cells with molten carbonate or solid oxide electrolytes; (4) coal utilization, including the heat and seed recovery technology for coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics plants and the technology for fluidized-bed combustion; (5) methods for recovery of energy from municipal waste and techniques for treatment of hazardous chemical water; (6) nuclear technology related to a process for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste and for producing /sup 99/Mo from low-enriched uranium targets, the recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in a sodium-cooled fast reactor, and waste management; and (7) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also has a program in basic chemistry research in the areas of fluid catalysis for converting small molecules to desired products; materials chemistry for superconducting oxides and associated and ordered solutions at high temperatures; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, high-temperature superconductivity, and catalysis; and the geochemical processes responsible for trace-element migration within the earth's crust. The Division continued to be the major user of the technical support provided by the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at ANL. 53 figs., 16 tabs

  5. Chemical technology division: Annual technical report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1987 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) high-performance batteries--mainly lithium-alloy/metal sulfide and sodium/sulfur; (2) aqueous batteries (lead-acid, nickel/iron, etc.); (3) advanced fuel cells with molten carbonate or solid oxide electrolytes; (4) coal utilization, including the heat and seed recovery technology for coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics plants and the technology for fluidized-bed combustion; (5) methods for the electromagnetic continuous casting of steel sheet and for the purification of ferrous scrap; (6) methods for recovery of energy from municipal waste and techniques for treatment of hazardous organic waste; (7) nuclear technology related to a process for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste, the recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in a sodium-cooled fast reactor, and waste management; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also has a program in basic chemistry research in the areas of fluid catalysis for converting small molecules to desired products; materials chemistry for liquids and vapors at high temperatures; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, high-temperature superconductivity, and catalysis; the thermochemistry of various minerals; and the geochemical processes responsible for trace-element migration within the earth's crust. The Division continued to be the major user of the technical support provided by the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at ANL. 54 figs., 9 tabs

  6. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1986 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in areas that include the following: (1) high-performance batteries - mainly lithium-alloy/metal sulfide and sodium/sulfur; (2) aqueous batteries (lead-acid, nickel/iron, etc.); (3) advanced fuel cells with molten carbonate or solid oxide electrolytes; (4) coal utilization, including the heat and seed recovery technology for coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics plants, the technology for fluidized-bed combustion, and a novel concept for CO2 recovery from fossil fuel combustion; (5) methods for recovery of energy from municipal waste; (6) methods for the electromagnetic continuous casting of steel sheet; (7) techniques for treatment of hazardous waste such as reactive metals and trichloroethylenes; (8) nuclear technology related to waste management, a process for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste, and the recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in a sodium-cooled fast reactor; and (9) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also has a program in basic chemistry research in the areas of catalytic hydrogenation and catalytic oxidation; materials chemistry for associated and ordered solutions at high temperatures; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, surface science, and catalysis; the thermochemistry of zeolites and related silicates; and the geochemical processes responsible for trace-element migration within the earth's crust. The Division continued to be the major user of the technical support provided by the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at ANL. 127 refs., 71 figs., 8 tabs

  7. Response of a tundra ecosystem to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and CO{sub 2}-induced climate change. Annual technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oechel, W.C.

    1992-04-01

    Northern ecosystems contain up to 455 Gt of C in the soil active layer and upper permafrost. The soil carbon in these layers is equivalent to approximately 60% of the carbon currently in the atmosphere as CO{sub 2}. Much of this carbon is stored in the soil as dead organic matter. Its fate is subject to the net effects of global change on the plant and soil systems of northern ecosystems. The arctic alone contains about 60 Gt C, 90% of which is present in the soil active layer and upper permafrost. The arctic is assumed to have been a sink for CO{sub 2} during the historic and recent geologic past. The arctic has the potential to be a very large, long-term source or sink of CO{sub 2} with respect to the atmosphere. In situ experimental manipulations of atmospheric CO{sub 2}, indicated that there is little effect of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} on leaf level photosynthesis or whole-ecosystem CO{sub 2} flux over the course of weeks to years, respectively. However, there may be longer- term ecosystem responses to elevated CO{sub 2} that could ultimately affect ecosystem CO{sub 2} balance. In addition to atmospheric CO{sub 2}, climate may affect net ecosystem carbon balance. Recent results indicate that the arctic has become a source of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere. This change coincides with recent climatic variation in the arctic, and suggests a positive feedback of arctic ecosystems on atmospheric CO{sub 2} and global change. The research proposed in this application has four principal aspects: (A) Long-term response of arctic plants and ecosystems to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2}; (B) Circumpolar patterns of net ecosystem CO{sub 2} flux; (C) In situ controls by temperature and moisture on net ecosystem CO{sub 2} flux; (D) Scaling of CO{sub 2} flux from plot, to landscape, to regional scales (In conjunction with research proposed for NSF support).

  8. Technical Support Section annual work plan for FY 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adkisson, B.P.; Allison, K.L.; Effler, R.P.; Hess, R.A.; Keeble, T.A.; Odom, S.M.; Smelcer, D.R.

    1996-10-01

    The Technical Support Section (TSS) of the Instrumentation and Controls (I&C) Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides technical services such as fabrication, modification, installation, calibration, operation, repair, and preventive maintenance of instruments and other related equipment. Work performed by TSS is in support of basic and applied research and development (R&D), engineering, and instrument and computer systems managed by ORNL. Because the activities and priorities of TSS must be adapted to the technical support needs of ORNL, the TSS Annual Work Plan is derived from, and driven directly by, current trends in the budgets and activities of each ORNL division for which TSS provides support such as reductions in the staffing levels. TSS does not have an annual budget to cover operating expenses incurred in providing instrument maintenance support to ORNL. Each year, TSS contacts ORNL division finance managers or division finance officers to obtain information concerning projected funding levels of programs and facilities they manage. TSS workforce and resource projections are based on the information obtained and are weighted depending on the percentage of support provided to that division or program. The Long- Range Work Plan is based on estimates of impact of the long-range priorities and directions of the Laboratory. Identifiable proposed new facilities and programs provide additional basis for long-range planning. After identifying long-range initiatives, TSS planning includes future training requirements, re-evaluation of qualifications for new hires, and identification of essential test equipment needed in new work.

  9. Trade, technical change, and labour market adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Heitger, Bernhard; Stehn, Jürgen

    2003-01-01

    The paper empirically examines three possible reasons for the high and rising unemployment of low-skilled employees in Germany: (i) an upsurge in interindustry trade, (ii) a skill-biased technical change, and (iii) a failure of labour market adjustment. The empirical analyses indicate that an exogenous wage-setting process as well as a bundle of factors, including a skill-biased technical and structural change, have contributed to the decline in relative demand for low-skilled employees in Ge...

  10. Productivity and Technical Change in Brazilian Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Arnade, Carlos Anthony

    1992-01-01

    Brazil's agricultural sector underwent major changes in the past two decades. Though Brazil is abundant in labor, land, and animal power, government subsidies encouraged the use of fertilizer and machines. Since productivity growth arises from technical change, Brazil's drive to modernize its agricultural sector should improve agricultural productivity. However, inefficient production practices arising from subsidies can slow multifactor productivity growth. Recent removal of agricultural sub...

  11. Solar thermal power systems. Annual technical progress report, FY 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Gerald W.

    1980-06-01

    The Solar Thermal Power Systems Program is the key element in the national effort to establish solar thermal conversion technologies within the major sectors of the national energy market. It provides for the development of concentrating mirror/lens heat collection and conversion technologies for both central and dispersed receiver applications to produce electricity, provide heat at its point of use in industrial processes, provide heat and electricity in combination for industrial, commercial, and residential needs, and ultimately, drive processes for production of liquid and gaseous fuels. This report is the second Annual Technical Progress Report for the Solar Thermal Power Systems Program and is structured according to the organization of the Solar Thermal Power Systems Program on September 30, 1979. Emphasis is on the technical progress of the projects rather than on activities and individual contractor efforts. Each project description indicates its place in the Solar Thermal Power Systems Program, a brief history, the significant achievements and real progress during FY 1979, also future project activities as well as anticipated significant achievements are forecast. (WHK)

  12. Innovation policy for directing technical change in the power sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Aalbers; V. Shestalova; V. Kocsis

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses policy instruments for redirecting technical change within the electricity sector to mitigate climate change. First, we unravel the mechanism behind directed technical change, explaining why markets may underprovide innovations in expensive renewable technologies in comparison t

  13. CAN STRUCTURAL CHANGE EXPLAIN CHANGES IN RETURNS TO TECHNICAL ANALYSIS?

    OpenAIRE

    Kidd, Willis V.; Brorsen, B. Wade

    2002-01-01

    Returns to managed futures funds and Commodity Trading Advisors (CTAs) have decreased dramatically during the last several years. Since these funds overwhelmingly use technical analysis, this research examines futures prices to determine if there is evidence of a structural change in futures price movements that could explain the reduction in fund returns. Bootstrap tests are used to test significance of a change in statistics related to daily returns, close-to-open changes, breakaway gaps, a...

  14. Annual meeting on nuclear technology 1995. Technical session: Why nuclear energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication contains the full texts of papers presented at this technical session of the 1995 Annual Nuclear Congress held in Nuernberg. The key questions relating to the justification, the risks and the benefits of nuclear technology are discussed in the context of issues such as the global climate change and CO2 emissions. Various scenarios and models of ensured energy supply in the future are presented and explained, with a basic aspect recurring in all papers, addressing the pros and cons of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy as discussed at the onset of nuclear technology, and their validity in the light of current developments. (UA)

  15. Training and Age-Biased Technical Change

    OpenAIRE

    Behaghel, Luc; Greenan, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    Using a matched employer-employee dataset on the French manufacturing sector in the 1990s, we investigate how training incidence responds to technical and organizational changes. Using a difference-in-difference approach across age groups and types of firms, we find that older workers in low-skill occupations lag behind in terms of training (in computer skills and in teamwork) when firms implement advanced information technologies. By contrast, there is no significant difference between age g...

  16. The Environment and Directed Technical Change

    OpenAIRE

    Acemoglu, Daron; Aghion, Philippe; Bursztyn, Leonardo; Hemous, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces endogenous and directed technical change in a growth model with environmental constraints. A unique final good is produced by combining inputs from two sectors. One of these sectors uses “dirty” machines and thus creates environmental degradation. Research can be directed to improving the technology of machines in either sector. We characterize dynamic tax policies that achieve sustainable growth or maximize intertemporal welfare. We show that: (i) in the ...

  17. The environment and directed technical change: comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the growth model with environmental constraints recently presented in (Acemoglu et al., 2011) which focuses on the redirection of technical change by climate policies with research subsidies and a carbon tax. First, Acemoglu et al.'s model and chosen parameters yield numerical results that do not support the conclusion that ambitious climate policies can be conducted 'without sacrificing (much or any) long-run growth'. Second, they select unrealistic key parameters for carbon sinks and elasticity of substitution. We find that more realistic parameters lead to very different results. Third, the model leads to an unrealistic conclusion when used to analyse endogenous growth, suggesting specification problems. (authors)

  18. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal): Annual compilation for 1996, Volume 21, No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation is the annual cumulation of bibliographic data and abstracts for the formal regulatory and technical reports issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Staff and its contractors

  19. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal): Annual compilation for 1996, Volume 21, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheehan, M.A.

    1997-04-01

    This compilation is the annual cumulation of bibliographic data and abstracts for the formal regulatory and technical reports issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Staff and its contractors.

  20. KWL Lingen nuclear plant. Technical annual report 2015; KWL Kernkraftwerk Lingen. Technischer Jahresbericht 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-07-01

    The technical annual report 2015 on the Lingen nuclear plant covers the following issues: report on the segments operation, process engineering, safety engineering, licensing and supervising procedures, operational data, radiation protection, radioactive materials, and in-service inspections.

  1. Technical vocabulary in finance : a corpus-based study of annual reports and earnings calls

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Ying-ho; 夏映荷

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the technical vocabulary in finance based on a self-built Financial Corpus (FC) of 6,753,212 words of written annual reports and spoken earnings calls collected from 146 world’s largest companies in four financial sectors. Being the most important genres in corporate communication, annual reports and earnings calls provide considerable insights into the technical vocabulary of the financial sectors. The main aims of the study are to show differences among modes especial...

  2. 1980 Annual status report: provision of scientific and technical services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two kinds of objectives are pursued at the JRC in direct support of the various General Directorates of the Commission: Technical Evaluations where system analysis techniques are mainly employed and Technical Assistance where laboratory measurement, technical expertises and management of projects are provided

  3. Annual Technical Report - Nuclear Engineering Institute/Dept. of Physics (IEN/DEFI) 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual technical report of the Dept. of Physics of the Nuclear Engineering Institut (IEN/DEFI) is presented. The report describes the scientific and technical activities developed at this Institute, such as research, projects, development, personnel involved, support to research and the publications issued in 1985. (M.I.)

  4. Solar thermal power systems. Annual technical progress report, FY 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    A technical progress report on the DOE Solar Thermal Power Systems Program is given. Emphasis is on the technical progress of the projects rather than on activities and individual contractor efforts. Each project description indicates its place in the prior to FY 1978 is given; the significant achievements and real progress of each project during FY 1978 are described; and future project activities as well as anticipated significant achievements for each project are forecast. (WHK)

  5. Core Capabilities and Technical Enhancement -- FY-98 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David Lynn

    1999-04-01

    The Core Capability and Technical Enhancement (CC&TE) Program, a part of the Verification, Validation, and Engineering Assessment Program, was implemented to enhance and augment the technical capabilities of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The purpose for strengthening the technical capabilities of the INEEL is to provide the technical base to serve effectively as the Environmental Management Laboratory for the Office of Environmental Management (EM). An analysis of EM's science and technology needs as well as the technology investments currently being made by EM across the complex was used to formulate a portfolio of research activities designed to address EM's needs without overlapping work being done elsewhere. An additional purpose is to enhance and maintain the technical capabilities and research infrastructure at the INEEL. This is a progress report for fiscal year 1998 for the five CC&TE research investment areas: (a) transport aspects of selective mass transport agents, (b) chemistry of environmental surfaces, (c) materials dynamics, (d) characterization science, and (e) computational simulation of mechanical and chemical systems. In addition to the five purely technical research areas, this report deals with the science and technology foundations element of the CC&TE from the standpoint of program management and complex-wide issues. This report also provides details of ongoing and future work in all six areas.

  6. Core capabilities and technical enhancement, FY-98 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.L.

    1999-04-01

    The Core Capability and Technical Enhancement (CCTE) Program, a part of the Verification, Validation, and Engineering Assessment Program, was implemented to enhance and augment the technical capabilities of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The purpose for strengthening the technical capabilities of the INEEL is to provide the technical base to serve effectively as the Environmental Management Laboratory for the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM). An analysis of EM's science and technology needs as well as the technology investments currently being made by EM across the complex was used to formulate a portfolio of research activities designed to address EM's needs without overlapping work being done elsewhere. An additional purpose is to enhance and maintain the technical capabilities and research infrastructure at the INEEL. This is a progress report for fiscal year 1998 for the five CCTE research investment areas: (a) transport aspects of selective mass transport agents, (b) chemistry of environmental surfaces, (c) materials dynamics, (d) characterization science, and (e) computational simulation of mechanical and chemical systems. In addition to the five purely technical research areas, this report deals with the science and technology foundations element of the CCTE from the standpoint of program management and complex-wide issues. This report also provides details of ongoing and future work in all six areas.

  7. Jinzhai County Household Technical Change and Efficiency Change Analysis: Stochastic Frontier Production Function Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Stochastic frontier production function approach is adopted, 93 farmer samples have been collected, pure efficiency, technical efficiency, technical change and scale efficiency and the institutional contribution have been calculated. The results indicated that increasing productivity is the sole measurement to reduce poverty, institution and technical change are the two key factors. Therefore, stable institution, improving technical changes are required. At present, it is urgent to make technical progre...

  8. The Climate Change Action Plan: Technical supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This Technical Annex documents the assumptions and parameters used in developing the supporting analysis for the Climate Change Action Plan (the Plan) issued by President Clinton on October 19, 1993. The Annex is intended to meet the needs of independent energy and environmental analysts who wish to better understand the Plan, its analytical underpinnings, and the events that need to transpire for the emissions reductions called for in the Plan to be realized. The Plan documented in this Annex reflects the outcome of a wide-ranging effort by Government agencies and interested members of the public to develop and implement actions that can reduce net greenhouse gas emissions in the year 2000 to their aggregate 1990 level. Based on agency and public input, the Climate Change Mitigation Group, chaired by the White House Office on Environmental Policy, developed the Plan`s content. Many of the actions called for in the Plan are now underway, while others are in advanced planning pending congressional action on the fiscal year 1995 budget. The analysis supporting the Plan represents the results of an interagency effort. The US Department of Energy (DOE) was responsible for the integrated analysis of energy-related options, based on the analysis of individual energy-related options by DOE, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the US Department of Transportation (DOT). EPA led in providing analysis for actions related to methane, hydrofluorocarbons, and perfluorocarbons. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) led the analysis of carbon sequestration actions and cooperated with EPA in the analysis of actions to reduce nitrous oxide emissions.

  9. Center for Space Transportation and Applied Research Fifth Annual Technical Symposium Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This Fifth Annual Technical Symposium, sponsored by the UT-Calspan Center for Space Transportation and Applied Research (CSTAR), is organized to provide an overview of the technical accomplishments of the Center's five Research and Technology focus areas during the past year. These areas include chemical propulsion, electric propulsion, commerical space transportation, computational methods, and laser materials processing. Papers in the area of artificial intelligence/expert systems are also presented.

  10. TMI-2 Technical Information and Examination Program. 1984 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1984, the US Department of Energy's Technical Information and Examination Program entered its fifth year of research and development work at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) and at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and other supporting laboratories. The work concentrated on six major areas: waste immobilization, reactor evaluation, data acquisition, information and industry coordination, core activities, and EPICOR II and waste research and disposition

  11. Proceedings of the Efficient Separations and Processing Cross-Cutting Program Annual Technical Exchange Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    This document contains summaries of technology development presented at the 1995 Efficient Separations and Processing Cross-Cutting Program (ESP) Annual Technical Exchange Meeting. The ESP is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Technology Development. The meeting is held annually to promote a free exchange of ideas among technology developers, potential users (for example, EM focus areas), and other interested parties within EM. During this meeting, developers of ESP-funded technologies describe the problems and needs addressed by their technologies; the technical approach, accomplishments, and resolution of issues; the strategy and schedule for commercialization; and evolving potential applications. Presenters are asked to address the following areas: Target waste management problem, waste stream, or data need; scientific background and technical approach; technical accomplishments and resolution of technical issues; schedule and strategy for commercializing and implementing the technology or acquiring needed data; potential alternate applications of the technology or data, including outside of DOE/EM. The meeting is not a program review of the individual tasks or subtasks; but instead focuses on the technical aspects and implementation of ESP-sponsored technology or data. The meeting is also attended by members of the ESP Technical Review Team, who have the opportunity at that time to review the ESP as a whole.

  12. Proceedings of the Efficient Separations and Processing Cross-Cutting Program Annual Technical Exchange Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains summaries of technology development presented at the 1995 Efficient Separations and Processing Cross-Cutting Program (ESP) Annual Technical Exchange Meeting. The ESP is sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Technology Development. The meeting is held annually to promote a free exchange of ideas among technology developers, potential users (for example, EM focus areas), and other interested parties within EM. During this meeting, developers of ESP-funded technologies describe the problems and needs addressed by their technologies; the technical approach, accomplishments, and resolution of issues; the strategy and schedule for commercialization; and evolving potential applications. Presenters are asked to address the following areas: Target waste management problem, waste stream, or data need; scientific background and technical approach; technical accomplishments and resolution of technical issues; schedule and strategy for commercializing and implementing the technology or acquiring needed data; potential alternate applications of the technology or data, including outside of DOE/EM. The meeting is not a program review of the individual tasks or subtasks; but instead focuses on the technical aspects and implementation of ESP-sponsored technology or data. The meeting is also attended by members of the ESP Technical Review Team, who have the opportunity at that time to review the ESP as a whole

  13. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee, fiscal year 1997. Annual technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-31

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department`s materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. This report summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1997 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department.

  14. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal): Annual compilation for 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation consists of bibliographic data and abstracts for the formal regulatory and technical reports issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Staff and its contractors. It is NRC's intention to publish this compilation quarterly and to cumulate it annually

  15. AQSIQ Publishes China Annual Report on Technical Barriers to Trade (2007)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ On September 11, 2007, Qi Xiufen, Director of the International Department of the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of China (AQSIQ), published the China Annual Report on Technical Barriers to Trade.Wang Nini, Director of the Standard, Law and Regulation Center of AQSIQ, gave a detailed explanation of the contents of the report.

  16. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal). Annual compilation for 1984. Volume 9, No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation consists of bibliographic data and abstracts for the formal regulatory and technical reports issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Staff and its contractors. It is NRC's intention to publish this compilation quarterly and to cumulate it annually

  17. Technical and economic feasibility of thermal energy storage. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, D.R.

    1976-02-01

    This study provides a first-look at the system elements involved in: (1) creating a market; (2) understanding and deriving the requirements; (3) performing analytical effort; (4) specifying equipment; and (5) synthesizing applications for a thermal energy storage (TES) function. The work reviews implicated markets, energy consumption patterns, TES technologies, and applications. Further, several concepts are developed and evaluated in some detail. Key findings are: (1) there are numerous technical opportunities for TES in the residential and industrial market sectors; (2) apart from sensible heat storage and transfer, significant R and D is required to fully exploit the superior heat densities of latent heat-based TES systems, particularly at temperatures above 600/sup 0/F; (3) industrial energy conservation can be favorably impacted by TES where periodic or batch-operated unit functions characterize product manufacturing processes, i.e. bricks, steel, and ceramics; and (4) a severe data shortage exists for describing energy consumption rates in real time as related to plant process operations--a needed element in designing TES systems.

  18. Aerial Measuring System Technical Integration Annual Report 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada Remote Sensing Laboratory

    2003-06-01

    Fiscal Year 2002 is the second year of a five-year commitment by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to invest in development of new and state-of-the-art technologies for the Aerial Measuring Systems (AMS) project. In 2000, NNSA committed to two million dollars for AMS Technical Integration (TI) for each of five years. The tragedy of September 11, 2001, profoundly influenced the program. NNSA redirected people and funding resources at the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) to more immediate needs. Funds intended for AMS TI were redirected to NNSA's new posture of leaning further forward throughout. AMS TI was brought to a complete halt on December 10, 2001. Then on April 30, 2002, NNSA Headquarters allowed the restart of AMS TI at the reduced level of $840,000. The year's events resulted in a slow beginning of several projects, some of which were resumed only a few weeks before the AMS TI Symposium held at RSL on July 30.

  19. Idaho chemical programs annual technical report, fiscal year 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operating experience in fuel processing, waste calcining, and other waste management activities for FY 1974 is summarized. A new zirconium fuel dissolver has performed well, and the first-cycle extraction system shows near-zero losses. Technical support activities include: a flowsheet to reduce acid consumption and volume of liquid wastes in the electrolytic process; a new dissolution process for ternary oxide PWR fuel using zirconium-fluoride-nitric acid dissolvent; a study and recommendation for treatment of fuel storage basin water; progress in design and development of processes for Rover and HTGR fuels, corrosion evaluation of bins containing calcined wastes showing corrosion rates indicative of a safe 500-year or greater storage life; demonstration on a pilot-plant scale of conditions for calcination of stainless steel and Rover fuel wastes as well as commercial wastes; evaluation of equipment alternatives for a new waste calcining facility; studies related to improvements in rare gas recovery and process off-gas treatment; demonstration of stability when various high-level waste solutions are mixed; progress on postcalcination treatment of calcined waste solids (ceramic formation, incorporation in metals, and calcine-concretes); studies on removal of actinides from ICPP wastes; a conceptual design for a proposed radioactive solid-waste repackaging facility for the INEL. Significant progress is reported on the program for determination of burnup for fast breeder reactor fuels. (U.S.)

  20. Cost and technical change: effects from bank deregulation

    OpenAIRE

    David B. Humphrey

    1990-01-01

    Banks were substantially deregulated during the 1980s. Interest costs rose faster than operating expenses (capital, labor) were reduced. As a result, measured technical change in banking was negative: it averaged -0.8% to -1.4% a year over 1977-88. Technical change was measured three different ways and for both equilibrium and disequilibrium factor input specifications. All three approaches--a standard time trend, an index approach, and shifts in cross-section cost functions--gave consistent ...

  1. Population Aging and the Direction of Technical Change

    OpenAIRE

    Irmen, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    An analytical framework is developed to study the repercussions between endogenous capital- and labor-saving technical change and population aging. Following an intuition often attributed to Hicks (1932), I ask whether and how population aging aff ects the relative scarcity of factors of production, relative factor prices, and the direction of induced technical change. Aging is equivalent to an increase in the old-age dependency ratio of an OLG-economy with two-period lived individuals. In th...

  2. Climate Change and Technical Progress: Impact of Informational Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Bondarev, Anton; Clemens, Christiane; Greiner, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we analyse a growth model that includes environmental and economic variables as well as technological progress under different informational constraints on the behavior of economic agents. To simulate the informationally constrained economy, we make use of the non-linear model predictive control technique. We compare models with exogenous and endogenous technical change as well as directed and undirected endogenous technical change under different informational structures. We sh...

  3. Sea Change: Annual Progress Report 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2008-01-01

    Sea Change-A Marine Knowledge, Research and Innovation Strategy for Ireland 2007-2013 was developed as an integral part of the government's Strategy for Science, Technoogy and Innovation (SSTI) and the Marine Institute as the lead implementation agency is working within SSTI policy and with government departments and agencies to deliver on the strategy. The Sea Change Strategy sets out a comprehensive suite of integrated research measures and supporting programmes, each with specific objectiv...

  4. Sea Change: Annual Progress Report 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2010-01-01

    Sea Change-A Marine Knowledge, Research and Innovation Strategy for Ireland 2007-2013 was developed as an integral part of the government's Strategy for Science, Technoogy and Innovation (SSTI) and the Marine Institute as the lead implementation agency is working within SSTI policy and with government departments and agencies to deliver on the strategy. The Sea Change Strategy sets out a comprehensive suite of integrated research measures and supporting programmes, each with specific objectiv...

  5. 11. annual report of the technical advisory committee on the nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Eleventh Annual Report of the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) assesses the scientific and technical progress made within the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program (NFWMP) during the period July 1989 to June 1990. The Committee notes that the general concept of a multibarrier system involving geologic media and engineered systems is based on known technologies and current scientific knowledge, and has gained strong international scientific and engineering support as currently the most feasible and practical. TAC continues to endorse the full investigation of the concept of nuclear waste disposal deep in plutonic formations, such as those in the Canadian Shield

  6. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC): Annual technical report, Fiscal year 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further the effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. This annual technical report is mandated by the EMaCC terms of reference. This report summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1987 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department

  7. Germanischer Lloyd. Annual report 1989, technical section. Germanischer Lloyd. Fachlicher Teil des Geschaeftsberichtes 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The lavishely illustrated 1989 annual report of Germanischer Lloyd informs on: 1989 in retrospect; research - hull and machinery; ship safety; mechanical engineering; offshore technology; electrotechnology; wind energy technology; environmental protection; navy; newbuildings and conversions; yachts and small craft; underwater technology; project assistance; marine advisory services; technical safety; hydraulic engineering; containers; materials technology; industrial inspections; supervisory board; executive board, divisional directors; committees; our presence worldwide; training; statistics 1989; exhibitions and presentations; lectures and publications; new rules and regulations. (HWJ).

  8. Climate change in Australia: technical report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date assessment of observed climate change over Australia, the likely causes, and projections of future changes to Australia's climate. It also provides information on how to apply the projections in impact studies and in risk assessments. The two main strategies for managing climate risk are mitigation (net reductions in greenhouse gas emissions) to slow climate change and adaptation to climate impacts that are unavoidable. A number of major advances have been made since the last report on climate change projections in Australia (CSIRO 2001) including: a much larger number of climate and ocean variables are projected (21 and 6 respectively); a much larger number (23) of climate models are used; the provision of probabilistic information on some of the projections, including the probability of exceeding the 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles; greater emphasis on projections from models that are better able to simulate observed Australian climate; a detailed assessment of observed changes in Australian climate and likely causes; and information on risk assessment, to provide guidance for using climate projections in impact studies

  9. Governance of Change in Socio-technical and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edler, Jakob

    analysis of systems change centre around the nature and role of ‘governance’ of that change, the very concept of governance continues to be empirically and normatively indeterminate and ill-defined. This paper aims at developing the building blocks for a theory on the governance of change of socio-technical......More than twenty years of studies on ‘socio-technical systems’ and ‘innovation systems’ have yielded multiple academic approaches to study the way in which science and technology shape and are shaped by social, political and economic organization. The various stands of literature exhibit high...

  10. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC): Fiscal year 1996. Annual technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department`s materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. The EMaCC reports to the Director of the Office of Energy Research in his or her capacity as overseer of the technical programs of the Department. This annual technical report is mandated by the EMaCC terms of reference. This report summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1996 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department.

  11. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC): Fiscal year 1996. Annual technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. The EMaCC reports to the Director of the Office of Energy Research in his or her capacity as overseer of the technical programs of the Department. This annual technical report is mandated by the EMaCC terms of reference. This report summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1996 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department

  12. Library management and technical services the changing role of technical services in library organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Cargill, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This exciting volume explores the role of technical services functions and organizational structure as forces in the library change process. It provides practical information to help administrators make decisions about how their libraries are organized and managed. As libraries change in many ways--organizational structure, design of jobs, managerial philosophy, responsibilities of professionals, and the impact of automation--librarians in technical services, administrators, and personnel officers--need guidance in meeting the new challenges in order to continue providing thorough efficient se

  13. Directed Technical Change and Economic Growth Effects of Environmental Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse-Andersen, Peter Kjær

    A Schumpeterian growth model is developed to investigate how environmental policy affects economic growth when environmental policy also affects the direction of technical change. In contrast to previous models, production and pollution abatement technologies are embodied in separate intermediate...... unambiguously directs research efforts toward pollution abatement technologies and away from production technologies. This directed technical change reduces economic growth and pollution emission growth. Simulation results indicate that even large environmental policy reforms have small economic growth effects....... However, these economic growth effects have relatively large welfare effects which suggest that static models and exogenus growth models leave out an important welfare effect of environmental policy....

  14. The impact of the endogenous technical change on climate policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research aims at revisiting the 'autonomous vs. induced' debate on the costs of climate policies, first by broadening the framework of the technical change induction to other economical sectors, and then by attempting to go beyond the concept of technical change induction and think in terms of a structural change induction. After a review of modes of representation of the technical progress in economical prospective models for the assessment of climate policies, the author presents the IMACLIM-R model, a recursive general equilibrium model which simulates the evolution of the world economy within 12 regions and 12 sectors between 2001 and 2100. The results obtained with this model are then presented and discussed, in the case of a reference scenario which displays a significant change towards a carbon-intensive path. These results stress the risks related to a 'laissez faire' attitude. The author explores the consequences in terms of climate policies with a more or less extended taking into account of phenomena of induction of technical and structural changes

  15. Technical energy savings versus changes in human behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    the way into human satisfaction via energy services. Results of various analyses and field experiments show saving potentials for electricity of 50 - 80 per cents. Barriers for implementing these technical saving options are discussed. Also the necessity and potentials for changing behavioural or life...

  16. Nuclear power: Some economic effects of institutional and technical changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a review of the technical, financial and institutional problems now confronted by nuclear energy. It shows the potential attractiveness of small, modular, factory-assembled nuclear units for solving these problems. Results of industry investigations and specific economic analyses conducted by the authors are included, providing target ''break even'' costs for small nuclear units and specific suggestions for institutional changes

  17. KBS Annual Report 1983. Including summaries of technical reports issued during 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the KBS Annual Report is to inform interested organizations and individuals of the research and development work performed by the division KBS within the Swedish Nuclear Fuel Supply Co (SKBF) on the handling, treatment and final storage of nuclear wastes in Sweden. The Annual Report normally contains a presentation of the legal and organizational situation followed by an account of the progress within different areas of the R and D-work. This account also includes indications of the activities planned for the future. At the end of the report the summaries of 76 technical reports and other publications issued during the year are listed in special appendices. (K.A.E.)

  18. Developing the PAGE2002 Model with Endogenous Technical Change

    OpenAIRE

    Alberth, Stephan; Hope, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Presented research demonstrates the inclusion of endogenous technical change into the PAGE2002 integrated assessment model of climate change. The ???experience curve??? or learning-by-doing concept, made popular by the Boston Consulting Group during the 1960???s provides a mechanism with which to describe cost reduction through experiential learning. The implementation of learning requires both a restructuring of the way costs are modelled as well as the inclusion of an explicit learning func...

  19. [Fortieth Annual] Meeting of the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR). Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the meeting were to: - Exchange information on the national programmes on Fast Reactors (FR) and Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS); - Review the progress since the 39th TWG-FR Annual Meeting, including the status of the actions; - Consider meeting arrangements for 2007, 2008 and 2009; - Review the Agency’s ongoing information exchange and co-ordinated research activities in the technical fields relevant to the TWG-FR (FRs and ADS), as well as coordination of the TWG-FR’s activities with other organizations; - Discuss future joint activities in view of the Agency’s Programme and Budget Cycle 2008–2009 (and beyond)

  20. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal): Annual compilation for 1994. Volume 19, Number 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This compilation consists of bibliographic data and abstracts for the formal regulatory and technical reports issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Staff and its contractors. It is NRC`s intention to publish this compilation quarterly and to cumulate it annually. The main citations and abstracts in this compilation are listed in NUREG number order. These precede the following indexes: secondary report number index, personal author index, subject index, NRC originating organization index (staff reports), NRC originating organization index (international agreements), NRC contract sponsor index (contractor reports), contractor index, international organization index, and licensed facility index. A detailed explanation of the entries precedes each index.

  1. Environmental Science and Research Foundation. Annual technical report, April 11, 1994--December 31, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Annual Technical Report describes work conducted for the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office, by the Environmental Science and Research Foundation (Foundation) for work under contract DE-AC07-94ID13268. The Foundation began, on April 11, 1994, to conduct environmental surveillance near to and distant from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, provide environmental public relations and education related to INEL natural resource issues, and conduct ecological and radioecological research benefiting major DOE-ID programs including Waste Management, Environmental Restoration, Spent Nuclear Fuels, and Infrastructure

  2. Environmental Science and Research Foundation. Annual technical report, April 11, 1994--December 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, T.D.; Morris, R.C.; Markham, O.D. [eds.

    1995-06-01

    This Annual Technical Report describes work conducted for the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office, by the Environmental Science and Research Foundation (Foundation) for work under contract DE-AC07-94ID13268. The Foundation began, on April 11, 1994, to conduct environmental surveillance near to and distant from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, provide environmental public relations and education related to INEL natural resource issues, and conduct ecological and radioecological research benefiting major DOE-ID programs including Waste Management, Environmental Restoration, Spent Nuclear Fuels, and Infrastructure.

  3. SKB Annual Report 1995. Including summaries of Technical Reports issued during 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report covers planning, construction and operation of facilities and systems as well as research, development, demonstration work and information activities. The aim of the program is to start the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel around year 2008. Work is undertaken for the development of encapsulation technology on an industrial scale and for design of an encapsulation plant. The siting process for the final repository for spent fuel has started with feasibility studies in a few Swedish municipalities in order to evaluate the potential technical conditions and requirements and the influence on the region. 36 refs, figs

  4. SKB Annual Report 1995. Including summaries of Technical Reports issued during 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The annual report covers planning, construction and operation of facilities and systems as well as research, development, demonstration work and information activities. The aim of the program is to start the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel around year 2008. Work is undertaken for the development of encapsulation technology on an industrial scale and for design of an encapsulation plant. The siting process for the final repository for spent fuel has started with feasibility studies in a few Swedish municipalities in order to evaluate the potential technical conditions and requirements and the influence on the region. 36 refs, figs.

  5. Investigating possible changes of extreme annual rainfall in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mazvimavi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing concern about the perceived decline in rainfall which is sometimes attributed to global warming. Some studies have concluded that average rainfall in Zimbabwe has declined by 10% or 100 mm/yr during the last 100 yrs. This paper investigates the validity of the assumption that rainfall is declining in Zimbabwe. Time series of annual rainfall, and total rainfall for a the early party of the rainy season, October-November-December (OND, and b the mid to end of the rainy season, January-February-March (JFM are analysed for the presence of trends using the Mann-Kendall test, and changes in extreme rainfall using quantile regression analysis. The analysis has been done for 40 rainfall stations with records starting during the 1892–1940 period and ending in 2000, and representative of the major rainfall regions.

    The Mann-Kendal test did not identify a significant trend at all the 40 stations, and therefore there is no proof that the average rainfall at each of these stations has changed. Quantile regression analysis revealed a decline in annual rainfall less than the tenth percentile at only one station, and increasing rainfall for rainfall greater than the ninetieth percentile at another station. All the other stations revealed no changes over time in both the extreme low and high rainfall at the annual interval. Therefore, there is no evidence that the frequency and severity of droughts has changed during the 1892 to 2000 period. The general perception about declining rainfall is likely shaped by a comparison of the recent drought years (1980's–1990's to recent wet periods (1970's. There have however been periods with similar dry years beyond the recallable memory, e.g. 1926–1936, 1940's. Crop failures and livestock losses attributed to declining rainfall are most likely due to poor agricultural practices such as production of crops in unsuitable climatic regions, degradation of rangelands partly

  6. Technology and technical change in the MIT EPPA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential technology change has a strong influence on projections of greenhouse gas emissions and costs of control, and computable general equilibrium (CGE) models are a common device for studying these phenomena. Using the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model as an example, two ways of representing technology in these models are discussed: the sector-level description of production possibilities founded on social accounting matrices and elasticity estimates, and sub-models of specific supply or end-use devices based on engineering-process data. A distinction is made between exogenous and endogenous technical change, and it is shown how, because of model structure and the origin of key parameters, such models naturally include shifts in production process that reflect some degree of endogenous technical change. As a result, the introduction of explicit endogenous relations should be approached with caution, to avoid double counting

  7. Intelligent distributed control for nuclear power plants. Second annual technical progress report, September 1990--September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klevans, E.H.; Edwards, R.M.; Ray, A.; Lee, K.Y.; Garcia, H.E.: Chavez, C.M.; Turso, J.A.; BenAbdennour, A.

    1991-12-31

    In September of 1989 work began on the DOE University Program grant DE-FG07-89ER12889. The grant provides support for a three year project to develop and demonstrate Intelligent Distributed Control (IDC) for Nuclear Power Plants. The body of this Second Annual Technical Progress report covers the period from September 1990 to September 1991. It summarizes the second year accomplishments while the appendices provide detailed information presented at conference meetings. These are two primary goals of this research. The first is to combine diagnostics and control to achieve a highly automated power plant as described by M.A. Schultz, a project consultant during the first year of the project. This philosophy, as presented in the first annual technical progress report, is to improve public perception of the safety of nuclear power plants by incorporating a high degree automation where greatly simplified operator control console minimizes the possibility of human error in power plant operations. A hierarchically distributed control system with automated responses to plant upset conditions is the focus of our research to achieve this goal. The second goal is to apply this research to develop a prototype demonstration on an actual power plant system, the EBR-II steam plant.

  8. Innovation policy for directing technical change in the power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses policy instruments for redirecting technical change within the electricity sector to mitigate climate change. First, we unravel the mechanism behind directed technical change, explaining why markets may underprovide innovations in expensive renewable technologies in comparison to innovations in energy-efficient fossil-fuel generators. Subsequently, we characterize technical change in electricity generation technologies, stressing the heterogeneity of knowledge spillovers both within and between clean electricity generation technologies. We argue that there exists a rationale for a portfolio approach to innovation in the electricity sector, i.e., optimal innovation policies are neither fully generic nor fully specific; and they need to be adapted, in response to new information learned by the government. The existing innovation literature does not, however, provide a clear-cut answer for designing such a policy. We compare policy instruments and argue that public R and D support to clean technologies, either in the form of subsidies or prizes, seems to be the prime candidate for implementing non-generic innovation policy. - Highlights: • We analyze policies for spurring innovations in renewable electricity technologies. • The analysis unravels why research markets underprovide such innovations. • We conclude that non-generic R and D subsidies and prizes are the most suitable policies

  9. Technical efficiency and embodied technical change in the Indonesian pulp and paper industry

    OpenAIRE

    Michiel van Dijk; Adam Szirmai

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the dynamics of technological change and technical efficiency in the Indonesian pulp and paper industry are analysed. The industry is characterised by rapid growth of output and capacity, with some mills investing heavily in state-of-the-art machinery after 1984. Using stochastic frontier analysis, we distinguish between technological advances of best practice mills and the rate of technological inefficiency. We use a newly constructed micro-level dataset describing the complete...

  10. Nuclear power: Some economic effects of institutional and technical changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakefield, R.A.; Casazza, J.A.

    1984-08-01

    This paper presents a review of the technical, financial and institutional problems now confronted by nuclear energy. It shows the potential attractiveness of small, modular, factory-assembled nuclear units for solving these problems. Results of industry investigations and specific economic analyses conducted by the authors are included, providing target ''break even'' costs for small nuclear units and specific suggestions for institutional changes.

  11. Production theory: accounting for firm heterogeneity and technical change

    OpenAIRE

    Dosi, Giovanni; Grazzi, Marco; Marengo, Luigi; Settepanella, Simona

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a new framework to assess firm level heterogeneity and to study the rate and direction of technical change. Building on the analysis of revealed short-run production functions by Hildenbrand (1981), we propose the (normalized) volume of the zonotope composed by vectors-firms in a narrowly defined industry as an indicator of inter-firm heterogeneity. Moreover, the angles that the main diagonal of the zonotope form with the axes provides a measure of the rates and directions ...

  12. Cost structure and technical change in rural banking

    OpenAIRE

    Obben, James

    1993-01-01

    Using the multi-product translog cost function, this paper examines the cost structure and technical change occurring within the novel Ghanaian rural banks. The results of the seemingly unrelated error components model indicate substantial unexploited economies of scale in individual products as well as in overall intermediation. There is presence of pairwise complementarity between loans and government securities and between deposits and government securities, but absence of pairwise complem...

  13. The fluctuations of China's energy intensity: Biased technical change

    OpenAIRE

    Ce Wang; Hua Liao; Su-Yan Pan; Lu-Tao Zhao; Yi-Ming Wei

    2014-01-01

    The fluctuations of China's energy intensity have attracted the attention of many scholars, but fewer studies consider the data quality of official input-output tables. This paper conducts a decomposition model by using the Divisia method based on the input-output tables. Because of the problems with input-output tables and price deflators, we first produce constant prices to deflate the input-output tables. And then we consider different levels of biased technical change for different sector...

  14. Bellona and hydrogen - the role of mediation in technical change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy production and consumption is a major contributor to our environmental problems. The energy carrier hydrogen can be a part of the solution. In the thesis the Bellona Foundation's role in the process of technical change towards utilisation of hydrogen in Norway is investigated. Its role is analysed through the concept of mediation, which is based on seeing technical change as a social process. Mediators connect, or build bridges between, different actors, as well as between different types of knowledge. They establish new kinds of links and create new arenas of interaction for previously separated units. In addition, or through their work, they translate knowledge from one context or domain to another. They are also processing, interpreting and combining knowledge in new ways. Mediators bring together people with different competencies, and orchestrate their efforts often on a consensus basis. Bellona combines the different kinds of mediations, to influence the process of technical change at various levels and steps. They mediate mainly within the industry and between the industrial- and governmental domain. To some degree they also mediate between the experts and the public. But the direct contact with the public seems to be more or less absent in their hydrogen work. It seems like Bellona's mediator role fills an open space in the realm of technology policy making. Environmental oriented NGOs will perform or combine various mediating roles differently. To be able to make socially appropriate and sustainable technical change, probably other actors than the established traditional ones should be more involved. The possibilities for public participation should be strengthened, as well as the possibilities for mediation. (Author)

  15. Distant Labour Supply, Skills and Induced Technical Change

    OpenAIRE

    Ashima Goyal

    2006-01-01

    To analyze the consequences of new technologies, which make it possible to employ distant labour, we model a developed country with high and medium-skilled labour interacting with an emerging market economy (EME) with medium and low-skilled labour. Expansion in labour supply induces medium-skill biased technical change, which raises the demand for such labour. As a result, inequalities tend to fall in the developed country, skill premiums rise marginally in the EME, but equality rises because...

  16. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC): Annual technical report, fiscal year 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-06-30

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further the effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. Four topical subcommittees are established and are continuing their own programs: Structural Ceramics, Batteries and Fuel Cells, Radioactive Waste Containment, and Superconductivity (established in FY 1987). In addition, the EMaCC aids in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. Membership in the EMaCC is open to any Department organizational unit; participants are appointed by Division or Office Directors. The current active membership is listed on the following four pages. The EMaCC reports to the Director of the Office of Energy Research in his capacity as overseer of the technical programs of the Department. This annual technical report is mandated by the EMaCC terms of reference. This report summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1988 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department.

  17. Energy materials coordinating committee (EMACC) Fiscal Year 1982. Annual technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1983-03-01

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further the effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/ workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, the EMaCC aids in obtaining materials - related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. Membership in the EMaCC is open to any Department organizational unit; participants are appointed by Division or Office Directors. The current membership is listed in Table 1. The EMACC reports to the Director of the Office of Energy Research in his capacity as overseer of the technical programs of the Department. This annual technical report is mandated by the EMACC terms of reference. In this report are described 1) EMACC activities for FY 1982; 2) a summary of materials funding in the Department from FY 1978 to the present; and 3) on-going materials programs in the Department.

  18. Environmental Science and Research Foundation annual technical report: Calendar year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Annual Technical Report describes work conducted for the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID), by the Environmental Science and Research Foundation (Foundation). The Foundation's mission to DOE-ID provides support in several key areas. The authors conduct an environmental monitoring and surveillance program over an area covering much of the upper Snake River Plain, and provide environmental education and support services related to Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) natural resource issues. Also, the Foundation, with its University Affiliates, conducts ecological and radioecological research in the Idaho National Environmental Research Park. This research benefits major DOE-ID programs including Waste Management, Environmental Restoration, Spent Nuclear Fuels, and Land Management Issues. The major accomplishments of the Foundation and its University Affiliates during the calendar year 1996 are discussed

  19. Environmental Science and Research Foundation, Inc. annual technical report: Calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, R.D.; Warren, R.W. [eds.

    1998-05-01

    This Annual Technical Report describes work conducted for the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID), by the Environmental Science and Research Foundation (Foundation). The Foundation`s mission to DOE-ID provides support in several key areas. The Foundation conducts an environmental monitoring and surveillance program over an area covering much of the upper Snake River Plain, and provides environmental education and support services related to Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) natural resource issues. Also, the Foundation, with its University Affiliates, conducts ecological and radioecological research on the Idaho National Environmental Research Park. This research benefits major DOE-ID programs including Waste Management, Environmental Restoration, Spent Nuclear Fuels, and Land Management Issues. Summaries are included of the individual research projects.

  20. Environmental Science and Research Foundation, Inc. annual technical report: Calendar year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Annual Technical Report describes work conducted for the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID), by the Environmental Science and Research Foundation (Foundation). The Foundation's mission to DOE-ID provides support in several key areas. The Foundation conducts an environmental monitoring and surveillance program over an area covering much of the upper Snake River Plain, and provides environmental education and support services related to Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) natural resource issues. Also, the Foundation, with its University Affiliates, conducts ecological and radioecological research on the Idaho National Environmental Research Park. This research benefits major DOE-ID programs including Waste Management, Environmental Restoration, Spent Nuclear Fuels, and Land Management Issues. Summaries are included of the individual research projects

  1. Environmental Science and Research Foundation annual technical report: Calendar year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, R.C.; Blew, R.D. [eds.

    1997-07-01

    This Annual Technical Report describes work conducted for the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID), by the Environmental Science and Research Foundation (Foundation). The Foundation`s mission to DOE-ID provides support in several key areas. The authors conduct an environmental monitoring and surveillance program over an area covering much of the upper Snake River Plain, and provide environmental education and support services related to Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) natural resource issues. Also, the Foundation, with its University Affiliates, conducts ecological and radioecological research in the Idaho National Environmental Research Park. This research benefits major DOE-ID programs including Waste Management, Environmental Restoration, Spent Nuclear Fuels, and Land Management Issues. The major accomplishments of the Foundation and its University Affiliates during the calendar year 1996 are discussed.

  2. Underground Energy Storage Program: 1981 annual report. Volume II. Technical summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannberg, L.D.

    1982-06-01

    This is the 1981 annual report for the Underground Energy Storage Program administered by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy. The two-volume document describes all of the major research funded under this program during the period March 1981 to March 1982. Volume II presents the amplified technical summaries of individual tasks and projects conducted during this reporting period. The activities of the authors reporting herein were actually broader in scope than may be reflected by the mini-reports. Readers wishing additional information on specific topics are invited to contact individual authors. The work described here represents one segment of a continuing effort to encourage development and implementation of advanced energy storage technology. The results and progress reported here rely on earlier studies and will, in turn, provide a basis for continued efforts to develop the STES and CAES technologies.

  3. 75 FR 32858 - Medicare Program; Policy and Technical Changes to the Medicare Advantage and the Medicare...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ...-AP77 Medicare Program; Policy and Technical Changes to the Medicare Advantage and the Medicare...; Policy and Technical Changes to the Medicare Advantage and the Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit... entitled ``Medicare Program; Policy and Technical Changes to the Medicare Advantage and the...

  4. The KBS annual report 1979. Including summaries of technical reports issued during 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KBS was organized by the Swedish Nuclear Power Utilities at the end of 1976. The first task was to perform the necessary studies and investigations to fulfill the requirements of a Swedish Law, demanding that the existence of a safe method for final storage of spent nuclear fuel of vitrified high-level waste must be shown before new nuclear power reactors may be taken into operation. During 1977 and 1978 two main reports have been presented on the subject. - Handling of spent nuclear fuel and final storage of vitrified high-level reprocessing waste, and - Handling and final storage of unreprocessed spent nuclear fuel. This annual report for the KBS project gives a summary of the main activities during 1979. During the first months of the year most of the work was directed to supplementary site investigations connected with the licencing of two reactors according to the law mentioned above. After that period the responsibility of the project has been expanded to include also the low- and medium-activity waste both from reprocessing of nuclear fuel and the operations and decommissioning of nuclear power plants. After a chapter on the background of the project, the legal situation and the scientific reviews of the two main reports are presented. Chapters 4-10 present the main activities during the year within the areas of intereset for the project. In Chapter 10 (Safety Analysis) an emphasis is placed of the future plans with a discussion of areas where special efforts are needed. Chapter 11 gives an account for current and planned international cooperation in the abandoned mine at Stripa. Five appendices have been included giving 1) a list of the KBS Technical Reports issued during 1979 2) a list of authors 3) a key-word register 4) English summaries of the KBS Technical Reports and 5) SAC Technical Reports (Swedish-American cooperative investi- gations in the Stripa mine). (author)

  5. Directed technical change and energy intensity dynamics: Structural change vs. energy efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Haas, Christian; Kempa, Karol

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses a theoretical model with Directed Technical Change to analyse the observed heterogeneous energy intensity developments. Based on the empirical evidence on the underlying drivers of energy intensity developments, we decompose changes in aggregate energy intensity into structural changes in the economy (Sector Effect) and within-sector energy efficiency improvements (Efficiency Effect). We analyse how energy price growth and the relative productivity of both sectors affect the d...

  6. Climate change adaptation in Africa : annual report 2006-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Climate Change Adaptation Program was developed by Canada's International Development Research Centre and the United Kingdom's Department for International Development in order to address the needs of African communities vulnerable to climate change. The objectives of the program are to strengthen the capacity of African scientists, organization and communities to contribute to adaptation to climate change, as well as to generate a better understanding of climate change adaptation, and to support adaptation strategies and their adoption by rural and urban Africans. This annual report provided details of the first year of the program's implementation, in which an advisory board was established in order to balance donor representation and African expertise in adaptation. The first year of the program also saw the recruitment of a 13 person staff and the development of proposals for the first allocation of funding. A financial summary was provided. The report provided details of outreach and communications activities used to introduce the program to African and international audiences. 3 tabs., 44 figs

  7. Spatio-temporal changes in total annual rainfall and the annual number of rainy days

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Full text: Rainfall variability is a critical factor for Thailand's socioeconomic development. Thus, enhancing understanding of rainfall mechanisms and variability is of paramount importance for effective strategies in tackling the severe droughts/floods which are memorable and a recurring problem in Thailand. Through this study, we have examined the variability of total annual rainfall (R,otai) and the annual number of rainy days (Rday) in Thailand during 1951-2003, using an Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis. The primary objective is to determine the dominant spatio-temporal patterns, and to illustrate their connection with the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The results reveal that the first two EOF modes, which explain nearly half of the total variance, show a good coherence of spatio-temporal structures. A salient feature of the leading modes of R,otal and Rday in Thailand is that their temporal coefficients exhibit significant relations to the ENSO. On an interannual timescale, the leading modes tended to be greater (lower) than normal during the La Nina (El Nino) phase of the ENSO. Changes in the Walker circulation appear to be the dominant mechanism whereby the ENSO exerts its influence on rainfall variability in Thailand. For an interdecadal timescale, there is evidence of the unusual and persistent deficit in Rtar accompanied by a concomitant reduction of Ranrd over the last three decades. The recent drought-like condition has been closely associated with the shift in the ENSO towards more El Nino events since the late 1970s, and coincided with the high global mean temperature. These natural/anthropogenic-induced climatic changes have important implications for rainfall forecasting, and consequently for water resource and agricultural planning and management in Thailand

  8. WHAT IS BEHIND BIASED TECHNICAL CHANGE IN PRODUCTION OF CEREAL AND OILSEED CROPS IN SLOVAKIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter FANDEL

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the productivity change in the production of cereal and oilseed crops in Slovakia with special emphasis on technical change analysis. It employs a non-parametric distance function approach to measure Malmquist productivity index which is decomposed into technical efficiency change and technical change. Technical change is further decomposed into technical change magnitude and input- and output-bias indices. The productivity change components provide more detailed information about character of productivity change itself and its sources. Our results indicate that productivity in the analysed sector decreased approximately by 20% within the examined period of 1998-2007. The decrease was caused mostly by worsening the technical change (-41,6%. Indices of input- and output bias of technical change were various from unity what suggests that technical change was not Hicks’- neutral. Results of further analysis of the direction of technical change bias indicate that farms in average tend to apply fertilizers-using/seed-saving, seed-using/labour-saving, and fertilizers-using/labour-saving technical change bias over the whole sample period, as well as in the EU pre-accession and EU post-accession periods.

  9. 26 CFR 1.442-1 - Change of annual accounting period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... business purpose for the requested annual accounting period and agrees to the Commissioner's prescribed... retain an annual accounting period. These administrative procedures will describe the business purpose... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change of annual accounting period....

  10. Dryland ecohydrology and climate change: critical issues and technical advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Drylands cover about 40% of the terrestrial land surface and account for approximately 40% of global net primary productivity. Water is fundamental to the biophysical processes that sustain ecosystem function and food production, particularly in drylands, where a tight coupling exists between water resource availability and ecosystem productivity, surface energy balance, and biogeochemical cycles. Currently, drylands support at least 2 billion people and comprise both natural and managed ecosystems. In this synthesis, we identify some current critical issues in the understanding of dryland systems and discuss how arid and semiarid environments are responding to the changes in climate and land use. Specifically, we focus on dryland agriculture and food security, dryland population growth, desertification, shrub encroachment and dryland development issues as factors of change requiring increased understanding and management. We also review recent technical advances in the quantitative assessment of human versus climate change related drivers of desertification, evapotranspiration partitioning using field deployable stable water isotope systems and the remote sensing of key ecohydrological processes. These technological advances provide new tools that assist in addressing major critical issues in dryland ecohydrology under climate change

  11. SKB annual report 1993. Including summaries of technical reports issued during 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the annual report on the activities of the Swedish Nuclear and Waste Management Co., SKB. It contains in part I an overview of SKB activities in different fields. Part II gives a description of the research and development work on nuclear waste disposal performed during 1993. Lectures and publications during 1993 as well as reports issued in the SKB technical series are listed in part III. Part IV contains the summaries of all technical reports issued during 1993. SKB is the owner of CLAB, the Central Facility for Interim Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel, located at Oskarshamn. CLAB was taken into operation in July 1985 and to the end of 1993 in total 1 885 tonnes of spent fuel (measured as uranium) have been received. Transportation from the nuclear sites to CLAB is made by a special ship, M/S Sigyn. At Forsmark the final repository for Radioactive Waste - SFR - was taken into operation in April 1988. The repository is situated in crystalline rock under the Baltic Sea. At the end of 1993 a total of 13 000 m3 of waste have been deposited in SFR. SKB is in charge of a comprehensive research and development programme on geological disposal of nuclear waste. Some of the main areas for SKB research are: Groundwater movements; Bedrock stability; Groundwater chemistry and nuclide migration; Methods and instruments for in situ characterization of crystalline bedrock; Characterization and leaching of spent nuclear fuel; Properties of bentonite for buffer, backfilling and sealing; Radionuclide transport in biosphere and dose evaluations; Development of performance and safety assessment methodology and assessment models; Construction of an underground research laboratory

  12. Annual Report for Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 54, Area G Disposal Facility – Fiscal Year 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a condition to the disposal authorization statement issued to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) on March 17, 2010, a comprehensive performance assessment and composite analysis maintenance program must be implemented for the Technical Area 54, Area G disposal facility. Annual determinations of the adequacy of the performance assessment and composite analysis (PA/CA) are to be conducted under the maintenance program to ensure that the conclusions reached by those analyses continue to be valid. This report summarizes the results of the fiscal year (FY) 2015 annual review for Area G.

  13. Annual Report for Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 54, Area G Disposal Facility – Fiscal Year 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, Sean B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Birdsell, Kay H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-29

    As a condition to the disposal authorization statement issued to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) on March 17, 2010, a comprehensive performance assessment and composite analysis maintenance program must be implemented for the Technical Area 54, Area G disposal facility. Annual determinations of the adequacy of the performance assessment and composite analysis (PA/CA) are to be conducted under the maintenance program to ensure that the conclusions reached by those analyses continue to be valid. This report summarizes the results of the fiscal year (FY) 2015 annual review for Area G.

  14. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. Annual technical progress report of ecological research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.H.

    1996-07-31

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) is a research unit of the University of Georgia (UGA). The overall mission of the Laboratory is to acquire and communicate knowledge of ecological processes and principles. SREL conducts basic and applied ecological research, as well as education and outreach programs, under a contract with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. Significant accomplishments were made during the past year in the areas of research, education and service. The Laboratory`s research mission was fulfilled with the publication of two books and 143 journal articles and book chapters by faculty, technical and students, and visiting scientists. An additional three books and about 80 journal articles currently are in press. Faculty, technician and students presented 193 lectures, scientific presentations, and posters to colleges and universities, including minority institutions. Dr. J Vaun McArthur organized and conducted the Third Annual SREL Symposium on the Environment: New Concepts in Strewn Ecology: An Integrative Approach. Dr. Michael Newman conducted a 5-day course titled Quantitative Methods in Ecotoxicology, and Dr. Brian Teppen of The Advanced Analytical Center for Environmental Sciences (AACES) taught a 3-day short course titled Introduction to Molecular Modeling of Environmental Systems. Dr. I. Lehr Brisbin co-hosted a meeting of the Crocodile Special Interest Group. Dr. Rebecca Sharitz attended four symposia in Japan during May and June 1996 and conducted meetings of the Executive Committee and Board of the International Association for Ecology (ENTECOL).

  15. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. Annual technical progress report of ecological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) is a research unit of the University of Georgia (UGA). The overall mission of the Laboratory is to acquire and communicate knowledge of ecological processes and principles. SREL conducts basic and applied ecological research, as well as education and outreach programs, under a contract with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. Significant accomplishments were made during the past year in the areas of research, education and service. The Laboratory's research mission was fulfilled with the publication of two books and 143 journal articles and book chapters by faculty, technical and students, and visiting scientists. An additional three books and about 80 journal articles currently are in press. Faculty, technician and students presented 193 lectures, scientific presentations, and posters to colleges and universities, including minority institutions. Dr. J Vaun McArthur organized and conducted the Third Annual SREL Symposium on the Environment: New Concepts in Strewn Ecology: An Integrative Approach. Dr. Michael Newman conducted a 5-day course titled Quantitative Methods in Ecotoxicology, and Dr. Brian Teppen of The Advanced Analytical Center for Environmental Sciences (AACES) taught a 3-day short course titled Introduction to Molecular Modeling of Environmental Systems. Dr. I. Lehr Brisbin co-hosted a meeting of the Crocodile Special Interest Group. Dr. Rebecca Sharitz attended four symposia in Japan during May and June 1996 and conducted meetings of the Executive Committee and Board of the International Association for Ecology (ENTECOL)

  16. Seismic Rate Changes Associated with Seasonal, Annual, and Decadal Changes in the Cryosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauber-Rosenberg, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    Near the Bering Glacier Global Fiducial site in southern Alaska large cryospheric fluctuations occur in a region of upper crustal faulting and folding associated with collision and accretion of the Yakutat terrane. In this study we report constraints on seasonal, annual and decadal cryospheric changes estimated over the last decade from field, aircraft and satellite measurements, and we evaluate the influence of cryospheric changes on the background seismic rate. Multi-year images from the Bering Glacier global fiducial site are available since mid-2003 to constrain changes in extent of the Bering Glacier and to discern feature changes in the glacial surface. Starting around the same time, satellite gravimetric measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate experiment (GRACE) commenced. Large spatial-scale mass change calculated from the GRACE 1deg x 1deg mascon solution of Luthcke et al. [2012] indicate a general trend of annual ice mass loss for southern Alaska but with large, variable seasonal mass fluctuations. Since 2007, the station position of a continuous GPS site near Cape Yakataga (Alaska EarthScope PBO site, AB35) has been available as well. In addition to changes in the geodetic position due to tectonic motion, this GPS station shows large seasonal excursions in the detrended vertical and horizontal position components consistent with snow loading in the fall and winter and melt onset/mass decrease in the spring/summer. To better understand the timing of processes responsible for the onset of cryospheric mass loss documented in the GRACE data, we examined changes in the snow cover extent and the onset of melt in the spring. We calculated the surface displacements of the solid Earth and theoretical earthquake failure criteria associated with these annual and seasonal ice and snow changes using layered elastic half-space. Additionally, we compared the seismic rate (M>1.8) from a reference background time period against other time periods with variable

  17. Dryland ecohydrology and climate change: critical issues and technical advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Drylands cover about 40% of the terrestrial land surface and account for approximately 40% of global net primary productivity. Water is fundamental to the biophysical processes that sustain ecosystem function and food production, particularly in drylands where a tight coupling exists between ecosystem productivity, surface energy balance, biogeochemical cycles, and water resource availability. Currently, drylands support at least 2 billion people and comprise both natural and managed ecosystems. In this synthesis, we identify some current critical issues in the understanding of dryland systems and discuss how arid and semiarid environments are responding to the changes in climate and land use. The issues range from societal aspects such as rapid population growth, the resulting food and water security, and development issues, to natural aspects such as ecohydrological consequences of bush encroachment and the causes of desertification. To improve current understanding and inform upon the needed research efforts to address these critical issues, we identify some recent technical advances in terms of monitoring dryland water dynamics, water budget and vegetation water use, with a focus on the use of stable isotopes and remote sensing. These technological advances provide new tools that assist in addressing critical issues in dryland ecohydrology under climate change.

  18. Dryland ecohydrology and climate change: critical issues and technical advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; D'Odorico, P.; Evans, J. P.; Eldridge, D. J.; McCabe, M. F.; Caylor, K. K.; King, E. G.

    2012-08-01

    Drylands cover about 40% of the terrestrial land surface and account for approximately 40% of global net primary productivity. Water is fundamental to the biophysical processes that sustain ecosystem function and food production, particularly in drylands where a tight coupling exists between ecosystem productivity, surface energy balance, biogeochemical cycles, and water resource availability. Currently, drylands support at least 2 billion people and comprise both natural and managed ecosystems. In this synthesis, we identify some current critical issues in the understanding of dryland systems and discuss how arid and semiarid environments are responding to the changes in climate and land use. The issues range from societal aspects such as rapid population growth, the resulting food and water security, and development issues, to natural aspects such as ecohydrological consequences of bush encroachment and the causes of desertification. To improve current understanding and inform upon the needed research efforts to address these critical issues, we identify some recent technical advances in terms of monitoring dryland water dynamics, water budget and vegetation water use, with a focus on the use of stable isotopes and remote sensing. These technological advances provide new tools that assist in addressing critical issues in dryland ecohydrology under climate change.

  19. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC). Annual Technical Report, Fiscal Year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2001-07-31

    The Energy Materials Coordinating Committee Annual Report (attached, DOE/SC-0040) provides an annual summary of non-classified materials-related research programs supported by various elements within the Department of Energy. The EMaCC Annual Report is a useful working tool for project managers who want to know what is happening in other divisions, and it provides a guide for persons in industry and academia to the materials program within the Department. The major task of EMaCC this year was to make the Annual Report a more user-friendly document by removing redundant program information and shortening the project summaries.

  20. Professional technical support services for the Mining Equipment Test Facility. First annual technical progress report, April 14-September 30, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garson, R C

    1981-10-01

    The Department of Energy recently began the operation of its Mining Equipment Test Facility. One component at that facility is the highly sophisticated Mine Roof Simulator (MRS) for research and development of roof support equipment. Because of its previous experience, the University of Pittsburgh was contracted to assist the Facilities Manager by providing professional technical support services, principally for the MRS. This technical progress report briefly describes the services provided during the reporting period and planned for the next period. No significant technical disclosures of interest to those not associated with the MRS are contained herein. One of the four units of the US government-owned METF is the Mine Roof Simulator. This unique $10 million test facility was designed to simulate underground mine roof loads and motions. The MRS is a hybrid, analog-digital, computer-controlled, closed-loop, electro-hydraulic, research device capable of applying either loads or displacements in the vertical and one horizontal axis. Its vertical capacity of 3,000,000 pounds can be applied over its 20 by 20 foot active test area. The horizontal load capacity is 1,600,000 pounds. It can simulate coal seam heights of up to 16 feet. Automatic data acquisition and real time display are provided. The most modern, sophisticated technology was used in its design and construction.

  1. Annual report of Technical Development Division of the Tono Geoscience Center, PNC in 1996 fiscal year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a report collected working results of research and development conducted at Technical Development Division of the Tono Geoscience Center, PNC (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation) in 1996 fiscal year. In this fiscal year, Ore Bed Analysis and Evaluation Group entered into this division by changing name of Resource Analysis and Evaluation Group, which was shared to conduct some actions such as survey of resource information, analysis of potential, evaluation of ore bed, and so forth. The other conducted works were same as those in last fiscal year. Beside them, as taking the Monju reactor accident on December 8, 1995 an opportunity, safety management of facility was reconsidered as the most important item, preparation of the mining facilities such as renewal of lifting winder in vertical road for survey, new construction of general management building, preparation around the precipitation pond, and so on were executed, as a response to normal work for the yearly elapsed change in the Tono Mine. (G.K.)

  2. Spectral representation of the annual cycle in the climate change signal

    OpenAIRE

    T. Bosshard; S. Kotlarski; Ewen, T.; Schär, C.

    2011-01-01

    The annual cycle of temperature and precipitation changes as projected by climate models is of fundamental interest in climate impact studies. Its estimation, however, is impaired by natural variability. Using a simple form of the delta change method, we show that on regional scales relevant for hydrological impact models, the projected changes in the annual cycle are prone to sampling artefacts. For precipitation at station locations, these artefacts may have amplitudes that are comparable t...

  3. Adjustment of the annual cycle to climatic change in a long-lived migratory bird specie

    OpenAIRE

    Møller, A.P; E. FLENSTED-JENSEN; W. MARDAL

    2009-01-01

    Climate change has advanced the phenology of many organisms. Migratory animals face particular problems because climate change in the breeding and the wintering range may be asynchronous, preventing rapid response to changing conditions. Advancement in timing of spring migration may have carry-over effects to other parts of the annual cycle, simply because advancement of one event in the annual cycle also advances subsequent events, gradually causing a general shift in the timing of the ent...

  4. Technical report. Graduate Student Focus on Diversity Workshop, 1999 SIAM Annual Meeting, Atlanta, Georgia, May 12, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1999-05-12

    The Third SIAM Graduate Student Focus on Diversity workshop was held May 12 at the Sheraton Atlanta Hotel on the first day of the 1999 SIAM Annual Meeting. The day-long workshop consisted of several different activities: eight technical talks by under-represented minority graduate students, a lively panel discussion concerning the benefits of undergraduate summer research programs, informal luncheon and pizza breaks to foster social interaction, and an evening forum with candid discussions of graduate school experiences from a minority graduate student perspective. These sessions were open to the entire SIAM community and served to highlight the progress, achievements, and aspirations of the workshop participants.

  5. Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup and the Expert Regional Technical Group, Fiscal Year 2014 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.

    2014-09-01

    This document is the annual report for fiscal year 2014 for the project called Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup (EOS) and the Expert Regional Technical Group (ERTG). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted the project for the Bonneville Power Administration. The EOS and ERTG are part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation and habitat restoration efforts, respectively, developed by the Action Agencies (BPA, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers) in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as a result of operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System and implemented under the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program.

  6. The fluctuations of China’s energy intensity: Biased technical change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Biased technical change is considered in the adjusting the input–output tables. • The level of biased technical change is determined by TFP and energy efficiency. • The increase in energy intensity was mostly attributed to the structural change. • The changes in the production technology actually decreased the energy intensity. • The decomposition results are sensitive to the level of biased technical change. - Abstract: The fluctuations of China’s energy intensity have attracted the attention of many scholars, but fewer studies consider the data quality of official input–output tables. This paper conducts a decomposition model by using the Divisia method based on the input–output tables. Because of the problems with input–output tables and price deflators, we first produce constant prices to deflate the input–output tables. And then we consider different levels of biased technical change for different sectors in the adjusting the input–output table. Finally, we use RAS technique to adjust input–output matrix. Then the decomposition model is employed to empirically analyze the change of China’s energy intensity. We compare the decomposition results with and without biased technical change and do sensitive analysis on the level of biased technical change. The decomposition results are that during 2002–2007, the energy intensity of coal and electricity increased, the changes were mostly attributed to the structural change and the contribution was 594.08%, 73.88%, respectively; as for crude oil and refined oil, the energy intensity decreased, the changes were mostly attributed to the changes in the production technology and the contribution was 978.89%, 246.95%, respectively. And the results of sensitive analysis shows that 1% variation of the level of biased technical change will cause at most 0.6% change of decomposition results. Therefore, we can draw our conclusions: compared to the decomposition without biased technical

  7. Annual activities report of Brazilian Aerospace Technical Center -CTA/IEAv - 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the research activities on nuclear physics and reactors physics and engineering in the Brazilian Aerospace Technical Center/Advanced Studies Institute, Sao Paulo State, in the year of 1989

  8. Meeting of the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR) (39th annual meeting). Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 39th Annual Meeting of the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG FR) was held from 15-19 May 2006 in Beijing, China, at the invitation of the China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAEA). The meeting was attended by TWG-FR Members and Advisers from the following Member States (MS): Belgium (observer), Brazil, China, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation, Sweden (observer), the United Kingdom, and the United States. Belarus, Switzerland, the European Commission, and OECD/NEA were unable to participate. Moreover, Prof. Carlo Rubbia, CERN director general emeritus, participated, upon IAEA invitation, in the meeting as distinguished scientist and IAEA expert. Mr. S.C. Chetal, from India (Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, IGCAR), was appointed chairman. The objectives of the meeting were to: - Exchange information on the national programmes on Fast Reactors (FR) and Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS); - Review the progress since the 38th TWG-FR Annual Meeting, including the status of the actions; - Consider meeting arrangements for 2006 and 2007; - Reviewed the Agency's ongoing information exchange and co-ordinated research activities in the technical fields relevant to the TWG-FR (FRs and ADS), as well as co-ordination of the TWG-FR's activities with other organizations; - Discuss future joint activities in view of the Agency's Programme and Budget Cycle 2008-2009 (and beyond)

  9. Technical change in US industry: A cross-industry analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R. R. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The nature of the public policies which have influenced the pace and pattern of technical progress in a number of American industries is studied with the view of assessing the broad effects of these policies. The industries studied are agriculture, pharmaceuticals, semiconductors, computers, civil aircraft, automobiles and residential construction. The policies considered include research and development funding as well as government procurement, education, information dissemination, patent protection, licensing, regulations, and anti-trust policies.

  10. Wisconsin Technical College Presidential Perspectives on Leading Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowicz, Laurie S.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examines leadership perceptions of attributes needed for effectively leading organizations within and through change. Current change forces substantiate the need for higher educational institutions to change in order to fulfill their missions. Creating a culture of organizational change presents a leadership challenge. The…

  11. Residual radioactive contamination from decommissioning: Technical basis for translating contamination levels to annual dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the generic modeling of the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to an individual in a population from a unit concentration of residual radioactive contamination. Radioactive contamination inside buildings and soil contamination are considered. Unit concentration TEDE factors by radionuclide, exposure pathway, and exposure scenario are calculated. Reference radiation exposure scenarios are used to derive unit concentration TEDE factors for about 200 individual radionuclides and parent-daughter mixtures. For buildings, these unit concentration factors list the annual TEDE for volume and surface contamination situations. For soil, annual TEDE factors are presented for unit concentrations of radionuclides in soil during residential use of contaminated land and the TEDE per unit total inventory for potential use of drinking water from a ground-water source. Because of the generic treatment of potentially complex ground-water systems, the annual TEDE factors for drinking water for a given inventory may only indicate when additional site data or modeling sophistication are warranted. Descriptions are provided of the models, exposure pathways, exposure scenarios, parameter values, and assumptions used. An analysis of the potential annual TEDE resulting from reference mixtures of residual radionuclides is provided to demonstrate application of the TEDE factors. 62 refs., 5 figs., 66 tabs

  12. Residual radioactive contamination from decommissioning: Technical basis for translating contamination levels to annual dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    This document describes the generic modeling of the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to an individual in a population from a unit concentration of residual radioactive contamination. Radioactive contamination inside buildings and soil contamination are considered. Unit concentration TEDE factors by radionuclide, exposure pathway, and exposure scenario are calculated. Reference radiation exposure scenarios are used to derive unit concentration TEDE factors for about 200 individual radionuclides and parent-daughter mixtures. For buildings, these unit concentration factors list the annual TEDE for volume and surface contamination situations. For soil, annual TEDE factors are presented for unit concentrations of radionuclides in soil during residential use of contaminated land and the TEDE per unit total inventory for potential use of drinking water from a ground-water source. Because of the generic treatment of potentially complex ground-water systems, the annual TEDE factors for drinking water for a given inventory may only indicate when additional site data or modeling sophistication are warranted. Descriptions are provided of the models, exposure pathways, exposure scenarios, parameter values, and assumptions used. An analysis of the potential annual TEDE resulting from reference mixtures of residual radionuclides is provided to demonstrate application of the TEDE factors. 62 refs., 5 figs., 66 tabs.

  13. Directed technical change, the elasticity of substitution and wage inequality in developing countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Behar, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    We develop a model of endogenous skill-biased technical change in developing countries. The model reconciles wildly dispersed existing estimates of the elasticity of substitution between more and less educated workers. It also produces an estimating equation for the elasticity, which allow us to produce overdue estimates for developing countries. With four types of data, elasticity estimates for developing countries are consistently about 2. In a skill-biased technical change framework, t...

  14. A Primal Divisia Technical Change Index Based on the Output Distance Function

    OpenAIRE

    Guohua Feng; Apostolos Serletis

    2010-01-01

    We derive a primal Divisia technical change index based on the output distance function and further show the validity of this index from both economic and axiomatic points of view. In particular, we derive the primal Divisia technical change index by total differentiation of the output distance function with respect to a time trend. We then show that this index is dual to the Jorgenson and Griliches (1967) dual Divisia total factor productivity growth (TFPG) index when both the output and inp...

  15. Annual report 1988-1989. Implementing strategies for change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An account is given of the research and commercial activities of the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO). In line with its strategic plan, ANSTO has been restructured into two major components: Scientific and Commercial areas plus small Corporate and External Affairs groups. Considerable progress was made to reorientate the research and development program to contain a 70/30 percent mixture of tactical applications oriented research and longer term strategic projects, aimed at identifying new, potentially commercial areas. Description of scientific and commercial activities relating to biomedicine and health, isotope technology, nuclear physics applications and environmental science are provided. Services such as engineering, computing, material testing ,information and ANSTO's involvement in regional and international technical co-operation programs are briefly outlined. Details are also given of the ANSTO revenue, expenditure, expenses and capital work. Ills

  16. The Effect of Hurricanes on Annual Precipitation in Maryland and the Connection to Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jackie; Liu, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Precipitation is a vital aspect of our lives droughts, floods and other related disasters that involve precipitation can cause costly damage in the economic system and general society. Purpose of this project is to determine what, if any effect do hurricanes have on annual precipitation in Maryland Research will be conducted on Marylands terrain, climatology, annual precipitation, and precipitation contributed from hurricanes Possible connections to climate change

  17. Global inter-annual gravity changes from GRACE: Early results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Hinderer, J.

    2005-01-01

    storage. The Global Land Data Assimilation System model has a spatial correlation coefficient with GRACE observations of 0.65 over the northern hemisphere. This demonstrates that the observed gravity field changes on these scales are largely related to changes in continental water storage....

  18. 323 Annual Change of Peak Expiratory Flow Rate in Asthma and COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Kwang H. A.; Lee, Kye Young

    2012-01-01

    Background Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) is a useful measurement for the follow-up examination in a chronic airway disease because it has the advantage of simple measuring and repetitive examination. The aim of this study is to examine the annual decrease of PEFR in asthma and COPD patients and to confirm the factors which influence the annual decreasing rate of PEFR. Methods From May, 2003 to September, 2010, the annual decreasing rate of PEFR is obtained from the asthma and COPD patients attending an outpatient pulmonary clinic. PEFR was measured using Mini-Wright (Clement Clarke International Ltd. UK). We conducted an analysis of the factors to influence on the change of PEFR and the average of it. Results The result indicated decrease of 3.72 ± 12.55 L/min annually in the asthmatic patient and decrease of 8.69 ± 8.87 L/min annually in the COPD patient. In the asthma, age and FEV1 are the predictive factor to influence on the change, on the other hand, age, FEV1, smoking and the number of aggravation are the factors in the COPD. Conclusions We could confirm the annual decreasing rate in patients of chronic airway disease and similar factor with FEV1 to influence on the change.

  19. Atmospheric Effects of Nuclear Energy Centers (AENEC) Program. Annual technical progress report, July 1975--September 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrinos, A. A.; Hoffman, H. W. [comps.

    1977-04-01

    The Technical Memorandum contains information of a preliminary nature from the six participants of the Program describing their activities and presenting the results obtained during the reporting period. The birth of the Program, its definition and evolution are described, and a complete breakdown of responsibilities and tasks assigned to the six AENEC participants is presented.

  20. Outreach and Technical Assistance Network: Twelfth Year Annual Report, July 1, 2001-June 30, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacramento County Office of Education, CA.

    This report reviews in detail the accomplishments of the third year of the 1999-2002 contract of the Outreach and Technical Assistance Network (OTAN). It describes and quantifies the services--electronic collaboration, access to information services, and research, development, and assistance in using technology--provided by the entire three-year…

  1. Outreach and Technical Assistance Network Tenth Year Annual Report, July 1, 1999-June 30, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacramento County Office of Education, CA.

    This report reviews accomplishments of the first year of the 1999-2002 contract funding the Outreach and Technical Assistance Network (OTAN), an essential component in improvement of California's adult education program. Five chapters on Electronic Communications describe the OTAN web site and provide data on World Wide Web hits and hosts, web…

  2. Atmospheric Effects of Nuclear Energy Centers (AENEC) Program. Annual technical progress report, July 1975--September 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Technical Memorandum contains information of a preliminary nature from the six participants of the Program describing their activities and presenting the results obtained during the reporting period. The birth of the Program, its definition and evolution are described, and a complete breakdown of responsibilities and tasks assigned to the six AENEC participants is presented

  3. Annual report 1992 on research and development work by the ITP, Institute for Technical Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present annual report describes the activities undertaken by the ITP in the following areas: 1. Remote sensing by means of microwaves; 2. Nuclear fusion (studies for NET/ITER; superconducting magnets, poloidal field coil development; cryogenic systems; stellarator magnets, plasma heating technology; transmission components; component-related safety investigations); 3. Superconductivity (superconductivity physics, superconducting layers; massive superconductors; magnet developments; cryogenics for superconductivity). The appendix lists all publications or primary reports by the ITP in 1992. (orig./MM)

  4. 75 FR 32658 - Change of Contact Information; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... the contact information for the FDA Emergency Call Center. This action is editorial in nature and is... change in the telephone and fax numbers for the FDA Emergency Call Center. The phone number will change... the ``FDA Emergency Call Center''. Publication of this document constitutes final action on...

  5. Technical and management support for the development of small wind systems. Annual report, October 1, 1977-September 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-02-01

    The FY 1978 Annual Report of the Rocky Flats Wind Systems Program describes the objectives, approach, and achievements of the program and each of its tasks areas during the period October 1, 1977-September 30, 1978. During this period, additional testing of ten small wind energy conversion systems (SWECS) was conducted and the Test Center was expanded to accommodate up to 30 SWECS. Work on nine design and analysis projects for advanced prototypes in three size ranges progressed through a series of design reviews, with prototype delivery scheduled to begin in mid-1979. Supporting activities included a Systems Engineering project which analyzed the cost of SWECS components and fabrication, a task effort in technical support to standards development, and the dissemination of information.

  6. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Annual Technical Progress Report of Ecological Research, June 30, 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) is a research unit of The University of Georgia (UGA) and has been conducting ecological research on the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina for 50 years. The overall mission of the Laboratory is to acquire and communicate knowledge of ecological processes and principles. SREL conducts fundamental and applied ecological research, as well as education and outreach programs, under a Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The Laboratory's research mission during the 2002 fiscal year was fulfilled with the publication of 76 journal articles and book chapters by faculty, technical staff, students, and visiting scientists. An additional 50 journal articles have been submitted or are in press. Other noteworthy events took place as faculty members, staff, and graduate students received awards. These are described in the section titled Special Accomplishments of Faculty, Staff, Students, and Administration on page 51. Notable scientific accomplishments include work conducted on contaminant transport, stable isotopes, sandhills ecology, and phytoremediation: (1) A collaborative study between Dr. Tom Hinton at SREL and scientists at SRTC demonstrated the feasibility of using illite clay to sequester 137Cs in sediments along the P and R reactor cooling canal system, where approximately 3, 000 acres of land are contaminated. Overall, the study showed significant decreases in cesium concentrations and bioavailability following the addition of illite with no sign of harm to the ecosystem. While the cesium remains sequestered from the biosphere, its radioactivity decays and the process progresses from contaminant immobilization to remediation. (2) SREL's stable isotope laboratory is now fully functional. Stable isotope distributions in nature can provide important insights into many historical and current environmental processes. Dr. Christopher Romanek is leading SREL's research in this area

  7. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Annual Technical Progress Report of Ecological Research, June 30, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul M. Bertsch, (Director)

    2002-06-30

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) is a research unit of The University of Georgia (UGA) and has been conducting ecological research on the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina for 50 years. The overall mission of the Laboratory is to acquire and communicate knowledge of ecological processes and principles. SREL conducts fundamental and applied ecological research, as well as education and outreach programs, under a Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The Laboratory's research mission during the 2002 fiscal year was fulfilled with the publication of 76 journal articles and book chapters by faculty, technical staff, students, and visiting scientists. An additional 50 journal articles have been submitted or are in press. Other noteworthy events took place as faculty members, staff, and graduate students received awards. These are described in the section titled Special Accomplishments of Faculty, Staff, Students, and Administration on page 51. Notable scientific accomplishments include work conducted on contaminant transport, stable isotopes, sandhills ecology, and phytoremediation: (1) A collaborative study between Dr. Tom Hinton at SREL and scientists at SRTC demonstrated the feasibility of using illite clay to sequester 137Cs in sediments along the P and R reactor cooling canal system, where approximately 3,000 acres of land are contaminated. Overall, the study showed significant decreases in cesium concentrations and bioavailability following the addition of illite with no sign of harm to the ecosystem. While the cesium remains sequestered from the biosphere, its radioactivity decays and the process progresses from contaminant immobilization to remediation. (2) SREL's stable isotope laboratory is now fully functional. Stable isotope distributions in nature can provide important insights into many historical and current environmental processes. Dr. Christopher Romanek is leading SREL's research

  8. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory Annual Technical Progress Report of Ecological Research, June 30, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertsch, Paul M.; Janecek, Laura; Rosier, Brenda

    2001-06-30

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) is a research unit of the University of Georgia (UGA) and has been conducting ecological research on the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina for 50 years. The overall mission of the Laboratory is to acquire and communicate knowledge of ecological processes and principles. SREL conducts fundamental and applied ecological research, as well as education and outreach programs, under a Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SRS near Aiken, South Carolina. The Laboratory's research mission during the 2001 fiscal year was fulfilled with the publication of one book and 83 journal articles and book chapters by faculty, technical staff, students, and visiting scientists. An additional 77 journal articles have been submitted or are in press. Other noteworthy events took place as faculty members and graduate students received awards. These are described in the section Special Accomplishments of Faculty, Staff, Students, and Administration on page 54. Notable scientific accomplishments include work conducted on contaminant transport, global reptile decline, phytoremediation, and radioecology. Dr. Domy Adriano authored the second edition of his book ''Trace Elements in Terrestrial Environments: Biogeochemistry, Bioavailability, and Risks of Metals'', which was recently published by Springer-Verlag. The book provides a comprehensive treatment of many important aspects of trace elements in the environment. The first edition of the book, published in 1986, has become a widely acclaimed and cited reference. International attention was focused on the problem of reptile species decline with the publication of an article on this topic in the journal ''Bioscience'' in August, 2000. The article's authors included Dr. Whit Gibbons and a number of other SREL herpetologists who researched the growing worldwide problem of decline of reptile species. Factors related

  9. Recent productivity developments and technical change in Danish organic farming - stagnation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Johannes; Graversen, Jesper Tranbjerg; Park, Tim;

    efficiency on farm level is ana-lysed by considering also curvature consistency. The total change in productivity for the reference period is measured by using the Malmquist total factor productivity in-dex approach based on a time trends as well as a general index model specification. Input specific bias in......This paper attempts to quantitatively measure the change in the productivity of Dan-ish organic farming in recent years by using panel data on 56 organic farms mainly engaged in milk production for the period 2002 to 2004. Based on a translog pro-duction frontier framework the technical and scale...... technical change as well elasticities of input substitution are analyzed. Fators for the development of technical change and the change in effi-ciency over time are investigated by applying a bootstrapped ITSUR technique. Fi-nally we try to conclude on the significance of subsidies for promoting long term...

  10. Annual report on operation, utilization and technical development of research reactors and Hot Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The department is responsible for the operation, maintenance, utilization and related R and D works of the research reactors including JRR-2, JRR-3M (new JRR-3) and JRR-4 and the Hot Laboratory. The JRR-3M received an operational license from the authority on October 16th, 1991 and initiate a steady operation since November. This report describes the activities of our department in fiscal year of 1990 and it also includes some of the technical topics on the works mentioned above. As for the research reactors, we carried out the operation, maintenance, irradiation utilization, neutron beam experiments, technical management including fuels and water chemistry, radiation monitoring as well as related R and D works. In the Hot Laboratory, post-irradiation examinations of fuels and materials were conducted along with the development of related techniques. The international cooperations between the developing countries and our department were also made concerning the operation, utilization and safety analysis for nuclear facilities. (author)

  11. 1998 Chemical Technology Division Annual Technical Report. Applying chemical innovation to environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chemical Technology (CMT) Division is a diverse technical organization with principal emphases in environmental management and development of advanced energy sources. The Division conducts research and development in three general areas: (1) development of advanced power sources for stationary and transportation applications and for consumer electronics, (2) management of high-level and low-level nuclear wastes and hazardous wastes, and (3) electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The Division also performs basic research in catalytic chemistry involving molecular energy resources, mechanisms of ion transport in lithium battery electrolytes, and the chemistry of technology-relevant materials. In addition, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, which conducts research in analytical chemistry and provides analytical services for programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and other organizations. Technical highlights of the Division's activities during 1998 are presented

  12. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, Fiscal Year 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-08-01

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations.

  13. Annual meeting on nuclear technology '85. Technical session on quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Technical Session discussed quality assurance with regard to nuclear power plant construction, also comparing guidelines and requirements of the F.R.G. with those of other countries. One paper deals with quality assurance for mechanical components, another with quality assurance for electrical equipment and control systems. Operating and maintenance and inspection conditions are discussed under this aspect, and the last paper explains a cost-benefit analysis using as an example the power plant piping system. (DG)

  14. Annual report on operation, utilization and technical development of hot laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relating to the reorganization carried out in 1991, the subjects of operation and study for the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF), the Waste Safety Testing Facility (WASTEF) and Research Hot Laboratory (RHL) which belong to the Department of Hot laboratories were revised. RFEF and RHL conducted post-irradiation examinations and WASTEF conducted waste safety tests along the new subjects, respectively. The contents of this report are operation, utilization and technical development at RFEF, WASTEF and RHL in fiscal year 1992. (author)

  15. Climate change and the flowering time of annual crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craufurd, P Q; Wheeler, T R

    2009-01-01

    Crop production is inherently sensitive to variability in climate. Temperature is a major determinant of the rate of plant development and, under climate change, warmer temperatures that shorten development stages of determinate crops will most probably reduce the yield of a given variety. Earlier crop flowering and maturity have been observed and documented in recent decades, and these are often associated with warmer (spring) temperatures. However, farm management practices have also changed and the attribution of observed changes in phenology to climate change per se is difficult. Increases in atmospheric [CO(2)] often advance the time of flowering by a few days, but measurements in FACE (free air CO(2) enrichment) field-based experiments suggest that elevated [CO(2)] has little or no effect on the rate of development other than small advances in development associated with a warmer canopy temperature. The rate of development (inverse of the duration from sowing to flowering) is largely determined by responses to temperature and photoperiod, and the effects of temperature and of photoperiod at optimum and suboptimum temperatures can be quantified and predicted. However, responses to temperature, and more particularly photoperiod, at supraoptimal temperature are not well understood. Analysis of a comprehensive data set of time to tassel initiation in maize (Zea mays) with a wide range of photoperiods above and below the optimum suggests that photoperiod modulates the negative effects of temperature above the optimum. A simulation analysis of the effects of prescribed increases in temperature (0-6 degrees C in +1 degree C steps) and temperature variability (0% and +50%) on days to tassel initiation showed that tassel initiation occurs later, and variability was increased, as the temperature exceeds the optimum in models both with and without photoperiod sensitivity. However, the inclusion of photoperiod sensitivity above the optimum temperature resulted in a

  16. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) annual technical report, fiscal year 1984 with fiscal year 1985 data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1985-07-01

    The Department of Energy funded about 374 million dollars of materials science and technology activities in both fiscal years 1984 and 1985. These funds and the commensurate program management responsibilities resided in 21 DOE program offices, each of which has its own mission and responsibilities. The Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) provides a formal mechanism to insure coordinated planning and maximum programmatic effectiveness for the Department's 374 million dollar per year materials effort. The EMaCC reports to the Director of the Office of Energy Research who in turn has oversight responsibilities for proper coordination of the technical programs of the Department. In carrying out this responsibility, EMaCC hosts meetings, organizes working groups, and publishes an annual technical report. This report is mandated by the EMaCC Terms of Reference. Its purpose is to disseminate information on the DOE materials programs for more effective coordination. It describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department for FY 1984, contains funding information for FYs 1984 and 1985, and summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1985.

  17. Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data 1996 annual report. Volume 10, Number 3: Technical training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) describes activities conducted during 1996. The report is published in three parts. NUREG-1272, Vol. 10, No. 1, covers power reactors and presents an overview of the operating experience of the nuclear power industry from the NRC perspective, including comments about trends of some key performance measures. The report also includes the principal findings and issues identified in AEOD studies over the past year and summarizes information from such sources as licensee event reports and reports to the NRC's Operations Center. NUREG-1272, Vol. 10, No. 2, covers nuclear materials and presents a review of the events and concerns during 1996 associated with the use of licensed material in nonreactor applications, such as personnel overexposures and medical misadministrations. Both reports also contain a discussion of the Incident Investigation Team program and summarize both the Incident Investigation Team and Augmented Inspection Team reports. Each volume contains a list of the AEOD reports issued from CY 1980 through 1996. NUREG-1272, Vol. 10, No. 3, covers technical training and presents the activities of the Technical Training Center in support of the NRC's mission in 1996

  18. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) annual technical report, fiscal year 1984 with fiscal year 1985 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy funded about 374 million dollars of materials science and technology activities in both fiscal years 1984 and 1985. These funds and the commensurate program management responsibilities resided in 21 DOE program offices, each of which has its own mission and responsibilities. The Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) provides a formal mechanism to insure coordinated planning and maximum programmatic effectiveness for the Department's 374 million dollar per year materials effort. The EMaCC reports to the Director of the Office of Energy Research who in turn has oversight responsibilities for proper coordination of the technical programs of the Department. In carrying out this responsibility, EMaCC hosts meetings, organizes working groups, and publishes an annual technical report. This report is mandated by the EMaCC Terms of Reference. Its purpose is to disseminate information on the DOE materials programs for more effective coordination. It describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department for FY 1984, contains funding information for FYs 1984 and 1985, and summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1985

  19. Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup and the Expert Regional Technical Group, Annual Report for 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This document is the annual report for the period September 1, 2014 through August 31, 2015 for the project—Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup (EOS) and the Expert Regional Technical Group (ERTG). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted the project for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The EOS and ERTG are part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) and habitat restoration efforts, respectively, developed by the Action Agencies (BPA, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers [Corps or USACE], and U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as a result of operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) and implemented under the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program (CEERP). BPA/Corps (2015) explain the CEERP and the role of RME and the ERTG. For the purposes of this report, the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) includes the floodplain from Bonneville Dam down through the lower river and estuary into the river’s plume in the ocean. The main purpose of this project is to facilitate EOS and ERTG meetings and work products. Other purposes are to provide technical support for CEERP adaptive management, CEERP restoration design challenges, and tributary RME. From 2002 through 2008, the EOS worked to design the federal RME program for the estuary/ocean (Johnson et al. 2008). From 2009 to the present day, EOS activities have involved RME implementation; however, EOS activities were minimal during the current reporting period. PNNL provided technical support to CEERP’s adaptive management process by convening 1.2 meetings of the Action Agencies (AAs) and drafting material for the “CEERP 2015 Restoration and Monitoring Plan” (BPA/Corps 2015).

  20. Association Euratom - DTU, Technical University of Denmark, Department of Physics - Annual Progress Report 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom – DTU, Technical University of Denmark covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium...... and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. Within fusion technology there are activities on fusion materials research (Tungsten and ODSFS). Other activities are system analysis......, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2013....

  1. Association Euratom - DTU, Technical University of Denmark, Department of Physics - Annual Progress Report 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom – DTU, Technical University of Denmark covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium...... and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. Within fusion technology there are activities on fusion materials research (Tungsten and ODSFS). Other activities are system analysis......, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2012...

  2. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) Fiscal Year 1999 annual technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-10-31

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department`s materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. This report summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1999 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department.

  3. Seasonal and Annual Change in the Martian Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, W. M.; James, P. B.

    2011-12-01

    The polar caps have a long established dichotomy in visual appearance, relative elevations, and surface composition. Observations using the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) instruments MARCI, CTX and CRISM have shown unique styles of seasonal frost retreat as well as fine scale variations in the composition of various units. With MRO we have observations for three Martian Years (MY) 28, 29 and 30 from November of 2006 to the present. We have observed the seasonal cap recessions in both the north and south using MARCI daily global images and have examined the composition of selected units of the polar layered deposits exposed in summer. Observation over multiple Mars years allows us to compare changes between years as well as longer term evolution of the high albedo deposits at the poles. North Cap Recession and Change: The northern seasonal cap recession was observed in both MY 29 and 30. Past work had noted large scale loss of bright deposits up to Ls 95 and the rugged terrain of the Gemini Scopuli darkens up to ~Ls 100 and then subsequently brightens. The patterns observed in MY 29 and 30 are similar. Significant variability in the early season is noted in both years and the retreating seasonal cap edge is extremely dynamic. Additional retreat of high albedo deposits are noted in MY 30. A new high albedo deposit appears off a reentrant in Olympia Planum in MY 29 and later disappears. In MY30, portions of Olympia Planitia have larger areas of high albedo. In both years sustained bright patches appear along the cap margins and while some are persistent between years, they are also variable over the northern summer. It is still uncertain if these albedo changes represent volatile "refrosting" or the removal of low albedo material to expose higher albedo material underneath and whether or not longer term loss of volatiles is implied. South Cap Recession and Change: The southern seasonal cap recession is fundamentally different than the north, and persistence of

  4. Adjustment of the annual cycle to climatic change in a long-lived migratory bird specie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. MØLLER

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change has advanced the phenology of many organisms. Migratory animals face particular problems because climate change in the breeding and the wintering range may be asynchronous, preventing rapid response to changing conditions. Advancement in timing of spring migration may have carry-over effects to other parts of the annual cycle, simply because advancement of one event in the annual cycle also advances subsequent events, gradually causing a general shift in the timing of the entire annual cycle. Such a phenotypic shift could generate accumulating effects over the years for individuals, but also across generations. Here we test this novel hypothesis of phenotypic response to climate change by using long-term data on the Arctic tern Sterna paradisaea. Mean breeding date advanced by almost three weeks during the last 70 years. Annual arrival date at the breeding grounds during a period of 47 years was predicted by environmental conditions in the winter quarters in the Southern Ocean near the Antarctic and by mean breeding date the previous year. Annual mean breeding date was only marginally determined by timing of arrival the current year, but to a larger extent by arrival date and breeding date the previous year. Learning affected arrival date as shown by a positive correlation between arrival date in year (i + 1 relative to breeding date in year (i and the selective advantage of early breeding in year (i. This provides a mechanism for changes in arrival date being adjusted to changing environmental conditions. This study suggests that adaptation to changing climatic conditions can be achieved through learning from year to year

  5. Adjustment of the annual cycle to climatic change in a long-lived migratory bird species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.P.M(φ)LLER; E.FLENSTED-JENSEN; W.MARDAL

    2009-01-01

    Climate change has advanced the phenology of many organisms. Migratory animals face particular problems because climate change in the breeding and the wintering range may be asynchronous, preventing rapid response to changing conditions. Advancement in timing of spring migration may have carry-over effects to other parts of the annual cycle, simply because advancement of one event in the annual cycle also advances subsequent events, gradually causing a general shift in the timing of the entire annual cycle. Such a phenotypic shift could generate accumulating effects over the years for individuals, but also across generations. Here we test this novel hypothesis of phenotypic response to climate change by using long-term data on the Arctic tern Sterna paradisaea. Mean breeding date advanced by almost three weeks during the last 70 years. Annual arrival date at the breeding grounds during a period of 47 years was predicted by environmental conditions in the winter quarters in the Southern Ocean near the Antarctic and by mean breeding date the previous year. Annual mean breeding date was only marginally determined by timing of arrival the current year, but to a larger extent by arrival date and breeding date the previous year. Learning affected arrival date as shown by a positive correlation between arrival date in year (i+1) relative to breeding date in year (i) and the selective advantage of early breeding in year (i). This provides a mechanism for changes in arrival date being adjusted to changing environmental conditions. This study suggests that adaptation to changing climatic conditions can be achieved through learning from year to year[Current Zoology 55(2):92-101,2009].

  6. Quality-Oriented Technical Change in Japanese Wheat Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Yoko; Kondo, Takumi; Osanami, Fumio

    2007-01-01

    The article presents a productivity analysis of Japanese Wheat Breeding research. Given recent policy change, wheat breeders may breed high quality, i.e. high protein content, wheat. We regard breeding research as multi-output process, and examine breeding program with output distance function. Also, we will analyze the effect of gene recharge rate on breeding productivity, and withdraw the policy implication for property rights.

  7. Association Euratom - Risø National Laboratory, Technical University of Denmark - Annual Progress Report 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Korsholm, Søren Bang; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risø National Laboratory, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the pla......The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risø National Laboratory, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction...... with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. The activities in technology on investigations of radiation damage of fusion reactor materials have been...... phased out during 2007. Minor activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2007....

  8. Regulatory and Technical Reports (Abstract Index Journal). Annual compilation for 1995, Volume 20, No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's annual summary of licensed nuclear power reactor data is based primarily on the report of operating data submitted by licensees for each unit for the month of December because that report contains data for the month of December, the year to date (in this case calendar year 1994) and cumulative data, usually from the date of commercial operation. The data is not independently verified, but various computer checks are made. The report is divided into two sections. The first contains summary highlights and the second contains data on each individual unit in commercial operation Section 1 capacity and availability factors are simple arithmetic averages. Section 2 items in the cumulative column are generally as reported by the licensee and notes as to the use of weighted averages and starting dates other than commercial operation are provided

  9. Regulatory and Technical Reports (Abstract Index Journal). Annual compilation for 1995, Volume 20, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheehan, M.

    1995-04-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s annual summary of licensed nuclear power reactor data is based primarily on the report of operating data submitted by licensees for each unit for the month of December because that report contains data for the month of December, the year to date (in this case calendar year 1994) and cumulative data, usually from the date of commercial operation. The data is not independently verified, but various computer checks are made. The report is divided into two sections. The first contains summary highlights and the second contains data on each individual unit in commercial operation Section 1 capacity and availability factors are simple arithmetic averages. Section 2 items in the cumulative column are generally as reported by the licensee and notes as to the use of weighted averages and starting dates other than commercial operation are provided.

  10. A Comment on the environment and directed technical change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greaker, Mads; Heggedal, Tom-Reiel

    2012-07-01

    The major claim in Acemoglu, Aghion, Bursztyn and Hemous (2012) (AABH) is that subsidies for research and development of clean technologies are more important than carbon taxes when dealing with climate change. However, they – unconventionally – assume that a patent only lasts for one period. In this note we introduce long-lived patents into the AABH model. This makes the role of a research subsidy for clean technologies in AABH far less crucial and reestablishes the role of the carbon tax. This is good news as it is far easier to tax emissions than to pick the right technologies to subsidize.(Author)

  11. Association Euratom - DTU, Technical University of Denmark, Department of Physics - Annual Progress Report 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom – DTU, Technical University of Denmark (until 31-12- 2011: Association Euratom – Risø DTU) covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport......, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. Within fusion technology there are activities related to development of high...... temperature superconductors. Other activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2011....

  12. Annual report on operation, utilization and technical development of research reactors and hot laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the activities of the Department of Research Reactor Operation in fiscal year of 1989. It also presents some technical topics on the reactor operation and utilization in details. The Department is responsible for operation of the research reactors, JRR-2 and JRR-4, and the Hot Laboratory. The research reactor JRR-3 was reconstructed to enhance the performance for utilization. The first criticality was achieved on March 22, 1989, and it subsequently went into operation. In connection with the reactor operation, the various research and development activities in the area of fuel management, water chemistry, radiation monitoring and material irradiation have been made. In the Hot Laboratory, post-irradiation examinations of fuels and materials have been carried out along with the development of related techniques. (author)

  13. Spray forming -- Aluminum: Third annual report (Phase 2). Technical progress -- Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozarek, R.L.

    1998-04-20

    Commercial production of aluminum sheet and plate by spray atomization and deposition is a potentially attractive manufacturing alternative to conventional ingot metallurgy/hot-milling and to continuous casting processes because of reduced energy requirements and reduced cost. To realize the full potential of the technology, the Aluminum Company of America (Alcoa), under contract by the US Department of Energy, is investigating currently available state-of-the-art atomization devices to develop nozzle design concepts whose spray characteristics are tailored for continuous sheet production. This third technical progress report will summarize research and development work conducted during the period 1997 October through 1998 March. Included are the latest optimization work on the Alcoa III nozzle, results of spray forming runs with 6111 aluminum alloy and preliminary rolling trials of 6111 deposits.

  14. Energy materials coordinating committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, fiscal year 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2004-10-18

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. Topical subcommittees of the EMaCC are responsible for conducting seminars and otherwise facilitating information flow between DOE organizational units in materials areas of particular importance to the Department. The EMaCC Terms of Reference were recently modified and developed into a Charter that was approved on June 5, 2003. As a result of this reorganization, the existing subcommittees were disbanded and new subcommittees are being formed.

  15. Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory, Technical Univ. of Denmark. Annual progress report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelsen, P.K.; Korsholm, S.B.; Rasmussen, J.J. (eds.)

    2008-04-15

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. The activities in technology on investigations of radiation damage of fusion reactor materials have been phased out during 2007. Minor activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2007. (Author)

  16. Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark. Annual progress report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsholm, S.B.; Michelsen, P.K.; Rasmussen, J.J.; Westergaard, C.M. (eds.)

    2011-04-15

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. Within fusion technology there are activities related to development of high temperature superconductors. Other activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2010. (Author)

  17. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC): Annual technical report, fiscal year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department`s materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. This report summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1993 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department. The program descriptions consist of a funding summary for each Assistant Secretary office and the Office of Energy Research, and detailed project summaries with project goals and accomplishments. The FY 1993 budget summary table for DOE Materials Activities in each of the programs is presented.

  18. Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark. Annual progress report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsholm, S.B.; Michelsen, P.K.; Rasmussen, J.J.; Westergaard, C.M. (eds.)

    2010-04-15

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. Within fusion technology there are activities related to development of high temperature superconductors. Minor activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2009. (Author)

  19. Annual report on operation, utilization and technical development of research reactors and hot laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report covers the activities of the Department of Research Reactor Operation in fiscal 1988. It also presents some technical topics on the reactor operation and utilization in details. The Department is responsible for operation of the research reactors, JRR-2 and JRR-4, and the Hot Laboratory. The research reactor JRR-3 is now under reconstruction to enhance the performance for utilization. In connection with the reactor operation, the various research and development activities in the area of fuel management, water chemistry, radiation monitoring and material irradiation have been made. In the Hot Laboratory, post-irradiation examinations of fuels and materials have been carried out along with the development of related techniques. (author)

  20. Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark. Annual progress report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsholm, S.B.; Michelsen, P.K.; Rasmussen, J.J.; Westergaard, C.M. (eds.)

    2009-04-15

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. New activities in technology related to development of high temperature superconductors have been initiated in 2008. Minor activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2008. (Author)

  1. Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark. Annual progress report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. Within fusion technology there are activities related to development of high temperature superconductors. Minor activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2009. (Author)

  2. Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark. Annual progress report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. New activities in technology related to development of high temperature superconductors have been initiated in 2008. Minor activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2008. (Author)

  3. Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory, Technical Univ. of Denmark. Annual progress report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. The activities in technology on investigations of radiation damage of fusion reactor materials have been phased out during 2007. Minor activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2007. (Author)

  4. Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark. Annual progress report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. Within fusion technology there are activities related to development of high temperature superconductors. Other activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2010. (Author)

  5. MHD air heater technology development. Annual technical progress report, January 1, 1980-December 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-03-01

    Progress on the technology development of the directly-fired high temperature air heater (HTAH) for MHD power plants is described in detail. The objective of task 1 is to continue development of ceramic materials technology for the directly-fired HTAH. The objectives of task 2 are to demonstrate the technical feasibility of operating a directly-fired HTAH (including both the heater matrix and valves), to continue obtaining information on life and corrosion resistance of HTAH materials, and to obtain design information for full-scale studies and future design work. The objectives of task 3 are to begin the identification of HTAH control requirements and control system needs, and to continue full-scale study efforts incorporating updated materials and design information in order to identify development needs for the HTAH development program. (WHK)

  6. SKB annual report 1991. Including summaries of technical reports issued during 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the annual report on the activities of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., SKB. SKB is the owner of CLAB, the central facility for interim storage of spent nuclear fuel, located at Oskarshamn. CLAB was taken into operation in July 1985 and to the end of 1991 in total 1514 tonnes of spent fuel (measured as uranium) have been received. Transportation from the nuclear sites to CLAB is made by a special ship, M/S Sigyn. At Forsmark the final repository for Radioactive Waste (SFR) was taken into operation in April 1988. The repository is situated in crystalline rock under the Baltic Sea. The first construction phase includes rock caverns for 60000 m3 of waste. A second phase for additional 30000 m3 is planned to be built and commissioned around the year 2000. At the end of 1991 a total of 7900 m3 of waste have been deposited in SFR. SKB is in charge of a comprehensive research and development programme on geological disposal of nuclear waste. The total cost for R and D during 1991 was 182.7 MSEK of which 15.9 MSEK came from participants outside Sweden. Geological site-investigations are a substantial part of the programme. SKB is also the managing participant of the international Stripa-project under OECD/NEA. Cost calculations for the total nuclear waste management system, including decommissioning of all reactors, are updated annually. The total cost is estimated to 55 billion SEK. SKB also handles matters pertaining to prospecting and enrichment as well as stockpiling of uranium as strategic reserves for the Swedish nuclear power industry. Consulting service from SKB and associated expert groups are available on a commercial basis. Information activities are an integrated and important part of the Swedish radioactive waste management system. During 1991 successful public information activities have been carried out using mobile exhibitions in a tailor-made trailer and on the SKB ship M/S Sigyn. (au)

  7. Effects of climate change on annual streamflow using climate elasticity in Poyang Lake Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shanlei; Chen, Haishan; Ju, Weimin; Song, Jie; Zhang, Hao; Sun, Jie; Fang, Yujie

    2013-04-01

    Hydrological processes depend directly on climate conditions [e.g., precipitation, potential evapotranspiration ( PE)] based on the water balance. This paper examines streamflow datasets at four hydrological stations and meteorological observations at 79 weather stations to reveal the streamflow changes and underlying drivers in four typical watersheds (Meigang, Saitang, Gaosha, and Xiashan) within Poyang Lake Basin from 1961 to 2000. Most of the less than 90th percentile of daily streamflow in each watershed increases significantly at different rates. As an important indicator of the seasonal changes in the streamflow, CT (the timing of the mass center of the streamflow) in each watershed shows a negligible change. The annual streamflow in each watershed increases at different rates, with a statistically significant trend (at the 5 % level) of 9.87 and 7.72 mm year-1, respectively, in Meigang and Gaosha watersheds. Given the existence of interactions between precipitation and PE, the original climate elasticity of streamflow can not reflect the relationship of streamflow with precipitation and PE effectively. We modify this method and find the modified climate elasticity to be more accurate and reasonable using the correlation analysis. The analyses from the modified climate elasticity in the four watersheds show that a 10 % increase (decrease) in precipitation will increase (decrease) the annual streamflow by 14.1-16.3 %, while a 10 % increase (decrease) in PE will decrease (increase) the annual streamflow by -10.2 to -2.1 %. In addition, the modified climate elasticity is applied to estimate the contribution of annual precipitation and PE to the increasing annual streamflow in each watershed over the past 40 years. Our result suggests that the percentage attribution of the increasing precipitation is more than 59 % and the decreasing in PE is less than 41 %, indicating that the increasing precipitation is the major driving factor for the annual streamflow

  8. Effect of changes in technical parameters in radiological safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work analyzes the generation of secondary radiation that affects the professionals of health during interventional X ray procedures in first level hospitals. The research objectives were, on the one hand, to quantify the amount of radiation and to compare it with norms in force with respect to magnitudes, and on the other hand to evaluate the elements of protection used. The measurements will help to improve the radiological safety, to assess the eventuality of risks and, in the last term, to the possibility of norms modification for the improvement of the protection, especially that of the personnel who daily make a certain amount of interventional procedures guided by radiation, like angiographic cine applications, using continuous or pulsed fluoroscopy. The motivation of the study is in the suspicion that present interventionism is made with a false sensation of safety, based only in the use of lead apron and protection elements incorporated in the equipment by the manufacturer, nevertheless not always the health personnel are conscious that an excessive proximity with the tube and the patient body becomes a risky source of secondary and scattered radiation. The obtained results allow us to demonstrate the existence of conditions of risk, even possible iatrogenic events, in particular when the procedures imply the use of certain techniques of radiographic exploration, thus reaching the conclusion that the radiographic methodology must be changed in order to rationalize so much?. In order to achieve this we propose modifications to the present norms and legislation referred to the radiological safety in Chile

  9. CHANGES IN THE ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD IN AN ANNUAL CYCLE OF SPORT TRAINING OF YOUNG SOCCER PLAYERS

    OpenAIRE

    Śliwowski, R.; Andrzejewski, M; Wieczorek, A.; Barinow-Wojewódzki, A.; Jadczak, Ł.; Adrian, S.; Pietrzak, M.; Wieczorek, S.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess changes in the anaerobic threshold of young soccer players in an annual training cycle. A group of highly trained 15-18 year old players of KKS Lech Poznań were tested. The tests included an annual training macrocycle, and its individual stages resulted from the time structure of the sports training. In order to assess the level of exercise capacities of the players, a field exercise test of increasing intensity was carried out on a soccer pitch. The test ma...

  10. Change of risk information disclosure in annual report. Before and after earthquake disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research examines how risk information disclosure is changing in annual report before and after East Japan Great Earthquake Disaster. Company voluntary disclose risk information in annual report. Manager can decide a style and items of risk information. This paper explores risk information disclosures of Tokyo Electric Power Company, Chubu Power Electric Company, Kansai Electric Power Company and Toyota Motor Corporation. The managers except Tokyo Electric Company are likely to disclose own catastrophe risk before the disaster. However, they do not try to reduce their risk. Corporations' risk information do not link with own risk management. (author)

  11. Solar thermal hydrogen production process. Annual technical progress report, January-December, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, G.H.

    1979-01-01

    Westinghouse is currently under contract to DOE for technology development of the Sulfur Cycle, a hybrid thermochemical-electrochemical process for the production of hydrogen and oxygen from water. Operational studies have been conducted and have resulted in definitions of operating modes for solar/hydrogen plants and in assessments of the day/night and annual variations in performance that will influence the operating modes and the sizing of plant subsystems. Conceptual design studies have been conducted for process components that interface with the solar receiver. From related trade-off studies, a preferred configuration emerged that involves an intermediate working fluid (e.g., hot gas) between the solar receiver and the sulfuric acid decomposition reactor. The design of the reactor has been based on a shell and tube type heat exchanger configuration with catalyst placement on the shell side. A number of candidate materials for structural use in the acid decomposition reactor also have been evaluated experimentally. Screening tests and endurance tests with potential catalysts (to accelerate the rate of sulfur trioxide cracking) have been conducted with encouraging results. Approximately three dozen candidate materials for use in constructing the acid vaporizer have been tested for corrosion resistance to the expected environment. Detailed discussions of the results obtained during 1979 are presented.

  12. Semi-annual technical report, September 30, 1999 - March 31, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Dorin

    2000-04-01

    The Consortium for Plant Biotechnology Research, Inc. (CPBR) continues to operate according to objectives outlined in the proposal funded through the cooperative agreement. The italicized objectives below are addressed in this report, which covers the period September 30,1999 through March 31, 2000. (1) Update the research agenda using information obtained from member companies. (2) Identify and implement research projects that are deemed by industrial, scientific, and sponsoring agency evaluation to address significantly the problems and future of U.S. energy resources and that are relevant to the Department of Energy's mission. Specifically: (1) Announce research grants competition through a Request for Preproposals. (2) Conduct a dual-stage review process: Stage one--industrial and DOE review of preproposals; and Stage two--peer review, scientific consultants' review, DOE review of full proposals and Project Recommendation Committee evaluation and recommendation for funding. (3) Board of Directors approval of recommended awards. (4) Conduct ongoing project management. (5) Obtain semiannual, annual and final reports for evaluation of research goals and technology transfer. (6) Present reports to DOE.

  13. Advanced growth and surface analysis system for in situ studies of interface formation. Annual technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first annual report for developing an advanced integrated in situ UHV growth/analysis system for synchrotron radiation studies of interface and surface reactions which lead to epitaxial structures on Si, Ge, and Si1-xGex alloys. This equipment will allow one to use techniques based on synchrotron radiation, such as photoemission, x-ray standing wave (XSW), and surface x-ray absorption spectroscopy (SXAFS) to determining the electronic states and atomic configurations of surfaces in metal-silicon, metal-germanium and metal-silicon-germanium alloys. Since the award of the contract the authors have completed a detailed design of the overall system, identified commercially available equipment which fits the requirements and have purchased or ordered all of this equipment. They have also custom designed a considerable amount of equipment which is not available commercially because of the special requirements. This includes both of the UHV chambers, sample manipulators, and a mobile support stand. In this report, they will describe the design and purchase status of the system. An overview of the equipment purchase status is given in Appendix 1. The details of their custom designed growth and analytical chambers are given in Appendix 2

  14. Technical Advisory Committee on the nuclear fuel waste management program : thirteenth annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the last reporting period by the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) the emphasis of the work in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program (CNFWMP) has been on the writing of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and the associated set of nine primary reference documents as well as supporting documents. These are in preparation for submission to the Environmental Assessment Review Panel who will lead the national evaluation of the disposal concept under the auspices of the Federal Environmental Assessment Review Office (FEARO). The disposal concept developed over the last fourteen years by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) and anticipated to be presented by means of the EIS in 1994, is based on a multiple system of natural and man-made barriers wherein nuclear waste is first enclosed in corrosion-resistant containers, designed to last at least 500 years, and then placed in a vault excavated 500 - 1000 m deep in granitic rocks of the Canadian Shield. After container emplacement either in or on the floor of the vault, and with a surrounding buffer material of a bentonite clay/sand mixture, the vault will be backfilled and sealed with crushed rock, buffer and sand, as will be the shafts and exploratory boreholes. The case study being presented by AECL to demonstrate the safety of this concept and the technology to implement it, relies on computer simulations of a hypothetical disposal site with geological characteristics similar to those at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in the Whiteshell Research Area (WRA) located in Manitoba. The preliminary simulation results suggest that safe containment can be achieved provided that the waste is surrounded by a sparsely-fractured zone of rock wherein movement of contaminants carried by groundwater is modelled as a diffusive as opposed to a advective process. The principal focus of work during the past year within the environmental and safety assessment has been to complete the Post

  15. Predictors of technical adoption and behavioural change to transport energy-saving measures in response to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy conservation can be achieved through the adoption of technical measures or the changing of one's behaviour. A survey of 201 Malaysian public personnel was conducted to examine the predictors of these two types of transport energy-saving measures in response to climate change. The results indicated that there were significant differences in the relative acceptability of both behavioural measures with respect to gender, level of education, income, knowledge of climate change and attitude. Gender, knowledge of causes of climate change and personal norm were predictors for the acceptability of technical measures, while perceived efficacy and personal norm were the factors that influenced the acceptability of behavioural measures. The results also indicated that distinctions ought to be made between technology adoption and behaviour modifications that require lifestyle changes when assessing pro-environmental intent behaviour. The implications for theory and practice are discussed. - Highlights: • A survey was conducted to examine acceptability of transport energy-saving measures. • Gender, knowledge of causes, efficacy and personal norm are predictors of technical measures. • Personal norm and perceived efficacy influenced acceptability of behavioural change. • Both measures are strongly correlated to psychological factors than to socio-demographic variables

  16. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC), fiscal year 1985. Annual technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-05-01

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further the effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meeting/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. Four topical subcommittees on Structural Ceramics, Batteries and Fuel Cells, Radioactive Waste Containment, and Steel are established and are continuing their own program. The FY 1985 and FY 1986 meeting program is given. The EMaCC aids in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and inter-agency compilations. Brief summaries of the materials research programs associated with each office and division are presented, including tables listing individual projects and the FY 1985 budgets for each. More details on the individual projects within the divisions and the specific tasks or subcontracts within the various projects are given in the paragraph descriptions.

  17. Second Annual AEC Scientific Computer Information Exhange Meeting. Proceedings of the technical program theme: computer graphics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin,A.M.; Shimamoto, Y.

    1974-01-01

    The topic of computer graphics serves well to illustrate that AEC affiliated scientific computing installations are well represented in the forefront of computing science activities. The participant response to the technical program was overwhelming--both in number of contributions and quality of the work described. Session I, entitled Advanced Systems, contains presentations describing systems that contain features not generally found in graphics facilities. These features can be roughly classified as extensions of standard two-dimensional monochromatic imaging to higher dimensions including color and time as well as multidimensional metrics. Session II presents seven diverse applications ranging from high energy physics to medicine. Session III describes a number of important developments in establishing facilities, techniques and enhancements in the computer graphics area. Although an attempt was made to schedule as many of these worthwhile presentations as possible, it appeared impossible to do so given the scheduling constraints of the meeting. A number of prospective presenters 'came to the rescue' by graciously withdrawing from the sessions. Some of their abstracts have been included in the Proceedings.

  18. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC), fiscal year 1985. Annual technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further the effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meeting/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. Four topical subcommittees on Structural Ceramics, Batteries and Fuel Cells, Radioactive Waste Containment, and Steel are established and are continuing their own program. The FY 1985 and FY 1986 meeting program is given. The EMaCC aids in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and inter-agency compilations. Brief summaries of the materials research programs associated with each office and division are presented, including tables listing individual projects and the FY 1985 budgets for each. More details on the individual projects within the divisions and the specific tasks or subcontracts within the various projects are given in the paragraph descriptions

  19. Land-use changes reinforce the impacts of climate change on annual runoff dynamics in a southeast China coastal watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ervinia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Study on runoff dynamics across different physiographic regions is fundamentally important to formulate the sound strategies for water resource management especially in the coastal watershed where peoples heavily concentrated and relied on water resources. The L−R diagram, a conceptual model by which the land-changes evapotranspiration (ΔL was estimated as the difference between actual and climate evapotranspiration to identify the specific impact of land-use changes on annual runoff changes (ΔR, was developed using the 53-year hydro-climatic data of Jiulong River Watershed, a typical medium-sized subtropical coastal watershed in China. This study found that land-use changes have reinforced the impact of climatic changes on runoff changes where nearly all points were scattered in II and IV quadrant. Deforestation and expansion of built up area has diminished the water retention capacity in a catchment as well as evapotranspiration thus produce extra runoff accounting for 12–183 % of total runoff increase. In contrast, reforestation makes the significant contribution to decreasing annual runoff for about 21–82 % of total runoff loss. This study revealed the river runoff has become more vulnerable to intensive anthropogenic disturbances under the context of climate changes in a coastal watershed.

  20. Energy materials coordinating committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, fiscal year 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2006-09-29

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. Topical subcommittees of the EMaCC are responsible for conducting seminars and otherwise facilitating information flow between DOE organizational units in materials areas of particular importance to the Department. The EMaCC Terms of Reference were recently modified and developed into a Charter that was approved on June 5, 2003. As a result of this reorganization, the existing subcommittees were disbanded and new subcommittees are being formed. The FY 2004 budget summary for DOE Materials Activities is presented on page 8. The distribution of these funds between DOE laboratories, private industry, academia and other organizations is presented in tabular form on page 10. Following the budget summary is a set of detailed program descriptions for the FY 2004 DOE Materials activities. These descriptions are presented according to the organizational structure of the Department. A mission statement, a budget summary listing the project titles and FY 2004 funding, and detailed project summaries are presented for each Assistant Secretary office, the Office of Science, and the National Nuclear Security Administration. The project summaries also provide DOE, laboratory, academic and industrial contacts for each project, as appropriate.

  1. Energy materials coordinating committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, fiscal year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2005-08-31

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. Topical subcommittees of the EMaCC are responsible for conducting seminars and otherwise facilitating information flow between DOE organizational units in materials areas of particular importance to the Department. The EMaCC Terms of Reference were recently modified and developed into a Charter that was approved on June 5, 2003. As a result of this reorganization, the existing subcommittees were disbanded and new subcommittees are being formed. The FY 2004 budget summary for DOE Materials Activities is presented on page 8. The distribution of these funds between DOE laboratories, private industry, academia and other organizations is presented in tabular form on page 10. Following the budget summary is a set of detailed program descriptions for the FY 2004 DOE Materials activities. These descriptions are presented according to the organizational structure of the Department. A mission statement, a budget summary listing the project titles and FY 2004 funding, and detailed project summaries are presented for each Assistant Secretary office, the Office of Science, and the National Nuclear Security Administration. The project summaries also provide DOE, laboratory, academic and industrial contacts for each project, as appropriate.

  2. Energy materials coordinating committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, fiscal year 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2003-08-08

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. Topical subcommittees of the EMaCC are responsible for conducting seminars and otherwise facilitating information flow between DOE organizational units in materials areas of particular importance to the Department. The EMaCC Terms of Reference were recently modified and developed into a Charter that was approved on June 5, 2003. As a result of this reorganization, the existing subcommittees were disbanded and new subcommittees are being formed. The EMaCC Charter and the memorandum approving it are presented in the Appendix of this report. The FY 2002 budget summary for DOE Materials Activities is presented on page 8. The distribution of these funds between DOE laboratories, private industry, academia and other organizations is presented in tabular form on page 10. Following the budget summary is a set of detailed program descriptions for the FY 2002 DOE Materials activities. These descriptions are presented according to the organizational structure of the Department. A mission statement, a budget summary listing the project titles and FY 2002 funding, and detailed project summaries are presented for each Assistant Secretary office, the Office of Science, and the National Nuclear Security Administration. The project summaries also provide DOE, laboratory, academic and industrial contacts for each project, as appropriate.

  3. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini Mission. Semi annual technical report, 30 September 1996--30 March 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical progress achieved during the period 27 January through 30 September 1996 through 30 March 1997 on Contract DE-AC03-91SF18852 Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators and Ancillary Activities is described. This report is organized by program task structure: spacecraft integration and liaison; engineering support; safety; qualified unicouple production; ETG fabrication, assembly, and test; ground support equipment (GSE); RTG shipping and launch support; designs, reviews, and mission applications; project management, quality assurance, reliability, contract changes, CAGO acquisition (operating funds), and CAGO maintenance and repair; and CAGO acquisition (capital funds)

  4. Is technical change directed by the supply of skills? The case of South Korea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano, L; Timmer, MP

    2002-01-01

    In a recent contribution, Acemoglu [Quarterly Journal of Economics 113 (1998) 1055] modelled the effects of an increase in the supply of skills on the skill premium. We estimate a model to disentangle the short-run substitution effects and the effects of skill-biased technical change using industry

  5. Modelling the International Climate Change Negotiations: A Non-Technical Outline of Model Architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underdal, Arild

    1997-12-31

    This report discusses in non-technical terms the overall architecture of a model that will be designed to enable the user to (1) explore systematically the political feasibility of alternative policy options and (2) to determine the set of politically feasible solutions in the global climate change negotiations. 25 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. 75 FR 19677 - Medicare Program; Policy and Technical Changes to the Medicare Advantage and the Medicare...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... Medicare Program; Policy and Technical Changes to the Medicare Advantage and the Medicare Prescription Drug... to the Medicare Advantage and the Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit Programs AGENCY: Centers for... the regulations governing the Medicare Advantage (MA) program (Part C) and prescription drug...

  7. Climate change influences on the annual onset of Lyme disease in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, A. J.; Moore, S. M.; Sampson, K. M.; Beard, C. B.; Eisen, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Lyme disease is the most commonly reported vector-borne illness in the United States. Lyme disease occurrence is highly seasonal and the annual springtime onset of cases is modulated by meteorological conditions in preceding months. A meteorological-based empirical model for Lyme disease onset week in the United States is driven with downscaled simulations from five global climate models and four greenhouse gas emissions scenarios to project the impacts of 21st century climate change on the annual onset week of Lyme disease. Projections are made individually and collectively for the 12 eastern States where >90% of cases occur. The national average annual onset week of Lyme disease is projected to become 0.4-0.5 weeks earlier for 2025-2040 (pLyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi in the eastern United States, may alter the disease transmission cycle in unforeseen ways. The results suggest 21st century climate change will make environmental conditions suitable for earlier annual onset of Lyme disease cases in the United States with possible implications for the timing of public health interventions.

  8. Annual variations in wet-deposition chemistry related to changes in climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Mast, M. Alisa

    2016-02-01

    National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP)/National Trends Network precipitation type, snow-season duration, and annual timing of selected chemical wet-deposition maxima vary with latitude and longitude within a 35-year (1979-2013) data record for the contiguous United States and Alaska. From the NADP data collected within the region bounded by 35.6645°-48.782° north latitude and 124°-68° west longitude, similarities in latitudinal and longitudinal patterns of changing snow-season duration, fraction of annual precipitation recorded as snow, and the timing of chemical wet-deposition maxima, suggest that the chemical climate of the atmosphere is linked to physical changes in climate. Total annual precipitation depth has increased 4-6 % while snow season duration has decreased from approximately 7 to 21 days across most of the USA, except in higher elevation regions where it has increased by as much as 21 days. Snow-season precipitation is increasingly comprised of snow, but annually total precipitation is increasingly comprised of liquid precipitation. Meanwhile, maximum ammonium deposition occurs as much as 27 days earlier, and the maximum nitrate: sulfate concentration ratio in wet-deposition occurs approximately 10-21 days earlier in the year. The maximum crustal (calcium + magnesium + potassium) cation deposition occurs 2-35 days earlier in the year. The data suggest that these shifts in the timing of atmospheric wet deposition are linked to a warming climate, but the ecological consequences are uncertain.

  9. Annual change in spirometric parameters among patients affected in Bhopal gas disaster: A retrospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajal De

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The involvement of respiratory system due to inhalation of methyl isocyanate (MIC during Bhopal gas disaster was particularly severe. We retrospectively evaluated the annual changes in spirometric parameters among those who were affected in this disaster (exposed survivors and had respiratory symptoms. Materials and Methods: Spirometry reports of exposed survivors that were carried out in our institution were retrospectively reviewed and we identified 252 subjects who had performed spirometry at least twice with interval of more than one year. The annual changes in spirometric indices of them were calculated. Results: The average age of study population was 55.7 years and 72% were male. Annual decline of FEV 1 ≥ 40 ml/yr was observed among 48% exposed survivors. The mean annual decline of FEV 1 among symptomatic exposed survivors with initial normal spirometry was 91 ml (95% CI: 52 ml to 130 ml and this was more than the patients with initial obstructive pattern. Among fifty four patients with initial normal spirometry, ten patients (18.5% developed obstructive and two patients (5% developed restrictive lung function abnormalities during follow up spirometry. Conclusion: The exposed survivors with chronic respiratory symptoms had accelerated decline in lung function and they are at higher risk of developing obstructive lung function.

  10. Thermal Power Systems, Small Power Systems Applications Project. Annual technical report. Volume I. Executive summary, Fiscal Year 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-15

    This report is a summary of the SPSA Annual Technical Report. It covers Small Power Systems Applications activities for FY 1978. Studies were conducted to address current small power system technology as applied to power plants up to 10 MWe in size. Markets for small power systems were characterized and cost goals were established for the project. Candidate power plant system design concepts were selected for evaluation and preliminary performance and cost assessments were made. Economic studies were conducted at JPL and under contract to Burns and McDonnell. Breakeven capital costs were determined for leading contenders among the candidate systems. An applications study was made of the potential use of small power systems in providing part of the demand for pumping power by the extensive aqueduct system of California, estimated to be 1000 MWe by 1985. Criteria and methodologies were developed for application to the ranking of candidate power plant system design concepts. Experimental power plants concepts of 1 MWe rating were studied by three contractors as a Phase I effort leading toward the definition of a power plant configuration for subsequent detail design, construction, testing, and evaluation as Engineering Experiment No. 1 (EE No. 1). Site selection criteria and ground rules for the solicitation of EE No. 1 site participation proposals by DOE were developed.

  11. Impact assessment of climate change and human activities on annual highest water level of Taihu Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-fang HU; Yin-tang WANG

    2009-01-01

    The annual highest water level of Taihu Lake (Zm) is very significant for flood management in the Taihu Basin. This paper first describes the inter-annual and intra-annual traits of Zm from 1956 to 2000. Then, using the Mann-Kenall (MK) and Spearman (SP) nonparametric tests, the long-term change trends of area precipitation and pan evaporation in the Taihu Basin are determined. Meanwhile, using the Morlet wavelet transformation, the fluctuation patterns and change points of precipitation and pan evaporation are analyzed. Also, human activities in the Taihu Basin are described, including land use change and hydraulic project construction. Finally, the relationship between Zm, the water level of Taihu Lake 30 days prior to the day of Zm (Z0), and the 30-day total precipitation and pan evaporation prior to the day of Zm (P and E0, respectively) is described based on multi-linear regression equations. The relative influence of climate change and human activities on the change of Zm is quantitatively ascertained. The results demonstrate that: (1) Zm was distinctly higher during the 1980-2000 period than during the 1956-1979 period, and the 30 days prior to the day of Zm are the key phase influencing Zm every year; (2) P increased significantly at a confidence level of 95% during the 1956-2000 period, while the reverse was true for E0; (3) The relationship between Zm, P and E0 distinctly changed after 1980; (4) Climate change and human activities together caused frequent occurrences of high Zm after 1980; (5) Climate change caused a substantially greater Zm difference between the 1956-1979 and 1980-2000 periods than human activities. Climate change, as represented by P and E0, was the dominant factor raising Zm, with a relative influence ratio of 83.6%, while human activities had a smaller influence ratio of 16.4%.

  12. Changes in Average Annual Precipitation in Argentina’s Pampa Region and Their Possible Causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pérez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in annual rainfall in five sub-regions of the Argentine Pampa Region (Rolling, Central, Mesopotamian, Flooding and Southern were examined for the period 1941 to 2010 using data from representative locations in each sub-region. Dubious series were adjusted by means of a homogeneity test and changes in mean value were evaluated using a hydrometeorological time series segmentation method. In addition, an association was sought between shifts in mean annual rainfall and changes in large-scale atmospheric pressure systems, as measured by the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO and the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI. The results indicate that the Western Pampas (Central and Southern are more vulnerable to abrupt changes in average annual rainfall than the Eastern Pampas (Mesopotamian, Rolling and Flooding. Their vulnerability is further increased by their having the lowest average rainfall. The AMO showed significant negative correlations with all sub-regions, while the PDO and SOI showed significant positive and negative correlations respectively with the Central, Flooding and Southern Pampa. The fact that the PDO and AMO are going through the phases of their cycles that tend to reduce rainfall in much of the Pampas helps explain the lower rainfall recorded in the Western Pampas sub-regions in recent years. This has had a significant impact on agriculture and the environment.

  13. Technical Change in Agriculture and Deforestation in Tropical Asia: An Analytical Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Sisira Kumara Jayasuriya

    2000-01-01

    Deforestation is considered a major environmental issue in tropical Asian developing countries that have been undergoing major demographic and structural changes. A major contributing factor to deforestation is conversion of land for alternative, primarily agricultural, uses. There have been conflicting views about the impact on deforestation of productivity enhancing technical changes in agriculture such as the Green Revolution in cereal grains. This paper presents an analytical framework fo...

  14. CAN STRUCTURAL CHANGE EXPLAIN THE DECREASE IN RETURNS TO TECHNICAL ANALYSIS?

    OpenAIRE

    Kidd, Willis V.; Brorsen, B. Wade

    2002-01-01

    Practioners Abstract: Returns to managed futures funds and Commodity Trading Advisors (CTAs) have decreased dramatically during the last several years. Since these funds overwhelmingly use technical analysis, this research examines futures prices to determine if there is evidence of a structural change in futures price movements that could explain the reduction in fund returns. Bootstrap tests are used to test significance of a change in statistics related to daily returns, close-to-open chan...

  15. Change of annual collective dose equivalent of radiation workers at KURRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The change of exposure dose equivalent of radiation workers at KURRI (Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute) in the past 30 years is reported together with the operational accomplishments. The reactor achieved criticality on June 24, 1964 and reached the normal power of 1000 kW on August 17 of the same year, and the normal power was elevated to 5000 kW on July 16, 1968 until today. The change of the annual effective dose equivalent, the collective dose equivalent, the average annual dose equivalent and the maximum dose equivalent are indicated in the table and the figure. The chronological table on the activities of the reactor is added. (T.H.)

  16. Thermoelectric Materials Evaluation Program. Annual technical report for fiscal year 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimization was initiated with respect to performance, operating temperatures, and thermoelectric properties of an N-type material based on rare earth (neodymium and gadolinium) selenide technology. Effort was expanded to experimentally describe the chemical, electrical and physical behavior of P-type thermoelectric material over a range of temperatures. Emphasis was changed in P-type material research from basic properties to sublimation suppression by wrapping, and to the understanding of contact resistance problems at the hot end. Analytical performance calculations were made as an aid in couple development. In the area of module development an evaluation of the reduction of bypass-heat loss was made and module M-22R was placed on test. Parts were fabricated for M23R. Data on long term operating characteristics, ingradient compatibility, and reliability of elements and couples was obtained

  17. Continent-scale global change attribution in European birds - combining annual and decadal time scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Thorup, Kasper;

    2016-01-01

    investigate the recent impact of multiple environmental changes on European farmland birds, here focusing on climate change and land use change. We analyze more than 800 time series from 18 countries spanning the past two decades. Analysis of long-term population growth rates documents simultaneous responses...... driving long-term climate induced change. In particular, we find that birds are affected by winter, spring, and summer conditions depending on the distinct breeding phenology that corresponds to their migratory strategy. Birds in general benefit from higher temperatures or higher primary productivity...... that can be attributed to both climate change and land-use change, including long-term increases in populations of hot-dwelling species and declines in long-distance migrants and farmland specialists. In contrast, analysis of annual growth rates yield novel insights into the potential mechanisms...

  18. National Institute for Global Environmental Change. Semi-annual report, July 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werth, G.C.

    1992-04-01

    This document is the Semi-Annual Report of the National Institute for Global Environmental Change for the reporting period July 1 to December 31, 1991. The report is in two parts. Part I presents the mission of the Institute, examples of progress toward that mission, a brief description of the revised management plan, and the financial report. Part II presents the statements of the Regional Center Directors along with progress reports of the projects written by the researchers themselves.

  19. Annual change in spirometric parameters among patients affected in Bhopal gas disaster: A retrospective observational study

    OpenAIRE

    De Sajal

    2013-01-01

    Background: The involvement of respiratory system due to inhalation of methyl isocyanate (MIC) during Bhopal gas disaster was particularly severe. We retrospectively evaluated the annual changes in spirometric parameters among those who were affected in this disaster (exposed survivors) and had respiratory symptoms. Materials and Methods: Spirometry reports of exposed survivors that were carried out in our institution were retrospectively reviewed and we identified 252 subjects who had perfor...

  20. Assessing the effects of land-use changes on annual average gross erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Brath

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of land-use changes on potential annual gross erosion in the uplands of the Emilia-Romagna administrative region, a broad geographical area of some 22 000 km2 in northern-central Italy, have been analysed by application of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE. The presence of an extended mountain chain, particularly subject to soil erosion, makes the estimation of annual gross erosion relevant in defining regional soil-conservation strategies. The USLE, derived empirically for plots, is usually applied at the basin scale. In the present study, the method is implemented in a distributed framework for the hilly and mountainous portion of Emilia-Romagna through a discretisation of the region into elementary square cells. The annual gross erosion is evaluated by combining morphological, pedological and climatic information. The stream network and the tributary area drained by each elementary cell, which are needed for the local application of the USLE, are derived automatically from a Digital Elevation Model (DEM of grid size 250 x 250 m. The rainfall erosivity factor is evaluated from local estimates of rainfall of six-hour storm duration and two-year return period. The soil erodibility and slope length-steepness factors are derived from digital maps of land use, pedology and geomorphology. Furthermore, historical land-use maps of the district of Bologna (a large portion — 3720 km2 — of the area under study, allow the effect of actual land use changes on the soil erosion process to be assessed. The analysis shows the influence of land-use changes on annual gross erosion as well as the increasing vulnerability of upland areas to soil erosion processes during recent decades. Keywords: USLE, gross erosion, distributed modelling, land use changes, northern-central Italy

  1. Technical meeting (TM) to 'Review of national programmes on fast reactors and accelerator driven systems (ADS)'. Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR) (37th annual meeting). Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the 37th Annual Meeting of the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors, were to: 1) exchange information on the national programmes on Fast Reactors (FR) and Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS); 2) review the progress since the 36th TWG-FR Annual Meeting, including the status of the actions; 3) consider meeting arrangements for 2004 and 2005; 4) review the Agency's co-ordinated research activities in the field of FRs and ADS, as well as co-ordination of the TWG-FR's activities with other organizations. The participants made presentations on the status of the respective national programmes on FR and ADS development. A summary of the highlights for the period since the 36th TWG-FR Annual Meeting is included in this proceedings. Annex IV contains the Review of National Programs on Fast Reactors and Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS), and the TWG-FR Activity Report for the Period May 2003-April 2004

  2. MT DOE/EPSCoR planning grant. Annual technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromenshenk, J.J.; Scruggs, V.L.

    1992-08-31

    The Montana DOE/EPSCoR planning process has made significant changes in the state of Montana. This is exemplified by notification from the Department of Energy`s Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (DOE/EPSCoR) recommendation to fund Montana`s 1992 graduate traineeship grant proposal in the amount of $500,000. This is a new award to Montana. DOE traineeship reviewers recognized that our planning grant enabled us to develop linkages and build the foundation for a competitive energy-related research and traineeship program in Montana. During the planning, we identified three major focus areas: Energy Resource Base, Energy Production, and Environmental Effects. For each focus area, we detailed specific problem areas that the trainees may research. We also created MORE, a consortium of industrial affiliates, state organizations, the Montana University System (MUS), tribal colleges, and DOE national laboratories. MORE and our state-wide Research and Education Workshop improved and solidified working relationships. We received numerous letters of support. DOE reviewers endorsed our traineeship application process. They praised the linkage of each traineeship with a faculty advisor, and the preference for teams of faculty members and two or more students. ``Particularly commendable`` were our programs to involve Native American educators and the ``leveraging effect`` of this on the human resources in the state. Finally, the DOE reviewers indicated that cost-sharing via support of Native Americans was creative and positive.

  3. MT DOE/EPSCoR planning grant. [Annual Technical Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromenshenk, J.J.; Scruggs, V.L.

    1992-08-31

    The Montana DOE/EPSCoR planning process has made significant changes in the state of Montana. This is exemplified by notification from the Department of Energy's Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (DOE/EPSCoR) recommendation to fund Montana's 1992 graduate traineeship grant proposal in the amount of $500,000. This is a new award to Montana. DOE traineeship reviewers recognized that our planning grant enabled us to develop linkages and build the foundation for a competitive energy-related research and traineeship program in Montana. During the planning, we identified three major focus areas: Energy Resource Base, Energy Production, and Environmental Effects. For each focus area, we detailed specific problem areas that the trainees may research. We also created MORE, a consortium of industrial affiliates, state organizations, the Montana University System (MUS), tribal colleges, and DOE national laboratories. MORE and our state-wide Research and Education Workshop improved and solidified working relationships. We received numerous letters of support. DOE reviewers endorsed our traineeship application process. They praised the linkage of each traineeship with a faculty advisor, and the preference for teams of faculty members and two or more students. Particularly commendable'' were our programs to involve Native American educators and the leveraging effect'' of this on the human resources in the state. Finally, the DOE reviewers indicated that cost-sharing via support of Native Americans was creative and positive.

  4. Technical change, non-tariff barriers, and the development of the Italian locomotive industry, 1850-1913

    OpenAIRE

    Ciccarelli, Carlo; Nuvolari, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the dynamics of technical change in the Italian locomotive industry in the period 1850-1913. From an historical point of view, this industry presents a major point of interest: it was one of the few relatively sophisticated "high-tech" sectors in which Italy, a latecomer country, was able to set foot firmly before 1913. Using technical data on the performance of different vintages of locomotives, we construct a new industry-level index of technical change. Our reassessment...

  5. Forty-Fifth Annual Meeting of the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR). Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the meeting were to: • Exchange information on the national programmes on Fast Reactors (FR) and Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS); • Review the progress since the 44th TWG-FR Annual Meeting, including the status of the actions; • Consider topical technical meeting arrangements for 2012-2013, as well as review FR-related activities included in the IAEA Programme & Budget (P&B) biennium 2012-2013; • Review the IAEA’s concluded, on-going and planned coordinated research projects in the technical fields relevant to the TWG-FR (FRs and ADS), as well as coordination of the TWG-FR’s activities with other organizations and international initiatives (GIF, INPRO, NEA, ESNII, etc.). The 45th Meeting of the TWG-FR reached the following conclusions/recommendations: • The participants expressed satisfaction and appreciation for the large amount of new information on on-going activities carried out by the Member States in the field of FR and ADS exchanged during the meeting; • Also the organizations which have participated to the TWG-FR meeting for the first time expressed their appreciation for the lively discussion and the results and thanked the IAEA for inviting them at the meeting; • The meeting was very useful in particular for collecting inputs and advice in view of the preparation of the IAEA Programme & Budget 2014-2015 (and then 2016-2017) in the area of FR and ADS technology development; • The TWG-FR remains an unique international forum for information exchange in the field of fast neutron systems and for promoting RT&D activities in this area; • Due to the increasing interest in FR and in view of the forthcoming realizations, it would be advisable to increase the involvement of industries, regulators and other R&D organizations; • The annual TWG-FR meeting should focused on exchange of information on national and international programmes, avoiding duplications or overlapping’s with other IAEA initiatives in the field;

  6. Annual report of Department of Research Reactor and Tandem Accelerator, JFY2007. Operation, utilization and technical development of JRR-3, JRR-4, NSRR and tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Research Reactors and Tandem Accelerator is in charge of the operation, utilization and technical development of JRR-3(Japan Research Reactor-3), JRR-4(Japan Research Reactor-4), NSRR(Nuclear Safety Research Reactor) and Tandem Accelerator. This annual report describes a summary of activities of services and technical developments carried out in the period between April 1, 2007 and March 31, 2008. The activities were categorized into five service/development fields: (1) Operation and maintenance of research reactors and tandem accelerator. (2) Utilization of research reactors and tandem accelerator. (3) Upgrading of utilization techniques of research reactors and tandem accelerator. (4) Safety administration for research reactors and tandem accelerator. (5) International cooperation. Also contained are lists of publications, meetings, granted permissions on lows and regulations concerning atomic energy, commendation, plans and outcomes in service and technical developments and so on. (author)

  7. Annual report of Department of Research Reactor and Tandem Accelerator, JFY2009. Operation, utilization and technical development of JRR-3, JRR-4, NSRR and Tandem Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Research Reactors and Tandem Accelerator is in charge of the operation, utilization and technical development of JRR-3(Japan Research Reactor-3), JRR-4(Japan Research Reactor-4), NSRR(Nuclear Safety Research Reactor) and Tandem Accelerator. This annual report describes a summary of activities of services and technical developments carried out in the period between April 1, 2009 and March 31, 2010. The activities were categorized into five service/development fields: (1) Operation and maintenance of research reactors and tandem accelerator. (2) Utilization of research reactors and tandem accelerator. (3) Upgrading of utilization techniques of research reactors and tandem accelerator. (4) Safety administration for research reactors and tandem accelerator. (5) International cooperation. Also contained are lists of publications, meetings, granted permissions on lows and regulations concerning atomic energy, commendation, outcomes in service and technical developments and so on. (author)

  8. Annual report of Department of Research Reactor and Tandem Accelerator, JFY2008. Operation, utilization and technical development of JRR-3, JRR-4, NSRR and Tandem Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Research Reactors and Tandem Accelerator is in charge of the operation, utilization and technical development of JRR-3(Japan Research Reactor-3), JRR-4(Japan Research Reactor-4), NSRR(Nuclear Safety Research Reactor) and Tandem Accelerator. This annual report describes a summary of activities of services and technical developments carried out in the period between April 1, 2008 and March 31, 2009. The activities were categorized into five service/development fields: (1) Operation and maintenance of research reactors and tandem accelerator. (2) Utilization of research reactors and tandem accelerator. (3) Upgrading of utilization techniques of research reactors and tandem accelerator. (4) Safety administration for research reactors and tandem accelerator. (5) International cooperation. Also contained are lists of publications, meetings, granted permissions on lows and regulations concerning atomic energy, commendation, outcomes in service and technical developments and so on. (author)

  9. Dominant climatic factor driving annual runoff change at catchments scale over China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With global climate changes intensifying, the hydrological response to climate changes has attracted more attentions. It is beneficial not only for hydrology and ecology but also for water resources planning and management to reveal the impacts of climate change on runoff. It is of great significance of climate elasticity of runoff to estimate the impacts of climatic factors on runoff. In addition, there are large spatial variations in climate type and geography characteristics over China. To get a better understanding the spatial variation of runoff response to climate variables change and detect the dominant climatic factor driving annual runoff change, we chose the climate elasticity method proposed by Yang and Yang (2011, where the impact of the catchment characteristics on runoff was represented by a parameter n. The results show that the dominant climatic factor driving annual runoff is precipitation in the most part of China, net radiation in the lower reach of Yangtze River Basin, the Pearl River Basin, the Huai River Basin and the southeast area, and wind speed in part of the northeast China.

  10. Dominant climatic factors driving annual runoff changes at the catchment scale across China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhongwei; Yang, Hanbo; Yang, Dawen

    2016-07-01

    With global climate changes intensifying, the hydrological response to climate changes has attracted more attention. It is beneficial not only for hydrology and ecology but also for water resource planning and management to understand the impact of climate change on runoff. In addition, there are large spatial variations in climate type and geographic characteristics across China. To gain a better understanding of the spatial variation of the response of runoff to changes in climatic factors and to detect the dominant climatic factors driving changes in annual runoff, we chose the climate elasticity method proposed by Yang and Yang (2011). It is shown that, in most catchments of China, increasing air temperature and relative humidity have negative impacts on runoff, while declining net radiation and wind speed have positive impacts on runoff, which slow the overall decline in runoff. The dominant climatic factors driving annual runoff are precipitation in most parts of China, net radiation mainly in some catchments of southern China, air temperature and wind speed mainly in some catchments in northern China.

  11. Labor Unions, Directed Technical Change and Cross-Country Income Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Angus C.; Cozzi, Guido; Furukawa, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the macroeconomics effects of labor unions in a two-country model of directed technical change in which the market size of each country determines the incentives for innovation. We find that an increase in the bargaining power of a wage-oriented union leads to a decrease in employment in the domestic economy. This result has two important implications on innovation. First, it reduces the rates of innovation and economic growth. Second, it causes innovation to be directed t...

  12. Labor Unions, Directed Technical Change and Cross-Country Wage Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Angus C.; Cozzi, Guido; Furukawa, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the macroeconomics effects of labor unions in a two-country model of directed technical change in which the market size of each country determines the incentives for innovation. We find that an increase in the bargaining power of a wage-oriented union leads to a decrease in employment in the domestic economy. This result has two important implications on innovation. First, it reduces the rates of innovation and economic growth. Second, it causes innovation to be directed t...

  13. Skill biased technical change: panel evidence of task orientation, wage effects, and labor dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Existing empirical analyses of Skill Biased Technical Change focus on examining repeated cross-sections of individuals holding occupational task measures fixed. That approach cannot explore how wages respond to temporal variation in task orientation. This analysis examines wage effects using a synthetic panel of occupational task measures constructed from 17 releases of the O*NET database. This synthetic panel is combined with a panel of individual workers. Cross-occupational estimates that c...

  14. Technical Note: Evaluating a simple parameterization of radiative shortwave forcing from surface albedo change

    OpenAIRE

    R. M. Bright; Kvalevåg, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Land use activities affect Earth's energy balance not only via biogeochemical emissions but also through perturbations in surface albedo, the latter of which is often excluded in impact assessment studies. In this short technical note, we present and compare a simple model for estimating shortwave radiative forcings at the top of Earth's atmosphere to a more sophisticated 8-stream radiative transfer model based on a discrete ordinate method. Outcomes from monthly albedo change simulati...

  15. Cumulative Causation and Evolutionary Micro-Founded Technical Change. On the Determinants of Growth rate Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Llerena; André Lorentz

    2004-01-01

    We develop in this paper an alternative approach to the New Growth Theory to analyse growth rate differences among integrated economies. The model presented here considers economic growth as a disequilibrium process. It introduces in a cumulative causation framework, micro-founded process of technical change taking into account elements rooted in evolutionary and Neo-Austrian literature. We then attempt to open the ??Kaldor-Verdoorn law black-box?? using a microlevel modelling of industrial d...

  16. Cumulative causation and evolutionary micro-founded technical change: A growth model with integrated economies

    OpenAIRE

    Llerena, Patrick; Lorentz, André

    2003-01-01

    We propose to develop in this paper an alternative approach to the New Growth Theory to analyse growth rate divergence among integrated economies. The model presented here considers economic growth as a disequilibrium process. It introduces in a cumulative causation framework, micro-founded process of technical change taking into account elements rooted in evolutionary and Neo-Austrian literature. We then attempt to open the ‘Kaldor-Verdoorn law black-box’ using a micro-level modelling of ind...

  17. TECHNICAL CHANGE AND ELASTICITY OF FACTOR DEMAND IN RICE PRODUCTION IN BANGLADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Kamruzzaman, M.; Alam, Md. Ferdous; Abedin, Joynal

    1996-01-01

    The study was undertaken with a view to finding the technical change in agriculture and factor demand status of the rice crop of Bangladesh. The production technology of the farmers was represented by the translogarithmic cost function. The data were collected from secondary sources. The findings revealed that there was a complementary relationship between the human labor and bullock labor, bullock labor and fertilizer, seeds and fertilizer, seeds and irrigation and fertilizer and irrigation....

  18. Annual technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the present contract period Phaedrus has begun operation as a true tandem mirror. This was accomplished by achieving the rf sustained mode in which the plug densities were built up by a combination of central cell gas puffing and plug ICRH following stream gun turn off. It was demonstrated that the tandem mirror plasma could be sustained by plug ICRH for up to 1 msec following decay of the external plasma. In this mode plasma characteristics were no longer dominated by problems associated with a high conductivity stream gun plasma in the external region (as was the case in many previous experiments in Phaedrus). Among these problems were (1) line tying which significantly reduced instabilities in a way that would not apply to reactors and (2) low electron temperatures which had been held to approx. 20 eV

  19. Annual technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a Monte Carlo study of the thermal conductivity and impurity transport in a tokamak with an optimized bundle divertor configuration. This configuration has been designed to obtain the best plasma performance. When collisions and electric fields are included, the thermal conductivity was found to be 40% larger than that of an axisymmetric neoclassical value. Without a divertor the oxygen impurity was found to diffuse towards the center of the plasma as predicted theoretically. However, this impurity diffused outwardly when the divertor was turned on. Few impurity particles diffused into the plasma when launched in the scrape-off layer. This optimized bundle divertor meets the engineering constraints of a power producing reactor

  20. Change in the number of research projects and annual budgets for the Electrotechnical Laboratory in FY 1970-1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A change in the number of research projects pursued at ETL is reviewed in correlation with the annual budgets over 20 years from FY 1970, when the major reorganization of ETL took place, to FY 1989. (author)

  1. Continent-scale global change attribution in European birds - combining annual and decadal time scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Thorup, Kasper; Tøttrup, Anders P; Chylarecki, Przemysław; Jiguet, Frédéric; Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Noble, David G; Reif, Jiri; Schmid, Hans; van Turnhout, Chris; Burfield, Ian J; Foppen, Ruud; Voříšek, Petr; van Strien, Arco; Gregory, Richard D; Rahbek, Carsten

    2016-02-01

    Species attributes are commonly used to infer impacts of environmental change on multiyear species trends, e.g. decadal changes in population size. However, by themselves attributes are of limited value in global change attribution since they do not measure the changing environment. A broader foundation for attributing species responses to global change may be achieved by complementing an attributes-based approach by one estimating the relationship between repeated measures of organismal and environmental changes over short time scales. To assess the benefit of this multiscale perspective, we investigate the recent impact of multiple environmental changes on European farmland birds, here focusing on climate change and land use change. We analyze more than 800 time series from 18 countries spanning the past two decades. Analysis of long-term population growth rates documents simultaneous responses that can be attributed to both climate change and land-use change, including long-term increases in populations of hot-dwelling species and declines in long-distance migrants and farmland specialists. In contrast, analysis of annual growth rates yield novel insights into the potential mechanisms driving long-term climate induced change. In particular, we find that birds are affected by winter, spring, and summer conditions depending on the distinct breeding phenology that corresponds to their migratory strategy. Birds in general benefit from higher temperatures or higher primary productivity early on or in the peak of the breeding season with the largest effect sizes observed in cooler parts of species' climatic ranges. Our results document the potential of combining time scales and integrating both species attributes and environmental variables for global change attribution. We suggest such an approach will be of general use when high-resolution time series are available in large-scale biodiversity surveys. PMID:26486804

  2. Emphysema distribution and annual changes in pulmonary function in male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanabe Naoya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD considerably varies among patients. Those with emphysema identified by quantitative computed tomography (CT are associated with the rapid progression assessed by forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1. However, whether the rate of the decline in lung function is independently affected by the regional distribution or the severity of emphysema in the whole lung is unclear. Methods We followed up 131 male patients with COPD for a median of 3.7 years. We measured wall area percent (WA% in right apical segmental bronchus, total lung volume, percent low attenuation volume (LAV%, and the standard deviation (SD of LAV% values from CT images of 10 isovolumetric partitions (SD-LAV as an index of cranial-caudal emphysema heterogeneity. Annual changes in FEV1 were then determined using a random coefficient model and relative contribution of baseline clinical parameters, pulmonary function, and CT indexes including LAV%, SD-LAV, and WA% to annual changes in FEV1 were examined. Results The mean (SD annual change in FEV1 was −44.4 (10.8 mL. Multivariate random coefficient model showed that higher baseline FEV1, higher LAV%, current smoking, and lower SD-LAV independently contributed to an excessive decline in FEV1, whereas ratio of residual volume to total lung capacity, ratio of diffusing capacity to alveolar ventilation, and WA% did not, after adjusting for age, height, weight, and ratio of CT-measured total lung volume to physiologically-measured total lung capacity. Conclusions A more homogeneous distribution of emphysema contributed to an accelerated decline in FEV1 independently of baseline pulmonary function, whole-lung emphysema severity, and smoking status. In addition to whole-lung analysis of emphysema, CT assessment of the cranial-caudal distribution of emphysema might be useful for predicting rapid, progressive disease and for developing a targeted

  3. Seasonal Changes in Atmospheric Noise Levels and the Annual Variation in Pigeon Homing Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrum, J. T.; McIsaac, H. P.; Drob, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    The remarkable navigational ability of homing pigeons (Columba livia) is influenced by a number of factors, an unknown one of which causes the "Wintereffekt"1 or annual variation in homing performance. Minima in homeward orientation and return speeds have been observed in winter, with maxima in summer, during repetitive pigeon releases from single sites near experimental lofts in Wilhelmshaven, Göttingen, and Munich, Germany, and near Pisa, Italy1-4. Overall the annual variation is more pronounced in northern Germany than Italy4, and both mature and juvenile cohorts respond to this seasonal factor. Older, more experienced pigeons are better at compensating for its effects than naïve ones, but are still affected after numerous releases. The narrow low-frequency band of atmospheric background noise (microbaroms; 0.1-0.3 Hz) also varies with an annual cycle that generally has higher amplitudes in winter than in summer depending on location5. In addition, homing pigeons, and possibly other birds, apparently use infrasonic signals of similar frequency as navigational cues6, and a seasonal variation in background noise levels could cause corresponding changes in signal-to-noise ratios and thus in homing performance. The annual variation in homing performance, however, was not observed during long-term pigeon releases at two sites in eastern North America. The annual and geographic variability in homing performance in the northern hemisphere can be explained to a first order by seasonal changes in infrasonic noise sources related to ocean storm activity, and to the direction and intensity of stratospheric winds. In addition, increased dispersion in departure bearings of individual birds for some North American releases were likely caused by additional infrasonic noise associated with severe weather events during tornado and Atlantic hurricane seasons. 1Kramer, G. & von Saint Paul, U., J. Ornithol. 97, 353-370 (1956); 2Wallraff, H. G., Z. Tierpsychol. 17, 82-113 (1960

  4. Explaining technical change in a small country the Finnish national innovation system

    CERN Document Server

    Vuorinen, Pentti

    1994-01-01

    Technical change is produced by the interaction of a large number of technical, economic, social and institutional factors. One of the starting points is the concept of national innovation systems. The aim of this book is to take Finland as an example illustrating the challenges faced by small countries. The characteristics and performance of the Finnish national innovation system of the last couple of decades are analyzed. The Finnish experience is put in a broader context by comparing it with a few other countries. The development paths possible in the near future are assessed. According to the results, many problems remain despite favourable developments in several technology indicators. The rigidities of the social institutions created during the 1970s and 1980s seem to have become obstacles for economic and technological development. There are fairly large differences between the countries studied, and even between the culturally and historically close Nordic countries. However,Finland and Sweden seem to...

  5. 76 FR 7810 - Notice of Proposed Change to Section I of the South Dakota and North Dakota State Technical Guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ...The NRCS State Conservationists for South Dakota and North Dakota have determined that changes must be made to the NRCS State Technical Guides concerning State wetland mapping conventions. The two States are proposing to issue joint State wetland mapping conventions. The joint State wetland mapping conventions will be used as part of the technical documents to conduct wetland determinations on......

  6. Inter-annual precipitation changes as quadratic signals in the GRACE time-variable gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, R.; Chao, B. F.; Heki, K.

    2009-04-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission has been producing scientific results on mass variations on inter-annual timescales, e.g. melting of ice sheet in Greenland and mountain glaciers in Alaska, Eastern Africa drought, water level increase in Caspian Sea, etc. In these discussions only linear trends and the seasonal components have been analyzed in the monthly GRACE time series, whereas little attention has been paid so far to the existence of the quadratic changes which signify the temporal accelerations. With over 6 years of GRACE data and revisiting the time-variable gravity field of various regions, we find that such acceleration/deceleration terms are quite often significantly different from zero. They include East Africa, near Obi River, Caspian Sea, Black Sea, Central Asia, and southern South America, whereof discussions of linear trends without specifying the epochs are inadequate. Here we investigate geophysical implication of these quadratic terms; in particular gravity changes in land areas reflect, to a large extent, soil moisture variations. Soil moisture is the time integration of water fluxes, i.e. precipitation, evapotranspiration and runoff. Here we consider that the linear trend in precipitation is responsible for the quadratic change in gravity, and examine trends of observed precipitation in various regions from CMAP (Climate Prediction Center Merged Analysis of Precipitation). Thus, in order to compare linear trend in CMAP and acceleration in GRACE, we calculate month-to-month difference of equivalent water depth at GRACE grid points, and modeled them with seasonal variations and linear trends. We found good agreement between their geographical distributions although amplitudes are smaller in GRACE, meaning the quadratic gravity changes in the GRACE data do reflect inter-annual changes of precipitation fairly faithfully.

  7. Changes in the anaerobic threshold in an annual cycle of sport training of young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwowski, R; Andrzejewski, M; Wieczorek, A; Barinow-Wojewódzki, A; Jadczak, L; Adrian, S; Pietrzak, M; Wieczorek, S

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study was to assess changes in the anaerobic threshold of young soccer players in an annual training cycle. A group of highly trained 15-18 year old players of KKS Lech Poznań were tested. The tests included an annual training macrocycle, and its individual stages resulted from the time structure of the sports training. In order to assess the level of exercise capacities of the players, a field exercise test of increasing intensity was carried out on a soccer pitch. The test made it possible to determine the 4 millimolar lactate threshold (T LA 4 mmol · l(-1)) on the basis of the lactate concentration in blood [LA], to establish the threshold running speed and the threshold heart rate [HR]. The threshold running speed at the level of the 4 millimolar lactate threshold was established using the two-point form of the equation of a straight line. The obtained indicators of the threshold running speed allowed for precise establishment of effort intensity used in individual training in developing aerobic endurance. In order to test the significance of differences in mean values between four dates of tests, a non-parametric Friedman ANOVA test was used. The significance of differences between consecutive dates of tests was determined using a post-hoc Friedman ANOVA test. The tests showed significant differences in values of selected indicators determined at the anaerobic threshold in various stages of an annual training cycle of young soccer players. The most beneficial changes in terms of the threshold running speed were noted on the fourth date of tests, when the participants had the highest values of 4.01 m · s(-1) for older juniors, and 3.80 m · s(-1) for younger juniors. This may be indicative of effective application of an individualized programme of training loads and of good preparation of teams for competition in terms of players' aerobic endurance. PMID:24744480

  8. Response of larch root development to annual changes of water conditions in eastern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Chisato; Miyahara, Mie; Ohta, Takeshi; Maximov, Trofim C.

    2016-06-01

    Eastern Siberia is characterized by continuous permafrost, and has recently been exposed to the effects of climate change. Larch, which is the dominant tree species, has been subject to major environmental changes including fluctuations in soil water content. The purpose of this study was to clarify the responses of mature larch tree roots to changes in soil water conditions. We established a treatment plot in a larch forest, and artificially changed the soil water conditions by covering the ground surface with a vinyl sheet, and from 2004 to 2006 monitored root development through root windows. The vinyl sheet maintained high levels of soil water content, even though the ambient conditions varied from dry in 2004 to wet in 2005 and dry in 2006. In the treatment plot the plants adapted to the wet conditions by decreasing vertical root development. In contrast, roots of plants in the control plot developed to the subsurface layer, even in 2005, and did not develop vertically in 2006 despite the drought. We conclude that larch adapted to the annual changes in soil water content by changing the vertical distribution of roots, and that this reflected a memory effect.

  9. Annual meeting on nuclear technology '88. Technical session on focal points of the atomic energy law and the radiation protection law in 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of Annual Meeting on Nuclear Technology reports presents the papers of the technical session on 'Focal points of the atomic energy law and the radiation protection law in 1988'. The titles are: Is there a binding link between decisions of the atomic energy authority and criminal law? Conclusions to be drawn from the Alkem case court decision. - Recent developments in atomic energy law. - Current radiation protection law. - Codetermination at plant level in a nuclear installation. - The legal position of foreigners from neigbour countries in the field of atomic energy law. The licensing of nuclear installations near the border. (RST)

  10. Historical changes in the annual number of large floods in North America and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkins, G. A.; Whitfield, P. H.; Hannaford, J.; Burn, D. H.; Renard, B.; Stahl, K.; Fleig, A.; Madsen, H.; Mediero, L.; Korhonen, J.; Murphy, C.; Crochet, P.; Wilson, D.

    2013-12-01

    Many studies have analyzed historical changes in low magnitude floods, such as the annual peak flow, at a national or regional scale. However, the river basins used have often been influenced by human alterations such as reservoir regulation or urbanization. No known studies have analyzed changes in large floods (greater than 25-year return period) at a continental scale for minimally impacted basins. To fill this research gap, this study analyzed flood flows from reference hydrologic networks (RHNs) or RHN-like gauges in North America (United States and Canada) and Europe (United Kingdom, Ireland, France, Spain, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Iceland, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, and Finland). RHNs are formally defined networks in several countries that comprise gauging stations with a natural or near-natural flow regime and provide good quality data. Selected RHN-like gauges were included following a major effort to ensure RHN-like status through consultation with local experts. Peak flows with recurrence intervals of 25, 50, and 100 years were estimated using consistent methods for over 1200 study gauges, and peak flows at each gauge that exceeded these flood thresholds in the last 40-100 years were compiled. Continental and regional trends over time in the annual number of large floods, with regions differentiated by type of hydrological regime (pluvial, nival, mixed), are being computed and will be presented at AGU. The unique dataset used for this study is an example of successful international collaboration on hydro-climatic data exchange, which is potentially a step towards establishing RHN or RHN-like networks on a global scale. Analysis of flows from such networks would make a valuable contribution to the understanding of historical global hydrological change and would help inform expected future hydrologic changes.

  11. Coastal Adaptation to Climate Change. Can the IPCC Technical Guidelines be applied?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper evaluates the IPCC Technical Guidelines for Assessing Climate Change Impacts and Adaptations with respect to the guidance offered for coastal-adaptation assessment. It appears that the IPCC Technical Guidelines focus strongly on implementation. This paper uses both conceptual, and empirical information is used in this paper to show that coastal adaptation embraces more than selecting one of the 'technical' options to respond to sea-level rise (retreat, accommodate or protect). Coastal adaptation is a more complex and iterative process with a series of policy cycles. To be effective, an expanded adaptation framework involving four steps is suggested, including (1) information collection and awareness raising; (2) planning and design; (3) implementation, and (4) monitoring and evaluation. The incomplete coverage of these four steps in existing coastal-adaptation assessments constrains the development of adaptation strategies that are supported by the relevant actors and integrated into existing management. Researchers and policy-makers are recommended to work together to establish a framework for adaptation that is integrated within current coastal management processes and practices and takes a broader view on the subject. 46 refs

  12. Confronting Regulatory Cost and Quality Expectations. An Exploration of Technical Change in Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Margaret [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Spurlock, C. Anna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yang, Hung-Chia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-21

    The dual purpose of this project was to contribute to basic knowledge about the interaction between regulation and innovation and to inform the cost and benefit expectations related to technical change which are embedded in the rulemaking process of an important area of national regulation. The area of regulation focused on here is minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) for appliances and other energy-using products. Relevant both to U.S. climate policy and energy policy for buildings, MEPS remove certain product models from the market that do not meet specified efficiency thresholds.

  13. Inter-Annual and Decadal Changes in Tropospheric and Stratospheric Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemke, Jr. R.; Chandra, S.

    2011-01-01

    Ozone data beginning October 2004 from the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) are used to evaluate the accuracy of the Cloud slicing technique in effort to develop long data records of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone and studying their long-term changes. Using this technique, we have produced a 32-year (1979-2010) long record of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone from the combined Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (Toms) and OMI. The analyses of these time series suggest that the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) is the dominant source of inter-annual changes of 30-40 Dobson Units (DU). Tropospheric ozone also indicates a QBO signal in the peak to peak changes varying from 2 to 7 DU. Decadal changes in global stratospheric ozone indicate a turnaround in ozone loss around mid 1990's with most of these changes occurring in the Northern Hemisphere from the subtropics to high latitudes. The trend results are generally consistent with the prediction of chemistry climate models which include the reduction of ozone destroying substances beginning in the late 1980's mandated by the Montreal Protocol.

  14. Technical evaluation report on the proposed design modifications and technical specification changes on grid voltage degradation for the Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the proposed design modifications and Technical Specification change for protection of Class 1E equipment from grid voltage degradation for the Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1. The review criteria are based on several IEEE standards and the Code of Federal Regulations. The evaluation finds that the licensee has not provided sufficient information on the undervoltage protection system to allow a complete evaluation into the adequacy of protecting the Class 1E equipment from sustained voltage degradation

  15. Changes in annual CO2 fluxes estimated from inventory data in South Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lee; Dowon; Yook; Keun; Hyung; Lee; Dongseon; Kang; Sinkyu; Kang; Hojeong; Lim; Jong; Hwan; Lee; Kyeong; Hak

    2002-01-01

    Using a slightly modified IPCC method, we examined changes in annual fluxes of CO2 and contributions of energy consumption, limestone use, waste combustion, land-use change, and forest growth to the fluxes in South Korea from 1990to 1997. Our method required less data and resulted in a larger estimate of CO2released by industrial processes, comparing with the original IPCC guideline. However, net CO2 emission is not substantially different from the estimates of IPCC and modified methods. Net CO2 emission is intimately related to GDP as Koreaneconomy has heavily relied on energy consumption and industrial activities, which are major sources of CO2. Total efflux of CO2 was estimated to be 63.6 Tg C/ain 1990 and amounted to 112.9 Tg C/a in 1997. Land-use change contributed to annual budget of CO2 in a relatively small portion. Carbon dioxide was sequesteredby forest biomass at the rate of 6.5 Tg C/a in 1990 and 8.5 Tg C/a in 1997. Although CO2 storage in the forests increased, the sink effect was overwhelmed by extensive energy consumption, suggesting that energy-saving strategies will be more effective in reducing CO2 emission in Korea than any other practices. It is presumed that plant uptake of CO2 is underestimated as carbon contained in plant detritus and belowground living biomass were not fully considered. Furthermore, the soil organic carbon stored in forest decomposes in various ways in rugged mountains depending on their conditions, such as slope, aspect and elevation, which could have an effect on decomposition rate and carbon stores in soils. Thus, carbon sequestration of forests deserves further attention.

  16. The Scientific Value and Technical Challenge of Chang'E-4 Landing on the Far-side of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Zhang, He; Wu, Xueying; Ma, Jinan; Zhou, Wenyan

    2016-07-01

    The mission of Chang'E-4 probe is landing on the far-side of the moon for the first time in human history. Compared with the near-side, far-side landing has unique scientific value and more challenging technology implementation. The scientific significance of the exploration of far-side of the moon and the technical difficulties and solution approach of the Chang'E-4 were discussed in this paper. In science, the far-side of the Moon is an ideal scientific platform in that it is shielded from terrestrial radio-frequency interference. The terrane that records the formation of the primordial crust is located largely on the far-side hemisphere, and there is the largest and oldest recognized impact basin in our Solar System, the South Pole-Aitken basin. In technology, the difficulties mainly includes the analysis of the influence of lunar topography of far-side on the landing descent strategy, the study of relay orbit and operating modes for the relay satellite in the Earth-Moon L2(Lagrange point 2), and the requirement analysis of autonomous management due to the relay communication. It will provide the reference for landing exploration of the far-side of the moon.

  17. Outcome indicators for the evaluation of energy policy instruments and technical change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to propose a framework for the evaluation of policy instruments designed to affect development and dissemination of new energy technologies. The evaluation approach is based on the analysis of selected outcome indicators describing the process of technical change, i.e. the development and dissemination of new energy technologies, on the basis of a socio-technical systems approach. The outcome indicators are used to analyse the effect, in terms of outcome, and outcome scope of the policy instruments as well as the extent to which the policy instruments support diversity, learning and institutional change. The analysis of two cases of evaluations, of energy efficiency policy and wind energy policy in Sweden, shows that the approach has several advantages, allowing continuous evaluation and providing important information for the redesign of policy instruments. There are also disadvantages associated with the approach, such as complexity, possible high cost and the requirement of qualified evaluators. Nevertheless, it is concluded that the information on the continuous performance of different policy instruments and their effects on the introduction and dissemination of new energy technologies, provided by this evaluation approach, is essential for an improved adaptation and implementation of energy and climate policy

  18. Impacts of land use change and climate variations on annual inflow into Miyun Reservoir, Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, J. K.; Sun, G.; Li, W. H.; Yu, X. X.; Zhang, C.; Gong, Y. B.; Tu, L. H.

    2015-08-01

    Miyun reservoir, the only surface water source for Beijing city, has experienced water supply decline in recent decades. Previous studies suggest that both land use change and climate contributes the changes of water supply in this critical watershed. However, the specific causes of the decline in Miyun reservoir are debatable in a non-stationary climate in the past four decades. The central objective of this study was to quantify the separate and collective contributions of land use change and climate variability to the decreasing inflow into Miyun reservoir during 1961-2008. Different from previous studies, this work objectively identified breakpoints by analyzing the long-term historical hydrometeorology and land cover records. To effectively study the different impacts of the climate variation and land cover change during different sub-periods, annual water balance model (AWB), climate elasticity model (CEM), and rainfall-runoff model (RRM) were employed to conduct attribution analysis synthetically. We found a significant decrease in annual streamflow (p 0.1) during 1961-2008. Combined with historical records, we identified two breakpoints as in 1983 and 1999 for the period 1961-2008 by the sequential Mann-Kendall Test and Double Mass Curve. Climate variability alone did not explain the decrease in inflow to Miyun reservoir. Reduction of water yield was closely related to increase in evapotranspiration rates due to the expansion of forestlands and reduction in cropland and grassland, and was likely exacerbated by increased water consumption for domestic and industrial uses in the basin. Our study found that the contribution to the observed streamflow decline from land use change fell from 64-92 % during 1984-1999 to 36-58 % during 2000-2008, whereas the contribution from climate variation climbed from 8-36 % during the 1984-1999 to 42-64 % during 2000-2008. Model uncertainty analysis further demonstrated that climate warming played a dominant role in

  19. Annual activities report of Brazilian Aerospace Technical Center -CTA/IEAv - 1989; Relatorio anual de atividades - CTA/IEAv - 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-12-31

    This document reports the research activities on nuclear physics and reactors physics and engineering in the Brazilian Aerospace Technical Center/Advanced Studies Institute, Sao Paulo State, in the year of 1989.

  20. Technical Note: Evaluating a simple parameterization of radiative shortwave forcing from surface albedo change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Bright

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Land use activities affect Earth's energy balance not only via biogeochemical emissions but also through perturbations in surface albedo, the latter of which is often excluded in impact assessment studies. In this short technical note, we present and compare a simple model for estimating shortwave radiative forcings at the top of Earth's atmosphere to a more sophisticated 8-stream radiative transfer model based on a discrete ordinate method. Outcomes from monthly albedo change simulations for ten globally distributed regions and a single year revealed that the simple model – based on a single exogenously supplied meteorological variable – performed quite well, having a sample correlation coefficient of 0.93 and a normalized root mean square error of 7.2%. Simple models like the one presented here can offer an attractive and efficient means for non-experts to begin including albedo change considerations in climate impact assessment studies enveloping land use activities.

  1. Annual changes in abundance of non-indigenous marine benthos on a very large spatial scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mads S.; Wernberg, Thomas; Stæhr, Peter Anton;

    2008-01-01

    in abundance, NIMS of particular interest were found to be Mya arenaria and Bonemaissonia hamifera (abundant), Crepidula fornicata, Ensis americanus, Neanthes succinea (a cryptogenic species), Marenzelleria spp. (increasing), and Sargassum muticum (abundant and increasing). In addition, new and/or warm......Non-indigenous marine species (NIMS) have only recently caught general interest in Denmark, and baseline studies are needed to identify what species are of particular importance in order to prioritize management and research efforts. We used large data sets compiled in monitoring databases...... to quantify annual nation-wide changes in abundance of non-indigenous soft-bottom invertebrates (from grab samples) and hard-bottom macroalgae (from diver based percent cover values) in Denmark. Based on criteria of being either abundant (constituting >1% of the entire Danish assemblages) or increasing...

  2. Final Technical Report: "Representing Endogenous Technological Change in Climate Policy Models: General Equilibrium Approaches"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian Sue Wing

    2006-04-18

    The research supported by this award pursued three lines of inquiry: (1) The construction of dynamic general equilibrium models to simulate the accumulation and substitution of knowledge, which has resulted in the preparation and submission of several papers: (a) A submitted pedagogic paper which clarifies the structure and operation of computable general equilibrium (CGE) models (C.2), and a review article in press which develops a taxonomy for understanding the representation of technical change in economic and engineering models for climate policy analysis (B.3). (b) A paper which models knowledge directly as a homogeneous factor, and demonstrates that inter-sectoral reallocation of knowledge is the key margin of adjustment which enables induced technical change to lower the costs of climate policy (C.1). (c) An empirical paper which estimates the contribution of embodied knowledge to aggregate energy intensity in the U.S. (C.3), followed by a companion article which embeds these results within a CGE model to understand the degree to which autonomous energy efficiency improvement (AEEI) is attributable to technical change as opposed to sub-sectoral shifts in industrial composition (C.4) (d) Finally, ongoing theoretical work to characterize the precursors and implications of the response of innovation to emission limits (E.2). (2) Data development and simulation modeling to understand how the characteristics of discrete energy supply technologies determine their succession in response to emission limits when they are embedded within a general equilibrium framework. This work has produced two peer-reviewed articles which are currently in press (B.1 and B.2). (3) Empirical investigation of trade as an avenue for the transmission of technological change to developing countries, and its implications for leakage, which has resulted in an econometric study which is being revised for submission to a journal (E.1). As work commenced on this topic, the U.S. withdrawal

  3. Seasonal changes in stable carbon isotope ratios within annual growth rings of Pinus radiata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stable isotope composition of photosynthetically assimilated carbon (δ13C) is determined by the ratio of the leaf internal CO2 concentration (ci) to that of the ambient air (ca), and so reflects the contribution of both stomatal conductance (gs) and the rate of photosynthesis (A). Assimilated carbon which is subsequently laid down as wood in annual growth rings may therefore represent a time integrated record of physiological responses by the whole tree to seasonal changes in the environmental variables regulating growth. We analysed the stable carbon isotope composition of Pinus radiata wood collected from two plantation forest sites in New Zealand which differ markedly in temperature, rainfall and soil characteristics. For both sites, discs were cut from the stem of several trees near ground level and whole wood samples were taken from within individual annual growth rings over a number of years. At one site, diameter bands were installed over the 1994 - 1996 growing seasons in order to date precisely the formation of wood during that time. Trees at each site consistently showed a seasonal pattern in the stable isotope composition of wood within individual growth rings. The amplitude of seasonal δ13C variation at the wet and dry sites were 1-2 per thousand and 4 per thousand respectively. Mean δ13C values from the wet site were 3 per thousand more 13C depleted than those from the dry site implying lower water-use efficiency (carbon assimilation per unit transpiration). A process-based, model of stomatal conductance and CO2 assimilation was combined with a soil-water balance model to estimate the average daily leaf-level intercellular CO2 concentration (ci). Over two growing seasons at each site there was generally good agreement between mean canopy-level ci derived from the tree-ring δ13C data and modelled leaf-level ci levels. Further, the ratio of annual CO2 assimilation to transpiration estimated by the model for each site correlated with the

  4. 76 FR 18649 - Technical Revisions to Actuarial Information on Form 5500 Annual Return/Report for Pension Plans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... Form 5500 Annual Return/Report for Pension Plans Electing Funding Alternatives Under Pension Relief Act... defined benefit pension plans under the Preservation of Access to Care for Medicare Beneficiaries and Pension Relief Act of 2010 (Pension Relief Act). The information that would be required either by way...

  5. The technical results of the Swedish nuclear weapons programme - a compilation of FOAs annual reports 1945-1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim with this report is to summarise FOAs nuclear weapons related research that was performed 1945-1972. The report is a compilation of FOAs annual reports that originally were in a classified form but have now - mostly - been declassified. References to separate reports in the different research areas are included in the report

  6. Technical changes that would contribute to success in the civilian radioactive waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many changes have taken place since the SCP safety strategy was formulated; it needs to be revised or replaced. Four concepts would aid in the shift from a rigid, ecelctic, schedule-driven, all-or-nothing program to an incremental, evolving, and experimental but integrated program. These are a simple safety case, reversability, demonstrability, and decoupling operations of a repository from operation of reactors. A simple safety case based on containment can be made for a repository at Yucca Mountain. This containment strategy is based on the dryness of openings at Yucca Mountain, Extended Dry heat management, and long-lived containers. Reversibility is technically believable at Yucca Mountain because of extended retrievability and drift emplacement, if an MRS were co-located with the repository. Because the rock is unsaturated, extended retrievability is technically feasible at Yucca Mountain. Demonstrability could be improved at Yucca Mountain by planning for incremental progression toward operation and closure of a repository, possibly including a shift to underground retrievable storage. Demonstrability can also be improved by using natural analogs. Repository operation can be decoupled from reactor operation by use of an unconstrained MRS facility or at-reactor dry storage and multipurpose storage canister/casks

  7. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini RTG Program. Semi annual technical progress report, September 26, 1994--April 2, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-20

    The technical progress achieved during the period 26 September 1994 through 2 April 1995 on Contract DE-AC03-91SF18852 Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators and Ancillary Activities is described herein. Monthly technical activity for the period 27 February 1995 through 2 April 1995 is included in this progress report. The report addresses tasks, including: spacecraft integration and liaison; engineering support; safety; qualified unicouple production; ETG Fabrication, assembly, and test; ground support equipment; RTG shipping and launch support; designs, reviews, and mission applications; project management, quality assurance, reliability, contract changes, CAGO acquisition (operating funds), and CAGO maintenance and repair; and CAGO acquisition (capital funds).

  8. Technical-evaluation report on the proposed technical-specification changes for the inservice surveillance of safety-related hydraulic and mechanical snubbers at the Maine Yankee Nuclear Power Plant (Docket No. 50-309)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the proposed Technical Specification changes to Limiting Conditions for Operation, Surveillance Requirements and Bases for safety-related hydraulic and mechanical snubbers at the Maine Yankee Nuclear Power Plant. The evaluation is to determine whether the proposed Technical Specifications are in conformance with the model Standard Technical Specification set forth by the NRC. A check list, Appendix A of this report, compares the licensee's submittal with the NRC requirements and includes Proposed Resolution of the Deviations

  9. Annual cycles of organochlorine pesticide enantiomers in Arctic air suggest changing sources and pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidleman, T. F.; Jantunen, L. M.; Hung, H.; Ma, J.; Stern, G. A.; Rosenberg, B.; Racine, J.

    2015-02-01

    Air samples collected during 1994-2000 at the Canadian Arctic air monitoring station Alert (82°30' N, 62°20' W) were analysed by enantiospecific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), trans-chlordane (TC) and cis-chlordane (CC). Results were expressed as enantiomer fractions (EF = peak areas of (+)/[(+) + (-)] enantiomers), where EFs = 0.5, 0.5 indicate racemic composition, and preferential depletion of (+) and (-) enantiomers, respectively. Long-term average EFs were close to racemic values for α -HCH (0.504 ± 0.004, n = 197) and CC (0.505 ± 0.004, n = 162), and deviated farther from racemic for TC (0.470 ± 0.013, n = 165). Digital filtration analysis revealed annual cycles of lower α-HCH EFs in summer-fall and higher EFs in winter-spring. These cycles suggest volatilization of partially degraded α-HCH with EF 0.5 during the cold season. The contribution of sea-volatilized α-HCH was only 11% at Alert, vs. 32% at Resolute Bay (74.68° N, 94.90° W) in 1999. EFs of TC also followed annual cycles of lower and higher values in the warm and cold seasons. These were in phase with low and high cycles of the TC/CC ratio (expressed as FTC = TC/(TC+CC)), which suggests greater contribution of microbially "weathered" TC in summer-fall versus winter-spring. CC was closer to racemic than TC and displayed seasonal cycles only in 1997-1998. EF profiles are likely to change with rising contribution of secondary emission sources, weathering of residues in the environment, and loss of ice cover in the Arctic. Enantiomer-specific analysis could provide added forensic capability to air monitoring programs.

  10. Changes in Muscle Strength in U19 Soccer Players During an Annual Training Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert Michal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the seasonal variation in isokinetic strength of the knee flexors and extensors, and conventional (H/QCONV and functional (H/QFUNC hamstring to quadriceps strength ratios in highly trained adolescent soccer players. The players (n=11; age 17.8±0.3 were measured at the end of the competitive season (autumn, at the beginning and the end of pre-season (winter and during the sixth week of a new competitive season. Isokinetic peak torque (concentric and eccentric was measured at 60°•s-1 in a sitting position with the hip flexed at 100°. The testing range of motion was set from 10 - 90° of knee flexion. The players performed a set of five maximum repetitions for both the dominant and non-dominant leg. Statistically significant differences (p<0.001 between the four seasonal measurements were noted for peak torque of the dominant leg knee flexors in concentric muscle action only. A post hoc analysis revealed a statistically significant increase in peak torque from the 1st to the 4th measurement (p<0.001; d=0.692 and from the 2nd to the 4th (p<0.01; d=0.564. The differences in the changes of peak torque of the knee flexors and extensors depending on type of muscle action and tendencies found in the H/Q ratios throughout the annual training cycle indicate that strength assessment of the knee flexors and extensors and their balance throughout the annual training cycle could be beneficial for elite male adolescent soccer players both in terms of performance and risk of injury.

  11. An endogenous growth model with embodied energy-saving technical change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we extend the Romer [Journal of Political Economy 98 (Part 2) (1990) S271] model in two ways. First we include energy consumption of intermediates. Second, intermediates become heterogeneous due to endogenous energy-saving technical change. We show that the resulting model can still generate steady state growth, but the growth rate depends negatively on the growth of real energy prices. The reason is that real energy price rises will lower the profitability of using new intermediate goods, and hence, the profitability of doing research, and therefore have a negative impact on growth. We also show that the introduction of an energy tax that is recycled in the form of an R and D subsidy may increase growth. We conclude that in order to have energy efficiency growth and output growth under rising real energy prices, a combination of R and D and energy policy is called for

  12. Annual and seasonal water storage changes detected from GRACE data in the La Plata Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ayelen; Pacino, María Cristina

    2012-12-01

    The gravity does not remain constant, but changes over time depending on the redistribution of the masses. Aquatic environments, like a river basin, perform important functions in nature such as control of climate, floods and nutrients; and they also provide goods and services for humanity. To monitor these environments at large spatial scales, the satellite gravity mission GRACE provides time-variable gravity field models that reflect the Earth's gravity field variations due to mass transport processes, like continental water storage variations. The La Plata Basin is the second largest in South America and is a sample of the abundance, variety and quality of natural resources and possibilities offered in connection with the production of goods and services. The objective of this work is to analyze GRACE capability to monitor the water storage variations in the La Plata Basin. Firstly, GRACE solutions from four different processing centers are used to estimate the gravity trend and gravity amplitude over this basin. Afterwards, the calculated hydrological signal is used to obtain mass change models over this hydrographic system's area, using two different methods and for the period from 2002 to 2009. Next, the annual and seasonal water storage changes from GRACE solutions are validated in Argentina by rainfall data over the time periods where extreme weather conditions took place. The results indicate that GRACE detected the variations of the continental water storage in the La Plata Basin, and particularly, it detected the important decrease in the South of the basin. Moreover, a coherency between the estimates of water mass changes and rainfall data was found, which shows that GRACE also detected extreme weather events (such as drought and intense rain episodes) that occurred in the 2004-2009 period in Argentina.

  13. Fourth annual progress report for Canada's Climate Change Voluntary Challenge and Registry program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Examples of how greenhouse gas issues are being integrated into management processes within Suncor Energy Inc. are described in this fourth annual progress report to the Climate Change Voluntary Challenge and Registry Program. The report covers Suncor's three operating businesses - oil sands and conventional oil exploration and production in Western Canada, and refining and marketing operation in Ontario. Oil sands was the largest source of greenhouse emissions, accounting for 2/3 of the total. Carbon dioxide emissions accounted for 93 per cent of total emissions. This report addresses three areas of change: one of these is Project Millennium in the oil sands division, which is a major expansion project planned for efficiency improvements. As a result of the project, total greenhouse gas emissions will increase to 9.3 million tonnes by the year 2002, in terms of operating efficiency, emissions per unit of production will continue to decline from 0.54 tonnes ECO2 in 1990 to 0.44 tonnes ECO2 in 2002, a reduction of 18 per cent. Another change is that target reductions in the Kyoto Protocol will supersede informal Canadian commitments for the year 2000, if the protocol is ratified. Thirdly, Suncor's greenhouse gas emission forecast has been extended to the year 2002 to demonstrate the impact of Project Millennium and to clarify the changes during the transition period relative to previous forecasts. New initiatives to be undertaken during 1998-2002 include heat recovery in new upgrader units, recycling diluent used in bitumen extraction without cooling, recovery of gas presently going to the flare system, installation of a 200,000 barrel hot water surge tank, addition of a third turbogenerator, and various projects to generate more electrical power internally. tabs., figs

  14. Annual change in calibration constant of ionization chamber used in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Committee on Radiological Protection of Japan Radiological Society (JRS) is making a database on patient doses for typical radiographies for introducing the guidance levels in Japan. The Committee reported necessity of a protocol on dosimetry in diagnostic radiology for introducing the guidance levels. Although a protocol on dosimetry in radiation therapy is established, there is no protocol on dosimetry in diagnostic radiology in Japan. Then, as a first step to establish a protocol on dosimetry in diagnostic radiology, annual changes in a calibration constant of an ionization chamber as a practical standard dosimeter has been investigated for 4 years. Changes in calibration constants for 4 years are within 2% for X-rays with effective energies than 32 keV. From these results, practical frequencies of calibrations for practical standard dosimeters are discussed for maintain of their precision. If an accuracy of practical standard dosimeters is 5% for diagnostic radiology, frequencies of their calibrations may be once in a year or two years. (author)

  15. Magnetic Fusion Energy Program. Volume I. Introduction, technical summaries, list of publications, etc., Appendices A-K. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An abstract was prepared for the progress summary on transport theory for open and closed magnetic configurations. Seven abstracts were prepared for included appendices of more detailed work on individual devices. Also included is a list of publications, technical presentations, and DOE program contributions

  16. Changes in the annual cycle of heavy precipitation across the British Isles within the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate future changes in the annual cycle of heavy daily precipitation events across the British Isles in the periods 2021–2060 and 2061–2100, relative to present day climate. Twelve combinations of regional and global climate models forced with the A1B scenario are used. The annual cycle is modelled as an inhomogeneous Poisson process with sinusoidal models for location and scale parameters of the generalized extreme value distribution. Although the peak times of the annual cycle vary considerably between projections for the 2061–2100 period, a robust shift towards later peak times is found for the south-east, while in the north-west there is evidence for a shift towards earlier peak times. In the remaining parts of the British Isles no changes in the peak times are projected. For 2021–2060 this signal is weak. The annual cycle’s relative amplitude shows no robust signal, where differences in projected changes are dominated by global climate model differences. The relative contribution of anthropogenic forcing and internal climate variability to changes in the relative amplitude cannot be identified with the available ensemble. The results might be relevant for the development of adequate risk-reduction strategies, for insurance companies and for the management and planning of water resources. (letter)

  17. Annual Change Detection by ASTER TIR Data and an Estimation of the Annual Coal Loss and CO2 Emission from Coal Seams Spontaneous Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Du

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Coal fires, including both underground and coal waste pile fires, result in large losses of coal resources and emit considerable amounts of greenhouse gases. To estimate the annual intensity of greenhouse gas emissions and the loss of coal resources, estimating the annual loss from fire-influenced coal seams is a feasible approach. This study assumes that the primary cause of coal volume loss is subsurface coal seam fires. The main calculation process is divided into three modules: (1 Coal fire quantity calculations, which use change detection to determine the areas of the different coal fire stages (increase/growth, maintenance/stability and decrease/shrinkage. During every change detections, the amount of coal influenced by fires for these three stages was calculated by multiplying the coal mining residual rate, combustion efficiency, average thickness and average coal intensity. (2 The life cycle estimate is based on remote sensing long-term coal fires monitoring. The life cycles for the three coal fire stages and the corresponding life cycle proportions were calculated; (3 The diurnal burnt rates for different coal fire stages were calculated using the CO2 emission rates from spontaneous combustion experiments, the coal fire life cycle, life cycle proportions. Then, using the fire-influenced quantity aggregated across the different stages, the diurnal burn rates for the different stages and the time spans between the multi-temporal image pairs used for change detection, we estimated the annual coal loss to be 44.3 × 103 tons. After correction using a CH4 emission factor, the CO2 equivalent emissions resulting from these fires was on the order of 92.7 × 103 tons. We also discovered that the centers of these coal fires migrated from deeper to shallower parts of the coal seams or traveled in the direction of the coal seam strike. This trend also agrees with the cause of the majority coal fires: spontaneous combustion of coalmine goafs.

  18. How do technical improvements change radiographers' practice – A practice theory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The two plane imaging techniques are gradually being replaced by multidimensional imaging. How it affects radiographers' professional practice has not been investigated. Aim: To explore how technical development affects the relations between different actors and their actions in the practice of Computer Tomography. Method: A qualitative design with data collection by open interviews (n = 8) and open observations (n = 10) of radiographers during their work with Computer Tomography. Data was first analyzed inductively resulting in seven codes. Secondly abduction was carried out by interpreting the content in the codes with a practice theory. This resulted in four themes. Result: First theme: Changed materiality makes the practical action easier. The actual image production has become practically easier. Second theme: Changed machines cause conflict between the arrangements of the work and the patients' needs. The time for the machine to carry out image production is easy to foresee, but information about the patient's individual status and needs is missing and this leads to difficulties in giving individual planned care. Third theme: Changing materiality prefigure learning. The different apparatus in use and the continuously changing methods of image production is co-constitutive of the practitioners' activities and learning. Fourth theme: Radiography is arranged for patient safety in relation to radiation doses and medical security risks. But the radiographers, who meet the patients, have to check the accuracy of the planned examination in relation to the clinical observed information about patient safety risks with the examination. - Highlights: • The arrangements of CT practice make it difficult to achieve individual planned care. • Continuously learning has become an essential part of radiographers' practice. • Radiographers' planning of each examination is important for secure patient safety

  19. Population dynamics of Agriophyllum squarrosum, a pioneer annual plant endemic to mobile sand dunes, in response to global climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Chaoju; Yin, Hengxia; Shi, Yong; Zhao, Jiecai; Yin, Chengliang; Luo, Wanyin; Dong, Zhibao; Chen, Guoxiong; Yan, Xia; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Ma, Xiao-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Climate change plays an important role in the transition of ecosystems. Stratigraphic investigations have suggested that the Asian interior experienced frequent transitions between grassland and desert ecosystems as a consequence of global climate change. Using maternally and bi-parentally inherited markers, we investigated the population dynamics of Agriophyllum squarrosum (Chenopodiaceae), an annual pioneer plant endemic to mobile sand dunes. Phylogeographic analysis revealed that A. squarr...

  20. Changes in the annual dose limits and their potential impact on the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) transport regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has already recommended a change in the annual dose limit for members of the public, not yet incorporated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labor Organization (ILO) in the Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection. In addition, information from different sources could imply a reduction of the annual dose limits for occupational exposures in the near future. After a brief description of how the annual dose limits were employed in the IAEA Transport Regulations, both for the limitation or control of actual exposures and for taking safety decisions in relation with potential exposures (e.g., for requiring a Type B instead of a Type A package), this paper analyzes how changes in the annual dose limits could affect some parts of the IAEA Transport Regulations and discuss potential areas of conflict between design and operational aspects of the transport of radioactive materials as well as some difficulties associated with changes on requirements dealing with protection and safety. Finally, the areas of interest for the new revision of the IAEA Transport Regulations are described in this context

  1. Canada's climate change voluntary challenge and registry program : 6. annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Canadian integrated energy company, Suncor Energy Inc. comprises a corporate group, three operating business units, and two emerging businesses. This annual Progress Report for Canada's Climate Change Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) Program represents the sixth for this company. Suncor is committed to sustainable development. Some initiatives undertaken in 1999 by Suncor included: Oil Sands Project Millennium, which will more than double the actual production of crude oil and fuel products by 2002. Suncor is divesting of conventional oil properties in order to concentrate on exploration and production of natural gas. Alternative and renewable energy will see an investment of 100 million over the next five years. The money will be allocated to research and development, the production of fuels from biomass, and conversion of municipal solid waste to energy through the recovery of methane from landfills. Since 1990, the emissions of carbon dioxide have been reduced to 14 per cent below 1990 levels, and reductions of 622, 000 tonnes of greenhouse gases. A comprehensive tracking, reporting, and management system for greenhouse gases was implemented. Ongoing improvements in quality and comprehensiveness have validated the methodology used to monitor emissions inventories and sources. Initiatives in internal and external awareness of greenhouse gases education were implemented, such as speaking engagements at climate change activities, the retrofit of schools with advanced energy-efficient technology, education programs, employee suggestion programs, etc. Collaboration with external partners on research and development projects represents a major building block in this approach. Some of the research and development projects involve the development of advanced carbon dioxide capture and geologic sequestration technologies, work on the production of alternative and renewable energy from Canadian municipal landfills, and the study of a new process to extract heavy

  2. Estimated average annual radon-222 concentrations around the former uranium mill site in Shiprock, New Mexico. Final technical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium mills, as a part of the nuclear fuel cycle, produce large volumes of wastes which contain both the long and short-lived radionuclides from the naturally-occurring uranium decay chain. A relatively short-lived member of the chain, radon-222, is a noble gas and can diffuse from the wastes and be transported from its point of origin by prevailing winds. The airborne radon-222 decays into other short-lived radioactive progeny which may result in human inhalation exposures at considerable distances from the point of origin. Since the parent of radon-222 has a half-life of 1620 years, exposure to radon and its progeny will persist for thousands of years. This study was made to estimate the annual average radon-222 concentrations around the former Shiprock, New Mexico uranium mill site in order to identify areas which may require limited or restricted occupancy and to evaluate the effectiveness of the site decontamination activities in reducing the ambient airborne radon-222 concentrations. Using on- and off-site meteorological data and radon source term estimations, average annual radon-222 isoconcentration lines were determined by computer modeling for the mill site area. The lines were determined for both pre- and post-decontamination periods

  3. Proceedings of the Canadian Society for Bioengineering CSBE/SCGAB 2009 annual general meeting and technical conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference was attended by experts on current issues in engineering of an urban ecosystem, composting, biofuels and green energy. The meeting provided a forum to discuss advances in the application of engineering principles and practices dealing with biological systems for the production of food, bioproducts and energy. The discussions focused on engineering practices in agriculture, forestry, bioresources, biochemistry and biosystems. The 7 technical sessions of the conference were entitled: aquaculture; safety and training; bioprocessing; energy production and biofuels; environment and ecology; soil and water; and development of technologies. The conference feature 58 presentations, of which 9 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  4. Modeling Inter-annual Variability of Seasonal Evaporation and Storage Change Based on the Extended Budyko Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Alimohammadi, N.; Wang, D.

    2013-12-01

    Long-term climate is the first order control on mean annual water balance, and vegetation and the interactions between climate seasonality and soil water storage change have also been found to play important roles. The purpose of this paper is to extend the Budyko hypothesis to the seasonal scale and to develop a model for inter-annual variability of seasonal evaporation and storage change. A seasonal aridity index is defined as the ratio of potential evaporation to effective precipitation, where effective precipitation is the difference between rainfall and storage change. Correspondingly, evaporation ratio is defined as the ratio of evaporation to effective precipitation. A modified Turc-Pike equation with a horizontal shift is proposed to model inter-annual variability of seasonal evaporation ratio as a function of seasonal aridity index, which includes rainfall seasonality and soil water change. The performance of the seasonal water balance model is evaluated for 277 watersheds in the United States. 99% of wet seasons and 90% of dry seasons have Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficients larger than 0.5. The developed seasonal model can be applied for constructing long-term evaporation and storage change data when rainfall, potential evaporation, and runoff observations are available. On the other hand, vegetation affects seasonal water balance by controlling both evaporation and soil moisture dynamics. The correlation between NDVI and evaporation is strong particularly in wet seasons. However, the correlation between NDVI and the seasonal model parameters is only strong in dry seasons.

  5. Effects of seasonal and inter-annual land cover changes on the hydrology of the Upper Ganges basin, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarouchi, G.; Mijic, A.; Buytaert, W.

    2013-12-01

    In recent decades India has undergone substantial environmental change. The expansion of agricultural land area to meet the demand of a rapidly increasing population and the increasing intensification of groundwater extractions have led to an alarming drop in the water table levels. The recent floods over northern India have raised concerns about how the regional climate variations and human induced changes in landscape are influencing the temporal dynamics of climate-surface-groundwater interactions. Earlier work by the authors developed high-resolution land cover maps for northern India, based on satellite imagery, for the years 1984, 1998 and 2010. These maps were used to drive the distributed version of the land surface model JULES in order to investigate the impact of inter-annual land cover changes in the hydrology of the Upper Ganges (UG) river basin in India. However, JULES in its current version does not simulate crop growth. Since 60% of the study area is occupied by agriculture, the model was improved with routines that allow for dynamic representation of crop growth. The parametrization was done for the two main crops of the UG basin (wheat and rice), allowing for 2 cropping seasons per year. The impact of seasonal and inter-annual land cover changes was investigated by calculating variations in hydrological components such as stream flow, evapotranspiration and soil moisture. The results show that the seasonal cycle is changing a lot when crop growth is taken into account, whereas annual fluxes do not change much. The dynamic coupling of land-surface schemes and crop models is an essential step toward the analysis of future changes of water resources in India caused by climate change, land use change, and potential interactions between both. This is a prerequisite for constructing decision support tools for regional land-use planning and management.

  6. The Double Path of Expansive Learning in Complex Socio-Technical Change Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Hackel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to describe how expansive learning in organisations can become a resource for learning in a wider community of practice (CoP. The “developmental work research” approach (DWR based on cultural historical activity theory (CHAT is beneficial for analysing and interpreting the requirements in a field of action. Engeström’s specific form of “action research” focuses on expansive learning in activity systems. However, complex socio-technical change processes cannot be initiated and managed by the local community of practise alone. In order to establish the use of new tools, new methodologies or organisational solutions in a field of work, a double path of expansive learning is needed: Findings from the participative analysis and interpretation of contradictions in the local activity system have to be transferred to wider communities of practice. This paper illustrates a double path of expansive learning by presenting the experiences of research and development in machine and plant engineering companies in Germany. In the AQUIMO project, a project team has developed an adaptable software tool for multidisciplinary mechatronical engineering and created a related qualification program. The support from external social researchers has helped to initiate, disseminate and establish new ways to organise the division of labour in teams of engineers.

  7. Joint Implementation under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. Technical and institutional challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UN Framework Convention of Climate Change (FCCC) allows for the Joint Implementation (JI) of measures to mitigate the emissions of greenhouse gases. The concept of JI refers to the implementation of such measures in one country with partial and/or technical support from another country, potentially fulfilling some of the supporting country's emission-reduction commitment under the FCCC. At present, all JI transactions are voluntary, and no country has claimed JI credit against existing FCCC commitments. Nevertheless, JI could have important implications for both the economic efficiency and the international equity of the implementation of the FCCC. The paper discusses some of the information needs of JI projects and seeks to clarify some of the common assumptions and arguments about JI. Issues regarding JI are distinguished according to those that are specific to JI as well as other types of regimes and transactions. The focus is on the position of developing countries and their potential risks and benefits regarding JI. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 35 refs

  8. Re evaluation of the temperature limit for UHS is technical specification against global environment change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sea water for all Korean Nuclear Power Plants plays the most important roll of providing an ultimate heat sink for heat removal from safety related components during a transient or accident as well non safety related components during normal operation. Generally, the heat removal function through UHS is done by essential service water system and the component cooling water system. In recent years, as the UHS(Ultimate Heat Sink) temperature is gradually increasing due to global environment change, it is also becoming a threat for the enough operating margin of nuclear plants against uncontrolled plant shutdown from violation of technical specification, which can be described as a difference between the Limiting Conditions for Operation(LCO) and the actual maximum temperature of sea water during the hot summer. KOPEC has been performing the engineering work with closing cooperation with KHNP and KEPRI for relaxation of LCO limit by re evaluation of the more realistic heat loads to UHS and in depth review of the existing design margins of the related systems for the operating plants. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the engineering experience with typical results that has been applied for the Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant, OPR 1000 during the couple of years. It is believed that the methodology used to increase LCO limit for sea water temperature as the UHS would be helpful to resolve an environmentally induced threat for nuclear power plant operation

  9. Impacts of Climate Change on Mean Annual Water Balance for Watersheds in Michigan, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Yinqin Zhang; Bernard Engel; Laurent Ahiablame; Junmin Liu

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of water balance at the watershed scale is a fundamental step for estimating streamflow in watersheds. Mean annual water balance of 17 watersheds across Michigan were evaluated by comparing observed streamflow with simulated streamflow estimated using Fu’s Equation, which is based on the Budyko Hypothesis. The Budyko Hypothesis describes mean annual water balance as a function of available water and energy. Impact of long-term climatic controls (e.g., precipitation, potential evapo...

  10. Reproductive changes in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) in relation to exposure to technical hexabromocyclododecane flame retardant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Kim J; Marteinson, Sarah C; Bird, David M; Ritchie, Ian J; Letcher, Robert J

    2011-11-01

    Recently, the ban of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), a high-production-volume flame retardant, was announced in Europe and North America. However, the effects of HCBD remain understudied in birds. The objectives of the present comparative effects study were to determine whether exposure to an HBCD technical mixture (HBCD-TM) altered avian reproductive measures at an environmentally relevant concentration. American kestrels were exposed daily by food to HBCD-TM, i.e., 0.51 µg HBCD/g kestrel/d; exposed kestrels laid eggs that had α-HBCD concentrations (163.5 ± 75.1 ng/g wet wt) tenfold greater than β- and γ-HBCD isomers, an isomer profile and concentrations similar to those of eggs of wild peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus). Concentrations of HBCD were not detected in the control kestrel eggs. In comparison with controls, the kestrels exposed to HBCD began to lay their eggs 6 d earlier and laid larger clutches of smaller eggs. The size of the eggs was inversely correlated with the in ovo α-HBCD concentrations. The smaller eggs of the HBCD exposed kestrels also lost more weight by midincubation, suggesting increased eggshell porosity since eggshell thickness was comparable. Generally birds that lay more eggs and lay earlier in the breeding season gain the advantage of better hatching and fledging success, yet the kestrels exposed to HBCD failed to have better reproductive success than the control birds. These reproductive changes were a function of HBCD exposure, likely through changes in food consumption, with possible impacts on, for example, reproductive behavior and/or alterations in thyroid hormones. PMID:21898552

  11. Why has Work Effort become more intense? Conjectures and Evidence about Effort-Biased Technical Change and other stories

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Francis

    2000-01-01

    I investigate possible explanations for work intensification, using four British data sets. I conjecture that an important source of work intensification is effort-biased technical change (EBTC), which enhances the productivity of high effort workers relative to that of low effort workers. EBTC can be traced to innovations such as Total Quality Management and to information technology, and is linked with multi-skilling. I argue that EBTC is complementary with skill-biased technological change...

  12. The Role of Changes in the Annual Cycle in Earlier Onset of Climatic Spring in Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Cheng; FU Congbin; Zhaohua WU; YAN Zhongwei

    2011-01-01

    Climatic changes in the onset of spring in northern China associated with changes in the annual cycle and with a recent warming trend were quantified using a recently developed adaptive data analysis tool,the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition. The study was based on a homogenized daily surface air temperature (SAT) dataset for the period 1955-2003. The annual cycle here is referred to as a refined modulated annual cycle (MAC). The results show that spring at Beijing has arrived significantly earlier by about 2.98 d (10 yr)-1, of which about 1.85 d (10 yr)-1 is due to changes in the annual cycle and 1.13 d (10 yr)-1 due to the long-term warming trend. Variations in the MAC component explain about 92.5% of the total variance in the Beijing daily SAT series and could cause as much as a 20-day shift in the onset of spring from one year to another. The onset of spring has been advancing all over northern China, but more significant in the east than in the west part of the region. These differences are somehow unexplainable by the zonal pattern of the warming trend over the whole region, but can be explained by opposite changes in the spring phase of the MAC, i.e. advancing in the east while delaying in the west. In the east of northern China, the change in the spring phase of MAC explains 40%-60% of the spring onset trend and is attributable to a weakening Asian winter monsoon. The average sea level pressure in Siberia (55°-80°N,50°-110°E), an index of the strength of the winter monsoon, could serve as a potential short-term predictor for the onset of spring in the east of northern China.

  13. [The annual changes in antimicrobial susceptibility test results of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from the Kinki district].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Saori; Komatsu, Masaru; Nakamura, Tatuya; Jikimoto, Takumi; Nishio, Hisaaki; Yamasaki, Katsutoshi; Satoh, Kaori; Toda, Hirofumi; Orita, Tamaki; Sueyoshi, Noriyuki; Kita, Machiko; Nishi, Isao; Akagi, Masahiro; Higuchi, Takeshi; Kofuku, Tomomi; Nakai, Isako; Ono, Tamotsu; Kida, Kaneyuki; Ohama, Masanobu; Watari, Hideo; Shimura, Satoshi; Niki, Makoto; Kuchibiro, Tomokazu; Wada, Yasunao

    2016-04-01

    A study was conducted of the 1,225 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains that were isolated at 20 medical institutions in the Kinki district between 2011 and 2013 to determine their antimicrobial susceptibility and to characterize the strains of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRP) and the metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) -producing strains. The MIC50/MIC90 values (μg/mL) of the various antimicrobial agents were as follows: imipenem, 2/>8; meropenem, 1/>8; doripenem, 0.5/8; biapenem, 1/>8; tazobactam/piperacillin, 8/>64; piperacillin, 8/>64; sulbactam/cefoperazone, 8/64; cefepime, 4/16; cefozopran, 2/>16; aztreonam, 8/>16; amikacin, 4/16; levofloxacin, 1/>4; and ciprofloxacin, 0.25/>2. From the viewpoint of the annual changes in the susceptibility rates (according to the CLSI guidelines [M100-S22]), the susceptibility to tazobactam/piperacillin, piperacillin, cefepime, cefozopran and aztreonam decreased in 2013. On the other hand, two antimicrobial agents showed high susceptibility rates each year; amikacin (94.0-95.6%) showed the highest rate, followed by doripenem (80.3-82.6%). With the exception of amikacin, there were substantial inter-institutional differences in antimicrobial susceptibility. In comparison to the previous CLSI guidelines (M100-S21), the new CLSI guidelines (M100-S22) on the use of carbapenems and penicillins show that the MIC80 has been affected. The MDRP detection rates in 2011, 2012 and 2013 were 1.8% (8 strains), 1.8% (8 strains), and 2.8% (10 strains), respectively. The MBL detection rates were as follows: bla(VIM-2), 0.2% (1 strain) in 2011; bla(IMP-1), 0.9% (4 strains) in 2012, and 1.7% (6 strains, including bla(IMP-1) [3 strains], bla(IMP-2) [2 strains] and bla(VIM-2) [1 strain]) in 2013. PMID:27544978

  14. [Annual change of phytoplankton ecological features in Fangchenggang Bay of Guangxi, South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jun-Lian; Xu, Ming-Ben; Zhang, Rong-Can; Chen, Bo

    2011-05-01

    In March, June, September, and December 2007, investigations were conducted on the species composition, dominant species, community structure, and abundance distribution of phytoplankton in the Fangchenggang Bay of Guangxi. Based on the investigation data, the phytoplankton abundance, biotic index, and their correlations with environmental factors were analyzed. A total of 138 species of 54 genera were identified, among which, 112 species belonged to 37 genera of diatoms, 21 species belonged to 12 genera of dinoflagellates, 2 species belonged to chrysophyta, 2 species belonged to chlorophyta, and 1 species belonged to cyanophyta. In whole year, the dominant species was Skeletonema costatum. The species number had a trend decreasing from the outer to the inner of the Bay and from spring to winter, while the cell abundance was decreased from the inner to the outer of the Bay. There was an obvious annual change in the cell abundance, being the highest (151.39 x 10(4) cells x dm(-3)) in summer (June) and the lowest (0.35 x 10(4) cells x dm(-3)) in winter (December). In spring, both the diversity and the species number were higher. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the distribution of phytoplankton community had definite correlations with water nutrient content, temperature and salinity. At the observation stations 1 and 2 in west Bay, due to the effects of Fangcheng River runoff and hydrodynamic forces such as tide, water salinity was lower and nutrient content was higher, and accordingly, S. costatum cells in summer could greatly reproduce, even result in high probability of red tide. PMID:21812311

  15. Sexual dimorphism in immune function changes during the annual cycle in house sparrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pap, Péter László; Czirják, Gábor Árpád; Vágási, Csongor István; Barta, Zoltán; Hasselquist, Dennis

    2010-10-01

    Difference between sexes in parasitism is a common phenomenon among birds, which may be related to differences between males and females in their investment into immune functions or as a consequence of differential exposure to parasites. Because life-history strategies change sex specifically during the annual cycle, immunological responses of the host aiming to reduce the impact of parasites may be sexually dimorphic. Despite the great complexity of the immune system, studies on immunoecology generally characterise the immune status through a few variables, often overlooking potentially important seasonal and gender effects. However, because of the differences in physiological and defence mechanisms among different arms of the immune system, we expect divergent responses of immune components to environmental seasonality. In male and female house sparrows ( Passer domesticus), we measured the major components of the immune system (innate, acquired, cellular and humoral) during four important life-history stages across the year: (1) mating, (2) breeding, (3) moulting and (4) during the winter capture and also following introduction to captivity in aviary. Different individuals were sampled from the same population during the four life cycle stages. We found that three out of eight immune variables showed a significant life cycle stage × sex interaction. The difference in immune response between the sexes was significant in five immune variables during the mating stage, when females had consistently stronger immune function than males, while variables varied generally non-significantly with sex during the remaining three life cycle stages. Our results show that the immune system is highly variable between life cycle stages and sexes, highlighting the potential fine tuning of the immune system to specific physiological states and environmental conditions.

  16. Association Euratom - Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark - Annual Progress Report 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Michelsen, Poul; Juul Rasmussen, Jens;

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its...... interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. Within fusion technology there are activities related to development of high temperature...... superconductors. Minor activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2009....

  17. Association Euratom - Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark - Annual Progress Report 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Michelsen, Poul; Juul Rasmussen, Jens;

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its...... interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. Within fusion technology there are activities related to development of high temperature...... superconductors. Other activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2010....

  18. Association Euratom - Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark - Annual Progress Report 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Michelsen, Poul; Juul Rasmussen, Jens;

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its...... interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. New activities in technology related to development of high temperature superconductors have...... been initiated in 2008. Minor activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2008....

  19. ANL Technical Support Program for DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. Annual report, October 1990--September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R.; Buck, E.C.; Cunnane, J.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Ebert, W.L.; Emery, J.W.; Feng, X.; Gerding, T.J.; Gong, M.; Hoh, J.C.; Mazer, J.J.; Wronkiewicz, D.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bourcier, W.L.; Morgan, L.E.; Nielsen, J.K.; Steward, S.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Ewing, R.C.; Wang, L.M. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Han, W.T.; Tomozawa, M. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, MI (United States)

    1992-03-01

    This report provides an overview of progress during FY 1991 for the Technical Support Program that is part of the ANL Technology Support Activity for DOE, Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). The purpose is to evaluate, before hot start-up of the Defenses Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), factors that are likely to affect glass reaction in an unsaturated environment typical of what may be expected for the candidate Yucca Mountain repository site. Specific goals for the testing program include the following: (1) to review and evaluate available information on parameters that will be important in establishing the long-term performance of glass in a repository environment; (2) to perform testing to further quantify the effects of important variables where there are deficiencies in the available data; and (3) to initiate long-term testing that will bound glass performance under a range of conditions applicable to repository disposal.

  20. Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup and the Expert Regional Technical Group, Fiscal Year 2013 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.

    2013-10-30

    This project covers facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup (EOS) for federal research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) and the Expert Regional Technical Group (ERTG) for estuary habitat restoration. The EOS is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation effort that the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration [BPA], U.S. Army Corps of Engineers [Corps], U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) developed in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as applied to operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The EOS is tasked by National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) and the Action Agencies (AAs) to design and coordinate implementation of the federal RME plan for the lower Columbia River and estuary, including the river’s plume in the ocean. Initiated in 2002, the EOS is composed of members from BPA, the Corps, NMFS, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL’s) Marine Sciences Laboratory, and other agencies as necessary.

  1. ANL Technical Support Program for DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. Annual report, October 1992--September 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is an overview of the progress during FY 1993 for the Technical Support Program that is part of the ANL Technology Support Activity for DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). The purpose is to evaluate, before hot start-up of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), factors that are anticipated to affect glass reaction in an unsaturated environment typical of what may be expected for the candidate Yucca Mountain repository site. Specific goals for the testing program include the following: reviewing and evaluating available data on parameters that will be important in establishing the long-term performance of glass in a repository environment; performing tests to further quantify the effects of important variables where there are deficiencies in the available data; and initiating long-term tests to determine glass performance under a range of conditions applicable to repository disposal

  2. DOE-DARPA High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials (HPCRM), Annual HPCRM Team Meeting & Technical Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J; Brown, B; Bayles, B; Lemieux, T; Choi, J; Ajdelsztajn, L; Dannenberg, J; Lavernia, E; Schoenung, J; Branagan, D; Blue, C; Peter, B; Beardsley, B; Graeve, O; Aprigliano, L; Yang, N; Perepezko, J; Hildal, K; Kaufman, L; Lewandowski, J; Perepezko, J; Hildal, K; Kaufman, L; Lewandowski, J; Boudreau, J

    2007-09-21

    The overall goal is to develop high-performance corrosion-resistant iron-based amorphous-metal coatings for prolonged trouble-free use in very aggressive environments: seawater & hot geothermal brines. The specific technical objectives are: (1) Synthesize Fe-based amorphous-metal coating with corrosion resistance comparable/superior to Ni-based Alloy C-22; (2) Establish processing parameter windows for applying and controlling coating attributes (porosity, density, bonding); (3) Assess possible cost savings through substitution of Fe-based material for more expensive Ni-based Alloy C-22; (4) Demonstrate practical fabrication processes; (5) Produce quality materials and data with complete traceability for nuclear applications; and (6) Develop, validate and calibrate computational models to enable life prediction and process design.

  3. Annual meeting on nuclear technology '90. Technical session 'Approaches to a solution of the CO2 problem - the contribution of nuclear energy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report of the annual conference 'Nuclear Technology '90' contains six papers from the specialist session, which were all treated separately. The papers analyze the following subjects: CO2 and the consequences for energy policies; a tax on CO2 in a national context; climate change and the role of nuclear power as a contribution to a global solution (in English); the contribution of nuclear power in reducing the CO2 problem; problems of security with the extension of nuclear power; fuel supply and disposal with the extension of nuclear power. (HSCH)

  4. The Annual Changes of Clinical Manifestation of Androgenetic Alopecia Clinic in Korean Males and Females: A Outpatient-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Woo Sun; Son, In Pyeong; Yeo, In Kwon; Park, Kui Young; Li, Kapsok; Kim, Beom Joon; Seo, Seong Jun; Kim, Myeung Nam; Hong, Chang Kwun

    2013-01-01

    Background Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is characterized by the local and gradual transformation of terminal scalp hair into vellus hair, which has a shorter and thinner shaft. There are no studies that analyze annual changes in age, patterns, family history, and associated disease. Objective We investigated the severity of hair loss, age of onset, the frequency of family history, and past medical histories in Korean patients with AGA. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed to iden...

  5. Unauthorized Immigration to the United States: Annual Estimates and Components of Change, by State, 1990 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Robert; Warren, John Robert

    2013-01-01

    We describe a method for producing annual estimates of the unauthorized immigrant population in the United Sates and components of population change, for each state and D.C., for 1990 to 2010. We quantify a sharp drop in the number of unauthorized immigrants arriving since 2000, and we demonstrate the role of departures from the population (emigration, adjustment to legal status, removal by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and deaths) in reducing population growth from one million i...

  6. Mass and energy budgets of animals: Behavioral and ecological implications. Annual technical progress report, April 1, 1992--March 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, W.P.

    1993-07-01

    The common goal of these diverse projects is to understand the mechanisms of how animal populations respond to the continual changes in their environment in both time and space. Our models are mechanistic allowing us to explore how a wide array of environmental variables may determine individual performance. Large scale climate change and its effect on animal populations can be seen as quantitative extensions of biological responses to smaller scales of environmental variability. Changes in developmental rates or reproductive levels of individuals, extension or contraction of geographic ranges, and modification of community organization have all been documented in response to previous changes in habitats. We know from our biophysical work that some changes in function are driven by microclimate conditions directly, and some are mediated indirectly through ecological parameters such as the food supply. Our research is guided by a comprehensive conceptual scheme of the interaction of an animal with its environment. The physical and physiological properties of the organism, and the range of available microclimates, set bounds on the performance of organismal function, such as growth, reproduction, storage, and behavior. To leave the most offspring over a lifetime, animals must perform those functions in a way that maximizes the amount of resources devoted to reproduction. Maximizing the total size of the budget and minimizing those budget items not devoted to reproduction are crucial. Animals trade off among expenditures for current and future reproduction. Both water and energy are important, potentially limiting resources. Projects described here include empirical studies and theoretical models.

  7. Annual report on operation, utilization and technical development of hot laboratories. From April 1, 2001 to March 31, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-01-01

    This is an annual report in a fiscal year of 2001 that describes activities of the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF), the Waste Safety Testing Facility (WASTEF), and the Research Hot Laboratory (RHL) in the Department of Hot laboratories. In RFEF, PIEs including destructive and nondestructive tests were performed on a BWR fuel assembly and/or its fuel rod irradiated in the Fukushima-2 Nuclear Power Station Unit-1 and a fuel assembly with UO{sub 2}-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and mixed oxide (MOX) fuel pellets for Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute. In addition, 34 fuel assemblies irradiated in the nuclear ship ''Mutsu'' were conveyed from Mutsu Establishment, and re-assembly and PIEs for the assemblies were carried out. In WASTEF, tests for evaluating barrier performance in terms of disposal of waste, high temperature tests for evaluating stable on TRansUraniums (TRU) nitrides, leaching tests on Rock-like OXide (ROX) fuels were performed. The slow Strain Rate Tests (SSRT) apparatuses were installed for investigation of Irradiation-Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC) on light water structural materials, and characterization tests for the apparatus were performed. In RHL, PIEs for light water reactor materials, fusion materials, and target materials of Proton Accelerator Facilities were carried out for laboratories in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. PIEs for zirconium alloys for ultra-high burn-up irradiated in the Kashiwazaki Nuclear Power Station Unit-5 were also performed. In order to investigate roots cause of pipe rupture in Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station Unit-1 of Chubu Electric Power Company, several examinations including SEM observation, EPMA, and Vickers hardness test were performed in those three facilities. The data from the examinations greatly contribute to clarify roots cause of the pipe rupture. (author)

  8. ANL technical support program for DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. Annual report, October 1991--September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R.; Buck, E.C.; Cunnane, J.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Ebert, W.L.; Emery, J.W.; Feng, X.; Gerding, T.J.; Gong, M.; Hoh, J.C.; Mazer, J.J.; Wronkiewicz, D.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bourcier, W.L.; Morgan, L.E.; Newton, L.; Nielsen, J.K.; Phillips, B.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Ewing, R.C.; Wang, L. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Li, H.; Tomozawa, M. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    1993-05-01

    A program was established for DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) to evaluate factors that are anticipated to affect waste glass reaction during repository disposal, especially in an unsaturated environment typical of what may be expected for the proposed Yucca Mountain repository site. This report covers progress in FY 1992 on the following tasks: 1. A compendium of the characteristics of high-level nuclear waste borosilicate glass has been written. 2. A critical review of important parameters that affect the reactivity of glass in an unsaturated environment is being prepared. 3. A series of tests has been started to evaluate the reactivity of fully radioactive glasses in a high-level waste repository environment and compare it to the reactivity of synthetic, nonradioactive glasses of similar composition. 4. The effect of radiation upon the durability of waste glasses at a high glass surface area-to-liquid volume (SA/V) ratio and a high gas-to-liquid volume ratio will be assessed. These tests address both vapor and high SA/V liquid conditions. 5. A series of tests is being performed to compare the extent of reaction of nuclear waste glasses at various SAN ratios. Such differences in the SAN ratio may significantly affect glass durability. 6. A series of natural analogue tests is being analyzed to demonstrate a meaningful relationship between experimental and natural alteration conditions. 7. Analytical electron microscopy (AEM), infrared spectroscopys and nuclear resonant profiling are being used to assess the glass/water reaction pathway by identifying intermediate phases that appear on the reacting glass. Additionally, colloids from the leach solutions are being studied using AEM. 8. A technical review of AEM results is being provided. 9. A study of water diffusion involving nuclear waste glasses is being performed. 10. A mechanistically based model is being developed to predict the performance of glass over repository-relevant time periods.

  9. Technical-evaluation report on the proposed technical-specification changes for the inservice surveillance of safety-related hydraulic and mechanical snubbers at the James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant (Docket No. 50-333)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the proposed Technical Specification changes to Limiting Conditions for Operation, Surveillance Requirements and Bases for safety-related hydraulic and mechanical snubbers at the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant. The evaluation is to determine whether the proposed Technical Specifications are in conformance with the model Standard Technical Specification set forth by the NRC. A check list, Appendix A of this report, compares the licensee's submittal with the NRC requirements and includes Proposed Resolution of the Deviations

  10. Annual report of Department of Research Reactor and Tandem Accelerator, JFY2012. Operation, utilization and technical development of JRR-3, JRR-4, NSRR, Tandem Accelerator and RI Production Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Research Reactor and Tandem Accelerator is in charge of the operation, utilization and technical development of JRR-3(Japan Research Reactor No.3), JRR-4(Japan Research Reactor No.4), NSRR(Nuclear Safety Research Reactor), Tandem Accelerator and RI Production Facility. This annual report describes a summary of activities of services and technical developments carried out in the period between April 1, 2012 and March 31, 2013. The activities were categorized into five service/development fields: (1) Operation and maintenance of research reactors and tandem accelerator, (2) Utilization of research reactors and tandem accelerator, (3) Upgrading of utilization techniques of research reactors and tandem accelerator, (4) Safety administration for department of research reactor and tandem accelerator, (5) International cooperation. Also contained are lists of publications, meetings, granted permissions on laws and regulations concerning atomic energy, number of staff members dispatched to Fukushima for the technical assistance, outcomes in service and technical developments and so on. (author)

  11. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini mission. Semi annual technical progress report, 2 October 1995--31 March 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical progress achieved during the period 2 October 1995 through 31 March 1996 on Contract No. DE-AC03-91SF18852, Radioisotope Generators and Ancillary Activities is described herein. This report is organized by the program task structure as follows: spacecraft integration and liaison; engineering support; safety; qualified unicouple fabrication; ETG fabrication, assembly, and test; ground support equipment (GSE); RTG shipping and launch support; designs, reviews, and mission applications; project management, quality assurance and reliability, contract changes, non-capital CAGO acquisition, and CAGO maintenance; contract acquired government-owned property (CAGO) acquisition; and program calendars

  12. Change in the Annual Water Withdrawal-to-Availability Ratio and Its Major Causes: An Evaluation for Asian River Basins Under Socioeconomic Development and Climate Change Scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Ayami Hayashi; Keigo Akimoto; Takashi Homma; Kenichi Wada; Toshimasa Tomoda

    2014-01-01

    More than half of the world's population lives in Asia, and ensuring a stable water supply is a critical issue. This study evaluates changes in the annual water withdrawal-to-availability ratio (WAR), and the major causes  thereof, for each of Asian river basins under different socioeconomic development and climate change scenarios. According to our evaluation, the WAR will increase in 59%–61% of the Asian river basin areas by around 2030, as a result of population growth and the increase in ...

  13. Trend analysis and change point detection of annual and seasonal precipitation and temperature series over southwest Iran

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammad Zarenistanak; Amit G Dhorde; R H Kripalani

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents results of trend analysis and change point detection of annual and seasonal precipitation, and mean temperature (TM), maximum temperature (TMAX) and minimum temperature (TMIN) time series of the period 1950–2007. Investigations were carried out for 50 precipitation stations and 39 temperature stations located in southwest Iran. Three statistical tests including Pettitt’s test, Sequential Mann–Kendall test (SQ-MK test) and Mann–Kendall rank test (MK-test) were used for the analysis. The results obtained for precipitation series indicated that most stations showed insignificant trends in annual and seasonal series. Out of the stations which showed significant trends, highest numbers were observed during winter season while no significant trends were detected in summer precipitation. Moreover, no decreasing significant trends were detected by statistical tests in annual and seasonal precipitation series. The analysis of temperature trends revealed a significant increase during summer and spring seasons. TMAX was more stable than TMIN and TM, and winter was stable compared to summer, spring and autumn seasons. The results of change point detection indicated that most of the positive significant mutation points in TM, TMAX and TMIN began in the 1990s.

  14. Fifth annual progress report for Canada's climate change voluntary challenge and registry program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suncor Energy is a growing Canada-based integrated energy company comprising a corporate group and four operating businesses including: Oil Sands with a mine and upgrading facility at Fort McMurray, AB, Exploration and Production with conventional and heavy oil business in Western Canada, a Sunoco refining and marketing operation, and the Stuart Oil Shale Development Project in Queensland, Australia. While the emphasis is laid on technical and economic advances made by the company, the environmental tradeoffs, namely, greater greenhouse gas emissions and the need to reduce them, are noted. The most important positive item in the report is the incredible transformation occurring in Suncor's business operations. The company has begun a $2 billion expansion in its Oil Sands business that will more than double production of crude oil and fuel products by 2002. The expansion initiative provides a wonderful opportunity to demonstrate the huge leaps in performance that can be implemented at the time of capital stock turnover. The new expansion facilities are designed to be twice as energy efficient as the existing plant. Equally dramatic and hard won, are the multitude of incremental improvements achieved in existing facilities. Through energy management systems and operating practices and procedures, exploration and production is reversing the trend of rising greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity associated with mature conventional reservoirs, and Suncoco achieved its best ever operating performance in 1998. However, the volume of Suncor greenhouse gas emissions remains on an upward trend, which is a challenge for the future. As part of its mission to become a sustainable energy company, Suncor will continue to attempt to limit its net volume contribution of GHGs to the atmosphere to 1990 levels by pursuing domestic and international offsets and the development of alternative and renewable sources of energy. Progress towards sustainability for both Suncor and Canada

  15. Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasability of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, R.D.

    2005-12-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) are both strongly committed to expanding the role of biomass as an energy source. In particular, they support biomass fuels and products as a way to reduce the need for oil and gas imports; to support the growth of agriculture, forestry, and rural economies; and to foster major new domestic industries--biorefineries--making a variety of fuels, chemicals, and other products. As part of this effort, the Biomass R&D Technical Advisory Committee, a panel established by the Congress to guide the future direction of federally funded biomass R&D, envisioned a 30 percent replacement of the current U.S. petroleum consumption with biofuels by 2030. Biomass--all plant and plant-derived materials including animal manure, not just starch, sugar, oil crops already used for food and energy--has great potential to provide renewable energy for America's future. Biomass recently surpassed hydropower as the largest domestic source of renewable energy and currently provides over 3 percent of the total energy consumption in the United States. In addition to the many benefits common to renewable energy, biomass is particularly attractive because it is the only current renewable source of liquid transportation fuel. This, of course, makes it invaluable in reducing oil imports--one of our most pressing energy needs. A key question, however, is how large a role could biomass play in responding to the nation's energy demands. Assuming that economic and financial policies and advances in conversion technologies make biomass fuels and products more economically viable, could the biorefinery industry be large enough to have a significant impact on energy supply and oil imports? Any and all contributions are certainly needed, but would the biomass potential be sufficiently large to justify the necessary capital replacements in the fuels and automobile sectors? The purpose of this report is to determine

  16. High temperature turbine technology program. Phase II. Technology test and support studies. Annual technical progress report, January 1, 1979-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Work performed on the High Temperature Turbine Technology Program, Phase II - Technology Test and Support Studies during the period from January 1, 1979 through December 31, 1979 is summarized. Objectives of the program elements as well as technical progress and problems encountered during this Phase II annual reporting period are presented. Progress on design, fabrication and checkout of test facilities and test rigs is described. LP turbine cascade tests were concluded. 350 hours of testing were conducted on the LP rig engine first with clean distillate fuel and then with fly ash particulates injected into the hot gas stream. Design and fabrication of the turbine spool technology rig components are described. TSTR 60/sup 0/ sector combustor rig fabrication and testing are reviewed. Progress in the design and fabrication of TSTR cascade rig components for operation on both distillate fuel and low Btu gas is described. The new coal-derived gaseous fuel synthesizing facility is reviewed. Results and future plans for the supporting metallurgical programs are discussed.

  17. Technical Communication: Perspectives for the Eighties. Part 2. Proceedings of the Technical Communication Sessions of the Annual Conference on College Composition and Communication (32nd, Dallas, Texas, March 26-28, 1981).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, J. C., Comp.; Pinelli, Thomas E., Comp.

    The 42 papers in this volume discuss a variety of technical writing topics. The following are some of these topics: (1) industry's views on new directions in technical communication, and the technical writing skills that industry needs; (2) an interdisciplinary approach to teaching technical report writing in the community college; (3) designing…

  18. Technical Assistance From State Health Departments for Communities Engaged in Policy, Systems, and Environmental Change: The ACHIEVE Program

    OpenAIRE

    Hefelfinger, Jenny; Patty, Alice; Ussery, Ann; Young, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This study assessed the value of technical assistance provided by state health department expert advisors and by the staff of the National Association of Chronic Disease Directors (NACDD) to community groups that participated in the Action Communities for Health, Innovation, and Environmental Change (ACHIEVE) Program, a CDC-funded health promotion program. Methods We analyzed quantitative and qualitative data reported by community project coordinators to assess the nature and val...

  19. Endogenous growth, technical change and pollution control. Insights from a Schumpeterian growth model with productivity growth and green innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Burghaus, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    This thesis studies economic growth and pollution control in a Schumpeterian model with endogenous rate and direction of technical change. Economic growth results from growth in the quantity and productivity of polluting intermediate goods. Pollution is linked to the quantity of intermediates. Productivity growth is not directly polluting but has an indirect effect on pollution which is a priory ambiguous: Higher productivity helps to use polluting inputs more efficiently and decrease their s...

  20. Emergent Pareto-Levy Distributed Returns to Research in a Multi-Agent Model of Endogenous Technical Change

    OpenAIRE

    Michael D. Makowsky; Levy, David M.

    2010-01-01

    We build a multi-agent model of endogenous technical change in which heterogeneous investments in patented knowledge generate Pareto-Levy and lognormal distributed returns to investment in research from very weak distributional assumptions. Firms produce a homogenous good and a public stock of knowledge accumulates from the expired patents of privately produced knowledge. Increasing returns to scale are derivative of endogenously produced technology, but the market remains competitive due to ...

  1. X-ray and {Gamma}-ray spectroscopy of solids under pressure. Annual technical progress report, November 1996--October 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingalls, R.L.

    1997-04-30

    This report describes our recent synchrotron x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements on a number of systems that undergo pressure induced changes in local structure at high pressure. Our general technique is based upon a pressure cell which utilizes scintered boron carbide anvils, since diamond anvils generally produce Bragg glitches which spoil the high quality EXAFS necessary for precision structural measurements. Sample pressure is determined at the beam-line by measuring and analyzing, via XAFS, the compression of some cubic material contained within the sample chamber. Recently we have extended this work to 77 K using helium gas for the applied force, rather than hydraulic oil.

  2. Population dynamics of Agriophyllum squarrosum, a pioneer annual plant endemic to mobile sand dunes, in response to global climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Chaoju; Yin, Hengxia; Shi, Yong; Zhao, Jiecai; Yin, Chengliang; Luo, Wanyin; Dong, Zhibao; Chen, Guoxiong; Yan, Xia; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Ma, Xiao-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Climate change plays an important role in the transition of ecosystems. Stratigraphic investigations have suggested that the Asian interior experienced frequent transitions between grassland and desert ecosystems as a consequence of global climate change. Using maternally and bi-parentally inherited markers, we investigated the population dynamics of Agriophyllum squarrosum (Chenopodiaceae), an annual pioneer plant endemic to mobile sand dunes. Phylogeographic analysis revealed that A. squarrosum could originate from Gurbantunggut desert since ~1.6 Ma, and subsequently underwent three waves of colonisation into other deserts and sandy lands corresponding to several glaciations. The rapid population expansion and distribution range shifts of A. squarrosum from monsoonal climate zones suggested that the development of the monsoonal climate significantly enhanced the population growth and gene flow of A. squarrosum. These data also suggested that desertification of the fragile grassland ecosystems in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was more ancient than previously suggested and will be aggravated under global warming in the future. This study provides new molecular phylogeographic insights into how pioneer annual plant species in desert ecosystems respond to global climate change, and facilitates evaluation of the ecological potential and genetic resources of future crops for non-arable dry lands to mitigate climate change. PMID:27210568

  3. Analysis of strategies for improving uranium utilization in pressurized water reactors. Annual technical progress report for FY 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systematic procedures have been devised and applied to evaluate core design and fuel management strategies for improving uranium utilization in Pressurized Water Reactors operated on a once-through fuel cycle. A principal objective has been the evaluation of suggested improvements on a self-consistent basis, allowing for concurrent changes in dependent variables such as core leakage and batch power histories, which might otherwise obscure the sometimes subtle effects of interest. Two levels of evaluation have been devised: a simple but accurate analytic model based on the observed linear variations in assembly reactivity as a function of burnup; and a numerical approach, embodied in a computer program, which relaxes this assumption and combines it with empirical prescriptions for assembly (or batch) power as a function of reactivity, and core leakage as a function of peripheral assembly power. State-of-the-art physics methods, such as PDQ-7, were used to verify and supplement these techniques

  4. 1991 ACSM-ASPRS Annual Convention, Baltimore, MD, Mar. 25-29, 1991, Technical Papers. Vol. 3 - Remote Sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present volume on remote sensing discusses a system of integrated acquisition procedures with satellite data, photointerpretation and ground measurements of forest structure, Landsat TM image classification with an artificial neural network, and the use of transputers to reduce maximum likelihood classification time. Attention is given to the automated extraction of metadata from remotely sensed satellite imagery, oceanographic analysis with NASA's Seapak software, strategies for coordinating natural resource information management programs, and an integrative approach to research of deforestation under concession management. Topics addressed include semiautomated point and search signature selection, information management challenges of the EOS Data and Information System, an integrating remote sensing/GIS approach for resource assessment in the National Park Service, and the development of land data sets for studies of global climate change

  5. Thermal Power Systems, Point-Focusing Distributed Receiver Technology Project. Annual technical report, Fiscal Year 1978. Volume II. Detailed report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-15

    Thermal or electrical power from the sun's radiated energy through Point-Focusing Distributed Receiver technology is the goal of this Project. The energy thus produced must be economically competitive with other sources. This Project supports the industrial development of technology and hardware for extracting energy from solar power to achieve the stated goal. Present studies are working to concentrate the solar energy through mirrors or lenses, to a working fluid or gas, and through a power converter change it to an energy source useful to man. Rankine-cycle and Brayton-cycle engines are currently being developed as the most promising energy converters for our near future needs. Accomplishments on point-focusing technology in FY 1978 are detailed.

  6. Making Inroads: Women in Science and Technical Research: Environmental Change Slow and Difficult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Dianne Williams

    1993-01-01

    Explains that, although African-American women are making the greatest strides in science and technical fields, these fields still remain underrepresented with minorities. Related issues involving gender stereotyping and the difficulty of breaking into a sexist field are examined. (GLR)

  7. The Changing Nature of Information Literacy in the Technical College Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Community and technical colleges have a long-established tradition of instructing students in library use with the goal of increasing information literacy and life-long learning (Branch & Gilchrist, 1996). This article will briefly summarize that history and discuss the impact the information age has had in altering the ways in which that…

  8. Changing mechanism of global water scarcity events: Impacts of socioeconomic changes and inter-annual hydro-climatic variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, T.I.E.; Wada, Y.; Moel, de H.; Kummu, M.S.; Eisner, S.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.; Ward, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    79%) of the yearly changes in global water scarcity, whilst only after six to ten years, socioeconomic developments become the largest driver of change. Moreover, our results showed that the growth in the relative contribution of socioeconomic developments to changing water scarcity conditions stabi

  9. Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF) -Evaluation/scoping of Management plans - Evaluation of the multi-annual management plan for the North Sea stocks of plaice and sole(STECF-14-03). 2014.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Expert Working Group meeting of the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries EWG-14-03 on Evaluation/scoping of Management plans. Evaluation of the multi-annual management plan for the North Sea stocks of plaice and sole was held from 10-14 March 2014 in Varese, Italy. The report was reviewed and endorsed by the STECF during its plenary meeting held from 24 to 28 March 2014 in Brussels (Belgium).

  10. Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF) - Evaluation/scoping of Management plans - Evaluation of the multi-annual plan for the management of Western Channel sole (Regulation EC 509/2007)(STECF-14-04)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Expert Working Group meeting of the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries EWG-14-03 on Evaluation/scoping of Management plans. Evaluation of the multi-annual plan for the management of Western Channel sole (Regulation EC 509/2007) was held from 10-14 March 2014 in Varese, Italy. The report was reviewed and endorsed by the STECF during its plenary meeting held from 24 to 28 March 2014 in Brussels (Belgium).

  11. Simulated annual changes in plant functional types and their responses to climate change on the northern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuo, Lan; Zhang, Yongxin; Piao, Shilong; Gao, Yanhong

    2016-06-01

    Changes in plant functional types (PFTs) have important implications for both climate and water resources. Still, little is known about whether and how PFTs have changed over the past decades on the northern Tibetan Plateau (NTP) where several of the top largest rivers in the world are originated. Also, the relative importance of atmospheric conditions vs. soil physical conditions in affecting PFTs is unknown on the NTP. In this study, we used the improved Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model to investigate PFT changes through examining the changes in foliar projective coverages (FPCs) during 1957-2009 and their responses to changes in root zone soil temperature, soil moisture, air temperature, precipitation and CO2 concentrations. The results show spatially heterogeneous changes in FPCs across the NTP during 1957-2009, with 34 % (13 %) of the region showing increasing (decreasing) trends. Dominant drivers responsible for the observed FPC changes vary with regions and vegetation types, but overall, precipitation is the major factor in determining FPC changes on the NTP with positive impacts. Soil temperature increase exhibits small but negative impacts on FPCs. Different responses of individual FPCs to regionally varying climate change result in spatially heterogeneous patterns of vegetation changes on the NTP. The implication of the study is that fresh water resources in one of the world's largest and most important headwater basins and the onset and intensity of Asian monsoon circulations could be affected because of the changes in FPCs on the NTP.

  12. Impacts of land use change and climate variations on annual inflow into the Miyun Reservoir, Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiangkun; Sun, Ge; Li, Wenhong; Yu, Xinxiao; Zhang, Chi; Gong, Yuanbo; Tu, Lihua

    2016-04-01

    The Miyun Reservoir, the only surface water source for Beijing city, has experienced water supply decline in recent decades. Previous studies suggest that both land use change and climate contribute to the changes of water supply in this critical watershed. However, the specific causes of the decline in the Miyun Reservoir are debatable under a non-stationary climate in the past 4 decades. The central objective of this study was to quantify the separate and collective contributions of land use change and climate variability to the decreasing inflow into the Miyun Reservoir during 1961-2008. Different from previous studies on this watershed, we used a comprehensive approach to quantify the timing of changes in hydrology and associated environmental variables using the long-term historical hydrometeorology and remote-sensing-based land use records. To effectively quantify the different impacts of the climate variation and land use change on streamflow during different sub-periods, an annual water balance model (AWB), the climate elasticity model (CEM), and a rainfall-runoff model (RRM) were employed to conduct attribution analysis synthetically. We found a significant (p trend in annual potential evapotranspiration (p 0.1) negative trend in annual precipitation during 1961-2008. We identified two streamflow breakpoints, 1983 and 1999, by the sequential Mann-Kendall test and double-mass curve. Climate variability alone did not explain the decrease in inflow to the Miyun Reservoir. Reduction of water yield was closely related to increase in actual evapotranspiration due to the expansion of forestland and reduction in cropland and grassland, and was likely exacerbated by increased water consumption for domestic and industrial uses in the basin. The contribution to the observed streamflow decline from land use change fell from 64-92 % during 1984-1999 to 36-58 % during 2000-2008, whereas the contribution from climate variation climbed from 8-36 % during the 1984-1999 to

  13. Changing mechanism of global water scarcity events: Impacts of socioeconomic changes and inter-annual hydro-climatic variability

    OpenAIRE

    Veldkamp, T.I.E.; Wada, Y.; Moel, de, H.; Kummu, M.S.; Eisner, S.; J. C. J. H. Aerts; Ward, P J

    2015-01-01

    79%) of the yearly changes in global water scarcity, whilst only after six to ten years, socioeconomic developments become the largest driver of change. Moreover, our results showed that the growth in the relative contribution of socioeconomic developments to changing water scarcity conditions stabilizes towards 2000 and that the impacts of hydro-climatic variability remain significantly important. The findings presented in this paper could be of use for water managers and policy makers copin...

  14. Proceedings of the Go-Expo Gas and Oil Exposition and the 4. Annual Canadian International Petroleum Conference and the 54. Annual Technical Meeting of the Petroleum Society of CIM : Global Challenges and Technology Integration. CD-ROM ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of technical papers dealing with various aspects of petroleum geology and resource development were presented at this conference and trade show which was attended by local and international participants. The 27 sessions reflected the changes facing the petroleum industry in terms of fluctuating product prices, aging staff, maturing basins, frontier development, and environmental concerns. The conference is truly international with nearly one third of the 250 presentations coming from outside of Canada. The presentations were targeted for managers, engineers, technologists, geologists, and other petroleum industry specialists dealing with issues such as: business development; conventional oil and gas recovery; conventional and unconventional heavy oil recovery; corrosion, pipelines and process engineering; drilling engineering; enhanced recovery; environmental management; production operations; regulatory and operations management; reservoir fluid characterization; reservoir simulation; risk management; well test analysis; and, well design and completions. A total of 124 papers have been processed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  15. Technical Note: Evaluating a simple parameterization of radiative shortwave forcing from surface albedo change

    OpenAIRE

    R. M. Bright; Kvalevåg, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Land-use activities affect Earth’s energy balance not only via biogeochemical emissions, but also through perturbations in surface albedo, the latter of which is often excluded in impact assessment studies. In this short technical note, we present and compare a simple model for estimating shortwave radiative forcings at the top of Earth’s atmosphere to a more sophisticated 8-stream radiative transfer model based on a discrete ordinate method. Outcomes from monthly albe...

  16. Technical Change Theory and Learning Curves: Patterns of Progress in Energy Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Jamasb, Tooraj

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of energy technology learning and progress within the framework of Schumpeter?s invention-innovation-diffusion paradigm. We estimate learning by doing and research rates for a range of energy technologies in four stages of technical progress. Emerging and mature technologies respond slowly to research and development (R&D) and capacity expansion; evolving technologies exhibit high learning-by-doing and research rates; reviving technologies exhibit co...

  17. Explaining the Skill Premium: Technical Change or Capita-Skill Complements?

    OpenAIRE

    Alpo Willman; Miguel A. León-Ledesma; Peter McAdam

    2012-01-01

    We examine the two-level and the three-level nested four factor Constant Elasticity of Substitution production functions, where labor is disaggregated into skilled and unskilled labor and the capital stock into structures and equipment capital. We estimate inter-factor substitution elasticity and factor-augmenting technical progress parameters. Our special focus of interest is in the issue, whether the source of the observed skill-premium between the wage rates of skilled and unskilled labor ...

  18. Scientific and technical assistance on the minimum sample size to test should an annual BSE statistical testing regime be authorised in healthy slaughtered cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    This Scientific Report of EFSA provides scientific and technical assistance to the European Commission on (i the minimum sample size to test, should an annual Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE statistical regime be authorised in healthy slaughtered cattle in certain EU Member States (MSs, and (ii on the added value of that sample size for monitoring the trend of   Classical BSE, Atypical BSE, and the emergence of a hypothetical new type of cattle Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE. Firstly, an evaluation of the epidemiological trends of BSE in 25 EU MSs was carried out in groups based on historical BSE monitoring data. Secondly, and with the aid of a purpose-built model called Cattle TSE Monitoring Model (C-TSEMM developed by an EFSA contractor, both the assessment of the design prevalence and of the sensitivity of different BSE monitoring scenarios were carried out. Among the assumptions made in the C-TSEMM, a key one is that for those EU MSs with no, or few, BSE cases post-2001 an alternative estimate of cohort-based prevalence is required. This is estimated based on the average prevalence of the group of MSs with BSE cases under which they were placed in previous EFSA Opinions. Also, the model estimates presented are based on the demographics of the adult cattle population and on the number of adult cattle removed from the population via the different streams in 2011 (i.e. healthy slaughter, animals showing clinical signs of disease during ante mortem inspection, emergency slaughtered animals and fallen stock. Therefore, future fluctuations in those numbers at EU level and in each of the MSs will impact on the validity of the estimates presented in this report. A series of recommendations are made on sampling strategies for BSE monitoring and on the future use of the C-TSEMM.  

  19. Point-Cocusing Thermal and Electric Applications Project. Annual technical report, fiscal year 1979. Volume I. Executive summary. JPL Publication 79-118, Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-15

    This is a summary of the Point-Focusing Thermal and Electric Applications PFTEA Project's Annual Technical Report for FY 1979. More detailed compilation of results for this year may be found in Volume II. Major activities in FY 1979 centered around the definition and implementation of the engineering experiments that form the main thrust of the PFTEA Project. Phase I of the first experiment, the Small Community Solar Thermal Power Experiment, was completed. As a result of the Phase I concept definition studies that included a small central receiver approach, a point-focusing distributed receiver system with central power generation and a point-focusing distributed receiver concept with distributed power generation, Ford Aerospace and Communications Corporation was selected to pursue the last approach in Phase II. The first experiment in the Isolated Application Series was initiated as a result of procurement activities that culminated with the release of an RFP for the Military Module Power Experiment. A 100 kWe power plant based on Hybrid Brayton technology is being developed in conjunction with the US Navy. Planning for the third engineering experiment series, which addresses the industrial market sector, was initiated in FY 1979. In addition to the experiment-related activities, several contracts to industry were let and studies at JPL were conducted to explore the market potential for Point-Focusing Distributed Receiver (PFDR) Systems. System analysis studies were completed that looked at PFDR technology relative to other small power system technology candidates for the utility market sector.

  20. The mechanism and scenarios of how mean annual runoff varies with climate change in Asian monsoon areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junxu; Xia, Jun; Zhao, Changsen; Zhang, Shifeng; Fu, Guobin; Ning, Like

    2014-09-01

    Understanding the effects of climate change on runoff is important for the sustainable management of water resources. However, the mechanism of such effects in the Asian monsoon region remains unclear. This study revisits Fu's two-parameter climate elasticity index and enhances it by using the Gardner function to strengthen the former's prediction reliability when the future climate condition is beyond the historical range. Then the improved method was applied to study the elasticity change with temperature and precipitation in the eastern monsoon basins of China, whereas to explore the mechanism of climate change on runoff. Furthermore, the runoff change and the elasticity of the study area from 2020 to 2050 under representative concentration pathways (RCPs) were predicted. Results show that the trend of elasticity change assumes a centrosymmetric picture with the symmetric point (0, 0). Different catchments respond differently to the same climate change scenario: the sensitivity of the Haihe Basin is the highest; those of Yellow, Huaihe, Liaohe, Songhua, Pearl, Yangtze, and Southeast Rivers are lower, in descending order. The changing mode of precipitation and temperature differs greatly to keep the runoff unchanged. For semi-humid regions in which the mean annual temperature ranges from 0.71 °C to 9.0 °C, such as the basins of Songhua, Liaohe, Haihe, and Yellow, a 1 °C increase in temperature requires a corresponding 3.2-4.0% increase in precipitation to keep the runoff unchanged. However, in wet regions, such as the basins of Yangtze, Southeast Rivers, and Pearl, the same change in temperature requires a less than 2.8% increase in precipitation to keep the runoff unchanged. In the future, the runoff in most basins may decrease in different degrees. The decreasing velocity of the runoff is the fastest in the RCP8.5 scenario and the decreasing trend of the runoff slows down under the RCP4.5 and RCP2.6 scenarios. The proposed method can be applied to other

  1. Annual changes of aerosol optical depth and Ångström exponent over Spitsbergen

    OpenAIRE

    Pakszys, Paulina; Zielinski, T.; Markowicz, K.; Petelski, T.; Makuch, P.; Lisok, J.; Chilinski, M.; Rozwadoska, A.; Ritter, Christoph; Neuber, Roland; Udisti, Roberto; Mazzola, M.

    2015-01-01

    This book contributes to the current discussion on global environmental changes by discussing modifications in marine ecosystems related to global climate changes. In marine ecosystems, rising atmospheric CO2 and climate changes are associated with shifts in temperature, circulation, stratification, nutrient input, oxygen concentration and ocean acidification, which have significant biological effects on a regional and global scale. Knowing how these changes affect the distribution and ab...

  2. ANNUAL CHANGES IN PLASMA LEVELS OF CORTISOL AND SEX STEROID HORMONES IN MALE RAINBOW TROUT, ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯亚义; 韩晓冬; SUZUKIYuzuru

    2001-01-01

    The profiles of cortisol, testosterone, ll-ketotestosterone and 17α, 20β- dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one in mule rainbow trout reared under constant water temperature and natural photoperiod were determined by radioimmunoassay. Gonads of male rainbow trout reached maturity when the fish were two years old. Changes in the plasma levels of both sex steroid hormones and cortisol were closely related to the GSI. Plasma levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestostemne and 17a, 2013-dihydroxy 4-pregnene-3-one showed a clear peak in the annual breeding season, when the GSI reached their maxima. Plasma cortisol levels also showed clearly seasonal changes in both two- and three-year-old fish. The results suggest that the elevated plasma levels of cortisol may not just be due to stresses during the breeding season but have certain physiological functions in the reproduction of rainbow trout.

  3. ANNUAL CHANGES IN PLASMA LEVELS OF CORTISOL AND SEX STEROID HORMONES IN MALE RAINBOW TROUT,ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The profiles of cortisol, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17α, 20β- dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one in male rainbow trout reared under constant water temperature and natural photoperiod were determined by radioimmunoassay. Gonads of male rainbow trout reached maturity when the fish were two years old. Changes in the plasma levels of both sex steroid hormones and cortisol were closely related to the GSI. Plasma levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17α, 20β-dihydroxy 4-pregnene-3-one showed a clear peak in the annual breeding season, when the GSI reached their maxima. Plasma cortisol levels also showed clearly seasonal changes in both two- and three-year-old fish. The results suggest that the elevated plasma levels of cortisol may not just be due to stresses during the breeding season but have certain physiological functions in the reproduction of rainbow trout.

  4. Annual Research Technical Report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report has among its objectives to carry out the Probabilistic Safety Analysis Level 1 for the IRIS inside the project of development of reactors of IV Generation. To generate computational calculation tools for the analysis of the reactors of IV Generation. To generate computational tools to optimize the use of the nuclear fuel. (Author)

  5. Annual Research Technical Report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the principles of reactors design of Light Water of IV generation, to look for collaborations to participate in the development of some of them and to generate computational tools that allow us the appropriate analysis of these reactors. (Author)

  6. Annual Research Technical Report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work it plans to be carried out the Probabilistic Safety Analysis level 1 for the Modified Design of the IRIS Reactor. To generate computational tools of calculation of the analysis of the reactors of IV Generation and to optimize the use of nuclear fuel. To elaborate the economic analysis of the IRIS Reactor. (Author)

  7. A constrained nonparametric regression analysis of factor-biased technical change and TFP growth at the firm level

    OpenAIRE

    Marijn Verschelde; Michel Dumont; Bruno Merlevede; Glenn Rayp

    2014-01-01

    Using firm-level data for Belgium, we study the validity of Hicks neutrality in several sectors that cover the spectrum of knowledge intensity. We find that Hicks neutrality is clearly not supported by the data in different sectors. The results are not sensitive to altering the specification of the technology by including firm age and R&D into the analysis. We also reject Hicks neutrality for a balanced sample, pointing to `within-firm' factor-biased technical change and we also find factor-b...

  8. Annual Change Detection by ASTER TIR Data and an Estimation of the Annual Coal Loss and CO2 Emission from Coal Seams Spontaneous Combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaomin Du; Suping Peng; Haiyan Wang; Sergio Bernardes; Guang Yang; Zhipeng Li

    2014-01-01

    Coal fires, including both underground and coal waste pile fires, result in large losses of coal resources and emit considerable amounts of greenhouse gases. To estimate the annual intensity of greenhouse gas emissions and the loss of coal resources, estimating the annual loss from fire-influenced coal seams is a feasible approach. This study assumes that the primary cause of coal volume loss is subsurface coal seam fires. The main calculation process is divided into three modules: (1) Coal f...

  9. Surface Signature Characterization at SPE through Ground-Proximal Methods: Methodology Change and Technical Justification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz-Fellenz, Emily S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-09

    A portion of LANL’s FY15 SPE objectives includes initial ground-based or ground-proximal investigations at the SPE Phase 2 site. The area of interest is the U2ez location in Yucca Flat. This collection serves as a baseline for discrimination of surface features and acquisition of topographic signatures prior to any development or pre-shot activities associated with SPE Phase 2. Our team originally intended to perform our field investigations using previously vetted ground-based (GB) LIDAR methodologies. However, the extended proposed time frame of the GB LIDAR data collection, and associated data processing time and delivery date, were unacceptable. After technical consultation and careful literature research, LANL identified an alternative methodology to achieve our technical objectives and fully support critical model parameterization. Very-low-altitude unmanned aerial systems (UAS) photogrammetry appeared to satisfy our objectives in lieu of GB LIDAR. The SPE Phase 2 baseline collection was used as a test of this UAS photogrammetric methodology.

  10. Impacts of climate change on biodiversity, ecosystems, and ecosystem services: technical input to the 2013 National Climate Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudinger, Michelle D.; Grimm, Nancy B.; Staudt, Amanda; Carter, Shawn L.; Stuart, F. Stuart, III; Kareiva, Peter; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Stein, Bruce A.

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystems, and the biodiversity and services they support, are intrinsically dependent on climate. During the twentieth century, climate change has had documented impacts on ecological systems, and impacts are expected to increase as climate change continues and perhaps even accelerates. This technical input to the National Climate Assessment synthesizes our scientific understanding of the way climate change is affecting biodiversity, ecosystems, ecosystem services, and what strategies might be employed to decrease current and future risks. Building on past assessments of how climate change and other stressors are affecting ecosystems in the United States and around the world, we approach the subject from several different perspectives. First, we review the observed and projected impacts on biodiversity, with a focus on genes, species, and assemblages of species. Next, we examine how climate change is affecting ecosystem structural elements—such as biomass, architecture, and heterogeneity—and functions—specifically, as related to the fluxes of energy and matter. People experience climate change impacts on biodiversity and ecosystems as changes in ecosystem services; people depend on ecosystems for resources that are harvested, their role in regulating the movement of materials and disturbances, and their recreational, cultural, and aesthetic value. Thus, we review newly emerging research to determine how human activities and a changing climate are likely to alter the delivery of these ecosystem services. This technical input also examines two cross-cutting topics. First, we recognize that climate change is happening against the backdrop of a wide range of other environmental and anthropogenic stressors, many of which have caused dramatic ecosystem degradation already. This broader range of stressors interacts with climate change, and complicates our abilities to predict and manage the impacts on biodiversity, ecosystems, and the services they support. The

  11. Impacts of land use change and climate variations on annual inflow into the Miyun Reservoir, Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiangkun; Sun, Ge; Li, Wenhong; Yu, Xinxiao; Zhang, Chi; Gong, Yuanbo; Tu, Lihua

    2016-04-01

    The Miyun Reservoir, the only surface water source for Beijing city, has experienced water supply decline in recent decades. Previous studies suggest that both land use change and climate contribute to the changes of water supply in this critical watershed. However, the specific causes of the decline in the Miyun Reservoir are debatable under a non-stationary climate in the past 4 decades. The central objective of this study was to quantify the separate and collective contributions of land use change and climate variability to the decreasing inflow into the Miyun Reservoir during 1961-2008. Different from previous studies on this watershed, we used a comprehensive approach to quantify the timing of changes in hydrology and associated environmental variables using the long-term historical hydrometeorology and remote-sensing-based land use records. To effectively quantify the different impacts of the climate variation and land use change on streamflow during different sub-periods, an annual water balance model (AWB), the climate elasticity model (CEM), and a rainfall-runoff model (RRM) were employed to conduct attribution analysis synthetically. We found a significant (p 0.1) negative trend in annual precipitation during 1961-2008. We identified two streamflow breakpoints, 1983 and 1999, by the sequential Mann-Kendall test and double-mass curve. Climate variability alone did not explain the decrease in inflow to the Miyun Reservoir. Reduction of water yield was closely related to increase in actual evapotranspiration due to the expansion of forestland and reduction in cropland and grassland, and was likely exacerbated by increased water consumption for domestic and industrial uses in the basin. The contribution to the observed streamflow decline from land use change fell from 64-92 % during 1984-1999 to 36-58 % during 2000-2008, whereas the contribution from climate variation climbed from 8-36 % during the 1984-1999 to 42-64 % during 2000-2008. Model uncertainty

  12. Proceedings of the 58. annual technical meeting of the Petroleum Society of CIM : CIPC 2007 : Because technology changes everything

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference and trade show provided a forum to present new, emerging and existing technologies that will play a key role in ensuring that hydrocarbon exploitation occurs in a sustainable manner, where costs and resource recovery are optimized while minimizing environmental impacts. The challenge of developing maturing basins, frontier lands and unconventional resources was discussed. In particular, the application of thermal recovery methods such as steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) for the in-situ recovery of heavy oils and bitumens was reviewed and compared with the performance of alternative enhanced energy recovery technologies such as vapor extraction (VAPEX). The conference was attended by local and international participants in the petroleum sector, including managers, engineers, technologists, geologists, and other petroleum industry specialists. The conference featured 132 presentations addressing topics such as improved recovery of conventional oil and gas; heavy oil cold production; thermal and solvent methods for recovering heavy oil and bitumen; drilling engineering; well completions and simulation; well test analysis; production operations and optimization; facilities; reservoir rock and fluids characterization; numerical simulation; health, safety and regulatory issues; oil and gas and the environment; and, business development and risk management. All 132 presentations from the conference have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  13. Solar Thermal Power Systems Point-Focusing Thermal and Electric Applications Project. Annual technical report. Volume II. Detailed report, fiscal year 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-15

    The main technical activities of the Point-Focusing Thermal and Electric Applications (PFTEA) Project in FY 1979 are documented. During the course of the year, the project's name was changed. It had been the Small Power Systems Applications Project. The present name denotes a realignment of the project's charter and reflects two significant changes: (1) technologies considered will be restricted to point-focusing distributed receiver systems, and (2) the project will be responsible for both thermal and electric applications. This report (Volume II) is a detailed compilation of key activities and results for FY 1979. During FY 1979 significant progress was made in the first engineering experiment, the Small Community Solar Thermal Power Experiment (SCSE), with the completion of the concept definition phase in which three contractors participated - each pursuing a different technology. The PFDR approach with distributed energy conversion (i.e., engine at the focus) was selected as the preferred technology for this first experiment. Procurement activities began in FY 1979 for the Military Module Power Experiment, the first of a series of experiments planned as part of the Isolated Load Series. Both this experiment and the SCSE are discussed in detail. (WHK)

  14. The role of ENSO in understanding changes in Colombia's annual malaria burden by region, 1960–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveros Hugo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria remains a serious problem in Colombia. The number of malaria cases is governed by multiple climatic and non-climatic factors. Malaria control policies, and climate controls such as rainfall and temperature variations associated with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO, have been associated with malaria case numbers. Using historical climate data and annual malaria case number data from 1960 to 2006, statistical models are developed to isolate the effects of climate in each of Colombia's five contrasting geographical regions. Methods Because year to year climate variability associated with ENSO causes interannual variability in malaria case numbers, while changes in population and institutional control policy result in more gradual trends, the chosen predictors in the models are annual indices of the ENSO state (sea surface temperature [SST] in the tropical Pacific Ocean and time reference indices keyed to two major malaria trends during the study period. Two models were used: a Poisson and a Negative Binomial regression model. Two ENSO indices, two time reference indices, and one dummy variable are chosen as candidate predictors. The analysis was conducted using the five geographical regions to match the similar aggregation used by the National Institute of Health for its official reports. Results The Negative Binomial regression model is found better suited to the malaria cases in Colombia. Both the trend variables and the ENSO measures are significant predictors of malaria case numbers in Colombia as a whole, and in two of the five regions. A one degree Celsius change in SST (indicating a weak to moderate ENSO event is seen to translate to an approximate 20% increase in malaria cases, holding other variables constant. Conclusion Regional differentiation in the role of ENSO in understanding changes in Colombia's annual malaria burden during 1960–2006 was found, constituting a new approach to use ENSO as a

  15. Inverted Barometer Contributions to Accelerated and Extreme Annual Mean Sea Level Changes Along the East Coast of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piecuch, C. G.; Ponte, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Recent works have interpreted accelerated and extreme sea level (SL) changes along the northeast coast of North America primarily in terms of dynamic changes related to the meridional overturning or coastal circulations. Isostatic changes related to surface atmospheric pressure loading —the inverted barometer (IB) effect— have been deemed relatively unimportant, but a comprehensive analysis of the IB effect has been lacking. In this work, we use five different atmospheric pressure products to analyze the influence of the IB effect on annual mean SL from tide gauge records. Consistently across all products, the IB effect accounts for about 50% of the magnitude of a recent extreme event of SL rise in 2009 along Atlantic Canada and New England. In fact, the unique nature of the event was largely a result of the extreme IB signal. Estimated IB effects also amount to about 10-30% of recent multidecadal SL accelerations over the Mid-Atlantic Bight and Southern New England. These findings reiterate the need for careful estimation of IB effects for studies that want to interpret observed SL in terms of dynamic ocean circulation changes.

  16. Technical note: Changes to herd cutoff date in conception rate evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, J L; VanRaden, P M; Norman, H D; Cole, J B

    2013-02-01

    Service-sire conception rate (SCR) evaluations were implemented for the United States in August 2008. Only inseminations from the most recent 4 yr of breeding records are used for SCR evaluations, and all inseminations must have occurred ≥ 70 d before the data submission deadline for an evaluation. In April 2012, edits for SCR were modified so that all inseminations must have occurred ≥ 70 d before the last herd test date rather than the constant date of 70 d before the data submission deadline. This edit more precisely measures the days of opportunity for a cow to be diagnosed as pregnant or not pregnant following insemination, and is herd specific. The number of inseminations before the edit change was 16,906,385 compared with 16,492,331 after the edit change. Correlations of SCR before and after the edit change were 0.96 for Holsteins and slightly lower for other breeds, with little change in mean or standard deviation. Weekly mean conception rates after the edit change were more stable for the most recent inseminations. The conception rate was 60% at wk 10 before the constant cutoff date (before edit change) compared with 42% at 10 wk before the last herd test date (after the edit change). Similar edits to SCR are applied to heifer conception rate (HCR) and cow conception rate data (CCR), and were changed in August 2012 to use herd-specific cutoff dates. The HCR and CCR correlations before and after the edit change were 0.99 or higher for all breeds, with little change in mean or standard deviation. The new edits improve accuracy of SCR, HCR, and CCR evaluations by accounting for differing opportunity to confirm pregnancy caused by discontinued testing or differences in herd testing schedules. PMID:23219123

  17. Technical changes that would contribute to success in the civilian radioactive waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper briefly reviews the history of the United States program for high-level waste disposal. It then describes the current DOE strategy for licensing and safety for a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Changes that have occurred since the origin of the program and since publication of the Site Characterization Plan are reviewed. These include changes in external circumstances, changes in technology and new understanding of Yucca Mountain. An alternative approach is then described, based on four key concepts: a simple safety case, reversibility, demonstrability, and decompling operation of a repository from the operation of reactors

  18. Influence of seaway changes during the Pliocene on tropical Pacific climate in the Kiel climate model: mean state, annual cycle, ENSO, and their interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhaoyang; Latif, Mojib; Park, Wonsun; Krebs-Kanzow, Uta; Schneider, Birgit

    2016-08-01

    The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the leading mode of tropical Pacific interannual variability in the present-day climate. Available proxy evidence suggests that ENSO also existed during past climates, for example during the Pliocene extending from about 5.3 million to about 2.6 million years BP. Here we investigate the influences of the Panama Seaway closing and Indonesian Passages narrowing, and also of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) on the tropical Pacific mean climate and annual cycle, and their combined impact on ENSO during the Pliocene. To this end the Kiel Climate Model), a global climate model, is employed to study the influences of the changing geometry and CO2-concentration. We find that ENSO is sensitive to the closing of the Panama Seaway, with ENSO amplitude being reduced by about 15-20 %. The narrowing of the Indonesian Passages enhances ENSO strength but only by about 6 %. ENSO period changes are modest and the spectral ENSO peak stays rather broad. Annual cycle changes are more prominent. An intensification of the annual cycle by about 50 % is simulated in response to the closing of the Panama Seaway, which is largely attributed to the strengthening of meridional wind stress. In comparison to the closing of the Panama Seaway, the narrowing of the Indonesian Passages only drives relatively weak changes in the annual cycle. A robust relationship is found such that ENSO amplitude strengthens when the annual cycle amplitude weakens.

  19. Job skills at the flashpoint of economic, technical and organizational change

    OpenAIRE

    Geser, Hans

    2000-01-01

    Contents: 1. Point of departure and problem definition; 2. On the growing complexity and unpredictability of the change in occupational skills; 3. The reduced causal impact of technology; 4. Organizational and qualificational change: the implications of "functional flexibilization" for skill requirements at staff and management level; 4.1 "Numerical" and "functional" flexibilization; 4.2 Consequences of the flattening of hierarchies and the delegation of responsibilities; 4.3 Total quality th...

  20. General technical comments on climate change - comment 1: Answers to five questions posed at the conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt is made to answer the following five questions: (1) what are the projections of global average temperature increase? (2) What are the prospects for projecting regional climate change? (3) Do the climate models produce outlooks for a group of climate variables closely related to sociatal impacts? (4) What is the feasibility and what are the costs of proposed geoengineering options for responding to climate change? (5) What climate variables co-vary with global average temperature

  1. Technological change in Swiss thermal waste treatment: An expert-based socio-technical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding technological change provides a crucial basis for governing sustainability transitions. In this paper we present an analysis of technological change using the example of Swiss thermal waste processing. In recent years, increased concerns about the low quality of residues from grate-firing systems led to the examination of alternative technologies. Yet despite clear indications of a potential better performance with respect to residue quality, none of these alternatives has been adopted. Based on a two-stage knowledge integration among 15 leading experts, in a retrospective analysis we identified factors that have significantly affected technological change in Swiss thermal waste processing. These factors were then related to three technological options representing different types of technological change, i.e., from incremental improvements of the existing to the implementation of a new technology. The results indicate that technological change is currently in a technological lock-in and provide detailed insights on the causes. The lock-in results in the step-wise further development of the status quo grate-firing system despite its limitations for improving the residue qualities. Almost all factors (legal, economic, societal, technological) of the existing 'thermal waste management' system have been well adapted to the cost- and energy-efficient grate-firing technology, blocking innovative technologies from entering the Swiss market. In addition, pressures from the context, e.g., societal pressure related to landfill risks, have not been strong enough to promote non-incremental change.

  2. Post-2012 climate change agreement - Fitting commitments by cities. Political, economic, technical and legal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a growing awareness of the crucial role that urban territories must and can play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, along with a growing power of a lobby dedicated to supporting the voices of urban territories vis-a-vis national states. The local level of organization and policy is relevant for two main reasons: density and spatial organization are key factors that influence energy consumption in transport and building; some of the major potentials for emission abatement need local coordination to overcome transaction costs. 'Engage, Empower and Resource': this formula, forged during the C40 Seoul Summit (May 2009), calls for clear and quantified commitments with a timetable for delivery; additional power and competencies for cities to increase their capacity to act; and substantial financial resources. Road-Map: This paper identifies key elements that need to be taken into account when developing a road-map that seeks empowerment of local governments in the UN post-2012 framework. It explores political, economic, technical and legal aspects, along with respective main issues to be addressed. (authors)

  3. Building on success : Climate Change Action Fund 2001-2002 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Climate Change Action Fund (CCAF) was established by the Canadian Government in 1998 with a budget of $150 million over 3 years to support early actions on climate change. The initiative was renewed in the 2000 federal budget with a further $150 million in funding. Thus far, funding has helped 32 research projects regarding communities, health, agriculture, forestry and water resources. The primary tool for implementing federal climate change policy has been the Technology Early Action Measures (TEAM) program. Other integrated components under the CCAF include the Foundation Building, Science Impacts and Adaption (SIA), and Public Education and Outreach (PEO). Broad options have been developed for a Domestic Emissions Trading system. The CCAF played a critical role in ensuring that Canada's policy position was heard in international negotiations on all subject matters, and was instrumental in bringing more developing countries to participate in the climate change initiative. Accomplishments thus far include climate system monitoring, improving climate models, and understanding the role that forests and agricultural lands play in the climate and carbon balance. The second phase of CCAF will focus on climate system processes, climate modelling and climate impact scenarios. 1 tab

  4. Annual rhythms that underlie phenology : biological time-keeping meets environmental change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helm, Barbara; Ben-Shlomo, Rachel; Sheriff, Michael J; Hut, Roelof A; Foster, Russell; Barnes, Brian M; Dominoni, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal recurrence of biological processes (phenology) and its relationship to environmental change is recognized as being of key scientific and public concern, but its current study largely overlooks the extent to which phenology is based on biological time-keeping mechanisms. We highlight the rel

  5. Organizational Change. Symposium 11. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    This packet contains three papers from a symposium on organizational change. The first paper, "Kaizen Blitz: Rapid Learning to Facilitate Immediate Organizational Improvements" (Robert B. Gudgel, Fred C. Feitler), describes rapid and dramatic improvement in the organizational performance of a manufacturing firm after use of a series of kaizen…

  6. Final Technical Report: Effects of Changing Water and Nitrogen Inputs on a Mojave Desert Ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Stanley, D.; Nowak, Robert S.; Fenstermaker, Lynn, F.; Young, Michael,H.

    2007-11-30

    In order to anticipate the effects of global change on ecosystem function, it is essential that predictive relationships be established linking ecosystem function to global change scenarios. The Mojave Desert is of considerable interest with respect to global change. It contains the driest habitats in North America, and thus most closely approximates the world’s great arid deserts. In order to examine the effects of climate and land use changes, in 2001 we established a long-term manipulative global change experiment, called the Mojave Global Change Facility. Manipulations in this study include the potential effects of (1) increased summer rainfall (75 mm over three discrete 25 mm events), (2) increased nitrogen deposition (10 and 40 kg ha-1), and (3) the disturbance of biological N-fixing crusts . Questions addressed under this grant shared the common hypothesis that plant and ecosystem performance will positively respond to the augmentation of the most limiting resources to plant growth in the Mojave Desert, e.g., water and nitrogen. Specific hypotheses include (1) increased summer rainfall will significantly increase plant production through an alleviation of moisture stress in the dry summer months, (2) N-deposition will increase plant production in this N-limited system, particularly in wet years or in concert with added summer rain, and (3) biological crust disturbance will gradually decrease bio-available N, with concomitant long-term reductions in photosynthesis and ANPP. Individual plant and ecosystem responses to global change may be regulated by biogeochemical processes and natural weather variability, and changes in plant and ecosystem processes may occur rapidly, may occur only after a time lag, or may not occur at all. During the first PER grant period, we observed changes in plant and ecosystem processes that would fall under each of these time-response intervals: plant and ecosystem processes responded rapidly to added summer rain, whereas most

  7. Influences of Seaway and CO2 Changes during the Pliocene on Tropical Pacific Sector Climate in the Kiel Climate Model: Mean Sate, Annual Cycle, ENSO, and their Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhaoyang; Park, Wonsun; Latif, Mojib; Krebs-Kanzow, Uta; Schneider, Birgit

    2016-04-01

    The opening and closing of seaways can have a profound impact on global and regional climate. The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the leading mode of tropical Pacific interannual variability in the present-day climate. Available proxy evidence suggests that ENSO also existed during past climates, for example during the Pliocene extending from about 5.3 million to about 2.6 million years BP. We investigate the influences of the Panama Seaway closing and Indonesian Passages narrowing, and of carbon dioxide (CO2) changes during the Pliocene on tropical Pacific mean climate, annual cycle and ENSO. The Kiel Climate Model (KCM) is employed to study the influences of the changing geometry and CO2-concentration. We find that ENSO is sensitive to the closing of the Panama Seaway, with ENSO amplitude being reduced by about 15% - 20%. The narrowing of the Indonesian Passages marginally enhances ENSO strength by about 6%. ENSO period changes are modest in all experiments. Annual cycle changes are prominent. The annual cycle in the eastern tropical Pacific intensifies by about 50% in response to the closing of the Panama Seaway, which is largely attributed to the strengthening of meridional wind stress. Bjerknes stability index (BSI) analysis suggests that the growth rate of the ENSO mode does not significantly change due to compensating changes in ocean-atmosphere feedbacks, especially dynamical damping and thermocline feedback. A robust inverse relationship is found between ENSO strength and the strength of the annual cycle.

  8. Transportation energy scenario analysis technical memorandum No. 2: historical rates of change in the transportation stock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, M.; Bernard, III, M. J.

    1978-09-01

    This report examines historical rates of change in the transportation stock as a result of the introduction of new or improved technologies. Organized by mode, it highlights selected technological changes in motor vehicles (including automobiles, trucks, and buses), light and heavy rail transit, rail passenger and freight systems, commercial and general aviation, merchant shipping, and pipeline systems. As appropriate, these improvements are related to salient features of the technology under examination, the transportation system into which it was introduced, and general social or economic conditions. As a tool for long-range planning in the area of technology commercialization, the document is intended to provide background material against which to gauge maximum and likely rates of change (or acceptance) that may be anticipated following the introduction of new or greatly improved transportation technologies.

  9. Technical changes and the rate of profit in the Canadian food industry

    OpenAIRE

    M J Webber; Tonkin, S.

    1987-01-01

    The rate of profit and the causes of changes in the rate of profit in the Canadian food and beverage industry, for the years 1952 - 1981, are examined in this paper. Until the mid-1960s, the rate of profit was stable or rising, but since then it has fallen. In the first half of the period under consideration, the market strength of the food and beverage industry offset the negative effects of changes within the industry; in the second half of the period, however, the food and beverage industr...

  10. Decadal and annual changes in biogenic opal and carbonate fluxes to the deep Sargasso Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuser, W.G.; Jickells, T.D.; Commeau, Judith A.

    1995-01-01

    Analyses of samples from a 14-year series of sediment-trap deployments in the deep Sargasso Sea reveal a significant trend in the ratio of the sinking fluxes of biogenic calcium carbonate and silica. Although there are pronounced seasonal cycles for both flux components, the overall opal/CaCO3 ratio changed by 50% from 1978 to 1991 (largely due to a decrease of opal flux), while total flux had no significant trend. These results suggest that plankton communities respond rapidly to subtle climate change, such as is evident in regional variations of wind speed, precipitation, wintertime ventilation and midwater temperatures. If the trends we observe in the makeup of sinking particulate matter occur on a large scale, they may in turn modify climate by modulating ocean-atmosphere CO2 exchange and albedo over the ocean.

  11. National program of fight against the climate change. 2. annual evaluation and forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference discussed the actions realized in the framework of the National Plan of Fight against the Climatic Change (PNLCC). The first part presents the problem, the evaluation of the PNLCC application and the control tools. the second part is devoted to the transport sector and the second to the buildings and the electric power demand control. The last part deals with the prospective and the challenges of the PNLCC. (A.L.B.)

  12. Modelling Changes in Employer Satisfaction between 2005, 2007 and 2009. Technical Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates change in employer satisfaction with vocational education and training (VET) between the years 2005 and 2009. Employer satisfaction was measured using the Survey of Employer Use and Views of the VET System, conducted biennially since 2005. Key measures from the survey are employer satisfaction with: vocational…

  13. Summaries and Technical Documentation for Performance Changes in Citizenship and Social Studies Assessments, 1969-76.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO. National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    This report summarizes changes in student performance in the areas of citizenship and social studies, as measured by the National Assessment of Educational Progress. An initial assessment of citizenship was conducted in 1969-70, and an initial assessment of social studies was conducted in 1971-72. Both areas were reassessed in 1975-76. Because…

  14. Learning and the New Workplace: Impacts of Technology Change on Postsecondary Career and Technical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washbon, Janet L.

    2012-01-01

    The experience of technology change pervades people's lives. Sometimes it comes in the guise of a new smart phone, e-reader, or patch for a leaky artery. Other times, it appears as a new way to track packages, connect with others through social networks, or find one's way around an unfamiliar place. Or it reveals itself as a new surgical…

  15. UK adaptation strategy and technical measures: the impacts of climate change on buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the importance of climate change for the UK building stock and reviews the predictions of the United Kingdom Climate Impacts Programme 2002 (UKCIP02) scenarios for the future climate that are of relevance to buildings and construction. The possible impacts of these changes on flooding, wind damage, driving rain impact, subsidence and the internal environment of buildings are reviewed and the steps that might be taken to mitigate these impacts discussed. The current response of regulators, standardisation bodies, building owners and the insurance industry to these impacts is examined, and it is shown that each body acts in different ways to different impacts. Some bodies, such as government departments responsible for building regulations and the insurance industry, are taking the possibility of climate change very seriously. However, the uncertainty of future climate predictions, especially as regards wind speed, means that it is not easy to incorporate these issues in formal legislation. The whole culture of standardisation, which is based on well-established data, such as mean climate data over the last 30 years, makes it difficult for British and European Standards, which underpin regulations, to react to the changing climate. (author)

  16. Suburban School Districts and Demographic Change: The Technical, Normative, and Political Dimensions of Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Jennifer Jellison; Diem, Sarah; Welton, Anjalé

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Suburban school districts have undergone significant demographic shifts over the past several decades. The research literature to date, however, has yet to explore how suburban district leaders are responding to such changes, or examine the factors that shape response. In this article, we apply a "zone of mediation" framework to…

  17. Aerosols: connection between regional climatic change and air quality (Iupac Technical Report)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slanina, J.; Zhang, Y.H.

    2004-01-01

    yAerosols play an important role in all problems connected with air pollution, ranging from very local effects and human health problems to regional problems such as acid deposition and eutrophication up to continental and global questions such as stratospheric ozone loss and climatic change. In thi

  18. 75 FR 13678 - Product Jurisdiction; Change of Address and Telephone Number; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 3 Product Jurisdiction; Change of Address and... action is editorial in nature and is intended to improve the accuracy of the agency's regulations. DATES...: PART 3--PRODUCT JURISDICTION 0 1. The authority citation for 21 CFR part 3 continues to read as...

  19. Annual Energy Review 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2000-07-01

    A generation ago the Ford Foundation convened a group of experts to explore and assess the Nation’s energy future, and published their conclusions in A Time To Choose: America’s Energy Future (Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 1974). The Energy Policy Project developed scenarios of U.S. potential energy use in 1985 and 2000. Now, with 1985 well behind us and 2000 nearly on the record books, it may be of interest to take a look back to see what actually happened and consider what it means for our future. The study group sketched three primary scenarios with differing assumptions about the growth of energy use. The Historical Growth scenario assumed that U.S. energy consumption would continue to expand by 3.4 percent per year, the average rate from 1950 to 1970. This scenario assumed no intentional efforts to change the pattern of consumption, only efforts to encourage development of our energy supply. The Technical Fix scenario anticipated a “conscious national effort to use energy more efficiently through engineering know-how." The Zero Energy Growth scenario, while not clamping down on the economy or calling for austerity, incorporated the Technical Fix efficiencies plus additional efficiencies. This third path anticipated that economic growth would depend less on energy-intensive industries and more on those that require less energy, i.e., the service sector. In 2000, total energy consumption was projected to be 187 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) in the Historical Growth case, 124 quadrillion Btu in the Technical Fix case, and 100 quadrillion Btu in the Zero Energy Growth case. The Annual Energy Review 1999 reports a preliminary total consumption for 1999 of 97 quadrillion Btu (see Table 1.1), and the Energy Information Administration’s Short-Term Energy Outlook (April 2000) forecasts total energy consumption of 98 quadrillion Btu in 2000. What energy consumption path did the United States actually travel to get from 1974, when the scenarios were drawn

  20. Canada's climate change voluntary challenge and registry program : Suncor Energy Inc. eighth annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A corporate profile of Suncor Energy, a Canadian integrated energy company placing the emphasis on the development of the Athabasca oil sands in northern Alberta, is provided. A message from the president reiterates the company's commitment to improving both the environmental and economic performance through innovative policies and strategic management plans. A sustainable approach to climate change has meant an effort toward reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases and improving energy use. Suncor has lowered its greenhouse gas emission intensity by 11 per cent below 1990 levels in 2001. Total reductions of 12.9 million tonnes have been achieved during the period 1990-2001. The total absolute emissions are above 1990 levels, which can be explained by tremendous production growth at Suncor Energy. Suncor has developed a seven-point plan to address the issue of climate change as follows: manage its greenhouse gas emissions, develop renewable sources of energy, invest in environmental and economic research, use domestic and foreign offsets, collaborate with governments and other stakeholder groups on policy development, educate its employees and the public on ways to respond to the risk posed by climate change, and measure and report its progress from that perspective. The document is divided into sections. The first section provides an organization profile, and section two discusses senior management support. In section three, a review of base year methodology and quantification is provided, followed by projection in section four. Target setting is the topic of section five, while section six deals with measures to achieve targets. The results achieved are highlighted in section seven. Education, training and awareness is broached in section eight, and the final section includes the statistical summary. tabs., figs

  1. DOE SBIR Phase II Final Technical Report - Assessing Climate Change Effects on Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteman, Cameron; Capps, Scott

    2014-11-05

    Specialized Vertum Partners software tools were prototyped, tested and commercialized to allow wind energy stakeholders to assess the uncertainties of climate change on wind power production and distribution. This project resulted in three commercially proven products and a marketing tool. The first was a Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) based resource evaluation system. The second was a web-based service providing global 10m wind data from multiple sources to wind industry subscription customers. The third product addressed the needs of our utility clients looking at climate change effects on electricity distribution. For this we collaborated on the Santa Ana Wildfire Threat Index (SAWTi), which was released publicly last quarter. Finally to promote these products and educate potential users we released “Gust or Bust”, a graphic-novel styled marketing publication.

  2. PERSPECTIVE: Technical fixes and climate change: optimizing for risks and consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasch, Philip J.

    2010-09-01

    Scientists and society in general are becoming increasingly concerned about the risks of climate change from the emission of greenhouse gases (IPCC 2007). Yet emissions continue to increase (Raupach et al 2007), and achieving reductions soon enough to avoid large and undesirable impacts requires a near-revolutionary global transformation of energy and transportation systems (Hoffert et al 1998). The size of the transformation and lack of an effective societal response have motivated some to explore other quite controversial strategies to mitigate some of the planetary consequences of these emissions. These strategies have come to be known as geoengineering: 'the deliberate manipulation of the planetary environment to counteract anthropogenic climate change' (Keith 2000). Concern about society's inability to reduce emissions has driven a resurgence in interest in geoengineering, particularly following the call for more research in Crutzen (2006). Two classes of geoengineering solutions have developed: (1) methods to draw CO2 out of the atmosphere and sequester it in a relatively benign form; and (2) methods that change the energy flux entering or leaving the planet without modifying CO2 concentrations by, for example, changing the planetary albedo. Only the latter methods are considered here. Summaries of many of the methods, scientific questions, and issues of testing and implementation are discussed in Launder and Thompson (2009) and Royal Society (2009). The increased attention indicates that geoengineering is not a panacea and all strategies considered will have risks and consequences (e.g. Robock 2008, Trenberth and Dai 2007). Recent studies involving comprehensive Earth system models can provide insight into subtle interactions between components of the climate system. For example Rasch et al (2009) found that geoengineering by changing boundary clouds will not simultaneously 'correct' global averaged surface temperature, precipitation, and sea ice to present

  3. Trade, Technical Change and Market Selection: Evidence from Manufacturing Plants in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Maurice Kugler; John Haltiwanger; Adriana Kugler; Marcela Eslava

    2011-01-01

    We examine various channels through which trade liberalization affects aggregate productivity, exploiting tariff changes across sectors after the Colombian trade reform. An advantage of our analysis is that our TFP measure does not include demand and price effects. We find that higher plant-level productivity reduces the likelihood a plant exits, and that greater international competition magnifies this effect. Using a dynamic simulation, we find that improved selection increases aggregate pr...

  4. Globalization, Technical Change, and the Skill Premium : Magnification Effects from Human-Capital Investments

    OpenAIRE

    Jürgen Meckel; Benjamin Weigert

    2003-01-01

    This paper shows that endogenous adjustments in the composition of labor supplies magnify the effects of changes in commodity prices on the measured skill premium under quite plausible conditions. These composition effects arise from decisions of individuals with heterogeneous inherent abilities about acquiring human capital. They reinforce the well-known Stolper-Samuelson effect on the measured skill premium in countries with a sufficiently high relative supply of skilled labor, but compensa...

  5. Special challenges for public health with climate change and aging populations: Waterborne illness - 20th Annual John K. Friesen Conference - Growing Old in a Changing Climate: Exploring the Interface Between Population Aging and Global Warming (2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Takaro, Tim

    2011-01-01

    This video clip comprises the four presentations of Panel Session 4, “Preparing Aging Populations for Climate Change in British Columbia and Beyond” held at the 20th Annual John K. Friesen Conference, "Growing Old in a Changing Climate: Exploring the Interface Between Population Aging and Global Warming," MAY 25-26, 2011, Vancouver, BC. Dr. Tim Takaro "Special challenges for public health with climate change and aging populations: Waterborne illness" - Climate change is causing public health ...

  6. Climate change, air quality and chronic disease: Prospects for adaptation through urban design - 20th Annual John K. Friesen Conference - Growing Old in a Changing Climate: Exploring the Interface Between Population Aging and Global Warming (2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Brauer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This video clip comprises the four presentations of Panel Session 4, “Preparing Aging Populations for Climate Change in British Columbia and Beyond” held at the 20th Annual John K. Friesen Conference, "Growing Old in a Changing Climate: Exploring the Interface Between Population Aging and Global Warming," MAY 25-26, 2011, Vancouver, BC. Dr. Michael Brauer "Climate change, air quality and chronic disease: Prospects for adaptation through urban design" - Climate change and air pollution are lin...

  7. Climate change in BC: Implications for seniors - 20th Annual John K. Friesen Conference - Growing Old in a Changing Climate: Exploring the Interface Between Population Aging and Global Warming (2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Ostry, Aleck

    2011-01-01

    This video clip comprises the four presentations of Panel Session 4, “Preparing Aging Populations for Climate Change in British Columbia and Beyond” held at the 20th Annual John K. Friesen Conference, "Growing Old in a Changing Climate: Exploring the Interface Between Population Aging and Global Warming," MAY 25-26, 2011, Vancouver, BC. Dr. Aleck Ostry "Climate change in BC: Implications for seniors" - The purpose of this paper is to outline how climate change will likely affect seniors in BC...

  8. Preparing for change: Climate action in British Columbia - 20th Annual John K. Friesen Conference - Growing Old in a Changing Climate: Exploring the Interface Between Population Aging and Global Warming (2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Pouliotte, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This video clip comprises the three presentations of Panel Session 3, “Climate Change Adaptation Strategies for Aging Populations” held at the 20th Annual John K. Friesen Conference, "Growing Old in a Changing Climate: Exploring the Interface Between Population Aging and Global Warming," MAY 25-26, 2011, Vancouver, BC. Jennifer Pouliotte "Preparing for change: Climate action in British Columbia" - Jennifer Pouliotte is a Climate Change Adaptation Advisor with the Climate Action Secretariat in...

  9. Cyclic changes of Asian monsoon intensity during the early mid-Holocene from annually-laminated stalagmites, central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dianbing; Wang, Yongjin; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. L.; Kong, Xinggong

    2015-08-01

    Climate during the early Holocene was highly variable due to the complex interplay of external and internal forcing mechanisms. The relative importance for them on the Asian monsoon (AM) evolution yet remains to be resolved. Here we present two-to six-yr-resolution oxygen isotope (δ18O) records of five stalagmites, four of which are annually-laminated, from Qingtian Cave, central China, revealing detailed AM variability between 10.9 and 6.1 ka BP. Over the contemporaneous periods, the δ18O records agree well with each other at multi-decadal to centennial timescales. When pieced together with the previously published isotopic data from the same cave, the final δ18O record reveals detailed AM variability from the last deglaciation to the mid-Holocene, consistent with other cave records. The most striking feature of the δ18O record is the recurrence of centennial-scale oscillations, especially during the annually-counted period (8.8-6.1 ka BP). Cross-wavelet analyses between the δ18O record and solar proxies show strong coherence at 200-yr cycle, suggesting that solar output was actively involved as a primary contributor. The AM depression at 8.2 ka BP is indistinguishable in amplitude and pattern from a series of weak AM events after 8 ka BP. We speculate that these centennial-scale AM changes might be regulated by the positive feedbacks of oceanic/atmospheric interactions to the solar activity under the condition of the retreat of continental ice-sheets.

  10. Annual Changes of Paddy Rice Planting Areas in Northeastern Asia from MODIS images in 2000-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, X.; Zhang, G.; Dong, J.; Menarguez, M. A.; Kou, W.; Jin, C.; Qin, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, J.; Moore, B., III

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge of the area and spatial distribution of paddy rice is important for assessment of food security, management of water resources, estimation of greenhouse gas (methane) emissions, and understanding avian influenza virus transmission. Over the past two decades, paddy rice cultivation has expanded northward in temperate and cold temperate zones, particularly in Northeastern China. There is a need to quantify and map changes in paddy rice planting areas in Northeastern Asia (Japan, North and South Korea, and northeast China) at annual interval. We developed a pixel- and phenology-based image analysis system, MODIS-RICE, to map the paddy rice in Northeastern Asia by using multi-temporal MODIS thermal and surface reflectance imagery. Paddy rice fields during the flooding and transplanting phases have unique physical and spectral characteristics, which make it possible for the development of an automated and robust algorithm to track flooding and transplanting phases of paddy rice fields over time. In this presentation, we will show the MODIS-based annual maps of paddy rice planting area in the Northeastern Asia from 2000-2014 (500-m spatial resolution). Accuracy assessments using high-resolution images show that the resultant paddy rice map of Northeastern Asia had a comparable accuracy to the existing products, including 2010 Landsat-based National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) of China, the 2010 RapidEye-based paddy rice map in North Korea, and the 2010 AVNIR-2-based National Land Cover Dataset in Japan in terms of both area and spatial pattern of paddy rice. This study has demonstrated that our novel MODIS-Rice system, which use both thermal and optical MODIS data over a year, are simple and robust tools to identify and map paddy rice fields in temperate and cold temperate zones.

  11. Public Communication of Technical Issues in Today's Changing Visual Language - 12436

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Communication regarding the management of radioactive materials is a well-established challenge. Residents and consumers have suspected for years that companies and governments place short-term economic concerns ahead of health and safety. This skepticism is compounded with increased attention to safety issues at nuclear power plants everywhere after Fukushima. Nonetheless, today's environment presents unexpected opportunities to transform public fear into teachable moments that bring knowledge and facts to discussions on nuclear energy. In the weeks following Japan's crisis, the lack of reliable information on radiation levels saw citizens taking to the streets with dosimeters and Geiger counters in crowd-sourced radiation monitoring efforts. Efforts, based mainly online, represent a growing set of examples of how internet and cell-phone technology are being put to use in emergency situations. The maps, graphs and tables created to meet public interest also exemplify some of the psychological priorities of audiences and present learning tools that can improve future education efforts in non-emergency situations. Industry outreach efforts often consist of technical details and quantitative data that are difficult for lay audiences to interpret. The intense attention to nuclear energy issues since last March has produced a wide array of visual samples. Citizen monitors, news organizations, government agencies and others have displayed quantitative information in innovative ways. Their efforts offer new perspective on what charts, maps and info graphics do - or need to do - to illustrate requirements, record assessments and promote understanding of nuclear-waste issues. Surveying the best examples, nuclear communicators can improve their offerings of easy-to-use, evidence-based visuals to inform stakeholders. Familiar to most communications professionals in the nuclear industry, risk communication is a science-based approach with over three decades of research

  12. Public Communication of Technical Issues in Today's Changing Visual Language - 12436

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, Laura [Potomac Communications Group (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Communication regarding the management of radioactive materials is a well-established challenge. Residents and consumers have suspected for years that companies and governments place short-term economic concerns ahead of health and safety. This skepticism is compounded with increased attention to safety issues at nuclear power plants everywhere after Fukushima. Nonetheless, today's environment presents unexpected opportunities to transform public fear into teachable moments that bring knowledge and facts to discussions on nuclear energy. In the weeks following Japan's crisis, the lack of reliable information on radiation levels saw citizens taking to the streets with dosimeters and Geiger counters in crowd-sourced radiation monitoring efforts. Efforts, based mainly online, represent a growing set of examples of how internet and cell-phone technology are being put to use in emergency situations. The maps, graphs and tables created to meet public interest also exemplify some of the psychological priorities of audiences and present learning tools that can improve future education efforts in non-emergency situations. Industry outreach efforts often consist of technical details and quantitative data that are difficult for lay audiences to interpret. The intense attention to nuclear energy issues since last March has produced a wide array of visual samples. Citizen monitors, news organizations, government agencies and others have displayed quantitative information in innovative ways. Their efforts offer new perspective on what charts, maps and info graphics do - or need to do - to illustrate requirements, record assessments and promote understanding of nuclear-waste issues. Surveying the best examples, nuclear communicators can improve their offerings of easy-to-use, evidence-based visuals to inform stakeholders. Familiar to most communications professionals in the nuclear industry, risk communication is a science-based approach with over three decades of

  13. Response of plants and ecosystems to CO{sub 2} and climate change. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, J.F.

    1993-12-31

    In recognition of the important role of vegetation in the bio-geosphere carbon cycle, the Carbon Dioxide Research Program of the US Department of Energy established the research program: Direct Effects of increasing Carbon Dioxide on Vegetation. The ultimate goal is to develop a general ecosystem model to investigate, via hypothesis testing, the potential responses of different terrestrial ecosystems to changes in the global environment over the next century. The approach involves the parallel development of models at several hierarchical levels, from the leaf to the ecosystem. At the plant level, mechanism and the direct effects of CO{sub 2} in the development of a general plant growth model, GEPSI - GEneral Plant SImulator has been stressed. At the ecosystem level, we have stressed the translation Of CO{sub 2} effects and other aspects of climate change throughout the ecosystem, including feedbacks and constraints to system response, in the development of a mechanistic, general ecosystem model SERECO - Simulation of Ecosystem Response to Elevated CO{sub 2} and Climate Change has been stressed.

  14. Energy and climate change: the main analyses of Regards sur la Terre. An annual publication on sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In November 2006, the French Development Agency, AFD (Agence francaise de developpement) and the Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations, IDDRI (Institut du developpement durable et des relations internationales) launched an annual publication on sustainable development in a global perspective, Regards sur la Terre, published by Les Presses de Sciences Po (Paris). Regards sur la Terre includes an analysis of the most important international events of the last twelve months in the field of sustainable development, along with a thematic section, which in the first edition focused on energy and climate change. This booklet presents the overall introduction of the 2007 publication and the introduction of its thematic section, as well as a selection of the main chapters dealing with the theme of energy and climate change. Contents: Awakening and crisis of confidence; Reorienting our Societies; Energy in the world: Challenges and prospects; Challenges and constraints for energy supply: The coal hard facts; Satisfying energy growth in emerging countries; Diversifying power generation in China; From Rio to Marrakech: Development in climate negotiations; An international coordination regime come what may; The perspective of developing countries; An American 'point of view'

  15. Suncor Energy Inc. seventh annual progress report : Canada's climate change voluntary challenge and registry program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document detailed the various initiatives implemented by Suncor Energy Inc. in light of Climate Change Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) Program. Project Millennium, which represents a 3.25 billion dollar expansion expected to lead to an increase production capacity for Oil Sands operations, was consolidated during 2000, along with the completion of restructuring, which led to the divestiture of conventional oil properties and the joint venture interest held by Suncor in the Stuart Oil Shale Project. In addition, there were some improvements made to the greenhouse gas management and reporting systems. Suncor is expected to invest funding in the order of 100 million dollars for the period 2000-2005 in the field of alternative and renewable energy. The reductions in greenhouse gas emissions achieved for the year 2000 were 404,000 tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent. Each of these major endeavours was discussed in the document. tabs

  16. Final Technical Report: Effects of Changing Water and Nitrogen Inputs on a Mojave Desert Ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Stanley D. [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Nowak, Robert S. [University of Nevada, Reno

    2007-11-30

    Questions addressed under this grant shared the common hypothesis that plant and ecosystem performance will positively respond to the augmentation of the most limiting resources to plant growth in the Mojave Desert, e.g., water and nitrogen. Specific hypothesis include (1) increased summer rainfall will significantly increase plant production thorugh an alleviation of moisture stress in the dry summer months, (2) N-deposition will increase plan production in this N-limited system, particularly in wet years or in concert with added summer rain, and (3) biological crust disturbance will gradually decrease bio-available N, with concomitant long-term reductions in photosynthesis and ANPP. Individual plan and ecosystem responses to global change may be regulated by biogeochemical processes and natural weather variability, and changes in plant and ecosystem processes may occur rapidly, may occur only after a time lag, or may not occur at all. During the first PER grant period, we observed changes in plant and ecosystem processes that would fall under each of these time-response intervals: plant and ecosystem processes responded rapidly to added summer rain, whereas most processes responded slowly or in a lag fashion to N-deposition and with no significant response to crust disturbance. Therefore, the primary objectives of this renewal grant were to: (1) continue ongoing measurements of soil and plant parameters that assess primary treatment responses; (2) address the potential heterogeneity of soil properties and (3) initiate a new suite of measurements that will provide data necessary for scaling/modeling of whole-plot to ecosystem-level responses. Our experimental approach included soil plan-water interactions using TDR, neutron probe, and miniaturized soil matric potential and moisture sensors, plant ecophysiological and productivity responses to water and nitrogen treatments and remote sensing methodologies deployed on a radio control platform.

  17. Technical aspects in understanding effects of gamma irradiation on flower colour changes in Dendrobium Sonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colour is one of the most important traits in orchids and has created great interest in breeding programmes. Gamma irradiation is an alternative way for generation of somaclonal variation for new flower colours. Phenotypic changes are usually observed during screening and selection of mutants. Understanding of targeted gene expression level and evaluation of the changes facilitate in the development of functional markers for selection of desired flower colour mutants. Four Dendrobium orchid sequences (NCBI accessions: AM490639, AY41319, FM209429 and DQ462460) were selected to design gene specific primers based on information for chalcone synthase (CHS) from NCBI database. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to understand flower colour expression quantitatively derived from the CHS gene activities in different flower tissues (petal and sepal) from control Dendrobium Sonia (red purple), mutant DS 35-1/M (purple pink) and mutant DS 35-WhiteA. It was found that expression of CHS gene was highest in sepals of white flowers and lowest in both sepals and petals of purple pink flowers. Genomic DNA was amplified and PCR products were sequenced, aligned and compared. Sequence variations of CHS partial gene in Dendrobium Sonia mutants with different flower colour showed that two protein positions have been changed as compared to the control. These non-synonymous mutations may have contributed to the colour alterations in the white and purple pink mutants. This paper describes important procedures to quantify gene expression such as RNA isolation (quantity and quality), cDNA synthesis and primer design steps for CHS genes. (author)

  18. National Institute for Global Environmental Change. Final Technical Report 1990-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athanasios Toulopoulos

    2007-11-01

    Research conducted by the six NIGEC Regional Centers during recent years is reported. An overview of the NIGEC program from its beginnings provides a description and evaluation of the program's vision, strategy and major accomplishments. The program's purpose was to support academic research on environmental change in regions of the country that had historically received relatively little federal funding. The overall vision of NIGEC may be stated as the performance of academic research on the regional interactions between ecosystems and climate. NIGEC's research presents important evidence on the impacts of climate variability and change, and in some cases adaptability, for a broad range of both managed and unmanaged ecosystems, and has thereby documented significant regional issues on the environmental responses to climate change. NIGEC's research has demonstrated large regional differences in the atmospheric carbon exchange budgets of croplands and forests, that there are significant variations of this exchange on diurnal, synoptic, seasonal and interannual time scales due to atmospheric variability (including temperature, precipitation and cloudiness), and that management practices and past history have predominant effects in grasslands and croplands. It is the mid-latitude forests, however, that have received more attention in NIGEC than any other specific ecosystem, and NIGEC's initiation of and participation in the AmeriFlux program, network of carbon flux measurement sites in North American old-growth forests, is generally considered to be its most significant single accomplishment. By including appendices with complete listings of NIGEC publications, principal investigators and participating institutions, this report may also serve as a useful comprehensive documentation of NIGEC.

  19. Offshore oil and gas development costs: Four decades of technical change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The worldwide offshore oil and gas business is over 40 years old, but is not, nor does it appear to be soon destined to be, in its dotage. The key role of technology played to enable the business to prosper in volatile and severe environments--physically and otherwise--examined here. Offshore oil and gas technology, like all technologies, is only effective when it shows up at the bottom line. Here the author shows how the 1970's offshore technology continued would have virtually ended the business. But that technology changed the bottom line

  20. Technical Note: A mobile sea-going mesocosm system – new opportunities for ocean change research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Riebesell

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the great challenges in ocean change research is to understand and forecast the effects of environmental changes on pelagic communities and the associated impacts on biogeochemical cycling. Mesocosms, experimental enclosures designed to approximate natural conditions, and in which environmental factors can be manipulated and closely monitored, provide a powerful tool to close the gap between small-scale laboratory experiments and observational and correlative approaches applied in field surveys. Existing pelagic mesocosm systems are stationary and/or restricted to well-protected waters. To allow mesocosm experimentation in a range of hydrographic conditions and in areas considered most sensitive to ocean change, we developed a mobile sea-going mesocosm facility, the Kiel Off-Shore Mesocosms for Future Ocean Simulations (KOSMOS. The KOSMOS platform, which can be transported and deployed by mid-sized research vessels, is designed for operation in moored and free-floating mode under low to moderate wave conditions (up to 2.5 m wave heights. It encloses a water column 2 m in diameter and 15 to 25 m deep (∼50–75 m3 in volume without disrupting the vertical structure or disturbing the enclosed plankton community. Several new developments in mesocosm design and operation were implemented to (i minimize differences in starting conditions between mesocosms, (ii allow for extended experimental duration, (iii precisely determine the mesocosm volume, (iv determine air–sea gas exchange, and (v perform mass balance calculations. After multiple test runs in the Baltic Sea, which resulted in continuous improvement of the design and handling, the KOSMOS platform successfully completed its first full-scale experiment in the high Arctic off Svalbard (78°56.2′ N, 11°53.6′ E in June/July 2010. The study, which was conducted in the framework of the European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA, focused on the effects of ocean acidification on a

  1. Technical Note: A mobile sea-going mesocosm system – new opportunities for ocean change research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Schulz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the great challenges in ocean change research is to understand and forecast the effects of environmental changes on pelagic communities and the associated impacts on biogeochemical cycling. Mesocosms, experimental enclosures designed to approximate natural conditions, and in which environmental factors can be manipulated and closely monitored, provide a powerful tool to close the gap between single species laboratory experiments and observational and correlative approaches applied in field surveys. Existing pelagic mesocosm systems are stationary and/or restricted to well-protected waters. To allow mesocosm experimentation in a range of hydrographic conditions and in areas considered most sensitive to ocean change, we developed a mobile, sea-going mesocosm facility, the Kiel Off-Shore Mesocosms for Future Ocean Simulations (KOSMOS. The KOSMOS platform, which can be transported and deployed by mid-sized research vessels, is designed for operation in moored and free-floating mode under low to moderate wave conditions (up to 2.5 m wave heights. It encloses a water column 2 m in diameter and 15 to 25 m deep (~50–75 m3 in volume without disrupting the vertical structure or disturbing the enclosed plankton community. Several new developments in mesocosm design and operation were implemented to (i minimize differences in starting conditions between mesocosms, (ii allow for extended experimental duration, (iii precisely determine the mesocosm volume, (iv determine air–sea gas exchange, and (v perform mass balance calculations. After multiple test runs in the Baltic Sea, which resulted in continuous improvement of the design and handling, the KOSMOS platform successfully completed its first full-scale experiment in the high Arctic off Svalbard (78° 56.2′ N, 11° 53.6′ E in June/July 2010. The study, which was conducted in the framework of the European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA, focused on the effects of ocean acidification on

  2. The identity approach for assessing socio-technical resilience to climate change: example of flood risk management for the Island of Dordrecht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gersonius

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent EU guidance on adaptation calls for the enhancement of socio-technical resilience to climate change. However, socio-technical resilience is relatively poorly defined and this makes it difficult to apply in practice. This paper uses the concept of identity as a vehicle to advance the definition and assessment of socio-technical resilience. Identity comprises four aspects (components, relationships, innovation, and continuity that constitute the minimum of what has to be identified and specified if resilience is to be assessed. Characterising the identity of a socio-technical system requires the conceptualisation of these four aspects in relation to the particular function provided by the system (e.g. flood risk management and also the identification of the specific variables and thresholds that reflect changes in identity. We have demonstrated the utility of the identity approach, using the example of flood risk management for the Island of Dordrecht, the Netherlands. Based on the results, socio-technical resilience has been redefined as the ability of the system to continue to function as expected in the face of change. This definition implies that a system is resilient when it can deliver performance without a change of identity by continuing compliance with standards and expectations.

  3. Annual Change in Pulmonary Function and Clinical Characteristics of Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema and Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Over a 3-Year Follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yu Jin; Shin, Seong Hyun; Park, Jeong-Woong; Kyung, Sun Young; Kang, Shin Myung; Lee, Sang-Pyo; Sung, Yon Mi; Kim, Yoon Kyung; Jeong, Sung Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Background Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) have different pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and outcomes than idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The intention of this study was to identify unknown differences between CPFE and IPF by a retrospective comparison of clinical data including baseline and annual changes in pulmonary function, comorbidities, laboratory findings, clinical characteristics and cause of hospitalization. Methods This study retrospectively enrolled patient...

  4. Carbon Policy and Technical Change: Market Structure, Increasing Returns, and Secondary Benefits. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peretto, P.; Smith, V. K.

    2001-11-19

    An economic evaluation of the impact of policies intended to control emissions of CO{sub 2} and other ''greenhouse gases'' (GHGS) depends on the net costs of these controls and their distribution throughout the production sectors of developed and developing economics. The answers derived from appraisals of these net costs, in turn, stem from what is assumed about the timing of the controls, the pace of technological change, and any short-term secondary benefits from their control. There have only been a few serious attempts to estimate the economic benefits from the policies associated with such long run outcomes. All of the approaches to date have made fairly strong assumptions or relied on contingent valuation estimates of hypothetical situations.

  5. Climate Change Impacts in the sub-Antarctic Islands Technical Report N.2 of ONERC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Difficult to apprehend as a whole, the polar regions constitute the Arctic to the North, an ocean surrounded by emerged lands, and the Antarctic to the South, a continent bordered by the Austral Ocean where a belt of sub Antarctic islands lies. Climate change impacts on sub Antarctic islands are varied, direct and indirect: glacier retreat, more favourable conditions for introduced species, marine biodiversity modification, etc. This report discusses the French, British, Australian, South African and New Zealand sub Antarctic islands, the climatic evolutions and the resulting impacts, focused especially on biodiversity. The Observatoire National sur les Effets du Rechauffement Climatique and the International Polar Foundation have been joined in this endeavour by the French polar institute Paul-Emile Victor, the administration of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands (TAAF in French) and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. (authors)

  6. Strategy of technical innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with policy of scientific technique and technical innovation such as research for development and types of technical innovation, historical development and process of technical innovation, economic growth, technology change and investment for research and development, structure and form of technical transfer with the meaning process, from, structure and theory, economic growth and investment of research and development with experiential analysis and case study on strategy of technical innovation in electron and fine chemical industry.

  7. The European Water Framework Directive: How Ecological Assumptions Frame Technical and Social Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Ollivier

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Water Framework Directive (WFD is built upon significant cognitive developments in the field of ecological science but also encourages active involvement of all interested parties in its implementation. The coexistence in the same policy text of both substantive and procedural approaches to policy development stimulated this research as did our concerns about the implications of substantive ecological visions within the WFD policy for promoting, or not, social learning processes through participatory designs. We have used a qualitative analysis of the WFD text which shows the ecological dimension of the WFD dedicates its quasi-exclusive attention to a particular current of thought in ecosystems science focusing on ecosystems status and stability and considering human activities as disturbance factors. This particular worldview is juxtaposed within the WFD with a more utilitarian one that gives rise to many policy exemptions without changing the general underlying ecological model. We discuss these policy statements in the light of the tension between substantive and procedural policy developments. We argue that the dominant substantive approach of the WFD, comprising particular ecological assumptions built upon "compositionalism," seems to be contradictory with its espoused intention of involving the public. We discuss that current of thought in regard to more functionalist thinking and adaptive management, which offers greater opportunities for social learning, i.e., place a set of interdependent stakeholders in an intersubjective position in which they operate a "social construction" of water problems through the co-production of knowledge.

  8. Energy policy instruments and technical change in the residential building sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The passing by the European Parliament of the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) in 2003 obliges all European member states to implement energy regulations for buildings based on the concept of energy performance by the year 2009 ultimately. Given the importance of the development of innovations in energy technology, and a transition to a sustainable energy supply system, it is necessary that policy instruments for energy conservation in the building sector stimulate the development and diffusion of innovations. This thesis contributes to knowledge about the content of energy performance policy and concludes that the effect of Dutch energy performance policy in encouraging innovation is limited. Energy efficiency improvements, by energy performance policy, seem to have come from the overall optimisation of all the energy related features of residential buildings. Insulation levels improved, although not spectacular. Efficiencies of heating technology improved, although this seems partly to be a result of the ongoing development that started in the 1980s. The efficiency of fans used for ventilation improved, as did the efficiency of all sorts of auxiliary devices needed in heating technology, as well as the efficiency of heat recovery in balanced ventilation systems. Although energy performance policy seems to have contributed to the optimisation of all energy related features of residential buildings, it did not cause a breakthrough of innovative technology such as solar thermal systems or heat pumps. The study of the innovation system of the Dutch construction industry identifies how the project-based nature of the construction industry is an obstacle to 'learning-rich' collaboration between the various stakeholders. The study contributes to the discussion about the impact of government policy for energy conservation in the building sector, in the context of climate change policy.

  9. Climate Change and Health: Acting to Reduce Risks and Vulnerabilities - 20th Annual John K. Friesen Conference - Growing Old in a Changing Climate: Exploring the Interface Between Population Aging and Global Warming (2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Corvalán, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This video clip is the Free Public Lecture presented at the 20th Annual John K. Friesen Conference, "Growing Old in a Changing Climate: Exploring the Interface Between Population Aging and Global Warming," MAY 25-26, 2011, Vancouver, BC. Climate change is one of the biggest challenges facing humanity. Along with other environmental changes brought about by global population and economic growth, it will put increasing strain on our health systems. Vulnerabilities include the rising probabil...

  10. Climate change and the threat to an aging population - 20th Annual John K. Friesen Conference - Growing Old in a Changing Climate: Exploring the Interface Between Population Aging and Global Warming (2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, John

    2011-01-01

    This video clip comprises the three presentations of Panel Session 1, “Defining the Issues: Climate Science, Health and Gerontological Perspectives” held at the 20th Annual John K. Friesen Conference, "Growing Old in a Changing Climate: Exploring the Interface Between Population Aging and Global Warming," MAY 25-26, 2011, Vancouver, BC. Dr. John Stone "Climate change and the threat to an aging population" - This talk will explore the science of climate change and its implications for an aging...

  11. Moving towards Energy Self-Sufficiency Based on Renewables: Comparative Case Studies on the Emergence of Regional Processes of Socio-Technical Change in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Ruppert-Winkel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The change of conventional energy systems to a system mainly based on renewable energies is occurring in many parts of the world. A processual analysis of three case studies from regions in Germany that are moving towards renewable energy self-sufficiency were conducted in order to better understand this process of socio-technical change. This paper scrutinizes the role of actors and their activities, which are driving the change of the local energy system. Three discrete distinguishable phases of this change were found: pioneer phase, pivotal network phase, and extended network and emerging market dynamic phase. Each phase can be characterized by the type of actor, their specific activities, artifacts involved, and their underlying motives. We suggest using the phase model as a heuristic instrument to identify the elements which shape socio-technical change.

  12. Multi-annual changes of NOx emissions in megacity regions: nonlinear trend analysis of satellite measurement based estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Burrows

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Hazardous impact of air pollutant emissions from megacities on atmospheric composition on regional and global scales is currently an important issue in atmospheric research. However, the quantification of emissions and related effects is frequently a difficult task, especially in the case of developing countries, due to the lack of reliable data and information. This study examines possibilities to retrieve multi-annual NOx emissions changes in megacity regions from satellite measurements of nitrogen dioxide and to quantify them in terms of linear and nonlinear trends. By combining the retrievals of the GOME and SCIAMACHY satellite instrument data with simulations performed by the CHIMERE chemistry transport model, we obtain the time series of NOx emission estimates for the 12 largest urban agglomerations in Europe and the Middle East in the period from 1996 to 2008. We employ then a novel method allowing estimation of a nonlinear trend in a noisy time series of an observed variable. The method is based on the probabilistic approach and the use of artificial neural networks; it does not involve any quantitative a priori assumptions. As a result, statistically significant nonlinearities in the estimated NOx emission trends are detected in 5 megacities (Bagdad, Madrid, Milan, Moscow and Paris. Statistically significant upward linear trends are detected in Istanbul and Tehran, while downward linear trends are revealed in Berlin, London and the Ruhr agglomeration. The presence of nonlinearities in NOx emission changes in Milan, Paris and Madrid is confirmed by comparison of simulated NOx concentrations with independent air quality monitoring data. A good quantitative agreement between the linear trends in the simulated and measured near surface NOx concentrations is found in London.

  13. JK '94 in Stuttgart: Nuclear energy: Technical development and acceptance. Annual meeting on nuclear technology, May 17-19, 1994 in Stuttgart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reports by the ten sections of the '94 Annual Nuclear Conference held in Cologne: Reactor Physics and Methods of Calculation; Thermodynamics and Fluid Dynamics; Safety of Nuclear Facilities; Nuclear Fuel Supply and Disposal; Radioactive Waste; Fuel Elements and Core Components; Nuclear Plant Operation; Nuclear Plant Decommissioning; Fusion Technology; Research Reactors; Advanced Reactor Concepts, Energy System - Power Economy. (orig.)

  14. Did state renewable portfolio standards induce technical change in methane mitigation in the U.S. landfill sector?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhotal, Katherine Casey

    Landfill gas (LFG) projects use the gas created from decomposing waste, which is approximately 49% methane, and substitute it for natural gas in engines, boilers, turbines, and other technologies to produce energy or heat. The projects are beneficial in terms of increased safety at the landfill, production of a cost-effective source of energy or heat, reduced odor, reduced air pollution emissions, and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. However, landfills sometimes face conflicting policy incentives. The theory of technical change shows that the diffusion of a technology or groups of technologies increases slowly in the beginning and then picks up speed as knowledge and better understanding of using the technology diffuses among potential users. Using duration analysis, data on energy prices, State and Federal policies related to landfill gas, renewable energy, and air pollution, as well as control data on landfill characteristics, I estimate the influence and direction of influence of renewable portfolio standards (RPS). The analysis found that RPS positively influences the diffusion of landfill gas technologies, encouraging landfills to consider electricity generation projects over direct sales of LFG to another facility. Energy price increases or increased revenues for a project are also critical. Barriers to diffusion include air emission permits in non-attainment areas and policies, such as net metering, which promote other renewables over LFG projects. Using the estimates from the diffusion equations, I analyze the potential influence of a Federal RPS as well as the potential interaction with a Federal, market based climate change policy, which will increase the revenue of a project through higher energy sale prices. My analysis shows that a market based climate change policy such as a cap-and-trade or carbon tax scheme would increase the number of landfill gas projects significantly more than a Federal RPS.

  15. Impact of learning curve and technical changes on dosimetry in low-dose brachytherapy for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Fur, E. [CHU Brest (France). Radiation Therapy Dept.; Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France). Faculte de Medecine et des Sciences de la Sante; Malhaire, J.P.; Baverez, D.; Schlurmann, F. [CHU Brest (France). Radiation Therapy Dept.; Delage, F.; Perrouin-Verbe, M.A. [CHU Brest (France). Urology Dept.; Guerif, S. [University Hospital La Miletrie, Poitiers (France). Radiation Therapy Dept.; Poitiers Univ. (France); Fournier, G.; Valeri, A. [CHU Brest (France). Urology Dept.; Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France). Faculte de Medecine et des Sciences de la Sante; Universite Europeenne de Bretagne, Rennes (France); APHP, Hopital Tenon, Paris (France). CeRe.PP; Pradier, O. [CHU Brest (France). Radiation Therapy Dept.; Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France). Faculte de Medecine et des Sciences de la Sante; Universite Europeenne de Bretagne, Rennes (France); CHU Brest (France). LaTIM, INSERM U650

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To assess the impact of experience and technical changes on peri- and postimplantation (1 month later) dosimetry for permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB). Patients and methods: From July 2003 to May 2010, 150 prostate cancer patients underwent low-dose, loose-seed I{sup 125} PPB as monotherapy with intraoperative planning. Patients were divided into three groups - P1 (n = 64), P2 (n = 45), P3 (n = 41) - according to the technical changes that occurred during the study period: use of an automatic stepper at the beginning of P2 and a high-frequency ultrasound probe in P3. Peri- and postimplantation dosimetric parameters (on day 30) were reported: D90 (dose received by 90% of prostate volume), V100 and V150 (prostate volume receiving, respectively, 100% and 150% of the prescribed dose), D2 cc and D0.1 cc (doses received by 2 cc and 0.1 cc of the rectum), R100 (rectum volume that received 100% of the prescribed dose), and D10 and D30 (doses received by 10% and 30% of the urethra, only during peri-implantation). Results: We observed a decrease in the number of needles and seeds used over time. The mean peri-implantation D90 was 187.52 Gy without a significant difference between the three periods (p = 0.48). The postimplantation D90, V100, and V150 parameters were, respectively, 168.3 Gy, 91.9%, and 55% with no significant difference between the three periods. The peri-implantation and postimplantation D0.1 cc and R100 significantly decreased over time; on day 30: D0.1 cc P1 = 223.1 Gy vs. D0.1 cc P3 = 190.4 Gy (p = 8.10- 5) and R100 P1 = 1.06 cc vs. R100 P3 = 0.53 cc (p = 0.0008). Conclusion: We observed a learning curve for the implantation parameters, which led to a significant decrease in the rectal doses without having any impact on the prostate dosimetric parameters. (orig.)

  16. Impact of learning curve and technical changes on dosimetry in low-dose brachytherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the impact of experience and technical changes on peri- and postimplantation (1 month later) dosimetry for permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB). Patients and methods: From July 2003 to May 2010, 150 prostate cancer patients underwent low-dose, loose-seed I125 PPB as monotherapy with intraoperative planning. Patients were divided into three groups - P1 (n = 64), P2 (n = 45), P3 (n = 41) - according to the technical changes that occurred during the study period: use of an automatic stepper at the beginning of P2 and a high-frequency ultrasound probe in P3. Peri- and postimplantation dosimetric parameters (on day 30) were reported: D90 (dose received by 90% of prostate volume), V100 and V150 (prostate volume receiving, respectively, 100% and 150% of the prescribed dose), D2 cc and D0.1 cc (doses received by 2 cc and 0.1 cc of the rectum), R100 (rectum volume that received 100% of the prescribed dose), and D10 and D30 (doses received by 10% and 30% of the urethra, only during peri-implantation). Results: We observed a decrease in the number of needles and seeds used over time. The mean peri-implantation D90 was 187.52 Gy without a significant difference between the three periods (p = 0.48). The postimplantation D90, V100, and V150 parameters were, respectively, 168.3 Gy, 91.9%, and 55% with no significant difference between the three periods. The peri-implantation and postimplantation D0.1 cc and R100 significantly decreased over time; on day 30: D0.1 cc P1 = 223.1 Gy vs. D0.1 cc P3 = 190.4 Gy (p = 8.10- 5) and R100 P1 = 1.06 cc vs. R100 P3 = 0.53 cc (p = 0.0008). Conclusion: We observed a learning curve for the implantation parameters, which led to a significant decrease in the rectal doses without having any impact on the prostate dosimetric parameters. (orig.)

  17. Assessing socio-technical mindsets: Public deliberations on carbon capture and storage in the context of energy sources and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adaptation and transition to new configurations of energy systems brought on by challenges of climate change, energy security, and sustainability have encouraged more integrative approaches that bring together the social and technical dimensions of technology. The perspectives of energy systems and climate change play an important role in the development and implementation of emerging energy technologies and attendant policies on greenhouse gas reduction. This research examines citizens’ views on climate change and a number of energy systems, with a specific focus on the use of carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a technology to address greenhouse gas emissions. An all-day workshop with 82 local participants was held in the city of Calgary in Alberta, Canada to explore the views of climate change, energy and CCS. Participants were provided the opportunity to ask experts questions and discuss in small groups their views of climate change policy and energy systems. Results demonstrate that participants’ assessments of energy systems are influenced by social–political–institutional–economic contexts such as trust in industry and government, perception of parties benefiting from the technology, and tradeoffs between energy systems. We discuss our findings in the context of understanding social learning processes as part of socio-technical systems change. - Highlight: ► Energy systems are judged in the context of wider socio-technical system dimensions. Skepticism about climate change may affect support for CCS. ► Concerns about CCS include: CO2 leaks, accuracy of monitoring and costs.

  18. A 'putty-practically-clay' vintage model with R and D driven biases in energy-saving technical change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the problem of tackling the adverse effect of output growth on environmental quality. For this purpose we use an intermediate sector that builds 'putty-practically-clay' capital consisting of an energy-raw capital amalgam used for final goods production. The putty-practically-clay model is a strongly simplified version of a full putty-clay model, that mimics all the relevant behaviour of a full puttyclay model, but that does not entail the administrative hassle of a full putty-clay vintage model. In addition to this, we introduce an R and D sector that develops renewable- and conventional energy-based technologies. The allocation of R and D activities over these two uses of R and D gives rise to an induced bias in technical change. In the context of our model, this implies that technological progress is primarily driven by the desire to counteract the upward pressure on production cost implied by a continuing price increase of conventional energy resources. Hotelling's rule suggests that this price rise is unavoidable in the face of the ongoing depletion of conventional energy reserves. By means of some illustrative model simulations we study the effects of energy policy on the dynamics of the model for alternative policy options aimed at achieving GHG emission reductions. We identify the conditions under which energy policy might partly backfire and present some non-standard policy implications

  19. Technical committee meeting on Liquid Metal Fast Reactor (LMFR) developments. 33rd annual meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWG-FR). Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past 33 years, the IAEA has actively encouraged and advocated international cooperation in fast reactor technology. The present publication contains information on the status of fast reactor development and on worldwide activities in this advanced nuclear power technology during 1999/2000, as reported at the 33. annual meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors. It is intended to provide information regarding the current status of LMFR development in IAEA Member States

  20. Efficiency, Technical Change, and Returns to Scale in Large U.S. Banks: Panel Data Evidence from an Output Distance Function Satisfying Theoretical Regularity

    OpenAIRE

    Guohua Feng; Apostolos Serletis

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides parametric estimates of technical change, efficiency change, economies of scale, and total factor productivity growth for large banks (those with assets in excess of $1 billion) in the United States, over the period from 2000 to 2005. This is done by estimating an output distance function subject to theoretical regularity within a Bayesian framework. We find that failure to incorporate theoretical regularity conditions results in mismeasured shadow revenue and/or cost shar...

  1. Escapement and Productivity of Spring Chinook Salmon and Summer Steelhead in the John Day River Basin, 2005-2006 Annual Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Terra Lang; Wilson, Wayne H.; Ruzycki, James R. [Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2009-04-10

    The objectives are: (1) Estimate number and distribution of spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha redds and spawners in the John Day River subbasin; and (2) Estimate smolt-to-adult survival rates (SAR) and out-migrant abundance for spring Chinook and summer steelhead O. mykiss and life history characteristics of summer steelhead. The John Day River subbasin supports one of the last remaining intact wild populations of spring Chinook salmon and summer steelhead in the Columbia River Basin. These populations, however, remain depressed relative to historic levels. Between the completion of the life history and natural escapement study in 1984 and the start of this project in 1998, spring Chinook spawning surveys did not provide adequate information to assess age structure, progeny-to-parent production values, smolt-to-adult survival (SAR), or natural spawning escapement. Further, only very limited information is available for steelhead life history, escapement, and productivity measures in the John Day subbasin. Numerous habitat protection and rehabilitation projects to improve salmonid freshwater production and survival have also been implemented in the basin and are in need of effectiveness monitoring. While our monitoring efforts outlined here will not specifically measure the effectiveness of any particular project, they will provide much needed background information for developing context for project-specific effectiveness monitoring efforts. To meet the data needs as index stocks, to assess the long-term effectiveness of habitat projects, and to differentiate freshwater and ocean survival, sufficient annual estimates of spawner escapement, age structure, SAR, egg-to-smolt survival, smolt-per-redd ratio, and freshwater habitat use are essential. We have begun to meet this need through spawning ground surveys initiated for spring Chinook salmon in 1998 and smolt PIT-tagging efforts initiated in 1999. Additional sampling and analyses to meet these goals

  2. A global perspective on the interface between climate change and population aging - 20th Annual John K. Friesen Conference - Growing Old in a Changing Climate: Exploring the Interface Between Population Aging and Global Warming (2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Corvalan, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This video clip is the first Keynote address to the 20th Annual John K. Friesen Conference, "Growing Old in a Changing Climate: Exploring the Interface Between Population Aging and Global Warming," MAY 25-26, 2011, Vancouver, BC. Presented by Dr. Carlos Corvalán, Senior Advisor in Risk Assessment and Global Environmental Change, Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)/WHO, Washington, DC, USA.  Current vulnerabilities in the population affect the capacity to respond to the impact...

  3. A procedure to derive intra-and inter-annual changes on vegetation from NDVI time series. A case study in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilabert, M. A; Martinez, B.; Melia, J.

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this work is to study the spatial patterns of vegetation activity over spain and its temporal variability throughout the period 1989-2002. A multi-resolution analysis (MRA) bases on the wavelet transform has been implemented on NDVI time series from the MEDOKADS database. The MRA decomposes the original signal as a sum of series associated with temporal scales. Specifically, the intra-annual series is processed to define several key features in relation with the vegetation penology. In contras, the inter-annual components of the signal is used to detect trends by means of a Mann-Kendall test and map the magnitude of the land-cover change. Finally, a comprehensive identification of the areas presenting a negative value of the magnitude of change is carried out to select those linked to land degradation processes. Results show a major presence of these areas the Southeast of Spain. (Author) 5 refs.

  4. A procedure to derive intra-and inter-annual changes on vegetation from NDVI time series. A case study in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to study the spatial patterns of vegetation activity over spain and its temporal variability throughout the period 1989-2002. A multi-resolution analysis (MRA) bases on the wavelet transform has been implemented on NDVI time series from the MEDOKADS database. The MRA decomposes the original signal as a sum of series associated with temporal scales. Specifically, the intra-annual series is processed to define several key features in relation with the vegetation penology. In contras, the inter-annual components of the signal is used to detect trends by means of a Mann-Kendall test and map the magnitude of the land-cover change. Finally, a comprehensive identification of the areas presenting a negative value of the magnitude of change is carried out to select those linked to land degradation processes. Results show a major presence of these areas the Southeast of Spain. (Author) 5 refs.

  5. Eleventh annual U.S. DOE low-level radioactive waste management conference: Executive summary, opening plenary, technical session summaries, and attendees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-01-01

    The conference consisted of ten technical sessions, with three sessions running simultaneously each day. Session topics included: regulatory updates; performance assessment;understanding remedial action efforts; low-level waste strategy and planning (Nuclear Energy); low-level waste strategy and planning (Defense); compliance monitoring; decontamination and decommissioning; waste characterization; waste reduction and minimization; and prototype licensing application workshop. Summaries are presented for each of these sessions.

  6. Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply, April 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to determine whether the land resources of the United States are capable of producing a sustainable supply of biomass sufficient to displace 30 percent or more of the country’s present petroleum consumption – the goal set by the Biomass R&D Technical Advisory Committee in their vision for biomass technologies. Accomplishing this goal would require approximately 1 billion dry tons of biomass feedstock per year.

  7. Annual report on operation, utilization and technical development of Research Reactors and Hot Laboratory, from April 1, 1983 to March 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activities of the Department of Research Reactor Operation in fiscal year 1983 are described. The department is responsible for operation and maintenance of JRR-2, JRR-3, JRR-4 and Hot Laboratory. In the above connection, various other work has also been performed, such as technical management of fuel and coolant, radiation control, irradiation technique, etc. In Hot Laboratory, we have performed post-irradiation examinations of fuels and materials, and also development of examination procedures, too. (author)

  8. Phase I of the automated array assembly task of the low cost silicon solar array project. Annual technical report. Motorola report No. 2258/4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, M.G.; Pryor, R.A.; Grenon, L.A.; Lesk, I.A.

    1977-02-01

    Work performed to analyze, both technically and economically, the state of technology readiness for the automated production of solar cells and modules is compiled and reviewed critically. The long-term objective solar module characteristics include a selling price of less than $.50/peak watt and a mean-time-before-failure (MTBF) of 20 years in any terrestrial environment. While efficiency is important to attaining the cost goal, it is a most significant factor in array economics; accordingly, this program has stressed high efficiency, with a suggested cell goal of 15 percent. The analysis emphasized technical evaluation of individual process steps first, and then concentrated upon process sequences for making solar cells and modules. Further analysis was performed to yield a detailed cost study of individual process steps; this was applied to the cost analysis of potential process sequences. Potentially economical process sequences formed from process steps deemed to have high technical merit were then identified. Potentially promising technologies needing further development to achieve satisfactory maturity were then identified. It is concluded that, while specific areas of technology need advanced development and the source of silicon needs definition, no fundamentally new technology needs to be developed to permit manufacture of solar cells which will meet the 1985 LSSA Program cost goals.

  9. Average historical annual total precipitation, projected total precipitation (mm), and relative change in total precipitation (% change from baseline) for Northern Alaska. GIF formatted animation and PNG images. Maps created using the SNAP 5-GCM composite (AR5-RCP 6.0) and CRU TS3.1.01 datasets.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average annual total precipitation, projected total precipitation, and relative change in total precipitation for the northern portion of...

  10. Average historical annual total precipitation, projected total precipitation (mm), and relative change in total precipitation (% change from baseline) for Northern Alaska. GIF formatted animation and PNG images. Maps created using the SNAP 5-GCM composite (AR5-RCP 8.5) and CRU TS3.1.01 datasets.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average annual total precipitation, projected total precipitation, and relative change in total precipitation for the northern portion of...

  11. 1993 Annual progress report for subsidiary agreement No. 2 (1991--1996) between AECL and US/DOE for a radioactive waste management technical co-operative program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    A coordinated research program on radioactive waste disposal is being carried out by the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and the US Department of Energy. This annual report describes progress in the following eight studies: Fundamental materials investigations; In-situ stress determination; Development of a spent fuel dissolution model; Large block tracer test--Experimental testing of retardation models; Laboratory and field tests of in-situ hydrochemical tools; Cigar Lake--Analogue study, actinide and fission product geochemistry; Performance assessment technology exchange; and Development of multiple-well hydraulic test and field tracer test methods.

  12. 1993 Annual progress report for subsidiary agreement No. 2 (1991--1996) between AECL and US/DOE for a radioactive waste management technical co-operative program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A coordinated research program on radioactive waste disposal is being carried out by the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and the US Department of Energy. This annual report describes progress in the following eight studies: Fundamental materials investigations; In-situ stress determination; Development of a spent fuel dissolution model; Large block tracer test--Experimental testing of retardation models; Laboratory and field tests of in-situ hydrochemical tools; Cigar Lake--Analogue study, actinide and fission product geochemistry; Performance assessment technology exchange; and Development of multiple-well hydraulic test and field tracer test methods

  13. HASYLAB annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the work performed at HASYLAB together with a list of publications, speeches, and theses. The work concerns technical developments, the study of the electronic structure of atoms, molecules, solids, surfaces, and liquids, X-ray structure studies of solids and interfaces, molecular biology, further applications of synchrotron radiation, and experimental developments. (HSI)

  14. PTB annual report 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report presents general information on the institution's activities and the various departments, and reports on scientific work in the field of metrology and safety engineering. Brief scientific accounts refer to work in the domains of mechanics and acoustics, electricity, heat, optics, industrial metrology, atomic physics, technical and scientific services, collection and disposal of radioactive waste. (DG)

  15. Changes in gas bubble disease signs and survival of migrating juvenile salmonids experimentally exposed to supersaturated gases : annual report 1996.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research conducted in 1996 to evaluate (1) changes in GBD signs in juvenile salmonids resulting from passage through turbine intakes and bypass systems, and (2) relative survival during migration through the lower Snake River for juvenile salmonids experimentally exposed to supersaturation of dissolved gas

  16. Technical Session: International Energy Agency. Our Energy Future - Addressing the Dual Challenges of Climate Change and Energy Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distinguished Ministers, guests, ladies and gentlemen, it is an honor for me to take part in this important conference and I thank Mr. Sokolov and the IAEA for providing me with the opportunity to be here today In this session we are discussing 'Energy Resources and the Environment'. Using this important occasion, I would like to share with you the IEA's view on the world's energy future. In the regard, we are facing two challenges; Energy Security and climate change. In the energy sector, climate change mitigation and energy security go hand in hand. Investment in clean energy technologies will ensure better energy security while at the same time mitigating climate change. And nuclear power has a key role to play in this regard. Though the current economic downturn results world energy demand shrinking in short term, in longer term, it is inevitable to see strong demand increase if only existing policies were to remain in place until 2030 (our so called 'Reference Scenario' or 'business as usual model'). Our World Energy Outlook 2008 published November last year demonstrates that world primary energy demand will grow by 45% from 2006 to 2030, which is an average annual growth rate of 1.6%. Though it is not shown in the graph, it is important to note that non-OECD countries account for 87% of global energy demand growth between 2006 and 2030. The increase in China's energy demand outpaces that of all other countries and regions. Huge inflows of capital are needed to meet such demand growth and replace existing and future supply facilities that will be retired,. This shows the cumulative investment in energy supply needed to 2030 in the business as usual scenario. It amounts to $26.3 trillion (in year-2007 dollars) from 2007 to 2030; Electricity generation represents half of this. Oil and gas account for almost all of the remainder; 63% of this total will be needed in non-OECD countries - clearly highlighting that the investment challenge is a global issue. As

  17. Bioremediation of mixed microbial mats: System development of mixed contaminants for application at the Savannah River Site. Annual technical progress report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamental objective of this project is to develop and field test the mixed microbial mat bioremediation system for decontamination of target sites at SRS. Although microbial mats have performed well in several pilot projects in the past, atypical problems and site characteristics at SRS demand special field designs. In the interest of designing a pilot and locating it at an appropriate site, the project investigators have worked closely with the technical staff at the SREL. We have concluded that the diverse characteristics of contaminations at SRS may dictate testing several pilot designs during the course of this project

  18. Annual report on operation, utilization and technical development of research reactors and hot laboratory, from April 1, 1987 to March 31, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activities of the Department of Research Reactor Operation in fiscal year 1987 are described. The department is responsible for operation and maintenance of JRR-2, JRR-4, Research Reactor Development Division which performed upgraded JRR-3 and other R D, and Hot Laboratory. In the above connection various other work has also been performed, such as technical management of fuel and coolant, radiation control, irradiation technique, etc. In Hot Laboratory, we have performed post-irradiation examinations of fuels and materials, and also development of examination procedures, too. (author)

  19. Annual report on operation, utilization and technical development of research reactors and hot laboratory, from April 1, 1985 to March 31, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activities of the Department of Research Reactor Operation in fiscal year 1985 are described. The department is responsible for operation and maintenance of JRR-2, JRR-4, Research Reactor Development Division which performed upgraded JRR-3 and other R and D, and Hot Laboratory. In the above connection various other work has also been performed, such as technical management of fuel and coolant, radiation control, irradiation technique, etc. In Hot Laboratory, we have performed post-irradiation examinations of fuels and materials, and also development of examination procedures, too. (author)

  20. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini Mission. Semi annual technical progress report, 1 April 1996--29 September 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technical progress report discusses work on the Radioisotope Generators and Ancillary Activities for the Cassini spacecraft. The Cassini spacecraft is expected to launch in October 1997, and will explore Saturn and its moons. This progress report discusses issues in: spacecraft integration and liason, engineering support, safety, qualified unicouple fabrication, ETG fabrication and testing, ground support equipment, RTG shipping and launch support, designs, reviews and mission application. Safety analysis of the RTGs during reentry and launch accidents are covered. This report covers the period of April 1 to September 29, 1996

  1. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini Mission. Semi annual technical progress report, 1 April 1996--29 September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-20

    This technical progress report discusses work on the Radioisotope Generators and Ancillary Activities for the Cassini spacecraft. The Cassini spacecraft is expected to launch in October 1997, and will explore Saturn and its moons. This progress report discusses issues in: spacecraft integration and liason, engineering support, safety, qualified unicouple fabrication, ETG fabrication and testing, ground support equipment, RTG shipping and launch support, designs, reviews and mission application. Safety analysis of the RTGs during reentry and launch accidents are covered. This report covers the period of April 1 to September 29, 1996.

  2. Seasonal and annual changes in the macrozoobenthic populations of the Gulf of Gdańsk with respect to hypoxia and hydrogen sulphide

    OpenAIRE

    Urszula Janas; Julika Wocial; Anna Szaniawska

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate seasonal and annual changes in the benthic macrofauna in relation to changes in hydrogen sulphide concentration in the sediment and the oxygen content in the water column. Data were collected over a three-year period from 1994 to 1997. The benthic macrofauna inhabiting the sediments of the Gulf of Gdansk, in which H2S is permanently present, consists mostly of species with a high tolerance to oxygen deficiency and the presence of H2S. These species ar...

  3. Changing Expectations of College: The 47th Annual PDK/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phi Delta Kappan, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This installment reporting on the 47th Annual PDK/Gallup Poll of American's Attitudes Toward the Public Schools focuses on American's views of the value of a high school and a college education and the affordability of college. It is the first year the poll included enough respondents to be able to break out sentiments of specific demographic…

  4. 78 FR 13346 - Medicare Program; Changes to the Semi-Annual Meeting of the Advisory Panel on Hospital Outpatient...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... Federal Register (77 FR 70447) announcing the first semi-annual meeting of the Advisory Panel on Hospital... notice do not have to re-register. The teleconference dial-in instructions, and related webcast and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  5. From Socialist Showcase to Mezzogiorno? Lessons on the Role of Technical Change from East Germany's Post-World War II Growth Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang Keller

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we emphasize the contribution of technical change, broadly defined, towards productivity growth in explaining the relative East Germany-West Germany performance during the post-World War II era. We argue that previous work was excessively focused on physical capital investments determining productivity differentials, which consequently led to an overestimation of the East German performance during the Socialist era, and an overly pessimistic assessment of the East German prospec...

  6. How is the impact of climate change on river flow regimes related to the impact on mean annual runoff? A global-scale analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the impact of climate change on freshwater resources, change in mean annual runoff (MAR) is only a first indicator. In addition, it is necessary to analyze changes of river flow regimes, i.e. changes in the temporal dynamics of river discharge, as these are important for the well-being of humans (e.g. with respect to water supply) and freshwater-dependent biota (e.g. with respect to habitat availability). Therefore, we investigated, in a global-scale hydrological modeling study, the relation between climate-induced changes of MAR and changes of a number of river flow regime indicators, including mean river discharge, statistical low and high flows, and mean seasonal discharge. In addition, we identified, for the first time at the global scale, where flow regime shifts from perennial to intermittent flow regimes (or vice versa) may occur due to climate change. Climate-induced changes of all considered river flow regime indicators (except seasonal river flow changes) broadly follow the spatial pattern of MAR changes. The differences among the computed changes of MAR due to the application of the two climate models are larger than the differences between the change of MAR and the change of the diverse river flow indicators for one climate model. At the sub-basin and grid cell scales, however, there are significant differences between the changes of MAR, mean annual river discharge, and low and high flows. Low flows are projected to be more than halved by the 2050s in almost twice the area as compared to MAR. Similarly, northern hemisphere summer flows decrease more strongly than MAR. Differences between the high emissions scenario A2 (with emissions of 25 Gt C yr−1 in the 2050s) and the low emissions scenario B2 (16 Gt C yr−1) are generally small as compared to the differences due to the two climate models. The benefits of avoided emissions are, however, significant in those areas where flows are projected to be more than halved due to climate change. If

  7. Annual report of Department of Research Reactors and Tandem Accelerator, JFY2006. Operation, utilization and technical development of JRR-3, JRR-4, NSRR and Tandem Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Research Reactors and Tandem Accelerator is in charge of the operation, utilization and technical development of JRR-3 (Japan Research Reactor-3), JRR-4 (Japan Research Reactor-4) and NSRR (Nuclear Safety Research Reactor) and Tandem Accelerator. The following services and technical developments were achieved in Japanese Fiscal Year 2006: 1) JRR-3 was operated for 181 days in 7 cycles and JRR-4 for 149 days in 37 cycles to provide neutrons for research and development of in-house and outside users. 2) JRR-3 and JRR-4 were utilized through deliberate coordination as follows, a) Neutron irradiations of 628 materials, for neutron transmutation doping of silicon etc. b) Capsule irradiations of 3,067 samples, for neutron activation analyses etc. c) Neutron beam experiments of 6,338 cases x days. 3) Concerning to the 10 times increasing plan of cold neutron beams from JRR-3, a pressure resistant test model of the high-performance neutron moderator vessel which had been designed to increase cold neutrons twice as much as the present one was fabricated. Various developments for upgrading cold neutron guide tubes with super mirrors were in progress. 4) Boron neutron capture therapy was carried out 34 times using JRR-4. Improved neutron collimators were built to fit well to any irregular outline for cancer around the neck. 5) NSRR carried out 4 times of pulse irradiations of high burn-up MOX fuels and 9 times of un-irradiated fuels to contribute to fuel safety researches. 6) The Tandem Accelerator was operated for 201 days to contribute to the researches of nuclear physics and solid state physics with high energy heavy ions. The new utilization program of sharing beam times with outside users was performed by carrying out 45 days. The beam intensity increasing program with a high performance ion source, in place of the compact one which has been working in the high voltage terminal, has made great progress. (author)

  8. Are tradable green certificates a cost-efficient policy driving technical change or a rent-generating machine? Lessons from Sweden 2003-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the European policy debate, tradable green certificates (TGC) have been suggested to be a superior regulatory framework for promoting the diffusion of renewable electricity technologies. The purpose of this paper is to assess the performance of the Swedish TGC system, contributing to the European debate on the suitability of different types of frameworks. The expectations of the TGC system were that it would: (a) be effective in terms of increasing the supply of 'green' electricity; (b) do this in a cost effective manner (from both a social and a consumer perspective); (c) generate an equitable distribution of costs and benefits and (d) drive technical change. So far, it has performed adequately in terms of effectiveness and social cost effectiveness. However, consumer costs have been substantially higher than expected, very large rents are generated and, at best, it contributes marginally to technical change. Thus, a TGC framework should be selected if the overriding concern is to minimize short term social costs of reaching a certain goal with a high degree of predictability. However, it cannot be expected to also drive technical change, keep consumer costs down and be equitable. Such trade-offs need to be revealed and not obscured by analysts.

  9. Technological Change and Technical Efficiency for Diary Farms in Three Countries of South America Cambio Tecnológico y Eficiencia Técnica en Predios Lecheros de Tres Países de Sudamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris E Bravo-Ureta

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The progressive liberalization of agricultural markets, along with the threat that imported products can pose to local producers, reveals the importance of productivity growth as a mechanism to improve competitiveness. Technical efficiency measurement is the most studied component of productivity because it can help to generate valuable information for policy formulation and farm level decisions focused on the improvement of farm performance. This study uses unbalanced panel data sets for dairy farms from Argentina, Chile and Uruguay, to estimate stochastic production frontier models. These frontiers are then used to estimate economies of size, technological change and technical efficiency. All estimations are based on the Battese and Coelli (1992 model, which is widely used in empirical productivity studies. The models for all three countries exhibit increasing returns to scale, which suggests that the dairy farms in the samples are operating at a sub-optimal size. The average annual rate of technological change for Argentina was 0.9%, for Chile 2.6% and for Uruguay 6.9%, while average technical efficiency was 87.0%, 84.9% and 81.1%, respectively.La liberalización progresiva de los mercados agrícolas, junto a la amenaza que implica para productores nacionales la competencia de productos importados, dejan en claro la relevancia del incremento en la productividad como un elemento para mejorar la competitividad. La medición de la eficiencia técnica es uno de los componentes de la productividad más estudiados, debido a que proporciona información valiosa al momento de formular políticas y tomar decisiones destinadas a mejorar la administración predial. Este trabajo utiliza datos de panel desbalanceados de predios lecheros provenientes de Argentina, Chile y Uruguay, para estimar fronteras estocásticas de producción. Luego estas fronteras se usaron para analizar economías de tamaño, tasas de cambio tecnológico y eficiencia técnica. En

  10. The Swedish Code of Corporate Governance : An analysis of the Changes of Information Provided in Companies' Annual Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Bengtsson, Åsa; Hendeby, Elvira

    2007-01-01

    In society today large corporations are striving to regain the trust, which has been lost dur-ing the many accounting scandals that occurred lately. As a response to minimize the con-flicts countries have introduced codes of corporate governance. It is common knowledge that a company’s stakeholders and shareholders have different knowledge and interest in the company and the annual report is the agent’s main communication channel towards the principals. The Swedish code of corporate governanc...

  11. Modeling Technical Change in Energy System Analysis: Analyzing the Introduction of Learning-by-Doing in Bottom-up Energy Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, Christer; Soederholm, Patrik [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden). Div. of Economics

    2005-02-01

    The main objective of this paper is to provide an overview and a critical analysis of the recent literature on incorporating induced technical change in energy systems models. Special emphasis is put on surveying recent studies aiming at integrating learning-by-doing into bottom-up energy systems models through so-called learning curves, and on analyzing the relevance of learning curve analysis for understanding the process of innovation and technology diffusion in the energy sector. The survey indicates that this model work represents a major advance in energy research, and embeds important policy implications, not the least concerning the cost and the timing of environmental policies (including carbon emission constraints). However, bottom-up energy models with endogenous learning are also limited in their characterization of technology diffusion and innovation. While they provide a detailed account of technical options - which is absent in many top-down models - they also lack important aspects of diffusion behavior that are captured in top-down representations. For instance, they fail in capturing strategic technology diffusion behavior in the energy sector, and they neglect important general equilibrium impacts (such as the opportunity cost of redirecting R and D support to the energy sector). For these reasons bottom-up and top-down models with induced technical change should not be viewed as substitutes but rather as complements.

  12. Annual rates of change in pre- vs. post- bronchodilator FEV1 and FVC over 4 years in moderate to very severe COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Tashkin, Donald P.; Ning LI; Halpin, David; Kleerup, Eric; Decramer, Marc; Celli, Bartolome; Elashoff, Robert

    2013-01-01

    While the slope of decline in FEV1 has traditionally been calculated from the post- rather than the pre-bronchodilator measurement in COPD interventional trials, it is not clear whether and to what extent these two slopes differ in symptomatic patients with COPD. Therefore, we used data from the 4-year UPLIFT trial of tiotropium 18 mcg QD vs. placebo to compare annual rates of change in pre- vs. post-bronchodilator FEV1 in 5041 patients with moderate to very severe COPD (mean FEV1 48% pred) i...

  13. Diurnal and annual changes in serum cortisol concentrations in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins Tursiops aduncus and killer whales Orcinus orca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Miwa; Uchida, Senzo; Ueda, Keiichi; Tobayama, Teruo; Katsumata, Etsuko; Yoshioka, Motoi; Aida, Katsumi

    2003-07-01

    Until present, fundamental studies on cortisol secretory patterns have not been conducted in cetaceans. The objectives of this study were: (1) to examine diurnal changes in serum cortisol concentrations in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins Tursiops aduncus and killer whales Orcinus orca, (2) to investigate annual cortisol changes in killer whales, and (3) to investigate the relationship between cortisol and sex steroids (testosterone and progesterone) concentrations in killer whales. Diurnal changes in serum cortisol concentrations were investigated at various intervals in the two species. In Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins, serum cortisol levels exhibited the same episodic fluctuations for 24 h as did diurnal terrestrial mammals: cortisol levels were lower at 18:00 h and higher in the early morning. In killer whales, cortisol concentrations continued to decrease until 18:00 h, after which they fluctuated, and then increased in the next morning. Annual changes in cortisol levels were investigated by collecting blood samples every two weeks from two male killer whales and a pregnant female one twice per day (during 09:00-10:00 and 16:00-17:00 h) throughout a one-year period. Regarding sera collected during 09:00-10:00 h from the female, cortisol concentrations showed cyclic changes having about 4-month intervals. In males, cortisol showed higher concentrations in winter and lower concentrations during the summer season. There was a negative correlation between cortisol and progesterone levels in the female and a negative correlation was also observed between cortisol and testosterone in male no. 2. In the female and male no. 1, cortisol levels during 09:00-10:00 h were significantly higher than those during 16:00-17:00 h, and their data are considered to support observations regarding diurnal changes in cortisol levels in the two cetacean species. PMID:12849966

  14. Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Policy/Technical Involvement and Planning, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easterbrooks, John A.; Pearsons, Todd N. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2003-03-01

    Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). The functions of the parties are described in an MOU between the YN and the WDFW. A Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee (STAC) consisting of one representative from each management entity reports to the Policy Group and provides technical input on policy and other issues. Additional committee's, such as the Monitoring Implementation and Planning Team (MIPT), serve as the discretion of STAC. The Policy Group and STAC meet periodically (usually monthly) to conduct the business of the YKFP. Although the YKFP is an all stocks initiative (BPA 1996), most effort to date has been directed at spring chinook salmon and coho salmon. This report is a compilation of the year's activities between August 1, 2001 and July 31, 2002. All findings should be considered preliminary until data collection is completed or the information is published in a peer-reviewed journal.

  15. Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Policy/Technical Involvement and Planning, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Easterbrooks, John A. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2003-09-01

    Wildlife Program; and (5) to implement the Project in a prudent and environmentally sound manner. Current YKFP operations have been designed to test the principles of supplementation (Busack et al. 1997). The Project's experimental design has focused on the following critical uncertainties affecting supplementation: (1) The survival and reproductive success of hatchery fish after release from the hatchery; (2) The impacts of hatchery fish as they interact with non-target species and stocks; and, (3) The effects of supplementation on the long-term genetic fitness of fish stocks. The YKFP endorses an adaptive management policy applied through a project management framework as described in the Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Planning Status Report (1995), Fast and Craig (1997), and Clune and Dauble 1991. The project is managed by a Policy Group consisting of a representative of the Yakama Nation (YN, lead agency) and a representative of the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). The functions of the parties are described in an MOU between the YN and the WDFW. A Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee (STAC) consisting of one representative from each management entity reports to the Policy Group and provides technical input on policy and other issues. Additional committee's, such as the Monitoring Implementation and Planning Team (MIPT), serve at the discretion of STAC. The Policy Group and STAC meet periodically (usually monthly) to conduct the business of the YKFP. Although the YKFP is an all stocks initiative (BPA 1996), most effort to date has been directed at spring chinook salmon and coho salmon. This report is a compilation of the year's activities between August 1, 2002 and July 31, 2003. The Yakama Nation's portion of the YKFP is presented in another report. All findings should be considered preliminary until data collection is completed or the information is published in a peer-reviewed journal. Pearsons and Easterbrooks (2003

  16. Development of a fully-integrated PV system for residential applications: Phase I annual technical report: February 27, 1998 -- August 31, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, R.; Mackamul, K.; Duran, G.

    2000-03-06

    This report describes Utility Power Group's (UPG's) technical progress for Phase 1 of a two-phase effort to focus on the design, assembly, and testing of a fully-integrated residential PV power system, including storage. In the PV Array Task, UPG significantly improved the conventional means and methods required to structurally interface PV modules to the roofs of single-family residential houses and to electrically interconnect these PV modules to a power conversion unit. UPG focused on the design and test of a PV array based on the highly efficient use of materials and labor. Design criteria included cost, structural integrity, electrical safety, reliability, conformance with applicable standards and building and seismic codes, and adaptability to a wide range of roof materials for both existing and retrofit roof applications. In the Power Unit Task, UPG designed and tested a high-efficiency, low-cost, high-reliability prototype power conversion unit that included all materials, components, equipment, and software required to perform all DC-AC/AC-DC power collection, conversion, and control functions between the output of the PV array and the interconnection to the electrical grid service of single-family residences. In the Energy Storage Unit Task, UPG designed and tested a low-cost, modular, self-contained, low-maintenance, all-weather, battery-based Energy Storage Unit designed to interface with the Power Unit to provide back-up electricity to supply critical household loads in the event of utility-grid failure. The Energy Storage Unit includes batteries and all structural, mechanical, and electrical equipment required to provide a source of stored DC energy for input of the Power Unit. UPG designed the storage unit as a ''plug and play'' option, where multiple units can be easily paralleled for additional energy storage capacity.

  17. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini Mission. Semi-annual technical progress report, April 3, 1995--October 1, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the April-October 1995 Progress Report on the Cassini RTG Program. Nine tasks are summarized; (1) Spacecraft integration and liason, (2) Engineering support, (3) Safety, (4) Unicouple fabrication, (5) ETG fabrication, assembly, and test, (6) Ground support equipment, (7) RTG shipping and launch support, (8) Design, reviews, and mission applications, and (9) Project management, QA, contract changes, and material acquisitions

  18. Technical-evaluation report on the proposed technical-specification changes for the inservice surveillance of safety-related hydraulic and mechanical snubbers at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and 3 (Docket Nos. 50-277, 50-278)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the proposed Technical Specification changes to Limiting Conditions for Operation, Surveillance Requirements and Bases for safety-related hydraulic and mechanical snubbers at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and 3. The evaluation is to determine whether the proposed Technical Specifications are in conformance with the model Standard Technical Specification set forth by the NRC. A check list, Appendix A of this report, compares the licensee's submittal with the NRC requirements and includes Proposed Resolution of the Deviations

  19. Parameterization of GCM subgrid nonprecipitating cumulus and stratocumulus clouds using stochastic/phenomenological methods. Annual technical progress report, 1 December 1992--30 November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stull, R.B.

    1993-08-27

    This document is a progress report to the USDOE Atmospheric Radiation and Measurement Program (ARM). The overall project goal is to relate subgrid-cumulus-cloud formation, coverage, and population characteristics to statistical properties of surface-layer air, which in turn are modulated by heterogeneous land-usage within GCM-grid-box-size regions. The motivation is to improve the understanding and prediction of climate change by more accurately describing radiative and cloud processes.

  20. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini Mission. Semi annual technical progress report, 28 March 1994--25 September 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The progress on the radioisotope generators and ancillary activities is described. This report is organized by program task as follows: spacecraft integration and liaison; engineering support; safety; qualified unicouple fabrication; ETG fabrication, assembly, and test; ground support equipment; RTG shipping and launch support; design, reviews, and mission applications; project management, quality assurance and reliability, contract changes, non-capital CAGO acquisition, and CAGO maintenance; contractor acquired government owned property (CAGO) acquisition

  1. IAEA safeguards and technical support programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Program of Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS) has since 1978 provided technology and technical assistance to the IAEA to support its nuclear safeguards activities. The present level of support, $6.9 million per year, equals 10% of the Department of Safeguards annual budget. During the next decade, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) will face new technical challenges in carrying out its verification activities. To help the IAEA acquire the technology and other technical support that it will require in the 1990s, POTAS expects to continue its assistance, both in the areas established in the past and in additional areas dictated by newly identified IAEA safeguards requirements. This paper looks at the political and policy context within which the Department of Safeguards, and hence POTAS, operates, and how that context is expected to evolve over the next decade. The roles and functions of POTAS will be identified and discussed in terms of their historical evolution. Lastly, the paper will consider how POTAS is expected to change during the 1990s, both to maintain effectiveness in existing roles and functions, and to meet the challenge of the changing policy context

  2. Revised estimates of the annual net flux of carbon to the atmosphere from changes in land use and land management 1850-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent analyses of land-use change in the US and China, together with the latest estimates of tropical deforestation and afforestation from the FAO, were used to calculate a portion of the annual flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The calculated flux includes only that portion of the flux resulting from direct human activity. In most regions, activities included the conversion of natural ecosystems to cultivated lands and pastures, including shifting cultivation, harvest of wood (for timber and fuel) and the establishment of tree plantations. In the US, woody encroachment and woodland thickening as a result of fire suppression were also included. The calculated flux of carbon does not include increases or decreases in carbon storage as a result of environmental changes (e.g.; increasing concentrations of CO2, N deposition, climatic change or pollution). Globally, the long-term (1850-2000) flux of carbon from changes in land use and management released 156 PgC to the atmosphere, about 60% of it from the tropics. Average annual fluxes during the 1980s and 1990s were 2.0 and 2.2 PgC/yr, respectively, dominated by releases of carbon from the tropics. Outside the tropics, the average net flux of carbon attributable to land-use change and management decreased from a source of 0.06 PgC/yr during the 1980s to a sink of 0.02 PgC/yr during the 1990s. According to the analyses summarized here, changes in land use were responsible for sinks in North America and Europe and for small sources in other non-tropical regions. The revisions were as large as 0.3 PgC/yr in individual regions but were largely offsetting, so that the global estimate for the 1980s was changed little from an earlier estimate. Uncertainties and recent improvements in the data used to calculate the flux of carbon from land-use change are reviewed, and the results are compared to other estimates of flux to evaluate the extent to which processes other than land-use change and

  3. Influence of seasonal changes in daily activity and annual life cycle of Geotrigona mombuca (Hymenoptera, Apidae in a Cerrado habitat, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L. Gobatto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The foraging activity of Geotrigona mombuca Smith, 1863 was studied under natural conditions aiming to verify the influence of seasonal changes on daily flight activity and annual cycle of the colony. Daily flight activity was monitored for a year based on the observation and counting of foragers leaving and entering the hive, as well as the kind of material transported and meteorological factors such as day time, temperature and relative humidity. The influence of seasonal changes was evidenced by alterations on daily rhythm of flight activity and by differences on transportation of food resources, building material and garbage. These data indicate that forager behavior is related to daily microclimate conditions and it is synchronized with the requirements of colony annual cycle, which determines an intense pollen collection in the summer. Thus, the recomposition of the intranidal population in spring and summer can be ensured, which is characterized both for a higher intensity of flight activity and increase in garbage and resin transport, as well as the swarming process in the spring. In this way, an action targeting the preservation or management of the species in a natural environment should consider that survival and reproduction of the colony depends greatly on the amount of available pollen in late winter.

  4. Seasonal and annual changes in the macrozoobenthic populations of the Gulf of Gdańsk with respect to hypoxia and hydrogen sulphide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Janas

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate seasonal and annual changes in the benthic macrofauna in relation to changes in hydrogen sulphide concentration in the sediment and the oxygen content in the water column. Data were collected over a three-year period from 1994 to 1997. The benthic macrofauna inhabiting the sediments of the Gulf of Gdansk, in which H2S is permanently present, consists mostly of species with a high tolerance to oxygen deficiency and the presence of H2S. These species are: Macoma balthica, Harmothoe sarsi, Nereis diversicolor, Saduria entomon and Halicryptus spinulosus, as well as Pontoporeia femorata and Corophium volutator, which are more sensitive to these factors. In 1996-1997 a decline in the abundance of almost all benthic species, and especially of the bivalve M. balthica at all the stations was observed in comparison to 1994-1995.

  5. The Effects of Change in Vocational, Technical, and Occupational Education on the Teaching of Culinary Arts in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanLandingham, Paul G.

    Vocational education and culinary arts have gained a new respect. Since the mid-1970s, the status of culinary artists (cooks and chefs) has changed from domestic to professional. This change and the many changes in food technology have brought about a heightened awareness of the need for better training for culinary professionals. Improved…

  6. Annual Report: Unconventional Fossil Energy Resource Program (30 September 2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soong, Yee; Guthrie, George

    2014-03-11

    Yee Soong, Technical Coordinator, George Guthrie, Focus Area Lead, UFER Annual Report, NETL-TRS-UFER-2013, NETL Technical Report Series, U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA, 2013, p 14.

  7. Accelerating PV Cost Effectiveness Through Systems Design, Engineering, and Quality Assurance: Phase I Annual Technical Report, 4 November 2004 - 3 November 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botkin, J.

    2006-07-01

    During Phase I of this PV Manufacturing R&D subcontract, PowerLight Corporation has made significant progress toward the reduction of installed costs for commercial-scale, rooftop PV systems. PowerLight has worked to reduce operating costs by improving long-term reliability and performance through the development of more sophisticated tools used in system design and monitoring. Additionally, PowerLight has implemented design improvements with the goal of reducing cost while maintaining and/or improving product quality. As part of this effort, PowerLight also modified manufacturing and shipping processes to accommodate these design changes, streamline material flow, reduce cost, and decrease waste streams. During Phase II of this project, PowerLight plans to continue this work with the goal of reducing system cost and improving system performance.

  8. Annual and Seasonal Discharge Responses to Forest/Land Cover Changes and Climate Variations in Kapuas River Basin, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyu, Ade; Kuntoro, Arno Adi; Yamashita, Takao

    2010-01-01

    Kapuas River basin is one of the most important natural water resources in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. However, rapid increasing of forest degradation and land cover changes in the basin and climate variations has decreased the capability of the basin to provide and maintain its functions especially as a water catchment area. Examining the impact of land cover changes and climate variations is required to identify how the on-going and possible land cover and climate change may influence the a...

  9. 2008 annual merit review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The 2008 DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review was held February 25-28, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland. The review encompassed all of the work done by the Vehicle Technologies Program: a total of 280 individual activities were reviewed, by a total of just over 100 reviewers. A total of 1,908 individual review responses were received for the technical reviews, and an additional 29 individual review responses were received for the plenary session review.

  10. NIKHEF annual report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report of NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands) describes experiments carried out at CERN (Geneve), DESY (Hamburg) viz. WA25; CHARM-collaboration; ACCMOR experiments; proton-antiproton collision; LEAR; MARK-J; Crystal Ball experiment; HERA. For the nuclear physics section, experiments are described on electro-excitation of nuclei; pion and muon physics. Theoretical studies are listed concerning electromagnetic interactions in the sigma-omega model and delta-nuclei dynamics. A radiochemical and technical part concludes the report. (Auth.)

  11. Annual changes in fecal sex hormones with corresponding changes in reproductive behaviors in Thai sarus crane, black-headed Ibis, and Lesser Adjutant Stork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumkiratiwong, Panas; Poothong, Songklod; Taksintum, Wut; Suekkhachat, Hataitip; Kanchanabanca, Pongvarut; Suwapat, Phongpipat

    2013-12-01

    We monitored annual fecal sex hormones and reproductive displays of five individuals of males and females Thai sarus crane (Grus antigone sharpii), a flock of five males and females black-headed Ibis (Threskiornis melanocephalus), and five pair bonded lesser adjutant stork (Leptoptilos javanicus), all maintained in captivity at Bangprha Waterbird Breeding Research Center. Reproductive behaviors were observed during 0600-1800 h, for four days during the second week of each month and feces were collected monthly to determine annual male total testosterone (mTT) and female estradiol (fE2) levels by radioimmunoassay. Thai sarus crane exhibited a peak mTT in August following a fE2, with a surge in July. Black-headed ibis demonstrated a peak mTT in January prior to a fE2 with a surge in March. Lesser adjutant stork showed a maximal mTT coincidently with fE2 with a surge in October. Thai sarus crane frequently displayed courtship in May-October, corresponding well with higher mTT rather than fE2 levels. Black-headed ibis showed courtship-copulation displays in January, simultaneously with mTT, but not with fE2 surge. Lesser adjutant stork often displayed courtship-copulation in October-January, seemingly corresponded with higher mTT and fE2 levels during October-December and October-November, respectively. Male and female lesser adjutant stork displayed egg-incubation and chick-rearing behaviors in November-January and December-June, respectively. We suggest that mTT and/or fE2 apparently played an important role in regulation of courtship-copulation displays but did not relate to both egg-incubation and chickrearing behaviors. PMID:24320186

  12. Saarland and Rheinland-Pfalz Mines Inspectorate. Annual report 1996. Economic and technical aspects, industrial safety and environmental protection, statistics, activities of the mining authorities; Oberbergamt fuer das Saarland und das Land Rheinland-Pfalz. Jahresbericht 1996. Bergwirtschaft, Bergtechnik, Arbeitsschutz, Umweltschutz, Statistiken, Taetigkeiten der Bergbehoerden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The annual report of the Saarland and Rheinland-Pfalz Mines Inspectorate outlines the economic and technical developments in mining in these two German states as well as the activities of the mining authorities in all fields of mining. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Jahresbericht des Oberbergamtes fuer das Saarland und das Land Rheinland-Pfalz gibt einen Ueberblick zur bergwirtschaftlichen und bergtechnischen Entwicklung in beiden Bundeslaendern und vermittelt einen umfassenden Einblick in die Taetigkeiten der Bergbehoerden in den vielfaeltigen Bergbauzweigen. (orig.)

  13. Technology Support for High-Throughput Processing of Thin-Film CdTe PV Modules Annual Technical Report, Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, D.H.; Powell, R.C.; Karpov, V.; Grecu, D.; Jayamaha, U.; Dorer, G.L. (First Solar, L.L.C.)

    2001-02-05

    Results and conclusions from Phase II of a three-year subcontract are presented. The subcontract, entitled Technology Support for High-Throughput Processing of Thin-Film CdTe PV Modules, is First Solar's portion of the Thin-Film Photovoltaic Partnership Program. The research effort of this subcontract is divided into four areas of effort: (1) process and equipment development, (2) efficiency improvement, (3) characterization and analysis, and (4) environmental, health, and safety. As part of the process and equipment development effort, a new semiconductor deposition system with a throughput of 3 m2/min was completed, and a production line in a new 75,000 ft2 facility was started and is near completion. As part of the efficiency-improvement task, research was done on cells and modules with thin CdS and buffer layers as way to increase photocurrent with no loss in the other photovoltaic characteristics. A number of activities were part of the characterization and analysis task, including developing a new admittance spectroscopy system, with a range of 0.001 Hz to 100 kHz, to characterize cells. As part of the environmental, health, and safety task, the methanol-based CdCl2 process was replaced with aqueous-CdCl2. This change enabled the retention of a De Minimus level of emissions for the manufacturing plant, so no permitting is required.

  14. Carbon Calculator for Land Use Change from Biofuels Production (CCLUB). Users' Manual and Technical Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Qin, Zhangcai [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mueller, Steffen [Univ. of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Kwon, Ho-young [International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washington, DC (United States); Wander, Michelle M. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The Carbon Calculator for Land Use Change from Biofuels Production (CCLUB) calculates carbon emissions from land use change (LUC) for four different ethanol production pathways including corn grain ethanol and cellulosic ethanol from corn stover, Miscanthus, and switchgrass. This document discusses the version of CCLUB released September 30, 2014 which includes corn and three cellulosic feedstocks: corn stover, Miscanthus, and switchgrass.

  15. Seasonal Changes in Leaf Tissue Rehydration of One Annual and Two Perennial Grass Forage Species Induced by Bioclimate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirini - Ia KAPSALI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioclimate signifies the continuous interplay between plants and climate factors (primarily drought and has a direct impact on the water relations and the duration of the rehydration process in water stressed plants. To explore the association between bioclimate and water physiology of forage species in semi-arid Mediterranean grasslands, we determined the seasonal variation in leaf water potential, turgid weight and relative water content in wild growing Dactylis glomerata L., Bromus inermis Leyss (perennial and Bromus sterilis L. (annual during the growing season. The study was conducted at the farm of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. The results of the current study reveal that B. sterilis maintained high levels of water potential most probably by accelerating its biological cycle and decreasing water content because it fails to sustain turgidity. Dactylis glomerata and B. inermis presented even higher water contents than B. sterilis for the same water potential. Dactylis glomerata exhibited substantially higher water potential and content than B. inermis by keeping the rehydration duration stable. The extensive creeping rhizome seems to allow B. inermis to sustain high values of water potential and content possibly ensuring turgidity. Regardless of the grass species the duration of rehydration ranged from 2.5 to 3.5 hours throughout the growing season. Our findings demonstrate that (a D. glomerata and B. inermis are better adapted to Mediterranean semiarid conditions than B. sterilis and (b turgid weight in Mediterranean forage species can safely be determined after a rehydration period of 3.5 hours.

  16. Technology support for high-throughput processing of thin-film CdTe PV modules: Annual technical report, Phase 1, 1 April 1998--31 March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, D.H.; Powell, R.C.; Grecu, D.; Jayamaha, U.; Hanak, J.J.; Bohland, J.; Smigielski, K.; Dorer, G.L.

    1999-10-25

    CdTe Team stability tests were concluded. One back-contact formulation resulted in cells that increased in efficiency as a result of 9,700 hours of light soaking. As part of the environmental, health, and safety task, an emissions survey was performed for the pilot-production facility. For production of 360 modules/day, it was predicted that the cadmium emissions would be only 0.015% of the level that would require any permitting; however, methanol emissions may require permitting if anticipated process changes are not implemented. Process improvements in edge delete, CdS material preparation, waste compaction, CdCl{sub 2}-vapor collection, and wastewater treatment were made, resulting in reduced costs, reduced emissions, and improved operator safety.

  17. Final technical report. Can microbial functional traits predict the response and resilience of decomposition to global change?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, Steven D. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2015-09-24

    The role of specific micro-organisms in the carbon cycle, and their responses to environmental change, are unknown in most ecosystems. This knowledge gap limits scientists’ ability to predict how important ecosystem processes, like soil carbon storage and loss, will change with climate and other environmental factors. The investigators addressed this knowledge gap by transplanting microbial communities from different environments into new environments and measuring the response of community composition and carbon cycling over time. Using state-of-the-art sequencing techniques, computational tools, and nanotechnology, the investigators showed that microbial communities on decomposing plant material shift dramatically with natural and experimentally-imposed drought. Microbial communities also shifted in response to added nitrogen, but the effects were smaller. These changes had implications for carbon cycling, with lower rates of carbon loss under drought conditions, and changes in the efficiency of decomposition with nitrogen addition. Even when transplanted into the same conditions, microbial communities from different environments remained distinct in composition and functioning for up to one year. Changes in functioning were related to differences in enzyme gene content across different microbial groups. Computational approaches developed for this project allowed the conclusions to be tested more broadly in other ecosystems, and new computer models will facilitate the prediction of microbial traits and functioning across environments. The data and models resulting from this project benefit the public by improving the ability to predict how microbial communities and carbon cycling functions respond to climate change, nutrient enrichment, and other large-scale environmental changes.

  18. Technical instruments and conceptual definitions: theoretical and practical implications of the change on the definition of unemployment in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Guataqui; Rodrigo Taborda

    2003-01-01

    On June 2000 the Colombian National Department of Statistics (DANE) adopted a new definition to measure unemployment following standards suggested by the International Labour Organisation (ILO). The change of definition implied a reduction of the unemployment rate of about two percentual points. In this document we contrast the Colombian experience with another international experiences, and analyse the empirical and theoretical implications of this change of definition using two different ki...

  19. Average historical annual total precipitation (inches) and projected relative change in total precipitation (% change from baseline) for Northern Alaska. 30-year averages. Handout format. Maps created using the SNAP 5-GCM composite (AR5-RCP 8.5) and CRU TS3.1.01 datasets.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average annual total precipitation and projected change in precipitation for the northern portion of Alaska. The Alaska portion of the Arctic...

  20. Average historical annual total precipitation (mm) and projected relative change in total precipitation (% change from baseline) for Northern Alaska. 30-year averages. Handout format. Maps created using the SNAP 5-GCM composite (AR5-RCP 6.0) and CRU TS3.1.01 datasets.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average annual total precipitation and projected change in precipitation for the northern portion of Alaska. The Alaska portion of the Arctic...

  1. Average historical annual total precipitation (inches) and projected relative change in total precipitation (% change from baseline) for Northern Alaska. 30-year averages. Handout format. Maps created using the SNAP 5-GCM composite (AR5-RCP 6.0) and CRU TS3.1.01 datasets.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average annual total precipitation and projected change in precipitation for the northern portion of Alaska. The Alaska portion of the Arctic...

  2. Bring in the genes: genetic-ecophysiological modelling of the adaptive response of trees to environmental change. With application to the annual cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen eKramer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The observation of strong latitudinal clines in the date of bud burst of tree species indicate that populations of these species are genetically adapted to local environmental conditions. Existing phenological models rarely address this clinal variation, so that adaptive responses of tree populations to changes in environmental conditions are not taken into account, e.g. in models on species distributions that use phenological sub-models. This omission of simulating adaptive response in tree models may over- or underestimate the effects of climate change on tree species distributions, as well as the impacts of climate change on tree growth and productivity.Here, we present an approach to model the adaptive response of traits to environmental change based on an integrated process-based eco-physiological and quantitative genetic model of adaptive traits. Thus, the parameter values of phenological traits are expressed in genetic terms (allele effects and - frequencies, number of loci for individual trees. These individual trees thereby differ in their ability to acquire resources, grow and reproduce as described by the process-based model, leading to differential survival. Differential survival is thus the consequence of both differences in parameters values and their genetic composition. By simulating recombination and dispersal of pollen, the genetic composition of the offspring will differ from that of their parents. Over time, the distribution of both trait values and the frequency of the underlying alleles in the population change as a consequence of changes in environmental drivers leading to adaptation of trees to local environmental conditions.This approach is applied to an individual-tree growth model that includes a phenological model on the annual cycle of trees whose parameters are allowed to adapt. An example of the adaptive response of the onset of the growing season across Europe is presented.

  3. Fuel Cycle of VVER-1000: technical and economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper contains estimations of dependences of technical and economic characteristics of VVER-1000 fuel cycle on number of charged FAs and their enrichment. In the study following restrictions were used: minimum quantity of loaded fresh FAs is equal 36 FAs, a maximum one - 78 (79) FAs and fuel enrichment is limited by value 4,95 %. The following technical and economic characteristics are discussed: cycle length, average burnup of spent fuel, specific consumption of natural uranium, specific quantity of separative work, annual production of thermal energy, fuel component of electrical energy cost, electricity generation cost. Results of estimations are presented as dependences of researched characteristics on cycle length, quantity of loaded FAs and their enrichments. The presented information allows to show tendencies and ranges of technical and economic characteristics at change of fuel cycle parameters. This information can be useful for definition of the fuel cycle parameters which satisfy the requirements of power system and exploiting organizations. (authors)

  4. Research project on CO{sub 2}-induced climate change. Annual progress report, March 1, 1994--February 28, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cess, R.D.; Hameed, S.

    1995-01-01

    This summarizes current progress in the research project at SUNY Stony Brook on CO2-induced climate change. Three tasks are described, corresponding to the task categories in the USDOE/PRC CAS cooperative project on climate change. Task 1, led by Dr. Robert Cess, concerns the intercomparison of CO2 related climatic warming in contemporary general circulation models. Task 2, directed by Dr. Sultan Hameed, looks at understanding the natural variability in climatic data and comparing its significant features between observations and model simulations. Task 3, also directed by Dr. Hameed focuses on analysis of historical climate data developed at the institute of Geography of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  5. Annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delivering products and services to nuclear power plants operators, AREVA operates in every sector of the civilian nuclear power and fuel cycle industry. This annual report 2003 provides, in seven chapters, information on persons responsible for the annual report and for auditing the financial statements, general information on the company and share capital (statute, capital, share trading, dividends), information on company operations, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position and financial performance, corporate governance, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  6. Technical Shibboleths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, John S.

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technical sub-languages to reveal sociological functions of language that transcend mere transfer of substantive information. Finds one sociological feature, the shibboleth, acting widely throughout technical fields. (PA)

  7. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battles, J.E.; Myles, K.M.; Laidler, J.J.; Green, D.W.

    1994-04-01

    Chemical Technology (CMT) Division this period, conducted research and development in the following areas: advanced batteries and fuel cells; fluidized-bed combustion and coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics; treatment of hazardous waste and mixed hazardous/radioactive waste; reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; separating and recovering transuranic elements, concentrating radioactive waste streams with advanced evaporators, and producing {sup 99}Mo from low-enriched uranium; recovering actinide from IFR core and blanket fuel in removing fission products from recycled fuel, and disposing removal of actinides in spent fuel from commercial water-cooled nuclear reactors; and physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also conducts basic research in catalytic chemistry associated with molecular energy resources and novel ceramic precursors; materials chemistry of superconducting oxides, electrified metal/solution interfaces, molecular sieve structures, thin-film diamond surfaces, effluents from wood combustion, and molten silicates; and the geochemical processes involved in water-rock interactions. The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT also provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support.

  8. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1989 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including high-performance batteries (mainly lithium/iron sulfide and sodium/metal chloride), aqueous batteries (lead-acid and nickel/iron), and advanced fuel cells with molten carbonate and solid oxide electrolytes: (2) coal utilization, including the heat and seed recovery technology for coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics plants and the technology for fluidized-bed combustion; (3) methods for recovery of energy from municipal waste and techniques for treatment of hazardous organic waste; (4) nuclear technology related to a process for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste and for producing 99Mo from low-enriched uranium targets, the recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in a sodium-cooled fast reactor (the Integral Fast Reactor), and waste management; and (5) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also has a program in basic chemistry research in the areas of fluid catalysis for converting small molecules to desired products; materials chemistry for superconducting oxides and associated and ordered solutions at high temperatures; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, high-temperature superconductivity, and catalysis; and the geochemical processes responsible for trace-element migration within the earth's crust. The Division continued to be administratively responsible for and the major user of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

  9. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chemical Technology Division (CMT) is one of eight engineering research divisions within Argonne National Laboratory, one of the U.S. government's oldest and largest research laboratories. The University of Chicago oversees the laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Argonne's mission is to conduct basic scientific research, to operate national scientific facilities, to enhance the nation's energy resources, and to develop better ways to manage environmental problems. Argonne has the further responsibility of strengthening the nation's technology base by developing innovative technology and transferring it to industry. CMT is a diverse early-stage engineering organization, specializing in the treatment of spent nuclear fuel, development of advanced electrochemical power sources, and management of both high- and low-level nuclear wastes. Although this work is often indistinguishable from basic research, our efforts are directed toward the practical devices and processes that are covered by Argonne's mission. Additionally, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory and Environment, Safety, and Health Analytical Chemistry services, which provide a broad range of analytical services to Argonne and other organizations. The Division is multidisciplinary. Its people have formal training as ceramists; physicists; material scientists; electrical, mechanical, chemical, and nuclear engineers; and chemists. They have experience working in academia; urban planning; and the petroleum, aluminum, and automotive industries. Their skills include catalysis, ceramics, electrochemistry, metallurgy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and petroleum refining, as well as the development of nuclear waste forms, batteries, and high-temperature superconductors

  10. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) advanced batteries - mainly lithium alloy/metal sulfide and sodium/sulfur for electric vehicles; (2) aqueous batteries - mainly improved lead-acid and nickel/iron for electric vehicles; (3) advanced fuel cells with molten carbonate or solid oxide electrolytes; (4) coal utilization, including the heat and seed recovery technology for coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic plants and the technology for pressurized fluidized-bed combustors; (5) methodologies for recovery of energy from municipal waste; (6) solid and liquid desiccants that allow moisture to be removed with a minium of energy; (7) nuclear technology related to waste management, proof of breeding for a light water reactor, and the recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in a sodium-cooled fast reactor; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission, fusion, and other energy systems. The Division also has a program in basic chemistry research in the areas of fluid catalysis for converting abundant raw materials to desired products; materials chemistry of liquids and vapors at high temperatures; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, surface science, and catalysis; atmospheric chemistry, most notably SO2 oxidation mechanisms; and the thermochemistry of zeolites, related silicates, and inorganic compounds

  11. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1989 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including high-performance batteries (mainly lithium/iron sulfide and sodium/metal chloride), aqueous batteries (lead-acid and nickel/iron), and advanced fuel cells with molten carbonate and solid oxide electrolytes: (2) coal utilization, including the heat and seed recovery technology for coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics plants and the technology for fluidized-bed combustion; (3) methods for recovery of energy from municipal waste and techniques for treatment of hazardous organic waste; (4) nuclear technology related to a process for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste and for producing {sup 99}Mo from low-enriched uranium targets, the recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in a sodium-cooled fast reactor (the Integral Fast Reactor), and waste management; and (5) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also has a program in basic chemistry research in the areas of fluid catalysis for converting small molecules to desired products; materials chemistry for superconducting oxides and associated and ordered solutions at high temperatures; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, high-temperature superconductivity, and catalysis; and the geochemical processes responsible for trace-element migration within the earth's crust. The Division continued to be administratively responsible for and the major user of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL).

  12. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chemical Technology Division (CMT) is one of eight engineering research divisions within Argonne National Laboratory, one of the U.S. government's oldest and largest research laboratories. The University of Chicago oversees the laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Argonne's mission is to conduct basic scientific research, to operate national scientific facilities, to enhance the nation's energy resources, and to develop better ways to manage environmental problems. Argonne has the further responsibility of strengthening the nation's technology base by developing innovative technology and transferring it to industry. CMT is a diverse early-stage engineering organization, specializing in the treatment of spent nuclear fuel, development of advanced electrochemical power sources, and management of both high- and low-level nuclear wastes. Although this work is often indistinguishable from basic research, our efforts are directed toward the practical devices and processes that are covered by Argonne's mission. Additionally, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory and Environment, Safety, and Health Analytical Chemistry services, which provide a broad range of analytical services to Argonne and other organizations. The Division is multidisciplinary. Its people have formal training as ceramists; physicists; material scientists; electrical, mechanical, chemical, and nuclear engineers; and chemists. They have experience working in academia; urban planning; and the petroleum, aluminum, and automotive industries. Their skills include catalysis, ceramics, electrochemistry, metallurgy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and petroleum refining, as well as the development of nuclear waste forms, batteries, and high-temperature super-conductors. The Division's wide-ranging expertise finds ready application in solving energy and environmental problems. Division personnel are frequently called on by governmental and industrial organizations for advice and contributions to problem solving in areas that intersect present and past CMT programs and activities. Currently, CMT is engaged in the development of several technologies of national importance. Included among them are: Advanced lithium-ion and lithium-polymer batteries for transportation and other applications; Fuel cells, with an emphasis on the use of an oxidative reformer and gasoline as the fuel supply; Stable nuclear waste forms suitable for storage in a geological repository; and Electrochemical and pyrochemical processes for the disposition of spent nuclear fuel

  13. Accelerator research studies: Annual technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses accelerator research at the University of Maryland. The three task studies contained in this paper are: Instabilities and Emittance Growth in Periodic Focusing Systems for Intense Beams; Collective Ion Acceleration by Intense Electron Beams and Pulse Powered Plasma Focus; and Microwave Sources and Parameter Scaling for High-Frequency e+e/sup /minus// Supercollider Linacs

  14. SERI biomass program annual technical report: 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, P.W.; Corder, R.E.; Hill, A.M.; Lindsey, H.; Lowenstein, M.Z.

    1983-02-01

    The biomass with which this report is concerned includes aquatic plants, which can be converted into liquid fuels and chemicals; organic wastes (crop residues as well as animal and municipal wastes), from which biogas can be produced via anerobic digestion; and organic or inorganic waste streams, from which hydrogen can be produced by photobiological processes. The Biomass Program Office supports research in three areas which, although distinct, all use living organisms to create the desired products. The Aquatic Species Program (ASP) supports research on organisms that are themselves processed into the final products, while the Anaerobic Digestion (ADP) and Photo/Biological Hydrogen Program (P/BHP) deals with organisms that transform waste streams into energy products. The P/BHP is also investigating systems using water as a feedstock and cell-free systems which do not utilize living organisms. This report summarizes the progress and research accomplishments of the SERI Biomass Program during FY 1982.

  15. Chemical Engineering Division annual technical report, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights of the Chemical Engineering (CEN) Division's activities during 1980 are presented. In this period, CEN conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) rechargeable lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide batteries for electric vehicles and other applications; (2) ambient-temperature batteries - improved lead-acid, nickel/zinc, and nickel/iron - for electric vehicles; (3) energy-efficient industrial electrochemical processes; (4) molten carbonate fuel cells for use by electric utilities; (5) coal technology, mainly fluidized-bed combustion of coal in the presence of SO2 sorbent of limestone; (6) heat- and seed-recovery technology for open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic systems; (7) solar energy collectors and thermal energy storage; (8) fast breeder reactor chemistry research - chemical support of reactor safety studies, chemistry of irradiated fuels, and sodium technology; (9) fuel cycle technology - management of nuclear wastes, reprocessing of nuclear fuels, and proof-of-breeding studies for the Light Water Breeder Reactor; and (10) magnetic fusion research - systems analysis and engineering experimentation, materials research, and neutron dosimetry and damage analysis. The CEN Division also has a basic energy sciences program, which includes experimental and theoretical research on (1) the catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide and methanol homologation, (2) the thermodynamic properties of a wide variety of inorganic and organic materials, (3) significant mechanisms for the formation of atmospheric sulfate and nitrogen-bearing aerosols, (4) processes occurring at electrodes and in electrolytes, and (5) the physical properties of salt vapors. In addition, the Division operated the Central Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

  16. Inertial fusion research. Annual technical report, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains research progress during this period on each of the following 5 areas: (1) parametric instabilities, (2) cryogenic implosion experiments, (3) x-ray laser experiments, (4) XCALIBR, an effective soft x-ray calibration facility, and (5) DELPHI- a new hydrodynamics code, (6) polymer technology, (7) glass shell technology, (8) shell production facility, (9) cryogenic technology, (10) characterization and quality assurance, and (11) coating technology

  17. Chemical Technology Division. Annual technical report, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laidler, J.J.; Myles, K.M.; Green, D.W.; McPheeters, C.C.

    1996-06-01

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division`s activities during 1995 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) methods for treatment of hazardous waste and mixed hazardous/radioactive waste; (3) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; (4) processes for separating and recovering selected elements from waste streams, concentrating low-level radioactive waste streams with advanced evaporator technology, and producing {sup 99}Mo from low-enriched uranium; (5) electrometallurgical treatment of different types of spent nuclear fuel in storage at Department of Energy sites; and (6) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems.

  18. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical Technology (CMT) Division this period, conducted research and development in the following areas: advanced batteries and fuel cells; fluidized-bed combustion and coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics; treatment of hazardous waste and mixed hazardous/radioactive waste; reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; separating and recovering transuranic elements, concentrating radioactive waste streams with advanced evaporators, and producing 99Mo from low-enriched uranium; recovering actinide from IFR core and blanket fuel in removing fission products from recycled fuel, and disposing removal of actinides in spent fuel from commercial water-cooled nuclear reactors; and physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also conducts basic research in catalytic chemistry associated with molecular energy resources and novel ceramic precursors; materials chemistry of superconducting oxides, electrified metal/solution interfaces, molecular sieve structures, thin-film diamond surfaces, effluents from wood combustion, and molten silicates; and the geochemical processes involved in water-rock interactions. The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT also provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support

  19. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-01

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1990 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) technology for coal- fired magnetohydrodynamics and fluidized-bed combustion; (3) methods for recovery of energy from municipal waste and techniques for treatment of hazardous organic waste; (4) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for a high-level waste repository; (5) processes for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste streams, concentrating plutonium solids in pyrochemical residues by aqueous biphase extraction, and treating natural and process waters contaminated by volatile organic compounds; (6) recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR); (7) processes for removal of actinides in spent fuel from commercial water-cooled nuclear reactors and burnup in IFRs; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also has a program in basic chemistry research in the areas of fluid catalysis for converting small molecules to desired products; materials chemistry for superconducting oxides and associated and ordered solutions at high temperatures; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, high-temperature superconductivity, and catalysis; and the geochemical processes responsible for trace-element migration within the earth's crust. The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the scientific and engineering programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). 66 refs., 69 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1990 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) technology for coal- fired magnetohydrodynamics and fluidized-bed combustion; (3) methods for recovery of energy from municipal waste and techniques for treatment of hazardous organic waste; (4) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for a high-level waste repository; (5) processes for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste streams, concentrating plutonium solids in pyrochemical residues by aqueous biphase extraction, and treating natural and process waters contaminated by volatile organic compounds; (6) recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR); (7) processes for removal of actinides in spent fuel from commercial water-cooled nuclear reactors and burnup in IFRs; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also has a program in basic chemistry research in the areas of fluid catalysis for converting small molecules to desired products; materials chemistry for superconducting oxides and associated and ordered solutions at high temperatures; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, high-temperature superconductivity, and catalysis; and the geochemical processes responsible for trace-element migration within the earth's crust. The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the scientific and engineering programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). 66 refs., 69 figs., 6 tabs