WorldWideScience

Sample records for change annual technical

  1. KWL Lingen nuclear plant. Technical annual report 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical annual report 2015 on the Lingen nuclear plant covers the following issues: report on the segments operation, process engineering, safety engineering, licensing and supervising procedures, operational data, radiation protection, radioactive materials, and in-service inspections.

  2. 2003 Chemical Engineering Division annual technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    national importance. Included among them are: Advanced lithium-ion and lithium-polymer batteries for transportation and other applications, Fuel cells, including the use of an oxidative reformer with gasoline as the fuel supply, Production and storage technologies critical to the hydrogen economy, Stable nuclear waste forms suitable for storage in a geological repository, Threat attribution and training relative to radioactive dispersal devices (''dirty bombs''), and Aqueous and pyrochemical processes for the disposition of spent nuclear fuel. Other important programs are focused in superconductivity, catalysis, nanotechnology, and nuclear materials. During fiscal year 2003, CMT had an annual operating budget of approximately $36 million. Of that, more than 90% was from DOE and the remainder from other government agencies and private industry. Displayed below is an overview organization chart of the Division. A complete organization chart appears at the end of this report. In this annual report we present an overview of the technical programs together with representative highlights. The report is not intended to be comprehensive or encyclopedic, but to serve as an indication of the condition and status of the Division

  3. Technical innovation and industrial change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical development is leading by rationalization at economical stagnation to a decrease in the working volume. The economical difficulties are based on the discrepancy between the offer of goods and services as well as the actual demand. The demand of common goods is growing compared to the consumption goods, which will decrease. The therefore necessary structure change requires a high standard of governmental efforts and social consensus. (orig.)

  4. Technical Direction and Laboratories Fiscal Year 1999 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report summarize achievements and list reports issued by members of TDandL, NHC group during Fiscal Year (FY) 1999, (October 1, 1998 through September 30, 1999). This report, issued by this organization, describes work in support of the Hanford Site and other U S . Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) programs. It includes information on the organization make-up, interfaces, and mission of the group. The TDandL is a group of highly qualified personnel with diverse disciplines (primarily chemistry specialties) that provide process, analytical, and in-situ chemistry services to engineering customers. This year of operation and interfaces with other contract organizations consumed considerable administrative efforts. Attention was directed to the technical challenges presented by the changing roles, responsibilities, and priorities of Hanford programs

  5. Inertial fusion research: Annual technical report, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research activities undertaken at KMS Fusion (KMSF) during 1985. It is organized into three main technical sections; the first covers fusion experiments and theoretical physics, the second is devoted to progress in materials development and target fabrication, and the third describes laser technology research. These three individual sections have been cataloged separately

  6. 1981 inertial fusion research annual technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report consists of the following two topics: (1) target fabrication technology, and (2) fusion experiments. The first section is reported by the following seven areas: (1) characterization, (2) fuel shell technology, (3) polymer technology, (4) lithium foil development, (5) precision etch technology, (6) analytical instrumentation, and (7) target fabrication. The second area is reported by the following topics: (1) experiments, (2) plasma theory, (3) code development and simulation, and (4) lasers and optics

  7. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    CMT is a diverse technical organization with principal emphases in environmental management and development of advanced energy sources. It conducts R&D in 3 general areas: development of advanced power sources for stationary and transportation applications and for consumer electronics, management of high-level and low-level nuclear wastes and hazardous wastes, and electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The Division also performs basic research in catalytic chemistry involving molecular energy resources, mechanisms of ion transport in lithium battery electrolytes, materials chemistry of electrified interfaces and molecular sieves, and the theory of materials properties. It also operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, which conducts research in analytical chemistry and provides analytical services for programs at ANL and other organizations. Technical highlights of the Division`s activities during 1996 are presented.

  8. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chemical Technology (CMT) Division is a diverse technical organization with principal emphases in environmental management and development of advanced energy sources. The Division conducts research and development in three general areas: (1) development of advanced power sources for stationary and transportation applications and for consumer electronics, (2) management of high-level and low-level nuclear wastes and hazardous wastes, and (3) electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The Division also performs basic research in catalytic chemistry involving molecular energy resources, mechanisms of ion transport in lithium battery electrolytes, and the chemistry of technology-relevant materials and electrified interfaces. In addition, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, which conducts research in analytical chemistry and provides analytical services for programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and other organizations. Technical highlights of the Division's activities during 1997 are presented

  9. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CMT is a diverse technical organization with principal emphases in environmental management and development of advanced energy sources. It conducts R ampersand D in 3 general areas: development of advanced power sources for stationary and transportation applications and for consumer electronics, management of high-level and low-level nuclear wastes and hazardous wastes, and electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The Division also performs basic research in catalytic chemistry involving molecular energy resources, mechanisms of ion transport in lithium battery electrolytes, materials chemistry of electrified interfaces and molecular sieves, and the theory of materials properties. It also operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, which conducts research in analytical chemistry and provides analytical services for programs at ANL and other organizations. Technical highlights of the Division's activities during 1996 are presented

  10. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Chemical Technology (CMT) Division is a diverse technical organization with principal emphases in environmental management and development of advanced energy sources. The Division conducts research and development in three general areas: (1) development of advanced power sources for stationary and transportation applications and for consumer electronics, (2) management of high-level and low-level nuclear wastes and hazardous wastes, and (3) electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The Division also performs basic research in catalytic chemistry involving molecular energy resources, mechanisms of ion transport in lithium battery electrolytes, and the chemistry of technology-relevant materials and electrified interfaces. In addition, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, which conducts research in analytical chemistry and provides analytical services for programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and other organizations. Technical highlights of the Division`s activities during 1997 are presented.

  11. 1998 Chemical Technology Division Annual Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, J.P.; Einziger, R.E.; Gay, E.C.; Green, D.W.; Miller, J.F.

    1999-08-06

    The Chemical Technology (CMT) Division is a diverse technical organization with principal emphases in environmental management and development of advanced energy sources. The Division conducts research and development in three general areas: (1) development of advanced power sources for stationary and transportation applications and for consumer electronics, (2) management of high-level and low-level nuclear wastes and hazardous wastes, and (3) electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The Division also performs basic research in catalytic chemistry involving molecular energy resources, mechanisms of ion transport in lithium battery electrolytes, and the chemistry of technology-relevant materials. In addition, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, which conducts research in analytical chemistry and provides analytical services for programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and other organizations. Technical highlights of the Division's activities during 1998 are presented.

  12. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battles, J.E.; Myles, K.M.; Laidler, J.J.; Green, D.W.

    1993-06-01

    In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) technology for fluidized-bed combustion and coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics; (3) methods for treatment of hazardous waste, mixed hazardous/radioactive waste, and municipal solid waste; (4) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; (5) processes for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste streams, treating water contaminated with volatile organics, and concentrating radioactive waste streams; (6) recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in the Integral Fast Reactor (EFR); (7) processes for removal of actinides in spent fuel from commercial water-cooled nuclear reactors and burnup in IFRs; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials (corium; Fe-U-Zr, tritium in LiAlO{sub 2} in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also conducts basic research in catalytic chemistry associated with molecular energy resources and novel` ceramic precursors; materials chemistry of superconducting oxides, electrified metal/solution interfaces, and molecular sieve structures; and the geochemical processes involved in water-rock interactions occurring in active hydrothermal systems. In addition, the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the technical programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL).

  13. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) technology for fluidized-bed combustion and coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics; (3) methods for treatment of hazardous waste, mixed hazardous/radioactive waste, and municipal solid waste; (4) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; (5) processes for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste streams, treating water contaminated with volatile organics, and concentrating radioactive waste streams; (6) recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in the Integral Fast Reactor (EFR); (7) processes for removal of actinides in spent fuel from commercial water-cooled nuclear reactors and burnup in IFRs; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials (corium; Fe-U-Zr, tritium in LiAlO2 in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also conducts basic research in catalytic chemistry associated with molecular energy resources and novel' ceramic precursors; materials chemistry of superconducting oxides, electrified metal/solution interfaces, and molecular sieve structures; and the geochemical processes involved in water-rock interactions occurring in active hydrothermal systems. In addition, the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the technical programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

  14. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1994 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) technology for fluidized-bed combustion; (3) methods for treatment of hazardous waste and mixed hazardous/radioactive waste; (4) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; (5) processes for separating and recovering transuranic elements from waste streams, concentrating radioactive waste streams with advanced evaporator technology, and producing 99Mo from low-enriched uranium for medical applications; (6) electrometallurgical treatment of the many different types of spent nuclear fuel in storage at Department of Energy sites; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also conducts basic research in catalytic chemistry associated with molecular energy resources and novel ceramic precursors; materials chemistry of superconducting oxides, electrified metal/solution interfaces, molecular sieve structures, and impurities in scrap copper and steel; and the geochemical processes involved in mineral/fluid interfaces and water-rock interactions occurring in active hydrothermal systems. In addition, the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the technical programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

  15. Chemical Technology Division, Annual technical report, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1991 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) technology for fluidized-bed combustion and coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics; (3) methods for treatment of hazardous and mixed hazardous/radioactive waste; (4) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; (5) processes for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste streams; (6) recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR); (7) processes for removal of actinides in spent fuel from commercial water-cooled nuclear reactors and burnup in IFRs; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also conducts basic research in catalytic chemistry associated with molecular energy resources; chemistry of superconducting oxides and other materials of interest with technological application; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, catalysis, and high-temperature superconductivity; and the geochemical processes involved in water-rock interactions occurring in active hydrothermal systems. In addition, the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the technical programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL).

  16. Chemical Technology Division, Annual technical report, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division`s activities during 1991 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) technology for fluidized-bed combustion and coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics; (3) methods for treatment of hazardous and mixed hazardous/radioactive waste; (4) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; (5) processes for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste streams; (6) recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR); (7) processes for removal of actinides in spent fuel from commercial water-cooled nuclear reactors and burnup in IFRs; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also conducts basic research in catalytic chemistry associated with molecular energy resources; chemistry of superconducting oxides and other materials of interest with technological application; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, catalysis, and high-temperature superconductivity; and the geochemical processes involved in water-rock interactions occurring in active hydrothermal systems. In addition, the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the technical programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL).

  17. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1985 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in areas that include the following: (1) advanced batteries - mainly lithium-alloy/metal sulfide and sodium/sulfur; (2) advanced fuel cells with molten carbonate or solid oxide electrolytes; (3) corrosion-protective coatings for high-strength steel; (4) coal utilization, including the heat and seed recovery technology for coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics plants and the technology for fluidized-bed combustion; (5) methodologies for recovery of energy from municipal waste; (6) nuclear technology related to waste management, the recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in a sodium-cooled fast reactor, and proof of breeding in a light water breeder reactor; and (7) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also has a program in basic chemistry research in the areas of catalytic hydrogenation and catalytic oxidation; materials chemistry for associated and ordered solutions at high temperatures; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, surface science, and catalysis; the thermochemistry of zeolites and related silicates; and the geochemical processes responsible for trace-element migration within the earth's crust. The Division continued to be the major user of the technical support provided by the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at ANL

  18. Chemical Technology Division, Annual technical report, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1991 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) technology for fluidized-bed combustion and coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics; (3) methods for treatment of hazardous and mixed hazardous/radioactive waste; (4) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; (5) processes for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste streams; (6) recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR); (7) processes for removal of actinides in spent fuel from commercial water-cooled nuclear reactors and burnup in IFRs; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also conducts basic research in catalytic chemistry associated with molecular energy resources; chemistry of superconducting oxides and other materials of interest with technological application; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, catalysis, and high-temperature superconductivity; and the geochemical processes involved in water-rock interactions occurring in active hydrothermal systems. In addition, the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the technical programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

  19. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division`s activities during 1994 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) technology for fluidized-bed combustion; (3) methods for treatment of hazardous waste and mixed hazardous/radioactive waste; (4) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; (5) processes for separating and recovering transuranic elements from waste streams, concentrating radioactive waste streams with advanced evaporator technology, and producing {sup 99}Mo from low-enriched uranium for medical applications; (6) electrometallurgical treatment of the many different types of spent nuclear fuel in storage at Department of Energy sites; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also conducts basic research in catalytic chemistry associated with molecular energy resources and novel ceramic precursors; materials chemistry of superconducting oxides, electrified metal/solution interfaces, molecular sieve structures, and impurities in scrap copper and steel; and the geochemical processes involved in mineral/fluid interfaces and water-rock interactions occurring in active hydrothermal systems. In addition, the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the technical programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL).

  20. Chemical technology division: Annual technical report 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-05-01

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1987 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) high-performance batteries--mainly lithium-alloy/metal sulfide and sodium/sulfur; (2) aqueous batteries (lead-acid, nickel/iron, etc.); (3) advanced fuel cells with molten carbonate or solid oxide electrolytes; (4) coal utilization, including the heat and seed recovery technology for coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics plants and the technology for fluidized-bed combustion; (5) methods for the electromagnetic continuous casting of steel sheet and for the purification of ferrous scrap; (6) methods for recovery of energy from municipal waste and techniques for treatment of hazardous organic waste; (7) nuclear technology related to a process for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste, the recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in a sodium-cooled fast reactor, and waste management; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also has a program in basic chemistry research in the areas of fluid catalysis for converting small molecules to desired products; materials chemistry for liquids and vapors at high temperatures; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, high-temperature superconductivity, and catalysis; the thermochemistry of various minerals; and the geochemical processes responsible for trace-element migration within the earth's crust. The Division continued to be the major user of the technical support provided by the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at ANL. 54 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Divisions's activities during 1988 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) high-performance batteries (mainly lithium-alloy/metal sulfide, sodium/metal chloride, and sodium/sulfur); (2) aqueous batteries (lead-acid, nickel/iron, etc.); (3) advanced fuel cells with molten carbonate or solid oxide electrolytes; (4) coal utilization, including the heat and seed recovery technology for coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics plants and the technology for fluidized-bed combustion; (5) methods for recovery of energy from municipal waste and techniques for treatment of hazardous chemical water; (6) nuclear technology related to a process for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste and for producing /sup 99/Mo from low-enriched uranium targets, the recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in a sodium-cooled fast reactor, and waste management; and (7) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also has a program in basic chemistry research in the areas of fluid catalysis for converting small molecules to desired products; materials chemistry for superconducting oxides and associated and ordered solutions at high temperatures; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, high-temperature superconductivity, and catalysis; and the geochemical processes responsible for trace-element migration within the earth's crust. The Division continued to be the major user of the technical support provided by the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at ANL. 53 figs., 16 tabs

  2. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-06-01

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1986 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in areas that include the following: (1) high-performance batteries - mainly lithium-alloy/metal sulfide and sodium/sulfur; (2) aqueous batteries (lead-acid, nickel/iron, etc.); (3) advanced fuel cells with molten carbonate or solid oxide electrolytes; (4) coal utilization, including the heat and seed recovery technology for coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics plants, the technology for fluidized-bed combustion, and a novel concept for CO/sub 2/ recovery from fossil fuel combustion; (5) methods for recovery of energy from municipal waste; (6) methods for the electromagnetic continuous casting of steel sheet; (7) techniques for treatment of hazardous waste such as reactive metals and trichloroethylenes; (8) nuclear technology related to waste management, a process for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste, and the recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in a sodium-cooled fast reactor; and (9) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also has a program in basic chemistry research in the areas of catalytic hydrogenation and catalytic oxidation; materials chemistry for associated and ordered solutions at high temperatures; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, surface science, and catalysis; the thermochemistry of zeolites and related silicates; and the geochemical processes responsible for trace-element migration within the earth's crust. The Division continued to be the major user of the technical support provided by the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at ANL. 127 refs., 71 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Chemical technology division: Annual technical report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1987 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) high-performance batteries--mainly lithium-alloy/metal sulfide and sodium/sulfur; (2) aqueous batteries (lead-acid, nickel/iron, etc.); (3) advanced fuel cells with molten carbonate or solid oxide electrolytes; (4) coal utilization, including the heat and seed recovery technology for coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics plants and the technology for fluidized-bed combustion; (5) methods for the electromagnetic continuous casting of steel sheet and for the purification of ferrous scrap; (6) methods for recovery of energy from municipal waste and techniques for treatment of hazardous organic waste; (7) nuclear technology related to a process for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste, the recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in a sodium-cooled fast reactor, and waste management; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also has a program in basic chemistry research in the areas of fluid catalysis for converting small molecules to desired products; materials chemistry for liquids and vapors at high temperatures; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, high-temperature superconductivity, and catalysis; the thermochemistry of various minerals; and the geochemical processes responsible for trace-element migration within the earth's crust. The Division continued to be the major user of the technical support provided by the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at ANL. 54 figs., 9 tabs

  4. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1986 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in areas that include the following: (1) high-performance batteries - mainly lithium-alloy/metal sulfide and sodium/sulfur; (2) aqueous batteries (lead-acid, nickel/iron, etc.); (3) advanced fuel cells with molten carbonate or solid oxide electrolytes; (4) coal utilization, including the heat and seed recovery technology for coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics plants, the technology for fluidized-bed combustion, and a novel concept for CO2 recovery from fossil fuel combustion; (5) methods for recovery of energy from municipal waste; (6) methods for the electromagnetic continuous casting of steel sheet; (7) techniques for treatment of hazardous waste such as reactive metals and trichloroethylenes; (8) nuclear technology related to waste management, a process for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste, and the recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in a sodium-cooled fast reactor; and (9) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also has a program in basic chemistry research in the areas of catalytic hydrogenation and catalytic oxidation; materials chemistry for associated and ordered solutions at high temperatures; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, surface science, and catalysis; the thermochemistry of zeolites and related silicates; and the geochemical processes responsible for trace-element migration within the earth's crust. The Division continued to be the major user of the technical support provided by the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at ANL. 127 refs., 71 figs., 8 tabs

  5. Response of a tundra ecosystem to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and CO{sub 2}-induced climate change. Annual technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oechel, W.C.

    1992-04-01

    Northern ecosystems contain up to 455 Gt of C in the soil active layer and upper permafrost. The soil carbon in these layers is equivalent to approximately 60% of the carbon currently in the atmosphere as CO{sub 2}. Much of this carbon is stored in the soil as dead organic matter. Its fate is subject to the net effects of global change on the plant and soil systems of northern ecosystems. The arctic alone contains about 60 Gt C, 90% of which is present in the soil active layer and upper permafrost. The arctic is assumed to have been a sink for CO{sub 2} during the historic and recent geologic past. The arctic has the potential to be a very large, long-term source or sink of CO{sub 2} with respect to the atmosphere. In situ experimental manipulations of atmospheric CO{sub 2}, indicated that there is little effect of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} on leaf level photosynthesis or whole-ecosystem CO{sub 2} flux over the course of weeks to years, respectively. However, there may be longer- term ecosystem responses to elevated CO{sub 2} that could ultimately affect ecosystem CO{sub 2} balance. In addition to atmospheric CO{sub 2}, climate may affect net ecosystem carbon balance. Recent results indicate that the arctic has become a source of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere. This change coincides with recent climatic variation in the arctic, and suggests a positive feedback of arctic ecosystems on atmospheric CO{sub 2} and global change. The research proposed in this application has four principal aspects: (A) Long-term response of arctic plants and ecosystems to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2}; (B) Circumpolar patterns of net ecosystem CO{sub 2} flux; (C) In situ controls by temperature and moisture on net ecosystem CO{sub 2} flux; (D) Scaling of CO{sub 2} flux from plot, to landscape, to regional scales (In conjunction with research proposed for NSF support).

  6. Trade, technical change, and labour market adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Heitger, Bernhard; Stehn, Jürgen

    2003-01-01

    The paper empirically examines three possible reasons for the high and rising unemployment of low-skilled employees in Germany: (i) an upsurge in interindustry trade, (ii) a skill-biased technical change, and (iii) a failure of labour market adjustment. The empirical analyses indicate that an exogenous wage-setting process as well as a bundle of factors, including a skill-biased technical and structural change, have contributed to the decline in relative demand for low-skilled employees in Ge...

  7. Solar thermal power systems. Annual technical progress report, FY 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Gerald W.

    1980-06-01

    The Solar Thermal Power Systems Program is the key element in the national effort to establish solar thermal conversion technologies within the major sectors of the national energy market. It provides for the development of concentrating mirror/lens heat collection and conversion technologies for both central and dispersed receiver applications to produce electricity, provide heat at its point of use in industrial processes, provide heat and electricity in combination for industrial, commercial, and residential needs, and ultimately, drive processes for production of liquid and gaseous fuels. This report is the second Annual Technical Progress Report for the Solar Thermal Power Systems Program and is structured according to the organization of the Solar Thermal Power Systems Program on September 30, 1979. Emphasis is on the technical progress of the projects rather than on activities and individual contractor efforts. Each project description indicates its place in the Solar Thermal Power Systems Program, a brief history, the significant achievements and real progress during FY 1979, also future project activities as well as anticipated significant achievements are forecast. (WHK)

  8. Directed Technical Change and Climate Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otto, V.M.; Löschel, A.; Reilly, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the cost effectiveness of climate policy if there are technology externalities. For this purpose, we develop a forward-looking CGE model that captures empirical links between CO2 emissions associated with energy use, directed technical change and the economy. We find the cost-effe

  9. Productivity and Technical Change in Brazilian Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Arnade, Carlos Anthony

    1992-01-01

    Brazil's agricultural sector underwent major changes in the past two decades. Though Brazil is abundant in labor, land, and animal power, government subsidies encouraged the use of fertilizer and machines. Since productivity growth arises from technical change, Brazil's drive to modernize its agricultural sector should improve agricultural productivity. However, inefficient production practices arising from subsidies can slow multifactor productivity growth. Recent removal of agricultural sub...

  10. Annual meeting on nuclear technology 1995. Technical session: Why nuclear energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication contains the full texts of papers presented at this technical session of the 1995 Annual Nuclear Congress held in Nuernberg. The key questions relating to the justification, the risks and the benefits of nuclear technology are discussed in the context of issues such as the global climate change and CO2 emissions. Various scenarios and models of ensured energy supply in the future are presented and explained, with a basic aspect recurring in all papers, addressing the pros and cons of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy as discussed at the onset of nuclear technology, and their validity in the light of current developments. (UA)

  11. Innovation policy for directing technical change in the power sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Aalbers; V. Shestalova; V. Kocsis

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses policy instruments for redirecting technical change within the electricity sector to mitigate climate change. First, we unravel the mechanism behind directed technical change, explaining why markets may underprovide innovations in expensive renewable technologies in comparison t

  12. The Environment and Directed Technical Change

    OpenAIRE

    Acemoglu, Daron; Aghion, Philippe; Bursztyn, Leonardo; Hemous, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces endogenous and directed technical change in a growth model with environmental constraints. A unique final good is produced by combining inputs from two sectors. One of these sectors uses “dirty” machines and thus creates environmental degradation. Research can be directed to improving the technology of machines in either sector. We characterize dynamic tax policies that achieve sustainable growth or maximize intertemporal welfare. We show that: (i) in the ...

  13. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal): Annual compilation for 1996, Volume 21, No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation is the annual cumulation of bibliographic data and abstracts for the formal regulatory and technical reports issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Staff and its contractors

  14. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal): Annual compilation for 1996, Volume 21, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheehan, M.A.

    1997-04-01

    This compilation is the annual cumulation of bibliographic data and abstracts for the formal regulatory and technical reports issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Staff and its contractors.

  15. KWL Lingen nuclear plant. Technical annual report 2015; KWL Kernkraftwerk Lingen. Technischer Jahresbericht 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-07-01

    The technical annual report 2015 on the Lingen nuclear plant covers the following issues: report on the segments operation, process engineering, safety engineering, licensing and supervising procedures, operational data, radiation protection, radioactive materials, and in-service inspections.

  16. 1980 Annual status report: provision of scientific and technical services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two kinds of objectives are pursued at the JRC in direct support of the various General Directorates of the Commission: Technical Evaluations where system analysis techniques are mainly employed and Technical Assistance where laboratory measurement, technical expertises and management of projects are provided

  17. Technical vocabulary in finance : a corpus-based study of annual reports and earnings calls

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Ying-ho; 夏映荷

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the technical vocabulary in finance based on a self-built Financial Corpus (FC) of 6,753,212 words of written annual reports and spoken earnings calls collected from 146 world’s largest companies in four financial sectors. Being the most important genres in corporate communication, annual reports and earnings calls provide considerable insights into the technical vocabulary of the financial sectors. The main aims of the study are to show differences among modes especial...

  18. The environment and directed technical change: comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the growth model with environmental constraints recently presented in (Acemoglu et al., 2011) which focuses on the redirection of technical change by climate policies with research subsidies and a carbon tax. First, Acemoglu et al.'s model and chosen parameters yield numerical results that do not support the conclusion that ambitious climate policies can be conducted 'without sacrificing (much or any) long-run growth'. Second, they select unrealistic key parameters for carbon sinks and elasticity of substitution. We find that more realistic parameters lead to very different results. Third, the model leads to an unrealistic conclusion when used to analyse endogenous growth, suggesting specification problems. (authors)

  19. Estimating Feedback Effect in Technical Change: A Frontier Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otto, V.M.; Kuosmanen, T.K.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether today¿s technical change depends on yesterday¿s technical change. We propose to investigate this feedback effect by using the technical-change component of the Malmquist productivity index. This approach can overcome some problems in alternative patent-citation approaches

  20. Annual Technical Report - Nuclear Engineering Institute/Dept. of Physics (IEN/DEFI) 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual technical report of the Dept. of Physics of the Nuclear Engineering Institut (IEN/DEFI) is presented. The report describes the scientific and technical activities developed at this Institute, such as research, projects, development, personnel involved, support to research and the publications issued in 1985. (M.I.)

  1. Solar thermal power systems. Annual technical progress report, FY 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    A technical progress report on the DOE Solar Thermal Power Systems Program is given. Emphasis is on the technical progress of the projects rather than on activities and individual contractor efforts. Each project description indicates its place in the prior to FY 1978 is given; the significant achievements and real progress of each project during FY 1978 are described; and future project activities as well as anticipated significant achievements for each project are forecast. (WHK)

  2. Core capabilities and technical enhancement, FY-98 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.L.

    1999-04-01

    The Core Capability and Technical Enhancement (CCTE) Program, a part of the Verification, Validation, and Engineering Assessment Program, was implemented to enhance and augment the technical capabilities of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The purpose for strengthening the technical capabilities of the INEEL is to provide the technical base to serve effectively as the Environmental Management Laboratory for the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM). An analysis of EM's science and technology needs as well as the technology investments currently being made by EM across the complex was used to formulate a portfolio of research activities designed to address EM's needs without overlapping work being done elsewhere. An additional purpose is to enhance and maintain the technical capabilities and research infrastructure at the INEEL. This is a progress report for fiscal year 1998 for the five CCTE research investment areas: (a) transport aspects of selective mass transport agents, (b) chemistry of environmental surfaces, (c) materials dynamics, (d) characterization science, and (e) computational simulation of mechanical and chemical systems. In addition to the five purely technical research areas, this report deals with the science and technology foundations element of the CCTE from the standpoint of program management and complex-wide issues. This report also provides details of ongoing and future work in all six areas.

  3. Core Capabilities and Technical Enhancement -- FY-98 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David Lynn

    1999-04-01

    The Core Capability and Technical Enhancement (CC&TE) Program, a part of the Verification, Validation, and Engineering Assessment Program, was implemented to enhance and augment the technical capabilities of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The purpose for strengthening the technical capabilities of the INEEL is to provide the technical base to serve effectively as the Environmental Management Laboratory for the Office of Environmental Management (EM). An analysis of EM's science and technology needs as well as the technology investments currently being made by EM across the complex was used to formulate a portfolio of research activities designed to address EM's needs without overlapping work being done elsewhere. An additional purpose is to enhance and maintain the technical capabilities and research infrastructure at the INEEL. This is a progress report for fiscal year 1998 for the five CC&TE research investment areas: (a) transport aspects of selective mass transport agents, (b) chemistry of environmental surfaces, (c) materials dynamics, (d) characterization science, and (e) computational simulation of mechanical and chemical systems. In addition to the five purely technical research areas, this report deals with the science and technology foundations element of the CC&TE from the standpoint of program management and complex-wide issues. This report also provides details of ongoing and future work in all six areas.

  4. Productivity and technical change according to Salter – A note

    OpenAIRE

    Amavilah, Voxi Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Salter’s simple and clear explanation of productivity and how it relates to technical change has anchored many elaborate and fancy growth and change analyses. Unfortunately many of these elaborations do not even reference Salter. They should. This note shows that some old ideas are like wine which gets better with age.Keywords. Salter and productivity; Salter and technical change; productivity and technical change.JEL. O30, 040.

  5. Estimating Feedback Effect in Technical Change: A Frontier Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, V.M.; Kuosmanen, T.K.; Ierland, van, E.C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether today¿s technical change depends on yesterday¿s technical change. We propose to investigate this feedback effect by using the technical-change component of the Malmquist productivity index. This approach can overcome some problems in alternative patent-citation approaches. We apply the approach by estimating the feedback effect from production data of 25 OECD countries for 1980 through 1997. Our model yields evidence on a positive feedback effect with delays up til...

  6. The Climate Change Action Plan: Technical supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This Technical Annex documents the assumptions and parameters used in developing the supporting analysis for the Climate Change Action Plan (the Plan) issued by President Clinton on October 19, 1993. The Annex is intended to meet the needs of independent energy and environmental analysts who wish to better understand the Plan, its analytical underpinnings, and the events that need to transpire for the emissions reductions called for in the Plan to be realized. The Plan documented in this Annex reflects the outcome of a wide-ranging effort by Government agencies and interested members of the public to develop and implement actions that can reduce net greenhouse gas emissions in the year 2000 to their aggregate 1990 level. Based on agency and public input, the Climate Change Mitigation Group, chaired by the White House Office on Environmental Policy, developed the Plan`s content. Many of the actions called for in the Plan are now underway, while others are in advanced planning pending congressional action on the fiscal year 1995 budget. The analysis supporting the Plan represents the results of an interagency effort. The US Department of Energy (DOE) was responsible for the integrated analysis of energy-related options, based on the analysis of individual energy-related options by DOE, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the US Department of Transportation (DOT). EPA led in providing analysis for actions related to methane, hydrofluorocarbons, and perfluorocarbons. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) led the analysis of carbon sequestration actions and cooperated with EPA in the analysis of actions to reduce nitrous oxide emissions.

  7. Jinzhai County Household Technical Change and Efficiency Change Analysis: Stochastic Frontier Production Function Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Stochastic frontier production function approach is adopted, 93 farmer samples have been collected, pure efficiency, technical efficiency, technical change and scale efficiency and the institutional contribution have been calculated. The results indicated that increasing productivity is the sole measurement to reduce poverty, institution and technical change are the two key factors. Therefore, stable institution, improving technical changes are required. At present, it is urgent to make technical progre...

  8. TMI-2 Technical Information and Examination Program. 1984 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1984, the US Department of Energy's Technical Information and Examination Program entered its fifth year of research and development work at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) and at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and other supporting laboratories. The work concentrated on six major areas: waste immobilization, reactor evaluation, data acquisition, information and industry coordination, core activities, and EPICOR II and waste research and disposition

  9. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee, fiscal year 1997. Annual technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-31

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department`s materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. This report summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1997 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department.

  10. Proceedings of the Efficient Separations and Processing Cross-Cutting Program Annual Technical Exchange Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    This document contains summaries of technology development presented at the 1995 Efficient Separations and Processing Cross-Cutting Program (ESP) Annual Technical Exchange Meeting. The ESP is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Technology Development. The meeting is held annually to promote a free exchange of ideas among technology developers, potential users (for example, EM focus areas), and other interested parties within EM. During this meeting, developers of ESP-funded technologies describe the problems and needs addressed by their technologies; the technical approach, accomplishments, and resolution of issues; the strategy and schedule for commercialization; and evolving potential applications. Presenters are asked to address the following areas: Target waste management problem, waste stream, or data need; scientific background and technical approach; technical accomplishments and resolution of technical issues; schedule and strategy for commercializing and implementing the technology or acquiring needed data; potential alternate applications of the technology or data, including outside of DOE/EM. The meeting is not a program review of the individual tasks or subtasks; but instead focuses on the technical aspects and implementation of ESP-sponsored technology or data. The meeting is also attended by members of the ESP Technical Review Team, who have the opportunity at that time to review the ESP as a whole.

  11. Proceedings of the Efficient Separations and Processing Cross-Cutting Program Annual Technical Exchange Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains summaries of technology development presented at the 1995 Efficient Separations and Processing Cross-Cutting Program (ESP) Annual Technical Exchange Meeting. The ESP is sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Technology Development. The meeting is held annually to promote a free exchange of ideas among technology developers, potential users (for example, EM focus areas), and other interested parties within EM. During this meeting, developers of ESP-funded technologies describe the problems and needs addressed by their technologies; the technical approach, accomplishments, and resolution of issues; the strategy and schedule for commercialization; and evolving potential applications. Presenters are asked to address the following areas: Target waste management problem, waste stream, or data need; scientific background and technical approach; technical accomplishments and resolution of technical issues; schedule and strategy for commercializing and implementing the technology or acquiring needed data; potential alternate applications of the technology or data, including outside of DOE/EM. The meeting is not a program review of the individual tasks or subtasks; but instead focuses on the technical aspects and implementation of ESP-sponsored technology or data. The meeting is also attended by members of the ESP Technical Review Team, who have the opportunity at that time to review the ESP as a whole

  12. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal): Annual compilation for 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation consists of bibliographic data and abstracts for the formal regulatory and technical reports issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Staff and its contractors. It is NRC's intention to publish this compilation quarterly and to cumulate it annually

  13. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal). Annual compilation for 1984. Volume 9, No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation consists of bibliographic data and abstracts for the formal regulatory and technical reports issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Staff and its contractors. It is NRC's intention to publish this compilation quarterly and to cumulate it annually

  14. AQSIQ Publishes China Annual Report on Technical Barriers to Trade (2007)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ On September 11, 2007, Qi Xiufen, Director of the International Department of the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of China (AQSIQ), published the China Annual Report on Technical Barriers to Trade.Wang Nini, Director of the Standard, Law and Regulation Center of AQSIQ, gave a detailed explanation of the contents of the report.

  15. Aerial Measuring System Technical Integration Annual Report 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada Remote Sensing Laboratory

    2003-06-01

    Fiscal Year 2002 is the second year of a five-year commitment by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to invest in development of new and state-of-the-art technologies for the Aerial Measuring Systems (AMS) project. In 2000, NNSA committed to two million dollars for AMS Technical Integration (TI) for each of five years. The tragedy of September 11, 2001, profoundly influenced the program. NNSA redirected people and funding resources at the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) to more immediate needs. Funds intended for AMS TI were redirected to NNSA's new posture of leaning further forward throughout. AMS TI was brought to a complete halt on December 10, 2001. Then on April 30, 2002, NNSA Headquarters allowed the restart of AMS TI at the reduced level of $840,000. The year's events resulted in a slow beginning of several projects, some of which were resumed only a few weeks before the AMS TI Symposium held at RSL on July 30.

  16. Technical and economic feasibility of thermal energy storage. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, D.R.

    1976-02-01

    This study provides a first-look at the system elements involved in: (1) creating a market; (2) understanding and deriving the requirements; (3) performing analytical effort; (4) specifying equipment; and (5) synthesizing applications for a thermal energy storage (TES) function. The work reviews implicated markets, energy consumption patterns, TES technologies, and applications. Further, several concepts are developed and evaluated in some detail. Key findings are: (1) there are numerous technical opportunities for TES in the residential and industrial market sectors; (2) apart from sensible heat storage and transfer, significant R and D is required to fully exploit the superior heat densities of latent heat-based TES systems, particularly at temperatures above 600/sup 0/F; (3) industrial energy conservation can be favorably impacted by TES where periodic or batch-operated unit functions characterize product manufacturing processes, i.e. bricks, steel, and ceramics; and (4) a severe data shortage exists for describing energy consumption rates in real time as related to plant process operations--a needed element in designing TES systems.

  17. 11. annual report of the technical advisory committee on the nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Eleventh Annual Report of the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) assesses the scientific and technical progress made within the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program (NFWMP) during the period July 1989 to June 1990. The Committee notes that the general concept of a multibarrier system involving geologic media and engineered systems is based on known technologies and current scientific knowledge, and has gained strong international scientific and engineering support as currently the most feasible and practical. TAC continues to endorse the full investigation of the concept of nuclear waste disposal deep in plutonic formations, such as those in the Canadian Shield

  18. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC): Annual technical report, Fiscal year 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further the effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. This annual technical report is mandated by the EMaCC terms of reference. This report summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1987 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department

  19. Cost and technical change: effects from bank deregulation

    OpenAIRE

    David B. Humphrey

    1990-01-01

    Banks were substantially deregulated during the 1980s. Interest costs rose faster than operating expenses (capital, labor) were reduced. As a result, measured technical change in banking was negative: it averaged -0.8% to -1.4% a year over 1977-88. Technical change was measured three different ways and for both equilibrium and disequilibrium factor input specifications. All three approaches--a standard time trend, an index approach, and shifts in cross-section cost functions--gave consistent ...

  20. Population Aging and the Direction of Technical Change

    OpenAIRE

    Irmen, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    An analytical framework is developed to study the repercussions between endogenous capital- and labor-saving technical change and population aging. Following an intuition often attributed to Hicks (1932), I ask whether and how population aging aff ects the relative scarcity of factors of production, relative factor prices, and the direction of induced technical change. Aging is equivalent to an increase in the old-age dependency ratio of an OLG-economy with two-period lived individuals. In th...

  1. Climate Change and Technical Progress: Impact of Informational Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Bondarev, Anton; Clemens, Christiane; Greiner, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we analyse a growth model that includes environmental and economic variables as well as technological progress under different informational constraints on the behavior of economic agents. To simulate the informationally constrained economy, we make use of the non-linear model predictive control technique. We compare models with exogenous and endogenous technical change as well as directed and undirected endogenous technical change under different informational structures. We sh...

  2. Germanischer Lloyd. Annual report 1989, technical section. Germanischer Lloyd. Fachlicher Teil des Geschaeftsberichtes 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The lavishely illustrated 1989 annual report of Germanischer Lloyd informs on: 1989 in retrospect; research - hull and machinery; ship safety; mechanical engineering; offshore technology; electrotechnology; wind energy technology; environmental protection; navy; newbuildings and conversions; yachts and small craft; underwater technology; project assistance; marine advisory services; technical safety; hydraulic engineering; containers; materials technology; industrial inspections; supervisory board; executive board, divisional directors; committees; our presence worldwide; training; statistics 1989; exhibitions and presentations; lectures and publications; new rules and regulations. (HWJ).

  3. Sea Change: Annual Progress Report 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2008-01-01

    Sea Change-A Marine Knowledge, Research and Innovation Strategy for Ireland 2007-2013 was developed as an integral part of the government's Strategy for Science, Technoogy and Innovation (SSTI) and the Marine Institute as the lead implementation agency is working within SSTI policy and with government departments and agencies to deliver on the strategy. The Sea Change Strategy sets out a comprehensive suite of integrated research measures and supporting programmes, each with specific objectiv...

  4. Sea Change: Annual Progress Report 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2010-01-01

    Sea Change-A Marine Knowledge, Research and Innovation Strategy for Ireland 2007-2013 was developed as an integral part of the government's Strategy for Science, Technoogy and Innovation (SSTI) and the Marine Institute as the lead implementation agency is working within SSTI policy and with government departments and agencies to deliver on the strategy. The Sea Change Strategy sets out a comprehensive suite of integrated research measures and supporting programmes, each with specific objectiv...

  5. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC): Fiscal year 1996. Annual technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department`s materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. The EMaCC reports to the Director of the Office of Energy Research in his or her capacity as overseer of the technical programs of the Department. This annual technical report is mandated by the EMaCC terms of reference. This report summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1996 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department.

  6. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC): Fiscal year 1996. Annual technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. The EMaCC reports to the Director of the Office of Energy Research in his or her capacity as overseer of the technical programs of the Department. This annual technical report is mandated by the EMaCC terms of reference. This report summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1996 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department

  7. Global inter-annual gravity changes from GRACE: Early results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Hinderer, J.

    2005-01-01

    storage. The Global Land Data Assimilation System model has a spatial correlation coefficient with GRACE observations of 0.65 over the northern hemisphere. This demonstrates that the observed gravity field changes on these scales are largely related to changes in continental water storage.......Fifteen monthly gravity field solutions from the GRACE twin satellites launched more than two years ago have been studied to estimate gravity field changes between 2002 and 2003. The results demonstrate that GRACE is capable of capturing the changes in ground water on inter-annual scales...... with an accuracy of 0.4 muGal corresponding to 9 mm water thickness on spatial scales longer than 1300 km. Four of the most widely used global hydrological models have been investigated for their spatial comparison with GRACE observations of inter-annual gravity field variations due to changes in continental water...

  8. 78 FR 51673 - Technical Changes To Remove Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... the forms required by 38 CFR part 51, Per Diem for Nursing Home Care of Veterans in State Homes. 65 FR... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Parts 51, 52, and 58 RIN 2900-AO69 Technical Changes To Remove Forms AGENCY: Department of... changes to remove from its regulations a series of forms related to VA payments for care provided...

  9. Library management and technical services the changing role of technical services in library organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Cargill, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This exciting volume explores the role of technical services functions and organizational structure as forces in the library change process. It provides practical information to help administrators make decisions about how their libraries are organized and managed. As libraries change in many ways--organizational structure, design of jobs, managerial philosophy, responsibilities of professionals, and the impact of automation--librarians in technical services, administrators, and personnel officers--need guidance in meeting the new challenges in order to continue providing thorough efficient se

  10. Directed Technical Change and Economic Growth Effects of Environmental Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse-Andersen, Peter Kjær

    A Schumpeterian growth model is developed to investigate how environmental policy affects economic growth when environmental policy also affects the direction of technical change. In contrast to previous models, production and pollution abatement technologies are embodied in separate intermediate...... unambiguously directs research efforts toward pollution abatement technologies and away from production technologies. This directed technical change reduces economic growth and pollution emission growth. Simulation results indicate that even large environmental policy reforms have small economic growth effects....... However, these economic growth effects have relatively large welfare effects which suggest that static models and exogenus growth models leave out an important welfare effect of environmental policy....

  11. KBS Annual Report 1983. Including summaries of technical reports issued during 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the KBS Annual Report is to inform interested organizations and individuals of the research and development work performed by the division KBS within the Swedish Nuclear Fuel Supply Co (SKBF) on the handling, treatment and final storage of nuclear wastes in Sweden. The Annual Report normally contains a presentation of the legal and organizational situation followed by an account of the progress within different areas of the R and D-work. This account also includes indications of the activities planned for the future. At the end of the report the summaries of 76 technical reports and other publications issued during the year are listed in special appendices. (K.A.E.)

  12. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal): Annual compilation for 1994. Volume 19, Number 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This compilation consists of bibliographic data and abstracts for the formal regulatory and technical reports issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Staff and its contractors. It is NRC`s intention to publish this compilation quarterly and to cumulate it annually. The main citations and abstracts in this compilation are listed in NUREG number order. These precede the following indexes: secondary report number index, personal author index, subject index, NRC originating organization index (staff reports), NRC originating organization index (international agreements), NRC contract sponsor index (contractor reports), contractor index, international organization index, and licensed facility index. A detailed explanation of the entries precedes each index.

  13. SKB Annual Report 1995. Including summaries of Technical Reports issued during 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The annual report covers planning, construction and operation of facilities and systems as well as research, development, demonstration work and information activities. The aim of the program is to start the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel around year 2008. Work is undertaken for the development of encapsulation technology on an industrial scale and for design of an encapsulation plant. The siting process for the final repository for spent fuel has started with feasibility studies in a few Swedish municipalities in order to evaluate the potential technical conditions and requirements and the influence on the region. 36 refs, figs.

  14. Environmental Science and Research Foundation. Annual technical report, April 11, 1994--December 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, T.D.; Morris, R.C.; Markham, O.D. [eds.

    1995-06-01

    This Annual Technical Report describes work conducted for the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office, by the Environmental Science and Research Foundation (Foundation) for work under contract DE-AC07-94ID13268. The Foundation began, on April 11, 1994, to conduct environmental surveillance near to and distant from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, provide environmental public relations and education related to INEL natural resource issues, and conduct ecological and radioecological research benefiting major DOE-ID programs including Waste Management, Environmental Restoration, Spent Nuclear Fuels, and Infrastructure.

  15. SKB Annual Report 1995. Including summaries of Technical Reports issued during 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report covers planning, construction and operation of facilities and systems as well as research, development, demonstration work and information activities. The aim of the program is to start the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel around year 2008. Work is undertaken for the development of encapsulation technology on an industrial scale and for design of an encapsulation plant. The siting process for the final repository for spent fuel has started with feasibility studies in a few Swedish municipalities in order to evaluate the potential technical conditions and requirements and the influence on the region. 36 refs, figs

  16. Environmental Science and Research Foundation. Annual technical report, April 11, 1994--December 31, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Annual Technical Report describes work conducted for the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office, by the Environmental Science and Research Foundation (Foundation) for work under contract DE-AC07-94ID13268. The Foundation began, on April 11, 1994, to conduct environmental surveillance near to and distant from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, provide environmental public relations and education related to INEL natural resource issues, and conduct ecological and radioecological research benefiting major DOE-ID programs including Waste Management, Environmental Restoration, Spent Nuclear Fuels, and Infrastructure

  17. [Fortieth Annual] Meeting of the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR). Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the meeting were to: - Exchange information on the national programmes on Fast Reactors (FR) and Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS); - Review the progress since the 39th TWG-FR Annual Meeting, including the status of the actions; - Consider meeting arrangements for 2007, 2008 and 2009; - Review the Agency’s ongoing information exchange and co-ordinated research activities in the technical fields relevant to the TWG-FR (FRs and ADS), as well as coordination of the TWG-FR’s activities with other organizations; - Discuss future joint activities in view of the Agency’s Programme and Budget Cycle 2008–2009 (and beyond)

  18. The impact of the endogenous technical change on climate policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research aims at revisiting the 'autonomous vs. induced' debate on the costs of climate policies, first by broadening the framework of the technical change induction to other economical sectors, and then by attempting to go beyond the concept of technical change induction and think in terms of a structural change induction. After a review of modes of representation of the technical progress in economical prospective models for the assessment of climate policies, the author presents the IMACLIM-R model, a recursive general equilibrium model which simulates the evolution of the world economy within 12 regions and 12 sectors between 2001 and 2100. The results obtained with this model are then presented and discussed, in the case of a reference scenario which displays a significant change towards a carbon-intensive path. These results stress the risks related to a 'laissez faire' attitude. The author explores the consequences in terms of climate policies with a more or less extended taking into account of phenomena of induction of technical and structural changes

  19. Developing the PAGE2002 Model with Endogenous Technical Change

    OpenAIRE

    Alberth, Stephan; Hope, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Presented research demonstrates the inclusion of endogenous technical change into the PAGE2002 integrated assessment model of climate change. The ???experience curve??? or learning-by-doing concept, made popular by the Boston Consulting Group during the 1960???s provides a mechanism with which to describe cost reduction through experiential learning. The implementation of learning requires both a restructuring of the way costs are modelled as well as the inclusion of an explicit learning func...

  20. Intelligent distributed control for nuclear power plants. Second annual technical progress report, September 1990--September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klevans, E.H.; Edwards, R.M.; Ray, A.; Lee, K.Y.; Garcia, H.E.: Chavez, C.M.; Turso, J.A.; BenAbdennour, A.

    1991-12-31

    In September of 1989 work began on the DOE University Program grant DE-FG07-89ER12889. The grant provides support for a three year project to develop and demonstrate Intelligent Distributed Control (IDC) for Nuclear Power Plants. The body of this Second Annual Technical Progress report covers the period from September 1990 to September 1991. It summarizes the second year accomplishments while the appendices provide detailed information presented at conference meetings. These are two primary goals of this research. The first is to combine diagnostics and control to achieve a highly automated power plant as described by M.A. Schultz, a project consultant during the first year of the project. This philosophy, as presented in the first annual technical progress report, is to improve public perception of the safety of nuclear power plants by incorporating a high degree automation where greatly simplified operator control console minimizes the possibility of human error in power plant operations. A hierarchically distributed control system with automated responses to plant upset conditions is the focus of our research to achieve this goal. The second goal is to apply this research to develop a prototype demonstration on an actual power plant system, the EBR-II steam plant.

  1. Investigating changes over time of annual rainfall in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mazvimavi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing concern in southern Africa about the possible decline of rainfall as a result of global warming. Some studies concluded that average rainfall in Zimbabwe had declined by 10% or 100 mm during the last 100 years. This paper investigates the validity of the assumption that rainfall is declining in Zimbabwe. Time series of annual rainfall, and total rainfall for (a the early part of the rainy season, October-November-December (OND, and (b the mid to end of the rainy season, January-February-March (JFM are analysed for the presence of trends using the Mann-Kendall test, and for the decline or increase during years with either high or low rainfall using quantile regression analysis. The Pettitt test has also been utilized to examine the possible existence of change or break-points in the rainfall time series. The analysis has been done for 40 rainfall stations with records starting during the 1892–1940 period and ending in 2000, and representative of all the rainfall regions.

    The Mann-Kendal test did not identify a significant trend at all the 40 stations, and therefore there is no proof that the average rainfall at each of these stations has changed. Quantile regression analysis revealed a decline in annual rainfall less than the tenth percentile at only one station, and increasing of rainfall greater than the ninetieth percentile at another station. All the other stations had no changes over time in both the low and high rainfall at the annual interval. Climate change effects are therefore not yet statistically significant within time series of total seasonal and annual rainfall in Zimbabwe. The general perception about declining rainfall is likely due to the presence of multidecadal variability characterized by bunching of years with above (e.g. 1951–1958, 1973–1980 and below (e.g. 1959–1972, 1982–1994 average rainfall.

  2. Projected changes in the annual wind-wave cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopa, Justin; Hemer, Mark

    2016-04-01

    The uneven distribution of the sun's energy directly and indirectly drives physical atmosphere and ocean processes. This creates intricate spatial patterns within the seasonal cycle where higher order harmonics are seen to play an important role in regional climates. The annual cycle and associated harmonics are the strongest oscillations within the climate system and describe the majority of variance across the oceans. Consequently when studying climate oscillations, it is common practice to remove the seasonal cycle in order to elucidate inter-annual cycles. Furthermore the annual cycle plays an important role in the evolution of other inter-annual oscillations through non-linear coupling (e.g ENSO). Despite the important role of the seasons within the climate system very few studies describe the seasonality with any rigor. Therefore our focus is to describe the higher harmonics linked to the annual cycle and how they are expected to evolve in a changing climate. Using simulations from the Coordinated Ocean Wave Climate Project, the seasonality of multiple mid and end of the 21st century wind-wave climate projections are analyzed relative to historical experiment forced simulations. A comparison of various GCM forced wave simulations to reanalysis datasets reveals that a multi-model ensemble best describes the seasons. This ensemble is used to describe the changes within the wave seasonality. A systematic analysis reveals the primary mode of the seasons is relatively unchanged in the mid and end century. The largest changes occur in the second and third modes. The second mode defines the shift or translation within the seasons while the third mode characterizes relative change between the seasonal extremes (ie sharpening or flattening of the waveform). The relative changes in the second and third modes are not homogeneous and intricate patterns are revealed. Certain regions have sharper contrast in seasonality while other regions have a longer strong season. In

  3. Energy materials coordinating committee (EMACC) Fiscal Year 1982. Annual technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1983-03-01

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further the effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/ workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, the EMaCC aids in obtaining materials - related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. Membership in the EMaCC is open to any Department organizational unit; participants are appointed by Division or Office Directors. The current membership is listed in Table 1. The EMACC reports to the Director of the Office of Energy Research in his capacity as overseer of the technical programs of the Department. This annual technical report is mandated by the EMACC terms of reference. In this report are described 1) EMACC activities for FY 1982; 2) a summary of materials funding in the Department from FY 1978 to the present; and 3) on-going materials programs in the Department.

  4. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC): Annual technical report, fiscal year 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-06-30

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further the effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. Four topical subcommittees are established and are continuing their own programs: Structural Ceramics, Batteries and Fuel Cells, Radioactive Waste Containment, and Superconductivity (established in FY 1987). In addition, the EMaCC aids in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. Membership in the EMaCC is open to any Department organizational unit; participants are appointed by Division or Office Directors. The current active membership is listed on the following four pages. The EMaCC reports to the Director of the Office of Energy Research in his capacity as overseer of the technical programs of the Department. This annual technical report is mandated by the EMaCC terms of reference. This report summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1988 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department.

  5. Socio-technical networks: how a technology studies approach may help to solve problems related to technical change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzen, Boelie; Enserink, Bert; Smit, Wim A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is motivated by a desire to deal with the problematic aspects of technical development. To achieve this, we need a new approach to the analysis of socio-technical change. In this paper we develop such an approach, called the `Socio-Technical Networks' (STN) approach. The basic concepts of

  6. Governance of Change in Socio-technical and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edler, Jakob

    -technical and innovation systems (ST&I systems). In so doing, it fills a gap in the existing literature. Taking the starting point from a workable concept of governance of change with normative but especially with analytical dimensions, the paper identifies four pillars as building blocks for a theoretical explanation......More than twenty years of studies on ‘socio-technical systems’ and ‘innovation systems’ have yielded multiple academic approaches to study the way in which science and technology shape and are shaped by social, political and economic organization. The various stands of literature exhibit high...... diversity in crucial aspects about the role of agents and institutions in those systems, as well as about the dynamics that drive change. Unfortunately most of these approaches have not talked to each other because they belong to different disciplines. Strikingly, while most of the literature...

  7. Distant Labour Supply, Skills and Induced Technical Change

    OpenAIRE

    Ashima Goyal

    2006-01-01

    To analyze the consequences of new technologies, which make it possible to employ distant labour, we model a developed country with high and medium-skilled labour interacting with an emerging market economy (EME) with medium and low-skilled labour. Expansion in labour supply induces medium-skill biased technical change, which raises the demand for such labour. As a result, inequalities tend to fall in the developed country, skill premiums rise marginally in the EME, but equality rises because...

  8. The fluctuations of China's energy intensity: Biased technical change

    OpenAIRE

    Ce Wang; Hua Liao; Su-Yan Pan; Lu-Tao Zhao; Yi-Ming Wei

    2014-01-01

    The fluctuations of China's energy intensity have attracted the attention of many scholars, but fewer studies consider the data quality of official input-output tables. This paper conducts a decomposition model by using the Divisia method based on the input-output tables. Because of the problems with input-output tables and price deflators, we first produce constant prices to deflate the input-output tables. And then we consider different levels of biased technical change for different sector...

  9. Environmental Science and Research Foundation annual technical report: Calendar year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Annual Technical Report describes work conducted for the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID), by the Environmental Science and Research Foundation (Foundation). The Foundation's mission to DOE-ID provides support in several key areas. The authors conduct an environmental monitoring and surveillance program over an area covering much of the upper Snake River Plain, and provide environmental education and support services related to Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) natural resource issues. Also, the Foundation, with its University Affiliates, conducts ecological and radioecological research in the Idaho National Environmental Research Park. This research benefits major DOE-ID programs including Waste Management, Environmental Restoration, Spent Nuclear Fuels, and Land Management Issues. The major accomplishments of the Foundation and its University Affiliates during the calendar year 1996 are discussed

  10. Environmental Science and Research Foundation, Inc. annual technical report: Calendar year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Annual Technical Report describes work conducted for the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID), by the Environmental Science and Research Foundation (Foundation). The Foundation's mission to DOE-ID provides support in several key areas. The Foundation conducts an environmental monitoring and surveillance program over an area covering much of the upper Snake River Plain, and provides environmental education and support services related to Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) natural resource issues. Also, the Foundation, with its University Affiliates, conducts ecological and radioecological research on the Idaho National Environmental Research Park. This research benefits major DOE-ID programs including Waste Management, Environmental Restoration, Spent Nuclear Fuels, and Land Management Issues. Summaries are included of the individual research projects

  11. Environmental Science and Research Foundation annual technical report: Calendar year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, R.C.; Blew, R.D. [eds.

    1997-07-01

    This Annual Technical Report describes work conducted for the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID), by the Environmental Science and Research Foundation (Foundation). The Foundation`s mission to DOE-ID provides support in several key areas. The authors conduct an environmental monitoring and surveillance program over an area covering much of the upper Snake River Plain, and provide environmental education and support services related to Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) natural resource issues. Also, the Foundation, with its University Affiliates, conducts ecological and radioecological research in the Idaho National Environmental Research Park. This research benefits major DOE-ID programs including Waste Management, Environmental Restoration, Spent Nuclear Fuels, and Land Management Issues. The major accomplishments of the Foundation and its University Affiliates during the calendar year 1996 are discussed.

  12. Environmental Science and Research Foundation, Inc. annual technical report: Calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, R.D.; Warren, R.W. [eds.

    1998-05-01

    This Annual Technical Report describes work conducted for the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID), by the Environmental Science and Research Foundation (Foundation). The Foundation`s mission to DOE-ID provides support in several key areas. The Foundation conducts an environmental monitoring and surveillance program over an area covering much of the upper Snake River Plain, and provides environmental education and support services related to Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) natural resource issues. Also, the Foundation, with its University Affiliates, conducts ecological and radioecological research on the Idaho National Environmental Research Park. This research benefits major DOE-ID programs including Waste Management, Environmental Restoration, Spent Nuclear Fuels, and Land Management Issues. Summaries are included of the individual research projects.

  13. Underground Energy Storage Program: 1981 annual report. Volume II. Technical summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannberg, L.D.

    1982-06-01

    This is the 1981 annual report for the Underground Energy Storage Program administered by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy. The two-volume document describes all of the major research funded under this program during the period March 1981 to March 1982. Volume II presents the amplified technical summaries of individual tasks and projects conducted during this reporting period. The activities of the authors reporting herein were actually broader in scope than may be reflected by the mini-reports. Readers wishing additional information on specific topics are invited to contact individual authors. The work described here represents one segment of a continuing effort to encourage development and implementation of advanced energy storage technology. The results and progress reported here rely on earlier studies and will, in turn, provide a basis for continued efforts to develop the STES and CAES technologies.

  14. The KBS annual report 1979. Including summaries of technical reports issued during 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KBS was organized by the Swedish Nuclear Power Utilities at the end of 1976. The first task was to perform the necessary studies and investigations to fulfill the requirements of a Swedish Law, demanding that the existence of a safe method for final storage of spent nuclear fuel of vitrified high-level waste must be shown before new nuclear power reactors may be taken into operation. During 1977 and 1978 two main reports have been presented on the subject. - Handling of spent nuclear fuel and final storage of vitrified high-level reprocessing waste, and - Handling and final storage of unreprocessed spent nuclear fuel. This annual report for the KBS project gives a summary of the main activities during 1979. During the first months of the year most of the work was directed to supplementary site investigations connected with the licencing of two reactors according to the law mentioned above. After that period the responsibility of the project has been expanded to include also the low- and medium-activity waste both from reprocessing of nuclear fuel and the operations and decommissioning of nuclear power plants. After a chapter on the background of the project, the legal situation and the scientific reviews of the two main reports are presented. Chapters 4-10 present the main activities during the year within the areas of intereset for the project. In Chapter 10 (Safety Analysis) an emphasis is placed of the future plans with a discussion of areas where special efforts are needed. Chapter 11 gives an account for current and planned international cooperation in the abandoned mine at Stripa. Five appendices have been included giving 1) a list of the KBS Technical Reports issued during 1979 2) a list of authors 3) a key-word register 4) English summaries of the KBS Technical Reports and 5) SAC Technical Reports (Swedish-American cooperative investi- gations in the Stripa mine). (author)

  15. Technical energy savings versus changes in human behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    Energy savings seems to be the most environmentally benign element in an energy policy. The paper is a reflection on the work on saving energy both by improving technology and by adapting human daily behaviour. A simple model is suggested for the energy chain which converts the primary energy all...... the way into human satisfaction via energy services. Results of various analyses and field experiments show saving potentials for electricity of 50 - 80 per cents. Barriers for implementing these technical saving options are discussed. Also the necessity and potentials for changing behavioural or life...

  16. Climate change adaptation in Africa : annual report 2006-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Climate Change Adaptation Program was developed by Canada's International Development Research Centre and the United Kingdom's Department for International Development in order to address the needs of African communities vulnerable to climate change. The objectives of the program are to strengthen the capacity of African scientists, organization and communities to contribute to adaptation to climate change, as well as to generate a better understanding of climate change adaptation, and to support adaptation strategies and their adoption by rural and urban Africans. This annual report provided details of the first year of the program's implementation, in which an advisory board was established in order to balance donor representation and African expertise in adaptation. The first year of the program also saw the recruitment of a 13 person staff and the development of proposals for the first allocation of funding. A financial summary was provided. The report provided details of outreach and communications activities used to introduce the program to African and international audiences. 3 tabs., 44 figs

  17. SKB annual report 1993. Including summaries of technical reports issued during 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the annual report on the activities of the Swedish Nuclear and Waste Management Co., SKB. It contains in part I an overview of SKB activities in different fields. Part II gives a description of the research and development work on nuclear waste disposal performed during 1993. Lectures and publications during 1993 as well as reports issued in the SKB technical series are listed in part III. Part IV contains the summaries of all technical reports issued during 1993. SKB is the owner of CLAB, the Central Facility for Interim Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel, located at Oskarshamn. CLAB was taken into operation in July 1985 and to the end of 1993 in total 1 885 tonnes of spent fuel (measured as uranium) have been received. Transportation from the nuclear sites to CLAB is made by a special ship, M/S Sigyn. At Forsmark the final repository for Radioactive Waste - SFR - was taken into operation in April 1988. The repository is situated in crystalline rock under the Baltic Sea. At the end of 1993 a total of 13 000 m3 of waste have been deposited in SFR. SKB is in charge of a comprehensive research and development programme on geological disposal of nuclear waste. Some of the main areas for SKB research are: Groundwater movements; Bedrock stability; Groundwater chemistry and nuclide migration; Methods and instruments for in situ characterization of crystalline bedrock; Characterization and leaching of spent nuclear fuel; Properties of bentonite for buffer, backfilling and sealing; Radionuclide transport in biosphere and dose evaluations; Development of performance and safety assessment methodology and assessment models; Construction of an underground research laboratory

  18. Directed technical change and energy intensity dynamics: Structural change vs. energy efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Haas, Christian; Kempa, Karol

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses a theoretical model with Directed Technical Change to analyse the observed heterogeneous energy intensity developments. Based on the empirical evidence on the underlying drivers of energy intensity developments, we decompose changes in aggregate energy intensity into structural changes in the economy (Sector Effect) and within-sector energy efficiency improvements (Efficiency Effect). We analyse how energy price growth and the relative productivity of both sectors affect the d...

  19. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. Annual technical progress report of ecological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) is a research unit of the University of Georgia (UGA). The overall mission of the Laboratory is to acquire and communicate knowledge of ecological processes and principles. SREL conducts basic and applied ecological research, as well as education and outreach programs, under a contract with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. Significant accomplishments were made during the past year in the areas of research, education and service. The Laboratory's research mission was fulfilled with the publication of two books and 143 journal articles and book chapters by faculty, technical and students, and visiting scientists. An additional three books and about 80 journal articles currently are in press. Faculty, technician and students presented 193 lectures, scientific presentations, and posters to colleges and universities, including minority institutions. Dr. J Vaun McArthur organized and conducted the Third Annual SREL Symposium on the Environment: New Concepts in Strewn Ecology: An Integrative Approach. Dr. Michael Newman conducted a 5-day course titled Quantitative Methods in Ecotoxicology, and Dr. Brian Teppen of The Advanced Analytical Center for Environmental Sciences (AACES) taught a 3-day short course titled Introduction to Molecular Modeling of Environmental Systems. Dr. I. Lehr Brisbin co-hosted a meeting of the Crocodile Special Interest Group. Dr. Rebecca Sharitz attended four symposia in Japan during May and June 1996 and conducted meetings of the Executive Committee and Board of the International Association for Ecology (ENTECOL)

  20. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. Annual technical progress report of ecological research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.H.

    1996-07-31

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) is a research unit of the University of Georgia (UGA). The overall mission of the Laboratory is to acquire and communicate knowledge of ecological processes and principles. SREL conducts basic and applied ecological research, as well as education and outreach programs, under a contract with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. Significant accomplishments were made during the past year in the areas of research, education and service. The Laboratory`s research mission was fulfilled with the publication of two books and 143 journal articles and book chapters by faculty, technical and students, and visiting scientists. An additional three books and about 80 journal articles currently are in press. Faculty, technician and students presented 193 lectures, scientific presentations, and posters to colleges and universities, including minority institutions. Dr. J Vaun McArthur organized and conducted the Third Annual SREL Symposium on the Environment: New Concepts in Strewn Ecology: An Integrative Approach. Dr. Michael Newman conducted a 5-day course titled Quantitative Methods in Ecotoxicology, and Dr. Brian Teppen of The Advanced Analytical Center for Environmental Sciences (AACES) taught a 3-day short course titled Introduction to Molecular Modeling of Environmental Systems. Dr. I. Lehr Brisbin co-hosted a meeting of the Crocodile Special Interest Group. Dr. Rebecca Sharitz attended four symposia in Japan during May and June 1996 and conducted meetings of the Executive Committee and Board of the International Association for Ecology (ENTECOL).

  1. Annual Report for Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 54, Area G Disposal Facility – Fiscal Year 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, Sean B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Birdsell, Kay H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-29

    As a condition to the disposal authorization statement issued to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) on March 17, 2010, a comprehensive performance assessment and composite analysis maintenance program must be implemented for the Technical Area 54, Area G disposal facility. Annual determinations of the adequacy of the performance assessment and composite analysis (PA/CA) are to be conducted under the maintenance program to ensure that the conclusions reached by those analyses continue to be valid. This report summarizes the results of the fiscal year (FY) 2015 annual review for Area G.

  2. Annual Report for Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 54, Area G Disposal Facility – Fiscal Year 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a condition to the disposal authorization statement issued to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) on March 17, 2010, a comprehensive performance assessment and composite analysis maintenance program must be implemented for the Technical Area 54, Area G disposal facility. Annual determinations of the adequacy of the performance assessment and composite analysis (PA/CA) are to be conducted under the maintenance program to ensure that the conclusions reached by those analyses continue to be valid. This report summarizes the results of the fiscal year (FY) 2015 annual review for Area G.

  3. WHAT IS BEHIND BIASED TECHNICAL CHANGE IN PRODUCTION OF CEREAL AND OILSEED CROPS IN SLOVAKIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter FANDEL

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the productivity change in the production of cereal and oilseed crops in Slovakia with special emphasis on technical change analysis. It employs a non-parametric distance function approach to measure Malmquist productivity index which is decomposed into technical efficiency change and technical change. Technical change is further decomposed into technical change magnitude and input- and output-bias indices. The productivity change components provide more detailed information about character of productivity change itself and its sources. Our results indicate that productivity in the analysed sector decreased approximately by 20% within the examined period of 1998-2007. The decrease was caused mostly by worsening the technical change (-41,6%. Indices of input- and output bias of technical change were various from unity what suggests that technical change was not Hicks’- neutral. Results of further analysis of the direction of technical change bias indicate that farms in average tend to apply fertilizers-using/seed-saving, seed-using/labour-saving, and fertilizers-using/labour-saving technical change bias over the whole sample period, as well as in the EU pre-accession and EU post-accession periods.

  4. 26 CFR 1.442-1 - Change of annual accounting period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... business purpose for the requested annual accounting period and agrees to the Commissioner's prescribed... retain an annual accounting period. These administrative procedures will describe the business purpose... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change of annual accounting period....

  5. Dryland ecohydrology and climate change: critical issues and technical advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Drylands cover about 40% of the terrestrial land surface and account for approximately 40% of global net primary productivity. Water is fundamental to the biophysical processes that sustain ecosystem function and food production, particularly in drylands, where a tight coupling exists between water resource availability and ecosystem productivity, surface energy balance, and biogeochemical cycles. Currently, drylands support at least 2 billion people and comprise both natural and managed ecosystems. In this synthesis, we identify some current critical issues in the understanding of dryland systems and discuss how arid and semiarid environments are responding to the changes in climate and land use. Specifically, we focus on dryland agriculture and food security, dryland population growth, desertification, shrub encroachment and dryland development issues as factors of change requiring increased understanding and management. We also review recent technical advances in the quantitative assessment of human versus climate change related drivers of desertification, evapotranspiration partitioning using field deployable stable water isotope systems and the remote sensing of key ecohydrological processes. These technological advances provide new tools that assist in addressing major critical issues in dryland ecohydrology under climate change

  6. Dryland ecohydrology and climate change: critical issues and technical advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; D'Odorico, P.; Evans, J. P.; Eldridge, D. J.; McCabe, M. F.; Caylor, K. K.; King, E. G.

    2012-08-01

    Drylands cover about 40% of the terrestrial land surface and account for approximately 40% of global net primary productivity. Water is fundamental to the biophysical processes that sustain ecosystem function and food production, particularly in drylands where a tight coupling exists between ecosystem productivity, surface energy balance, biogeochemical cycles, and water resource availability. Currently, drylands support at least 2 billion people and comprise both natural and managed ecosystems. In this synthesis, we identify some current critical issues in the understanding of dryland systems and discuss how arid and semiarid environments are responding to the changes in climate and land use. The issues range from societal aspects such as rapid population growth, the resulting food and water security, and development issues, to natural aspects such as ecohydrological consequences of bush encroachment and the causes of desertification. To improve current understanding and inform upon the needed research efforts to address these critical issues, we identify some recent technical advances in terms of monitoring dryland water dynamics, water budget and vegetation water use, with a focus on the use of stable isotopes and remote sensing. These technological advances provide new tools that assist in addressing critical issues in dryland ecohydrology under climate change.

  7. Dryland ecohydrology and climate change: critical issues and technical advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Drylands cover about 40% of the terrestrial land surface and account for approximately 40% of global net primary productivity. Water is fundamental to the biophysical processes that sustain ecosystem function and food production, particularly in drylands where a tight coupling exists between ecosystem productivity, surface energy balance, biogeochemical cycles, and water resource availability. Currently, drylands support at least 2 billion people and comprise both natural and managed ecosystems. In this synthesis, we identify some current critical issues in the understanding of dryland systems and discuss how arid and semiarid environments are responding to the changes in climate and land use. The issues range from societal aspects such as rapid population growth, the resulting food and water security, and development issues, to natural aspects such as ecohydrological consequences of bush encroachment and the causes of desertification. To improve current understanding and inform upon the needed research efforts to address these critical issues, we identify some recent technical advances in terms of monitoring dryland water dynamics, water budget and vegetation water use, with a focus on the use of stable isotopes and remote sensing. These technological advances provide new tools that assist in addressing critical issues in dryland ecohydrology under climate change.

  8. Seismic Rate Changes Associated with Seasonal, Annual, and Decadal Changes in the Cryosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauber-Rosenberg, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    Near the Bering Glacier Global Fiducial site in southern Alaska large cryospheric fluctuations occur in a region of upper crustal faulting and folding associated with collision and accretion of the Yakutat terrane. In this study we report constraints on seasonal, annual and decadal cryospheric changes estimated over the last decade from field, aircraft and satellite measurements, and we evaluate the influence of cryospheric changes on the background seismic rate. Multi-year images from the Bering Glacier global fiducial site are available since mid-2003 to constrain changes in extent of the Bering Glacier and to discern feature changes in the glacial surface. Starting around the same time, satellite gravimetric measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate experiment (GRACE) commenced. Large spatial-scale mass change calculated from the GRACE 1deg x 1deg mascon solution of Luthcke et al. [2012] indicate a general trend of annual ice mass loss for southern Alaska but with large, variable seasonal mass fluctuations. Since 2007, the station position of a continuous GPS site near Cape Yakataga (Alaska EarthScope PBO site, AB35) has been available as well. In addition to changes in the geodetic position due to tectonic motion, this GPS station shows large seasonal excursions in the detrended vertical and horizontal position components consistent with snow loading in the fall and winter and melt onset/mass decrease in the spring/summer. To better understand the timing of processes responsible for the onset of cryospheric mass loss documented in the GRACE data, we examined changes in the snow cover extent and the onset of melt in the spring. We calculated the surface displacements of the solid Earth and theoretical earthquake failure criteria associated with these annual and seasonal ice and snow changes using layered elastic half-space. Additionally, we compared the seismic rate (M>1.8) from a reference background time period against other time periods with variable

  9. The Media is the Measure: Technical change and employment, 1909-49

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Alexopoulos; Jon Cohen

    2009-01-01

    Difficulties in sorting out the empirical relationship between technical change and employment is attributable, at least in part, to the shortcomings associated with traditional measures of the former. In this paper, we use new indicators of technical change that we believe resolve many issues associated with other methods of identifying technology shocks, and use them to explore the impact of technical change on employment from 1909-49. The payoff to this effort is substantial for at least t...

  10. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC). Annual Technical Report, Fiscal Year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2001-07-31

    The Energy Materials Coordinating Committee Annual Report (attached, DOE/SC-0040) provides an annual summary of non-classified materials-related research programs supported by various elements within the Department of Energy. The EMaCC Annual Report is a useful working tool for project managers who want to know what is happening in other divisions, and it provides a guide for persons in industry and academia to the materials program within the Department. The major task of EMaCC this year was to make the Annual Report a more user-friendly document by removing redundant program information and shortening the project summaries.

  11. Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup and the Expert Regional Technical Group, Fiscal Year 2014 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.

    2014-09-01

    This document is the annual report for fiscal year 2014 for the project called Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup (EOS) and the Expert Regional Technical Group (ERTG). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted the project for the Bonneville Power Administration. The EOS and ERTG are part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation and habitat restoration efforts, respectively, developed by the Action Agencies (BPA, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers) in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as a result of operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System and implemented under the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program.

  12. Spectral representation of the annual cycle in the climate change signal

    OpenAIRE

    T. Bosshard; S. Kotlarski; Ewen, T.; Schär, C.

    2011-01-01

    The annual cycle of temperature and precipitation changes as projected by climate models is of fundamental interest in climate impact studies. Its estimation, however, is impaired by natural variability. Using a simple form of the delta change method, we show that on regional scales relevant for hydrological impact models, the projected changes in the annual cycle are prone to sampling artefacts. For precipitation at station locations, these artefacts may have amplitudes that are comparable t...

  13. Adjustment of the annual cycle to climatic change in a long-lived migratory bird specie

    OpenAIRE

    Møller, A.P; E. FLENSTED-JENSEN; W. MARDAL

    2009-01-01

    Climate change has advanced the phenology of many organisms. Migratory animals face particular problems because climate change in the breeding and the wintering range may be asynchronous, preventing rapid response to changing conditions. Advancement in timing of spring migration may have carry-over effects to other parts of the annual cycle, simply because advancement of one event in the annual cycle also advances subsequent events, gradually causing a general shift in the timing of the ent...

  14. Economic modeling of directed technical change: the case of CO2 emission reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otto, V.M.

    2006-01-01

    The potential of technical change for cost-effective pollution abatement typically differs from technology to technology. It therefore is the aim of this thesis to study how policy instruments can direct technical change to those technologies with the greatest potential for cost-effective pollution

  15. Annual activities report of Brazilian Aerospace Technical Center -CTA/IEAv - 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the research activities on nuclear physics and reactors physics and engineering in the Brazilian Aerospace Technical Center/Advanced Studies Institute, Sao Paulo State, in the year of 1989

  16. Climate change impact on the annual water balance in the northwest Florida coastal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizad, K.; Wang, D.; Alimohammadi, N.; Hagen, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    As the largest tributary to the Apalachicola River, the Chipola River originates in southern Alabama, flows through Florida Panhandle and ended to Gulf of Mexico. The Chipola watershed is located in an intermediate climate environment with aridity index around one. Watershed provides habitat for a number of threatened and endangered animal and plant species. However, climate change affects hydrologic cycle of Chipola River watershed at various temporal and spatial scales. Studying the effects of climate variations is of great importance for water and environmental management purposes in this catchment. This research is mainly focuses on assessing climate change impact on the partitioning pattern of rainfall from mean annual to inter-annual and to seasonal scales. At the mean annual scale, rainfall is partitioned into runoff and evaporation assuming negligible water storage changes. Mean annual runoff is controlled by both mean annual precipitation and potential evaporation. Changes in long term mean runoff caused by variations of long term mean precipitation and potential evaporation will be evaluated based on Budyko hypothesis. At the annual scale, rainfall is partitioned into runoff, evaporation, and storage change. Inter-annual variability of runoff and evaporation are mainly affected by the changes of mean annual climate variables as well as their inter-annual variability. In order to model and evaluate each component of water balance at the annual scale, parsimonious but reliable models, are developed. Budyko hypothesis on the existing balance between available water and energy supply is reconsidered and redefined for the sub-annual time scale and reconstructed accordingly in order to accurately model seasonal hydrologic balance of the catchment. Models are built in the seasonal time frame with a focus on the role of storage change in water cycle. Then for Chipola catchment, models are parameterized based on a sufficient time span of historical data and the

  17. Meeting of the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR) (39th annual meeting). Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 39th Annual Meeting of the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG FR) was held from 15-19 May 2006 in Beijing, China, at the invitation of the China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAEA). The meeting was attended by TWG-FR Members and Advisers from the following Member States (MS): Belgium (observer), Brazil, China, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation, Sweden (observer), the United Kingdom, and the United States. Belarus, Switzerland, the European Commission, and OECD/NEA were unable to participate. Moreover, Prof. Carlo Rubbia, CERN director general emeritus, participated, upon IAEA invitation, in the meeting as distinguished scientist and IAEA expert. Mr. S.C. Chetal, from India (Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, IGCAR), was appointed chairman. The objectives of the meeting were to: - Exchange information on the national programmes on Fast Reactors (FR) and Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS); - Review the progress since the 38th TWG-FR Annual Meeting, including the status of the actions; - Consider meeting arrangements for 2006 and 2007; - Reviewed the Agency's ongoing information exchange and co-ordinated research activities in the technical fields relevant to the TWG-FR (FRs and ADS), as well as co-ordination of the TWG-FR's activities with other organizations; - Discuss future joint activities in view of the Agency's Programme and Budget Cycle 2008-2009 (and beyond)

  18. Annual Report for Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 54, Area G Disposal Facility - Fiscal Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, Sean B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shuman, Rob [WPS: WASTE PROJECTS AND SERVICES

    2012-05-22

    As a condition to the Disposal Authorization Statement issued to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) on March 17, 2010, a comprehensive performance assessment and composite analysis maintenance program must be implemented for the Technical Area 54, Area G disposal facility. Annual determinations of the adequacy of the performance assessment and composite analysis are to be conducted under the maintenance program to ensure that the conclusions reached by those analyses continue to be valid. This report summarizes the results of the fiscal year 2011 annual review for Area G. Revision 4 of the Area G performance assessment and composite analysis was issued in 2008 and formally approved in 2009. These analyses are expected to provide reasonable estimates of the long-term performance of Area G and, hence, the disposal facility's ability to comply with Department of Energy (DOE) performance objectives. Annual disposal receipt reviews indicate that smaller volumes of waste will require disposal in the pits and shafts at Area G relative to what was projected for the performance assessment and composite analysis. The future inventories are projected to decrease modestly for the pits but increase substantially for the shafts due to an increase in the amount of tritium that is projected to require disposal. Overall, however, changes in the projected future inventories of waste are not expected to compromise the ability of Area G to satisfy DOE performance objectives. The Area G composite analysis addresses potential impacts from all waste disposed of at the facility, as well as other sources of radioactive material that may interact with releases from Area G. The level of knowledge about the other sources included in the composite analysis has not changed sufficiently to call into question the validity of that analysis. Ongoing environmental surveillance activities are conducted at, and in the vicinity of, Area G. However, the information generated by

  19. The fluctuations of China’s energy intensity: Biased technical change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Biased technical change is considered in the adjusting the input–output tables. • The level of biased technical change is determined by TFP and energy efficiency. • The increase in energy intensity was mostly attributed to the structural change. • The changes in the production technology actually decreased the energy intensity. • The decomposition results are sensitive to the level of biased technical change. - Abstract: The fluctuations of China’s energy intensity have attracted the attention of many scholars, but fewer studies consider the data quality of official input–output tables. This paper conducts a decomposition model by using the Divisia method based on the input–output tables. Because of the problems with input–output tables and price deflators, we first produce constant prices to deflate the input–output tables. And then we consider different levels of biased technical change for different sectors in the adjusting the input–output table. Finally, we use RAS technique to adjust input–output matrix. Then the decomposition model is employed to empirically analyze the change of China’s energy intensity. We compare the decomposition results with and without biased technical change and do sensitive analysis on the level of biased technical change. The decomposition results are that during 2002–2007, the energy intensity of coal and electricity increased, the changes were mostly attributed to the structural change and the contribution was 594.08%, 73.88%, respectively; as for crude oil and refined oil, the energy intensity decreased, the changes were mostly attributed to the changes in the production technology and the contribution was 978.89%, 246.95%, respectively. And the results of sensitive analysis shows that 1% variation of the level of biased technical change will cause at most 0.6% change of decomposition results. Therefore, we can draw our conclusions: compared to the decomposition without biased technical

  20. Residual radioactive contamination from decommissioning: Technical basis for translating contamination levels to annual dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the generic modeling of the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to an individual in a population from a unit concentration of residual radioactive contamination. Radioactive contamination inside buildings and soil contamination are considered. Unit concentration TEDE factors by radionuclide, exposure pathway, and exposure scenario are calculated. Reference radiation exposure scenarios are used to derive unit concentration TEDE factors for about 200 individual radionuclides and parent-daughter mixtures. For buildings, these unit concentration factors list the annual TEDE for volume and surface contamination situations. For soil, annual TEDE factors are presented for unit concentrations of radionuclides in soil during residential use of contaminated land and the TEDE per unit total inventory for potential use of drinking water from a ground-water source. Because of the generic treatment of potentially complex ground-water systems, the annual TEDE factors for drinking water for a given inventory may only indicate when additional site data or modeling sophistication are warranted. Descriptions are provided of the models, exposure pathways, exposure scenarios, parameter values, and assumptions used. An analysis of the potential annual TEDE resulting from reference mixtures of residual radionuclides is provided to demonstrate application of the TEDE factors. 62 refs., 5 figs., 66 tabs

  1. Technical change in US industry: A cross-industry analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R. R. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The nature of the public policies which have influenced the pace and pattern of technical progress in a number of American industries is studied with the view of assessing the broad effects of these policies. The industries studied are agriculture, pharmaceuticals, semiconductors, computers, civil aircraft, automobiles and residential construction. The policies considered include research and development funding as well as government procurement, education, information dissemination, patent protection, licensing, regulations, and anti-trust policies.

  2. Atmospheric Effects of Nuclear Energy Centers (AENEC) Program. Annual technical progress report, July 1975--September 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrinos, A. A.; Hoffman, H. W. [comps.

    1977-04-01

    The Technical Memorandum contains information of a preliminary nature from the six participants of the Program describing their activities and presenting the results obtained during the reporting period. The birth of the Program, its definition and evolution are described, and a complete breakdown of responsibilities and tasks assigned to the six AENEC participants is presented.

  3. Outreach and Technical Assistance Network: Twelfth Year Annual Report, July 1, 2001-June 30, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacramento County Office of Education, CA.

    This report reviews in detail the accomplishments of the third year of the 1999-2002 contract of the Outreach and Technical Assistance Network (OTAN). It describes and quantifies the services--electronic collaboration, access to information services, and research, development, and assistance in using technology--provided by the entire three-year…

  4. Outreach and Technical Assistance Network Tenth Year Annual Report, July 1, 1999-June 30, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacramento County Office of Education, CA.

    This report reviews accomplishments of the first year of the 1999-2002 contract funding the Outreach and Technical Assistance Network (OTAN), an essential component in improvement of California's adult education program. Five chapters on Electronic Communications describe the OTAN web site and provide data on World Wide Web hits and hosts, web…

  5. Association Euratom - DTU, Technical University of Denmark, Department of Physics - Annual Progress Report 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom – DTU, Technical University of Denmark covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium...

  6. Association Euratom - DTU, Technical University of Denmark, Department of Physics - Annual Progress Report 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom – DTU, Technical University of Denmark covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium...

  7. Atmospheric Effects of Nuclear Energy Centers (AENEC) Program. Annual technical progress report, July 1975--September 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Technical Memorandum contains information of a preliminary nature from the six participants of the Program describing their activities and presenting the results obtained during the reporting period. The birth of the Program, its definition and evolution are described, and a complete breakdown of responsibilities and tasks assigned to the six AENEC participants is presented

  8. Wisconsin Technical College Presidential Perspectives on Leading Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowicz, Laurie S.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examines leadership perceptions of attributes needed for effectively leading organizations within and through change. Current change forces substantiate the need for higher educational institutions to change in order to fulfill their missions. Creating a culture of organizational change presents a leadership challenge. The…

  9. 75 FR 44137 - Technical Amendment Language Change From “Wholly” to “Fully”; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Part 408 RIN 0960-AH16 Technical Amendment Language Change From ``Wholly'' to ``Fully''; Correction AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Correcting amendment. SUMMARY: In the...

  10. Annual report 1988-1989. Implementing strategies for change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An account is given of the research and commercial activities of the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO). In line with its strategic plan, ANSTO has been restructured into two major components: Scientific and Commercial areas plus small Corporate and External Affairs groups. Considerable progress was made to reorientate the research and development program to contain a 70/30 percent mixture of tactical applications oriented research and longer term strategic projects, aimed at identifying new, potentially commercial areas. Description of scientific and commercial activities relating to biomedicine and health, isotope technology, nuclear physics applications and environmental science are provided. Services such as engineering, computing, material testing ,information and ANSTO's involvement in regional and international technical co-operation programs are briefly outlined. Details are also given of the ANSTO revenue, expenditure, expenses and capital work. Ills

  11. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Annual Technical Progress Report of Ecological Research, June 30, 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) is a research unit of The University of Georgia (UGA) and has been conducting ecological research on the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina for 50 years. The overall mission of the Laboratory is to acquire and communicate knowledge of ecological processes and principles. SREL conducts fundamental and applied ecological research, as well as education and outreach programs, under a Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The Laboratory's research mission during the 2002 fiscal year was fulfilled with the publication of 76 journal articles and book chapters by faculty, technical staff, students, and visiting scientists. An additional 50 journal articles have been submitted or are in press. Other noteworthy events took place as faculty members, staff, and graduate students received awards. These are described in the section titled Special Accomplishments of Faculty, Staff, Students, and Administration on page 51. Notable scientific accomplishments include work conducted on contaminant transport, stable isotopes, sandhills ecology, and phytoremediation: (1) A collaborative study between Dr. Tom Hinton at SREL and scientists at SRTC demonstrated the feasibility of using illite clay to sequester 137Cs in sediments along the P and R reactor cooling canal system, where approximately 3, 000 acres of land are contaminated. Overall, the study showed significant decreases in cesium concentrations and bioavailability following the addition of illite with no sign of harm to the ecosystem. While the cesium remains sequestered from the biosphere, its radioactivity decays and the process progresses from contaminant immobilization to remediation. (2) SREL's stable isotope laboratory is now fully functional. Stable isotope distributions in nature can provide important insights into many historical and current environmental processes. Dr. Christopher Romanek is leading SREL's research in this area

  12. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Annual Technical Progress Report of Ecological Research, June 30, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul M. Bertsch, (Director)

    2002-06-30

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) is a research unit of The University of Georgia (UGA) and has been conducting ecological research on the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina for 50 years. The overall mission of the Laboratory is to acquire and communicate knowledge of ecological processes and principles. SREL conducts fundamental and applied ecological research, as well as education and outreach programs, under a Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The Laboratory's research mission during the 2002 fiscal year was fulfilled with the publication of 76 journal articles and book chapters by faculty, technical staff, students, and visiting scientists. An additional 50 journal articles have been submitted or are in press. Other noteworthy events took place as faculty members, staff, and graduate students received awards. These are described in the section titled Special Accomplishments of Faculty, Staff, Students, and Administration on page 51. Notable scientific accomplishments include work conducted on contaminant transport, stable isotopes, sandhills ecology, and phytoremediation: (1) A collaborative study between Dr. Tom Hinton at SREL and scientists at SRTC demonstrated the feasibility of using illite clay to sequester 137Cs in sediments along the P and R reactor cooling canal system, where approximately 3,000 acres of land are contaminated. Overall, the study showed significant decreases in cesium concentrations and bioavailability following the addition of illite with no sign of harm to the ecosystem. While the cesium remains sequestered from the biosphere, its radioactivity decays and the process progresses from contaminant immobilization to remediation. (2) SREL's stable isotope laboratory is now fully functional. Stable isotope distributions in nature can provide important insights into many historical and current environmental processes. Dr. Christopher Romanek is leading SREL's research

  13. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory Annual Technical Progress Report of Ecological Research, June 30, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertsch, Paul M.; Janecek, Laura; Rosier, Brenda

    2001-06-30

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) is a research unit of the University of Georgia (UGA) and has been conducting ecological research on the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina for 50 years. The overall mission of the Laboratory is to acquire and communicate knowledge of ecological processes and principles. SREL conducts fundamental and applied ecological research, as well as education and outreach programs, under a Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SRS near Aiken, South Carolina. The Laboratory's research mission during the 2001 fiscal year was fulfilled with the publication of one book and 83 journal articles and book chapters by faculty, technical staff, students, and visiting scientists. An additional 77 journal articles have been submitted or are in press. Other noteworthy events took place as faculty members and graduate students received awards. These are described in the section Special Accomplishments of Faculty, Staff, Students, and Administration on page 54. Notable scientific accomplishments include work conducted on contaminant transport, global reptile decline, phytoremediation, and radioecology. Dr. Domy Adriano authored the second edition of his book ''Trace Elements in Terrestrial Environments: Biogeochemistry, Bioavailability, and Risks of Metals'', which was recently published by Springer-Verlag. The book provides a comprehensive treatment of many important aspects of trace elements in the environment. The first edition of the book, published in 1986, has become a widely acclaimed and cited reference. International attention was focused on the problem of reptile species decline with the publication of an article on this topic in the journal ''Bioscience'' in August, 2000. The article's authors included Dr. Whit Gibbons and a number of other SREL herpetologists who researched the growing worldwide problem of decline of reptile species. Factors related

  14. 1998 Chemical Technology Division Annual Technical Report. Applying chemical innovation to environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chemical Technology (CMT) Division is a diverse technical organization with principal emphases in environmental management and development of advanced energy sources. The Division conducts research and development in three general areas: (1) development of advanced power sources for stationary and transportation applications and for consumer electronics, (2) management of high-level and low-level nuclear wastes and hazardous wastes, and (3) electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The Division also performs basic research in catalytic chemistry involving molecular energy resources, mechanisms of ion transport in lithium battery electrolytes, and the chemistry of technology-relevant materials. In addition, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, which conducts research in analytical chemistry and provides analytical services for programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and other organizations. Technical highlights of the Division's activities during 1998 are presented

  15. A Primal Divisia Technical Change Index Based on the Output Distance Function

    OpenAIRE

    Guohua Feng; Apostolos Serletis

    2010-01-01

    We derive a primal Divisia technical change index based on the output distance function and further show the validity of this index from both economic and axiomatic points of view. In particular, we derive the primal Divisia technical change index by total differentiation of the output distance function with respect to a time trend. We then show that this index is dual to the Jorgenson and Griliches (1967) dual Divisia total factor productivity growth (TFPG) index when both the output and inp...

  16. Directed technical change, the elasticity of substitution and wage inequality in developing countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Behar, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    We develop a model of endogenous skill-biased technical change in developing countries. The model reconciles wildly dispersed existing estimates of the elasticity of substitution between more and less educated workers. It also produces an estimating equation for the elasticity, which allow us to produce overdue estimates for developing countries. With four types of data, elasticity estimates for developing countries are consistently about 2. In a skill-biased technical change framework, t...

  17. A Dialectical Approach to Social Restructuring and Technical Change in Greek Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Liodakis, George

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the dialectic between social restructuring and technical change within the transition to capitalism in Greek agriculture. Contrary to neo-populist interpretations, it is argued that capitalism has developed considerably, and that technical change has played a major role in the process of class differentiation and capitalist development. While the new capitalist strategy for agricultural restructuring has reinforced the process of concentration and capitalist developmen...

  18. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, Fiscal Year 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-08-01

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations.

  19. Technical and management support for the development of small wind systems. Annual report, October 1, 1977-September 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-02-01

    The FY 1978 Annual Report of the Rocky Flats Wind Systems Program describes the objectives, approach, and achievements of the program and each of its tasks areas during the period October 1, 1977-September 30, 1978. During this period, additional testing of ten small wind energy conversion systems (SWECS) was conducted and the Test Center was expanded to accommodate up to 30 SWECS. Work on nine design and analysis projects for advanced prototypes in three size ranges progressed through a series of design reviews, with prototype delivery scheduled to begin in mid-1979. Supporting activities included a Systems Engineering project which analyzed the cost of SWECS components and fabrication, a task effort in technical support to standards development, and the dissemination of information.

  20. The Effect of Hurricanes on Annual Precipitation in Maryland and the Connection to Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jackie; Liu, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Precipitation is a vital aspect of our lives droughts, floods and other related disasters that involve precipitation can cause costly damage in the economic system and general society. Purpose of this project is to determine what, if any effect do hurricanes have on annual precipitation in Maryland Research will be conducted on Marylands terrain, climatology, annual precipitation, and precipitation contributed from hurricanes Possible connections to climate change

  1. 323 Annual Change of Peak Expiratory Flow Rate in Asthma and COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Kwang H. A.; Lee, Kye Young

    2012-01-01

    Background Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) is a useful measurement for the follow-up examination in a chronic airway disease because it has the advantage of simple measuring and repetitive examination. The aim of this study is to examine the annual decrease of PEFR in asthma and COPD patients and to confirm the factors which influence the annual decreasing rate of PEFR. Methods From May, 2003 to September, 2010, the annual decreasing rate of PEFR is obtained from the asthma and COPD patients attending an outpatient pulmonary clinic. PEFR was measured using Mini-Wright (Clement Clarke International Ltd. UK). We conducted an analysis of the factors to influence on the change of PEFR and the average of it. Results The result indicated decrease of 3.72 ± 12.55 L/min annually in the asthmatic patient and decrease of 8.69 ± 8.87 L/min annually in the COPD patient. In the asthma, age and FEV1 are the predictive factor to influence on the change, on the other hand, age, FEV1, smoking and the number of aggravation are the factors in the COPD. Conclusions We could confirm the annual decreasing rate in patients of chronic airway disease and similar factor with FEV1 to influence on the change.

  2. Change in Annual Heating and Cooling Degree Days by State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This service show changes in heating and cooling degree days by state in the US. Both layers in this service were created by comparing the first 60 years of...

  3. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) annual technical report, fiscal year 1984 with fiscal year 1985 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy funded about 374 million dollars of materials science and technology activities in both fiscal years 1984 and 1985. These funds and the commensurate program management responsibilities resided in 21 DOE program offices, each of which has its own mission and responsibilities. The Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) provides a formal mechanism to insure coordinated planning and maximum programmatic effectiveness for the Department's 374 million dollar per year materials effort. The EMaCC reports to the Director of the Office of Energy Research who in turn has oversight responsibilities for proper coordination of the technical programs of the Department. In carrying out this responsibility, EMaCC hosts meetings, organizes working groups, and publishes an annual technical report. This report is mandated by the EMaCC Terms of Reference. Its purpose is to disseminate information on the DOE materials programs for more effective coordination. It describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department for FY 1984, contains funding information for FYs 1984 and 1985, and summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1985

  4. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) annual technical report, fiscal year 1984 with fiscal year 1985 data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1985-07-01

    The Department of Energy funded about 374 million dollars of materials science and technology activities in both fiscal years 1984 and 1985. These funds and the commensurate program management responsibilities resided in 21 DOE program offices, each of which has its own mission and responsibilities. The Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) provides a formal mechanism to insure coordinated planning and maximum programmatic effectiveness for the Department's 374 million dollar per year materials effort. The EMaCC reports to the Director of the Office of Energy Research who in turn has oversight responsibilities for proper coordination of the technical programs of the Department. In carrying out this responsibility, EMaCC hosts meetings, organizes working groups, and publishes an annual technical report. This report is mandated by the EMaCC Terms of Reference. Its purpose is to disseminate information on the DOE materials programs for more effective coordination. It describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department for FY 1984, contains funding information for FYs 1984 and 1985, and summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1985.

  5. Association Euratom - DTU, Technical University of Denmark, Department of Physics - Annual Progress Report 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom – DTU, Technical University of Denmark (until 31-12- 2011: Association Euratom – Risø DTU) covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport......, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. Within fusion technology there are activities related to development of high...

  6. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) Fiscal Year 1999 annual technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-10-31

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department`s materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. This report summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1999 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department.

  7. Association Euratom - Risø National Laboratory, Technical University of Denmark - Annual Progress Report 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Korsholm, Søren Bang; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. The activities in technology on investigations of radiation damage of fusion reactor materials have been......The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risø National Laboratory, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction...

  8. Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup and the Expert Regional Technical Group, Annual Report for 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This document is the annual report for the period September 1, 2014 through August 31, 2015 for the project—Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup (EOS) and the Expert Regional Technical Group (ERTG). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted the project for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The EOS and ERTG are part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) and habitat restoration efforts, respectively, developed by the Action Agencies (BPA, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers [Corps or USACE], and U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as a result of operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) and implemented under the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program (CEERP). BPA/Corps (2015) explain the CEERP and the role of RME and the ERTG. For the purposes of this report, the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) includes the floodplain from Bonneville Dam down through the lower river and estuary into the river’s plume in the ocean. The main purpose of this project is to facilitate EOS and ERTG meetings and work products. Other purposes are to provide technical support for CEERP adaptive management, CEERP restoration design challenges, and tributary RME. From 2002 through 2008, the EOS worked to design the federal RME program for the estuary/ocean (Johnson et al. 2008). From 2009 to the present day, EOS activities have involved RME implementation; however, EOS activities were minimal during the current reporting period. PNNL provided technical support to CEERP’s adaptive management process by convening 1.2 meetings of the Action Agencies (AAs) and drafting material for the “CEERP 2015 Restoration and Monitoring Plan” (BPA/Corps 2015).

  9. Climate change and the flowering time of annual crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craufurd, P Q; Wheeler, T R

    2009-01-01

    Crop production is inherently sensitive to variability in climate. Temperature is a major determinant of the rate of plant development and, under climate change, warmer temperatures that shorten development stages of determinate crops will most probably reduce the yield of a given variety. Earlier crop flowering and maturity have been observed and documented in recent decades, and these are often associated with warmer (spring) temperatures. However, farm management practices have also changed and the attribution of observed changes in phenology to climate change per se is difficult. Increases in atmospheric [CO(2)] often advance the time of flowering by a few days, but measurements in FACE (free air CO(2) enrichment) field-based experiments suggest that elevated [CO(2)] has little or no effect on the rate of development other than small advances in development associated with a warmer canopy temperature. The rate of development (inverse of the duration from sowing to flowering) is largely determined by responses to temperature and photoperiod, and the effects of temperature and of photoperiod at optimum and suboptimum temperatures can be quantified and predicted. However, responses to temperature, and more particularly photoperiod, at supraoptimal temperature are not well understood. Analysis of a comprehensive data set of time to tassel initiation in maize (Zea mays) with a wide range of photoperiods above and below the optimum suggests that photoperiod modulates the negative effects of temperature above the optimum. A simulation analysis of the effects of prescribed increases in temperature (0-6 degrees C in +1 degree C steps) and temperature variability (0% and +50%) on days to tassel initiation showed that tassel initiation occurs later, and variability was increased, as the temperature exceeds the optimum in models both with and without photoperiod sensitivity. However, the inclusion of photoperiod sensitivity above the optimum temperature resulted in a

  10. Regulatory and Technical Reports (Abstract Index Journal). Annual compilation for 1995, Volume 20, No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's annual summary of licensed nuclear power reactor data is based primarily on the report of operating data submitted by licensees for each unit for the month of December because that report contains data for the month of December, the year to date (in this case calendar year 1994) and cumulative data, usually from the date of commercial operation. The data is not independently verified, but various computer checks are made. The report is divided into two sections. The first contains summary highlights and the second contains data on each individual unit in commercial operation Section 1 capacity and availability factors are simple arithmetic averages. Section 2 items in the cumulative column are generally as reported by the licensee and notes as to the use of weighted averages and starting dates other than commercial operation are provided

  11. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues. Annual report, October 1994--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-19

    This is the first annual report describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. Task I of this contract is concerned with the analyses of HGCU ashes and descriptions of filter performance and is designed to address the problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash. Task 2 of this contract includes characterization of new and used filter elements. Some of the problems observed at the Tidd and Karhula PFBC facilities include excessive filtering pressure drop, the formation of large, tenacious ash deposits within the filter vessel, and bent or broken candle filter elements. In addition to these problems related to the characteristics of PFBC ashes and the ceramic materials used to construct candle filters, our previous laboratory characterizations of gasifier and carbonizer ashes have shown that these ashes also have characteristics that might negatively affect filtration.

  12. Regulatory and Technical Reports (Abstract Index Journal). Annual compilation for 1995, Volume 20, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheehan, M.

    1995-04-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s annual summary of licensed nuclear power reactor data is based primarily on the report of operating data submitted by licensees for each unit for the month of December because that report contains data for the month of December, the year to date (in this case calendar year 1994) and cumulative data, usually from the date of commercial operation. The data is not independently verified, but various computer checks are made. The report is divided into two sections. The first contains summary highlights and the second contains data on each individual unit in commercial operation Section 1 capacity and availability factors are simple arithmetic averages. Section 2 items in the cumulative column are generally as reported by the licensee and notes as to the use of weighted averages and starting dates other than commercial operation are provided.

  13. Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark. Annual progress report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. Within fusion technology there are activities related to development of high temperature superconductors. Other activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2010. (Author)

  14. Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory, Technical Univ. of Denmark. Annual progress report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelsen, P.K.; Korsholm, S.B.; Rasmussen, J.J. (eds.)

    2008-04-15

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. The activities in technology on investigations of radiation damage of fusion reactor materials have been phased out during 2007. Minor activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2007. (Author)

  15. Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark. Annual progress report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsholm, S.B.; Michelsen, P.K.; Rasmussen, J.J.; Westergaard, C.M. (eds.)

    2009-04-15

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. New activities in technology related to development of high temperature superconductors have been initiated in 2008. Minor activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2008. (Author)

  16. MHD air heater technology development. Annual technical progress report, January 1, 1980-December 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-03-01

    Progress on the technology development of the directly-fired high temperature air heater (HTAH) for MHD power plants is described in detail. The objective of task 1 is to continue development of ceramic materials technology for the directly-fired HTAH. The objectives of task 2 are to demonstrate the technical feasibility of operating a directly-fired HTAH (including both the heater matrix and valves), to continue obtaining information on life and corrosion resistance of HTAH materials, and to obtain design information for full-scale studies and future design work. The objectives of task 3 are to begin the identification of HTAH control requirements and control system needs, and to continue full-scale study efforts incorporating updated materials and design information in order to identify development needs for the HTAH development program. (WHK)

  17. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC): Annual technical report, fiscal year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department`s materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. This report summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1993 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department. The program descriptions consist of a funding summary for each Assistant Secretary office and the Office of Energy Research, and detailed project summaries with project goals and accomplishments. The FY 1993 budget summary table for DOE Materials Activities in each of the programs is presented.

  18. Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark. Annual progress report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. Within fusion technology there are activities related to development of high temperature superconductors. Minor activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2009. (Author)

  19. Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark. Annual progress report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. New activities in technology related to development of high temperature superconductors have been initiated in 2008. Minor activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2008. (Author)

  20. Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory, Technical Univ. of Denmark. Annual progress report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. The activities in technology on investigations of radiation damage of fusion reactor materials have been phased out during 2007. Minor activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2007. (Author)

  1. Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark. Annual progress report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsholm, S.B.; Michelsen, P.K.; Rasmussen, J.J.; Westergaard, C.M. (eds.)

    2011-04-15

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. Within fusion technology there are activities related to development of high temperature superconductors. Other activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2010. (Author)

  2. Energy materials coordinating committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, fiscal year 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2004-10-18

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. Topical subcommittees of the EMaCC are responsible for conducting seminars and otherwise facilitating information flow between DOE organizational units in materials areas of particular importance to the Department. The EMaCC Terms of Reference were recently modified and developed into a Charter that was approved on June 5, 2003. As a result of this reorganization, the existing subcommittees were disbanded and new subcommittees are being formed.

  3. Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark. Annual progress report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsholm, S.B.; Michelsen, P.K.; Rasmussen, J.J.; Westergaard, C.M. (eds.)

    2010-04-15

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. Within fusion technology there are activities related to development of high temperature superconductors. Minor activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2009. (Author)

  4. Seasonal and Annual Change in the Martian Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, W. M.; James, P. B.

    2011-12-01

    The polar caps have a long established dichotomy in visual appearance, relative elevations, and surface composition. Observations using the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) instruments MARCI, CTX and CRISM have shown unique styles of seasonal frost retreat as well as fine scale variations in the composition of various units. With MRO we have observations for three Martian Years (MY) 28, 29 and 30 from November of 2006 to the present. We have observed the seasonal cap recessions in both the north and south using MARCI daily global images and have examined the composition of selected units of the polar layered deposits exposed in summer. Observation over multiple Mars years allows us to compare changes between years as well as longer term evolution of the high albedo deposits at the poles. North Cap Recession and Change: The northern seasonal cap recession was observed in both MY 29 and 30. Past work had noted large scale loss of bright deposits up to Ls 95 and the rugged terrain of the Gemini Scopuli darkens up to ~Ls 100 and then subsequently brightens. The patterns observed in MY 29 and 30 are similar. Significant variability in the early season is noted in both years and the retreating seasonal cap edge is extremely dynamic. Additional retreat of high albedo deposits are noted in MY 30. A new high albedo deposit appears off a reentrant in Olympia Planum in MY 29 and later disappears. In MY30, portions of Olympia Planitia have larger areas of high albedo. In both years sustained bright patches appear along the cap margins and while some are persistent between years, they are also variable over the northern summer. It is still uncertain if these albedo changes represent volatile "refrosting" or the removal of low albedo material to expose higher albedo material underneath and whether or not longer term loss of volatiles is implied. South Cap Recession and Change: The southern seasonal cap recession is fundamentally different than the north, and persistence of

  5. Recent productivity developments and technical change in Danish organic farming - stagnation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Johannes; Graversen, Jesper Tranbjerg; Park, Tim;

    efficiency on farm level is ana-lysed by considering also curvature consistency. The total change in productivity for the reference period is measured by using the Malmquist total factor productivity in-dex approach based on a time trends as well as a general index model specification. Input specific bias...... in technical change as well elasticities of input substitution are analyzed. Fators for the development of technical change and the change in effi-ciency over time are investigated by applying a bootstrapped ITSUR technique. Fi-nally we try to conclude on the significance of subsidies for promoting long term...... growth in organic production by estimating a bootstrapped bivariate probit model with respect to factors influencing the probability of organic market exit. The results revealed significant differencies in the organic farms’ technical efficiencies, no sig-nificant total factor productivity growth...

  6. SKB annual report 1991. Including summaries of technical reports issued during 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the annual report on the activities of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., SKB. SKB is the owner of CLAB, the central facility for interim storage of spent nuclear fuel, located at Oskarshamn. CLAB was taken into operation in July 1985 and to the end of 1991 in total 1514 tonnes of spent fuel (measured as uranium) have been received. Transportation from the nuclear sites to CLAB is made by a special ship, M/S Sigyn. At Forsmark the final repository for Radioactive Waste (SFR) was taken into operation in April 1988. The repository is situated in crystalline rock under the Baltic Sea. The first construction phase includes rock caverns for 60000 m3 of waste. A second phase for additional 30000 m3 is planned to be built and commissioned around the year 2000. At the end of 1991 a total of 7900 m3 of waste have been deposited in SFR. SKB is in charge of a comprehensive research and development programme on geological disposal of nuclear waste. The total cost for R and D during 1991 was 182.7 MSEK of which 15.9 MSEK came from participants outside Sweden. Geological site-investigations are a substantial part of the programme. SKB is also the managing participant of the international Stripa-project under OECD/NEA. Cost calculations for the total nuclear waste management system, including decommissioning of all reactors, are updated annually. The total cost is estimated to 55 billion SEK. SKB also handles matters pertaining to prospecting and enrichment as well as stockpiling of uranium as strategic reserves for the Swedish nuclear power industry. Consulting service from SKB and associated expert groups are available on a commercial basis. Information activities are an integrated and important part of the Swedish radioactive waste management system. During 1991 successful public information activities have been carried out using mobile exhibitions in a tailor-made trailer and on the SKB ship M/S Sigyn. (au)

  7. Technical Advisory Committee on the nuclear fuel waste management program : thirteenth annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the last reporting period by the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) the emphasis of the work in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program (CNFWMP) has been on the writing of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and the associated set of nine primary reference documents as well as supporting documents. These are in preparation for submission to the Environmental Assessment Review Panel who will lead the national evaluation of the disposal concept under the auspices of the Federal Environmental Assessment Review Office (FEARO). The disposal concept developed over the last fourteen years by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) and anticipated to be presented by means of the EIS in 1994, is based on a multiple system of natural and man-made barriers wherein nuclear waste is first enclosed in corrosion-resistant containers, designed to last at least 500 years, and then placed in a vault excavated 500 - 1000 m deep in granitic rocks of the Canadian Shield. After container emplacement either in or on the floor of the vault, and with a surrounding buffer material of a bentonite clay/sand mixture, the vault will be backfilled and sealed with crushed rock, buffer and sand, as will be the shafts and exploratory boreholes. The case study being presented by AECL to demonstrate the safety of this concept and the technology to implement it, relies on computer simulations of a hypothetical disposal site with geological characteristics similar to those at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in the Whiteshell Research Area (WRA) located in Manitoba. The preliminary simulation results suggest that safe containment can be achieved provided that the waste is surrounded by a sparsely-fractured zone of rock wherein movement of contaminants carried by groundwater is modelled as a diffusive as opposed to a advective process. The principal focus of work during the past year within the environmental and safety assessment has been to complete the Post

  8. Semi-annual technical report, September 30, 1999 - March 31, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Dorin

    2000-04-01

    The Consortium for Plant Biotechnology Research, Inc. (CPBR) continues to operate according to objectives outlined in the proposal funded through the cooperative agreement. The italicized objectives below are addressed in this report, which covers the period September 30,1999 through March 31, 2000. (1) Update the research agenda using information obtained from member companies. (2) Identify and implement research projects that are deemed by industrial, scientific, and sponsoring agency evaluation to address significantly the problems and future of U.S. energy resources and that are relevant to the Department of Energy's mission. Specifically: (1) Announce research grants competition through a Request for Preproposals. (2) Conduct a dual-stage review process: Stage one--industrial and DOE review of preproposals; and Stage two--peer review, scientific consultants' review, DOE review of full proposals and Project Recommendation Committee evaluation and recommendation for funding. (3) Board of Directors approval of recommended awards. (4) Conduct ongoing project management. (5) Obtain semiannual, annual and final reports for evaluation of research goals and technology transfer. (6) Present reports to DOE.

  9. Advanced growth and surface analysis system for in situ studies of interface formation. Annual technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first annual report for developing an advanced integrated in situ UHV growth/analysis system for synchrotron radiation studies of interface and surface reactions which lead to epitaxial structures on Si, Ge, and Si1-xGex alloys. This equipment will allow one to use techniques based on synchrotron radiation, such as photoemission, x-ray standing wave (XSW), and surface x-ray absorption spectroscopy (SXAFS) to determining the electronic states and atomic configurations of surfaces in metal-silicon, metal-germanium and metal-silicon-germanium alloys. Since the award of the contract the authors have completed a detailed design of the overall system, identified commercially available equipment which fits the requirements and have purchased or ordered all of this equipment. They have also custom designed a considerable amount of equipment which is not available commercially because of the special requirements. This includes both of the UHV chambers, sample manipulators, and a mobile support stand. In this report, they will describe the design and purchase status of the system. An overview of the equipment purchase status is given in Appendix 1. The details of their custom designed growth and analytical chambers are given in Appendix 2

  10. Solar thermal hydrogen production process. Annual technical progress report, January-December, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, G.H.

    1979-01-01

    Westinghouse is currently under contract to DOE for technology development of the Sulfur Cycle, a hybrid thermochemical-electrochemical process for the production of hydrogen and oxygen from water. Operational studies have been conducted and have resulted in definitions of operating modes for solar/hydrogen plants and in assessments of the day/night and annual variations in performance that will influence the operating modes and the sizing of plant subsystems. Conceptual design studies have been conducted for process components that interface with the solar receiver. From related trade-off studies, a preferred configuration emerged that involves an intermediate working fluid (e.g., hot gas) between the solar receiver and the sulfuric acid decomposition reactor. The design of the reactor has been based on a shell and tube type heat exchanger configuration with catalyst placement on the shell side. A number of candidate materials for structural use in the acid decomposition reactor also have been evaluated experimentally. Screening tests and endurance tests with potential catalysts (to accelerate the rate of sulfur trioxide cracking) have been conducted with encouraging results. Approximately three dozen candidate materials for use in constructing the acid vaporizer have been tested for corrosion resistance to the expected environment. Detailed discussions of the results obtained during 1979 are presented.

  11. Adjustment of the annual cycle to climatic change in a long-lived migratory bird specie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. MØLLER

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change has advanced the phenology of many organisms. Migratory animals face particular problems because climate change in the breeding and the wintering range may be asynchronous, preventing rapid response to changing conditions. Advancement in timing of spring migration may have carry-over effects to other parts of the annual cycle, simply because advancement of one event in the annual cycle also advances subsequent events, gradually causing a general shift in the timing of the entire annual cycle. Such a phenotypic shift could generate accumulating effects over the years for individuals, but also across generations. Here we test this novel hypothesis of phenotypic response to climate change by using long-term data on the Arctic tern Sterna paradisaea. Mean breeding date advanced by almost three weeks during the last 70 years. Annual arrival date at the breeding grounds during a period of 47 years was predicted by environmental conditions in the winter quarters in the Southern Ocean near the Antarctic and by mean breeding date the previous year. Annual mean breeding date was only marginally determined by timing of arrival the current year, but to a larger extent by arrival date and breeding date the previous year. Learning affected arrival date as shown by a positive correlation between arrival date in year (i + 1 relative to breeding date in year (i and the selective advantage of early breeding in year (i. This provides a mechanism for changes in arrival date being adjusted to changing environmental conditions. This study suggests that adaptation to changing climatic conditions can be achieved through learning from year to year

  12. Adjustment of the annual cycle to climatic change in a long-lived migratory bird species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.P.M(φ)LLER; E.FLENSTED-JENSEN; W.MARDAL

    2009-01-01

    Climate change has advanced the phenology of many organisms. Migratory animals face particular problems because climate change in the breeding and the wintering range may be asynchronous, preventing rapid response to changing conditions. Advancement in timing of spring migration may have carry-over effects to other parts of the annual cycle, simply because advancement of one event in the annual cycle also advances subsequent events, gradually causing a general shift in the timing of the entire annual cycle. Such a phenotypic shift could generate accumulating effects over the years for individuals, but also across generations. Here we test this novel hypothesis of phenotypic response to climate change by using long-term data on the Arctic tern Sterna paradisaea. Mean breeding date advanced by almost three weeks during the last 70 years. Annual arrival date at the breeding grounds during a period of 47 years was predicted by environmental conditions in the winter quarters in the Southern Ocean near the Antarctic and by mean breeding date the previous year. Annual mean breeding date was only marginally determined by timing of arrival the current year, but to a larger extent by arrival date and breeding date the previous year. Learning affected arrival date as shown by a positive correlation between arrival date in year (i+1) relative to breeding date in year (i) and the selective advantage of early breeding in year (i). This provides a mechanism for changes in arrival date being adjusted to changing environmental conditions. This study suggests that adaptation to changing climatic conditions can be achieved through learning from year to year[Current Zoology 55(2):92-101,2009].

  13. Second Annual AEC Scientific Computer Information Exhange Meeting. Proceedings of the technical program theme: computer graphics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin,A.M.; Shimamoto, Y.

    1974-01-01

    The topic of computer graphics serves well to illustrate that AEC affiliated scientific computing installations are well represented in the forefront of computing science activities. The participant response to the technical program was overwhelming--both in number of contributions and quality of the work described. Session I, entitled Advanced Systems, contains presentations describing systems that contain features not generally found in graphics facilities. These features can be roughly classified as extensions of standard two-dimensional monochromatic imaging to higher dimensions including color and time as well as multidimensional metrics. Session II presents seven diverse applications ranging from high energy physics to medicine. Session III describes a number of important developments in establishing facilities, techniques and enhancements in the computer graphics area. Although an attempt was made to schedule as many of these worthwhile presentations as possible, it appeared impossible to do so given the scheduling constraints of the meeting. A number of prospective presenters 'came to the rescue' by graciously withdrawing from the sessions. Some of their abstracts have been included in the Proceedings.

  14. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC), fiscal year 1985. Annual technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further the effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meeting/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. Four topical subcommittees on Structural Ceramics, Batteries and Fuel Cells, Radioactive Waste Containment, and Steel are established and are continuing their own program. The FY 1985 and FY 1986 meeting program is given. The EMaCC aids in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and inter-agency compilations. Brief summaries of the materials research programs associated with each office and division are presented, including tables listing individual projects and the FY 1985 budgets for each. More details on the individual projects within the divisions and the specific tasks or subcontracts within the various projects are given in the paragraph descriptions

  15. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC), fiscal year 1985. Annual technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-05-01

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further the effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meeting/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. Four topical subcommittees on Structural Ceramics, Batteries and Fuel Cells, Radioactive Waste Containment, and Steel are established and are continuing their own program. The FY 1985 and FY 1986 meeting program is given. The EMaCC aids in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and inter-agency compilations. Brief summaries of the materials research programs associated with each office and division are presented, including tables listing individual projects and the FY 1985 budgets for each. More details on the individual projects within the divisions and the specific tasks or subcontracts within the various projects are given in the paragraph descriptions.

  16. A Comment on the environment and directed technical change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greaker, Mads; Heggedal, Tom-Reiel

    2012-07-01

    The major claim in Acemoglu, Aghion, Bursztyn and Hemous (2012) (AABH) is that subsidies for research and development of clean technologies are more important than carbon taxes when dealing with climate change. However, they – unconventionally – assume that a patent only lasts for one period. In this note we introduce long-lived patents into the AABH model. This makes the role of a research subsidy for clean technologies in AABH far less crucial and reestablishes the role of the carbon tax. This is good news as it is far easier to tax emissions than to pick the right technologies to subsidize.(Author)

  17. Energy materials coordinating committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, fiscal year 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2003-08-08

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. Topical subcommittees of the EMaCC are responsible for conducting seminars and otherwise facilitating information flow between DOE organizational units in materials areas of particular importance to the Department. The EMaCC Terms of Reference were recently modified and developed into a Charter that was approved on June 5, 2003. As a result of this reorganization, the existing subcommittees were disbanded and new subcommittees are being formed. The EMaCC Charter and the memorandum approving it are presented in the Appendix of this report. The FY 2002 budget summary for DOE Materials Activities is presented on page 8. The distribution of these funds between DOE laboratories, private industry, academia and other organizations is presented in tabular form on page 10. Following the budget summary is a set of detailed program descriptions for the FY 2002 DOE Materials activities. These descriptions are presented according to the organizational structure of the Department. A mission statement, a budget summary listing the project titles and FY 2002 funding, and detailed project summaries are presented for each Assistant Secretary office, the Office of Science, and the National Nuclear Security Administration. The project summaries also provide DOE, laboratory, academic and industrial contacts for each project, as appropriate.

  18. Energy materials coordinating committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, fiscal year 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2006-09-29

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. Topical subcommittees of the EMaCC are responsible for conducting seminars and otherwise facilitating information flow between DOE organizational units in materials areas of particular importance to the Department. The EMaCC Terms of Reference were recently modified and developed into a Charter that was approved on June 5, 2003. As a result of this reorganization, the existing subcommittees were disbanded and new subcommittees are being formed. The FY 2004 budget summary for DOE Materials Activities is presented on page 8. The distribution of these funds between DOE laboratories, private industry, academia and other organizations is presented in tabular form on page 10. Following the budget summary is a set of detailed program descriptions for the FY 2004 DOE Materials activities. These descriptions are presented according to the organizational structure of the Department. A mission statement, a budget summary listing the project titles and FY 2004 funding, and detailed project summaries are presented for each Assistant Secretary office, the Office of Science, and the National Nuclear Security Administration. The project summaries also provide DOE, laboratory, academic and industrial contacts for each project, as appropriate.

  19. Energy materials coordinating committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, fiscal year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2005-08-31

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. Topical subcommittees of the EMaCC are responsible for conducting seminars and otherwise facilitating information flow between DOE organizational units in materials areas of particular importance to the Department. The EMaCC Terms of Reference were recently modified and developed into a Charter that was approved on June 5, 2003. As a result of this reorganization, the existing subcommittees were disbanded and new subcommittees are being formed. The FY 2004 budget summary for DOE Materials Activities is presented on page 8. The distribution of these funds between DOE laboratories, private industry, academia and other organizations is presented in tabular form on page 10. Following the budget summary is a set of detailed program descriptions for the FY 2004 DOE Materials activities. These descriptions are presented according to the organizational structure of the Department. A mission statement, a budget summary listing the project titles and FY 2004 funding, and detailed project summaries are presented for each Assistant Secretary office, the Office of Science, and the National Nuclear Security Administration. The project summaries also provide DOE, laboratory, academic and industrial contacts for each project, as appropriate.

  20. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini Mission. Semi annual technical report, 30 September 1996--30 March 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical progress achieved during the period 27 January through 30 September 1996 through 30 March 1997 on Contract DE-AC03-91SF18852 Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators and Ancillary Activities is described. This report is organized by program task structure: spacecraft integration and liaison; engineering support; safety; qualified unicouple production; ETG fabrication, assembly, and test; ground support equipment (GSE); RTG shipping and launch support; designs, reviews, and mission applications; project management, quality assurance, reliability, contract changes, CAGO acquisition (operating funds), and CAGO maintenance and repair; and CAGO acquisition (capital funds)

  1. Change of risk information disclosure in annual report. Before and after earthquake disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research examines how risk information disclosure is changing in annual report before and after East Japan Great Earthquake Disaster. Company voluntary disclose risk information in annual report. Manager can decide a style and items of risk information. This paper explores risk information disclosures of Tokyo Electric Power Company, Chubu Power Electric Company, Kansai Electric Power Company and Toyota Motor Corporation. The managers except Tokyo Electric Company are likely to disclose own catastrophe risk before the disaster. However, they do not try to reduce their risk. Corporations' risk information do not link with own risk management. (author)

  2. CHANGES IN THE ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD IN AN ANNUAL CYCLE OF SPORT TRAINING OF YOUNG SOCCER PLAYERS

    OpenAIRE

    Śliwowski, R.; Andrzejewski, M; Wieczorek, A.; Barinow-Wojewódzki, A.; Jadczak, Ł.; Adrian, S.; Pietrzak, M.; Wieczorek, S.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess changes in the anaerobic threshold of young soccer players in an annual training cycle. A group of highly trained 15-18 year old players of KKS Lech Poznań were tested. The tests included an annual training macrocycle, and its individual stages resulted from the time structure of the sports training. In order to assess the level of exercise capacities of the players, a field exercise test of increasing intensity was carried out on a soccer pitch. The test ma...

  3. Climate change influences on the annual onset of Lyme disease in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Andrew J; Moore, Sean M; Sampson, Kevin M; Beard, Charles B; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2015-07-01

    Lyme disease is the most commonly reported vector-borne illness in the United States. Lyme disease occurrence is highly seasonal and the annual springtime onset of cases is modulated by meteorological conditions in preceding months. A meteorological-based empirical model for Lyme disease onset week in the United States is driven with downscaled simulations from five global climate models and four greenhouse gas emissions scenarios to project the impacts of 21st century climate change on the annual onset week of Lyme disease. Projections are made individually and collectively for the 12 eastern States where >90% of cases occur. The national average annual onset week of Lyme disease is projected to become 0.4-0.5 weeks earlier for 2025-2040 (pStates exhibit larger shifts (1.0-3.5 weeks) compared to the Northeastern and upper Midwestern States (0.2-2.3 weeks) by 2065-2080. Winter and spring temperature increases primarily cause the earlier onset. Greater spring precipitation and changes in humidity partially counteract the temperature effects. The model does not account for the possibility that abrupt shifts in the life cycle of Ixodes scapularis, the primary vector of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi in the eastern United States, may alter the disease transmission cycle in unforeseen ways. The results suggest 21st century climate change will make environmental conditions suitable for earlier annual onset of Lyme disease cases in the United States with possible implications for the timing of public health interventions.

  4. Predictors of technical adoption and behavioural change to transport energy-saving measures in response to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy conservation can be achieved through the adoption of technical measures or the changing of one's behaviour. A survey of 201 Malaysian public personnel was conducted to examine the predictors of these two types of transport energy-saving measures in response to climate change. The results indicated that there were significant differences in the relative acceptability of both behavioural measures with respect to gender, level of education, income, knowledge of climate change and attitude. Gender, knowledge of causes of climate change and personal norm were predictors for the acceptability of technical measures, while perceived efficacy and personal norm were the factors that influenced the acceptability of behavioural measures. The results also indicated that distinctions ought to be made between technology adoption and behaviour modifications that require lifestyle changes when assessing pro-environmental intent behaviour. The implications for theory and practice are discussed. - Highlights: • A survey was conducted to examine acceptability of transport energy-saving measures. • Gender, knowledge of causes, efficacy and personal norm are predictors of technical measures. • Personal norm and perceived efficacy influenced acceptability of behavioural change. • Both measures are strongly correlated to psychological factors than to socio-demographic variables

  5. Thermoelectric Materials Evaluation Program. Annual technical report for fiscal year 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimization was initiated with respect to performance, operating temperatures, and thermoelectric properties of an N-type material based on rare earth (neodymium and gadolinium) selenide technology. Effort was expanded to experimentally describe the chemical, electrical and physical behavior of P-type thermoelectric material over a range of temperatures. Emphasis was changed in P-type material research from basic properties to sublimation suppression by wrapping, and to the understanding of contact resistance problems at the hot end. Analytical performance calculations were made as an aid in couple development. In the area of module development an evaluation of the reduction of bypass-heat loss was made and module M-22R was placed on test. Parts were fabricated for M23R. Data on long term operating characteristics, ingradient compatibility, and reliability of elements and couples was obtained

  6. Land-use changes reinforce the impacts of climate change on annual runoff dynamics in a southeast China coastal watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ervinia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Study on runoff dynamics across different physiographic regions is fundamentally important to formulate the sound strategies for water resource management especially in the coastal watershed where peoples heavily concentrated and relied on water resources. The L−R diagram, a conceptual model by which the land-changes evapotranspiration (ΔL was estimated as the difference between actual and climate evapotranspiration to identify the specific impact of land-use changes on annual runoff changes (ΔR, was developed using the 53-year hydro-climatic data of Jiulong River Watershed, a typical medium-sized subtropical coastal watershed in China. This study found that land-use changes have reinforced the impact of climatic changes on runoff changes where nearly all points were scattered in II and IV quadrant. Deforestation and expansion of built up area has diminished the water retention capacity in a catchment as well as evapotranspiration thus produce extra runoff accounting for 12–183 % of total runoff increase. In contrast, reforestation makes the significant contribution to decreasing annual runoff for about 21–82 % of total runoff loss. This study revealed the river runoff has become more vulnerable to intensive anthropogenic disturbances under the context of climate changes in a coastal watershed.

  7. Modelling the International Climate Change Negotiations: A Non-Technical Outline of Model Architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underdal, Arild

    1997-12-31

    This report discusses in non-technical terms the overall architecture of a model that will be designed to enable the user to (1) explore systematically the political feasibility of alternative policy options and (2) to determine the set of politically feasible solutions in the global climate change negotiations. 25 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. An endogenous growth model with embodied energy-saving technical change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zon, A; Yetkiner, IH

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we extend the Romer [Journal of Political Economy 98 (Part 2) (1990) S271] model in two ways. First we include energy consumption of intermediates. Second, intermediates become heterogeneous due to endogenous energy-saving technical change. We show that the resulting model can still g

  9. Is technical change directed by the supply of skills? The case of South Korea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano, L; Timmer, MP

    2002-01-01

    In a recent contribution, Acemoglu [Quarterly Journal of Economics 113 (1998) 1055] modelled the effects of an increase in the supply of skills on the skill premium. We estimate a model to disentangle the short-run substitution effects and the effects of skill-biased technical change using industry

  10. MT DOE/EPSCoR planning grant. Annual technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromenshenk, J.J.; Scruggs, V.L.

    1992-08-31

    The Montana DOE/EPSCoR planning process has made significant changes in the state of Montana. This is exemplified by notification from the Department of Energy`s Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (DOE/EPSCoR) recommendation to fund Montana`s 1992 graduate traineeship grant proposal in the amount of $500,000. This is a new award to Montana. DOE traineeship reviewers recognized that our planning grant enabled us to develop linkages and build the foundation for a competitive energy-related research and traineeship program in Montana. During the planning, we identified three major focus areas: Energy Resource Base, Energy Production, and Environmental Effects. For each focus area, we detailed specific problem areas that the trainees may research. We also created MORE, a consortium of industrial affiliates, state organizations, the Montana University System (MUS), tribal colleges, and DOE national laboratories. MORE and our state-wide Research and Education Workshop improved and solidified working relationships. We received numerous letters of support. DOE reviewers endorsed our traineeship application process. They praised the linkage of each traineeship with a faculty advisor, and the preference for teams of faculty members and two or more students. ``Particularly commendable`` were our programs to involve Native American educators and the ``leveraging effect`` of this on the human resources in the state. Finally, the DOE reviewers indicated that cost-sharing via support of Native Americans was creative and positive.

  11. MT DOE/EPSCoR planning grant. [Annual Technical Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromenshenk, J.J.; Scruggs, V.L.

    1992-08-31

    The Montana DOE/EPSCoR planning process has made significant changes in the state of Montana. This is exemplified by notification from the Department of Energy's Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (DOE/EPSCoR) recommendation to fund Montana's 1992 graduate traineeship grant proposal in the amount of $500,000. This is a new award to Montana. DOE traineeship reviewers recognized that our planning grant enabled us to develop linkages and build the foundation for a competitive energy-related research and traineeship program in Montana. During the planning, we identified three major focus areas: Energy Resource Base, Energy Production, and Environmental Effects. For each focus area, we detailed specific problem areas that the trainees may research. We also created MORE, a consortium of industrial affiliates, state organizations, the Montana University System (MUS), tribal colleges, and DOE national laboratories. MORE and our state-wide Research and Education Workshop improved and solidified working relationships. We received numerous letters of support. DOE reviewers endorsed our traineeship application process. They praised the linkage of each traineeship with a faculty advisor, and the preference for teams of faculty members and two or more students. Particularly commendable'' were our programs to involve Native American educators and the leveraging effect'' of this on the human resources in the state. Finally, the DOE reviewers indicated that cost-sharing via support of Native Americans was creative and positive.

  12. Climate change influences on the annual onset of Lyme disease in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, A. J.; Moore, S. M.; Sampson, K. M.; Beard, C. B.; Eisen, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Lyme disease is the most commonly reported vector-borne illness in the United States. Lyme disease occurrence is highly seasonal and the annual springtime onset of cases is modulated by meteorological conditions in preceding months. A meteorological-based empirical model for Lyme disease onset week in the United States is driven with downscaled simulations from five global climate models and four greenhouse gas emissions scenarios to project the impacts of 21st century climate change on the annual onset week of Lyme disease. Projections are made individually and collectively for the 12 eastern States where >90% of cases occur. The national average annual onset week of Lyme disease is projected to become 0.4-0.5 weeks earlier for 2025-2040 (plife cycle of Ixodes scapularis, the primary vector of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi in the eastern United States, may alter the disease transmission cycle in unforeseen ways. The results suggest 21st century climate change will make environmental conditions suitable for earlier annual onset of Lyme disease cases in the United States with possible implications for the timing of public health interventions.

  13. Annual variations in wet-deposition chemistry related to changes in climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Mast, M. Alisa

    2016-02-01

    National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP)/National Trends Network precipitation type, snow-season duration, and annual timing of selected chemical wet-deposition maxima vary with latitude and longitude within a 35-year (1979-2013) data record for the contiguous United States and Alaska. From the NADP data collected within the region bounded by 35.6645°-48.782° north latitude and 124°-68° west longitude, similarities in latitudinal and longitudinal patterns of changing snow-season duration, fraction of annual precipitation recorded as snow, and the timing of chemical wet-deposition maxima, suggest that the chemical climate of the atmosphere is linked to physical changes in climate. Total annual precipitation depth has increased 4-6 % while snow season duration has decreased from approximately 7 to 21 days across most of the USA, except in higher elevation regions where it has increased by as much as 21 days. Snow-season precipitation is increasingly comprised of snow, but annually total precipitation is increasingly comprised of liquid precipitation. Meanwhile, maximum ammonium deposition occurs as much as 27 days earlier, and the maximum nitrate: sulfate concentration ratio in wet-deposition occurs approximately 10-21 days earlier in the year. The maximum crustal (calcium + magnesium + potassium) cation deposition occurs 2-35 days earlier in the year. The data suggest that these shifts in the timing of atmospheric wet deposition are linked to a warming climate, but the ecological consequences are uncertain.

  14. Impact assessment of climate change and human activities on annual highest water level of Taihu Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-fang HU; Yin-tang WANG

    2009-01-01

    The annual highest water level of Taihu Lake (Zm) is very significant for flood management in the Taihu Basin. This paper first describes the inter-annual and intra-annual traits of Zm from 1956 to 2000. Then, using the Mann-Kenall (MK) and Spearman (SP) nonparametric tests, the long-term change trends of area precipitation and pan evaporation in the Taihu Basin are determined. Meanwhile, using the Morlet wavelet transformation, the fluctuation patterns and change points of precipitation and pan evaporation are analyzed. Also, human activities in the Taihu Basin are described, including land use change and hydraulic project construction. Finally, the relationship between Zm, the water level of Taihu Lake 30 days prior to the day of Zm (Z0), and the 30-day total precipitation and pan evaporation prior to the day of Zm (P and E0, respectively) is described based on multi-linear regression equations. The relative influence of climate change and human activities on the change of Zm is quantitatively ascertained. The results demonstrate that: (1) Zm was distinctly higher during the 1980-2000 period than during the 1956-1979 period, and the 30 days prior to the day of Zm are the key phase influencing Zm every year; (2) P increased significantly at a confidence level of 95% during the 1956-2000 period, while the reverse was true for E0; (3) The relationship between Zm, P and E0 distinctly changed after 1980; (4) Climate change and human activities together caused frequent occurrences of high Zm after 1980; (5) Climate change caused a substantially greater Zm difference between the 1956-1979 and 1980-2000 periods than human activities. Climate change, as represented by P and E0, was the dominant factor raising Zm, with a relative influence ratio of 83.6%, while human activities had a smaller influence ratio of 16.4%.

  15. Coolside waste management research. Annual technical progress report, October 1992--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The composition (major, minor and trace elements) of approximately 400 Coolside waste samples form the Edgewater Coolside demonstration and CONSOL pilot plant tests are summarized and tabulated in this report. The composition changes in the waste samples collected during the Edgewater Coolside demonstration can be correlated with the processing variables and operation conditions. A study was conducted that focused on the formation mechanism of ettringite crystals in FGD waste materials since they were observed to form in Coolside, FBC, and AFBC derived wastes. The degree of swelling in FGD-derived waste can be correlated to the amounts of ettringite crystals present. Reactions controlling the formation, composition and disintegration of ettringite are critical in determining the overall stability and strength of cements and concretes derived from dry-flue gas desulfurization wastes. Since these wastes consist of fly ash, along with, CaSO{sub 3}, and CaSO{sub 4} and unreacted Ca(OH){sub 2}, the sulfites and sulfates react with the Ca(OH){sub 2} along with the glassy aluminosilicates in the fly ash to form calcium sulfo-aluminate minerals. Ettringite, the most important of these, is the main contributor to the compressive strength development of the FGD waste mixtures. However, excessive ettringite formation causes swelling which often leads to destructive crack formation. It has been shown that the quantity of ettringite formed and compressive strength of the FGD waste mixtures reach a maximum until ettringite begins to disintegrate. Because the formation mechanisms of ettringite are not entirely understood, swelling in FGD derived products is difficult to predict.

  16. Technical meeting (TM) to 'Review of national programmes on fast reactors and accelerator driven systems (ADS)'. Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR) (37th annual meeting). Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the 37th Annual Meeting of the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors, were to: 1) exchange information on the national programmes on Fast Reactors (FR) and Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS); 2) review the progress since the 36th TWG-FR Annual Meeting, including the status of the actions; 3) consider meeting arrangements for 2004 and 2005; 4) review the Agency's co-ordinated research activities in the field of FRs and ADS, as well as co-ordination of the TWG-FR's activities with other organizations. The participants made presentations on the status of the respective national programmes on FR and ADS development. A summary of the highlights for the period since the 36th TWG-FR Annual Meeting is included in this proceedings. Annex IV contains the Review of National Programs on Fast Reactors and Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS), and the TWG-FR Activity Report for the Period May 2003-April 2004

  17. Changes in Average Annual Precipitation in Argentina’s Pampa Region and Their Possible Causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pérez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in annual rainfall in five sub-regions of the Argentine Pampa Region (Rolling, Central, Mesopotamian, Flooding and Southern were examined for the period 1941 to 2010 using data from representative locations in each sub-region. Dubious series were adjusted by means of a homogeneity test and changes in mean value were evaluated using a hydrometeorological time series segmentation method. In addition, an association was sought between shifts in mean annual rainfall and changes in large-scale atmospheric pressure systems, as measured by the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO and the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI. The results indicate that the Western Pampas (Central and Southern are more vulnerable to abrupt changes in average annual rainfall than the Eastern Pampas (Mesopotamian, Rolling and Flooding. Their vulnerability is further increased by their having the lowest average rainfall. The AMO showed significant negative correlations with all sub-regions, while the PDO and SOI showed significant positive and negative correlations respectively with the Central, Flooding and Southern Pampa. The fact that the PDO and AMO are going through the phases of their cycles that tend to reduce rainfall in much of the Pampas helps explain the lower rainfall recorded in the Western Pampas sub-regions in recent years. This has had a significant impact on agriculture and the environment.

  18. Technical Change in Agriculture and Deforestation in Tropical Asia: An Analytical Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Sisira Kumara Jayasuriya

    2000-01-01

    Deforestation is considered a major environmental issue in tropical Asian developing countries that have been undergoing major demographic and structural changes. A major contributing factor to deforestation is conversion of land for alternative, primarily agricultural, uses. There have been conflicting views about the impact on deforestation of productivity enhancing technical changes in agriculture such as the Green Revolution in cereal grains. This paper presents an analytical framework fo...

  19. Annual change in spirometric parameters among patients affected in Bhopal gas disaster: A retrospective observational study

    OpenAIRE

    De Sajal

    2013-01-01

    Background: The involvement of respiratory system due to inhalation of methyl isocyanate (MIC) during Bhopal gas disaster was particularly severe. We retrospectively evaluated the annual changes in spirometric parameters among those who were affected in this disaster (exposed survivors) and had respiratory symptoms. Materials and Methods: Spirometry reports of exposed survivors that were carried out in our institution were retrospectively reviewed and we identified 252 subjects who had perfor...

  20. National Institute for Global Environmental Change. Semi-annual report, July 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werth, G.C.

    1992-04-01

    This document is the Semi-Annual Report of the National Institute for Global Environmental Change for the reporting period July 1 to December 31, 1991. The report is in two parts. Part I presents the mission of the Institute, examples of progress toward that mission, a brief description of the revised management plan, and the financial report. Part II presents the statements of the Regional Center Directors along with progress reports of the projects written by the researchers themselves.

  1. Annual technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the present contract period Phaedrus has begun operation as a true tandem mirror. This was accomplished by achieving the rf sustained mode in which the plug densities were built up by a combination of central cell gas puffing and plug ICRH following stream gun turn off. It was demonstrated that the tandem mirror plasma could be sustained by plug ICRH for up to 1 msec following decay of the external plasma. In this mode plasma characteristics were no longer dominated by problems associated with a high conductivity stream gun plasma in the external region (as was the case in many previous experiments in Phaedrus). Among these problems were (1) line tying which significantly reduced instabilities in a way that would not apply to reactors and (2) low electron temperatures which had been held to approx. 20 eV

  2. Annual technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a Monte Carlo study of the thermal conductivity and impurity transport in a tokamak with an optimized bundle divertor configuration. This configuration has been designed to obtain the best plasma performance. When collisions and electric fields are included, the thermal conductivity was found to be 40% larger than that of an axisymmetric neoclassical value. Without a divertor the oxygen impurity was found to diffuse towards the center of the plasma as predicted theoretically. However, this impurity diffused outwardly when the divertor was turned on. Few impurity particles diffused into the plasma when launched in the scrape-off layer. This optimized bundle divertor meets the engineering constraints of a power producing reactor

  3. Dominant climatic factors driving annual runoff changes at the catchment scale across China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhongwei; Yang, Hanbo; Yang, Dawen

    2016-07-01

    With global climate changes intensifying, the hydrological response to climate changes has attracted more attention. It is beneficial not only for hydrology and ecology but also for water resource planning and management to understand the impact of climate change on runoff. In addition, there are large spatial variations in climate type and geographic characteristics across China. To gain a better understanding of the spatial variation of the response of runoff to changes in climatic factors and to detect the dominant climatic factors driving changes in annual runoff, we chose the climate elasticity method proposed by Yang and Yang (2011). It is shown that, in most catchments of China, increasing air temperature and relative humidity have negative impacts on runoff, while declining net radiation and wind speed have positive impacts on runoff, which slow the overall decline in runoff. The dominant climatic factors driving annual runoff are precipitation in most parts of China, net radiation mainly in some catchments of southern China, air temperature and wind speed mainly in some catchments in northern China.

  4. Dominant climatic factor driving annual runoff change at catchments scale over China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With global climate changes intensifying, the hydrological response to climate changes has attracted more attentions. It is beneficial not only for hydrology and ecology but also for water resources planning and management to reveal the impacts of climate change on runoff. It is of great significance of climate elasticity of runoff to estimate the impacts of climatic factors on runoff. In addition, there are large spatial variations in climate type and geography characteristics over China. To get a better understanding the spatial variation of runoff response to climate variables change and detect the dominant climatic factor driving annual runoff change, we chose the climate elasticity method proposed by Yang and Yang (2011, where the impact of the catchment characteristics on runoff was represented by a parameter n. The results show that the dominant climatic factor driving annual runoff is precipitation in the most part of China, net radiation in the lower reach of Yangtze River Basin, the Pearl River Basin, the Huai River Basin and the southeast area, and wind speed in part of the northeast China.

  5. Technical Note: Evaluating a simple parameterization of radiative shortwave forcing from surface albedo change

    OpenAIRE

    R. M. Bright; Kvalevåg, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Land use activities affect Earth's energy balance not only via biogeochemical emissions but also through perturbations in surface albedo, the latter of which is often excluded in impact assessment studies. In this short technical note, we present and compare a simple model for estimating shortwave radiative forcings at the top of Earth's atmosphere to a more sophisticated 8-stream radiative transfer model based on a discrete ordinate method. Outcomes from monthly albedo change simulati...

  6. TECHNICAL CHANGE AND ELASTICITY OF FACTOR DEMAND IN RICE PRODUCTION IN BANGLADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Kamruzzaman, M.; Alam, Md. Ferdous; Abedin, Joynal

    1996-01-01

    The study was undertaken with a view to finding the technical change in agriculture and factor demand status of the rice crop of Bangladesh. The production technology of the farmers was represented by the translogarithmic cost function. The data were collected from secondary sources. The findings revealed that there was a complementary relationship between the human labor and bullock labor, bullock labor and fertilizer, seeds and fertilizer, seeds and irrigation and fertilizer and irrigation....

  7. Age biased technical and organisational change, training and employment prospects of older workers

    OpenAIRE

    Behaghel, Luc; Caroli, Eve; Roger, Muriel

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the role of training in mitigating the negative impact of technical and organizational changes on the employment prospects of older workers. Using a panel of French firms in the late 1990s, we first estimate wage bill share equations for different age groups. Consistently with what is found in the literature, we find that adopting new technologies and innovative work practices negatively affects the wage bill share of older workers. In contrast, training older workers more than ave...

  8. Climate-change-related shifts in annual phenology of a temperate snake during the last 20 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugiero, Lorenzo; Milana, Giuliano; Petrozzi, Fabio; Capula, Massimo; Luiselli, Luca

    2013-08-01

    Global warming is thought to be a far-reaching threat to biodiversity, and is supposed to influence several aspects of the ecology of animals. Global warming should influence especially the ectotherm vertebrates, which depend directly from the external thermal conditions for their activities and performances. Here, we analyze the changes in phenology which have occurred in the last 20 years in a marked population of vipers, Vipera aspis, and we try to relate these changes with the intervening climatic changes. We analyzed three metrics of viper's annual phenology: (i) annual onset of above-ground activity (hereby AOA); (ii) annual onset of feeding period (AOF); (iii) annual onset of the hibernation (AOH). The annual variations of these three phenological metrics were correlated to five variables of climatic data: (1) mean annual air temperature, (2) mean February air temperature, (3) mean July air temperature, (4) yearly number of rainy days, and (5) yearly number of days with rainstorm. We observed a statistically significant reduction of AOA values from >28 days between 1987 and 1997, to approximately 20 days from 1998 to 2011, with a similar statistical trend also found for AOF values. The number of days of delay in entering hibernation increased significantly since 1998. Three sets of relationships between climatic variables and metrics of viper phenology were statistically significant, i.e. the correlation (i) between annual mean temperature and AOA (negative), (ii) between annual mean temperature and AOF (negative), and (iii) between annual mean temperature and AOH (positive). The percent of field days (between 20th February and 20th March) with no viper observed also decreased significantly over the years. Our study showed that three different traits of the annual phenology of a Mediterranean snake are shifting in the 20+ years of monitoring, and that there is correlational evidence that these shifts are linked to intervening climate change.

  9. Emphysema distribution and annual changes in pulmonary function in male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanabe Naoya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD considerably varies among patients. Those with emphysema identified by quantitative computed tomography (CT are associated with the rapid progression assessed by forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1. However, whether the rate of the decline in lung function is independently affected by the regional distribution or the severity of emphysema in the whole lung is unclear. Methods We followed up 131 male patients with COPD for a median of 3.7 years. We measured wall area percent (WA% in right apical segmental bronchus, total lung volume, percent low attenuation volume (LAV%, and the standard deviation (SD of LAV% values from CT images of 10 isovolumetric partitions (SD-LAV as an index of cranial-caudal emphysema heterogeneity. Annual changes in FEV1 were then determined using a random coefficient model and relative contribution of baseline clinical parameters, pulmonary function, and CT indexes including LAV%, SD-LAV, and WA% to annual changes in FEV1 were examined. Results The mean (SD annual change in FEV1 was −44.4 (10.8 mL. Multivariate random coefficient model showed that higher baseline FEV1, higher LAV%, current smoking, and lower SD-LAV independently contributed to an excessive decline in FEV1, whereas ratio of residual volume to total lung capacity, ratio of diffusing capacity to alveolar ventilation, and WA% did not, after adjusting for age, height, weight, and ratio of CT-measured total lung volume to physiologically-measured total lung capacity. Conclusions A more homogeneous distribution of emphysema contributed to an accelerated decline in FEV1 independently of baseline pulmonary function, whole-lung emphysema severity, and smoking status. In addition to whole-lung analysis of emphysema, CT assessment of the cranial-caudal distribution of emphysema might be useful for predicting rapid, progressive disease and for developing a targeted

  10. Continent-scale global change attribution in European birds - combining annual and decadal time scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Thorup, Kasper; Tøttrup, Anders P; Chylarecki, Przemysław; Jiguet, Frédéric; Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Noble, David G; Reif, Jiri; Schmid, Hans; van Turnhout, Chris; Burfield, Ian J; Foppen, Ruud; Voříšek, Petr; van Strien, Arco; Gregory, Richard D; Rahbek, Carsten

    2016-02-01

    Species attributes are commonly used to infer impacts of environmental change on multiyear species trends, e.g. decadal changes in population size. However, by themselves attributes are of limited value in global change attribution since they do not measure the changing environment. A broader foundation for attributing species responses to global change may be achieved by complementing an attributes-based approach by one estimating the relationship between repeated measures of organismal and environmental changes over short time scales. To assess the benefit of this multiscale perspective, we investigate the recent impact of multiple environmental changes on European farmland birds, here focusing on climate change and land use change. We analyze more than 800 time series from 18 countries spanning the past two decades. Analysis of long-term population growth rates documents simultaneous responses that can be attributed to both climate change and land-use change, including long-term increases in populations of hot-dwelling species and declines in long-distance migrants and farmland specialists. In contrast, analysis of annual growth rates yield novel insights into the potential mechanisms driving long-term climate induced change. In particular, we find that birds are affected by winter, spring, and summer conditions depending on the distinct breeding phenology that corresponds to their migratory strategy. Birds in general benefit from higher temperatures or higher primary productivity early on or in the peak of the breeding season with the largest effect sizes observed in cooler parts of species' climatic ranges. Our results document the potential of combining time scales and integrating both species attributes and environmental variables for global change attribution. We suggest such an approach will be of general use when high-resolution time series are available in large-scale biodiversity surveys. PMID:26486804

  11. Seasonal Changes in Atmospheric Noise Levels and the Annual Variation in Pigeon Homing Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrum, J. T.; McIsaac, H. P.; Drob, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    The remarkable navigational ability of homing pigeons (Columba livia) is influenced by a number of factors, an unknown one of which causes the "Wintereffekt"1 or annual variation in homing performance. Minima in homeward orientation and return speeds have been observed in winter, with maxima in summer, during repetitive pigeon releases from single sites near experimental lofts in Wilhelmshaven, Göttingen, and Munich, Germany, and near Pisa, Italy1-4. Overall the annual variation is more pronounced in northern Germany than Italy4, and both mature and juvenile cohorts respond to this seasonal factor. Older, more experienced pigeons are better at compensating for its effects than naïve ones, but are still affected after numerous releases. The narrow low-frequency band of atmospheric background noise (microbaroms; 0.1-0.3 Hz) also varies with an annual cycle that generally has higher amplitudes in winter than in summer depending on location5. In addition, homing pigeons, and possibly other birds, apparently use infrasonic signals of similar frequency as navigational cues6, and a seasonal variation in background noise levels could cause corresponding changes in signal-to-noise ratios and thus in homing performance. The annual variation in homing performance, however, was not observed during long-term pigeon releases at two sites in eastern North America. The annual and geographic variability in homing performance in the northern hemisphere can be explained to a first order by seasonal changes in infrasonic noise sources related to ocean storm activity, and to the direction and intensity of stratospheric winds. In addition, increased dispersion in departure bearings of individual birds for some North American releases were likely caused by additional infrasonic noise associated with severe weather events during tornado and Atlantic hurricane seasons. 1Kramer, G. & von Saint Paul, U., J. Ornithol. 97, 353-370 (1956); 2Wallraff, H. G., Z. Tierpsychol. 17, 82-113 (1960

  12. Annual meeting on nuclear technology '88. Technical session on focal points of the atomic energy law and the radiation protection law in 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of Annual Meeting on Nuclear Technology reports presents the papers of the technical session on 'Focal points of the atomic energy law and the radiation protection law in 1988'. The titles are: Is there a binding link between decisions of the atomic energy authority and criminal law? Conclusions to be drawn from the Alkem case court decision. - Recent developments in atomic energy law. - Current radiation protection law. - Codetermination at plant level in a nuclear installation. - The legal position of foreigners from neigbour countries in the field of atomic energy law. The licensing of nuclear installations near the border. (RST)

  13. Explaining technical change in a small country the Finnish national innovation system

    CERN Document Server

    Vuorinen, Pentti

    1994-01-01

    Technical change is produced by the interaction of a large number of technical, economic, social and institutional factors. One of the starting points is the concept of national innovation systems. The aim of this book is to take Finland as an example illustrating the challenges faced by small countries. The characteristics and performance of the Finnish national innovation system of the last couple of decades are analyzed. The Finnish experience is put in a broader context by comparing it with a few other countries. The development paths possible in the near future are assessed. According to the results, many problems remain despite favourable developments in several technology indicators. The rigidities of the social institutions created during the 1970s and 1980s seem to have become obstacles for economic and technological development. There are fairly large differences between the countries studied, and even between the culturally and historically close Nordic countries. However,Finland and Sweden seem to...

  14. Abrupt change point detection of annual maximum precipitation using fused lasso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jong-June; Sung, Jang Hyun; Chung, Eun-Sung

    2016-07-01

    Because the widely used Bayesian change point analysis (BCPA) is generally applied to the normal distribution, it cannot be freely used to the annual maximum precipitations (AMP) in South Korea. Therefore, this study proposed the fused lasso penalty function to detect the change point of AMP which can be generally fitted by using the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution in South Korea. First, four numerical experiments are conducted to compare the detection performances between BCPA and fused lasso method. As a result, fused lasso shows the superiority of the data generated by GEV distribution having skewness. The fused lasso method is applied to 63 weather stations in South Korea and then 17 stations having any change points from BCPA and the GEV fused lasso are analyzed. Similar to the numerical analyses, the GEV fused lasso method can delicately detect the change point of AMPs. After the change point, the means of AMPs did not go back to the previous. Alternately, BCPA can be stated to find variation points not change points because the means returned to their original values as time progressed. Therefore, it can be concluded that the GEV fused lasso method detects the change points of non-stationary AMPs of South Korea. This study can be extended to more extreme distributions for various meteorological variables.

  15. 76 FR 7810 - Notice of Proposed Change to Section I of the South Dakota and North Dakota State Technical Guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ...The NRCS State Conservationists for South Dakota and North Dakota have determined that changes must be made to the NRCS State Technical Guides concerning State wetland mapping conventions. The two States are proposing to issue joint State wetland mapping conventions. The joint State wetland mapping conventions will be used as part of the technical documents to conduct wetland determinations on......

  16. Technical support for geopressured-geothermal well activities in Louisiana. Annual report, 1 November 1982-31 October 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-31

    This annual report describes environmental monitoring of microseismic activity, land-surface elevations, and surface and ground-water quality at three designed geopressured-geothermal test well sites in Louisiana.

  17. Inter-annual precipitation changes as quadratic signals in the GRACE time-variable gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, R.; Chao, B. F.; Heki, K.

    2009-04-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission has been producing scientific results on mass variations on inter-annual timescales, e.g. melting of ice sheet in Greenland and mountain glaciers in Alaska, Eastern Africa drought, water level increase in Caspian Sea, etc. In these discussions only linear trends and the seasonal components have been analyzed in the monthly GRACE time series, whereas little attention has been paid so far to the existence of the quadratic changes which signify the temporal accelerations. With over 6 years of GRACE data and revisiting the time-variable gravity field of various regions, we find that such acceleration/deceleration terms are quite often significantly different from zero. They include East Africa, near Obi River, Caspian Sea, Black Sea, Central Asia, and southern South America, whereof discussions of linear trends without specifying the epochs are inadequate. Here we investigate geophysical implication of these quadratic terms; in particular gravity changes in land areas reflect, to a large extent, soil moisture variations. Soil moisture is the time integration of water fluxes, i.e. precipitation, evapotranspiration and runoff. Here we consider that the linear trend in precipitation is responsible for the quadratic change in gravity, and examine trends of observed precipitation in various regions from CMAP (Climate Prediction Center Merged Analysis of Precipitation). Thus, in order to compare linear trend in CMAP and acceleration in GRACE, we calculate month-to-month difference of equivalent water depth at GRACE grid points, and modeled them with seasonal variations and linear trends. We found good agreement between their geographical distributions although amplitudes are smaller in GRACE, meaning the quadratic gravity changes in the GRACE data do reflect inter-annual changes of precipitation fairly faithfully.

  18. Changes in the anaerobic threshold in an annual cycle of sport training of young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwowski, R; Andrzejewski, M; Wieczorek, A; Barinow-Wojewódzki, A; Jadczak, L; Adrian, S; Pietrzak, M; Wieczorek, S

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study was to assess changes in the anaerobic threshold of young soccer players in an annual training cycle. A group of highly trained 15-18 year old players of KKS Lech Poznań were tested. The tests included an annual training macrocycle, and its individual stages resulted from the time structure of the sports training. In order to assess the level of exercise capacities of the players, a field exercise test of increasing intensity was carried out on a soccer pitch. The test made it possible to determine the 4 millimolar lactate threshold (T LA 4 mmol · l(-1)) on the basis of the lactate concentration in blood [LA], to establish the threshold running speed and the threshold heart rate [HR]. The threshold running speed at the level of the 4 millimolar lactate threshold was established using the two-point form of the equation of a straight line. The obtained indicators of the threshold running speed allowed for precise establishment of effort intensity used in individual training in developing aerobic endurance. In order to test the significance of differences in mean values between four dates of tests, a non-parametric Friedman ANOVA test was used. The significance of differences between consecutive dates of tests was determined using a post-hoc Friedman ANOVA test. The tests showed significant differences in values of selected indicators determined at the anaerobic threshold in various stages of an annual training cycle of young soccer players. The most beneficial changes in terms of the threshold running speed were noted on the fourth date of tests, when the participants had the highest values of 4.01 m · s(-1) for older juniors, and 3.80 m · s(-1) for younger juniors. This may be indicative of effective application of an individualized programme of training loads and of good preparation of teams for competition in terms of players' aerobic endurance. PMID:24744480

  19. Response of larch root development to annual changes of water conditions in eastern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Chisato; Miyahara, Mie; Ohta, Takeshi; Maximov, Trofim C.

    2016-06-01

    Eastern Siberia is characterized by continuous permafrost, and has recently been exposed to the effects of climate change. Larch, which is the dominant tree species, has been subject to major environmental changes including fluctuations in soil water content. The purpose of this study was to clarify the responses of mature larch tree roots to changes in soil water conditions. We established a treatment plot in a larch forest, and artificially changed the soil water conditions by covering the ground surface with a vinyl sheet, and from 2004 to 2006 monitored root development through root windows. The vinyl sheet maintained high levels of soil water content, even though the ambient conditions varied from dry in 2004 to wet in 2005 and dry in 2006. In the treatment plot the plants adapted to the wet conditions by decreasing vertical root development. In contrast, roots of plants in the control plot developed to the subsurface layer, even in 2005, and did not develop vertically in 2006 despite the drought. We conclude that larch adapted to the annual changes in soil water content by changing the vertical distribution of roots, and that this reflected a memory effect.

  20. Annual activities report of Brazilian Aerospace Technical Center -CTA/IEAv - 1989; Relatorio anual de atividades - CTA/IEAv - 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-12-31

    This document reports the research activities on nuclear physics and reactors physics and engineering in the Brazilian Aerospace Technical Center/Advanced Studies Institute, Sao Paulo State, in the year of 1989.

  1. Historical changes in the annual number of large floods in North America and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkins, G. A.; Whitfield, P. H.; Hannaford, J.; Burn, D. H.; Renard, B.; Stahl, K.; Fleig, A.; Madsen, H.; Mediero, L.; Korhonen, J.; Murphy, C.; Crochet, P.; Wilson, D.

    2013-12-01

    Many studies have analyzed historical changes in low magnitude floods, such as the annual peak flow, at a national or regional scale. However, the river basins used have often been influenced by human alterations such as reservoir regulation or urbanization. No known studies have analyzed changes in large floods (greater than 25-year return period) at a continental scale for minimally impacted basins. To fill this research gap, this study analyzed flood flows from reference hydrologic networks (RHNs) or RHN-like gauges in North America (United States and Canada) and Europe (United Kingdom, Ireland, France, Spain, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Iceland, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, and Finland). RHNs are formally defined networks in several countries that comprise gauging stations with a natural or near-natural flow regime and provide good quality data. Selected RHN-like gauges were included following a major effort to ensure RHN-like status through consultation with local experts. Peak flows with recurrence intervals of 25, 50, and 100 years were estimated using consistent methods for over 1200 study gauges, and peak flows at each gauge that exceeded these flood thresholds in the last 40-100 years were compiled. Continental and regional trends over time in the annual number of large floods, with regions differentiated by type of hydrological regime (pluvial, nival, mixed), are being computed and will be presented at AGU. The unique dataset used for this study is an example of successful international collaboration on hydro-climatic data exchange, which is potentially a step towards establishing RHN or RHN-like networks on a global scale. Analysis of flows from such networks would make a valuable contribution to the understanding of historical global hydrological change and would help inform expected future hydrologic changes.

  2. Social media and nursing practice: changing the balance between the social and technical aspects of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Evan; Mills, Jane; Usher, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Modern communication methods are drastically changing the way people interact with each other. Professions such as nursing need to evolve to remain relevant as social infrastructure changes. In the 1960s, researchers developed a sociotechnical theory that stated workers were more motivated and productive if there was a good balance between the social and technical aspects of their work. Today's technology is blurring the boundaries between the social and the technical thereby transforming human contact and communication into a multi-method process. In Australia, people are adept at utilising social media technology to become more efficient, creative and connected; Australian nurses also need to embrace changing technology to capitalise on the professional opportunities offered by social media. This paper imagines a world where nurses integrate social media into assessing, diagnosing, planning, implementing and evaluating care. Discussion draws on a combination of real-world examples of best-practice and blue-sky thinking to demonstrate that evidence-based care must be combined with the adoption of future-forward technology.

  3. Confronting Regulatory Cost and Quality Expectations. An Exploration of Technical Change in Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Margaret [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Spurlock, C. Anna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yang, Hung-Chia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-21

    The dual purpose of this project was to contribute to basic knowledge about the interaction between regulation and innovation and to inform the cost and benefit expectations related to technical change which are embedded in the rulemaking process of an important area of national regulation. The area of regulation focused on here is minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) for appliances and other energy-using products. Relevant both to U.S. climate policy and energy policy for buildings, MEPS remove certain product models from the market that do not meet specified efficiency thresholds.

  4. Technical change in a combined Classical - Evolutionary multi-sector economy: Causes, Effects and implications for economic and social policy

    OpenAIRE

    Rainer, A.

    2012-01-01

    The causes and effects of technical change are investigated in a multi-sector economy. The underlying modelling framework is a hybrid of Classical economic thinking as introduced by Ricardo (1821) and formalised by Sraffa(1960), and of Evolutionary economics following Schumpeter (1934)and Nelson & Winter (1982). The special case of one sector is elaborated at length, leading to several implications concerning economic and legal policy in the presence of ongoing technical change. This inclu...

  5. The National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center annual report for 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Acevedo, Elda; O'Malley, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Welcome to the inaugural edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center (NCCWSC) and the Department of the Interior (DOI) Climate Science Centers (CSCs) annual report. In 2008, Congress created the National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center (NCCWSC) within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The center was formed to respond to the demands of natural resource managers for rigorous scientific information and effective tools for assessing and responding to climate change. Located at the USGS National Headquarters in Reston, Va., the NCCWSC has invested more than $70 million in cutting-edge climate change research and, in response to Secretarial Order No. 3289,established and is managing eight regional Department of Interior (DOI) Climate Science Centers (CSCs). The mission of the NCCWSC is to provide natural resource managers with the tools and information they need to develop and execute management strategies that address the impacts of climate and other ongoing global changes on fish and wildlife and their habitats. The DOI CSCs are joint Federal-university partnerships that focus their scientific work on regional priorities identified by DOI Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) as well as Federal, State, Tribal, and other resource managers. The CSCs provide access to a wide range of scientific capabilities through their network of university partners along with the USGS and other Federal agency scientists. The focus of the NCCWSC on multiregion and national priorities complements the regionally focused agendas of the CSCs.

  6. Technical evaluation report on the proposed design modifications and technical specification changes on grid voltage degradation for the Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the proposed design modifications and Technical Specification change for protection of Class 1E equipment from grid voltage degradation for the Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1. The review criteria are based on several IEEE standards and the Code of Federal Regulations. The evaluation finds that the licensee has not provided sufficient information on the undervoltage protection system to allow a complete evaluation into the adequacy of protecting the Class 1E equipment from sustained voltage degradation

  7. Changes in annual CO2 fluxes estimated from inventory data in South Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Using a slightly modified IPCC method, we examined changes in annual fluxes of CO2 and contributions of energy consumption, limestone use, waste combustion, land-use change, and forest growth to the fluxes in South Korea from 1990to 1997. Our method required less data and resulted in a larger estimate of CO2released by industrial processes, comparing with the original IPCC guideline. However, net CO2 emission is not substantially different from the estimates of IPCC and modified methods. Net CO2 emission is intimately related to GDP as Koreaneconomy has heavily relied on energy consumption and industrial activities, which are major sources of CO2. Total efflux of CO2 was estimated to be 63.6 Tg C/ain 1990 and amounted to 112.9 Tg C/a in 1997. Land-use change contributed to annual budget of CO2 in a relatively small portion. Carbon dioxide was sequesteredby forest biomass at the rate of 6.5 Tg C/a in 1990 and 8.5 Tg C/a in 1997. Although CO2 storage in the forests increased, the sink effect was overwhelmed by extensive energy consumption, suggesting that energy-saving strategies will be more effective in reducing CO2 emission in Korea than any other practices. It is presumed that plant uptake of CO2 is underestimated as carbon contained in plant detritus and belowground living biomass were not fully considered. Furthermore, the soil organic carbon stored in forest decomposes in various ways in rugged mountains depending on their conditions, such as slope, aspect and elevation, which could have an effect on decomposition rate and carbon stores in soils. Thus, carbon sequestration of forests deserves further attention.

  8. Outcome indicators for the evaluation of energy policy instruments and technical change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to propose a framework for the evaluation of policy instruments designed to affect development and dissemination of new energy technologies. The evaluation approach is based on the analysis of selected outcome indicators describing the process of technical change, i.e. the development and dissemination of new energy technologies, on the basis of a socio-technical systems approach. The outcome indicators are used to analyse the effect, in terms of outcome, and outcome scope of the policy instruments as well as the extent to which the policy instruments support diversity, learning and institutional change. The analysis of two cases of evaluations, of energy efficiency policy and wind energy policy in Sweden, shows that the approach has several advantages, allowing continuous evaluation and providing important information for the redesign of policy instruments. There are also disadvantages associated with the approach, such as complexity, possible high cost and the requirement of qualified evaluators. Nevertheless, it is concluded that the information on the continuous performance of different policy instruments and their effects on the introduction and dissemination of new energy technologies, provided by this evaluation approach, is essential for an improved adaptation and implementation of energy and climate policy

  9. The Scientific Value and Technical Challenge of Chang'E-4 Landing on the Far-side of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Zhang, He; Wu, Xueying; Ma, Jinan; Zhou, Wenyan

    2016-07-01

    The mission of Chang'E-4 probe is landing on the far-side of the moon for the first time in human history. Compared with the near-side, far-side landing has unique scientific value and more challenging technology implementation. The scientific significance of the exploration of far-side of the moon and the technical difficulties and solution approach of the Chang'E-4 were discussed in this paper. In science, the far-side of the Moon is an ideal scientific platform in that it is shielded from terrestrial radio-frequency interference. The terrane that records the formation of the primordial crust is located largely on the far-side hemisphere, and there is the largest and oldest recognized impact basin in our Solar System, the South Pole-Aitken basin. In technology, the difficulties mainly includes the analysis of the influence of lunar topography of far-side on the landing descent strategy, the study of relay orbit and operating modes for the relay satellite in the Earth-Moon L2(Lagrange point 2), and the requirement analysis of autonomous management due to the relay communication. It will provide the reference for landing exploration of the far-side of the moon.

  10. Impacts of land use change and climate variations on annual inflow into Miyun Reservoir, Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, J. K.; Sun, G.; Li, W. H.; Yu, X. X.; Zhang, C.; Gong, Y. B.; Tu, L. H.

    2015-08-01

    Miyun reservoir, the only surface water source for Beijing city, has experienced water supply decline in recent decades. Previous studies suggest that both land use change and climate contributes the changes of water supply in this critical watershed. However, the specific causes of the decline in Miyun reservoir are debatable in a non-stationary climate in the past four decades. The central objective of this study was to quantify the separate and collective contributions of land use change and climate variability to the decreasing inflow into Miyun reservoir during 1961-2008. Different from previous studies, this work objectively identified breakpoints by analyzing the long-term historical hydrometeorology and land cover records. To effectively study the different impacts of the climate variation and land cover change during different sub-periods, annual water balance model (AWB), climate elasticity model (CEM), and rainfall-runoff model (RRM) were employed to conduct attribution analysis synthetically. We found a significant decrease in annual streamflow (p 0.1) during 1961-2008. Combined with historical records, we identified two breakpoints as in 1983 and 1999 for the period 1961-2008 by the sequential Mann-Kendall Test and Double Mass Curve. Climate variability alone did not explain the decrease in inflow to Miyun reservoir. Reduction of water yield was closely related to increase in evapotranspiration rates due to the expansion of forestlands and reduction in cropland and grassland, and was likely exacerbated by increased water consumption for domestic and industrial uses in the basin. Our study found that the contribution to the observed streamflow decline from land use change fell from 64-92 % during 1984-1999 to 36-58 % during 2000-2008, whereas the contribution from climate variation climbed from 8-36 % during the 1984-1999 to 42-64 % during 2000-2008. Model uncertainty analysis further demonstrated that climate warming played a dominant role in

  11. Technical Note: Evaluating a simple parameterization of radiative shortwave forcing from surface albedo change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Bright

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Land use activities affect Earth's energy balance not only via biogeochemical emissions but also through perturbations in surface albedo, the latter of which is often excluded in impact assessment studies. In this short technical note, we present and compare a simple model for estimating shortwave radiative forcings at the top of Earth's atmosphere to a more sophisticated 8-stream radiative transfer model based on a discrete ordinate method. Outcomes from monthly albedo change simulations for ten globally distributed regions and a single year revealed that the simple model – based on a single exogenously supplied meteorological variable – performed quite well, having a sample correlation coefficient of 0.93 and a normalized root mean square error of 7.2%. Simple models like the one presented here can offer an attractive and efficient means for non-experts to begin including albedo change considerations in climate impact assessment studies enveloping land use activities.

  12. 76 FR 18649 - Technical Revisions to Actuarial Information on Form 5500 Annual Return/Report for Pension Plans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... Form 5500 Annual Return/Report for Pension Plans Electing Funding Alternatives Under Pension Relief Act... defined benefit pension plans under the Preservation of Access to Care for Medicare Beneficiaries and Pension Relief Act of 2010 (Pension Relief Act). The information that would be required either by way...

  13. Changes in Sahelian annual vegetation growth and phenology since 1960: A modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, C.; Grippa, M.; Mougin, E.; Guichard, F.; Kergoat, L.

    2016-08-01

    In semi-arid areas like the Sahel, vegetation is particularly sensitive to climate variability and can play an important role in surface-atmosphere coupling. After a wet period extending from 1950 to 1970, the Sahel experienced a severe drought in the 1970s and 1980s, followed by a partial recovery of rainfall and a "re-greening" of vegetation beginning in the 1990s. This study explores how the multidecadal variability of Sahelian rainfall and particularly the drought period have affected vegetation phenology and growth since 1960. The STEP model, which is specifically designed to simulate the Sahelian annual vegetation, including the dry season processes, is run over an area extending from 13°N to 18°N and from 20°W to 20°E. Mean values, interannual variability and phenological characteristics of the Sahelian annual grasslands simulated by STEP are in good agreement with MODIS derived production and phenology over the 2001-2014 period, which demonstrates the skill of the model and allows the analysis of vegetation changes and variability over the last 50 years. It was found that droughts in the 1970s and 1980s shortened the mean vegetation cycle and reduced its amplitude and that, despite the rainfall recovery since the 1990s, the current conditions for green and dry vegetation are still below pre-drought conditions. While the decrease in vegetation production has been largely homogeneous during droughts, vegetation recovery has been heterogeneous over the Sahel since 1990, with specific changes near the western coast and at the eastern edge of the West African monsoon area. Since 1970, the Sahel also experienced an increased interannual variability in vegetation mass and phenology. In terms of phenology, region-averaged End and Length of Season are the most variable, while maximum date and Start of Season are the least variable, although the latter displays a high variability locally.

  14. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini RTG Program. Semi annual technical progress report, September 26, 1994--April 2, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-20

    The technical progress achieved during the period 26 September 1994 through 2 April 1995 on Contract DE-AC03-91SF18852 Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators and Ancillary Activities is described herein. Monthly technical activity for the period 27 February 1995 through 2 April 1995 is included in this progress report. The report addresses tasks, including: spacecraft integration and liaison; engineering support; safety; qualified unicouple production; ETG Fabrication, assembly, and test; ground support equipment; RTG shipping and launch support; designs, reviews, and mission applications; project management, quality assurance, reliability, contract changes, CAGO acquisition (operating funds), and CAGO maintenance and repair; and CAGO acquisition (capital funds).

  15. Magnetic Fusion Energy Program. Volume I. Introduction, technical summaries, list of publications, etc., Appendices A-K. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An abstract was prepared for the progress summary on transport theory for open and closed magnetic configurations. Seven abstracts were prepared for included appendices of more detailed work on individual devices. Also included is a list of publications, technical presentations, and DOE program contributions

  16. Worldwide floods are changing: Evidence from global high-quality annual maximum streamflow records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Hong; Westra, Seth; Leonard, Michael

    2016-04-01

    In recent decades, floods have led to significant human and economic impacts (in 2014 alone the global cost of floods has been estimated to be US 37.4 billion), and reported flood losses have increased significantly from just US7 billion per year in the 1980s. Recent empirical evidence of significant increasing trends in heavy rainfall has raised the concern of potential changes in flooding magnitude and frequency as a result of large-scale climatic changes. However, other driving forces, including changes in channel capacity and catchment characteristics, also play a large role in rainfall-runoff processes so trends in heavy precipitation cannot be taken as a proxy for trends in flooding. In order to test whether global floods are changing or not, this study analyses a records global discharge time series from 1966 to 2005. Trends in worldwide flood magnitude were analysed using annual maxima daily streamflow obtained from Global Runoff Data Centre database, which holds records of 9,213 stations across the globe, with an average time series length of 42 years per station. High quality records during the reference period (1966 - 2005) with no more than 2 year of missing data were selected as the input of this study (1209 stations in all). To remove streamflow records impacted by large dams, the HydroSHEDS watershed boundaries and Global Reservoir and Dam (GRanD) databases are used to identify stations with existing dams in theirs upstream drainage basins. The Mann-Kendall test at the 5% significant level is applied on selected time series to identify stations showing significant positive and negative trends. The percentage of significantly increasing or decreasing stations are investigated in different climatic regions and catchment sizes, and compared against a bootstrap-based field significant test to represent the null hypothesis. The results indicate strong evidence against the null hypothesis of no change in flood magnitude at global and regional scales.

  17. Estimated average annual rate of change of CD4(+) T-cell counts in patients on combination antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocroft, Amanda; Phillips, Andrew N; Ledergerber, Bruno;

    2010-01-01

    and viral load measurements in 8,227 patients were analysed. Annual change in CD4(+) T-cell numbers was estimated using mixed models. RESULTS: After adjustment, the estimated average annual change in CD4(+) T-cell count significantly increased when viral load was ... was >/=10,000 copies/ml (-44.4 cells/mm(3), 95% CI -62.0--26.9; P=0.0012, test for interaction). CONCLUSIONS: On average, CD4(+) T-cell counts did not significantly decrease until the viral load exceeded 10,000 copies/ml in patients treated with a boosted PI-containing cART regimen, but decreased...

  18. Technical changes that would contribute to success in the civilian radioactive waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many changes have taken place since the SCP safety strategy was formulated; it needs to be revised or replaced. Four concepts would aid in the shift from a rigid, ecelctic, schedule-driven, all-or-nothing program to an incremental, evolving, and experimental but integrated program. These are a simple safety case, reversability, demonstrability, and decoupling operations of a repository from operation of reactors. A simple safety case based on containment can be made for a repository at Yucca Mountain. This containment strategy is based on the dryness of openings at Yucca Mountain, Extended Dry heat management, and long-lived containers. Reversibility is technically believable at Yucca Mountain because of extended retrievability and drift emplacement, if an MRS were co-located with the repository. Because the rock is unsaturated, extended retrievability is technically feasible at Yucca Mountain. Demonstrability could be improved at Yucca Mountain by planning for incremental progression toward operation and closure of a repository, possibly including a shift to underground retrievable storage. Demonstrability can also be improved by using natural analogs. Repository operation can be decoupled from reactor operation by use of an unconstrained MRS facility or at-reactor dry storage and multipurpose storage canister/casks

  19. Annual cycles of organochlorine pesticide enantiomers in Arctic air suggest changing sources and pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidleman, T. F.; Jantunen, L. M.; Hung, H.; Ma, J.; Stern, G. A.; Rosenberg, B.; Racine, J.

    2015-02-01

    Air samples collected during 1994-2000 at the Canadian Arctic air monitoring station Alert (82°30' N, 62°20' W) were analysed by enantiospecific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), trans-chlordane (TC) and cis-chlordane (CC). Results were expressed as enantiomer fractions (EF = peak areas of (+)/[(+) + (-)] enantiomers), where EFs = 0.5, 0.5 indicate racemic composition, and preferential depletion of (+) and (-) enantiomers, respectively. Long-term average EFs were close to racemic values for α -HCH (0.504 ± 0.004, n = 197) and CC (0.505 ± 0.004, n = 162), and deviated farther from racemic for TC (0.470 ± 0.013, n = 165). Digital filtration analysis revealed annual cycles of lower α-HCH EFs in summer-fall and higher EFs in winter-spring. These cycles suggest volatilization of partially degraded α-HCH with EF 0.5 during the cold season. The contribution of sea-volatilized α-HCH was only 11% at Alert, vs. 32% at Resolute Bay (74.68° N, 94.90° W) in 1999. EFs of TC also followed annual cycles of lower and higher values in the warm and cold seasons. These were in phase with low and high cycles of the TC/CC ratio (expressed as FTC = TC/(TC+CC)), which suggests greater contribution of microbially "weathered" TC in summer-fall versus winter-spring. CC was closer to racemic than TC and displayed seasonal cycles only in 1997-1998. EF profiles are likely to change with rising contribution of secondary emission sources, weathering of residues in the environment, and loss of ice cover in the Arctic. Enantiomer-specific analysis could provide added forensic capability to air monitoring programs.

  20. Changes in Muscle Strength in U19 Soccer Players During an Annual Training Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert Michal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the seasonal variation in isokinetic strength of the knee flexors and extensors, and conventional (H/QCONV and functional (H/QFUNC hamstring to quadriceps strength ratios in highly trained adolescent soccer players. The players (n=11; age 17.8±0.3 were measured at the end of the competitive season (autumn, at the beginning and the end of pre-season (winter and during the sixth week of a new competitive season. Isokinetic peak torque (concentric and eccentric was measured at 60°•s-1 in a sitting position with the hip flexed at 100°. The testing range of motion was set from 10 - 90° of knee flexion. The players performed a set of five maximum repetitions for both the dominant and non-dominant leg. Statistically significant differences (p<0.001 between the four seasonal measurements were noted for peak torque of the dominant leg knee flexors in concentric muscle action only. A post hoc analysis revealed a statistically significant increase in peak torque from the 1st to the 4th measurement (p<0.001; d=0.692 and from the 2nd to the 4th (p<0.01; d=0.564. The differences in the changes of peak torque of the knee flexors and extensors depending on type of muscle action and tendencies found in the H/Q ratios throughout the annual training cycle indicate that strength assessment of the knee flexors and extensors and their balance throughout the annual training cycle could be beneficial for elite male adolescent soccer players both in terms of performance and risk of injury.

  1. Technical support for geopressured-geothermal well activities in Louisiana: Annual report for the period 1 November 1984 to 31 December 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groat, C.G.

    1987-09-01

    This report describes environmental monitoring activities carried out by Louisiana State University (LSU) under US Department of Energy Contract FC07-85NV10425 for the period 1 November 1984 through 31 December 1986. Other aspects of the LSU technical support program completed under prior contracts were covered in final form in reports preceding this one. During the contract period, the Louisiana Geological Survey, aided by subcontractors, monitored microseismic activity, land-surface subsidence, and surface and ground-water quality at three designed geopressured-geothermal test well sites in Louisiana and Texas. Don Stevenson supervised microseismic monitoring activities, and Drukell Trahan coordinated water quality and land-surface subsidence studies. This is a progress report in the sense that it discusses program components, provides raw data, and presents preliminary interpretations. The environmental monitoring program continues and will be the subject of subsequent annual reports.

  2. Annual and seasonal water storage changes detected from GRACE data in the La Plata Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ayelen; Pacino, María Cristina

    2012-12-01

    The gravity does not remain constant, but changes over time depending on the redistribution of the masses. Aquatic environments, like a river basin, perform important functions in nature such as control of climate, floods and nutrients; and they also provide goods and services for humanity. To monitor these environments at large spatial scales, the satellite gravity mission GRACE provides time-variable gravity field models that reflect the Earth's gravity field variations due to mass transport processes, like continental water storage variations. The La Plata Basin is the second largest in South America and is a sample of the abundance, variety and quality of natural resources and possibilities offered in connection with the production of goods and services. The objective of this work is to analyze GRACE capability to monitor the water storage variations in the La Plata Basin. Firstly, GRACE solutions from four different processing centers are used to estimate the gravity trend and gravity amplitude over this basin. Afterwards, the calculated hydrological signal is used to obtain mass change models over this hydrographic system's area, using two different methods and for the period from 2002 to 2009. Next, the annual and seasonal water storage changes from GRACE solutions are validated in Argentina by rainfall data over the time periods where extreme weather conditions took place. The results indicate that GRACE detected the variations of the continental water storage in the La Plata Basin, and particularly, it detected the important decrease in the South of the basin. Moreover, a coherency between the estimates of water mass changes and rainfall data was found, which shows that GRACE also detected extreme weather events (such as drought and intense rain episodes) that occurred in the 2004-2009 period in Argentina.

  3. Fourth annual progress report for Canada's Climate Change Voluntary Challenge and Registry program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Examples of how greenhouse gas issues are being integrated into management processes within Suncor Energy Inc. are described in this fourth annual progress report to the Climate Change Voluntary Challenge and Registry Program. The report covers Suncor's three operating businesses - oil sands and conventional oil exploration and production in Western Canada, and refining and marketing operation in Ontario. Oil sands was the largest source of greenhouse emissions, accounting for 2/3 of the total. Carbon dioxide emissions accounted for 93 per cent of total emissions. This report addresses three areas of change: one of these is Project Millennium in the oil sands division, which is a major expansion project planned for efficiency improvements. As a result of the project, total greenhouse gas emissions will increase to 9.3 million tonnes by the year 2002, in terms of operating efficiency, emissions per unit of production will continue to decline from 0.54 tonnes ECO2 in 1990 to 0.44 tonnes ECO2 in 2002, a reduction of 18 per cent. Another change is that target reductions in the Kyoto Protocol will supersede informal Canadian commitments for the year 2000, if the protocol is ratified. Thirdly, Suncor's greenhouse gas emission forecast has been extended to the year 2002 to demonstrate the impact of Project Millennium and to clarify the changes during the transition period relative to previous forecasts. New initiatives to be undertaken during 1998-2002 include heat recovery in new upgrader units, recycling diluent used in bitumen extraction without cooling, recovery of gas presently going to the flare system, installation of a 200,000 barrel hot water surge tank, addition of a third turbogenerator, and various projects to generate more electrical power internally. tabs., figs

  4. Annual Change Detection by ASTER TIR Data and an Estimation of the Annual Coal Loss and CO2 Emission from Coal Seams Spontaneous Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Du

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Coal fires, including both underground and coal waste pile fires, result in large losses of coal resources and emit considerable amounts of greenhouse gases. To estimate the annual intensity of greenhouse gas emissions and the loss of coal resources, estimating the annual loss from fire-influenced coal seams is a feasible approach. This study assumes that the primary cause of coal volume loss is subsurface coal seam fires. The main calculation process is divided into three modules: (1 Coal fire quantity calculations, which use change detection to determine the areas of the different coal fire stages (increase/growth, maintenance/stability and decrease/shrinkage. During every change detections, the amount of coal influenced by fires for these three stages was calculated by multiplying the coal mining residual rate, combustion efficiency, average thickness and average coal intensity. (2 The life cycle estimate is based on remote sensing long-term coal fires monitoring. The life cycles for the three coal fire stages and the corresponding life cycle proportions were calculated; (3 The diurnal burnt rates for different coal fire stages were calculated using the CO2 emission rates from spontaneous combustion experiments, the coal fire life cycle, life cycle proportions. Then, using the fire-influenced quantity aggregated across the different stages, the diurnal burn rates for the different stages and the time spans between the multi-temporal image pairs used for change detection, we estimated the annual coal loss to be 44.3 × 103 tons. After correction using a CH4 emission factor, the CO2 equivalent emissions resulting from these fires was on the order of 92.7 × 103 tons. We also discovered that the centers of these coal fires migrated from deeper to shallower parts of the coal seams or traveled in the direction of the coal seam strike. This trend also agrees with the cause of the majority coal fires: spontaneous combustion of coalmine goafs.

  5. Analysis of Seasonal and Annual Change of Vegetation in the Indian Thar Desert Using Modis Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santra, P.; Chkraborty, A.

    2011-09-01

    The western part of India, specifically the dry region, will play an important role in determining the Indian monsoon and even global climate patterns. Drastically change in land use pattern of the region has been observed during last few decades. In this paper, an effort was made to track the seasonal as well as annual changes of vegetation pattern in Jaisalmer district using MODIS normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) products. Apart from this, ground data on vegetation were also collected under vegetation carbon pool assessment programme of ISRO-IGBP. It was found that during the hot summer month of May, the area under NDVI class 0-0.1 is reduced from 98% during 2003 to 95% during 2009 with a simultaneous increase in area under NDVI class 0.1-0.2 from 2 to 5%. During the month of September, area under NDVI class 0.2-0.3 increased from almost negligible during May to 34-39% during normal or surplus rainfall year but only to 3% during a deficit year. From the ground data on vegetation biomass, it was found that Prosopis juliflora and Acacia senegal are the most abundant trees in Jaisalmer region of the desert. The sites with NDVI value ≥ 0.2 were mostly found with Prosopis juliflora tree. Among shrubs, the most abundant species was Calotropis procera and Zizyphus numularia. From this study, it has been found that MODIS NDVI products may be used to quickly assess the vegetation changes in response to rainfall as well as due to anthroprogenic interventions in desert.

  6. Estimated average annual rate of change of CD4(+) T-cell counts in patients on combination antiretroviral therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Mocroft; A.N. Phillips; B. Ledergerber; C. Smith; J.R. Bogner; K. Lacombe; A. Wiercinska-Drapalo; P. Reiss; O. Kirk; J.D. Lundgren

    2010-01-01

    Background: Patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) might continue treatment with a virologically failing regimen. We sought to identify annual change in CD4(+) T-cell count according to levels of viraemia in patients on cART. Methods: A total of 111,371 CD4(+) T-cell counts and

  7. Estimated average annual radon-222 concentrations around the former uranium mill site in Shiprock, New Mexico. Final technical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium mills, as a part of the nuclear fuel cycle, produce large volumes of wastes which contain both the long and short-lived radionuclides from the naturally-occurring uranium decay chain. A relatively short-lived member of the chain, radon-222, is a noble gas and can diffuse from the wastes and be transported from its point of origin by prevailing winds. The airborne radon-222 decays into other short-lived radioactive progeny which may result in human inhalation exposures at considerable distances from the point of origin. Since the parent of radon-222 has a half-life of 1620 years, exposure to radon and its progeny will persist for thousands of years. This study was made to estimate the annual average radon-222 concentrations around the former Shiprock, New Mexico uranium mill site in order to identify areas which may require limited or restricted occupancy and to evaluate the effectiveness of the site decontamination activities in reducing the ambient airborne radon-222 concentrations. Using on- and off-site meteorological data and radon source term estimations, average annual radon-222 isoconcentration lines were determined by computer modeling for the mill site area. The lines were determined for both pre- and post-decontamination periods

  8. Association Euratom - Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark - Annual Progress Report 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Michelsen, Poul; Juul Rasmussen, Jens;

    interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. New activities in technology related to development of high temperature superconductors have......The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its...

  9. Association Euratom - Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark - Annual Progress Report 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Michelsen, Poul; Juul Rasmussen, Jens;

    interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. Within fusion technology there are activities related to development of high temperature......The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its...

  10. Association Euratom - Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark - Annual Progress Report 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Michelsen, Poul; Juul Rasmussen, Jens;

    interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. Within fusion technology there are activities related to development of high temperature......The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its...

  11. Proceedings of the Canadian Society for Bioengineering CSBE/SCGAB 2009 annual general meeting and technical conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference was attended by experts on current issues in engineering of an urban ecosystem, composting, biofuels and green energy. The meeting provided a forum to discuss advances in the application of engineering principles and practices dealing with biological systems for the production of food, bioproducts and energy. The discussions focused on engineering practices in agriculture, forestry, bioresources, biochemistry and biosystems. The 7 technical sessions of the conference were entitled: aquaculture; safety and training; bioprocessing; energy production and biofuels; environment and ecology; soil and water; and development of technologies. The conference feature 58 presentations, of which 9 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  12. On the Front Lines of Change: The Children's Aid Society 2001 Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children's Aid Society, New York, NY.

    The Children's Aid Society (CAS), one of the country's oldest and largest non-sectarian child and family welfare agencies, has 37 sites in New York with an annual operating budget of over $60 million. This annual report highlights the activities of the organization for the 2001 fiscal year and presents information on the work of CAS to complete…

  13. 42 CFR 422.312 - Announcement of annual capitation rate, benchmarks, and methodology changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Announcement of annual capitation rate, benchmarks... Payments to Medicare Advantage Organizations § 422.312 Announcement of annual capitation rate, benchmarks... description of the risk and other factors. (3) Regional benchmark announcement. Before the beginning of...

  14. How do technical improvements change radiographers' practice – A practice theory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The two plane imaging techniques are gradually being replaced by multidimensional imaging. How it affects radiographers' professional practice has not been investigated. Aim: To explore how technical development affects the relations between different actors and their actions in the practice of Computer Tomography. Method: A qualitative design with data collection by open interviews (n = 8) and open observations (n = 10) of radiographers during their work with Computer Tomography. Data was first analyzed inductively resulting in seven codes. Secondly abduction was carried out by interpreting the content in the codes with a practice theory. This resulted in four themes. Result: First theme: Changed materiality makes the practical action easier. The actual image production has become practically easier. Second theme: Changed machines cause conflict between the arrangements of the work and the patients' needs. The time for the machine to carry out image production is easy to foresee, but information about the patient's individual status and needs is missing and this leads to difficulties in giving individual planned care. Third theme: Changing materiality prefigure learning. The different apparatus in use and the continuously changing methods of image production is co-constitutive of the practitioners' activities and learning. Fourth theme: Radiography is arranged for patient safety in relation to radiation doses and medical security risks. But the radiographers, who meet the patients, have to check the accuracy of the planned examination in relation to the clinical observed information about patient safety risks with the examination. - Highlights: • The arrangements of CT practice make it difficult to achieve individual planned care. • Continuously learning has become an essential part of radiographers' practice. • Radiographers' planning of each examination is important for secure patient safety

  15. Population dynamics of Agriophyllum squarrosum, a pioneer annual plant endemic to mobile sand dunes, in response to global climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Chaoju; Yin, Hengxia; Shi, Yong; Zhao, Jiecai; Yin, Chengliang; Luo, Wanyin; Dong, Zhibao; Chen, Guoxiong; Yan, Xia; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Ma, Xiao-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Climate change plays an important role in the transition of ecosystems. Stratigraphic investigations have suggested that the Asian interior experienced frequent transitions between grassland and desert ecosystems as a consequence of global climate change. Using maternally and bi-parentally inherited markers, we investigated the population dynamics of Agriophyllum squarrosum (Chenopodiaceae), an annual pioneer plant endemic to mobile sand dunes. Phylogeographic analysis revealed that A. squarr...

  16. Impact of technical and technological changes on energy efficiency of production company - case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwedzka, K.; Gruszka, J.; Szafer, P.

    2016-08-01

    Improving energy efficiency is one of the strategic objectives of the European Union for rational energy economy. To make efforts to improve energy efficiency have been obliged both small and large end-users. This article aims to show the possibilities of improving energy efficiency by introducing technical and technological process changes of pine lumber drying. The object of the research is process of drying lumber implemented in a production company, which is a key supplier of large furniture manufacturer. Pine lumber drying chamber consume about 45% of total electricity in sawmill. According to various sources, drying of 1m3 of lumber uses about 3060kWh and is dependent of inter alia: the drying process itself, the factors affecting the processing time and the desired output moisture content of the timber. The article proposals for changes in the process of drying lumber pine have been positively validated in the company, and as a result their energy consumption per 1 m3 of product declined by 18%.

  17. DOE-DARPA High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials (HPCRM), Annual HPCRM Team Meeting & Technical Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J; Brown, B; Bayles, B; Lemieux, T; Choi, J; Ajdelsztajn, L; Dannenberg, J; Lavernia, E; Schoenung, J; Branagan, D; Blue, C; Peter, B; Beardsley, B; Graeve, O; Aprigliano, L; Yang, N; Perepezko, J; Hildal, K; Kaufman, L; Lewandowski, J; Perepezko, J; Hildal, K; Kaufman, L; Lewandowski, J; Boudreau, J

    2007-09-21

    The overall goal is to develop high-performance corrosion-resistant iron-based amorphous-metal coatings for prolonged trouble-free use in very aggressive environments: seawater & hot geothermal brines. The specific technical objectives are: (1) Synthesize Fe-based amorphous-metal coating with corrosion resistance comparable/superior to Ni-based Alloy C-22; (2) Establish processing parameter windows for applying and controlling coating attributes (porosity, density, bonding); (3) Assess possible cost savings through substitution of Fe-based material for more expensive Ni-based Alloy C-22; (4) Demonstrate practical fabrication processes; (5) Produce quality materials and data with complete traceability for nuclear applications; and (6) Develop, validate and calibrate computational models to enable life prediction and process design.

  18. Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup and the Expert Regional Technical Group, Fiscal Year 2013 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.

    2013-10-30

    This project covers facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup (EOS) for federal research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) and the Expert Regional Technical Group (ERTG) for estuary habitat restoration. The EOS is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation effort that the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration [BPA], U.S. Army Corps of Engineers [Corps], U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) developed in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as applied to operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The EOS is tasked by National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) and the Action Agencies (AAs) to design and coordinate implementation of the federal RME plan for the lower Columbia River and estuary, including the river’s plume in the ocean. Initiated in 2002, the EOS is composed of members from BPA, the Corps, NMFS, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL’s) Marine Sciences Laboratory, and other agencies as necessary.

  19. ANL Technical Support Program for DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. Annual report, October 1990--September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R.; Buck, E.C.; Cunnane, J.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Ebert, W.L.; Emery, J.W.; Feng, X.; Gerding, T.J.; Gong, M.; Hoh, J.C.; Mazer, J.J.; Wronkiewicz, D.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bourcier, W.L.; Morgan, L.E.; Nielsen, J.K.; Steward, S.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Ewing, R.C.; Wang, L.M. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Han, W.T.; Tomozawa, M. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, MI (United States)

    1992-03-01

    This report provides an overview of progress during FY 1991 for the Technical Support Program that is part of the ANL Technology Support Activity for DOE, Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). The purpose is to evaluate, before hot start-up of the Defenses Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), factors that are likely to affect glass reaction in an unsaturated environment typical of what may be expected for the candidate Yucca Mountain repository site. Specific goals for the testing program include the following: (1) to review and evaluate available information on parameters that will be important in establishing the long-term performance of glass in a repository environment; (2) to perform testing to further quantify the effects of important variables where there are deficiencies in the available data; and (3) to initiate long-term testing that will bound glass performance under a range of conditions applicable to repository disposal.

  20. ANL Technical Support Program for DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. Annual report, October 1992--September 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is an overview of the progress during FY 1993 for the Technical Support Program that is part of the ANL Technology Support Activity for DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). The purpose is to evaluate, before hot start-up of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), factors that are anticipated to affect glass reaction in an unsaturated environment typical of what may be expected for the candidate Yucca Mountain repository site. Specific goals for the testing program include the following: reviewing and evaluating available data on parameters that will be important in establishing the long-term performance of glass in a repository environment; performing tests to further quantify the effects of important variables where there are deficiencies in the available data; and initiating long-term tests to determine glass performance under a range of conditions applicable to repository disposal

  1. 323 Annual Change of Peak Expiratory Flow Rate in Asthma and COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Kwang H. A.; Lee, Kye Young

    2012-01-01

    Background Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) is a useful measurement for the follow-up examination in a chronic airway disease because it has the advantage of simple measuring and repetitive examination. The aim of this study is to examine the annual decrease of PEFR in asthma and COPD patients and to confirm the factors which influence the annual decreasing rate of PEFR. Methods From May, 2003 to September, 2010, the annual decreasing rate of PEFR is obtained from the asthma and COPD patients...

  2. Modeling Inter-annual Variability of Seasonal Evaporation and Storage Change Based on the Extended Budyko Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Alimohammadi, N.; Wang, D.

    2013-12-01

    Long-term climate is the first order control on mean annual water balance, and vegetation and the interactions between climate seasonality and soil water storage change have also been found to play important roles. The purpose of this paper is to extend the Budyko hypothesis to the seasonal scale and to develop a model for inter-annual variability of seasonal evaporation and storage change. A seasonal aridity index is defined as the ratio of potential evaporation to effective precipitation, where effective precipitation is the difference between rainfall and storage change. Correspondingly, evaporation ratio is defined as the ratio of evaporation to effective precipitation. A modified Turc-Pike equation with a horizontal shift is proposed to model inter-annual variability of seasonal evaporation ratio as a function of seasonal aridity index, which includes rainfall seasonality and soil water change. The performance of the seasonal water balance model is evaluated for 277 watersheds in the United States. 99% of wet seasons and 90% of dry seasons have Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficients larger than 0.5. The developed seasonal model can be applied for constructing long-term evaporation and storage change data when rainfall, potential evaporation, and runoff observations are available. On the other hand, vegetation affects seasonal water balance by controlling both evaporation and soil moisture dynamics. The correlation between NDVI and evaporation is strong particularly in wet seasons. However, the correlation between NDVI and the seasonal model parameters is only strong in dry seasons.

  3. 76 FR 20506 - Technical Amendment to Rule 19b-4: Filings With Respect to Proposed Rule Changes by Self...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... do not anticipate that any competitive advantages or disadvantages would be created. List of Subjects... changes by self- regulatory organizations. * * * * * (a) * * * (2) For purposes of Section 19(b) of the... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 240 Technical Amendment to Rule 19b-4: Filings With Respect to Proposed Rule...

  4. Re evaluation of the temperature limit for UHS is technical specification against global environment change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sea water for all Korean Nuclear Power Plants plays the most important roll of providing an ultimate heat sink for heat removal from safety related components during a transient or accident as well non safety related components during normal operation. Generally, the heat removal function through UHS is done by essential service water system and the component cooling water system. In recent years, as the UHS(Ultimate Heat Sink) temperature is gradually increasing due to global environment change, it is also becoming a threat for the enough operating margin of nuclear plants against uncontrolled plant shutdown from violation of technical specification, which can be described as a difference between the Limiting Conditions for Operation(LCO) and the actual maximum temperature of sea water during the hot summer. KOPEC has been performing the engineering work with closing cooperation with KHNP and KEPRI for relaxation of LCO limit by re evaluation of the more realistic heat loads to UHS and in depth review of the existing design margins of the related systems for the operating plants. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the engineering experience with typical results that has been applied for the Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant, OPR 1000 during the couple of years. It is believed that the methodology used to increase LCO limit for sea water temperature as the UHS would be helpful to resolve an environmentally induced threat for nuclear power plant operation

  5. Annual meeting on nuclear technology '90. Technical session 'Approaches to a solution of the CO2 problem - the contribution of nuclear energy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report of the annual conference 'Nuclear Technology '90' contains six papers from the specialist session, which were all treated separately. The papers analyze the following subjects: CO2 and the consequences for energy policies; a tax on CO2 in a national context; climate change and the role of nuclear power as a contribution to a global solution (in English); the contribution of nuclear power in reducing the CO2 problem; problems of security with the extension of nuclear power; fuel supply and disposal with the extension of nuclear power. (HSCH)

  6. [The annual changes in antimicrobial susceptibility test results of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from the Kinki district].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Saori; Komatsu, Masaru; Nakamura, Tatuya; Jikimoto, Takumi; Nishio, Hisaaki; Yamasaki, Katsutoshi; Satoh, Kaori; Toda, Hirofumi; Orita, Tamaki; Sueyoshi, Noriyuki; Kita, Machiko; Nishi, Isao; Akagi, Masahiro; Higuchi, Takeshi; Kofuku, Tomomi; Nakai, Isako; Ono, Tamotsu; Kida, Kaneyuki; Ohama, Masanobu; Watari, Hideo; Shimura, Satoshi; Niki, Makoto; Kuchibiro, Tomokazu; Wada, Yasunao

    2016-04-01

    A study was conducted of the 1,225 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains that were isolated at 20 medical institutions in the Kinki district between 2011 and 2013 to determine their antimicrobial susceptibility and to characterize the strains of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRP) and the metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) -producing strains. The MIC50/MIC90 values (μg/mL) of the various antimicrobial agents were as follows: imipenem, 2/>8; meropenem, 1/>8; doripenem, 0.5/8; biapenem, 1/>8; tazobactam/piperacillin, 8/>64; piperacillin, 8/>64; sulbactam/cefoperazone, 8/64; cefepime, 4/16; cefozopran, 2/>16; aztreonam, 8/>16; amikacin, 4/16; levofloxacin, 1/>4; and ciprofloxacin, 0.25/>2. From the viewpoint of the annual changes in the susceptibility rates (according to the CLSI guidelines [M100-S22]), the susceptibility to tazobactam/piperacillin, piperacillin, cefepime, cefozopran and aztreonam decreased in 2013. On the other hand, two antimicrobial agents showed high susceptibility rates each year; amikacin (94.0-95.6%) showed the highest rate, followed by doripenem (80.3-82.6%). With the exception of amikacin, there were substantial inter-institutional differences in antimicrobial susceptibility. In comparison to the previous CLSI guidelines (M100-S21), the new CLSI guidelines (M100-S22) on the use of carbapenems and penicillins show that the MIC80 has been affected. The MDRP detection rates in 2011, 2012 and 2013 were 1.8% (8 strains), 1.8% (8 strains), and 2.8% (10 strains), respectively. The MBL detection rates were as follows: bla(VIM-2), 0.2% (1 strain) in 2011; bla(IMP-1), 0.9% (4 strains) in 2012, and 1.7% (6 strains, including bla(IMP-1) [3 strains], bla(IMP-2) [2 strains] and bla(VIM-2) [1 strain]) in 2013. PMID:27544978

  7. [Annual change of phytoplankton ecological features in Fangchenggang Bay of Guangxi, South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jun-Lian; Xu, Ming-Ben; Zhang, Rong-Can; Chen, Bo

    2011-05-01

    In March, June, September, and December 2007, investigations were conducted on the species composition, dominant species, community structure, and abundance distribution of phytoplankton in the Fangchenggang Bay of Guangxi. Based on the investigation data, the phytoplankton abundance, biotic index, and their correlations with environmental factors were analyzed. A total of 138 species of 54 genera were identified, among which, 112 species belonged to 37 genera of diatoms, 21 species belonged to 12 genera of dinoflagellates, 2 species belonged to chrysophyta, 2 species belonged to chlorophyta, and 1 species belonged to cyanophyta. In whole year, the dominant species was Skeletonema costatum. The species number had a trend decreasing from the outer to the inner of the Bay and from spring to winter, while the cell abundance was decreased from the inner to the outer of the Bay. There was an obvious annual change in the cell abundance, being the highest (151.39 x 10(4) cells x dm(-3)) in summer (June) and the lowest (0.35 x 10(4) cells x dm(-3)) in winter (December). In spring, both the diversity and the species number were higher. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the distribution of phytoplankton community had definite correlations with water nutrient content, temperature and salinity. At the observation stations 1 and 2 in west Bay, due to the effects of Fangcheng River runoff and hydrodynamic forces such as tide, water salinity was lower and nutrient content was higher, and accordingly, S. costatum cells in summer could greatly reproduce, even result in high probability of red tide. PMID:21812311

  8. Sexual dimorphism in immune function changes during the annual cycle in house sparrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pap, Péter László; Czirják, Gábor Árpád; Vágási, Csongor István; Barta, Zoltán; Hasselquist, Dennis

    2010-10-01

    Difference between sexes in parasitism is a common phenomenon among birds, which may be related to differences between males and females in their investment into immune functions or as a consequence of differential exposure to parasites. Because life-history strategies change sex specifically during the annual cycle, immunological responses of the host aiming to reduce the impact of parasites may be sexually dimorphic. Despite the great complexity of the immune system, studies on immunoecology generally characterise the immune status through a few variables, often overlooking potentially important seasonal and gender effects. However, because of the differences in physiological and defence mechanisms among different arms of the immune system, we expect divergent responses of immune components to environmental seasonality. In male and female house sparrows ( Passer domesticus), we measured the major components of the immune system (innate, acquired, cellular and humoral) during four important life-history stages across the year: (1) mating, (2) breeding, (3) moulting and (4) during the winter capture and also following introduction to captivity in aviary. Different individuals were sampled from the same population during the four life cycle stages. We found that three out of eight immune variables showed a significant life cycle stage × sex interaction. The difference in immune response between the sexes was significant in five immune variables during the mating stage, when females had consistently stronger immune function than males, while variables varied generally non-significantly with sex during the remaining three life cycle stages. Our results show that the immune system is highly variable between life cycle stages and sexes, highlighting the potential fine tuning of the immune system to specific physiological states and environmental conditions.

  9. Reproductive changes in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) in relation to exposure to technical hexabromocyclododecane flame retardant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Kim J; Marteinson, Sarah C; Bird, David M; Ritchie, Ian J; Letcher, Robert J

    2011-11-01

    Recently, the ban of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), a high-production-volume flame retardant, was announced in Europe and North America. However, the effects of HCBD remain understudied in birds. The objectives of the present comparative effects study were to determine whether exposure to an HBCD technical mixture (HBCD-TM) altered avian reproductive measures at an environmentally relevant concentration. American kestrels were exposed daily by food to HBCD-TM, i.e., 0.51 µg HBCD/g kestrel/d; exposed kestrels laid eggs that had α-HBCD concentrations (163.5 ± 75.1 ng/g wet wt) tenfold greater than β- and γ-HBCD isomers, an isomer profile and concentrations similar to those of eggs of wild peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus). Concentrations of HBCD were not detected in the control kestrel eggs. In comparison with controls, the kestrels exposed to HBCD began to lay their eggs 6 d earlier and laid larger clutches of smaller eggs. The size of the eggs was inversely correlated with the in ovo α-HBCD concentrations. The smaller eggs of the HBCD exposed kestrels also lost more weight by midincubation, suggesting increased eggshell porosity since eggshell thickness was comparable. Generally birds that lay more eggs and lay earlier in the breeding season gain the advantage of better hatching and fledging success, yet the kestrels exposed to HBCD failed to have better reproductive success than the control birds. These reproductive changes were a function of HBCD exposure, likely through changes in food consumption, with possible impacts on, for example, reproductive behavior and/or alterations in thyroid hormones. PMID:21898552

  10. The Role of Changes in the Annual Cycle in Earlier Onset of Climatic Spring in Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Cheng; FU Congbin; Zhaohua WU; YAN Zhongwei

    2011-01-01

    Climatic changes in the onset of spring in northern China associated with changes in the annual cycle and with a recent warming trend were quantified using a recently developed adaptive data analysis tool,the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition. The study was based on a homogenized daily surface air temperature (SAT) dataset for the period 1955-2003. The annual cycle here is referred to as a refined modulated annual cycle (MAC). The results show that spring at Beijing has arrived significantly earlier by about 2.98 d (10 yr)-1, of which about 1.85 d (10 yr)-1 is due to changes in the annual cycle and 1.13 d (10 yr)-1 due to the long-term warming trend. Variations in the MAC component explain about 92.5% of the total variance in the Beijing daily SAT series and could cause as much as a 20-day shift in the onset of spring from one year to another. The onset of spring has been advancing all over northern China, but more significant in the east than in the west part of the region. These differences are somehow unexplainable by the zonal pattern of the warming trend over the whole region, but can be explained by opposite changes in the spring phase of the MAC, i.e. advancing in the east while delaying in the west. In the east of northern China, the change in the spring phase of MAC explains 40%-60% of the spring onset trend and is attributable to a weakening Asian winter monsoon. The average sea level pressure in Siberia (55°-80°N,50°-110°E), an index of the strength of the winter monsoon, could serve as a potential short-term predictor for the onset of spring in the east of northern China.

  11. Annual report on operation, utilization and technical development of hot laboratories. From April 1, 2001 to March 31, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-01-01

    This is an annual report in a fiscal year of 2001 that describes activities of the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF), the Waste Safety Testing Facility (WASTEF), and the Research Hot Laboratory (RHL) in the Department of Hot laboratories. In RFEF, PIEs including destructive and nondestructive tests were performed on a BWR fuel assembly and/or its fuel rod irradiated in the Fukushima-2 Nuclear Power Station Unit-1 and a fuel assembly with UO{sub 2}-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and mixed oxide (MOX) fuel pellets for Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute. In addition, 34 fuel assemblies irradiated in the nuclear ship ''Mutsu'' were conveyed from Mutsu Establishment, and re-assembly and PIEs for the assemblies were carried out. In WASTEF, tests for evaluating barrier performance in terms of disposal of waste, high temperature tests for evaluating stable on TRansUraniums (TRU) nitrides, leaching tests on Rock-like OXide (ROX) fuels were performed. The slow Strain Rate Tests (SSRT) apparatuses were installed for investigation of Irradiation-Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC) on light water structural materials, and characterization tests for the apparatus were performed. In RHL, PIEs for light water reactor materials, fusion materials, and target materials of Proton Accelerator Facilities were carried out for laboratories in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. PIEs for zirconium alloys for ultra-high burn-up irradiated in the Kashiwazaki Nuclear Power Station Unit-5 were also performed. In order to investigate roots cause of pipe rupture in Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station Unit-1 of Chubu Electric Power Company, several examinations including SEM observation, EPMA, and Vickers hardness test were performed in those three facilities. The data from the examinations greatly contribute to clarify roots cause of the pipe rupture. (author)

  12. Mass and energy budgets of animals: Behavioral and ecological implications. Annual technical progress report, April 1, 1992--March 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, W.P.

    1993-07-01

    The common goal of these diverse projects is to understand the mechanisms of how animal populations respond to the continual changes in their environment in both time and space. Our models are mechanistic allowing us to explore how a wide array of environmental variables may determine individual performance. Large scale climate change and its effect on animal populations can be seen as quantitative extensions of biological responses to smaller scales of environmental variability. Changes in developmental rates or reproductive levels of individuals, extension or contraction of geographic ranges, and modification of community organization have all been documented in response to previous changes in habitats. We know from our biophysical work that some changes in function are driven by microclimate conditions directly, and some are mediated indirectly through ecological parameters such as the food supply. Our research is guided by a comprehensive conceptual scheme of the interaction of an animal with its environment. The physical and physiological properties of the organism, and the range of available microclimates, set bounds on the performance of organismal function, such as growth, reproduction, storage, and behavior. To leave the most offspring over a lifetime, animals must perform those functions in a way that maximizes the amount of resources devoted to reproduction. Maximizing the total size of the budget and minimizing those budget items not devoted to reproduction are crucial. Animals trade off among expenditures for current and future reproduction. Both water and energy are important, potentially limiting resources. Projects described here include empirical studies and theoretical models.

  13. ANL technical support program for DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. Annual report, October 1991--September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R.; Buck, E.C.; Cunnane, J.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Ebert, W.L.; Emery, J.W.; Feng, X.; Gerding, T.J.; Gong, M.; Hoh, J.C.; Mazer, J.J.; Wronkiewicz, D.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bourcier, W.L.; Morgan, L.E.; Newton, L.; Nielsen, J.K.; Phillips, B.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Ewing, R.C.; Wang, L. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Li, H.; Tomozawa, M. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    1993-05-01

    A program was established for DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) to evaluate factors that are anticipated to affect waste glass reaction during repository disposal, especially in an unsaturated environment typical of what may be expected for the proposed Yucca Mountain repository site. This report covers progress in FY 1992 on the following tasks: 1. A compendium of the characteristics of high-level nuclear waste borosilicate glass has been written. 2. A critical review of important parameters that affect the reactivity of glass in an unsaturated environment is being prepared. 3. A series of tests has been started to evaluate the reactivity of fully radioactive glasses in a high-level waste repository environment and compare it to the reactivity of synthetic, nonradioactive glasses of similar composition. 4. The effect of radiation upon the durability of waste glasses at a high glass surface area-to-liquid volume (SA/V) ratio and a high gas-to-liquid volume ratio will be assessed. These tests address both vapor and high SA/V liquid conditions. 5. A series of tests is being performed to compare the extent of reaction of nuclear waste glasses at various SAN ratios. Such differences in the SAN ratio may significantly affect glass durability. 6. A series of natural analogue tests is being analyzed to demonstrate a meaningful relationship between experimental and natural alteration conditions. 7. Analytical electron microscopy (AEM), infrared spectroscopys and nuclear resonant profiling are being used to assess the glass/water reaction pathway by identifying intermediate phases that appear on the reacting glass. Additionally, colloids from the leach solutions are being studied using AEM. 8. A technical review of AEM results is being provided. 9. A study of water diffusion involving nuclear waste glasses is being performed. 10. A mechanistically based model is being developed to predict the performance of glass over repository-relevant time periods.

  14. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini mission. Semi annual technical progress report, 2 October 1995--31 March 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical progress achieved during the period 2 October 1995 through 31 March 1996 on Contract No. DE-AC03-91SF18852, Radioisotope Generators and Ancillary Activities is described herein. This report is organized by the program task structure as follows: spacecraft integration and liaison; engineering support; safety; qualified unicouple fabrication; ETG fabrication, assembly, and test; ground support equipment (GSE); RTG shipping and launch support; designs, reviews, and mission applications; project management, quality assurance and reliability, contract changes, non-capital CAGO acquisition, and CAGO maintenance; contract acquired government-owned property (CAGO) acquisition; and program calendars

  15. Unauthorized Immigration to the United States: Annual Estimates and Components of Change, by State, 1990 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Robert; Warren, John Robert

    2013-01-01

    We describe a method for producing annual estimates of the unauthorized immigrant population in the United Sates and components of population change, for each state and D.C., for 1990 to 2010. We quantify a sharp drop in the number of unauthorized immigrants arriving since 2000, and we demonstrate the role of departures from the population (emigration, adjustment to legal status, removal by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and deaths) in reducing population growth from one million i...

  16. Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasability of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, R.D.

    2005-12-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) are both strongly committed to expanding the role of biomass as an energy source. In particular, they support biomass fuels and products as a way to reduce the need for oil and gas imports; to support the growth of agriculture, forestry, and rural economies; and to foster major new domestic industries--biorefineries--making a variety of fuels, chemicals, and other products. As part of this effort, the Biomass R&D Technical Advisory Committee, a panel established by the Congress to guide the future direction of federally funded biomass R&D, envisioned a 30 percent replacement of the current U.S. petroleum consumption with biofuels by 2030. Biomass--all plant and plant-derived materials including animal manure, not just starch, sugar, oil crops already used for food and energy--has great potential to provide renewable energy for America's future. Biomass recently surpassed hydropower as the largest domestic source of renewable energy and currently provides over 3 percent of the total energy consumption in the United States. In addition to the many benefits common to renewable energy, biomass is particularly attractive because it is the only current renewable source of liquid transportation fuel. This, of course, makes it invaluable in reducing oil imports--one of our most pressing energy needs. A key question, however, is how large a role could biomass play in responding to the nation's energy demands. Assuming that economic and financial policies and advances in conversion technologies make biomass fuels and products more economically viable, could the biorefinery industry be large enough to have a significant impact on energy supply and oil imports? Any and all contributions are certainly needed, but would the biomass potential be sufficiently large to justify the necessary capital replacements in the fuels and automobile sectors? The purpose of this report is to determine

  17. TABES 93 - Annual Technical and Business Exhibition and Symposium, 9th, Huntsville, AL, May 11, 12, 1993, Submitted Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present symposium on space science and engineering discusses commercial space opportunities, materials processing in space, and the impact of TQM concepts on inspection of aerospace systems. Attention is given to the defense budget environment, tactical missiles and the changing world, and government/contractor development teams. Topics addressed include technology demonstration and evaluation activities in the Department of the Army, total environmental quality management in corporate America, and environmental lessons to be learned from the upcoming CFC phase-out.

  18. Technical Communication: Perspectives for the Eighties. Part 2. Proceedings of the Technical Communication Sessions of the Annual Conference on College Composition and Communication (32nd, Dallas, Texas, March 26-28, 1981).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, J. C., Comp.; Pinelli, Thomas E., Comp.

    The 42 papers in this volume discuss a variety of technical writing topics. The following are some of these topics: (1) industry's views on new directions in technical communication, and the technical writing skills that industry needs; (2) an interdisciplinary approach to teaching technical report writing in the community college; (3) designing…

  19. Can Impacts of Climate Change and Agricultural Adaptation Strategies Be Accurately Quantified if Crop Models Are Annually Re-Initialized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Bruno; Hyndman, David W; Kendall, Anthony D; Grace, Peter R; Robertson, G Philip

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of climate change impacts on global food production are generally based on statistical or process-based models. Process-based models can provide robust predictions of agricultural yield responses to changing climate and management. However, applications of these models often suffer from bias due to the common practice of re-initializing soil conditions to the same state for each year of the forecast period. If simulations neglect to include year-to-year changes in initial soil conditions and water content related to agronomic management, adaptation and mitigation strategies designed to maintain stable yields under climate change cannot be properly evaluated. We apply a process-based crop system model that avoids re-initialization bias to demonstrate the importance of simulating both year-to-year and cumulative changes in pre-season soil carbon, nutrient, and water availability. Results are contrasted with simulations using annual re-initialization, and differences are striking. We then demonstrate the potential for the most likely adaptation strategy to offset climate change impacts on yields using continuous simulations through the end of the 21st century. Simulations that annually re-initialize pre-season soil carbon and water contents introduce an inappropriate yield bias that obscures the potential for agricultural management to ameliorate the deleterious effects of rising temperatures and greater rainfall variability.

  20. X-ray and {Gamma}-ray spectroscopy of solids under pressure. Annual technical progress report, November 1996--October 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingalls, R.L.

    1997-04-30

    This report describes our recent synchrotron x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements on a number of systems that undergo pressure induced changes in local structure at high pressure. Our general technique is based upon a pressure cell which utilizes scintered boron carbide anvils, since diamond anvils generally produce Bragg glitches which spoil the high quality EXAFS necessary for precision structural measurements. Sample pressure is determined at the beam-line by measuring and analyzing, via XAFS, the compression of some cubic material contained within the sample chamber. Recently we have extended this work to 77 K using helium gas for the applied force, rather than hydraulic oil.

  1. Sensitivity of annual mass balance gradient and Hypsometry to the changing climate: the case of Dokriani Glacier, central Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratap, B.

    2015-12-01

    The glacier mass balance is undelayed, unfiltered and direct method to assess the impact of climate change on the glaciers. Many studies suggest that some of the Himalayan glaciers have lost their mass at an increased rate during the past few decades. Furthermore, the mass balance gradient and hypsometric analysis are important to understand the glacier response towards climatic perturbations. Our long term in-situ monitoring on the Dokriani Glacier provides great insights to understand the variability in central Himalayan glaciers. We report the relationship between glacier hypsometry and annual mass balance gradient (12 years) to understand the glacier's response towards climate change. Dokriani Glacier in the Bhagirathi basin is a small (7 km2) NNW exposed glacier in the western part of central Himalaya, India. The study analysed the annual balance, mass balance gradient and length changes observed during first decade of 21st century (2007-2013) and compare with the previous observations of 1990s (1992-2000). A large spatial variability in the mass balance gradients of two different periods has been observed. The equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) was fluctuated between 5000 and 5100 m a.s.l. and the derived time averaged ELA (ELAn) and balance budget ELA (ELA0) were 5075 and 4965 m a.s.l respectively during 1992-2013. The observed time-averaged accumulation-area ratio (AARn) and balance budget AAR (AAR0) were 0.67 and 0.72 respectively during 1992-2013. The higher value of AAR comprises due to flat and broader accumulation area (4.50 km2) of the glacier. Although, having larger accumulation area, the glacier has faced strong mass wasting with average annual ablation of -1.82 m w.e. a-1 in the ablation zone as compare to residual average annual accumulation of 0.41 m w.e. a-1. Based on the annual mass balance series (12 years) Dokriani Glacier has continuous negative annual balances with monotonically negative cumulative mass loss of -3.86 m w.e with the average

  2. Fifth annual progress report for Canada's climate change voluntary challenge and registry program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suncor Energy is a growing Canada-based integrated energy company comprising a corporate group and four operating businesses including: Oil Sands with a mine and upgrading facility at Fort McMurray, AB, Exploration and Production with conventional and heavy oil business in Western Canada, a Sunoco refining and marketing operation, and the Stuart Oil Shale Development Project in Queensland, Australia. While the emphasis is laid on technical and economic advances made by the company, the environmental tradeoffs, namely, greater greenhouse gas emissions and the need to reduce them, are noted. The most important positive item in the report is the incredible transformation occurring in Suncor's business operations. The company has begun a $2 billion expansion in its Oil Sands business that will more than double production of crude oil and fuel products by 2002. The expansion initiative provides a wonderful opportunity to demonstrate the huge leaps in performance that can be implemented at the time of capital stock turnover. The new expansion facilities are designed to be twice as energy efficient as the existing plant. Equally dramatic and hard won, are the multitude of incremental improvements achieved in existing facilities. Through energy management systems and operating practices and procedures, exploration and production is reversing the trend of rising greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity associated with mature conventional reservoirs, and Suncoco achieved its best ever operating performance in 1998. However, the volume of Suncor greenhouse gas emissions remains on an upward trend, which is a challenge for the future. As part of its mission to become a sustainable energy company, Suncor will continue to attempt to limit its net volume contribution of GHGs to the atmosphere to 1990 levels by pursuing domestic and international offsets and the development of alternative and renewable sources of energy. Progress towards sustainability for both Suncor and Canada

  3. Analysis of strategies for improving uranium utilization in pressurized water reactors. Annual technical progress report for FY 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systematic procedures have been devised and applied to evaluate core design and fuel management strategies for improving uranium utilization in Pressurized Water Reactors operated on a once-through fuel cycle. A principal objective has been the evaluation of suggested improvements on a self-consistent basis, allowing for concurrent changes in dependent variables such as core leakage and batch power histories, which might otherwise obscure the sometimes subtle effects of interest. Two levels of evaluation have been devised: a simple but accurate analytic model based on the observed linear variations in assembly reactivity as a function of burnup; and a numerical approach, embodied in a computer program, which relaxes this assumption and combines it with empirical prescriptions for assembly (or batch) power as a function of reactivity, and core leakage as a function of peripheral assembly power. State-of-the-art physics methods, such as PDQ-7, were used to verify and supplement these techniques

  4. Annual failure rates and marginal bone-level changes of immediate compared to conventional loading of dental implants. A systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, S.; Papacosta, P.; Rathe, F.; Ozen, J.; Jansen, J.A.; Junker, R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Immediate loading of dental implants appears to be a successful option. Questions still remain whether annual failure rates (AFRs) as well as annual marginal bone-level changes are comparable with conventionally loaded implants. HYPOTHESIS: Immediately loaded implants (

  5. Trend analysis and change point detection of annual and seasonal precipitation and temperature series over southwest Iran

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammad Zarenistanak; Amit G Dhorde; R H Kripalani

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents results of trend analysis and change point detection of annual and seasonal precipitation, and mean temperature (TM), maximum temperature (TMAX) and minimum temperature (TMIN) time series of the period 1950–2007. Investigations were carried out for 50 precipitation stations and 39 temperature stations located in southwest Iran. Three statistical tests including Pettitt’s test, Sequential Mann–Kendall test (SQ-MK test) and Mann–Kendall rank test (MK-test) were used for the analysis. The results obtained for precipitation series indicated that most stations showed insignificant trends in annual and seasonal series. Out of the stations which showed significant trends, highest numbers were observed during winter season while no significant trends were detected in summer precipitation. Moreover, no decreasing significant trends were detected by statistical tests in annual and seasonal precipitation series. The analysis of temperature trends revealed a significant increase during summer and spring seasons. TMAX was more stable than TMIN and TM, and winter was stable compared to summer, spring and autumn seasons. The results of change point detection indicated that most of the positive significant mutation points in TM, TMAX and TMIN began in the 1990s.

  6. Comparison of rate of annual change of mental status score in four independent studies of patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzman, R; Brown, T; Thal, L J; Fuld, P A; Aronson, M; Butters, N; Klauber, M R; Wiederholt, W; Pay, M; Xiong, R B

    1988-09-01

    Longitudinal studies of subjects with autopsy-proven Alzheimer's disease in one skilled nursing home and of clinically diagnosed cases (NINCDS/ADRDA criteria) in three community cohorts are compared with regard to the annual rate of change in the error score of the Blessed information-memory-concentration test (IMC) in which the maximum number of errors possible is 33. The four cohorts differed significantly from each other in regard to age, education, sex, and the degree of dementia as measured by the initial IMC score. Subjects spanned the age range of 52 to 96 years and had 2 to 20 years of education. The rate of change in error score per year was similar whether the initial error score was 0 to 7, 8 to 15, or 16 to 23; however, the rate was reduced when the initial error score was 24 or above, due to a ceiling effect of the test. Among subjects with initial IMC scores less than 24, the annual rate of change varied considerably. However, the mean annual rate of change, 4.4 errors (SD +/- 3.6, SEM +/- 0.3) per year, was independent of residence in a nursing home, location of the study site, and of the patient's sex or education. Of particular importance was the finding that the rate of change in mental test score was independent of age. It can be concluded that the rate of cognitive deterioration in patients with Alzheimer's disease is quite variable among individuals and is independent of the patient's age and whether the patient resides in the community or in a nursing home.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Technical variability is greater than biological variability in a microarray experiment but both are outweighed by changes induced by stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope A Bryant

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A central issue in the design of microarray-based analysis of global gene expression is that variability resulting from experimental processes may obscure changes resulting from the effect being investigated. This study quantified the variability in gene expression at each level of a typical in vitro stimulation experiment using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. The primary objective was to determine the magnitude of biological and technical variability relative to the effect being investigated, namely gene expression changes resulting from stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. METHODS AND RESULTS: Human PBMC were stimulated in vitro with LPS, with replication at 5 levels: 5 subjects each on 2 separate days with technical replication of LPS stimulation, amplification and hybridisation. RNA from samples stimulated with LPS and unstimulated samples were hybridised against common reference RNA on oligonucleotide microarrays. There was a closer correlation in gene expression between replicate hybridisations (0.86-0.93 than between different subjects (0.66-0.78. Deconstruction of the variability at each level of the experimental process showed that technical variability (standard deviation (SD 0.16 was greater than biological variability (SD 0.06, although both were low (SD<0.1 for all individual components. There was variability in gene expression both at baseline and after stimulation with LPS and proportion of cell subsets in PBMC was likely partly responsible for this. However, gene expression changes after stimulation with LPS were much greater than the variability from any source, either individually or combined. CONCLUSIONS: Variability in gene expression was very low and likely to improve further as technical advances are made. The finding that stimulation with LPS has a markedly greater effect on gene expression than the degree of variability provides confidence that microarray-based studies can be used to

  8. Endogenous growth, technical change and pollution control. Insights from a Schumpeterian growth model with productivity growth and green innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Burghaus, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    This thesis studies economic growth and pollution control in a Schumpeterian model with endogenous rate and direction of technical change. Economic growth results from growth in the quantity and productivity of polluting intermediate goods. Pollution is linked to the quantity of intermediates. Productivity growth is not directly polluting but has an indirect effect on pollution which is a priory ambiguous: Higher productivity helps to use polluting inputs more efficiently and decrease their s...

  9. Population dynamics of Agriophyllum squarrosum, a pioneer annual plant endemic to mobile sand dunes, in response to global climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Chaoju; Yin, Hengxia; Shi, Yong; Zhao, Jiecai; Yin, Chengliang; Luo, Wanyin; Dong, Zhibao; Chen, Guoxiong; Yan, Xia; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Ma, Xiao-Fei

    2016-05-23

    Climate change plays an important role in the transition of ecosystems. Stratigraphic investigations have suggested that the Asian interior experienced frequent transitions between grassland and desert ecosystems as a consequence of global climate change. Using maternally and bi-parentally inherited markers, we investigated the population dynamics of Agriophyllum squarrosum (Chenopodiaceae), an annual pioneer plant endemic to mobile sand dunes. Phylogeographic analysis revealed that A. squarrosum could originate from Gurbantunggut desert since ~1.6 Ma, and subsequently underwent three waves of colonisation into other deserts and sandy lands corresponding to several glaciations. The rapid population expansion and distribution range shifts of A. squarrosum from monsoonal climate zones suggested that the development of the monsoonal climate significantly enhanced the population growth and gene flow of A. squarrosum. These data also suggested that desertification of the fragile grassland ecosystems in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was more ancient than previously suggested and will be aggravated under global warming in the future. This study provides new molecular phylogeographic insights into how pioneer annual plant species in desert ecosystems respond to global climate change, and facilitates evaluation of the ecological potential and genetic resources of future crops for non-arable dry lands to mitigate climate change.

  10. Population dynamics of Agriophyllum squarrosum, a pioneer annual plant endemic to mobile sand dunes, in response to global climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Chaoju; Yin, Hengxia; Shi, Yong; Zhao, Jiecai; Yin, Chengliang; Luo, Wanyin; Dong, Zhibao; Chen, Guoxiong; Yan, Xia; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Ma, Xiao-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Climate change plays an important role in the transition of ecosystems. Stratigraphic investigations have suggested that the Asian interior experienced frequent transitions between grassland and desert ecosystems as a consequence of global climate change. Using maternally and bi-parentally inherited markers, we investigated the population dynamics of Agriophyllum squarrosum (Chenopodiaceae), an annual pioneer plant endemic to mobile sand dunes. Phylogeographic analysis revealed that A. squarrosum could originate from Gurbantunggut desert since ~1.6 Ma, and subsequently underwent three waves of colonisation into other deserts and sandy lands corresponding to several glaciations. The rapid population expansion and distribution range shifts of A. squarrosum from monsoonal climate zones suggested that the development of the monsoonal climate significantly enhanced the population growth and gene flow of A. squarrosum. These data also suggested that desertification of the fragile grassland ecosystems in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was more ancient than previously suggested and will be aggravated under global warming in the future. This study provides new molecular phylogeographic insights into how pioneer annual plant species in desert ecosystems respond to global climate change, and facilitates evaluation of the ecological potential and genetic resources of future crops for non-arable dry lands to mitigate climate change. PMID:27210568

  11. 75 FR 32858 - Medicare Program; Policy and Technical Changes to the Medicare Advantage and the Medicare...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... Prescription Drug Benefit Programs'' which appeared in the April 15, 2010 Federal Register (FR Doc. 2010-7966, (75 FR 19678)), there were technical and typographical errors that are identified and corrected in the... all covered Part D drugs must be included in Part D formularies (75 FR 19767), we indicated that...

  12. Computerising the Salesforce: The Introduction of Technical Change in a Non-Union Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Helen; Lloyd, Caroline

    1998-01-01

    Results of interviews with 13 pharmaceutical sales representatives, five sales managers, and six human-resource managers and 47 survey responses showed that introduction of information technology was seen as purely technical; human-resources departments played no role; and informal communication procedures enabled management to ignore individual…

  13. The Changing Nature of Information Literacy in the Technical College Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Community and technical colleges have a long-established tradition of instructing students in library use with the goal of increasing information literacy and life-long learning (Branch & Gilchrist, 1996). This article will briefly summarize that history and discuss the impact the information age has had in altering the ways in which that…

  14. Changing mechanism of global water scarcity events: Impacts of socioeconomic changes and inter-annual hydro-climatic variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, T.I.E.; Wada, Y.; Moel, de H.; Kummu, M.S.; Eisner, S.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.; Ward, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    79%) of the yearly changes in global water scarcity, whilst only after six to ten years, socioeconomic developments become the largest driver of change. Moreover, our results showed that the growth in the relative contribution of socioeconomic developments to changing water scarcity conditions stabi

  15. Simulated annual changes in plant functional types and their responses to climate change on the northern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuo, Lan; Zhang, Yongxin; Piao, Shilong; Gao, Yanhong

    2016-06-01

    Changes in plant functional types (PFTs) have important implications for both climate and water resources. Still, little is known about whether and how PFTs have changed over the past decades on the northern Tibetan Plateau (NTP) where several of the top largest rivers in the world are originated. Also, the relative importance of atmospheric conditions vs. soil physical conditions in affecting PFTs is unknown on the NTP. In this study, we used the improved Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model to investigate PFT changes through examining the changes in foliar projective coverages (FPCs) during 1957-2009 and their responses to changes in root zone soil temperature, soil moisture, air temperature, precipitation and CO2 concentrations. The results show spatially heterogeneous changes in FPCs across the NTP during 1957-2009, with 34 % (13 %) of the region showing increasing (decreasing) trends. Dominant drivers responsible for the observed FPC changes vary with regions and vegetation types, but overall, precipitation is the major factor in determining FPC changes on the NTP with positive impacts. Soil temperature increase exhibits small but negative impacts on FPCs. Different responses of individual FPCs to regionally varying climate change result in spatially heterogeneous patterns of vegetation changes on the NTP. The implication of the study is that fresh water resources in one of the world's largest and most important headwater basins and the onset and intensity of Asian monsoon circulations could be affected because of the changes in FPCs on the NTP.

  16. Annual Research Technical Report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report has among its objectives to carry out the Probabilistic Safety Analysis Level 1 for the IRIS inside the project of development of reactors of IV Generation. To generate computational calculation tools for the analysis of the reactors of IV Generation. To generate computational tools to optimize the use of the nuclear fuel. (Author)

  17. Annual Research Technical Report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the principles of reactors design of Light Water of IV generation, to look for collaborations to participate in the development of some of them and to generate computational tools that allow us the appropriate analysis of these reactors. (Author)

  18. Annual Research Technical Report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work it plans to be carried out the Probabilistic Safety Analysis level 1 for the Modified Design of the IRIS Reactor. To generate computational tools of calculation of the analysis of the reactors of IV Generation and to optimize the use of nuclear fuel. To elaborate the economic analysis of the IRIS Reactor. (Author)

  19. Continent-scale global change attribution in European birds - combining annual and decadal time scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Thorup, Kasper;

    2016-01-01

    investigate the recent impact of multiple environmental changes on European farmland birds, here focusing on climate change and land use change. We analyze more than 800 time series from 18 countries spanning the past two decades. Analysis of long-term population growth rates documents simultaneous responses......Species attributes are commonly used to infer impacts of environmental change on multiyear species trends, e.g. decadal changes in population size. However, by themselves attributes are of limited value in global change attribution since they do not measure the changing environment. A broader...... foundation for attributing species responses to global change may be achieved by complementing an attributes-based approach by one estimating the relationship between repeated measures of organismal and environmental changes over short time scales. To assess the benefit of this multiscale perspective, we...

  20. Technical Note: Evaluating a simple parameterization of radiative shortwave forcing from surface albedo change

    OpenAIRE

    R. M. Bright; Kvalevåg, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Land-use activities affect Earth’s energy balance not only via biogeochemical emissions, but also through perturbations in surface albedo, the latter of which is often excluded in impact assessment studies. In this short technical note, we present and compare a simple model for estimating shortwave radiative forcings at the top of Earth’s atmosphere to a more sophisticated 8-stream radiative transfer model based on a discrete ordinate method. Outcomes from monthly albe...

  1. Technical Change Theory and Learning Curves: Patterns of Progress in Energy Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Jamasb, Tooraj

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of energy technology learning and progress within the framework of Schumpeter?s invention-innovation-diffusion paradigm. We estimate learning by doing and research rates for a range of energy technologies in four stages of technical progress. Emerging and mature technologies respond slowly to research and development (R&D) and capacity expansion; evolving technologies exhibit high learning-by-doing and research rates; reviving technologies exhibit co...

  2. The identity approach for assessing socio-technical resilience to climate change: example of flood risk management for the Island of Dordrecht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gersonius, B.; Ashley, R.; Zevenbergen, C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent EU guidance on adaptation calls for the enhancement of socio-technical resilience to climate change. However, socio-technical resilience is relatively poorly defined and this makes it difficult to apply in practice. This paper uses the concept of identity as a vehicle to advance the definitio

  3. Canadian Industry for Energy Conservation (CIPEC) annual report 2007 : seven ideas that can change your world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    The Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation (CIPEC) was founded in 1975 as an umbrella organization to oversee partnerships between government and private industry. Its primary objective was to promote energy efficiency within the Canadian industrial sector. This report described the energy efficiency initiatives taken by CIPEC member companies for the year 2005 and highlighted CIPEC's accomplishments in 2006-2007. Several successes achieved by individual companies in various industrial sectors were also documented. Many energy-savings ideas have been implemented as a result of programs and services offered by Natural Resources Canada through CIPEC. This report reviewed the following 7 ideas that can be adapted to fit a variety of operating environments: (1) improve processes, (2) transform employee mindsets, (3) upgrade equipment, (4) adopt new technologies, (5) measure energy performance, (6) rethink facility design, and (7) introduce alternative sources of energy. This report revealed that 2005 was a successful year in terms of the energy efficiency accomplishments of Canadian industry. Energy intensity improved by 1.4 per cent in 2005 compared with 2004, contributing to an average annual improvement in energy intensity of 0.7 per cent since 1990 for all of CIPEC industries. Through CIPEC, the mining, manufacturing and construction sectors have voluntarily met and exceeded annual targets to reduce their energy intensity. Upstream oil and gas companies have implemented projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by millions of tonnes and electrical utilities have significantly increased their production of alternative energy. refs., tabs., figs.

  4. Annual changes of aerosol optical depth and Ångström exponent over Spitsbergen

    OpenAIRE

    Pakszys, Paulina; Zielinski, T.; Markowicz, K.; Petelski, T.; Makuch, P.; Lisok, J.; Chilinski, M.; Rozwadoska, A.; Ritter, Christoph; Neuber, Roland; Udisti, Roberto; Mazzola, M.

    2015-01-01

    This book contributes to the current discussion on global environmental changes by discussing modifications in marine ecosystems related to global climate changes. In marine ecosystems, rising atmospheric CO2 and climate changes are associated with shifts in temperature, circulation, stratification, nutrient input, oxygen concentration and ocean acidification, which have significant biological effects on a regional and global scale. Knowing how these changes affect the distribution and ab...

  5. Producing Scientific and Strategic Guidance for California's Department of Water Resources: The Climate Change Technical Advisory Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyakum, J. R.; Austin, B. N.; Curtis, D. C.; Anderson, M.; Alpert, H.; Young, S.; Herson, A.; Schwarz, A.; Kavvas, M. L.; Langridge, R.; Lynn, E.; Anderson, J.; Redmond, K. T.; Dettinger, M. D.; Correa, M.; Franco, G.; Cayan, D.; Georgakakos, K.

    2015-12-01

    Diverse areas of expertise are needed to describe and assess a changing climate and provide guidance for the agency that runs the largest state-built, multi-purpose water project in the U.S. California's State Water Project provides: drinking water for more than 25 million people, flood control, power generation, recreation, fish and wildlife protection, and water quality improvements. Hydrologic impacts under a changing climate include rising seas, reduced ratio of snow to rain, earlier snowmelt and higher temperatures; all of which are being detected. To improve the scientific basis for decisions and enhance the consistency of climate change approaches, the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) empaneled a Climate Change Technical Advisory Group (CCTAG) for guidance on the scientific aspects of climate change, its impacts on water resources, the use and creation of planning approaches and analytical tools, and the development of adaptation responses. To carry out DWR's mission, incorporation of climate change into DWR's planning, projects, and other activities must be consistent, science-based, and continually improved through an iterative process. Hydrologists, academicians, modelers, planners, lawyers and practitioners convened regularly to tackle these complicated issues in water management policy, including climate change impacts on extreme events. Actions taken in response to the CCTAG recommendations will move California toward more sustainable management of water and related resources. DWR will release a technical report of CCTAG guidance and perspectives in 2015. The process to convene, collaborate and distribute the findings of this CCTAG will be the focus of this presentation. An academician and water resources practitioner will share their perspectives on the processes driving CCTAG's work.

  6. Changes in activity of the organon vasculosum laminae terminalis in the annual cycle in Rana temporaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, S; Dziubek, K; Lach, H

    1978-01-01

    In 70 sexually mature male and femal Rana temporaria frogs captured in natural habitat, mean nuclear volumes for the cells of the pars ependymalis and pars parenchymalis of the organon vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) were determined in seven characteristic stages in life. The mean nuclear volume for the cells of the pars ependymalis and pars parenchymalis of the OVLT showed distinct annual fluctuation. Maximum nuclear volume of the cells in both investigated parts of the OVLT were observed during the breeding period (Ist decade of April), and minimum volume of the nuclei of the pars ependymalis at the beginning of hibernation (IIIrd decade of October), and in the pars parenchymalis near the end of active life (Ist decade of September).

  7. Annual Change Detection by ASTER TIR Data and an Estimation of the Annual Coal Loss and CO2 Emission from Coal Seams Spontaneous Combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaomin Du; Suping Peng; Haiyan Wang; Sergio Bernardes; Guang Yang; Zhipeng Li

    2014-01-01

    Coal fires, including both underground and coal waste pile fires, result in large losses of coal resources and emit considerable amounts of greenhouse gases. To estimate the annual intensity of greenhouse gas emissions and the loss of coal resources, estimating the annual loss from fire-influenced coal seams is a feasible approach. This study assumes that the primary cause of coal volume loss is subsurface coal seam fires. The main calculation process is divided into three modules: (1) Coal f...

  8. Annual changes in plasma levels of cortisol and sex steroid hormones in male rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ya-Yi; Han, Xiao-Dong; Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2001-09-01

    The profiles of cortisol, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one in male rainbow trout reared under constant water temperature and natural photoperiod were determined by radioimmunoassay. Gonads of male rainbow trout reached maturity when the fish were two years old. Changes in the plasma levels of both sex steroid hormones and cortisol were closely related to the GSI. Plasma levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17α; 20β-dihydroxy 4-pregnene-3-one showed a clear peak in the annual breeding season, when the GSI reached their maxima. Plasma cortisol levels also showed clearly seasonal changes in both two- and three-year-old fish. The results suggest that the elevated plasma levels of cortisol may not just be due to stresses during the breeding season but have certain physiological functions in the reproduction of rainbow trout.

  9. ANNUAL CHANGES IN PLASMA LEVELS OF CORTISOL AND SEX STEROID HORMONES IN MALE RAINBOW TROUT,ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The profiles of cortisol, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17α, 20β- dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one in male rainbow trout reared under constant water temperature and natural photoperiod were determined by radioimmunoassay. Gonads of male rainbow trout reached maturity when the fish were two years old. Changes in the plasma levels of both sex steroid hormones and cortisol were closely related to the GSI. Plasma levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17α, 20β-dihydroxy 4-pregnene-3-one showed a clear peak in the annual breeding season, when the GSI reached their maxima. Plasma cortisol levels also showed clearly seasonal changes in both two- and three-year-old fish. The results suggest that the elevated plasma levels of cortisol may not just be due to stresses during the breeding season but have certain physiological functions in the reproduction of rainbow trout.

  10. ANNUAL CHANGES IN PLASMA LEVELS OF CORTISOL AND SEX STEROID HORMONES IN MALE RAINBOW TROUT, ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯亚义; 韩晓冬; SUZUKIYuzuru

    2001-01-01

    The profiles of cortisol, testosterone, ll-ketotestosterone and 17α, 20β- dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one in mule rainbow trout reared under constant water temperature and natural photoperiod were determined by radioimmunoassay. Gonads of male rainbow trout reached maturity when the fish were two years old. Changes in the plasma levels of both sex steroid hormones and cortisol were closely related to the GSI. Plasma levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestostemne and 17a, 2013-dihydroxy 4-pregnene-3-one showed a clear peak in the annual breeding season, when the GSI reached their maxima. Plasma cortisol levels also showed clearly seasonal changes in both two- and three-year-old fish. The results suggest that the elevated plasma levels of cortisol may not just be due to stresses during the breeding season but have certain physiological functions in the reproduction of rainbow trout.

  11. Surface Signature Characterization at SPE through Ground-Proximal Methods: Methodology Change and Technical Justification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz-Fellenz, Emily S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-09

    A portion of LANL’s FY15 SPE objectives includes initial ground-based or ground-proximal investigations at the SPE Phase 2 site. The area of interest is the U2ez location in Yucca Flat. This collection serves as a baseline for discrimination of surface features and acquisition of topographic signatures prior to any development or pre-shot activities associated with SPE Phase 2. Our team originally intended to perform our field investigations using previously vetted ground-based (GB) LIDAR methodologies. However, the extended proposed time frame of the GB LIDAR data collection, and associated data processing time and delivery date, were unacceptable. After technical consultation and careful literature research, LANL identified an alternative methodology to achieve our technical objectives and fully support critical model parameterization. Very-low-altitude unmanned aerial systems (UAS) photogrammetry appeared to satisfy our objectives in lieu of GB LIDAR. The SPE Phase 2 baseline collection was used as a test of this UAS photogrammetric methodology.

  12. Impacts of climate change on biodiversity, ecosystems, and ecosystem services: technical input to the 2013 National Climate Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudinger, Michelle D.; Grimm, Nancy B.; Staudt, Amanda; Carter, Shawn L.; Stuart, F. Stuart; Kareiva, Peter; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Stein, Bruce A.

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystems, and the biodiversity and services they support, are intrinsically dependent on climate. During the twentieth century, climate change has had documented impacts on ecological systems, and impacts are expected to increase as climate change continues and perhaps even accelerates. This technical input to the National Climate Assessment synthesizes our scientific understanding of the way climate change is affecting biodiversity, ecosystems, ecosystem services, and what strategies might be employed to decrease current and future risks. Building on past assessments of how climate change and other stressors are affecting ecosystems in the United States and around the world, we approach the subject from several different perspectives. First, we review the observed and projected impacts on biodiversity, with a focus on genes, species, and assemblages of species. Next, we examine how climate change is affecting ecosystem structural elements—such as biomass, architecture, and heterogeneity—and functions—specifically, as related to the fluxes of energy and matter. People experience climate change impacts on biodiversity and ecosystems as changes in ecosystem services; people depend on ecosystems for resources that are harvested, their role in regulating the movement of materials and disturbances, and their recreational, cultural, and aesthetic value. Thus, we review newly emerging research to determine how human activities and a changing climate are likely to alter the delivery of these ecosystem services. This technical input also examines two cross-cutting topics. First, we recognize that climate change is happening against the backdrop of a wide range of other environmental and anthropogenic stressors, many of which have caused dramatic ecosystem degradation already. This broader range of stressors interacts with climate change, and complicates our abilities to predict and manage the impacts on biodiversity, ecosystems, and the services they support. The

  13. Impacts of land use change and climate variations on annual inflow into the Miyun Reservoir, Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiangkun; Sun, Ge; Li, Wenhong; Yu, Xinxiao; Zhang, Chi; Gong, Yuanbo; Tu, Lihua

    2016-04-01

    The Miyun Reservoir, the only surface water source for Beijing city, has experienced water supply decline in recent decades. Previous studies suggest that both land use change and climate contribute to the changes of water supply in this critical watershed. However, the specific causes of the decline in the Miyun Reservoir are debatable under a non-stationary climate in the past 4 decades. The central objective of this study was to quantify the separate and collective contributions of land use change and climate variability to the decreasing inflow into the Miyun Reservoir during 1961-2008. Different from previous studies on this watershed, we used a comprehensive approach to quantify the timing of changes in hydrology and associated environmental variables using the long-term historical hydrometeorology and remote-sensing-based land use records. To effectively quantify the different impacts of the climate variation and land use change on streamflow during different sub-periods, an annual water balance model (AWB), the climate elasticity model (CEM), and a rainfall-runoff model (RRM) were employed to conduct attribution analysis synthetically. We found a significant (p 0.1) negative trend in annual precipitation during 1961-2008. We identified two streamflow breakpoints, 1983 and 1999, by the sequential Mann-Kendall test and double-mass curve. Climate variability alone did not explain the decrease in inflow to the Miyun Reservoir. Reduction of water yield was closely related to increase in actual evapotranspiration due to the expansion of forestland and reduction in cropland and grassland, and was likely exacerbated by increased water consumption for domestic and industrial uses in the basin. The contribution to the observed streamflow decline from land use change fell from 64-92 % during 1984-1999 to 36-58 % during 2000-2008, whereas the contribution from climate variation climbed from 8-36 % during the 1984-1999 to 42-64 % during 2000-2008. Model uncertainty

  14. The National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center annual report for 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Acevedo, Elda

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, Congress created the National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center (NCCWSC) within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The center was formed to respond to the demands of natural resource managers for rigorous scientific information and effective tools for assessing and responding to climate change. Located at the USGS National Headquarters in Reston, Va., the NCCWSC has invested more than $93 million (through FY13) in cutting-edge climate change research and, in response to Secretarial Order No. 3289, established and is managing eight regional Department of Interior (DOI) Climate Science Centers (CSCs). In 2013:

  15. Changes in annual accumulation retrieved from Geladaindong ice core and its relationship to atmospheric circulation over the Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Annual accumulation records covering 1935 to 2004 were reconstructed using Geladaindong ice core in the source of Yangtze River. A significant positive correlation between annual accumulation and precipitation from nearby meteorological stations was found, suggesting ice core accumulation could be taken as a precipitation proxy in the region. In the past 70 years, precipitation in the Geladaindong region was low from 1930s to early 1960s, and the lowest value occurred in the later 1950s. Since 1960s, precipitation increased dramatically and reached the maximum around 1980s, then decreased slightly in 1990s. By using Mann-Kendall rank statistical test method, a change point for precipitation was determined in 1967. Analysis of the atmospheric circulation over the Tibetan Plateau suggested that, compared with the southwest wind during the low precipitation period (before 1967), it extended about 2 latitudes northward during high precipitation period (after 1967). Moreover, during the high precipitation, the trough over the Bal Karshi Lake was also enhanced, and both the meridional wind and vapor transporting displayed a remarkable aggrandizement.

  16. Inverted Barometer Contributions to Accelerated and Extreme Annual Mean Sea Level Changes Along the East Coast of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piecuch, C. G.; Ponte, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Recent works have interpreted accelerated and extreme sea level (SL) changes along the northeast coast of North America primarily in terms of dynamic changes related to the meridional overturning or coastal circulations. Isostatic changes related to surface atmospheric pressure loading —the inverted barometer (IB) effect— have been deemed relatively unimportant, but a comprehensive analysis of the IB effect has been lacking. In this work, we use five different atmospheric pressure products to analyze the influence of the IB effect on annual mean SL from tide gauge records. Consistently across all products, the IB effect accounts for about 50% of the magnitude of a recent extreme event of SL rise in 2009 along Atlantic Canada and New England. In fact, the unique nature of the event was largely a result of the extreme IB signal. Estimated IB effects also amount to about 10-30% of recent multidecadal SL accelerations over the Mid-Atlantic Bight and Southern New England. These findings reiterate the need for careful estimation of IB effects for studies that want to interpret observed SL in terms of dynamic ocean circulation changes.

  17. Adaptation of interconnected infrastructures to climate change: A socio-technical systems perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chappin, E.J.L.; Van der Lei, T.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is likely to affect how society will function in this century. Because climate change effects may be severe, a next step is to study not only the effects on natural systems, but also the effects on built infrastructure systems and, in response to anticipated effects, the adaptation of

  18. Getting a Grip on Climate Change in the Philippines : Extended Technical Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Philippines currently experience and will continue to face significant impacts from climate change. To ensure climate resilience, build a low-carbon economy, and increase its role in the global climate change dialogue, the Philippine government has launched strong climate policy and institutional and financing reforms, supported by a clear rationale for no-regrets action. However, transfor...

  19. Annual rhythms that underlie phenology : biological time-keeping meets environmental change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helm, Barbara; Ben-Shlomo, Rachel; Sheriff, Michael J; Hut, Roelof A; Foster, Russell; Barnes, Brian M; Dominoni, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal recurrence of biological processes (phenology) and its relationship to environmental change is recognized as being of key scientific and public concern, but its current study largely overlooks the extent to which phenology is based on biological time-keeping mechanisms. We highlight the rel

  20. Organizational Change. Symposium 11. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    This packet contains three papers from a symposium on organizational change. The first paper, "Kaizen Blitz: Rapid Learning to Facilitate Immediate Organizational Improvements" (Robert B. Gudgel, Fred C. Feitler), describes rapid and dramatic improvement in the organizational performance of a manufacturing firm after use of a series of kaizen…

  1. Influence of seaway changes during the Pliocene on tropical Pacific climate in the Kiel climate model: mean state, annual cycle, ENSO, and their interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhaoyang; Latif, Mojib; Park, Wonsun; Krebs-Kanzow, Uta; Schneider, Birgit

    2016-08-01

    The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the leading mode of tropical Pacific interannual variability in the present-day climate. Available proxy evidence suggests that ENSO also existed during past climates, for example during the Pliocene extending from about 5.3 million to about 2.6 million years BP. Here we investigate the influences of the Panama Seaway closing and Indonesian Passages narrowing, and also of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) on the tropical Pacific mean climate and annual cycle, and their combined impact on ENSO during the Pliocene. To this end the Kiel Climate Model), a global climate model, is employed to study the influences of the changing geometry and CO2-concentration. We find that ENSO is sensitive to the closing of the Panama Seaway, with ENSO amplitude being reduced by about 15-20 %. The narrowing of the Indonesian Passages enhances ENSO strength but only by about 6 %. ENSO period changes are modest and the spectral ENSO peak stays rather broad. Annual cycle changes are more prominent. An intensification of the annual cycle by about 50 % is simulated in response to the closing of the Panama Seaway, which is largely attributed to the strengthening of meridional wind stress. In comparison to the closing of the Panama Seaway, the narrowing of the Indonesian Passages only drives relatively weak changes in the annual cycle. A robust relationship is found such that ENSO amplitude strengthens when the annual cycle amplitude weakens.

  2. Job skills at the flashpoint of economic, technical and organizational change

    OpenAIRE

    Geser, Hans

    2000-01-01

    Contents: 1. Point of departure and problem definition; 2. On the growing complexity and unpredictability of the change in occupational skills; 3. The reduced causal impact of technology; 4. Organizational and qualificational change: the implications of "functional flexibilization" for skill requirements at staff and management level; 4.1 "Numerical" and "functional" flexibilization; 4.2 Consequences of the flattening of hierarchies and the delegation of responsibilities; 4.3 Total quality th...

  3. Carbon Calculator for Land Use Change from Biofuels Production (CCLUB) Users’ Manual and Technical Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Qin, Zhangcai [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Mueller, Steffen [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States). Energy Resources Center; Kwon, Ho-young [International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washington, DC (United States); Wander, Michelle M. [Univ. of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Natural Resources; Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division

    2016-09-01

    The $\\underline{C}$arbon $\\underline{C}$alculator for $\\underline{L}$and $\\underline{U}$se Change from $\\underline{B}$iofuels Production (CCLUB) calculates carbon emissions from land use change (LUC) for four different ethanol production pathways including corn grain ethanol and cellulosic ethanol from corn stover, Miscanthus, and switchgrass. This document discusses the version of CCLUB released September 30, 2014 which includes corn and three cellulosic feedstocks: corn stover, Miscanthus, and switchgrass.

  4. Technical Note on Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ludena, Carlos E.; Maria Netto

    2011-01-01

    This Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change in Brazil sector note has been elaborated as input to the Bank's Country Strategy with Brazil for the 2012-2014 period. Some of the most significant aspects of this note are: background and context, sector problems and priorities, Bank Actions related to climate change, strategic framework, necessary actions to achieve strategic objectives, expected results, risks and indicators.

  5. Technological change in Swiss thermal waste treatment: An expert-based socio-technical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding technological change provides a crucial basis for governing sustainability transitions. In this paper we present an analysis of technological change using the example of Swiss thermal waste processing. In recent years, increased concerns about the low quality of residues from grate-firing systems led to the examination of alternative technologies. Yet despite clear indications of a potential better performance with respect to residue quality, none of these alternatives has been adopted. Based on a two-stage knowledge integration among 15 leading experts, in a retrospective analysis we identified factors that have significantly affected technological change in Swiss thermal waste processing. These factors were then related to three technological options representing different types of technological change, i.e., from incremental improvements of the existing to the implementation of a new technology. The results indicate that technological change is currently in a technological lock-in and provide detailed insights on the causes. The lock-in results in the step-wise further development of the status quo grate-firing system despite its limitations for improving the residue qualities. Almost all factors (legal, economic, societal, technological) of the existing 'thermal waste management' system have been well adapted to the cost- and energy-efficient grate-firing technology, blocking innovative technologies from entering the Swiss market. In addition, pressures from the context, e.g., societal pressure related to landfill risks, have not been strong enough to promote non-incremental change.

  6. Post-2012 climate change agreement - Fitting commitments by cities. Political, economic, technical and legal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a growing awareness of the crucial role that urban territories must and can play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, along with a growing power of a lobby dedicated to supporting the voices of urban territories vis-a-vis national states. The local level of organization and policy is relevant for two main reasons: density and spatial organization are key factors that influence energy consumption in transport and building; some of the major potentials for emission abatement need local coordination to overcome transaction costs. 'Engage, Empower and Resource': this formula, forged during the C40 Seoul Summit (May 2009), calls for clear and quantified commitments with a timetable for delivery; additional power and competencies for cities to increase their capacity to act; and substantial financial resources. Road-Map: This paper identifies key elements that need to be taken into account when developing a road-map that seeks empowerment of local governments in the UN post-2012 framework. It explores political, economic, technical and legal aspects, along with respective main issues to be addressed. (authors)

  7. Annual Energy Review 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2000-07-01

    A generation ago the Ford Foundation convened a group of experts to explore and assess the Nation’s energy future, and published their conclusions in A Time To Choose: America’s Energy Future (Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 1974). The Energy Policy Project developed scenarios of U.S. potential energy use in 1985 and 2000. Now, with 1985 well behind us and 2000 nearly on the record books, it may be of interest to take a look back to see what actually happened and consider what it means for our future. The study group sketched three primary scenarios with differing assumptions about the growth of energy use. The Historical Growth scenario assumed that U.S. energy consumption would continue to expand by 3.4 percent per year, the average rate from 1950 to 1970. This scenario assumed no intentional efforts to change the pattern of consumption, only efforts to encourage development of our energy supply. The Technical Fix scenario anticipated a “conscious national effort to use energy more efficiently through engineering know-how." The Zero Energy Growth scenario, while not clamping down on the economy or calling for austerity, incorporated the Technical Fix efficiencies plus additional efficiencies. This third path anticipated that economic growth would depend less on energy-intensive industries and more on those that require less energy, i.e., the service sector. In 2000, total energy consumption was projected to be 187 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) in the Historical Growth case, 124 quadrillion Btu in the Technical Fix case, and 100 quadrillion Btu in the Zero Energy Growth case. The Annual Energy Review 1999 reports a preliminary total consumption for 1999 of 97 quadrillion Btu (see Table 1.1), and the Energy Information Administration’s Short-Term Energy Outlook (April 2000) forecasts total energy consumption of 98 quadrillion Btu in 2000. What energy consumption path did the United States actually travel to get from 1974, when the scenarios were drawn

  8. Annual rhythms that underlie phenology: biological time-keeping meets environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Barbara; Ben-Shlomo, Rachel; Sheriff, Michael J; Hut, Roelof A; Foster, Russell; Barnes, Brian M; Dominoni, Davide

    2013-08-22

    Seasonal recurrence of biological processes (phenology) and its relationship to environmental change is recognized as being of key scientific and public concern, but its current study largely overlooks the extent to which phenology is based on biological time-keeping mechanisms. We highlight the relevance of physiological and neurobiological regulation for organisms' responsiveness to environmental conditions. Focusing on avian and mammalian examples, we describe circannual rhythmicity of reproduction, migration and hibernation, and address responses of animals to photic and thermal conditions. Climate change and urbanization are used as urgent examples of anthropogenic influences that put biological timing systems under pressure. We furthermore propose that consideration of Homo sapiens as principally a 'seasonal animal' can inspire new perspectives for understanding medical and psychological problems. PMID:23825201

  9. Final Technical Report: Effects of Changing Water and Nitrogen Inputs on a Mojave Desert Ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Stanley, D.; Nowak, Robert S.; Fenstermaker, Lynn, F.; Young, Michael,H.

    2007-11-30

    In order to anticipate the effects of global change on ecosystem function, it is essential that predictive relationships be established linking ecosystem function to global change scenarios. The Mojave Desert is of considerable interest with respect to global change. It contains the driest habitats in North America, and thus most closely approximates the world’s great arid deserts. In order to examine the effects of climate and land use changes, in 2001 we established a long-term manipulative global change experiment, called the Mojave Global Change Facility. Manipulations in this study include the potential effects of (1) increased summer rainfall (75 mm over three discrete 25 mm events), (2) increased nitrogen deposition (10 and 40 kg ha-1), and (3) the disturbance of biological N-fixing crusts . Questions addressed under this grant shared the common hypothesis that plant and ecosystem performance will positively respond to the augmentation of the most limiting resources to plant growth in the Mojave Desert, e.g., water and nitrogen. Specific hypotheses include (1) increased summer rainfall will significantly increase plant production through an alleviation of moisture stress in the dry summer months, (2) N-deposition will increase plant production in this N-limited system, particularly in wet years or in concert with added summer rain, and (3) biological crust disturbance will gradually decrease bio-available N, with concomitant long-term reductions in photosynthesis and ANPP. Individual plant and ecosystem responses to global change may be regulated by biogeochemical processes and natural weather variability, and changes in plant and ecosystem processes may occur rapidly, may occur only after a time lag, or may not occur at all. During the first PER grant period, we observed changes in plant and ecosystem processes that would fall under each of these time-response intervals: plant and ecosystem processes responded rapidly to added summer rain, whereas most

  10. National program of fight against the climate change. 2. annual evaluation and forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference discussed the actions realized in the framework of the National Plan of Fight against the Climatic Change (PNLCC). The first part presents the problem, the evaluation of the PNLCC application and the control tools. the second part is devoted to the transport sector and the second to the buildings and the electric power demand control. The last part deals with the prospective and the challenges of the PNLCC. (A.L.B.)

  11. Annual rhythms that underlie phenology: biological time-keeping meets environmental change

    OpenAIRE

    Helm, Barbara; Ben Shlomo, Rachel; Sheriff, Michael J.; Hut, Roelof A.; Foster, Russell; Barnes, Brian M.; Dominoni, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal recurrence of biological processes (phenology) and its relationship to environmental change is recognized as being of key scientific and public concern, but its current study largely overlooks the extent to which phenology is based on biological time-keeping mechanisms. We highlight the relevance of physiological and neurobiological regulation for organisms’ responsiveness to environmental conditions. Focusing on avian and mammalian examples, we describe circannual rhythmicity of rep...

  12. Influences of Seaway and CO2 Changes during the Pliocene on Tropical Pacific Sector Climate in the Kiel Climate Model: Mean Sate, Annual Cycle, ENSO, and their Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhaoyang; Park, Wonsun; Latif, Mojib; Krebs-Kanzow, Uta; Schneider, Birgit

    2016-04-01

    The opening and closing of seaways can have a profound impact on global and regional climate. The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the leading mode of tropical Pacific interannual variability in the present-day climate. Available proxy evidence suggests that ENSO also existed during past climates, for example during the Pliocene extending from about 5.3 million to about 2.6 million years BP. We investigate the influences of the Panama Seaway closing and Indonesian Passages narrowing, and of carbon dioxide (CO2) changes during the Pliocene on tropical Pacific mean climate, annual cycle and ENSO. The Kiel Climate Model (KCM) is employed to study the influences of the changing geometry and CO2-concentration. We find that ENSO is sensitive to the closing of the Panama Seaway, with ENSO amplitude being reduced by about 15% - 20%. The narrowing of the Indonesian Passages marginally enhances ENSO strength by about 6%. ENSO period changes are modest in all experiments. Annual cycle changes are prominent. The annual cycle in the eastern tropical Pacific intensifies by about 50% in response to the closing of the Panama Seaway, which is largely attributed to the strengthening of meridional wind stress. Bjerknes stability index (BSI) analysis suggests that the growth rate of the ENSO mode does not significantly change due to compensating changes in ocean-atmosphere feedbacks, especially dynamical damping and thermocline feedback. A robust inverse relationship is found between ENSO strength and the strength of the annual cycle.

  13. Technical changes and the rate of profit in the Canadian food industry

    OpenAIRE

    M J Webber; Tonkin, S.

    1987-01-01

    The rate of profit and the causes of changes in the rate of profit in the Canadian food and beverage industry, for the years 1952 - 1981, are examined in this paper. Until the mid-1960s, the rate of profit was stable or rising, but since then it has fallen. In the first half of the period under consideration, the market strength of the food and beverage industry offset the negative effects of changes within the industry; in the second half of the period, however, the food and beverage industr...

  14. Canada's climate change voluntary challenge and registry program : Suncor Energy Inc. eighth annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A corporate profile of Suncor Energy, a Canadian integrated energy company placing the emphasis on the development of the Athabasca oil sands in northern Alberta, is provided. A message from the president reiterates the company's commitment to improving both the environmental and economic performance through innovative policies and strategic management plans. A sustainable approach to climate change has meant an effort toward reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases and improving energy use. Suncor has lowered its greenhouse gas emission intensity by 11 per cent below 1990 levels in 2001. Total reductions of 12.9 million tonnes have been achieved during the period 1990-2001. The total absolute emissions are above 1990 levels, which can be explained by tremendous production growth at Suncor Energy. Suncor has developed a seven-point plan to address the issue of climate change as follows: manage its greenhouse gas emissions, develop renewable sources of energy, invest in environmental and economic research, use domestic and foreign offsets, collaborate with governments and other stakeholder groups on policy development, educate its employees and the public on ways to respond to the risk posed by climate change, and measure and report its progress from that perspective. The document is divided into sections. The first section provides an organization profile, and section two discusses senior management support. In section three, a review of base year methodology and quantification is provided, followed by projection in section four. Target setting is the topic of section five, while section six deals with measures to achieve targets. The results achieved are highlighted in section seven. Education, training and awareness is broached in section eight, and the final section includes the statistical summary. tabs., figs

  15. 75 FR 13678 - Product Jurisdiction; Change of Address and Telephone Number; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 3 Product Jurisdiction; Change of Address and... action is editorial in nature and is intended to improve the accuracy of the agency's regulations. DATES...: PART 3--PRODUCT JURISDICTION 0 1. The authority citation for 21 CFR part 3 continues to read as...

  16. Learning and the New Workplace: Impacts of Technology Change on Postsecondary Career and Technical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washbon, Janet L.

    2012-01-01

    The experience of technology change pervades people's lives. Sometimes it comes in the guise of a new smart phone, e-reader, or patch for a leaky artery. Other times, it appears as a new way to track packages, connect with others through social networks, or find one's way around an unfamiliar place. Or it reveals itself as a new surgical…

  17. Summaries and Technical Documentation for Performance Changes in Citizenship and Social Studies Assessments, 1969-76.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO. National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    This report summarizes changes in student performance in the areas of citizenship and social studies, as measured by the National Assessment of Educational Progress. An initial assessment of citizenship was conducted in 1969-70, and an initial assessment of social studies was conducted in 1971-72. Both areas were reassessed in 1975-76. Because…

  18. Aerosols: connection between regional climatic change and air quality (Iupac Technical Report)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slanina, J.; Zhang, Y.H.

    2004-01-01

    yAerosols play an important role in all problems connected with air pollution, ranging from very local effects and human health problems to regional problems such as acid deposition and eutrophication up to continental and global questions such as stratospheric ozone loss and climatic change. In thi

  19. Public Communication of Technical Issues in Today's Changing Visual Language - 12436

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, Laura [Potomac Communications Group (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Communication regarding the management of radioactive materials is a well-established challenge. Residents and consumers have suspected for years that companies and governments place short-term economic concerns ahead of health and safety. This skepticism is compounded with increased attention to safety issues at nuclear power plants everywhere after Fukushima. Nonetheless, today's environment presents unexpected opportunities to transform public fear into teachable moments that bring knowledge and facts to discussions on nuclear energy. In the weeks following Japan's crisis, the lack of reliable information on radiation levels saw citizens taking to the streets with dosimeters and Geiger counters in crowd-sourced radiation monitoring efforts. Efforts, based mainly online, represent a growing set of examples of how internet and cell-phone technology are being put to use in emergency situations. The maps, graphs and tables created to meet public interest also exemplify some of the psychological priorities of audiences and present learning tools that can improve future education efforts in non-emergency situations. Industry outreach efforts often consist of technical details and quantitative data that are difficult for lay audiences to interpret. The intense attention to nuclear energy issues since last March has produced a wide array of visual samples. Citizen monitors, news organizations, government agencies and others have displayed quantitative information in innovative ways. Their efforts offer new perspective on what charts, maps and info graphics do - or need to do - to illustrate requirements, record assessments and promote understanding of nuclear-waste issues. Surveying the best examples, nuclear communicators can improve their offerings of easy-to-use, evidence-based visuals to inform stakeholders. Familiar to most communications professionals in the nuclear industry, risk communication is a science-based approach with over three decades of

  20. Public Communication of Technical Issues in Today's Changing Visual Language - 12436

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Communication regarding the management of radioactive materials is a well-established challenge. Residents and consumers have suspected for years that companies and governments place short-term economic concerns ahead of health and safety. This skepticism is compounded with increased attention to safety issues at nuclear power plants everywhere after Fukushima. Nonetheless, today's environment presents unexpected opportunities to transform public fear into teachable moments that bring knowledge and facts to discussions on nuclear energy. In the weeks following Japan's crisis, the lack of reliable information on radiation levels saw citizens taking to the streets with dosimeters and Geiger counters in crowd-sourced radiation monitoring efforts. Efforts, based mainly online, represent a growing set of examples of how internet and cell-phone technology are being put to use in emergency situations. The maps, graphs and tables created to meet public interest also exemplify some of the psychological priorities of audiences and present learning tools that can improve future education efforts in non-emergency situations. Industry outreach efforts often consist of technical details and quantitative data that are difficult for lay audiences to interpret. The intense attention to nuclear energy issues since last March has produced a wide array of visual samples. Citizen monitors, news organizations, government agencies and others have displayed quantitative information in innovative ways. Their efforts offer new perspective on what charts, maps and info graphics do - or need to do - to illustrate requirements, record assessments and promote understanding of nuclear-waste issues. Surveying the best examples, nuclear communicators can improve their offerings of easy-to-use, evidence-based visuals to inform stakeholders. Familiar to most communications professionals in the nuclear industry, risk communication is a science-based approach with over three decades of research

  1. DOE SBIR Phase II Final Technical Report - Assessing Climate Change Effects on Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteman, Cameron; Capps, Scott

    2014-11-05

    Specialized Vertum Partners software tools were prototyped, tested and commercialized to allow wind energy stakeholders to assess the uncertainties of climate change on wind power production and distribution. This project resulted in three commercially proven products and a marketing tool. The first was a Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) based resource evaluation system. The second was a web-based service providing global 10m wind data from multiple sources to wind industry subscription customers. The third product addressed the needs of our utility clients looking at climate change effects on electricity distribution. For this we collaborated on the Santa Ana Wildfire Threat Index (SAWTi), which was released publicly last quarter. Finally to promote these products and educate potential users we released “Gust or Bust”, a graphic-novel styled marketing publication.

  2. PERSPECTIVE: Technical fixes and climate change: optimizing for risks and consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasch, Philip J.

    2010-09-01

    Scientists and society in general are becoming increasingly concerned about the risks of climate change from the emission of greenhouse gases (IPCC 2007). Yet emissions continue to increase (Raupach et al 2007), and achieving reductions soon enough to avoid large and undesirable impacts requires a near-revolutionary global transformation of energy and transportation systems (Hoffert et al 1998). The size of the transformation and lack of an effective societal response have motivated some to explore other quite controversial strategies to mitigate some of the planetary consequences of these emissions. These strategies have come to be known as geoengineering: 'the deliberate manipulation of the planetary environment to counteract anthropogenic climate change' (Keith 2000). Concern about society's inability to reduce emissions has driven a resurgence in interest in geoengineering, particularly following the call for more research in Crutzen (2006). Two classes of geoengineering solutions have developed: (1) methods to draw CO2 out of the atmosphere and sequester it in a relatively benign form; and (2) methods that change the energy flux entering or leaving the planet without modifying CO2 concentrations by, for example, changing the planetary albedo. Only the latter methods are considered here. Summaries of many of the methods, scientific questions, and issues of testing and implementation are discussed in Launder and Thompson (2009) and Royal Society (2009). The increased attention indicates that geoengineering is not a panacea and all strategies considered will have risks and consequences (e.g. Robock 2008, Trenberth and Dai 2007). Recent studies involving comprehensive Earth system models can provide insight into subtle interactions between components of the climate system. For example Rasch et al (2009) found that geoengineering by changing boundary clouds will not simultaneously 'correct' global averaged surface temperature, precipitation, and sea ice to present

  3. Energy and climate change: the main analyses of Regards sur la Terre. An annual publication on sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In November 2006, the French Development Agency, AFD (Agence francaise de developpement) and the Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations, IDDRI (Institut du developpement durable et des relations internationales) launched an annual publication on sustainable development in a global perspective, Regards sur la Terre, published by Les Presses de Sciences Po (Paris). Regards sur la Terre includes an analysis of the most important international events of the last twelve months in the field of sustainable development, along with a thematic section, which in the first edition focused on energy and climate change. This booklet presents the overall introduction of the 2007 publication and the introduction of its thematic section, as well as a selection of the main chapters dealing with the theme of energy and climate change. Contents: Awakening and crisis of confidence; Reorienting our Societies; Energy in the world: Challenges and prospects; Challenges and constraints for energy supply: The coal hard facts; Satisfying energy growth in emerging countries; Diversifying power generation in China; From Rio to Marrakech: Development in climate negotiations; An international coordination regime come what may; The perspective of developing countries; An American 'point of view'

  4. Strategy of technical innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with policy of scientific technique and technical innovation such as research for development and types of technical innovation, historical development and process of technical innovation, economic growth, technology change and investment for research and development, structure and form of technical transfer with the meaning process, from, structure and theory, economic growth and investment of research and development with experiential analysis and case study on strategy of technical innovation in electron and fine chemical industry.

  5. Special challenges for public health with climate change and aging populations: Waterborne illness - 20th Annual John K. Friesen Conference - Growing Old in a Changing Climate: Exploring the Interface Between Population Aging and Global Warming (2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Takaro, Tim

    2011-01-01

    This video clip comprises the four presentations of Panel Session 4, “Preparing Aging Populations for Climate Change in British Columbia and Beyond” held at the 20th Annual John K. Friesen Conference, "Growing Old in a Changing Climate: Exploring the Interface Between Population Aging and Global Warming," MAY 25-26, 2011, Vancouver, BC. Dr. Tim Takaro "Special challenges for public health with climate change and aging populations: Waterborne illness" - Climate change is causing public health ...

  6. Climate change, air quality and chronic disease: Prospects for adaptation through urban design - 20th Annual John K. Friesen Conference - Growing Old in a Changing Climate: Exploring the Interface Between Population Aging and Global Warming (2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Brauer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This video clip comprises the four presentations of Panel Session 4, “Preparing Aging Populations for Climate Change in British Columbia and Beyond” held at the 20th Annual John K. Friesen Conference, "Growing Old in a Changing Climate: Exploring the Interface Between Population Aging and Global Warming," MAY 25-26, 2011, Vancouver, BC. Dr. Michael Brauer "Climate change, air quality and chronic disease: Prospects for adaptation through urban design" - Climate change and air pollution are lin...

  7. National Institute for Global Environmental Change. Final Technical Report 1990-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athanasios Toulopoulos

    2007-11-01

    Research conducted by the six NIGEC Regional Centers during recent years is reported. An overview of the NIGEC program from its beginnings provides a description and evaluation of the program's vision, strategy and major accomplishments. The program's purpose was to support academic research on environmental change in regions of the country that had historically received relatively little federal funding. The overall vision of NIGEC may be stated as the performance of academic research on the regional interactions between ecosystems and climate. NIGEC's research presents important evidence on the impacts of climate variability and change, and in some cases adaptability, for a broad range of both managed and unmanaged ecosystems, and has thereby documented significant regional issues on the environmental responses to climate change. NIGEC's research has demonstrated large regional differences in the atmospheric carbon exchange budgets of croplands and forests, that there are significant variations of this exchange on diurnal, synoptic, seasonal and interannual time scales due to atmospheric variability (including temperature, precipitation and cloudiness), and that management practices and past history have predominant effects in grasslands and croplands. It is the mid-latitude forests, however, that have received more attention in NIGEC than any other specific ecosystem, and NIGEC's initiation of and participation in the AmeriFlux program, network of carbon flux measurement sites in North American old-growth forests, is generally considered to be its most significant single accomplishment. By including appendices with complete listings of NIGEC publications, principal investigators and participating institutions, this report may also serve as a useful comprehensive documentation of NIGEC.

  8. Final Technical Report: Effects of Changing Water and Nitrogen Inputs on a Mojave Desert Ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Stanley D. [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Nowak, Robert S. [University of Nevada, Reno

    2007-11-30

    Questions addressed under this grant shared the common hypothesis that plant and ecosystem performance will positively respond to the augmentation of the most limiting resources to plant growth in the Mojave Desert, e.g., water and nitrogen. Specific hypothesis include (1) increased summer rainfall will significantly increase plant production thorugh an alleviation of moisture stress in the dry summer months, (2) N-deposition will increase plan production in this N-limited system, particularly in wet years or in concert with added summer rain, and (3) biological crust disturbance will gradually decrease bio-available N, with concomitant long-term reductions in photosynthesis and ANPP. Individual plan and ecosystem responses to global change may be regulated by biogeochemical processes and natural weather variability, and changes in plant and ecosystem processes may occur rapidly, may occur only after a time lag, or may not occur at all. During the first PER grant period, we observed changes in plant and ecosystem processes that would fall under each of these time-response intervals: plant and ecosystem processes responded rapidly to added summer rain, whereas most processes responded slowly or in a lag fashion to N-deposition and with no significant response to crust disturbance. Therefore, the primary objectives of this renewal grant were to: (1) continue ongoing measurements of soil and plant parameters that assess primary treatment responses; (2) address the potential heterogeneity of soil properties and (3) initiate a new suite of measurements that will provide data necessary for scaling/modeling of whole-plot to ecosystem-level responses. Our experimental approach included soil plan-water interactions using TDR, neutron probe, and miniaturized soil matric potential and moisture sensors, plant ecophysiological and productivity responses to water and nitrogen treatments and remote sensing methodologies deployed on a radio control platform.

  9. Offshore oil and gas development costs: Four decades of technical change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The worldwide offshore oil and gas business is over 40 years old, but is not, nor does it appear to be soon destined to be, in its dotage. The key role of technology played to enable the business to prosper in volatile and severe environments--physically and otherwise--examined here. Offshore oil and gas technology, like all technologies, is only effective when it shows up at the bottom line. Here the author shows how the 1970's offshore technology continued would have virtually ended the business. But that technology changed the bottom line

  10. Cloud-Driven Changes in Aerosol Optical Properties - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogren, John A.; Sheridan, Patrick S.; Andrews, Elisabeth

    2007-09-30

    The optical properties of aerosol particles are the controlling factors in determining direct aerosol radiative forcing. These optical properties depend on the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, which can change due to various processes during the particles’ lifetime in the atmosphere. Over the course of this project we have studied how cloud processing of atmospheric aerosol changes the aerosol optical properties. A counterflow virtual impactor was used to separate cloud drops from interstitial aerosol and parallel aerosol systems were used to measure the optical properties of the interstitial and cloud-scavenged aerosol. Specifically, aerosol light scattering, back-scattering and absorption were measured and used to derive radiatively significant parameters such as aerosol single scattering albedo and backscatter fraction for cloud-scavenged and interstitial aerosol. This data allows us to demonstrate that the radiative properties of cloud-processed aerosol can be quite different than pre-cloud aerosol. These differences can be used to improve the parameterization of aerosol forcing in climate models.

  11. The identity approach for assessing socio-technical resilience to climate change: example of flood risk management for the Island of Dordrecht

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersonius, B.; Ashley, R.; Zevenbergen, C.

    2012-07-01

    Recent EU guidance on adaptation calls for the enhancement of socio-technical resilience to climate change. However, socio-technical resilience is relatively poorly defined and this makes it difficult to apply in practice. This paper uses the concept of identity as a vehicle to advance the definition and assessment of socio-technical resilience. Identity comprises four aspects (components, relationships, innovation, and continuity) that constitute the minimum of what has to be identified and specified if resilience is to be assessed. Characterising the identity of a socio-technical system requires the conceptualisation of these four aspects in relation to the particular function provided by the system (e.g. flood risk management) and also the identification of the specific variables and thresholds that reflect changes in identity. We have demonstrated the utility of the identity approach, using the example of flood risk management for the Island of Dordrecht, the Netherlands. Based on the results, socio-technical resilience has been redefined as the ability of the system to continue to function as expected in the face of change. This definition implies that a system is resilient when it can deliver performance without a change of identity by continuing compliance with standards and expectations.

  12. The identity approach for assessing socio-technical resilience to climate change: example of flood risk management for the Island of Dordrecht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gersonius

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent EU guidance on adaptation calls for the enhancement of socio-technical resilience to climate change. However, socio-technical resilience is relatively poorly defined and this makes it difficult to apply in practice. This paper uses the concept of identity as a vehicle to advance the definition and assessment of socio-technical resilience. Identity comprises four aspects (components, relationships, innovation, and continuity that constitute the minimum of what has to be identified and specified if resilience is to be assessed. Characterising the identity of a socio-technical system requires the conceptualisation of these four aspects in relation to the particular function provided by the system (e.g. flood risk management and also the identification of the specific variables and thresholds that reflect changes in identity. We have demonstrated the utility of the identity approach, using the example of flood risk management for the Island of Dordrecht, the Netherlands. Based on the results, socio-technical resilience has been redefined as the ability of the system to continue to function as expected in the face of change. This definition implies that a system is resilient when it can deliver performance without a change of identity by continuing compliance with standards and expectations.

  13. Technical Note: A mobile sea-going mesocosm system – new opportunities for ocean change research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Schulz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the great challenges in ocean change research is to understand and forecast the effects of environmental changes on pelagic communities and the associated impacts on biogeochemical cycling. Mesocosms, experimental enclosures designed to approximate natural conditions, and in which environmental factors can be manipulated and closely monitored, provide a powerful tool to close the gap between single species laboratory experiments and observational and correlative approaches applied in field surveys. Existing pelagic mesocosm systems are stationary and/or restricted to well-protected waters. To allow mesocosm experimentation in a range of hydrographic conditions and in areas considered most sensitive to ocean change, we developed a mobile, sea-going mesocosm facility, the Kiel Off-Shore Mesocosms for Future Ocean Simulations (KOSMOS. The KOSMOS platform, which can be transported and deployed by mid-sized research vessels, is designed for operation in moored and free-floating mode under low to moderate wave conditions (up to 2.5 m wave heights. It encloses a water column 2 m in diameter and 15 to 25 m deep (~50–75 m3 in volume without disrupting the vertical structure or disturbing the enclosed plankton community. Several new developments in mesocosm design and operation were implemented to (i minimize differences in starting conditions between mesocosms, (ii allow for extended experimental duration, (iii precisely determine the mesocosm volume, (iv determine air–sea gas exchange, and (v perform mass balance calculations. After multiple test runs in the Baltic Sea, which resulted in continuous improvement of the design and handling, the KOSMOS platform successfully completed its first full-scale experiment in the high Arctic off Svalbard (78° 56.2′ N, 11° 53.6′ E in June/July 2010. The study, which was conducted in the framework of the European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA, focused on the effects of ocean acidification on

  14. Technical Note: A mobile sea-going mesocosm system – new opportunities for ocean change research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Riebesell

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the great challenges in ocean change research is to understand and forecast the effects of environmental changes on pelagic communities and the associated impacts on biogeochemical cycling. Mesocosms, experimental enclosures designed to approximate natural conditions, and in which environmental factors can be manipulated and closely monitored, provide a powerful tool to close the gap between small-scale laboratory experiments and observational and correlative approaches applied in field surveys. Existing pelagic mesocosm systems are stationary and/or restricted to well-protected waters. To allow mesocosm experimentation in a range of hydrographic conditions and in areas considered most sensitive to ocean change, we developed a mobile sea-going mesocosm facility, the Kiel Off-Shore Mesocosms for Future Ocean Simulations (KOSMOS. The KOSMOS platform, which can be transported and deployed by mid-sized research vessels, is designed for operation in moored and free-floating mode under low to moderate wave conditions (up to 2.5 m wave heights. It encloses a water column 2 m in diameter and 15 to 25 m deep (∼50–75 m3 in volume without disrupting the vertical structure or disturbing the enclosed plankton community. Several new developments in mesocosm design and operation were implemented to (i minimize differences in starting conditions between mesocosms, (ii allow for extended experimental duration, (iii precisely determine the mesocosm volume, (iv determine air–sea gas exchange, and (v perform mass balance calculations. After multiple test runs in the Baltic Sea, which resulted in continuous improvement of the design and handling, the KOSMOS platform successfully completed its first full-scale experiment in the high Arctic off Svalbard (78°56.2′ N, 11°53.6′ E in June/July 2010. The study, which was conducted in the framework of the European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA, focused on the effects of ocean acidification on a

  15. Annual Change in Pulmonary Function and Clinical Characteristics of Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema and Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Over a 3-Year Follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yu Jin; Shin, Seong Hyun; Park, Jeong-Woong; Kyung, Sun Young; Kang, Shin Myung; Lee, Sang-Pyo; Sung, Yon Mi; Kim, Yoon Kyung; Jeong, Sung Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Background Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) have different pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and outcomes than idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The intention of this study was to identify unknown differences between CPFE and IPF by a retrospective comparison of clinical data including baseline and annual changes in pulmonary function, comorbidities, laboratory findings, clinical characteristics and cause of hospitalization. Methods This study retrospectively enrolled patient...

  16. Carbon Policy and Technical Change: Market Structure, Increasing Returns, and Secondary Benefits. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peretto, P.; Smith, V. K.

    2001-11-19

    An economic evaluation of the impact of policies intended to control emissions of CO{sub 2} and other ''greenhouse gases'' (GHGS) depends on the net costs of these controls and their distribution throughout the production sectors of developed and developing economics. The answers derived from appraisals of these net costs, in turn, stem from what is assumed about the timing of the controls, the pace of technological change, and any short-term secondary benefits from their control. There have only been a few serious attempts to estimate the economic benefits from the policies associated with such long run outcomes. All of the approaches to date have made fairly strong assumptions or relied on contingent valuation estimates of hypothetical situations.

  17. Climate Change Impacts in the sub-Antarctic Islands Technical Report N.2 of ONERC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Difficult to apprehend as a whole, the polar regions constitute the Arctic to the North, an ocean surrounded by emerged lands, and the Antarctic to the South, a continent bordered by the Austral Ocean where a belt of sub Antarctic islands lies. Climate change impacts on sub Antarctic islands are varied, direct and indirect: glacier retreat, more favourable conditions for introduced species, marine biodiversity modification, etc. This report discusses the French, British, Australian, South African and New Zealand sub Antarctic islands, the climatic evolutions and the resulting impacts, focused especially on biodiversity. The Observatoire National sur les Effets du Rechauffement Climatique and the International Polar Foundation have been joined in this endeavour by the French polar institute Paul-Emile Victor, the administration of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands (TAAF in French) and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. (authors)

  18. Dynamic changes during evacuation of a left temporal abscess in open MRI: technical case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernays, R.L.; Yonekawa, Y. [Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland); Kollias, S.S. [Institute of Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Zurich (Switzerland)

    2002-05-01

    We demonstrate the usefulness of ''near real-time'' neuro-navigation by open MRI systems for guidance of stereotactic evacuation of intracranial abscesses. A 70-year-old patient was referred to our institution with an intracranial left temporal abscess. He presented with headache, senso-motor aphasia and mild right hemiparesis. The abscess (35 x 25 mm) was stereotactically evacuated under MRI guidance, and a recurrence of a daughter abscess was again evacuated on the 9th postoperative day. ''Near real-time'' imaging showed an indentation of the abscess wall of 11 mm along the trajectory. A thermosensitive MRI protocol demonstrated a higher temperature around the abscess capsule than in the brain tissue more distant to the capsule, demonstrating the inflammatory process. The patient had 6 weeks of antibiotic therapy for gram-negative bacteria and was discharged with improved clinical symptoms 5 weeks after admission. Follow-up CT 2 months postoperatively showed a complete resolution of the abscess. Open MRI-guided interventions with ''near real-time'' imaging demonstrate the anatomical changes during an ongoing procedure and can be accommodated for enhancing the overall precision of stereotactic procedures. Thermosensitive MRI protocols are capable of revealing temperature gradients around inflammatory processes. (orig.)

  19. Environment and Economic Growth. Is Technical Change the Key to Decoupling?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galeotti, M. [Universita di Milano, Milan (Italy)

    2003-09-01

    The relationship between economic growth and pollution is very complex, depending upon a host of different factors. Thus the study of this phenomenon represents a challenging endeavor. While most economics papers begin with theory and support that theory with econometric evidence, the literature on Environmental Kuznets Curves has proceeded in the opposite direction: first developing an empirical observation about the world, and then attempting to supply appropriate theories. A number of papers have aimed at providing the theoretical underpinnings to the Environmental Kuznets Curve. Prominent here is the class of optimal growth models. These are usually studied from the point of view of the analytical conditions that must hold in order to obtain an inverted-U functional relationship between pollution and growth. These models are however seldom confronted with the data. In this paper we take one popular optimal growth model designed for climate change policy analysis and carry out a few simulation exercises with the purpose of characterizing the relationship between economic growth and emissions. In particular, we try to assess the relative contribution of the ingredients of the well-known decomposition of the environment-growth relationship put forth by Grossman (1995): according to it, the presumed inverted-U pattern results from the joint effect of scale, composition, and technology components. We do this focusing on the developed regions of the world and on a global pollutant, CO2 emissions.

  20. The European Water Framework Directive: How Ecological Assumptions Frame Technical and Social Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Ollivier

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Water Framework Directive (WFD is built upon significant cognitive developments in the field of ecological science but also encourages active involvement of all interested parties in its implementation. The coexistence in the same policy text of both substantive and procedural approaches to policy development stimulated this research as did our concerns about the implications of substantive ecological visions within the WFD policy for promoting, or not, social learning processes through participatory designs. We have used a qualitative analysis of the WFD text which shows the ecological dimension of the WFD dedicates its quasi-exclusive attention to a particular current of thought in ecosystems science focusing on ecosystems status and stability and considering human activities as disturbance factors. This particular worldview is juxtaposed within the WFD with a more utilitarian one that gives rise to many policy exemptions without changing the general underlying ecological model. We discuss these policy statements in the light of the tension between substantive and procedural policy developments. We argue that the dominant substantive approach of the WFD, comprising particular ecological assumptions built upon "compositionalism," seems to be contradictory with its espoused intention of involving the public. We discuss that current of thought in regard to more functionalist thinking and adaptive management, which offers greater opportunities for social learning, i.e., place a set of interdependent stakeholders in an intersubjective position in which they operate a "social construction" of water problems through the co-production of knowledge.

  1. Multi-annual changes in the parasite communities of rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus (Siganidae) in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzikowski, R.; Paperna, I.; Diamant, A.

    2003-10-01

    The parasite communities of the rabbitfish, Siganus rivulatus, were used to track multi-annual changes in the northern Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, in an environment subjected to ongoing anthropogenic impact. Parasitological data from these fish were collected from 1998 to 2000, with spring and fall samplings at three locations: at a coral reef (OBS), at a sandy beach area (NB) and at a mariculture cage farm (FF). These data were compared with data from 1995-1997 as well as data collected during 1981-1985 at the coral reef sampling site. The data analyses indicate that the ratio between heteroxenous and monoxenous parasite species declined significantly at all sites between 1995-1997 and 1998-2000. During the same period, the species richness of monoxenous parasites increased significantly at all sites. The species richness of heteroxenous parasites decreased significantly at the coral reef site, but remained steady at the other two sites. This coincided with a significant increase in the prevalence of monogeneans at the OBS and FF sites and a significant decrease in the prevalence of digeneans at the FF and NB sites. The decline in the abundance of the latter, specifically of Opisthogonoporoides sp. and Gyliauchen sp., was even more significant when compared with the 1981-1985 data. The prevalence of other gut helminths, namely the digenean Hexangium sigani and the nematodes Cucullanus sigani and Procamallanus elatensis, however, showed a significant increase over the same period. Analysis of the species richness and diversity indices of the parasite communities did not reveal conspicuous differences. These, however, did become apparent when heteroxenous and monoxenous members of particular taxa were analyzed separately. Therefore, when using parasite assemblages to detect ecological changes, it is essential to analyze not only at the community level, but also to consider separate components of particular parasitic groups.

  2. Multi-annual changes of NOx emissions in megacity regions: nonlinear trend analysis of satellite measurement based estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Burrows

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Hazardous impact of air pollutant emissions from megacities on atmospheric composition on regional and global scales is currently an important issue in atmospheric research. However, the quantification of emissions and related effects is frequently a difficult task, especially in the case of developing countries, due to the lack of reliable data and information. This study examines possibilities to retrieve multi-annual NOx emissions changes in megacity regions from satellite measurements of nitrogen dioxide and to quantify them in terms of linear and nonlinear trends. By combining the retrievals of the GOME and SCIAMACHY satellite instrument data with simulations performed by the CHIMERE chemistry transport model, we obtain the time series of NOx emission estimates for the 12 largest urban agglomerations in Europe and the Middle East in the period from 1996 to 2008. We employ then a novel method allowing estimation of a nonlinear trend in a noisy time series of an observed variable. The method is based on the probabilistic approach and the use of artificial neural networks; it does not involve any quantitative a priori assumptions. As a result, statistically significant nonlinearities in the estimated NOx emission trends are detected in 5 megacities (Bagdad, Madrid, Milan, Moscow and Paris. Statistically significant upward linear trends are detected in Istanbul and Tehran, while downward linear trends are revealed in Berlin, London and the Ruhr agglomeration. The presence of nonlinearities in NOx emission changes in Milan, Paris and Madrid is confirmed by comparison of simulated NOx concentrations with independent air quality monitoring data. A good quantitative agreement between the linear trends in the simulated and measured near surface NOx concentrations is found in London.

  3. Multi-annual changes of NOx emissions in megacity regions: nonlinear trend analysis of satellite measurement based estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Burrows

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Hazardous impact of air pollutant emissions from megacities on atmospheric composition on regional and global scales is currently an important issue in atmospheric research. However, the quantification of emissions and related effects is frequently a difficult task, especially in the case of developing countries, due to the lack of reliable data and information. This study examines possibilities to retrieve multi-annual NOx emissions changes in megacity regions from satellite measurements of nitrogen dioxide and to quantify them in terms of linear and nonlinear trends. By combining the retrievals of the GOME and SCIAMACHY satellite instrument data with simulations performed by the CHIMERE chemistry transport model, we obtain the time series of NOx emission estimates for the 12 largest urban agglomerations in Europe and the Middle East in the period from 1996 to 2008. We employ then a novel method allowing estimation of a nonlinear trend in a noisy time series of an observed variable. The method is based on the probabilistic approach and the use of artificial neural networks; it does not involve any quantitative a priori assumptions. As a result, statistically significant nonlinearities in the estimated NOx emission trends are detected in 5 megacities (Bagdad, Madrid, Milan, Moscow and Paris. Statistically significant upward linear trends are detected in Istanbul and Tehran, while downward linear trends are revealed in Berlin, London and the Ruhr agglomeration. The presence of nonlinearities in NOx emission changes in Milan, Paris and Madrid is confirmed by comparison of simulated NOx concentrations with independent air quality monitoring data. A good quantitative agreement between the linear trends in the simulated and measured near surface NOx concentrations is found in London.

  4. Climate Change and Health: Acting to Reduce Risks and Vulnerabilities - 20th Annual John K. Friesen Conference - Growing Old in a Changing Climate: Exploring the Interface Between Population Aging and Global Warming (2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Corvalán, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This video clip is the Free Public Lecture presented at the 20th Annual John K. Friesen Conference, "Growing Old in a Changing Climate: Exploring the Interface Between Population Aging and Global Warming," MAY 25-26, 2011, Vancouver, BC. Climate change is one of the biggest challenges facing humanity. Along with other environmental changes brought about by global population and economic growth, it will put increasing strain on our health systems. Vulnerabilities include the rising probabil...

  5. Technical committee meeting on Liquid Metal Fast Reactor (LMFR) developments. 33rd annual meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWG-FR). Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past 33 years, the IAEA has actively encouraged and advocated international cooperation in fast reactor technology. The present publication contains information on the status of fast reactor development and on worldwide activities in this advanced nuclear power technology during 1999/2000, as reported at the 33. annual meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors. It is intended to provide information regarding the current status of LMFR development in IAEA Member States

  6. Did state renewable portfolio standards induce technical change in methane mitigation in the U.S. landfill sector?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhotal, Katherine Casey

    Landfill gas (LFG) projects use the gas created from decomposing waste, which is approximately 49% methane, and substitute it for natural gas in engines, boilers, turbines, and other technologies to produce energy or heat. The projects are beneficial in terms of increased safety at the landfill, production of a cost-effective source of energy or heat, reduced odor, reduced air pollution emissions, and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. However, landfills sometimes face conflicting policy incentives. The theory of technical change shows that the diffusion of a technology or groups of technologies increases slowly in the beginning and then picks up speed as knowledge and better understanding of using the technology diffuses among potential users. Using duration analysis, data on energy prices, State and Federal policies related to landfill gas, renewable energy, and air pollution, as well as control data on landfill characteristics, I estimate the influence and direction of influence of renewable portfolio standards (RPS). The analysis found that RPS positively influences the diffusion of landfill gas technologies, encouraging landfills to consider electricity generation projects over direct sales of LFG to another facility. Energy price increases or increased revenues for a project are also critical. Barriers to diffusion include air emission permits in non-attainment areas and policies, such as net metering, which promote other renewables over LFG projects. Using the estimates from the diffusion equations, I analyze the potential influence of a Federal RPS as well as the potential interaction with a Federal, market based climate change policy, which will increase the revenue of a project through higher energy sale prices. My analysis shows that a market based climate change policy such as a cap-and-trade or carbon tax scheme would increase the number of landfill gas projects significantly more than a Federal RPS.

  7. Escapement and Productivity of Spring Chinook Salmon and Summer Steelhead in the John Day River Basin, 2005-2006 Annual Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Terra Lang; Wilson, Wayne H.; Ruzycki, James R. [Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2009-04-10

    The objectives are: (1) Estimate number and distribution of spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha redds and spawners in the John Day River subbasin; and (2) Estimate smolt-to-adult survival rates (SAR) and out-migrant abundance for spring Chinook and summer steelhead O. mykiss and life history characteristics of summer steelhead. The John Day River subbasin supports one of the last remaining intact wild populations of spring Chinook salmon and summer steelhead in the Columbia River Basin. These populations, however, remain depressed relative to historic levels. Between the completion of the life history and natural escapement study in 1984 and the start of this project in 1998, spring Chinook spawning surveys did not provide adequate information to assess age structure, progeny-to-parent production values, smolt-to-adult survival (SAR), or natural spawning escapement. Further, only very limited information is available for steelhead life history, escapement, and productivity measures in the John Day subbasin. Numerous habitat protection and rehabilitation projects to improve salmonid freshwater production and survival have also been implemented in the basin and are in need of effectiveness monitoring. While our monitoring efforts outlined here will not specifically measure the effectiveness of any particular project, they will provide much needed background information for developing context for project-specific effectiveness monitoring efforts. To meet the data needs as index stocks, to assess the long-term effectiveness of habitat projects, and to differentiate freshwater and ocean survival, sufficient annual estimates of spawner escapement, age structure, SAR, egg-to-smolt survival, smolt-per-redd ratio, and freshwater habitat use are essential. We have begun to meet this need through spawning ground surveys initiated for spring Chinook salmon in 1998 and smolt PIT-tagging efforts initiated in 1999. Additional sampling and analyses to meet these goals

  8. Impact of learning curve and technical changes on dosimetry in low-dose brachytherapy for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Fur, E. [CHU Brest (France). Radiation Therapy Dept.; Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France). Faculte de Medecine et des Sciences de la Sante; Malhaire, J.P.; Baverez, D.; Schlurmann, F. [CHU Brest (France). Radiation Therapy Dept.; Delage, F.; Perrouin-Verbe, M.A. [CHU Brest (France). Urology Dept.; Guerif, S. [University Hospital La Miletrie, Poitiers (France). Radiation Therapy Dept.; Poitiers Univ. (France); Fournier, G.; Valeri, A. [CHU Brest (France). Urology Dept.; Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France). Faculte de Medecine et des Sciences de la Sante; Universite Europeenne de Bretagne, Rennes (France); APHP, Hopital Tenon, Paris (France). CeRe.PP; Pradier, O. [CHU Brest (France). Radiation Therapy Dept.; Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France). Faculte de Medecine et des Sciences de la Sante; Universite Europeenne de Bretagne, Rennes (France); CHU Brest (France). LaTIM, INSERM U650

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To assess the impact of experience and technical changes on peri- and postimplantation (1 month later) dosimetry for permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB). Patients and methods: From July 2003 to May 2010, 150 prostate cancer patients underwent low-dose, loose-seed I{sup 125} PPB as monotherapy with intraoperative planning. Patients were divided into three groups - P1 (n = 64), P2 (n = 45), P3 (n = 41) - according to the technical changes that occurred during the study period: use of an automatic stepper at the beginning of P2 and a high-frequency ultrasound probe in P3. Peri- and postimplantation dosimetric parameters (on day 30) were reported: D90 (dose received by 90% of prostate volume), V100 and V150 (prostate volume receiving, respectively, 100% and 150% of the prescribed dose), D2 cc and D0.1 cc (doses received by 2 cc and 0.1 cc of the rectum), R100 (rectum volume that received 100% of the prescribed dose), and D10 and D30 (doses received by 10% and 30% of the urethra, only during peri-implantation). Results: We observed a decrease in the number of needles and seeds used over time. The mean peri-implantation D90 was 187.52 Gy without a significant difference between the three periods (p = 0.48). The postimplantation D90, V100, and V150 parameters were, respectively, 168.3 Gy, 91.9%, and 55% with no significant difference between the three periods. The peri-implantation and postimplantation D0.1 cc and R100 significantly decreased over time; on day 30: D0.1 cc P1 = 223.1 Gy vs. D0.1 cc P3 = 190.4 Gy (p = 8.10- 5) and R100 P1 = 1.06 cc vs. R100 P3 = 0.53 cc (p = 0.0008). Conclusion: We observed a learning curve for the implantation parameters, which led to a significant decrease in the rectal doses without having any impact on the prostate dosimetric parameters. (orig.)

  9. Impact of learning curve and technical changes on dosimetry in low-dose brachytherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the impact of experience and technical changes on peri- and postimplantation (1 month later) dosimetry for permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB). Patients and methods: From July 2003 to May 2010, 150 prostate cancer patients underwent low-dose, loose-seed I125 PPB as monotherapy with intraoperative planning. Patients were divided into three groups - P1 (n = 64), P2 (n = 45), P3 (n = 41) - according to the technical changes that occurred during the study period: use of an automatic stepper at the beginning of P2 and a high-frequency ultrasound probe in P3. Peri- and postimplantation dosimetric parameters (on day 30) were reported: D90 (dose received by 90% of prostate volume), V100 and V150 (prostate volume receiving, respectively, 100% and 150% of the prescribed dose), D2 cc and D0.1 cc (doses received by 2 cc and 0.1 cc of the rectum), R100 (rectum volume that received 100% of the prescribed dose), and D10 and D30 (doses received by 10% and 30% of the urethra, only during peri-implantation). Results: We observed a decrease in the number of needles and seeds used over time. The mean peri-implantation D90 was 187.52 Gy without a significant difference between the three periods (p = 0.48). The postimplantation D90, V100, and V150 parameters were, respectively, 168.3 Gy, 91.9%, and 55% with no significant difference between the three periods. The peri-implantation and postimplantation D0.1 cc and R100 significantly decreased over time; on day 30: D0.1 cc P1 = 223.1 Gy vs. D0.1 cc P3 = 190.4 Gy (p = 8.10- 5) and R100 P1 = 1.06 cc vs. R100 P3 = 0.53 cc (p = 0.0008). Conclusion: We observed a learning curve for the implantation parameters, which led to a significant decrease in the rectal doses without having any impact on the prostate dosimetric parameters. (orig.)

  10. Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply, April 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to determine whether the land resources of the United States are capable of producing a sustainable supply of biomass sufficient to displace 30 percent or more of the country’s present petroleum consumption – the goal set by the Biomass R&D Technical Advisory Committee in their vision for biomass technologies. Accomplishing this goal would require approximately 1 billion dry tons of biomass feedstock per year.

  11. Eleventh annual U.S. DOE low-level radioactive waste management conference: Executive summary, opening plenary, technical session summaries, and attendees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-01-01

    The conference consisted of ten technical sessions, with three sessions running simultaneously each day. Session topics included: regulatory updates; performance assessment;understanding remedial action efforts; low-level waste strategy and planning (Nuclear Energy); low-level waste strategy and planning (Defense); compliance monitoring; decontamination and decommissioning; waste characterization; waste reduction and minimization; and prototype licensing application workshop. Summaries are presented for each of these sessions.

  12. Efficiency, Technical Change, and Returns to Scale in Large U.S. Banks: Panel Data Evidence from an Output Distance Function Satisfying Theoretical Regularity

    OpenAIRE

    Guohua Feng; Apostolos Serletis

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides parametric estimates of technical change, efficiency change, economies of scale, and total factor productivity growth for large banks (those with assets in excess of $1 billion) in the United States, over the period from 2000 to 2005. This is done by estimating an output distance function subject to theoretical regularity within a Bayesian framework. We find that failure to incorporate theoretical regularity conditions results in mismeasured shadow revenue and/or cost shar...

  13. 1993 Annual progress report for subsidiary agreement No. 2 (1991--1996) between AECL and US/DOE for a radioactive waste management technical co-operative program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A coordinated research program on radioactive waste disposal is being carried out by the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and the US Department of Energy. This annual report describes progress in the following eight studies: Fundamental materials investigations; In-situ stress determination; Development of a spent fuel dissolution model; Large block tracer test--Experimental testing of retardation models; Laboratory and field tests of in-situ hydrochemical tools; Cigar Lake--Analogue study, actinide and fission product geochemistry; Performance assessment technology exchange; and Development of multiple-well hydraulic test and field tracer test methods

  14. PTB annual report 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report presents general information on the institution's activities and the various departments, and reports on scientific work in the field of metrology and safety engineering. Brief scientific accounts refer to work in the domains of mechanics and acoustics, electricity, heat, optics, industrial metrology, atomic physics, technical and scientific services, collection and disposal of radioactive waste. (DG)

  15. HASYLAB annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the work performed at HASYLAB together with a list of publications, speeches, and theses. The work concerns technical developments, the study of the electronic structure of atoms, molecules, solids, surfaces, and liquids, X-ray structure studies of solids and interfaces, molecular biology, further applications of synchrotron radiation, and experimental developments. (HSI)

  16. Annual report on operation, utilization and technical development of research reactors and hot laboratory, from April 1, 1985 to March 31, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activities of the Department of Research Reactor Operation in fiscal year 1985 are described. The department is responsible for operation and maintenance of JRR-2, JRR-4, Research Reactor Development Division which performed upgraded JRR-3 and other R and D, and Hot Laboratory. In the above connection various other work has also been performed, such as technical management of fuel and coolant, radiation control, irradiation technique, etc. In Hot Laboratory, we have performed post-irradiation examinations of fuels and materials, and also development of examination procedures, too. (author)

  17. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini Mission. Semi annual technical progress report, 1 April 1996--29 September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-20

    This technical progress report discusses work on the Radioisotope Generators and Ancillary Activities for the Cassini spacecraft. The Cassini spacecraft is expected to launch in October 1997, and will explore Saturn and its moons. This progress report discusses issues in: spacecraft integration and liason, engineering support, safety, qualified unicouple fabrication, ETG fabrication and testing, ground support equipment, RTG shipping and launch support, designs, reviews and mission application. Safety analysis of the RTGs during reentry and launch accidents are covered. This report covers the period of April 1 to September 29, 1996.

  18. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini Mission. Semi annual technical progress report, 1 April 1996--29 September 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technical progress report discusses work on the Radioisotope Generators and Ancillary Activities for the Cassini spacecraft. The Cassini spacecraft is expected to launch in October 1997, and will explore Saturn and its moons. This progress report discusses issues in: spacecraft integration and liason, engineering support, safety, qualified unicouple fabrication, ETG fabrication and testing, ground support equipment, RTG shipping and launch support, designs, reviews and mission application. Safety analysis of the RTGs during reentry and launch accidents are covered. This report covers the period of April 1 to September 29, 1996

  19. A global perspective on the interface between climate change and population aging - 20th Annual John K. Friesen Conference - Growing Old in a Changing Climate: Exploring the Interface Between Population Aging and Global Warming (2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Corvalan, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This video clip is the first Keynote address to the 20th Annual John K. Friesen Conference, "Growing Old in a Changing Climate: Exploring the Interface Between Population Aging and Global Warming," MAY 25-26, 2011, Vancouver, BC. Presented by Dr. Carlos Corvalán, Senior Advisor in Risk Assessment and Global Environmental Change, Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)/WHO, Washington, DC, USA.  Current vulnerabilities in the population affect the capacity to respond to the impact...

  20. Changes in gas bubble disease signs and survival of migrating juvenile salmonids experimentally exposed to supersaturated gases : annual report 1996.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research conducted in 1996 to evaluate (1) changes in GBD signs in juvenile salmonids resulting from passage through turbine intakes and bypass systems, and (2) relative survival during migration through the lower Snake River for juvenile salmonids experimentally exposed to supersaturation of dissolved gas

  1. Average historical annual total precipitation, projected total precipitation (mm), and relative change in total precipitation (% change from baseline) for Northern Alaska. GIF formatted animation and PNG images. Maps created using the SNAP 5-GCM composite (AR5-RCP 6.0) and CRU TS3.1.01 datasets.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average annual total precipitation, projected total precipitation, and relative change in total precipitation for the northern portion of...

  2. Average historical annual total precipitation, projected total precipitation (mm), and relative change in total precipitation (% change from baseline) for Northern Alaska. GIF formatted animation and PNG images. Maps created using the SNAP 5-GCM composite (AR5-RCP 8.5) and CRU TS3.1.01 datasets.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average annual total precipitation, projected total precipitation, and relative change in total precipitation for the northern portion of...

  3. Average historical annual total precipitation, projected total precipitation (inches), and relative change in total precipitation (% change from baseline) for Northern Alaska. GIF formatted animation and PNG images. Maps created using the SNAP 5-GCM composite (AR5-RCP 6.0) and CRU TS3.1.01 datasets.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average annual total precipitation, projected total precipitation, and relative change in total precipitation for the northern portion of...

  4. Numerical Simulation of Annual Change Patterns of Contemporary Tectonic Stress-Strain Field of the Chinese Mainland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Lianwang; Yang Shuxin; Xie Furen; Lu Yuanzhong; Guo Ruomei

    2006-01-01

    Based on the active crustal block structures, the Holocene active faults and the wave velocity structures with a resolution of 1°× 1°, a two-dimensional finite element model for the tectonic stress-strain field of the Chinese mainland is constructed in the paper. Using GPS measurements, the velocity boundary conditions for the model are deduced, then, the annual change patterns of the present-day stress-strain field of the Chinese mainland are simulated.The results show that (1) the general pattern of the recent tectonic deformation in the Chinese mainland is governed by the interactions of its surrounding plates, of which, the Indian Plate plays a major role. There is a NNE-directed velocity distribution in the west of the Chinese mainland. The maximum slip rate appears at the collision boundary. The north-directed components decrease, while the east-directed components increase gradually from south to north and from west to east. In the east part, there is a general east-directed movement, with a certain amount of south-directed components. (2) The present-day tectonic stress field in the Chinese mainland has undergone the process of enhancement in recent years, and this process presents a general pattern of radiating eastwards from the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau as the center. The general pattern is similar to the ambient tectonic stress field, indicating the inheritance of contemporary tectonic deformation on the Chinese mainland. (3) The maximum principal strain presents an obvious pattern of being high in the west and low in the east. The tectonic movement in the west is stronger than that in the east. Large active faults are all located in the high-value zones of maximum principal strain. However, the magnitude of strain is smaller in the interior of the active crustal blocks, which are enclosed by these faults. (4) The stress-strain field of the Sichuan-Yunnan region is unique. It may not be governed by collision of plates alone but a combination of

  5. Technical Session: International Energy Agency. Our Energy Future - Addressing the Dual Challenges of Climate Change and Energy Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distinguished Ministers, guests, ladies and gentlemen, it is an honor for me to take part in this important conference and I thank Mr. Sokolov and the IAEA for providing me with the opportunity to be here today In this session we are discussing 'Energy Resources and the Environment'. Using this important occasion, I would like to share with you the IEA's view on the world's energy future. In the regard, we are facing two challenges; Energy Security and climate change. In the energy sector, climate change mitigation and energy security go hand in hand. Investment in clean energy technologies will ensure better energy security while at the same time mitigating climate change. And nuclear power has a key role to play in this regard. Though the current economic downturn results world energy demand shrinking in short term, in longer term, it is inevitable to see strong demand increase if only existing policies were to remain in place until 2030 (our so called 'Reference Scenario' or 'business as usual model'). Our World Energy Outlook 2008 published November last year demonstrates that world primary energy demand will grow by 45% from 2006 to 2030, which is an average annual growth rate of 1.6%. Though it is not shown in the graph, it is important to note that non-OECD countries account for 87% of global energy demand growth between 2006 and 2030. The increase in China's energy demand outpaces that of all other countries and regions. Huge inflows of capital are needed to meet such demand growth and replace existing and future supply facilities that will be retired,. This shows the cumulative investment in energy supply needed to 2030 in the business as usual scenario. It amounts to $26.3 trillion (in year-2007 dollars) from 2007 to 2030; Electricity generation represents half of this. Oil and gas account for almost all of the remainder; 63% of this total will be needed in non-OECD countries - clearly highlighting that the investment challenge is a global issue. As

  6. Changing Expectations of College: The 47th Annual PDK/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phi Delta Kappan, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This installment reporting on the 47th Annual PDK/Gallup Poll of American's Attitudes Toward the Public Schools focuses on American's views of the value of a high school and a college education and the affordability of college. It is the first year the poll included enough respondents to be able to break out sentiments of specific demographic…

  7. 78 FR 13346 - Medicare Program; Changes to the Semi-Annual Meeting of the Advisory Panel on Hospital Outpatient...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... Federal Register (77 FR 70447) announcing the first semi-annual meeting of the Advisory Panel on Hospital... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Meeting of the Advisory Panel on Hospital Outpatient Payment (HOP Panel)--March 11 and March 12,...

  8. From Socialist Showcase to Mezzogiorno? Lessons on the Role of Technical Change from East Germany's Post-World War II Growth Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang Keller

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we emphasize the contribution of technical change, broadly defined, towards productivity growth in explaining the relative East Germany-West Germany performance during the post-World War II era. We argue that previous work was excessively focused on physical capital investments determining productivity differentials, which consequently led to an overestimation of the East German performance during the Socialist era, and an overly pessimistic assessment of the East German prospec...

  9. The Swedish Code of Corporate Governance : An analysis of the Changes of Information Provided in Companies' Annual Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Bengtsson, Åsa; Hendeby, Elvira

    2007-01-01

    In society today large corporations are striving to regain the trust, which has been lost dur-ing the many accounting scandals that occurred lately. As a response to minimize the con-flicts countries have introduced codes of corporate governance. It is common knowledge that a company’s stakeholders and shareholders have different knowledge and interest in the company and the annual report is the agent’s main communication channel towards the principals. The Swedish code of corporate governanc...

  10. Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Policy/Technical Involvement and Planning, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easterbrooks, John A.; Pearsons, Todd N. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2003-03-01

    Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). The functions of the parties are described in an MOU between the YN and the WDFW. A Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee (STAC) consisting of one representative from each management entity reports to the Policy Group and provides technical input on policy and other issues. Additional committee's, such as the Monitoring Implementation and Planning Team (MIPT), serve as the discretion of STAC. The Policy Group and STAC meet periodically (usually monthly) to conduct the business of the YKFP. Although the YKFP is an all stocks initiative (BPA 1996), most effort to date has been directed at spring chinook salmon and coho salmon. This report is a compilation of the year's activities between August 1, 2001 and July 31, 2002. All findings should be considered preliminary until data collection is completed or the information is published in a peer-reviewed journal.

  11. Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Policy/Technical Involvement and Planning, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Easterbrooks, John A. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2003-09-01

    Wildlife Program; and (5) to implement the Project in a prudent and environmentally sound manner. Current YKFP operations have been designed to test the principles of supplementation (Busack et al. 1997). The Project's experimental design has focused on the following critical uncertainties affecting supplementation: (1) The survival and reproductive success of hatchery fish after release from the hatchery; (2) The impacts of hatchery fish as they interact with non-target species and stocks; and, (3) The effects of supplementation on the long-term genetic fitness of fish stocks. The YKFP endorses an adaptive management policy applied through a project management framework as described in the Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Planning Status Report (1995), Fast and Craig (1997), and Clune and Dauble 1991. The project is managed by a Policy Group consisting of a representative of the Yakama Nation (YN, lead agency) and a representative of the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). The functions of the parties are described in an MOU between the YN and the WDFW. A Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee (STAC) consisting of one representative from each management entity reports to the Policy Group and provides technical input on policy and other issues. Additional committee's, such as the Monitoring Implementation and Planning Team (MIPT), serve at the discretion of STAC. The Policy Group and STAC meet periodically (usually monthly) to conduct the business of the YKFP. Although the YKFP is an all stocks initiative (BPA 1996), most effort to date has been directed at spring chinook salmon and coho salmon. This report is a compilation of the year's activities between August 1, 2002 and July 31, 2003. The Yakama Nation's portion of the YKFP is presented in another report. All findings should be considered preliminary until data collection is completed or the information is published in a peer-reviewed journal. Pearsons and Easterbrooks (2003

  12. Development of a fully-integrated PV system for residential applications: Phase I annual technical report: February 27, 1998 -- August 31, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, R.; Mackamul, K.; Duran, G.

    2000-03-06

    This report describes Utility Power Group's (UPG's) technical progress for Phase 1 of a two-phase effort to focus on the design, assembly, and testing of a fully-integrated residential PV power system, including storage. In the PV Array Task, UPG significantly improved the conventional means and methods required to structurally interface PV modules to the roofs of single-family residential houses and to electrically interconnect these PV modules to a power conversion unit. UPG focused on the design and test of a PV array based on the highly efficient use of materials and labor. Design criteria included cost, structural integrity, electrical safety, reliability, conformance with applicable standards and building and seismic codes, and adaptability to a wide range of roof materials for both existing and retrofit roof applications. In the Power Unit Task, UPG designed and tested a high-efficiency, low-cost, high-reliability prototype power conversion unit that included all materials, components, equipment, and software required to perform all DC-AC/AC-DC power collection, conversion, and control functions between the output of the PV array and the interconnection to the electrical grid service of single-family residences. In the Energy Storage Unit Task, UPG designed and tested a low-cost, modular, self-contained, low-maintenance, all-weather, battery-based Energy Storage Unit designed to interface with the Power Unit to provide back-up electricity to supply critical household loads in the event of utility-grid failure. The Energy Storage Unit includes batteries and all structural, mechanical, and electrical equipment required to provide a source of stored DC energy for input of the Power Unit. UPG designed the storage unit as a ''plug and play'' option, where multiple units can be easily paralleled for additional energy storage capacity.

  13. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini Mission. Semi-annual technical progress report, April 3, 1995--October 1, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the April-October 1995 Progress Report on the Cassini RTG Program. Nine tasks are summarized; (1) Spacecraft integration and liason, (2) Engineering support, (3) Safety, (4) Unicouple fabrication, (5) ETG fabrication, assembly, and test, (6) Ground support equipment, (7) RTG shipping and launch support, (8) Design, reviews, and mission applications, and (9) Project management, QA, contract changes, and material acquisitions

  14. Parameterization of GCM subgrid nonprecipitating cumulus and stratocumulus clouds using stochastic/phenomenological methods. Annual technical progress report, 1 December 1992--30 November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stull, R.B.

    1993-08-27

    This document is a progress report to the USDOE Atmospheric Radiation and Measurement Program (ARM). The overall project goal is to relate subgrid-cumulus-cloud formation, coverage, and population characteristics to statistical properties of surface-layer air, which in turn are modulated by heterogeneous land-usage within GCM-grid-box-size regions. The motivation is to improve the understanding and prediction of climate change by more accurately describing radiative and cloud processes.

  15. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini Mission. Semi annual technical progress report, 28 March 1994--25 September 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The progress on the radioisotope generators and ancillary activities is described. This report is organized by program task as follows: spacecraft integration and liaison; engineering support; safety; qualified unicouple fabrication; ETG fabrication, assembly, and test; ground support equipment; RTG shipping and launch support; design, reviews, and mission applications; project management, quality assurance and reliability, contract changes, non-capital CAGO acquisition, and CAGO maintenance; contractor acquired government owned property (CAGO) acquisition

  16. Modeling Technical Change in Energy System Analysis: Analyzing the Introduction of Learning-by-Doing in Bottom-up Energy Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, Christer; Soederholm, Patrik [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden). Div. of Economics

    2005-02-01

    The main objective of this paper is to provide an overview and a critical analysis of the recent literature on incorporating induced technical change in energy systems models. Special emphasis is put on surveying recent studies aiming at integrating learning-by-doing into bottom-up energy systems models through so-called learning curves, and on analyzing the relevance of learning curve analysis for understanding the process of innovation and technology diffusion in the energy sector. The survey indicates that this model work represents a major advance in energy research, and embeds important policy implications, not the least concerning the cost and the timing of environmental policies (including carbon emission constraints). However, bottom-up energy models with endogenous learning are also limited in their characterization of technology diffusion and innovation. While they provide a detailed account of technical options - which is absent in many top-down models - they also lack important aspects of diffusion behavior that are captured in top-down representations. For instance, they fail in capturing strategic technology diffusion behavior in the energy sector, and they neglect important general equilibrium impacts (such as the opportunity cost of redirecting R and D support to the energy sector). For these reasons bottom-up and top-down models with induced technical change should not be viewed as substitutes but rather as complements.

  17. Annual rates of change in pre- vs. post- bronchodilator FEV1 and FVC over 4 years in moderate to very severe COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Tashkin, Donald P.; Ning LI; Halpin, David; Kleerup, Eric; Decramer, Marc; Celli, Bartolome; Elashoff, Robert

    2013-01-01

    While the slope of decline in FEV1 has traditionally been calculated from the post- rather than the pre-bronchodilator measurement in COPD interventional trials, it is not clear whether and to what extent these two slopes differ in symptomatic patients with COPD. Therefore, we used data from the 4-year UPLIFT trial of tiotropium 18 mcg QD vs. placebo to compare annual rates of change in pre- vs. post-bronchodilator FEV1 in 5041 patients with moderate to very severe COPD (mean FEV1 48% pred) i...

  18. Diurnal and annual changes in serum cortisol concentrations in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins Tursiops aduncus and killer whales Orcinus orca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Miwa; Uchida, Senzo; Ueda, Keiichi; Tobayama, Teruo; Katsumata, Etsuko; Yoshioka, Motoi; Aida, Katsumi

    2003-07-01

    Until present, fundamental studies on cortisol secretory patterns have not been conducted in cetaceans. The objectives of this study were: (1) to examine diurnal changes in serum cortisol concentrations in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins Tursiops aduncus and killer whales Orcinus orca, (2) to investigate annual cortisol changes in killer whales, and (3) to investigate the relationship between cortisol and sex steroids (testosterone and progesterone) concentrations in killer whales. Diurnal changes in serum cortisol concentrations were investigated at various intervals in the two species. In Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins, serum cortisol levels exhibited the same episodic fluctuations for 24 h as did diurnal terrestrial mammals: cortisol levels were lower at 18:00 h and higher in the early morning. In killer whales, cortisol concentrations continued to decrease until 18:00 h, after which they fluctuated, and then increased in the next morning. Annual changes in cortisol levels were investigated by collecting blood samples every two weeks from two male killer whales and a pregnant female one twice per day (during 09:00-10:00 and 16:00-17:00 h) throughout a one-year period. Regarding sera collected during 09:00-10:00 h from the female, cortisol concentrations showed cyclic changes having about 4-month intervals. In males, cortisol showed higher concentrations in winter and lower concentrations during the summer season. There was a negative correlation between cortisol and progesterone levels in the female and a negative correlation was also observed between cortisol and testosterone in male no. 2. In the female and male no. 1, cortisol levels during 09:00-10:00 h were significantly higher than those during 16:00-17:00 h, and their data are considered to support observations regarding diurnal changes in cortisol levels in the two cetacean species. PMID:12849966

  19. Accelerating PV Cost Effectiveness Through Systems Design, Engineering, and Quality Assurance: Phase I Annual Technical Report, 4 November 2004 - 3 November 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botkin, J.

    2006-07-01

    During Phase I of this PV Manufacturing R&D subcontract, PowerLight Corporation has made significant progress toward the reduction of installed costs for commercial-scale, rooftop PV systems. PowerLight has worked to reduce operating costs by improving long-term reliability and performance through the development of more sophisticated tools used in system design and monitoring. Additionally, PowerLight has implemented design improvements with the goal of reducing cost while maintaining and/or improving product quality. As part of this effort, PowerLight also modified manufacturing and shipping processes to accommodate these design changes, streamline material flow, reduce cost, and decrease waste streams. During Phase II of this project, PowerLight plans to continue this work with the goal of reducing system cost and improving system performance.

  20. 2008 annual merit review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The 2008 DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review was held February 25-28, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland. The review encompassed all of the work done by the Vehicle Technologies Program: a total of 280 individual activities were reviewed, by a total of just over 100 reviewers. A total of 1,908 individual review responses were received for the technical reviews, and an additional 29 individual review responses were received for the plenary session review.

  1. NIKHEF annual report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report of NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands) describes experiments carried out at CERN (Geneve), DESY (Hamburg) viz. WA25; CHARM-collaboration; ACCMOR experiments; proton-antiproton collision; LEAR; MARK-J; Crystal Ball experiment; HERA. For the nuclear physics section, experiments are described on electro-excitation of nuclei; pion and muon physics. Theoretical studies are listed concerning electromagnetic interactions in the sigma-omega model and delta-nuclei dynamics. A radiochemical and technical part concludes the report. (Auth.)

  2. Annual Report: Unconventional Fossil Energy Resource Program (30 September 2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soong, Yee; Guthrie, George

    2014-03-11

    Yee Soong, Technical Coordinator, George Guthrie, Focus Area Lead, UFER Annual Report, NETL-TRS-UFER-2013, NETL Technical Report Series, U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA, 2013, p 14.

  3. Influence of seasonal changes in daily activity and annual life cycle of Geotrigona mombuca (Hymenoptera, Apidae in a Cerrado habitat, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L. Gobatto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The foraging activity of Geotrigona mombuca Smith, 1863 was studied under natural conditions aiming to verify the influence of seasonal changes on daily flight activity and annual cycle of the colony. Daily flight activity was monitored for a year based on the observation and counting of foragers leaving and entering the hive, as well as the kind of material transported and meteorological factors such as day time, temperature and relative humidity. The influence of seasonal changes was evidenced by alterations on daily rhythm of flight activity and by differences on transportation of food resources, building material and garbage. These data indicate that forager behavior is related to daily microclimate conditions and it is synchronized with the requirements of colony annual cycle, which determines an intense pollen collection in the summer. Thus, the recomposition of the intranidal population in spring and summer can be ensured, which is characterized both for a higher intensity of flight activity and increase in garbage and resin transport, as well as the swarming process in the spring. In this way, an action targeting the preservation or management of the species in a natural environment should consider that survival and reproduction of the colony depends greatly on the amount of available pollen in late winter.

  4. Technology Support for High-Throughput Processing of Thin-Film CdTe PV Modules Annual Technical Report, Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, D.H.; Powell, R.C.; Karpov, V.; Grecu, D.; Jayamaha, U.; Dorer, G.L. (First Solar, L.L.C.)

    2001-02-05

    Results and conclusions from Phase II of a three-year subcontract are presented. The subcontract, entitled Technology Support for High-Throughput Processing of Thin-Film CdTe PV Modules, is First Solar's portion of the Thin-Film Photovoltaic Partnership Program. The research effort of this subcontract is divided into four areas of effort: (1) process and equipment development, (2) efficiency improvement, (3) characterization and analysis, and (4) environmental, health, and safety. As part of the process and equipment development effort, a new semiconductor deposition system with a throughput of 3 m2/min was completed, and a production line in a new 75,000 ft2 facility was started and is near completion. As part of the efficiency-improvement task, research was done on cells and modules with thin CdS and buffer layers as way to increase photocurrent with no loss in the other photovoltaic characteristics. A number of activities were part of the characterization and analysis task, including developing a new admittance spectroscopy system, with a range of 0.001 Hz to 100 kHz, to characterize cells. As part of the environmental, health, and safety task, the methanol-based CdCl2 process was replaced with aqueous-CdCl2. This change enabled the retention of a De Minimus level of emissions for the manufacturing plant, so no permitting is required.

  5. Adjusting annual maximum peak discharges at selected stations in northeastern Illinois for changes in land-use conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over, Thomas M.; Saito, Riki J.; Soong, David T.

    2016-06-30

    The effects of urbanization on annual maximum peak discharges in northeastern Illinois and nearby areas from 1945 to 2009 were analyzed with a two-step longitudinal-quantile linear regression approach. The peak discharges were then adjusted to 2010 land-use conditions. The explanatory variables used were daily precipitation at the time of the peak discharge event and a housing density-based measure of developed land use. The effect of the implementation of stormwater detention was assessed indirectly. Peak discharge records affected by the construction of large reservoirs that affect channel routing were identified and were split into segments at the time of completion of the reservoir. Longitudinal regressions of the peak discharge records on linear and logarithmic transformations of the selected measures of urbanization and precipitation were tested, and the best fitting model was selected for quantile regression and adjustment of the peak discharges.

  6. Saarland and Rheinland-Pfalz Mines Inspectorate. Annual report 1996. Economic and technical aspects, industrial safety and environmental protection, statistics, activities of the mining authorities; Oberbergamt fuer das Saarland und das Land Rheinland-Pfalz. Jahresbericht 1996. Bergwirtschaft, Bergtechnik, Arbeitsschutz, Umweltschutz, Statistiken, Taetigkeiten der Bergbehoerden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The annual report of the Saarland and Rheinland-Pfalz Mines Inspectorate outlines the economic and technical developments in mining in these two German states as well as the activities of the mining authorities in all fields of mining. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Jahresbericht des Oberbergamtes fuer das Saarland und das Land Rheinland-Pfalz gibt einen Ueberblick zur bergwirtschaftlichen und bergtechnischen Entwicklung in beiden Bundeslaendern und vermittelt einen umfassenden Einblick in die Taetigkeiten der Bergbehoerden in den vielfaeltigen Bergbauzweigen. (orig.)

  7. The Effects of Change in Vocational, Technical, and Occupational Education on the Teaching of Culinary Arts in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanLandingham, Paul G.

    Vocational education and culinary arts have gained a new respect. Since the mid-1970s, the status of culinary artists (cooks and chefs) has changed from domestic to professional. This change and the many changes in food technology have brought about a heightened awareness of the need for better training for culinary professionals. Improved…

  8. Technology support for high-throughput processing of thin-film CdTe PV modules: Annual technical report, Phase 1, 1 April 1998--31 March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, D.H.; Powell, R.C.; Grecu, D.; Jayamaha, U.; Hanak, J.J.; Bohland, J.; Smigielski, K.; Dorer, G.L.

    1999-10-25

    CdTe Team stability tests were concluded. One back-contact formulation resulted in cells that increased in efficiency as a result of 9,700 hours of light soaking. As part of the environmental, health, and safety task, an emissions survey was performed for the pilot-production facility. For production of 360 modules/day, it was predicted that the cadmium emissions would be only 0.015% of the level that would require any permitting; however, methanol emissions may require permitting if anticipated process changes are not implemented. Process improvements in edge delete, CdS material preparation, waste compaction, CdCl{sub 2}-vapor collection, and wastewater treatment were made, resulting in reduced costs, reduced emissions, and improved operator safety.

  9. Seasonal Changes in Leaf Tissue Rehydration of One Annual and Two Perennial Grass Forage Species Induced by Bioclimate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirini - Ia KAPSALI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioclimate signifies the continuous interplay between plants and climate factors (primarily drought and has a direct impact on the water relations and the duration of the rehydration process in water stressed plants. To explore the association between bioclimate and water physiology of forage species in semi-arid Mediterranean grasslands, we determined the seasonal variation in leaf water potential, turgid weight and relative water content in wild growing Dactylis glomerata L., Bromus inermis Leyss (perennial and Bromus sterilis L. (annual during the growing season. The study was conducted at the farm of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. The results of the current study reveal that B. sterilis maintained high levels of water potential most probably by accelerating its biological cycle and decreasing water content because it fails to sustain turgidity. Dactylis glomerata and B. inermis presented even higher water contents than B. sterilis for the same water potential. Dactylis glomerata exhibited substantially higher water potential and content than B. inermis by keeping the rehydration duration stable. The extensive creeping rhizome seems to allow B. inermis to sustain high values of water potential and content possibly ensuring turgidity. Regardless of the grass species the duration of rehydration ranged from 2.5 to 3.5 hours throughout the growing season. Our findings demonstrate that (a D. glomerata and B. inermis are better adapted to Mediterranean semiarid conditions than B. sterilis and (b turgid weight in Mediterranean forage species can safely be determined after a rehydration period of 3.5 hours.

  10. [Antibacterial activity for clinical isolates from pediatric patients of clavulanic acid/amoxicillin (1: 14) -outcomes of special drug use investigation on antibacterial activity (annual changes)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Atsuko; Hasegawa, Naomi; Okano, Hideyuki; Hara, Terufumi; Yoshida, Pascal

    2013-06-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes or Klebsiella pneumoniae demonstrated any change and M. catarrhalis and Escherichia coli showed twofold changes of MIC90s of CVA/AMPC (1: 14). In the present investigation conducted to monitor annual changes in antibacterial activity intended for pediatric patients with otitis media or other infections, there was no significant change in antibacterial activity of CVA/AMPC (1: 14).

  11. Carbon Calculator for Land Use Change from Biofuels Production (CCLUB). Users' Manual and Technical Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Qin, Zhangcai [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mueller, Steffen [Univ. of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Kwon, Ho-young [International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washington, DC (United States); Wander, Michelle M. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The Carbon Calculator for Land Use Change from Biofuels Production (CCLUB) calculates carbon emissions from land use change (LUC) for four different ethanol production pathways including corn grain ethanol and cellulosic ethanol from corn stover, Miscanthus, and switchgrass. This document discusses the version of CCLUB released September 30, 2014 which includes corn and three cellulosic feedstocks: corn stover, Miscanthus, and switchgrass.

  12. Workers' Attitudes to Technical Change: An Integrated Survey of Research. Industrial Relations Aspects of Manpower Policy 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touraine, Alain; And Others

    Methods for encouraging positive worker attitude and behavior toward change were examined to provide a basis for re-evaluation of current policies and programs relating to introduction of technological changes. The literature reviewed is presented in sections of: (1) "The Worker and the Occupational System," by Claude Durand, (2) "The Worker and…

  13. Chemical Technology Division. Annual technical report, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laidler, J.J.; Myles, K.M.; Green, D.W.; McPheeters, C.C.

    1996-06-01

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division`s activities during 1995 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) methods for treatment of hazardous waste and mixed hazardous/radioactive waste; (3) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; (4) processes for separating and recovering selected elements from waste streams, concentrating low-level radioactive waste streams with advanced evaporator technology, and producing {sup 99}Mo from low-enriched uranium; (5) electrometallurgical treatment of different types of spent nuclear fuel in storage at Department of Energy sites; and (6) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems.

  14. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1989 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including high-performance batteries (mainly lithium/iron sulfide and sodium/metal chloride), aqueous batteries (lead-acid and nickel/iron), and advanced fuel cells with molten carbonate and solid oxide electrolytes: (2) coal utilization, including the heat and seed recovery technology for coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics plants and the technology for fluidized-bed combustion; (3) methods for recovery of energy from municipal waste and techniques for treatment of hazardous organic waste; (4) nuclear technology related to a process for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste and for producing 99Mo from low-enriched uranium targets, the recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in a sodium-cooled fast reactor (the Integral Fast Reactor), and waste management; and (5) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also has a program in basic chemistry research in the areas of fluid catalysis for converting small molecules to desired products; materials chemistry for superconducting oxides and associated and ordered solutions at high temperatures; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, high-temperature superconductivity, and catalysis; and the geochemical processes responsible for trace-element migration within the earth's crust. The Division continued to be administratively responsible for and the major user of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

  15. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chemical Technology Division (CMT) is one of eight engineering research divisions within Argonne National Laboratory, one of the U.S. government's oldest and largest research laboratories. The University of Chicago oversees the laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Argonne's mission is to conduct basic scientific research, to operate national scientific facilities, to enhance the nation's energy resources, and to develop better ways to manage environmental problems. Argonne has the further responsibility of strengthening the nation's technology base by developing innovative technology and transferring it to industry. CMT is a diverse early-stage engineering organization, specializing in the treatment of spent nuclear fuel, development of advanced electrochemical power sources, and management of both high- and low-level nuclear wastes. Although this work is often indistinguishable from basic research, our efforts are directed toward the practical devices and processes that are covered by Argonne's mission. Additionally, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory and Environment, Safety, and Health Analytical Chemistry services, which provide a broad range of analytical services to Argonne and other organizations. The Division is multidisciplinary. Its people have formal training as ceramists; physicists; material scientists; electrical, mechanical, chemical, and nuclear engineers; and chemists. They have experience working in academia; urban planning; and the petroleum, aluminum, and automotive industries. Their skills include catalysis, ceramics, electrochemistry, metallurgy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and petroleum refining, as well as the development of nuclear waste forms, batteries, and high-temperature superconductors

  16. SERI biomass program annual technical report: 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, P.W.; Corder, R.E.; Hill, A.M.; Lindsey, H.; Lowenstein, M.Z.

    1983-02-01

    The biomass with which this report is concerned includes aquatic plants, which can be converted into liquid fuels and chemicals; organic wastes (crop residues as well as animal and municipal wastes), from which biogas can be produced via anerobic digestion; and organic or inorganic waste streams, from which hydrogen can be produced by photobiological processes. The Biomass Program Office supports research in three areas which, although distinct, all use living organisms to create the desired products. The Aquatic Species Program (ASP) supports research on organisms that are themselves processed into the final products, while the Anaerobic Digestion (ADP) and Photo/Biological Hydrogen Program (P/BHP) deals with organisms that transform waste streams into energy products. The P/BHP is also investigating systems using water as a feedstock and cell-free systems which do not utilize living organisms. This report summarizes the progress and research accomplishments of the SERI Biomass Program during FY 1982.

  17. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chemical Technology Division (CMT) is one of eight engineering research divisions within Argonne National Laboratory, one of the U.S. government's oldest and largest research laboratories. The University of Chicago oversees the laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Argonne's mission is to conduct basic scientific research, to operate national scientific facilities, to enhance the nation's energy resources, and to develop better ways to manage environmental problems. Argonne has the further responsibility of strengthening the nation's technology base by developing innovative technology and transferring it to industry. CMT is a diverse early-stage engineering organization, specializing in the treatment of spent nuclear fuel, development of advanced electrochemical power sources, and management of both high- and low-level nuclear wastes. Although this work is often indistinguishable from basic research, our efforts are directed toward the practical devices and processes that are covered by Argonne's mission. Additionally, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory and Environment, Safety, and Health Analytical Chemistry services, which provide a broad range of analytical services to Argonne and other organizations. The Division is multidisciplinary. Its people have formal training as ceramists; physicists; material scientists; electrical, mechanical, chemical, and nuclear engineers; and chemists. They have experience working in academia; urban planning; and the petroleum, aluminum, and automotive industries. Their skills include catalysis, ceramics, electrochemistry, metallurgy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and petroleum refining, as well as the development of nuclear waste forms, batteries, and high-temperature super-conductors. The Division's wide-ranging expertise finds ready application in solving energy and environmental problems. Division personnel are frequently called on by governmental and industrial organizations for advice and contributions to problem solving in areas that intersect present and past CMT programs and activities. Currently, CMT is engaged in the development of several technologies of national importance. Included among them are: Advanced lithium-ion and lithium-polymer batteries for transportation and other applications; Fuel cells, with an emphasis on the use of an oxidative reformer and gasoline as the fuel supply; Stable nuclear waste forms suitable for storage in a geological repository; and Electrochemical and pyrochemical processes for the disposition of spent nuclear fuel

  18. Accelerator research studies: Annual technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses accelerator research at the University of Maryland. The three task studies contained in this paper are: Instabilities and Emittance Growth in Periodic Focusing Systems for Intense Beams; Collective Ion Acceleration by Intense Electron Beams and Pulse Powered Plasma Focus; and Microwave Sources and Parameter Scaling for High-Frequency e+e/sup /minus// Supercollider Linacs

  19. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1989 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including high-performance batteries (mainly lithium/iron sulfide and sodium/metal chloride), aqueous batteries (lead-acid and nickel/iron), and advanced fuel cells with molten carbonate and solid oxide electrolytes: (2) coal utilization, including the heat and seed recovery technology for coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics plants and the technology for fluidized-bed combustion; (3) methods for recovery of energy from municipal waste and techniques for treatment of hazardous organic waste; (4) nuclear technology related to a process for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste and for producing {sup 99}Mo from low-enriched uranium targets, the recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in a sodium-cooled fast reactor (the Integral Fast Reactor), and waste management; and (5) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also has a program in basic chemistry research in the areas of fluid catalysis for converting small molecules to desired products; materials chemistry for superconducting oxides and associated and ordered solutions at high temperatures; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, high-temperature superconductivity, and catalysis; and the geochemical processes responsible for trace-element migration within the earth's crust. The Division continued to be administratively responsible for and the major user of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL).

  20. Inertial fusion research. Annual technical report, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains research progress during this period on each of the following 5 areas: (1) parametric instabilities, (2) cryogenic implosion experiments, (3) x-ray laser experiments, (4) XCALIBR, an effective soft x-ray calibration facility, and (5) DELPHI- a new hydrodynamics code, (6) polymer technology, (7) glass shell technology, (8) shell production facility, (9) cryogenic technology, (10) characterization and quality assurance, and (11) coating technology

  1. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-01

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1990 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) technology for coal- fired magnetohydrodynamics and fluidized-bed combustion; (3) methods for recovery of energy from municipal waste and techniques for treatment of hazardous organic waste; (4) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for a high-level waste repository; (5) processes for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste streams, concentrating plutonium solids in pyrochemical residues by aqueous biphase extraction, and treating natural and process waters contaminated by volatile organic compounds; (6) recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR); (7) processes for removal of actinides in spent fuel from commercial water-cooled nuclear reactors and burnup in IFRs; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also has a program in basic chemistry research in the areas of fluid catalysis for converting small molecules to desired products; materials chemistry for superconducting oxides and associated and ordered solutions at high temperatures; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, high-temperature superconductivity, and catalysis; and the geochemical processes responsible for trace-element migration within the earth's crust. The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the scientific and engineering programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). 66 refs., 69 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Chemical Engineering Division annual technical report, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights of the Chemical Engineering (CEN) Division's activities during 1980 are presented. In this period, CEN conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) rechargeable lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide batteries for electric vehicles and other applications; (2) ambient-temperature batteries - improved lead-acid, nickel/zinc, and nickel/iron - for electric vehicles; (3) energy-efficient industrial electrochemical processes; (4) molten carbonate fuel cells for use by electric utilities; (5) coal technology, mainly fluidized-bed combustion of coal in the presence of SO2 sorbent of limestone; (6) heat- and seed-recovery technology for open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic systems; (7) solar energy collectors and thermal energy storage; (8) fast breeder reactor chemistry research - chemical support of reactor safety studies, chemistry of irradiated fuels, and sodium technology; (9) fuel cycle technology - management of nuclear wastes, reprocessing of nuclear fuels, and proof-of-breeding studies for the Light Water Breeder Reactor; and (10) magnetic fusion research - systems analysis and engineering experimentation, materials research, and neutron dosimetry and damage analysis. The CEN Division also has a basic energy sciences program, which includes experimental and theoretical research on (1) the catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide and methanol homologation, (2) the thermodynamic properties of a wide variety of inorganic and organic materials, (3) significant mechanisms for the formation of atmospheric sulfate and nitrogen-bearing aerosols, (4) processes occurring at electrodes and in electrolytes, and (5) the physical properties of salt vapors. In addition, the Division operated the Central Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

  3. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) advanced batteries - mainly lithium alloy/metal sulfide and sodium/sulfur for electric vehicles; (2) aqueous batteries - mainly improved lead-acid and nickel/iron for electric vehicles; (3) advanced fuel cells with molten carbonate or solid oxide electrolytes; (4) coal utilization, including the heat and seed recovery technology for coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic plants and the technology for pressurized fluidized-bed combustors; (5) methodologies for recovery of energy from municipal waste; (6) solid and liquid desiccants that allow moisture to be removed with a minium of energy; (7) nuclear technology related to waste management, proof of breeding for a light water reactor, and the recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in a sodium-cooled fast reactor; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission, fusion, and other energy systems. The Division also has a program in basic chemistry research in the areas of fluid catalysis for converting abundant raw materials to desired products; materials chemistry of liquids and vapors at high temperatures; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, surface science, and catalysis; atmospheric chemistry, most notably SO2 oxidation mechanisms; and the thermochemistry of zeolites, related silicates, and inorganic compounds

  4. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battles, J.E.; Myles, K.M.; Laidler, J.J.; Green, D.W.

    1994-04-01

    Chemical Technology (CMT) Division this period, conducted research and development in the following areas: advanced batteries and fuel cells; fluidized-bed combustion and coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics; treatment of hazardous waste and mixed hazardous/radioactive waste; reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; separating and recovering transuranic elements, concentrating radioactive waste streams with advanced evaporators, and producing {sup 99}Mo from low-enriched uranium; recovering actinide from IFR core and blanket fuel in removing fission products from recycled fuel, and disposing removal of actinides in spent fuel from commercial water-cooled nuclear reactors; and physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also conducts basic research in catalytic chemistry associated with molecular energy resources and novel ceramic precursors; materials chemistry of superconducting oxides, electrified metal/solution interfaces, molecular sieve structures, thin-film diamond surfaces, effluents from wood combustion, and molten silicates; and the geochemical processes involved in water-rock interactions. The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT also provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support.

  5. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1990 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) technology for coal- fired magnetohydrodynamics and fluidized-bed combustion; (3) methods for recovery of energy from municipal waste and techniques for treatment of hazardous organic waste; (4) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for a high-level waste repository; (5) processes for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste streams, concentrating plutonium solids in pyrochemical residues by aqueous biphase extraction, and treating natural and process waters contaminated by volatile organic compounds; (6) recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR); (7) processes for removal of actinides in spent fuel from commercial water-cooled nuclear reactors and burnup in IFRs; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also has a program in basic chemistry research in the areas of fluid catalysis for converting small molecules to desired products; materials chemistry for superconducting oxides and associated and ordered solutions at high temperatures; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, high-temperature superconductivity, and catalysis; and the geochemical processes responsible for trace-element migration within the earth's crust. The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the scientific and engineering programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). 66 refs., 69 figs., 6 tabs

  6. Inertial fusion research. Annual technical report, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is presented in three chapters: (1) experimental work, (2) target technology, and (3) theory and computation. The experimental work was on the following: (1) transport in spherical geometry, (2) cryogenic implosions, (3) x-ray spectroscopy, and (4) lasers and diagnostics. Target studies were conducted on glass shells, radiography, cryogenics, and fabrication

  7. Chemical Technology Division. Annual technical report, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1995 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) methods for treatment of hazardous waste and mixed hazardous/radioactive waste; (3) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; (4) processes for separating and recovering selected elements from waste streams, concentrating low-level radioactive waste streams with advanced evaporator technology, and producing 99Mo from low-enriched uranium; (5) electrometallurgical treatment of different types of spent nuclear fuel in storage at Department of Energy sites; and (6) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems

  8. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical Technology (CMT) Division this period, conducted research and development in the following areas: advanced batteries and fuel cells; fluidized-bed combustion and coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics; treatment of hazardous waste and mixed hazardous/radioactive waste; reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; separating and recovering transuranic elements, concentrating radioactive waste streams with advanced evaporators, and producing 99Mo from low-enriched uranium; recovering actinide from IFR core and blanket fuel in removing fission products from recycled fuel, and disposing removal of actinides in spent fuel from commercial water-cooled nuclear reactors; and physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also conducts basic research in catalytic chemistry associated with molecular energy resources and novel ceramic precursors; materials chemistry of superconducting oxides, electrified metal/solution interfaces, molecular sieve structures, thin-film diamond surfaces, effluents from wood combustion, and molten silicates; and the geochemical processes involved in water-rock interactions. The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT also provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support

  9. Accelerator Physics Branch annual technical report, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes, in a series of separate articles, the achievements of the Accelerator Physics Branch for the calendar year 1989. Work in basic problems of accelerator physics including ion sources, high-duty-factor rf quadrupoles, coupling effects in standing wave linacs and laser acceleration is outlined. A proposal for a synchrotron light source for Canada is described. Other articles cover the principal design features of the IMPELA industrial electron linac prototype, the cavities developed for the HERA complex at DESY, Hamburg, West Germany, and further machine projects that have been completed

  10. Technical Shibboleths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, John S.

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technical sub-languages to reveal sociological functions of language that transcend mere transfer of substantive information. Finds one sociological feature, the shibboleth, acting widely throughout technical fields. (PA)

  11. Annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delivering products and services to nuclear power plants operators, AREVA operates in every sector of the civilian nuclear power and fuel cycle industry. This annual report 2003 provides, in seven chapters, information on persons responsible for the annual report and for auditing the financial statements, general information on the company and share capital (statute, capital, share trading, dividends), information on company operations, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position and financial performance, corporate governance, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  12. Final technical report. Can microbial functional traits predict the response and resilience of decomposition to global change?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, Steven D. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2015-09-24

    The role of specific micro-organisms in the carbon cycle, and their responses to environmental change, are unknown in most ecosystems. This knowledge gap limits scientists’ ability to predict how important ecosystem processes, like soil carbon storage and loss, will change with climate and other environmental factors. The investigators addressed this knowledge gap by transplanting microbial communities from different environments into new environments and measuring the response of community composition and carbon cycling over time. Using state-of-the-art sequencing techniques, computational tools, and nanotechnology, the investigators showed that microbial communities on decomposing plant material shift dramatically with natural and experimentally-imposed drought. Microbial communities also shifted in response to added nitrogen, but the effects were smaller. These changes had implications for carbon cycling, with lower rates of carbon loss under drought conditions, and changes in the efficiency of decomposition with nitrogen addition. Even when transplanted into the same conditions, microbial communities from different environments remained distinct in composition and functioning for up to one year. Changes in functioning were related to differences in enzyme gene content across different microbial groups. Computational approaches developed for this project allowed the conclusions to be tested more broadly in other ecosystems, and new computer models will facilitate the prediction of microbial traits and functioning across environments. The data and models resulting from this project benefit the public by improving the ability to predict how microbial communities and carbon cycling functions respond to climate change, nutrient enrichment, and other large-scale environmental changes.

  13. Research project on CO{sub 2}-induced climate change. Annual progress report, March 1, 1994--February 28, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cess, R.D.; Hameed, S.

    1995-01-01

    This summarizes current progress in the research project at SUNY Stony Brook on CO2-induced climate change. Three tasks are described, corresponding to the task categories in the USDOE/PRC CAS cooperative project on climate change. Task 1, led by Dr. Robert Cess, concerns the intercomparison of CO2 related climatic warming in contemporary general circulation models. Task 2, directed by Dr. Sultan Hameed, looks at understanding the natural variability in climatic data and comparing its significant features between observations and model simulations. Task 3, also directed by Dr. Hameed focuses on analysis of historical climate data developed at the institute of Geography of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  14. Bring in the genes: genetic-ecophysiological modelling of the adaptive response of trees to environmental change. With application to the annual cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen eKramer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The observation of strong latitudinal clines in the date of bud burst of tree species indicate that populations of these species are genetically adapted to local environmental conditions. Existing phenological models rarely address this clinal variation, so that adaptive responses of tree populations to changes in environmental conditions are not taken into account, e.g. in models on species distributions that use phenological sub-models. This omission of simulating adaptive response in tree models may over- or underestimate the effects of climate change on tree species distributions, as well as the impacts of climate change on tree growth and productivity.Here, we present an approach to model the adaptive response of traits to environmental change based on an integrated process-based eco-physiological and quantitative genetic model of adaptive traits. Thus, the parameter values of phenological traits are expressed in genetic terms (allele effects and - frequencies, number of loci for individual trees. These individual trees thereby differ in their ability to acquire resources, grow and reproduce as described by the process-based model, leading to differential survival. Differential survival is thus the consequence of both differences in parameters values and their genetic composition. By simulating recombination and dispersal of pollen, the genetic composition of the offspring will differ from that of their parents. Over time, the distribution of both trait values and the frequency of the underlying alleles in the population change as a consequence of changes in environmental drivers leading to adaptation of trees to local environmental conditions.This approach is applied to an individual-tree growth model that includes a phenological model on the annual cycle of trees whose parameters are allowed to adapt. An example of the adaptive response of the onset of the growing season across Europe is presented.

  15. Microbial lipid and amino sugar responses to long-term simulated global environmental changes in a California annual grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chao; Gutknecht, Jessica L M; Balser, Teri C

    2015-01-01

    Global environmental change is predicted to have major consequences for carbon cycling and the functioning of soil ecosystems. However, we have limited knowledge about its impacts on the microorganisms, which act as a "valve" between carbon sequestered in soils versus released into the atmosphere. In this study we examined microbial response to continuous 9-years manipulation of three global change factors (elevated CO2, warming, and nitrogen deposition), singly and in combination using two methods: lipid and amino sugar biomarkers at the Jasper Ridge Global Change Experiment (JRGCE). The two methods yielded important distinctions. There were limited microbial lipid differences, but many significant effects for microbial amino sugars. We found that CO2 was not a direct factor influencing soil carbon and major amino sugar pools, but had a positive impact on bacterial-derived muramic acid. Likewise, warming and nitrogen deposition appeared to enrich residues specific to bacteria despite an overall depletion in total amino sugars. The results indicate that elevated CO2, warming, and nitrogen deposition all appeared to increase bacterial-derived residues, but this accumulation effect was far offset by a corresponding decline in fungal residues. The sensitivity of microbial residue biomarker amino sugars to warming and nitrogen deposition may have implications for our predictions of global change impacts on soil stored carbon. PMID:25999926

  16. Microbial lipid and amino sugar responses to long-term simulated global environmental changes in a California annual grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao eLIANG

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Global environmental change is predicted to have major consequences for carbon cycling and the functioning of soil ecosystems. However, we have limited knowledge about its impacts on the microorganisms, which act as a valve between carbon sequestered in soils versus released into the atmosphere. In this study we examined microbial response to continuous 9-year manipulation of three global change factors (elevated CO2, warming, and nitrogen deposition, singly and in combination using two methods: lipid and amino sugar biomarkers at the Jasper Ridge Global Change Experiment (JRGCE. The two methods yielded important distinctions. There were limited microbial lipid differences, but many significant effects for microbial amino sugars. We found that CO2 was not a direct factor influencing soil carbon and major amino sugar pools, but had a positive impact on bacterial-derived muramic acid. Likewise, warming and nitrogen deposition appeared to enrich residues specific to bacteria despite an overall depletion in total amino sugars. The results indicate that elevated CO2, warming, and nitrogen deposition all appeared to increase bacterial-derived residues, but this accumulation effect was far offset by a corresponding decline in fungal residues. The sensitivity of microbial residue biomarker amino sugars to warming and nitrogen deposition may have implications for our predictions of global change impacts on soil stored carbon.

  17. Average historical annual total precipitation (mm) and projected relative change in total precipitation (% change from baseline) for Northern Alaska. 30-year averages. Handout format. Maps created using the SNAP 5-GCM composite (AR5-RCP 6.0) and CRU TS3.1.01 datasets.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average annual total precipitation and projected change in precipitation for the northern portion of Alaska. The Alaska portion of the Arctic...

  18. Average historical annual total precipitation (inches) and projected relative change in total precipitation (% change from baseline) for Northern Alaska. 30-year averages. Handout format. Maps created using the SNAP 5-GCM composite (AR5-RCP 6.0) and CRU TS3.1.01 datasets.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average annual total precipitation and projected change in precipitation for the northern portion of Alaska. The Alaska portion of the Arctic...

  19. Annual FEV1 changes and numbers of circulating endothelial microparticles in patients with COPD: a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Toru; Kobayashi, Seiichi; Fujino, Naoya; Suzuki, Takaya; Ota, Chiharu; Tando, Yukiko; Yamada, Mitsuhiro; Yanai, Masaru; Yamaya, Mutsuo; Kurosawa, Shin; Yamauchi, Masanori; Kubo, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Objective Growing evidence suggests that endothelial injury is involved in the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Circulating endothelial microparticles (EMPs) increase in patients with COPD because of the presence of endothelial injury. We examined the relationship between EMP number and changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) in patients with COPD. Design Prospective study. Setting One hospital in Japan. Participants A total 48 outpatients with stable...

  20. Papers of the Canadian Energy Pipeline Association's 7. annual climate change workshop : energy efficiency and greenhouse gas reduction opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference focused on the role that Canadian pipeline companies will play in addressing greenhouse gas emissions. Ninety-five per cent of Canada's oil and gas is transported by pipeline. The Canadian Energy Pipeline Association (CEPA) is a national association representing all the major crude oil and natural gas transportation companies in Canada which operate 100,000 kilometres of pipeline in the country. CEPA's ongoing commitment to climate change includes a commitment to participate in the climate change process, share best management practices, develop energy efficient technology, and position Canadian companies so that they can be part of the solution. It was emphasized that a strong commitment to an effective innovation strategy will be crucial to a successful long term energy policy that meets both economic and environmental objectives. One of the key messages at the conference was that Canada's climate change policies should be consistent with those of the United States, its major trading partner, to ensure that Canada is not placed at a competitive disadvantage within North American and world energy markets. It was also noted that greenhouse gas emissions should be reduced in all consuming and producing sectors of the economy through energy efficiency practices and not through reductions in Canadian industry output for domestic or export markets. Five presentations were indexed separately for inclusion in the database. tabs., figs

  1. Annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report of SE, a. s., contains information for the year of 2003 and summarises SE's most important financial data for the stated period. The joint stock company Slovenske elektrarne, a. s. (Slovak Power Plants) was established on January 21, 2002, when it was entered into the Commercial Register as a new business entity formed by splitting the former Slovenska elektrarne, a. s. (SE, a. s.) into three independent business entities: Slovenska elektrarne, a. s. (SE, a. s.), Slovenska elektrizacna prenosova sustava, a. s. (Slovak Transmission Grid), and Teplaren Kosice, a. s. (Heating Plant Kosice). Data regarding electricity and heat generation and operational and financial results of the company are stated for the year of 2003, without providing a comparison to the previous year. The reason is that 2002 data do not cover the whole year, as the new SE a. s. was established on January 21, 2002 with changed mix of heat and electricity generation assets. Comparison data for previous years are provided only for certain technical parameters regarding nuclear safety, environment and human resources. This report contains the following headings: (1) SE Board of directors; (2) Supervisory Board; (3) Address by the Chairman of the Board of directors; (4) Year in brief; (5) Organisational structure of the company; (6) Participating interests held by the company; (7) Company strategy; (8) Heat and electricity generation; (9) Sales of electricity, ancillary services and heat; (10) Investments; (11) International cooperation; (12) Nuclear safety; (13) Environment; (14) Human resources; (15) Business report and financial statements; (16) Auditor's report; (17) List of abbreviations

  2. Analysis and evaluation of operational data. Annual report, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) has published reports of its activities since 1984. The first report covered January through June of 1984, and the second report covered July through December of 1984. After those first two semiannual reports, AEOD published annual reports of its activities from 1985 through 1993. Beginning with report for 1986, AEOD Annual Reports have been published as NUREG-1272. Beginning with the report for 1987, NUREG-1272 has been published in two parts, No. 1 covering power reactors and No. 2 covering nonreactors (changed to 'nuclear materials' with the 1993 report). AEOD changed its annual report from a calendar year (CY) to a fiscal year report, and added part No. 3 covering technical training, beginning with the combined Annual Report for CY 1994 and fiscal year 1995, NUREG-1272, Vol. 9, Nos. 1-3. This report, NUREG-1272, Vol. 10, No. 2, covers nuclear materials and presents a review of the events and concerns associated with the use of licensed material in applications other than power reactores. NUREG-1272, Vol. 10, No. 1, covers power reactors and presents an overview of the fiscal year 1996 operating experience of the nuclear power industry from the NRC perspective. NUREG-1272, Vol. 10, No. 3, covers technical training and presents the activities of the Technical Training Center in support of the NRC's mission. Throughout these reports, whenever information is presented for a calendar year, it is so designated. Fiscal year information is designated by the four digits of the fiscal year

  3. Analysis and evaluation of operational data. Annual report, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) has published reports of its activities since 1984. The first report covered January through June of 1984, and the second report covered July through December of 1984. After those first two semiannual reports, AEOD published annual reports of its activities from 1985 through 1993. Beginning with report for 1986, AEOD Annual Reports have been published as NUREG-1272. Beginning with the report for 1987, NUREG-1272 has been published in two parts, No. 1 covering power reactors and No. 2 covering nonreactors (changed to `nuclear materials` with the 1993 report). AEOD changed its annual report from a calendar year (CY) to a fiscal year report, and added part No. 3 covering technical training, beginning with the combined Annual Report for CY 1994 and fiscal year 1995, NUREG-1272, Vol. 9, Nos. 1-3. This report, NUREG-1272, Vol. 10, No. 2, covers nuclear materials and presents a review of the events and concerns associated with the use of licensed material in applications other than power reactores. NUREG-1272, Vol. 10, No. 1, covers power reactors and presents an overview of the fiscal year 1996 operating experience of the nuclear power industry from the NRC perspective. NUREG-1272, Vol. 10, No. 3, covers technical training and presents the activities of the Technical Training Center in support of the NRC`s mission. Throughout these reports, whenever information is presented for a calendar year, it is so designated. Fiscal year information is designated by the four digits of the fiscal year.

  4. Modeling technical change in energy system analysis: analyzing the introduction of learning-by-doing in bottom-up energy models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this paper is to provide an overview and a critical analysis of the recent literature on incorporating induced technical change in energy systems models. Special emphasis is put on surveying recent studies aimed at integrating learning-by-doing into bottom-up energy systems models through so-called learning curves, and on analyzing the relevance of learning curve analysis for understanding the process of innovation and technology diffusion in the energy sector. The survey indicates that this model work represents a major advance in energy research, and embeds important policy implications, not the least concerning the cost and the timing of environmental policies (including carbon emission constraints). However, bottom-up energy models with endogenous learning are also limited in their characterization of technology diffusion and innovation. While they provide a detailed account of technical options-which is absent in many top-down models-they also lack important aspects of diffusion behavior that are captured in top-down representations. For instance, they often fail in capturing strategic technology diffusion behavior in the energy sector as well as the energy sector's endogenous responses to policy, and they neglect important general equilibrium impacts (such as the opportunity cost of redirecting R and D support to the energy sector). Some suggestions on how innovation and diffusion modeling in bottom-up analysis can be improved are put forward

  5. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #9: ORD PROVIDES TECHNICAL SUPPORT TO EPA/OIA & DOS INITIATIVE IN EGYPT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This ninth edition reports on a workshop on global climate change that was held in Cairo, Egypt, on May 10-12, 1999. The workshop represented a successful partnership between EPA's Office of International Affairs, Office of Research and Development (ORD), Office of Air and Radiat...

  6. Annual changes in the song of the bowhead whale Balaena mysticetus in Disko Bay, Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Lee

    presented by Outi at: Acoustic Communication by Animals, 2nd International Conference, August 12-15, 2008, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USAAnnual changes in the song of the bowhead whale Balaena mysticetusin Disko Bay, Western GreenlandOuti Tervo and Mads F. Christoffersen, Arctic...... (n=659) and song notes (n=4394). All call types were present in the repertoire each year. Songs were composed of repetitive units referred here as song notes and were the most frequently documented type of vocalisation every year. Song notes had a stereotyped frequency contour and formed trains...

  7. Global Climate Change and Environmental Health: Proceedings of the 1997 Annual Conference of the Society for Occupational and Environmental Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the conference was to bring together a diverse group of occupational and environmental health experts to address the potential effects of climate change and ozone depletion on the current and future incidence of disease, heat stress, food and water supplies, and air pollution; to discuss initial strategies for improving R and D, global health surveillance systems, disease prevention, medical and public health community education, international cooperation, and public outreach; to address this international occupational and environmental health problem; and to explore international challenges and opportunities for collaborative projects in addressing these potential effects

  8. UK greenhouse gas inventory, 1990 to 2008. Annual report for submission under the Framework Convention on Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacCarthy, J.; Thomas, J.; Choudrie, S.; Passant, N.; Thistlethwaite, G.; Murrells, T.; Watterson, J.; Cardenas, L.; Thomson, A.

    2010-04-15

    This is the United Kingdom's National Inventory Report (NIR) submitted in the April 2010 to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). It contains national greenhouse gas emission inventories for the period 1990 to 2008, and the descriptions of the methods used to produce the estimates. A CD on the back flap of the report contains tabular data in the Common Reporting Format (CRF) covering the United Kingdom's greenhouse gas emissions for the same period. The report is compiled in accordance with the decision 18/CP.8. 347 refs., 25 figs., 31 tabs., 8 annexes.

  9. Do the ban on use of anti-microbial growth promoter impact on technical change and the efficiency of slaughter-pig production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson, Lartey; Otto, Lars; Jensen, Peter Vig;

    2005-01-01

    , technical change and the efficiency of production. This paper complements an earlier paper that investigated the impact of the ban on weaned-pig produc-tion. Background: The study is motivated by the fact that antimicrobial growth promoters have been known world wide to protect livestock from bacteria...... infections, and in effect stimu-lated the utilization of feedstuff and reduced the mortality rate. However, fears for increas-ing bacteria resistance with subsequent health hazards for humans and livestock has lead to societal debates about the pros and cons of its use in livestock production. Antibiotic...... of the use of growth promoters in 1995, which re-sulted in a total ban in 2000. EU as a follow-up to the Danish action also initiated a ban on the use of growth promoters that are known to contribute to human health hazard. In the US the discussion of a ban is an ongoing subject of debate. For US producers...

  10. Carbon Calculator for Land Use Change from Biofuels Production (CCLUB). Users' manual and technical documentation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, S; Dunn, JB; Wang, M (Energy Systems); (Univ. of Illinois at Chicago)

    2012-06-07

    The Carbon Calculator for Land Use Change from Biofuels Production (CCLUB) calculates carbon emissions from land use change (LUC) for four different ethanol production pathways including corn grain ethanol and cellulosic ethanol from corn stover, miscanthus, and switchgrass. This document discusses the version of CCLUB released May 31, 2012 which includes corn, as did the previous CCLUB version, and three cellulosic feedstocks: corn stover, miscanthus, and switchgrass. CCLUB calculations are based upon two data sets: land change areas and above- and below-ground carbon content. Table 1 identifies where these data are stored and used within the CCLUB model, which is built in MS Excel. Land change area data is from Purdue University's Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model, a computable general equilibrium (CGE) economic model. Section 2 describes the GTAP data CCLUB uses and how these data were modified to reflect shrubland transitions. Feedstock- and spatially-explicit below-ground carbon content data for the United States were generated with a surrogate model for CENTURY's soil organic carbon sub-model (Kwon and Hudson 2010) as described in Section 3. CENTURY is a soil organic matter model developed by Parton et al. (1987). The previous CCLUB version used more coarse domestic carbon emission factors. Above-ground non-soil carbon content data for forest ecosystems was sourced from the USDA/NCIAS Carbon Online Estimator (COLE) as explained in Section 4. We discuss emission factors used for calculation of international greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Section 5. Temporal issues associated with modeling LUC emissions are the topic of Section 6. Finally, in Section 7 we provide a step-by-step guide to using CCLUB and obtaining results.

  11. L'impatto delle nuove tecnologie sulle forme di lavoro: una prospettiva europea (Technical Change and Employment: A European Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Corsi

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the role of knowledge within the process of growth and job creation in the European Union. Many features of the so-called knowledge-based economy are connected with the increasing use of information and communication technologies (ICT, that radically changes the conditions for the production and distribution of knowledge as well as its coupling to the production system. Technological change not only stimulates investment in physical capital but also brings to knowledge accumulation: human skills are required to implement, maintain, adapt and use technologies embodied in physical capital. Indeed, as new technologies become more widespread, certain skills may be less in demand--because many tasks once carried out manually are now performed by automated equipment--while the demand for workers able to maintain, program, and develop these sophisticated technologies rise. There is therefore concern that technological change may cause unemployment as the result of a mismatch between the demand for labour and the various skills of workers; in this way it may also increase the polarisation of society by widening the gap in income and employment opportunities between those whose skills have been displaced by new technology and those who create and use it.

  12. Changing the attitudes and practices of professional developers through a constructivist model: The Technical Assistance Academy for Mathematics and Science Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Karen Jungblut

    For much of this century, mathematics and science have been taught in a didactic manner that is characterized by a passive student and a lecturing teacher. Since the late eighties national standards have encouraged professional developers specializing in mathematics and science education to deliver the messages of inquiry-based learning, active student engagement, and learner-constructed knowledge to the teachers they support. Follow-up studies of professional development programs, however, found that telling teachers was no more effective than telling students. Information transmitted in a passive setting was not transferring into effective classroom practices. This phenomenological case study was conducted to determine the effects of a constructivist-oriented professional development experience, the Technical Assistance Academy, in changing the practices and attitudes of mathematics and science professional developers regarding the use of constructivist strategies in workshop design. This study focused on 45 professional developers who participated in the Technical Assistance Academy. Data from a 2 1/2 year period were collected from session evaluations, journal reflections, a follow-up interview, and site visits that included observations and collaborative planning. Content analysis procedures were used to find common themes among the data. Use of new skills developed as a result of participation in the Technical Assistance Academy was determined using the Concerns-Based Adoption Model Levels of Use framework (Hall & Hord, 1987). Changes in attitude were determined by examining participants' journal reflections related to common constructivist themes such as those discussed by Fosnot (1996c): learning is developmental, disequilibrium and reflection facilitate learning, and the construction of "big ideas" results from the opportunity to struggle with new information. Results verified that all 45 participants demonstrated some level of use, and that most were in

  13. Renewable energy annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic

  14. Renewable energy annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic.

  15. Uranium industry annual 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-22

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1998 (UIA 1998) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. It contains data for the period 1989 through 2008 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data provides a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1989 through 1998, including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment, are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2008, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, and uranium inventories, are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1998 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is provided in Appendix C. The Form EIA-858 ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is shown in Appendix D. For the readers convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix E along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

  16. Research on impacts of mechanical vibrations on the production machine to its rate of change of technical state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefánia Salokyová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article observes the amount of vibration on the bearing house of a turning lathe selected in advance through the change of the revolutions per minute and the thickness of the removed material in frontal type of lathe processing. Increase in mechanical vibration values depending on the value of nominal thickness of splinter was observed during changing technological parameters of the drilling process as a consequence of rotation speed of the motor. The vibration acceleration amplitude course changes depending on the frequencies are evaluated together for 400, 800 and 1200 motor r/min. A piezoelectric sensor of the type 4507B-004 from the Brüel & Kjaer Company was used for monitoring the frequency analysis of the vibration, which was attached to the bearing house of the lathe TOS SV 18RB. The vibration signal measured during the processing and during the time period is transformed through the means of a quick Fourier transformation to the frequency spectrum in the range of 3.0–10.0 kHz. Measured values of vibration acceleration amplitude were processed and evaluated by the SignalExpress software. Graphical abstract Unwanted vibration in machine tools like lathe is one of the main problems as it affects the quality of the machined parts and tool life and creates noise during machining operation. Bearings are of paramount importance to almost all forms of rotating machinery and are the most common among machine elements. The article describes in more detail the issue of vibrations created when machining the material by lathe turning. It also includes execution, experiment evaluation in this field, and comparison of measured vibrations’ acceleration amplitude values according to the standards.

  17. Mixing it Up: A Record of Holocene Climate Change in Non-Annually Laminated Sediment of Seneca Lake, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, C. E.; Curtin, T. M.

    2005-12-01

    The mid to late Holocene climate record was examined in two cores that represent distal sedimentation in Seneca Lake, one of 11 Finger Lakes in western New York. Laminated sediments, ~5 m thick, were collected from the middle of the lake at 131-137 m water depths. These sites were selected because they preserve a continuous record of changes in the hydrologic balance and sedimentary processes. Variations in grain size and fabric at 50-100-cm intervals were observed and represent time periods of hundreds to thousands of years. The combination of magnetic susceptibility, loss-on-ignition, grain size analysis by laser diffraction, and grain fabric analysis using thin sections allow us to reconstruct the evolution of the lake since deglaciation and to compare and contrast paleoclimate indicator data. Variations in the type of sedimentary fabrics preserved are coincident with variations in geochemical and sedimentological indicators of environmental conditions that may have occurred in response to fluctuations in the hydrologic balance and circulation and/or overturn. Laterally continuous, thin, black laminae rich in organic matter and possibly minute grains of iron sulfides accumulated during the mid Holocene Hypsithermal (~9-7 ka). Presence of black laminae may signify a steady supply of organic matter and an absence of oxygen, at least below the sediment-water interface if not in the lower part of the water column. Coincident with finely laminated sediment are the coarsest mean grain sizes. Three 2-6 cm thick sand beds occur in one core, suggesting that an influx of water and sediment occurred during intense storms. A combination of warmer surface water and influx of freshwater from storms during the Hypsithermal may have influenced the turnover history of the lake by stabilizing the water column. Absence of overturn would result in depletion of nutrients in surface waters, a decrease in primary productivity, and a decrease in oxygen at the bottom of the lake as a

  18. Reframing technical change: Livestock Fodder Scarcity Revisited as Innovation Capacity Scarcity: Part 3. Tools for Diagnosis and Institutional Change in Innovation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, A.; Sulaiman, R.V.; Bezkorowajnyj, P.

    2008-01-01

    The exploration of fodder innovation capacity requires tools to undertake the following tasks: (i) Diagnosis of fodder innovation capacity to identify project starting points, including micro and macro elements (ii) Socio-economic benchmarking, and follow-up studies (iii) Pilot innovation cloud process learning/ process-driven intervention correction (iv) Comparative analysis of institutional change processes (iv) Project team process learning And (iv) Project evaluation. There is a wide rang...

  19. Changes in macroelement content of rhizomes of Nuphar lutea (L. Sibith. and Sm. during the annual cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk Tomaszewicz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of studies on the chemical composition of rhizomes of Nuphar lutea which were carried out from July 2006 to November 2007 (the samples were collected at two-week intervals from March to November 2007. The first indication of the start of the growing season was the growth of leaves in the apical part of the rhizomes. Clearly visible signs that marked the beginning of the growing season were unfolding of leaves, which became arrow-shaped. The leaves had already unfolded and were arrow-shaped (saggitate on April 10th when the temperature of the bottom water layer was 7oC. It may be assumed, therefore, that the growing season began between the 28th March and 10th April 2007. The phosphates, nitrates, sodium, calcium, total iron and sulphates levels in the rhizomes declined just after the growing season had started. The total nitrogen content remained at a constant level whereas the amount of dissolved silica increased. Considerable changes in the macroelement contents were noted when Nuphar lutea was in full bloom (10th-24th June. The macroelement contents presented in the tables and diagrams were expressed on a dry matter basis. An additional table illustrates the macroelement contents expressed on a fresh matter basis. The problem of collecting rhizomes of polycormic plants is discussed.

  20. 1985 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this annual report of NIKHEF Amsterdam (Netherlands) research programs of high-energy physics, nuclear physics and radiochemistry are described. Concerning the high-energy physics section (section H) it contains short accounts of experiments carried out at CERN (Geneva) with the Super Proton Synchrotron (WA25, ACCMOR, EHS, CHARM), the proton-antiproton collider (SppS) and LEAR, experiments performed with the DESY (Hamburg) accelerators (Crystal-ball, MARK-J, HERA), the SLAC and LEP experiments and an overview of the activities of the theory group and the technical and instrumentation groups. As for the nuclear physics section (K), short descriptions and (preliminary) results are presented of electron-excitation studies and experiments with pions, muons and antiprotons. Theoretical studies include Coulomb sum rule, sigma-omega model, pion photoproduction and the (e,e'p) reaction. A radiochemical and technical part concludes the report. (Auth.)

  1. DANSYNC. Annual report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Als-Nielsen, J.

    1997-02-01

    DANSYNC is an organisation of Danish users of hard X-ray synchrotron facilities, funded by The Danish Natural Science Research Council. It was founded in the beginning of 1996, and this is the first Annual Report from DANSYNC. Users span from basic physics at Risoe National Laboratory, Oersted Laboratory and Denmarks Technical University over materials science from Risoe National Laboratory to chemistry and biology at Aarhus University, Copenhagen University and Denmarks Technical University, as well as industrial research represented by Haldor Topsoee A/S and space research at Danish Space Research Institute. We do not have an X-ray synchrotron facility in Denmark, so all of this work is carried out at facilities abroad. Clearly the facility at DESY in Hamburg (HASYLAB and EMBL) is of the greatest significance for Danish synchrotron research. Home page: http://www.dansync.dk/dansync/. (LN).

  2. SKB annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report on the activities of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management contains in part I an overview of SKB activities in different fields. Part II gives a description of the research and development work on nuclear waste disposal performed during 1987. Lectures and publications during 1987 as well as reports issued in the SKB technical report series are listed in part III. Part IV contains the summaries of all technical reports issued during 1987. At Forsmark the first construction phase for the final repository for radioactive waste - SFR - is now completed. The repository is situated in crystalline rock under the Baltic Sea. The first construction phase includes rock caverns for 60 000 m3 of waste. A second phase for additional 30 000 m3 is planned to be built and commissioned around the year 2000. (orig./DG)

  3. DANSYNC. Annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DANSYNC is an organisation of Danish users of hard X-ray synchrotron facilities, funded by The Danish Natural Science Research Council. It was founded in the beginning of 1996, and this is the first Annual Report from DANSYNC. Users span from basic physics at Risoe National Laboratory, Oersted Laboratory and Denmarks Technical University over materials science from Risoe National Laboratory to chemistry and biology at Aarhus University, Copenhagen University and Denmarks Technical University, as well as industrial research represented by Haldor Topsoee A/S and space research at Danish Space Research Institute. We do not have an X-ray synchrotron facility in Denmark, so all of this work is carried out at facilities abroad. Clearly the facility at DESY in Hamburg (HASYLAB and EMBL) is of the greatest significance for Danish synchrotron research. Home page: http://www.dansync.dk/dansync/. (LN)

  4. 2012 NEA Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a message from the Director-General of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA, a semi-autonomous body within the OECD) and an overview of the Fukushima accident and NEA follow-up, this annual report presents the various technical programmes in which the NEA is committed. These programmes deal with nuclear development and the fuel cycle, nuclear safety and regulation, radioactive waste management, radiological protection, nuclear science, data bank, legal affairs, joint projects and other cooperative projects. The report then presents activities of the technical secretariat (Generation IV International Forum or GIF, Multinational Design Evaluation Programme or MDEP), and some general information about the NEA (organisational structure, publications in 2012) and about its activities of information and communication activities, and regarding the relationship between nuclear energy and civil society

  5. SKB annual report 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the annual report on the activities of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, SKB. It contains in part 1 an overview of SKB activities in different fields. Part 2 gives a description of the research and development work on nuclear waste disposal performed during 1988. Lectures and publications during 1988 as well as reports issued in the SKB technical report series are listed in part 3. Part 4 contains the summaries of all technical reports issued during 1988. SKB is in charge of a comprehensive research and development program on geological disposal of nuclear waste. The total cost for R and D during 1988 was 123.4 MSEK of which 19.3 MSEK came from participants outside Sweden

  6. Annual report 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this annual report of NIKHEF Amsterdam (Netherlands) research programs of high-energy physics, nuclear physics and radiochemistry are described. Concerning the high-energy physics section (section H) it contains short accounts of experiments carried out at CERN (Geneva) with the Super Proton Synchrotron (WA25, ACCMOR, EHS, CHARM), the proton-antiproton collider (SppS) and LEAR, experiments performed with the DESY (Hamburg) accelerators (Crystal-ball, MARK-J, HERA), the SLAC and LEP experiments and an overview of the activities of the theory group and the technical and instrumentation groups. As for the nuclear physics section (K), short descriptions and (preliminary) results are presented of electron-excitation studies and experiments with pions, muons and antiprotons. Theoretical studies include Coulomb sum rule, quark-bag models, pion-nucleon interaction and the Delta-hole model. A radiochemical and technical part concludes the report. (Auth.)

  7. Projections for Changes in Natural and Technical Snow Reliability of a Major Turkish Ski Resort by Using RegCM4.3.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Tugba; Cenk Demiroglu, O.; Tufan Turp, M.; Türkeş, Murat; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2014-05-01

    Climate change has been and increasingly will be a major threat to the ski tourism industry whose survival is highly dependent on existence of snow cover of sufficient depth and duration. The common knowledge requires that in order for a ski resort to be viable, it has to perform operations for at least 100 days in seven out of ten winters. For this matter, it is now even more usual for the ski resorts to adapt to this issue by technical snowmaking. In this study, projected future changes for the period of 2010-2040, 2040-2070, and 2070-2100 in air temperature, relative humidity, and snow depth climatology and variability with respect to the control period of 1970-2000 were assessed for the domain of a major ski resort in Turkey. Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.3.5) of ICTP (International Centre for Theoretical Physics) was used for projections of future and present climate conditions. HadGEM2 global climate model of the Met Office Hadley Centre, MPI-ESM-MR of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, GFDL-ESM2M of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory were downscaled to 10 km for the resort and its surrounding region. Both the projections and the downscaling were realized according to the RCP4.5 and the RCP8.5 emission scenarios of the IPCC. The outputs on snow depth were used for a count of the changes on snow cover duration sufficient for skiing actitivies, signaling natural snow-reliability, whereas the outputs on air temperature and relative humidity were utilized for determination of wet-bulb temperatures. The latter measure was used to interpret the changes in the snowmaking capacity, in other words; technical snow-reliability, of the resort. This work was supported by the BU Reasearch Fund under the project number 7362. One of the authors (MLK) was partially supported by Mercator-IPC Fellowship Program.

  8. Annual report 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report of the PTB for 1975 deals in part 1 with organization and activities of the executive committee and the administration, in the second part with work carried out by the departments mechanics, electric power, heat, optics, acoustics, nuclear physics, reactor radiation, general technical-scientific services, and the institute in Berlin. The second part deals with examinations, authorizations, permits, cooperation, advisory activities and scientific services. Part three presents R and D activities carried out in the nine departments in the form of scientific summaries. (HK)

  9. Institute annual report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The mission of the ITU (Institute for Transuranium Elements) is to protect the European citizen against risk associated with the handling and storage of highly radioactive elements. The JRC (Joint Research Center) provide customer-driven scientific and technical support for the conception, development, implementation and monitoring of EU policies. In this framework this annual report presents the TU actions in: basic actinide research, spent fuel characterization, safety of nuclear fuels, partitioning and transmutation, alpha-immunotherapy/radiobiology, measurement of radioactivity in the environment, safeguards research and development. (A.L.B.)

  10. IKF annual report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the scientific work performed at the named institute descriptions of the operation of the Van-de-Graaf accelerator facilities of this institute and the work of the technical establishments, as well as a list of publications. The scientific work concerns nuclear structure and nuclear reactions, high energy heavy ion physics, atomic physics with fast ions, nuclear solid state physics, solid-state track detectors, applications of nuclear methods in solid state physics, ion source developments, apparative developments and data processing, as well as interdisciplinary collaborations. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)

  11. 1996 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 1996 issue of the annual report of the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) gives a general overview of CEA organization, activities, human resources, international relations and external communication with some budgetary informations. The main activities described concern the national defence, the fuel cycle, the nuclear reactors, the condensed matter and life sciences, the advanced technologies, the protection and transfer of knowledge and technologies, the environmental activities, the management and processing of nuclear wastes, the nuclear protection and safety, the technical and scientific information, the teaching and training, the scientific prizes, the committees, councils and commissions. (J.S.)

  12. Institute annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of the ITU (Institute for Transuranium Elements) is to protect the European citizen against risk associated with the handling and storage of highly radioactive elements. The JRC (Joint Research Center) provide customer-driven scientific and technical support for the conception, development, implementation and monitoring of EU policies. In this framework this annual report presents the TU actions in: basic actinide research, spent fuel characterization, safety of nuclear fuels, partitioning and transmutation, alpha-immunotherapy/radiobiology, measurement of radioactivity in the environment, safeguards research and development. (A.L.B.)

  13. The role of climate and human changes on inter-annual variation in stream nitrate fluxes and concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, M.; Gascuel, C.; Pierre, A.; Patrick, D.; Laurent, R.; Jérome, M.

    2010-12-01

    In recent decades, temporal variations in nitrate fluxes and concentrations in temperate rivers have resulted from the interaction of anthropogenic and climatic factors. The effect of climatic drivers remains unclear, while the relative importance of the drivers seems to be highly site dependent. This paper focuses on 2-6 years variations called meso-scale variations, and analyses the climatic drivers of these variations in a study site characterized by high N inputs from intensive animal farming systems and shallow aquifers with impervious bedrock in a temperate climate. Three approaches are developed: 1) an analysis of long-term records (30-40 years) of nitrate fluxes and nitrate concentrations in 30 coastal rivers of Western France, which were well-marked by meso-scale cycles in the fluxes and concentration with a slight hysteresis; 2) a test of the climatic control using a lumped two box model, which demonstrates that hydrological assumptions are sufficient to explain these meso-scale cycles; and 3) a model of nitrate fluxes and concentrations in two contrasted catchments subjected to recent mitigation measures, which analyses nitrate fluxes and concentrations in relation to N stored in groundwater. In coastal rivers, hydrological drivers (i.e., effective rainfall), and particularly the dynamics of the water table and rather stable nitrate concentration, explain the meso-scale cyclic patterns. In the headwater catchment, agricultural and hydrological drivers can interact according their settings. The requirements to better distinguish the effect of climate and human changes in integrated water management are addressed: long term monitoring, coupling the analysis and the modelling of large sets of catchments incorporating different sizes, land uses and environmental factors. (Figure : Discharge, nitrate concentrations and fluxes in the Aulne river from 1973 to 2007.)

  14. Final Technical Report for "Collaborative Research. Regional climate-change projections through next-generation empirical and dynamical models"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravtsov, S. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Robertson, Andrew W. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Ghil, Michael [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Smyth, Padhraic J. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2011-04-08

    This project was a continuation of previous work under DOE CCPP funding in which we developed a twin approach of non-homogeneous hidden Markov models (NHMMs) and coupled ocean-atmosphere (O-A) intermediate-complexity models (ICMs) to identify the potentially predictable modes of climate variability, and to investigate their impacts on the regional-scale. We have developed a family of latent-variable NHMMs to simulate historical records of daily rainfall, and used them to downscale seasonal predictions. We have also developed empirical mode reduction (EMR) models for gaining insight into the underlying dynamics in observational data and general circulation model (GCM) simulations. Using coupled O-A ICMs, we have identified a new mechanism of interdecadal climate variability, involving the midlatitude oceans mesoscale eddy field and nonlinear, persistent atmospheric response to the oceanic anomalies. A related decadal mode is also identified, associated with the oceans thermohaline circulation. The goal of the continuation was to build on these ICM results and NHMM/EMR model developments and software to strengthen two key pillars of support for the development and application of climate models for climate change projections on time scales of decades to centuries, namely: (a) dynamical and theoretical understanding of decadal-to-interdecadal oscillations and their predictability; and (b) an interface from climate models to applications, in order to inform societal adaptation strategies to climate change at the regional scale, including model calibration, correction, downscaling and, most importantly, assessment and interpretation of spread and uncertainties in multi-model ensembles. Our main results from the grant consist of extensive further development of the hidden Markov models for rainfall simulation and downscaling specifically within the non-stationary climate change context together with the development of parallelized software; application of NHMMs to

  15. Final Technical Report for "Collaborative Research: Regional climate-change projections through next-generation empirical and dynamical models"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, A.W.; Ghil, M.; Kravtsov, K.; Smyth, P.J.

    2011-04-08

    This project was a continuation of previous work under DOE CCPP funding in which we developed a twin approach of non-homogeneous hidden Markov models (NHMMs) and coupled ocean-atmosphere (O-A) intermediate-complexity models (ICMs) to identify the potentially predictable modes of climate variability, and to investigate their impacts on the regional-scale. We have developed a family of latent-variable NHMMs to simulate historical records of daily rainfall, and used them to downscale seasonal predictions. We have also developed empirical mode reduction (EMR) models for gaining insight into the underlying dynamics in observational data and general circulation model (GCM) simulations. Using coupled O-A ICMs, we have identified a new mechanism of interdecadal climate variability, involving the midlatitude oceans mesoscale eddy field and nonlinear, persistent atmospheric response to the oceanic anomalies. A related decadal mode is also identified, associated with the oceans thermohaline circulation. The goal of the continuation was to build on these ICM results and NHMM/EMR model developments and software to strengthen two key pillars of support for the development and application of climate models for climate change projections on time scales of decades to centuries, namely: (a) dynamical and theoretical understanding of decadal-to-interdecadal oscillations and their predictability; and (b) an interface from climate models to applications, in order to inform societal adaptation strategies to climate change at the regional scale, including model calibration, correction, downscaling and, most importantly, assessment and interpretation of spread and uncertainties in multi-model ensembles. Our main results from the grant consist of extensive further development of the hidden Markov models for rainfall simulation and downscaling specifically within the non-stationary climate change context together with the development of parallelized software; application of NHMMs to

  16. Disentangling the effects of feedback structure and climate on Poaceae annual airborne pollen fluctuations and the possible consequences of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de León, David; García-Mozo, Herminia; Galán, Carmen; Alcázar, Purificación; Lima, Mauricio; González-Andújar, José L

    2015-10-15

    Pollen allergies are the most common form of respiratory allergic disease in Europe. Most studies have emphasized the role of environmental processes, as the drivers of airborne pollen fluctuations, implicitly considering pollen production as a random walk. This work shows that internal self-regulating processes of the plants (negative feedback) should be included in pollen dynamic systems in order to give a better explanation of the observed pollen temporal patterns. This article proposes a novel methodological approach based on dynamic systems to investigate the interaction between feedback structure of plant populations and climate in shaping long-term airborne Poaceae pollen fluctuations and to quantify the effects of climate change on future airborne pollen concentrations. Long-term historical airborne Poaceae pollen data (30 years) from Cordoba city (Southern Spain) were analyzed. A set of models, combining feedback structure, temperature and actual evapotranspiration effects on airborne Poaceae pollen were built and compared, using a model selection approach. Our results highlight the importance of first-order negative feedback and mean annual maximum temperature in driving airborne Poaceae pollen dynamics. The best model was used to predict the effects of climate change under two standardized scenarios representing contrasting temporal patterns of economic development and CO2 emissions. Our results predict an increase in pollen levels in southern Spain by 2070 ranging from 28.5% to 44.3%. The findings from this study provide a greater understanding of airborne pollen dynamics and how climate change might impact the future evolution of airborne Poaceae pollen concentrations and thus the future evolution of related pollen allergies.

  17. 'Global change' impact of inter-annual variation in water discharge as a driving factor to dredging and spoil disposal in the river Rhine system and of turbidity in the Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, V.N.; de Jong, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    Between 1970 to 2000, the annual mean suspended matter (SPM) concentrations in the Vlie and Marsdiep tidal inlets of the Wadden Sea varied over five times. The present paper examines the possible relationship between SPM in the Wadden Sea and changing river Rhine discharges and dredging operations.

  18. Using Airborne Lidar Data from IcePod to Measure Annual and Seasonal Ice Changes Over Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frearson, N.; Bertinato, C.; Das, I.

    2014-12-01

    The IcePod is a multi-sensor airborne science platform that supports a wide suite of instruments, including a Riegl VQ-580 infrared scanning laser, GPS-inertial positioning system, shallow and deep-ice radars, visible-wave and infrared cameras, and upward-looking pyrometer. These instruments allow us to image the ice from top to bottom, including the surface of melt-water plumes that originate at the ice-ocean boundary. In collaboration with the New York Air National Guard 109th Airlift Wing, the IcePod is flown on LC-130 aircraft, which presents the unique opportunity to routinely image the Greenland ice sheet several times within a season. This is particularly important for mass balance studies, as we can measure elevation changes during the melt season. During the 2014 summer, laser data was collected via IcePod over the Greenland ice sheet, including Russell Glacier, Jakobshavn Glacier, Eqip Glacier, and Summit Camp. The Icepod will also be routinely operated in Antarctica. We present the initial testing, calibration, and error estimates from the first set of laser data that were collected on IcePod. At a survey altitude of 1000 m, the laser swath covers ~ 1000 m. A Northrop-Grumman LN-200 tactical grade IMU is rigidly attached to the laser scanner to provide attitude data at a rate of 200 Hz. Several methods were used to determine the lever arm between the IMU center of navigation and GPS antenna phase center, terrestrial scanning laser, total station survey, and optimal estimation. Additionally, initial bore sight calibration flights yielded misalignment angles within an accuracy of ±4 cm. We also performed routine passes over the airport ramp in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland, comparing the airborne GPS and Lidar data to a reference GPS-based ground survey across the ramp, spot GPS points on the ramp and a nearby GPS base station. Positioning errors can severely impact the accuracy of a laser altimeter when flying over remote regions such as across the ice sheets

  19. Changes and events in uranium deposit development, exploration, resources, production and the world supply-demand relationship. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report consists of the proceedings of the Technical Committee Meeting on Recent Changes and Events in Uranium Deposit Development, Exploration, Resources, Production and the World Supply/Demand Relationship, held in co-operation with the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) in Kiev, Ukraine, from 22 to 26 May 1995. Some of the information from this meeting was also used in preparation of the 1995 edition of ''Uranium - Resources, Production and Demand'' a joint report by the OECD/NEA and the IAEA. At the Beginning of 1995 there were 432 nuclear power plants in operation with a combined electricity generating capacity of 340 GW(e). This represents nearly a 100% increase over the last decade. In 1995 over 2228 TW·h of electricity were generated, equivalent to about 17% of the world's total electricity. To achieve this, about 61,000 t U were required as nuclear fuel. For about a decade and a half uranium production and related activities have been decreasing because of declining uranium prices. For many participants in the nuclear industry there has been little interest in uranium supply because of the oversupplied market condition. The declining production led to the development of a supply and demand balance were production is currently meeting a little over 50% of reactor requirements and the excess inventory is being rapidly drawn down. This very unstable relationship has resulted in great uncertainty about the future supply or uranium. One of the objectives of this Technical Committee meeting was to bring together specialists in the field of uranium supply and demand to collect information on new developments. This helps provide a better understanding of the current situation, as well as providing information to plan for the future. Refs, figs, tabs

  20. TECHNICAL NOTE: Low-cost delamination monitoring of CFRP beams using electrical resistance changes with neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todoroki, Akira; Ueda, Masahito

    2006-08-01

    Delamination is a significant defect of laminated composites. The present study employs an electrical resistance change method in an attempt to identify internal delaminations experimentally. The method adopts reinforcing carbon fibers as sensors. In our previous paper, an actual delamination crack in a carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminate was experimentally identified with artificial neural networks (ANNs) or response surfaces created from a large number of experiments. The experimental results were used for the learning of the ANN or for regressions of the response surfaces. For the actual application of the method, it is necessary to minimize the number of experiments in order to keep the cost of the experiments to a minimum. In the present study, therefore, finite-element method (FEM) analyses are employed to make sets of data for the learning of the ANN. First, the electrical conductivity of the CFRP laminate is identified by means of the least estimation error method. After that, the results of the FEM analyses are used for the learning of the ANN. The method is applied to the actual delamination monitoring of CFRP beams. As a result, the method successfully monitored the delamination location and size using only ten experiments.

  1. Final Technical Report: Response of Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems to Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and Associated Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oechel, Walter C

    2002-08-15

    This research incorporated an integrated hierarchical approach in space, time, and levels of biological/ecological organization to help understand and predict ecosystem response to elevated CO{sub 2} and concomitant environmental change. The research utilized a number of different approaches, and collaboration of both PER and non-PER investigators to arrive at a comprehensive, integrative understanding. Central to the work were the CO{sub 2}-controlled, ambient Lit, Temperature controlled (CO{sub 2}LT) null-balance chambers originally developed in the arctic tundra, which were re-engineered for the chaparral with treatment CO{sub 2} concentrations of from 250 to 750 ppm CO{sub 2} in 100 ppm increments, replicated twice to allow for a regression analysis. Each chamber was 2 meters on a side and 2 meters tall, which were installed over an individual shrub reprouting after a fire. This manipulation allowed study of the response of native chaparral to varying levels of CO{sub 2}, while regenerating from an experimental burn. Results from these highly-controlled manipulations were compared against Free Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE) manipulations, in an area adjacent to the CO{sub 2}LT null balance greenhouses. These relatively short-term results (5-7 years) were compared to long-term results from Mediterranean-type ecosystems (MTEs) surrounding natural CO{sub 2} springs in northern Italy, near Laiatico, Italy. The springs lack the controlled experimental rigor of our CO{sub 2}LT and FACE manipulation, but provide invaluable validation of our long-term predictions.

  2. Built environment, health and how old you are: A view across the life span - 20th Annual John K. Friesen Conference - Growing Old in a Changing Climate: Exploring the Interface Between Population Aging and Global Warming (2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Larry

    2011-01-01

    This video clip comprises the four presentations of Panel Session 4, “Preparing Aging Populations for Climate Change in British Columbia and Beyond” held at the 20th Annual John K. Friesen Conference, "Growing Old in a Changing Climate: Exploring the Interface Between Population Aging and Global Warming," MAY 25-26, 2011, Vancouver, BC. Dr. Larry Frank "Built environment, health and how old you are: A view across the life span" - Talk focuses upon the relationships between the designs of the ...

  3. Global warming, aging and environmental physiology - 20th Annual John K. Friesen Conference - Growing Old in a Changing Climate: Exploring the Interface Between Population Aging and Global Warming (2011)

    OpenAIRE

    White, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    This video clip comprises the three presentations of Panel Session 3, “Climate Change Adaptation Strategies for Aging Populations” held at the 20th Annual John K. Friesen Conference, "Growing Old in a Changing Climate: Exploring the Interface Between Population Aging and Global Warming," MAY 25-26, 2011, Vancouver, BC. Dr. Matthew White "Global warming, aging and environmental physiology" – Talk focuses upon what an environmental physiologist is and how they can assist the elderly during glob...

  4. Inter-annual Changes in Eurasian Continent NDVI and Its Sensitivity to the Large-scale Climate Variations in the Last 20 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONGDao-Yi; SHIPei-Jun

    2004-01-01

    The influence of climate change on the terrestrial vegetation health (condition) is one of themost significant problems of global change study. The vegetation activity plays a key role in the globalcarbon cycle. The authors investigated the relationship of the advanced very high resolution radiometer-normalized difference vegetation index (AVHRR-NDVI) with the large-scale climate variations on the inter-annual time scale during the period 1982-2000 for the growing seasons (April to October). A singular valuedecomposition analysis was applied to the NDV! and surface air temperature data in the time-domain todetect the most predominant modes coupling them. The first paired-modes explain 60.9%, 39.5% and 24.6%of the squared covariance between NDV! and temperature in spring (April and May), summer (June andAugust), and autumn (September to October), respectively, which implies that there is the highest NDVIsensitivity to temperature in spring and the lowest in autumn. The spatial centers, as revealed by themaximum or minimum vector values corresponding to the leading singular values, indicate the highsensitive regions. Only considering the mode 1, the sensitive center for spring is located in westernSiberia and the neighbor eastern Europe with a sensitivity of about 0.308 0 NDVI/℃. For summer, thereare no predominantly sensitive centers, and on average for the relatively high center over 100o-120o E by 45o-60o N, the (110o-140o E,55o-65oN)sitivity is 0.248 0 NDVI/℃. For autumn, the center is located over the high latitudes ofeastern Asia (110o-140o E, 55o-65o N), and the sensitivity is 0.087 5 NDVI/℃. The coherent patters asrevealed by the singular decomposition analysis remain the same when coarser resolution NDVI data wereused, suggesting a robust and stable climate/vegetation relationship.

  5. The Digital Era:Film Art Changes with Technical Changes%数字时代:电影艺术因技术改变而改变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴跃赛

    2015-01-01

    自20世纪90年代开始,以计算机为代表的高科技对于电影的大规模介入,对建立在“摄影为基础的真实性概念”基础上的传统电影理论提出了巨大的挑战,也使得电影的审美方式和接受心理产生了巨大的变化,数字技术所带来的视觉奇观在上升为审美要素的同时,不可避免地产生了一种过滤与遮蔽,而蕴含人文精神的电影高科技是摆脱原始技术主义桎梏的唯一途径。%Start from the 1990s, the massive intervention of high technology, with computer as the representative, on films, has presented a huge challenge to the traditional film theory which is established based on "photography-based true concepts", and greatly changed the aesthetic ways and acceptance psychologies of films. While the visual spectacles brought by digital technology are rising to aesthetic elements, a kind of filtration and cover will generate inevitably, and the humanistic spirit embodied in film high-technology is the only way to get rid of the shackles of the original technological doctrine.

  6. Technical Network

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In order to optimize the management of the Technical Network (TN), to ease the understanding and purpose of devices connected to the TN, and to improve security incident handling, the Technical Network Administrators and the CNIC WG have asked IT/CS to verify the "description" and "tag" fields of devices connected to the TN. Therefore, persons responsible for systems connected to the TN will receive email notifications from IT/CS asking them to add the corresponding information in the network database. Thank you very much for your cooperation. The Technical Network Administrators & the CNIC WG

  7. Technical Network

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In order to optimise the management of the Technical Network (TN), to facilitate understanding of the purpose of devices connected to the TN and to improve security incident handling, the Technical Network Administrators and the CNIC WG have asked IT/CS to verify the "description" and "tag" fields of devices connected to the TN. Therefore, persons responsible for systems connected to the TN will receive e-mails from IT/CS asking them to add the corresponding information in the network database at "network-cern-ch". Thank you very much for your cooperation. The Technical Network Administrators & the CNIC WG

  8. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. 0 / June 2003), Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-06-27

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives (CAAs) appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 536 consists of a single Corrective Action Site (CAS): 03-44-02, Steam Jenny Discharge. The CAU 536 site is being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of possible contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for CAS 03-44-02. The additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) prior to evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for this CAS. The results of this field investigation are to be used to support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document. Record of Technical Change No. 1 is dated 3-2004.

  9. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-04-28

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Sites Office's (NNSA/NSO's) approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 516, Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. CAU 516 consists of six Corrective Action Sites: 03-59-01, Building 3C-36 Septic System; 03-59-02, Building 3C-45 Septic System; 06-51-01, Sump Piping, 06-51-02, Clay Pipe and Debris; 06-51-03, Clean Out Box and Piping; and 22-19-04, Vehicle Decontamination Area. Located in Areas 3, 6, and 22 of the NTS, CAU 516 is being investigated because disposed waste may be present without appropriate controls, and hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present or migrating at concentrations and locations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information and process knowledge on the expected nature and extent of contamination of CAU 516 are insufficient to select preferred corrective action alternatives; therefore, additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document. Record of Technical Change No. 1 is dated 3/2004.

  10. Mixed waste focus area technical baseline report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA) to develop and facilitate implementation of technologies required to meet the Department's commitments for treatment of mixed low-level and transuranic wastes. The mission of the MWFA is to provide acceptable technologies, developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators, that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems. To accomplish this mission, a technical baseline was established in 1996 that forms the basis for determining which technology development activities will be supported by the MWFA. This technical baseline is revised on an annual basis to reflect changes in the DOE Mixed Waste Management strategies, changes in the MWFA technical baseline development process, and MWFA accomplishments. This report presents the first revision to the technical baseline and the resulting prioritized list of deficiencies that the MWFA will address. This report also reflects a higher level of stakeholder involvement in the prioritization of the deficiencies. This document summarizes the data and the assumptions upon which this work was based, as well as information concerning the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) mixed waste technology development needs

  11. Annual report 1992-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1992-93 Annual Report of the NRPB includes the Director's Review, the NRPB's involvement in developing radiation safety standards and providing various technical services. The NRPB's work in environmental sciences, biomedical sciences and physical sciences is also briefly reviewed. Details are also given of the various NRPB documents containing formal advice on standards and protection, and finally the NRPB's finances are outlined. (UK)

  12. DESY scientific annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report contains a short description of the organization of DESY, extended abstracts concerning the experimental studies at the PETRA and DORIS storage rings, the development of the ZEUS detector, synchrotron-radiation experiments, theory of elementary particles, development of counting electronics, technical developments of the HERA, DORIS II and PETRA II storage rings and the DESY II respectively DESY I/III synchrotron, radiation protection, as well as data processing, and a list of speeches, publications, and theses. (HSI)

  13. Uranium industry annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1995 (UIA 1995) provides current statistical data on the U.S. uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. The UIA 1995 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. It contains data for the period 1986 through 2005 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey``. Data collected on the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Where aggregate data are presented in the UIA 1995, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific information while still conveying accurate and complete statistical data. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1986 through 1995 including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2005, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, uranium imports and exports, and uranium inventories are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1995 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is provided in Appendix C. For the reader`s convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix D along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 14 figs., 56 tabs.

  14. The technical results of the Swedish nuclear weapons programme - a compilation of FOAs annual reports 1945-1972; Det svenska kaernvapenprogrammets tekniska resultat - en sammanstaellning av FOAs aarsrapporter 1945-1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, L.; Stenholm, L

    2002-02-01

    The aim with this report is to summarise FOAs nuclear weapons related research that was performed 1945-1972. The report is a compilation of FOAs annual reports that originally were in a classified form but have now - mostly - been declassified. References to separate reports in the different research areas are included in the report.

  15. 2013 NEA Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    concerned with nuclear and radiation safety issues: the Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA), the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) and the Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH). However, the follow-up to Fukushima continues to involve all areas of the Agency's work, as member countries look to implement practical measures and improvements based on lessons learnt. The NEA will continue to offer its direct assistance to the Japanese authorities in addressing remaining significant challenges, including environmental remediation and recovery, the management of radioactive waste and the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi reactors. This Annual Report provides an overview of NEA activities for 2013, ranging from specific follow-up to the Fukushima Daiichi accident to further work in the areas of nuclear safety and regulation, radioactive waste management, radiological protection, nuclear science, nuclear law and nuclear energy development and the fuel cycle. While it is clear that Fukushima has had a profound effect on the nuclear energy sector, its development is set to continue in the coming years. Reflecting the need for secure supplies of low-carbon electricity, the use of nuclear power is projected to increase in a number of countries, notably in those that are seeking to diversify their energy mixes and to respond to global climate change objectives. The decision to introduce or to further develop the use of nuclear energy is an important one, which requires robust legal and regulatory frameworks and, first and foremost, an absolute commitment to safety. Table of contents: I. Message from the Director-General; II. The Fukushima Daiichi Accident and NEA Follow-up; III. Nuclear Power in 2013; IV. Technical Programmes: Nuclear Development and the Fuel Cycle, Nuclear Safety and Regulation, Radioactive Waste Management, Radiological Protection, Nuclear Science, Data Bank, Legal Affairs, Joint Projects and Other Co

  16. Global aging: Key elements of the demographic transition - 20th Annual John K. Friesen Conference - Growing Old in a Changing Climate: Exploring the Interface Between Population Aging and Global Warming (2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Gutman, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    This video clip comprises the three presentations of Panel Session 1, “Defining the Issues: Climate Science, Health and Gerontological Perspectives” held at the 20th Annual John K. Friesen Conference, "Growing Old in a Changing Climate: Exploring the Interface Between Population Aging and Global Warming," MAY 25-26, 2011, Vancouver, BC. Dr. Gloria Gutman " Global aging: Key elements of the demographic transition" - Population aging is happening worldwide, and at unprecedented speed in the dev...

  17. Research to support public health action on heat and health - 20th Annual John K. Friesen Conference - Growing Old in a Changing Climate: Exploring the Interface Between Population Aging and Global Warming (2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Kosatsky, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This video clip comprises the four presentations of Panel Session 2, “Mitigation and Prevention Strategies: Lessons Learned on the Front Lines” held at the 20th Annual John K. Friesen Conference, "Growing Old in a Changing Climate: Exploring the Interface Between Population Aging and Global Warming," MAY 25-26, 2011, Vancouver, BC. Dr. Tom Kosatsky " Research to support public health action on heat and health" - Research from various disciplines can promote, support and contextualize public h...

  18. Annual report - ABACC (accounting and nuclear materials control Brazil-Argentina agency) - 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual activities report of 1998 of accounting and nuclear materials control Brazil-Argentina agency introduces the next main topics: institutional activities - safeguards agreements implementation and administration; technical activities - planning and evaluation, operation, technical support, information accounting and treatment, technical cooperation, technical capacity invigoration; administrative and financial activities

  19. Households typology for relating social diversity and technical change. The example of rural households in the Khambashe area of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Laurent, Catherine; van Rooyen, Johan; Madikizela, Patrick; Bonnal, Philippe; Carstens, Johan

    1998-01-01

    Various South African policy statements and strategy proposals argue that farmer focused planning and farming systems research approaches are required to develop policies, strategies and project activities to serve farmers efficiently. Then, the question is how to give a practical content to these requirements, and how to avoid that technical farm relations could be emphasised without recognising the diversity in farming situations and without contextualising such technical relationships in ...

  20. Differential responses of seabirds to inter-annual environmental change in the continental shelf and oceanic habitats of southeastern Bering Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yamamoto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal sea-ice cover has been decreasing in the southeastern Bering Sea shelf, which might affect ecosystem dynamics and availability of food resources to marine top predators breeding in the region. In this study, we investigated the foraging responses of two seabird species, surface-foraging red-legged kittiwakes Rissa brevirostris (hereafter, RLKI and pursuit-diving foraging thick-billed murres Uria lomvia (TBMU to the inter-annual change in environmental conditions. Between the study years, winter ice retreated earlier and summer water temperatures were warmer in 2014 compared to those in 2013. At-sea distributions of RLKI and TBMU breeding on St. George Island, the largest seabird colony in the region, were recorded using GPS loggers, and blood samples were taken to examine their physiological condition and isotopic foraging niche in a given year. RLKI foraging occurred mostly over the oceanic basin in both years. TBMU, however, foraged mostly over the shelf, but showed a relatively higher use of the shelf break and oceanic basin in the colder year, 2013. The foraging distances from the colony peaked at 250–300 km in 2013 and, bimodally, at 150–250 and 300–350 km in 2014 for RLKI, and tended to be farther in 2013 compared to those in 2014 for TBMU. Plasma levels of corticosterone did not differ between years in RLKI, but differed in TBMU, showing higher levels of physiological stress incurred by murres during the colder year, 2013. δ13N (a proxy of trophic level of prey did not differ between the years in either RLKI or TBMU, while δ13C (a proxy of prey origin were lower in 2014 than in 2013 in both species, suggesting possible differences in influx of oceanic prey items into foraging areas. These results suggest that the response of ecosystem dynamics to climate variability in the southeast Bering Sea may differ between the ocean basin and continental shelf regions, which, in turn, may generate differential responses in seabirds