WorldWideScience

Sample records for change aid system

  1. Development of lane change aid system; Lane change aid system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemura, H.; Yoshida, T.; Butsuen, T. [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan); Sakai, N.; Nakano, T.; Nakamoto, T.

    1997-10-01

    We have developed a lane change aid system, which detects vehicles behind in adjacent lanes with CCD images, shows the driver the information of vehicle location with a head-up display, and warns him/her if necessary. By comparing the brightness on two CCD images, distance distribution along several CCD lines is measured. To assure the effective vehicle detection on public roads, we have developed a detection algorithm which distinguishes vehicles and guard-rails by observing the patterns of measured distances. We will show the system configuration, detection logic, and the system evaluation on public road. 5 refs., 12 figs.

  2. Changing epidemiology of AIDS.

    OpenAIRE

    Donovan, C. A.; Stratton, E.

    1994-01-01

    It has been 15 years since AIDS made its first appearance in North America, probably longer worldwide. In that time, our knowledge of the epidemiology of AIDS has grown and changed. This review highlights significant aspects of the epidemic with particular emphasis on the evolution of this disease in North America.

  3. Stakeholder Analysis as a Medium to Aid Change in Information System Reengineering Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Davison

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of involving stakeholders within a change process is well recognised, and successfully managed change is equally important. Information systems development and redesign is a form of change activity involving people and social issues and therefore resistance to change may occur. A stakeholder identification and analysis (SIA technique has been developed as an enhancement to PISO® (Process Improvement for Strategic Objectives, a method that engages the users of a system in the problem solving and reengineering of their own work-based problem areas. The SIA technique aids the identification and analysis of system stakeholders, and helps view the projected outcome of system changes and their effect on relevant stakeholders with attention being given to change resistance to ensure smooth negotiation and achieve consensus. A case study is presented here describing the successful implementation of a direct appointment booking system for patients within the National Health Service in the UK, utilising the SIA technique, which resulted in a feeling of empowerment and ownership of the change of those involved.

  4. Changing the Course of AIDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann

    2010-01-01

    accounts of HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment to consist of explanations of sexual practices or of biomedical details that would not be readily accessible to the general reader. But despite its somewhat misleading, overly ambitious, and functionalist title, Dickinson's book should interest all students of...... social change in southern Africa. This sociological study of HIV/AIDS peer education in diverse South African businesses tries to understand "the web of social relationships that influence behavior" (5), particularly with reference to Erving Goffman's classic framing of social space as "front stage" and...

  5. DIAPASON, supervision aid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diapason, a supervision aid system, gives to the operator a synthetic representation of the process. It permits to predict the evolution of the process in order to realize an anticipated control; in incidental conditions, it permits a precocious detection and gives a default diagnostic. It comprises 3 modules used in a spent fuel reprocessing simulator. 9 refs

  6. Adaptive Intrusion Data System (AIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adaptive intrusion data system (AIDS) was developed to collect data from intrusion alarm sensors as part of an evaluation system to improve sensor performance. AIDS is a unique data system which uses computer controlled data systems, video cameras and recorders, analog-to-digital conversion, environmental sensors, and digital recorders to collect sensor data. The data can be viewed either manually or with a special computerized data-reduction system which adds new data to a data base stored on a magnetic disc recorder. This report provides a synoptic account of the AIDS as it presently exists. Modifications to the purchased subsystems are described, and references are made to publications which describe the Sandia-designed subsystems

  7. Computer-aided instruction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research thesis addresses the use of teleprocessing and time sharing by the RAX IBM system and the possibility to introduce a dialog with the machine to develop an application in which the computer plays the role of a teacher for different pupils at the same time. Two operating modes are thus exploited: a teacher-mode and a pupil-mode. The developed CAI (computer-aided instruction) system comprises a checker to check the course syntax in teacher-mode, a translator to trans-code the course written in teacher-mode into a form which can be processes by the execution programme, and the execution programme which presents the course in pupil-mode

  8. ForWarn Forest Disturbance Change Detection System Provides a Weekly Snapshot of US Forest Conditions to Aid Forest Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, W. W.; Spruce, J.; Kumar, J.; Hoffman, F. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center and Western Wildland Environmental Assessment Center of the USDA Forest Service have collaborated with NASA Stennis Space Center to develop ForWarn, a forest monitoring tool that uses MODIS satellite imagery to produce weekly snapshots of vegetation conditions across the lower 48 United States. Forest and natural resource managers can use ForWarn to rapidly detect, identify, and respond to unexpected changes in the nation's forests caused by insects, diseases, wildfires, severe weather, or other natural or human-caused events. ForWarn detects most types of forest disturbances, including insects, disease, wildfires, frost and ice damage, tornadoes, hurricanes, blowdowns, harvest, urbanization, and landslides. It also detects drought, flood, and temperature effects, and shows early and delayed seasonal vegetation development. Operating continuously since January 2010, results show ForWarn to be a robust and highly capable tool for detecting changes in forest conditions. To help forest and natural resource managers rapidly detect, identify, and respond to unexpected changes in the nation's forests, ForWarn produces sets of national maps showing potential forest disturbances at 231m resolution every 8 days, and posts the results to the web for examination. ForWarn compares current greenness with the "normal," historically seen greenness that would be expected for healthy vegetation for a specific location and time of the year, and then identifies areas appearing less green than expected to provide a strategic national overview of potential forest disturbances that can be used to direct ground and aircraft efforts. In addition to forests, ForWarn also tracks potential disturbances in rangeland vegetation and agriculural crops. ForWarn is the first national-scale system of its kind based on remote sensing developed specifically for forest disturbances. The ForWarn system had an official unveiling and rollout in

  9. Computer-aided system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Carrie K.

    1991-01-01

    A technique has been developed for combining features of a systems architecture design and assessment tool and a software development tool. This technique reduces simulation development time and expands simulation detail. The Architecture Design and Assessment System (ADAS), developed at the Research Triangle Institute, is a set of computer-assisted engineering tools for the design and analysis of computer systems. The ADAS system is based on directed graph concepts and supports the synthesis and analysis of software algorithms mapped to candidate hardware implementations. Greater simulation detail is provided by the ADAS functional simulator. With the functional simulator, programs written in either Ada or C can be used to provide a detailed description of graph nodes. A Computer-Aided Software Engineering tool developed at the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL CASE) automatically generates Ada or C code from engineering block diagram specifications designed with an interactive graphical interface. A technique to use the tools together has been developed, which further automates the design process.

  10. CAESY - COMPUTER AIDED ENGINEERING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wette, M. R.

    1994-01-01

    Many developers of software and algorithms for control system design have recognized that current tools have limits in both flexibility and efficiency. Many forces drive the development of new tools including the desire to make complex system modeling design and analysis easier and the need for quicker turnaround time in analysis and design. Other considerations include the desire to make use of advanced computer architectures to help in control system design, adopt new methodologies in control, and integrate design processes (e.g., structure, control, optics). CAESY was developed to provide a means to evaluate methods for dealing with user needs in computer-aided control system design. It is an interpreter for performing engineering calculations and incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. It is designed to be reasonably flexible and powerful. CAESY includes internally defined functions and procedures, as well as user defined ones. Support for matrix calculations is provided in the same manner as MATLAB. However, the development of CAESY is a research project, and while it provides some features which are not found in commercially sold tools, it does not exhibit the robustness that many commercially developed tools provide. CAESY is written in C-language for use on Sun4 series computers running SunOS 4.1.1 and later. The program is designed to optionally use the LAPACK math library. The LAPACK math routines are available through anonymous ftp from research.att.com. CAESY requires 4Mb of RAM for execution. The standard distribution medium is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge (QIC-24) in UNIX tar format. CAESY was developed in 1993 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA.

  11. Adaptive intrusion data system (AIDS) software routines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Adaptive Intrusion Data System (AIDS) was developed to collect information from intrusion alarm sensors as part of an evaluation system to improve sensor performance. AIDS is a unique digital data-compression, storage, and formatting system; it also incorporates a capability for video selection and recording for assessment of the sensors monitored by the system. The system is software reprogrammable to numerous configurations that may be used for the collection of environmental, bilevel, analog, and video data. This report describes the software routines that control the different AIDS data-collection modes, the diagnostic programs to test the operating hardware, and the data format. Sample data printouts are also included

  12. Regional Climate Change and Development of Public Health Decision Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedus, A. M.; Darmenova, K.; Grant, F.; Kiley, H.; Higgins, G. J.; Apling, D.

    2011-12-01

    According to the World Heath Organization (WHO) climate change is a significant and emerging threat to public health, and changes the way we must look at protecting vulnerable populations. Worldwide, the occurrence of some diseases and other threats to human health depend predominantly on local climate patterns. Rising average temperatures, in combination with changing rainfall patterns and humidity levels, alter the lifecycle and regional distribution of certain disease-carrying vectors, such as mosquitoes, ticks and rodents. In addition, higher surface temperatures will bring heat waves and heat stress to urban regions worldwide and will likely increase heat-related health risks. A growing body of scientific evidence also suggests an increase in extreme weather events such as floods, droughts and hurricanes that can be destructive to human health and well-being. Therefore, climate adaptation and health decision aids are urgently needed by city planners and health officials to determine high risk areas, evaluate vulnerable populations and develop public health infrastructure and surveillance systems. To address current deficiencies in local planning and decision making with respect to regional climate change and its effect on human health, our research is focused on performing a dynamical downscaling with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to develop decision aids that translate the regional climate data into actionable information for users. WRF model is initialized with the Max Planck Institute European Center/Hamburg Model version 5 (ECHAM5) General Circulation Model simulations forced with the Special Report on Emissions (SRES) A1B emissions scenario. Our methodology involves development of climatological indices of extreme weather, quantifying the risk of occurrence of water/rodent/vector-borne diseases as well as developing various heat stress related decision aids. Our results indicate that the downscale simulations provide the necessary

  13. Computer Aided Control System Design (CACSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Frank T.

    1993-01-01

    The design of modern aerospace systems relies on the efficient utilization of computational resources and the availability of computational tools to provide accurate system modeling. This research focuses on the development of a computer aided control system design application which provides a full range of stability analysis and control design capabilities for aerospace vehicles.

  14. Computer-aided dispatching system design specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol Operations Center. This document reflects the as-built requirements for the system that was delivered by GTE Northwest, Inc. This system provided a commercial off-the-shelf computer-aided dispatching system and alarm monitoring system currently in operations at the Hanford Patrol Operations Center, Building 2721E. This system also provides alarm back-up capability for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

  15. Computer-aided dispatching system design specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, M.G.

    1997-12-16

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol Operations Center. This document reflects the as-built requirements for the system that was delivered by GTE Northwest, Inc. This system provided a commercial off-the-shelf computer-aided dispatching system and alarm monitoring system currently in operations at the Hanford Patrol Operations Center, Building 2721E. This system also provides alarm back-up capability for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP).

  16. COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN OF DIFFUSED AERATION SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    CADDAS (Computer Aided Design of Diffused Aeration Systems) is a microcomputer-based program that analyzes the cost and performance of diffused aeration used in activated sludge wastewater treatment systems. The program can analyze both coarse bubble and fine pore diffusers as we...

  17. Computer aided training system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first three phases of Training System Development (TSD) -- job and task analysis, curriculum design, and training material development -- are time consuming and labor intensive. The use of personal computers with a combination of commercial and custom-designed software resulted in a significant reduction in the man-hours required to complete these phases for a Health Physics Technician Training Program at a nuclear power station. This paper reports that each step in the training program project involved the use of personal computers: job survey data were compiled with a statistical package, task analysis was performed with custom software designed to interface with a commercial database management program. Job Performance Measures (tests) were generated by a custom program from data in the task analysis database, and training materials were drafted, edited, and produced using commercial word processing software

  18. Climate Change, Green Growth and Aid Allocation to Poor Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Dercon

    2014-01-01

    With serious impacts of climate change looming in a few decades, but current poverty still high in the developing world, we ask how to spend development aid earmarked for the poor. Poverty reduction tends to be strongly linked to economic growth, but growth impacts the environment and increases CO2 emissions. So can greener growth that is more climate-resilient and less environmentally damaging deliver large scale poverty reduction? Can aid be used for effective poverty reduction now without ...

  19. A rule based computer aided design system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premack, T.

    1986-01-01

    A Computer Aided Design (CAD) system is presented which supports the iterative process of design, the dimensional continuity between mating parts, and the hierarchical structure of the parts in their assembled configuration. Prolog, an interactive logic programming language, is used to represent and interpret the data base. The solid geometry representing the parts is defined in parameterized form using the swept volume method. The system is demonstrated with a design of a spring piston.

  20. Computer-aided power systems analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kusic, George

    2008-01-01

    Computer applications yield more insight into system behavior than is possible by using hand calculations on system elements. Computer-Aided Power Systems Analysis: Second Edition is a state-of-the-art presentation of basic principles and software for power systems in steady-state operation. Originally published in 1985, this revised edition explores power systems from the point of view of the central control facility. It covers the elements of transmission networks, bus reference frame, network fault and contingency calculations, power flow on transmission networks, generator base power setti

  1. Measuring and tracking the flow of climate change adaptation aid to the developing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Simon D.; Kandlikar, Milind; Webber, Sophie

    2016-05-01

    The developed world has pledged to mobilize at least US 100 billion per year of ‘new’ and ‘additional’ funds by 2020 to help the developing world respond to climate change. Tracking this finance is particularly problematic for climate change adaptation, as there is no clear definition of what separates adaptation aid from standard development aid. Here we use a historical database of overseas development assistance projects to test the effect of different accounting assumptions on the delivery of adaptation finance to the developing countries of Oceania, using machine algorithms developed from a manual pilot study. The results show that explicit adaptation finance grew to 3%–4% of all development aid to Oceania by the 2008–2012 period, but that total adaptation finance could be as high as 37% of all aid, depending on potentially politically motivated assumptions about what counts as adaptation. There was also an uneven distribution of adaptation aid between countries facing similar challenges like Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, and the Federated States of Micronesia. The analysis indicates that data allowing individual projects to be weighted by their climate change relevance is needed. A robust and mandatory metadata system for all aid projects would allow multilateral aid agencies and independent third parties to perform their own analyses using different assumptions and definitions, and serve as a key check on international climate aid promises.

  2. Computer-aided control system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control systems are typically implemented using conventional PID controllers, which are then tuned manually during plant commissioning to compensate for interactions between feedback loops. As plants increase in size and complexity, such controllers can fail to provide adequate process regulations. Multivariable methods can be utilized to overcome these limitations. At the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, modern control systems are designed and analyzed with the aid of MVPACK, a system of computer programs that appears to the user like a high-level calculator. The software package solves complicated control problems, and provides useful insight into the dynamic response and stability of multivariable systems

  3. Method of Computer-aided Instruction in Situation Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy O. Kargin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of computer-aided instruction in context-chain motivated situation control system of the complex technical system behavior. The conceptual and formal models of situation control with practical instruction are considered. Acquisition of new behavior knowledge is presented as structural changes in system memory in the form of situational agent set. Model and method of computer-aided instruction represent formalization, based on the nondistinct theories by physiologists and cognitive psychologists.The formal instruction model describes situation and reaction formation and dependence on different parameters, effecting education, such as the reinforcement value, time between the stimulus, action and the reinforcement. The change of the contextual link between situational elements when using is formalized.The examples and results of computer instruction experiments of the robot device “LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT”, equipped with ultrasonic distance, touch, light sensors.

  4. ANALYSIS OF INTEGRATED COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN SYSTEMS FOR CONSTRUCTION OBJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlov Aleksandr Sergeevich; Lavdansky Pavel Aleksandrovich; Ignatiev Oleg Vladimirovich

    2012-01-01

    The paper contains classification of construction computer aided design systems, requirements to the single file format, providing their interaction within the frames of creation of integrated computer aided design systems, main principles and data transformation schemes are given.

  5. Operator aid systems under critical circumstances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the leadership of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, design criteria for operator information in control rooms were issued and were made mandatory for all nuclear plants in the United States. The main criteria are given in nuclear regulation (NUREG) document 696 regarding the safety parameter display system (SPDS), and in NUREG 0654 regarding the radiological release and dose assessment display (RRDAD). Subsequently information display systems were added or complemented to the safety assessment. In 1990, CEGELEC together with the Korean Company Hyundai Electronic Industries was chosen to implement such a system on each of the eight PWR units under operation. The systems, called Operator Aid Computer Systems (OACS) for the Korean project under way, are already partly delivered and will be fully commissioned in 1993. The four groups of functions provided by OACS are described, i.e., those related to supervision, to SPDS, RRAD and other functions. The main characteristics of the system are given. (Z.S.)

  6. Musculoskeletal system pathology in aids patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied 22 AIDS patients who presented musculoskeletal system pathology. The affected area underwent simple X-ray and MR. The MR study was performed using a 1 Tesla magnet. T1 and T2 weighted echo spin sequences, as well as sequences of short T1 inversion recovery (STIR). In nine cases, intravenous gadolinium was used at a dose of 0.2cc/kg. The study plane was selected depending on the location of the lesion and surface coils were used when appropriate. In those patients showing pathology which was removed from the appendicular skeleton, the principal magnet was used as both transmitter and receiver. In one case, an On-Tine Tomography (CT) was also carried out. The evaluated ata were: a) localization; b) bony erosion; c) soft-tissue mass; d) articular effusion; e) cartilaginous changes; f) and T2 signals, and g) gadolinium enhancement. A diagnosis was made on the basis of biopsy or clinical culture, and evolution. Spinal cord alterations were the most frequent, being found in 13 cases. Twelve were caused by spondylodiscitis, 10 by tuberculosis, one by staphylococcal infection and one by candidiasis. In all cases, there appeared disk damage, as well as bone marrow signal alterations in the affected area and disks soft-tissue. In the mine cases in which gadolinium was used, the disk, vertebral plates and cases in which gadolinium was used, the disk, vertebral plates and soft-tissue mass heterogeneously enhanced, demonstrating an abscess with ring enhancement, and a central necrotic area in one case. In one patient, a spinal cord alteration due to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was observed. In six cases,there was observed and infectious arthritis two in coxofemoral joints, three in knees and one in a glenohumeral joint. Isolated germs were staphylococcal in three cases one being Mycobacterium tuberculosis, another being M. kansasii and the third identified as. Candida. In all cases, there was observed joint effusion, synovial thickening, joint cartilage damage and bony

  7. Expert system aided operator's mental activities training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operator's mental activity is the most important part of his work. A processing of a large amount of the information by the operator is possible only if he/she possesses appropriate cognitive skills. To facilitate the novice's acquisition of the experienced operator's cognitive skills of the decision-making process a special type of the expert system was developed. The cognitive engineering's models and problem-solving methodology constitutes the basis of this expert system. The article gives an account of the prototype of the mentioned expert system developed to aid the whole mental activity of the nuclear power plant operator during his decision-making process. (author). 6 refs, 6 figs

  8. A decision-aiding system: DACFOOD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DACFOOD (Decision Aiding for Contaminated FOODstuffs) system provides decision makers with necessary data for the implementation of optimized protection measures in case of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs. The system evaluates the dose impact due to ingestion of these products, calculates the dose reduction after implementation of specific actions and, by combining these actions, assesses several strategies by using their cost-effectiveness ratios. Such evaluations need the description of contamination as radionuclide activities in each foodstuff, and the description of consumers' groups according to their dietary habits. Then it is possible to define areas in which the doses received are reasonably homogeneous in different age classes. If deposition occurs at a period of the year without harvest, the system applies dynamic transfer models to calculate the concentration in future productions. (authors). 2 refs

  9. S4HARA: System for HIV/AIDS resource allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Michael W

    2008-03-01

    changing the condom distribution policy from a pull system to a push system. NGOs and donors promoting antiretroviral programs at the clinic should be sensitized to the results of the model and urged to invest in wellness programs aimed at the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections. S4HARA differentiates itself from other decision support tools by providing rational HIV/AIDS resource allocation capabilities as well as consideration of the realities facing authorities in their decision-making process.

  10. Computer aided system engineering for space construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racheli, Ugo

    1989-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation covers the following topics. Construction activities envisioned for the assembly of large platforms in space (as well as interplanetary spacecraft and bases on extraterrestrial surfaces) require computational tools that exceed the capability of conventional construction management programs. The Center for Space Construction is investigating the requirements for new computational tools and, at the same time, suggesting the expansion of graduate and undergraduate curricula to include proficiency in Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) though design courses and individual or team projects in advanced space systems design. In the center's research, special emphasis is placed on problems of constructability and of the interruptability of planned activity sequences to be carried out by crews operating under hostile environmental conditions. The departure point for the planned work is the acquisition of the MCAE I-DEAS software, developed by the Structural Dynamics Research Corporation (SDRC), and its expansion to the level of capability denoted by the acronym IDEAS**2 currently used for configuration maintenance on Space Station Freedom. In addition to improving proficiency in the use of I-DEAS and IDEAS**2, it is contemplated that new software modules will be developed to expand the architecture of IDEAS**2. Such modules will deal with those analyses that require the integration of a space platform's configuration with a breakdown of planned construction activities and with a failure modes analysis to support computer aided system engineering (CASE) applied to space construction.

  11. IMPLEMENTATION OF COLOR-BLIND AID SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruki Harwahyu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Color-blind is a physical defect causing patient loses the ability to recognize colors either particular or the whole of them. This disability is problematic in daily life, moreover in some specific areas that require carefulness eyesight. We propose a vision aid kit with improved user experience, such as finger pointer and voice command-and-response. Our work proofs the design and implementation of color-blind aid system for embedded and mobile device. This study used Windows Embedded Standard 2009, Windows Phone 7, Speech API library, Open CV library and EmguCV wrapper. The performance of each functionality is evaluated. From various testing that are conducted, the system can best detect color samples with precision level of 90.67% on embedded device implementation and 95.33% on mobile device implementation. The best fingertip detection rate attained is 89.6% with normal lighting condition. The voice command works with detection rate of 75.87%, meanwhile for the synthesized speech response, 88, 33% respondents can understood the words well.

  12. AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000594.htm HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...

  13. Hotline in Egypt marks change in government attitude to AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The first 24-hour AIDS hotline in the Arab world will open in Cairo, Egypt, in October 1995. The opening of the new service marks a change in attitude on the part of the Egyptian government, which has maintained a discreet AIDS control program in the past. Approval from religious leaders was necessary for the new program to begin; the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) played a prominent role in negotiations. The "Counsel and Hot Line Centre," which will be based in Imbala district, will employ 19 people, including two doctors and two psychologists. The Centre was funded with US$300,000 from the Ford Foundation. Currently, 478 persons with HIV infections and 110 people with AIDS have been reported. The ministry estimates that there are 5000-7000 persons with HIV infections in Egypt. Although these figures were greeted with suspicion by organizations outside of Egypt, subsequent testing has indicated low prevalence rates for this country, despite high tourism and a large population of migrant workers. PMID:12290451

  14. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles and instituti......Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles and...... institutions of the aid system; and (c) discusses whether aid has been effective. While much of the original optimism about the impact of foreign aid needed modification, there is solid evidence that aid has indeed helped further growth and poverty reduction...

  15. A computer-aided continuous assessment system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C.H. Turton

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Universities within the United Kingdom have had to cope with a massive expansion in undergraduate student numbers over the last five years (Committee of Scottish University Principals, 1993; CVCP Briefing Note, 1994. In addition, there has been a move towards modularization and a closer monitoring of a student's progress throughout the year. Since the price/performance ratio of computer systems has continued to improve, Computer- Assisted Learning (CAL has become an attractive option. (Fry, 1990; Benford et al, 1994; Laurillard et al, 1994. To this end, the Universities Funding Council (UFQ has funded the Teaching and Learning Technology Programme (TLTP. However universities also have a duty to assess as well as to teach. This paper describes a Computer-Aided Assessment (CAA system capable of assisting in grading students and providing feedback. In this particular case, a continuously assessed course (Low-Level Languages of over 100 students is considered. Typically, three man-days are required to mark one assessed piece of coursework from the students in this class. Any feedback on how the questions were dealt with by the student are of necessity brief. Most of the feedback is provided in a tutorial session that covers the pitfalls encountered by the majority of the students.

  16. Inert gas spraying device aids in repair of hazardous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teleha, S.

    1965-01-01

    Inert gas spraying device aids in safely making mechanical repairs to a cryogenic fluid system without prior emptying of the system. This method can be applied to any natural or bottled gas system and with modifications to gasoline transports.

  17. Computer aided information system for a PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer aided information system (CAIS) is designed with a view to improve the performance of the operator. CAIS assists the plant operator in an advisory and support role, thereby reducing the workload level and potential human errors. The CAIS as explained here has been designed for a PWR type KLT- 40 used in Floating Nuclear Power Stations (FNPS). However the underlying philosophy evolved in designing the CAIS can be suitably adopted for other type of nuclear power plants too (BWR, PHWR). Operator information is divided into three broad categories: a) continuously available information b) automatically available information and c) on demand information. Two in number touch screens are provided on the main control panel. One is earmarked for continuously available information and the other is dedicated for automatically available information. Both the screens can be used at the operator's discretion for on-demand information. Automatically available information screen overrides the on-demand information screens. In addition to the above, CAIS has the features of event sequence recording, disturbance recording and information documentation. CAIS design ensures that the operator is not overburdened with excess and unnecessary information, but at the same time adequate and well formatted information is available. (author). 5 refs., 4 figs

  18. Software For Computer-Aided Design Of Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wette, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    Computer Aided Engineering System (CAESY) software developed to provide means to evaluate methods for dealing with users' needs in computer-aided design of control systems. Interpreter program for performing engineering calculations. Incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. Designed to be flexible and powerful. Includes internally defined functions, procedures and provides for definition of functions and procedures by user. Written in C language.

  19. Wireless communication for hearing aid system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour, Baqer

    This thesis focuses on the wireless coupling between hearing aids close to a human head. Hearing aids constitute devices withadvanced technology and the wireless communication enables the introduction of a range of completely new functionalities. Such devices are small and the available power is...... limited, it is therefore important to characterize the wireless link-budget and tounderstand the mechanisms that control propagation of waves inside and outside the head. For this purpose, different approaches have been used. There are two objectives for this thesis. The first objective is to characterize...

  20. Computer aided pinhole collimating system based on dual laser theodolides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer aided thick pinhole collimating system was developed for X-ray or Gamma ray pinhole imaging applications. This system consists of two laser theodolites and actuators, a digital video camera, a laptop computer and a specifically developed software package. Functions including aided focusing, aided light axis adjustment and parameter recording were implemented. Compared with single light axis method, this system can shorten the collimating adjustment time, and achieve better precision. It can also provide long-term reference axis. Data processing and alignment criterion were discussed. (authors)

  1. Developing a surveillance system for HIV/AIDS in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apart from other interventions, surveillance remains a major focus of the national response to HIV/AIDS. However, with a shift in the epidemic pattern, the existing surveillance strategies are barely insufficient and long-term structural changes are desirable. This article provides a conceptual framework for developing a scientific system for HIV surveillance in Pakistan. Second generation surveillance system including repeated cross-sectional surveys in high risk population groups are suggested to collect behavioral and serological data at regular intervals on an annual basis to monitor the epidemic trend as well as the associated behaviors. In addition, multiple data resources have been highlighted, which could be coordinated to describe the epidemic pattern in the country. This information should form the basis for national prevention planning and ought to be used for making sensible choices through which prevention efforts are most likely to reduce new infections. (author)

  2. Rethinking the conceptual terrain of AIDS scholarship: lessons from comparing 27 years of AIDS and climate change research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brklacich Michael

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there has recently been significant medical advance in understanding and treating HIV, limitations in understanding the complex social dimensions of HIV/AIDS epidemics continue to restrict a host of prevention and development efforts from community through to international levels. These gaps are rooted as much in limited conceptual development as they are in a lack of empirical research. Methods In this conceptual article, the authors compare and contrast the evolution of climate change and AIDS research. They demonstrate how scholarship and response in these two seemingly disparate areas share certain important similarities, such as the "globalization" of discourses and associated masking of uneven vulnerabilities, the tendency toward techno-fixes, and the polarization of debates within these fields. They also examine key divergences, noting in particular that climate change research has tended to be more forward-looking and longer-term in focus than AIDS scholarship. Conclusion Suggesting that AIDS scholars can learn from these key parallels and divergences, the paper offers four directions for advancing AIDS research: (1 focusing more on the differentiation of risk and responsibility within and among AIDS epidemics; (2 taking (back on board social justice approaches; (3 moving beyond polarized debates; and (4 shifting focus from reactive to forward-looking and proactive approaches.

  3. Vision aided inertial navigation system augmented with a coded aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Jamie R.

    plate aperture produces diffraction patterns that change the shape of the focal blur pattern. When used as an aperture, the Fresnel zone plate produces multiple focal planes in the scene. The interference between the multiple focal planes produce changes in the aperture that can be observed both between the focal planes and beyond the most distant focal plane. The Fresnel zone plate aperture and lens may be designed to change in the focal blur pattern at greater depths, thereby improving measurement performance of the coded aperture system. This research provides an in-depth study of the Fresnel zone plate used as a coded aperture, and the performance improvement obtained by augmenting a single camera vision aided inertial navigation system with a Fresnel zone plate coded aperture. Design and analysis of a generalized coded aperture is presented and demonstrated, and special considerations for the Fresnel zone plate are given. Also techniques to determine a continuous depth measurement from a coded image are presented and evaluated through measurement. Finally the measurement results from different aperture configurations are statistically modeled and compared with a simulated vision aided navigation environment to predict the change in performance of a vision aided inertial navigation system when augmented with a coded aperture.

  4. PLAID- A COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    PLAID is a three-dimensional Computer Aided Design (CAD) system which enables the user to interactively construct, manipulate, and display sets of highly complex geometric models. PLAID was initially developed by NASA to assist in the design of Space Shuttle crewstation panels, and the detection of payload object collisions. It has evolved into a more general program for convenient use in many engineering applications. Special effort was made to incorporate CAD techniques and features which minimize the users workload in designing and managing PLAID models. PLAID consists of three major modules: the Primitive Object Generator (BUILD), the Composite Object Generator (COG), and the DISPLAY Processor. The BUILD module provides a means of constructing simple geometric objects called primitives. The primitives are created from polygons which are defined either explicitly by vertex coordinates, or graphically by use of terminal crosshairs or a digitizer. Solid objects are constructed by combining, rotating, or translating the polygons. Corner rounding, hole punching, milling, and contouring are special features available in BUILD. The COG module hierarchically organizes and manipulates primitives and other previously defined COG objects to form complex assemblies. The composite object is constructed by applying transformations to simpler objects. The transformations which can be applied are scalings, rotations, and translations. These transformations may be defined explicitly or defined graphically using the interactive COG commands. The DISPLAY module enables the user to view COG assemblies from arbitrary viewpoints (inside or outside the object) both in wireframe and hidden line renderings. The PLAID projection of a three-dimensional object can be either orthographic or with perspective. A conflict analysis option enables detection of spatial conflicts or collisions. DISPLAY provides camera functions to simulate a view of the model through different lenses. Other

  5. Arabic Speech Pathology Therapy Computer Aided System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Benselama

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns a computer aided pathological speech therapy program, based on speech models such as the hidden Markov model and artificial intelligence networks, in order to help persons, suffering from language pathologies, follow a correction learning process, with different interactive feedbacks, aiming to evaluate the degree of evolution of the illness or the therapy. We dealt with the Arabic occlusive sigmatism as a prime approach, which is the inability to pronounce the[s] or [∫]. Results obtained are satisfying and the therapy program is prepared, for autonomous use by patients, for deep analysis and verifications.

  6. The future of development aid in a globalizing world with climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Hübler, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This essay reviews the state of knowledge about the connection of climate change and development aid in a globalizing world and makes three contributions. First, it opts for an integrated treatment of short-term aid, striving for the urgent fulfillment of basic human needs, and long-term aid, striving for economic development and self-dependence. Against the background of environmental degradation and climate change, it opts for an integrated treatment of the human-society-economy dimension a...

  7. AIDS and international security in the United Nations System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Simon

    2010-11-01

    Two assumptions underpin much of the literature that has examined the links between HIV/AIDS and security: (1) that HIV/AIDS is now firmly established as an international security issue; and (2) that Resolution 1308, adopted by the UN Security Council in July 2000, was the decisive moment in the securitization process. This article questions both of those assumptions. It argues that even within the Security Council, HIV/AIDS' status as a bona fide threat to international peace and security is not entirely secure. Despite the fact that the Resolution was adopted unanimously, there is considerable doubt over the extent to which the Council members were persuaded that HIV/AIDS is genuinely a threat to international peace and security. Furthermore, the Council's subsequent actions suggest a retreat from the issue. The article moves on to examine statements made in and by some of the other key UN System bodies grappling with HIV/AIDS. Focusing in particular on the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council and UNAIDS, it is argued that the international security framing of HIV/AIDS has not generally achieved a great deal of traction within these bodies. Alternative framings, in particular international development and human rights, occur far more frequently. This raises issues for our understanding of both securitization theory and the global governance of HIV/AIDS. PMID:20961950

  8. The Modern Hearing Aid – an Extreme System Integration Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    the ICs for these. This leads to very large demands for system integration at the packing level, SiP (System-in-Package), and not at least at the IC level, SoC (System-on-Chip). As a result of this all large hearing aid manufactures use custom package technology which again uses fully customized ASICs...

  9. Computer-Aided dispatching system design specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol emergency response. This system is defined as a Commercial-Off the-Shelf computer dispatching system providing both text and graphical display information while interfacing with the diverse reporting system within the Hanford Facility. This system also provided expansion capabilities to integrate Hanford Fire and the Occurrence Notification Center and provides back-up capabilities for the Plutonium Processing Facility

  10. Ergonomics: an aid to system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, the engineering community has recognized that ergonomics can make significant contributions to system design. Working together engineers and ergonomists can create designs that effectively meet system goals. By considering the role of humans and technology in the context of systems and by reducing the potential for errors, gains can be made in overall system reliability. Such efforts can reduce the need for costly backfits and increase system efficiency. (author)

  11. Computer-Aided dispatching system design specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, M.G. [Kaiser Engineers Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-05-03

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol emergency response. This system is defined as a Commercial-Off the-Shelf computer dispatching system providing both text and graphical display information while interfacing with the diverse reporting system within the Hanford Facility. This system also provided expansion capabilities to integrate Hanford Fire and the Occurrence Notification Center and provides back-up capabilities for the Plutonium Processing Facility.

  12. Computer-Aided dispatching system design specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, M.G.

    1996-09-27

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol emergency response. This document outlines the negotiated requirements as agreed to by GTE Northwest during technical contract discussions. This system defines a commercial off-the-shelf computer dispatching system providing both test and graphic display information while interfacing with diverse alarm reporting system within the Hanford Site. This system provided expansion capability to integrate Hanford Fire and the Occurrence Notification Center. The system also provided back-up capability for the Plutonium Processing Facility (PFP).

  13. Radiofrequency Positioning System Aided With Sensor Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Vicens Oviedo, Miguel Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Sistema de posicionamiento por radio frecuencia que utiliza sensores inerciales. Con la fusión de estos dos sistemas mejoramos la navegación. During the last few years, different navigation systems with varying degrees of accuracy have appeared, such as: LORAN (Long Range Navigation), Decca, GNSS (GLObal NAvigation Satellite System), the latter being the most widely used nowadays. GNSS, which includes GPS (Global Positioning System) and GLONASS (Global Navigation Satellite System) , consis...

  14. User interface for integrated computer aided design systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, James L.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose was the development of a user interface and other appropriate tools to be used in Computer Aided Design systems which can integrate a wide variety of independently developed design and analysis tools. The interface was intended for the integration of programs to be used in the conceptual design of aerospace systems. A user's manual is included.

  15. Computer-aided Analysis of Phisiological Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Balázs Benyó

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the recent biomedical engineering research activity of theMedical Informatics Laboratory at the Budapest University of Technology and Economics.The research projects are carried out in the fields as follows: Computer aidedidentification of physiological systems; Diabetic management and blood glucose control;Remote patient monitoring and diagnostic system; Automated system for analyzing cardiacultrasound images; Single-channel hybrid ECG segmentation; Event recognition and ...

  16. Space systems computer-aided design technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, L. B.

    1984-01-01

    The interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced Spacecraft (IDEAS) system is described, together with planned capability increases in the IDEAS system. The system's disciplines consist of interactive graphics and interactive computing. A single user at an interactive terminal can create, design, analyze, and conduct parametric studies of earth-orbiting satellites, which represents a timely and cost-effective method during the conceptual design phase where various missions and spacecraft options require evaluation. Spacecraft concepts evaluated include microwave radiometer satellites, communication satellite systems, solar-powered lasers, power platforms, and orbiting space stations.

  17. RADE-AID, the development of a Radiological Accident DEcision AIDing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the project is the development of a Radiological Accident DEcision AIDing system. A prototype computer program was developed to assist in decision on countermeasures following radiological emergencies. In order to demonstrate the potential of this decision tool, some illustrative applications were developed. During the current contract the computer system will be further developed with particular reference to the user-interface, the decision logic and a database of model predictions supplied for use with the system. The objectives and results of the three contributions to the project for the reporting period are presented. (R.P.)

  18. Interactive graphical computer-aided design system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, T. M.

    1975-01-01

    System is used for design, layout, and modification of large-scale-integrated (LSI) metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) arrays. System is structured around small computer which provides real-time support for graphics storage display unit with keyboard, slave display unit, hard copy unit, and graphics tablet for designer/computer interface.

  19. A Computer Aided Consultant System for Mammogram Diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    A computer-aided consultant system for mammogram diagnosis is proposed in this paper based on mam-mogram segmentation as an image mining technique, to aid radiologistis in X-ray film interpretation. The generalarchitecture of the system is introduced first, followed by a discussion of mammogram segmentation using logic fil-ter, an analysis of the statistical data to the diagnostics with respect to different clinical information, and a brief in-troduction to a fuzzy decision making subsystem. Finally some experimental results are given.

  20. The computer aided education and training system for accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The education and training system for Accident Management was developed by the Japanese BWR group and Hitachi Ltd. The education and training system is composed of two systems. One is computer aided instruction (CAI) education system and the education and training system with computer simulations. Both systems are designed to be executed on personal computers. The outlines of the CAI education system and the education and training system with simulator are reported below. These systems provides plant operators and technical support center staff with the effective education and training for accident management. (author)

  1. Computer-aided design of flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Robert F.; Sircar, Subrata

    1991-01-01

    A computer program is presented for facilitating the development and assessment of flight control systems, and application to a control design is discussed. The program is a computer-aided control-system design program based on direct digital synthesis of a proportional-integral-filter controller with scheduled linear-quadratic-Gaussian gains and command generator tracking of pilot inputs. The FlightCAD system concentrates on aircraft dynamics, flight-control systems, stability and performance, and has practical engineering applications.

  2. Computer-aided Analysis of Phisiological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balázs Benyó

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the recent biomedical engineering research activity of theMedical Informatics Laboratory at the Budapest University of Technology and Economics.The research projects are carried out in the fields as follows: Computer aidedidentification of physiological systems; Diabetic management and blood glucose control;Remote patient monitoring and diagnostic system; Automated system for analyzing cardiacultrasound images; Single-channel hybrid ECG segmentation; Event recognition and stateclassification to detect brain ischemia by means of EEG signal processing; Detection ofbreathing disorders like apnea and hypopnea; Molecular biology studies with DNA-chips;Evaluation of the cry of normal hearing and hard of hearing infants.

  3. Infobiotics : computer-aided synthetic systems biology

    OpenAIRE

    Blakes, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Until very recently Systems Biology has, despite its stated goals, been too reductive in terms of the models being constructed and the methods used have been, on the one hand, unsuited for large scale adoption or integration of knowledge across scales, and on the other hand, too fragmented. The thesis of this dissertation is that better computational languages and seamlessly integrated tools are required by systems and synthetic biologists to enable them to meet the significant challenges inv...

  4. Decision aid systems for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of new techniques, especially in the field of artificial intelligence, makes it possible to design more powerful computerized systems, supporting tasks related to the design and operation of nuclear power plants. The potential contribution and perspectives for the integration of such systems depend upon whether the improvement of existing plants, the design of next generation reactors or future projects are concerned. We present four systems which show the state-of-the-art as regards knowledge-based systems. The first system is related to the automatic generation of procedures dealing with loss of electrical sources. The second one aims at assisting the power plant utility in following the technical specifications during maintenance operations. Finally, the last two are designed to help an emergency team evaluate and forecast the evolution of an accidental situation in a nuclear reactor. Perspectives for on-line operator assistance are then discussed, as well as the main technical themes which will make it possible to design such systems. We conclude with the difficulties which are encountered upon the integration of these tools: their validation and task sharing between man and machine

  5. Computer-aided protective system (CAPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of improving the security of materials in transit is described. The system provides a continuously monitored position location system for the transport vehicle, an internal computer-based geographic delimiter that makes continuous comparisons of actual positions with the preplanned routing and schedule, and a tamper detection/reaction system. The position comparison is utilized to institute preprogrammed reactive measures if the carrier is taken off course or schedule, penetrated, or otherwise interfered with. The geographic locater could be an independent internal platform or an external signal-dependent system utilizing GPS, Loran or similar source of geographic information; a small (micro) computer could provide adequate memory and computational capacity; the insurance of integrity of the system indicates the need for a tamper-proof container and built-in intrusion sensors. A variant of the system could provide real-time transmission of the vehicle position and condition to a central control point for; such transmission could be encrypted to preclude spoofing

  6. CEGB intergraph computer aided design system as an aid for the navigation of remote manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer Aided Design Systems with 3D Graphic capability can offer substantial benefits for the simulation and navigation of remote manipulators. The CEGB has been experimenting with its own Corporate INTERGRAPH CAD Network using as an example a remote links manipulator working within the above gas baffle dome area of an Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor. A report of this work is presented together with graphic simulations of the manipulator within the above dome area and reconstructions of images anticipated from the on board cameras. Future improvements in the speed of graphic processing will enable these techniques to be used for the on-line navigation of manipulators, as an aid to the interpretation of video images and for the training of operators without the need for full size test and training facilities. (author)

  7. Integrated computer-aided retinal photocoagulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Steven F.; Wright, Cameron H. G.; Oberg, Erik D.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.; Cain, Clarence P.; Jerath, Maya R.; Rylander, Henry G., III; Welch, Ashley J.

    1996-05-01

    Successful retinal tracking subsystem testing results in vivo on rhesus monkeys using an argon continuous wave laser and an ultra-short pulse laser are presented. Progress on developing an integrated robotic retinal laser surgery system is also presented. Several interesting areas of study have developed: (1) 'doughnut' shaped lesions that occur under certain combinations of laser power, spot size, and irradiation time complicating measurements of central lesion reflectance, (2) the optimal retinal field of view to achieve simultaneous tracking and lesion parameter control, and (3) a fully digital versus a hybrid analog/digital tracker using confocal reflectometry integrated system implementation. These areas are investigated in detail in this paper. The hybrid system warrants a separate presentation and appears in another paper at this conference.

  8. The computer-aided system for the high resolution SQUID-magnetometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The described computer-aided system for the high resolution SQUID-magnetometer permits one to regulate the thermostat temperature, vary the working magnetic field, change the sample position and allow acquisition and processing of signal from a SQUID. A brief description of electronics and the principal program algorithms is proposed. 7 refs.; 6 figs

  9. Computer-aided retinal photocoagulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Steven F.; Wright, Cameron H.; Jerath, Maya R.; Lewis, R. Stephen; Dillard, Bryan C.; Rylander, Henry G.; Welch, Ashley J.

    1996-01-01

    Researchers at the University of Texas at Austin's Biomedical Engineering Laser Laboratory and the U.S. Air Force Academy's Department of Electrical Engineering are developing a computer-assisted prototype retinal photocoagulation system. The project goal is to rapidly and precisely automatically place laser lesions in the retina for the treatment of disorders such as diabetic retinopathy and retinal tears while dynamically controlling the extent of the lesion. Separate prototype subsystems have been developed to control lesion parameters (diameter or depth) using lesion reflectance feedback and lesion placement using retinal vessels as tracking landmarks. Successful subsystem testing results in vivo on pigmented rabbits using an argon continuous wave laser are presented. A prototype integrated system design to simultaneously control lesion parameters and placement at clinically significant speeds is provided.

  10. Computer aided operation of complex systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced technology is having the effect that industrial systems are becoming more highly automated and do not rely on human intervention for the control of normally planned and/or predicted situations. Thus the importance of the operator has shifted from being a manual controller to becoming more of a systems manager and supervisory controller. At the same time, the use of advanced information technology in the control room and its potential impact on human-machine capabilities places additional demands on the designer. This report deals with work carried out to describe the plant-operator relationship in order to systematize the design and evaluation of suitable information systems in the control room. This design process starts with the control requirements from the plant and transforms them into corresponding sets of decision-making tasks with appropriate allocation of responsibilities between computer and operator. To further effectivize this cooperation, appropriate information display and accession are identified. The conceptual work has been supported by experimental studies on a small-scale simulator. (author)

  11. Computer Aided Diagnosis systems for MR cancer detection

    OpenAIRE

    Giannini, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    The research activity conducted during my PhD aims to develop two different Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems for breast and prostate cancer diagnosis using Magnetic Resonance Imaging. During the first part of this thesis I will illustrate a fully automatic CAD system for breast cancer detection and diagnosis with Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) developed by our group. The main goal of a CAD system is lesions detection and characterization. The processing pipeline includes automa...

  12. Assisted supervision of a computer aided tele-operation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper talks about Computer Aided Tele-operation (CAT) in dismantling and maintenance of nuclear plants. The current research orientations at CEA, basic concepts of the supervision assistance system and the realisation of a prototype are presented. (TEC). 3 refs., 4 figs

  13. Information technology aided exploration of system design spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feather, Martin S.; Kiper, James D.; Kalafat, Selcuk

    2004-01-01

    We report on a practical application of information technology techniques to aid system engineers effectively explore large design spaces. We make use of heuristic search, visualization and data mining, the combination of which we have implemented wtihin a risk management tool in use at JPL and NASA.

  14. A Computer Aided System for Simulating Weld Metal Solidification Crack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A computer-aided system for simulating weld solidification crack has been developed by which a welding engineer can carry out the welding solidification crack simulation on the basis of a commercial finite element analysis software package. Its main functions include calculating the heat generations of the moving arc, mesh generation, calculating stress-strain distributions with element rebirth technique.

  15. Computer Aided Education System SuperTest. Present and Prospective

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitru TODOROI; Elena NECHITA; Zinaida TODOROI; Crisan, Gloria Cerasela; Olga CHICU; Iulian Marius FURDU

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the testing and self-testing process for the Computer Aided Education System (CAES) SuperTest, used at the Academy of Economic Studies of Chisinau, Moldova and recently implemented at the University of Bacau, Romania. We discuss here the future of this software, from the Information Society and Knowledge Society point of view.

  16. Models of Human Information Requirements: "When Reasonable Aiding Systems Disagree"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corker, Kevin; Pisanich, Gregory; Shafto, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Aircraft flight management and Air Traffic Control (ATC) automation are under development to maximize the economy of flight and to increase the capacity of the terminal area airspace while maintaining levels of flight safety equal to or better than current system performance. These goals are being realized by the introduction of flight management automation aiding and operations support systems on the flight deck and by new developments of ATC aiding systems that seek to optimize scheduling of aircraft while potentially reducing required separation and accounting for weather and wake vortex turbulence. Aiding systems on both the flight deck and the ground operate through algorithmic functions on models of the aircraft and of the airspace. These models may differ from each other as a result of variations in their models of the immediate environment. The resultant flight operations or ATC commands may differ in their response requirements (e.g. different preferred descent speeds or descent initiation points). The human operators in the system must then interact with the automation to reconcile differences and resolve conflicts. We have developed a model of human performance including cognitive functions (decision-making, rule-based reasoning, procedural interruption recovery and forgetting) that supports analysis of the information requirements for resolution of flight aiding and ATC conflicts. The model represents multiple individuals in the flight crew and in ATC. The model is supported in simulation on a Silicon Graphics' workstation using Allegro Lisp. Design guidelines for aviation automation aiding systems have been developed using the model's specification of information and team procedural requirements. Empirical data on flight deck operations from full-mission flight simulation are provided to support the model's predictions. The paper describes the model, its development and implementation, the simulation test of the model predictions, and the empirical

  17. [Diseases of digestive system in patients with AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brbmolić, B; Jevtović, Dj; Ranin, J; Salemović, D; Zerjav, S

    1992-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus infection can affect the entire gastrointestinal tract and hepatobiliary system. Gastrointestinal abnormalities in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are common and may relate to opportunistic inections and tumors, diseases which are usual in the anti-HIV negative population also, and disease of unknown aethiology, such as wasting syndrome and recurrent diarrhoeal illness. Diarrhoea and weight loss are found in more than 50% of patients with AIDS. Gastrointestinal manifestations range in severity from the discomfort of oral and perianal infections, through life threatening diarrhoea due to intestinal cryptosporidiosis. The approach to the patient with AIDS and gastrointestinal or hepatobiliary disorders is oriented toward diagnosing treatable aethiologies and avoiding unnecessary invasive procedures. Although the final prognosis of full developed AIDS is poor, management of gastrointestinal disease may be improved by accurate diagnosis. PMID:18170973

  18. Socioeconomic consequences of HIV/AIDS in the family system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Taraphdar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HIV/AIDS can lead to poverty affecting particularly women and young people and can halt or reverse socioeconomic development of a country. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the socioeconomic consequences of HIV/AIDS within the family. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among patients admitted in in-patient department and those attending integrated counseling and testing centre (ICTC of School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata. Data were gathered by interviewing the patients by using a predesigned questionnaire. Results: For prolonged duration and severity of disease, higher proportion of indoor patients reported loss of job, decreased family income, increased expenditure for care seeking, and faced greater economic consequences, reflected by selling assets. Loss of job was mainly due to illness (86.8%, disclosure of sero-status (13.2%, and predominantly among skilled workers. Assets were sold mainly to meet the cost of own illness for indoor patients, but more to meet the expenditure for husband′s illness, in the case of ICTC patients. High school dropout seen in both groups was mainly due to economic reasons. HIV/AIDS status was known to other members of family for 84.8% of indoor patients out of which 15.4% experienced rejection by family members. Out of 72 ever married women indoor patients whose in-laws were aware of their HIV/AIDS status, 41.7%, 40.9%, and 33.33% reportedly were blamed for spouse′s illness, and had strained relation with in-laws and spouse, respectively. Conclusion: Intensive behavior change communication and provision of care and support are required to curb AIDS-related stigma, discrimination, and to maintain physical, mental, and social wellbeing of people living with HIV/AIDS.

  19. A computer aided engineering tool for ECLS systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangham, Michal E.; Reuter, James L.

    1987-01-01

    The Computer-Aided Systems Engineering and Analysis tool used by NASA for environmental control and life support system design studies is capable of simulating atmospheric revitalization systems, water recovery and management systems, and single-phase active thermal control systems. The designer/analysis interface used is graphics-based, and allows the designer to build a model by constructing a schematic of the system under consideration. Data management functions are performed, and the program is translated into a format that is compatible with the solution routines.

  20. 21 CFR 874.3950 - Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system... Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system. (a) Identification. A transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid... occluding the ear canal. The device consists of an air conduction hearing aid attached to a...

  1. Computer Aided Design System for Developing Musical Fountain Programs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹; 张乃尧; 朱汉城

    2003-01-01

    A computer aided design system for developing musical fountain programs was developed with multiple functions such as intelligent design, 3-D animation, manual modification and synchronized motion to make the development process more efficient. The system first analyzed the music form and sentiment using many basic features of the music to select a basic fountain program. Then, this program is simulated with 3-D animation and modified manually to achieve the desired results. Finally, the program is transformed to a computer control program to control the musical fountain in time with the music. A prototype system for the musical fountain was also developed. It was tested with many styles of music and users were quite satisfied with its performance. By integrating various functions, the proposed computer aided design system for developing musical fountain programs greatly simplified the design of the musical fountain programs.

  2. Aid effectiveness from Rome to Busan: some progress but lacking bottom-up approaches or behaviour changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Jessica; Mongo, Roch; Kalambay, Hyppolite; Fromont, Anne; Ribesse, Nathalie; Dujardin, Bruno

    2012-07-01

    The Busan partnership adopted at the 4th High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness at the end of last year is a significant step forward towards the improvement of aid quality and the promotion of development. In particular, the inclusiveness achieved in Busan and the shift in discourse from 'aid effectiveness' to 'development effectiveness' are emblematic. However, key challenges still remain. Firstly, decision-making should be more bottom-up, finding ways to take into account the populations' needs and experiences and to enhance self-learning dynamics during the policy process. Today, it is particularly necessary to define what 'development' means at country level, according to the aspirations of particular categories of people and meeting operational and local expectations. Secondly, changes in language should be followed by a real change in mindset. Development stakeholders should further adapt their procedures to the reality of complex systems in which development interventions are being dealt with. PMID:22583911

  3. A Visual-aided Inertial Navigation and Mapping System

    OpenAIRE

    Munguía, Rodrigo; Nuño, Emmanuel; Aldana, Carlos I.; Urzua, Sarquis

    2016-01-01

    State estimation is a fundamental necessity for any application involving autonomous robots. This paper describes a visual-aided inertial navigation and mapping system for application to autonomous robots. The system, which relies on Kalman filtering, is designed to fuse the measurements obtained from a monocular camera, an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a position sensor (GPS). The estimated state consists of the full state of the vehicle: the position, orientation, their first derivati...

  4. [Drugs, health policy and AIDS: changes in a dependent policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyola, Maria Andréa

    2008-04-01

    Since the 1970s the Brazilian government has made efforts to implement a pharmaceutical policy that, in spite of a market predominantly oligopolized and dominated by multinational pharmaceutical industries, guarantees access to essential drugs for the population. In this context, in 1999, a law regarding generics was approved. This article aims at analyzing the elements that interfered in the implementation process of this law. Based on specialized bibliography, on the debate in the Brazilian press (1992-2002) and on interviews with industry members, physicians, politicians, activists and civil servants we try to show that the implementation of generics in Brazil is strongly related to the AIDS epidemic. More precisely, it is related to the successful health policy against this disease involving different actors and a variety of elements to be analyzed here, among them the policy of copycat versions of drugs, the law of universal access to anti-AIDS drugs, the struggle of organized social movements, the governmental bureaucracy implemented for fighting this epidemic and the strong mobilization of the media. PMID:21936182

  5. Field Support System (FS-AID) and Working Capital Fund Tracking System (WCF-TS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Field Support System (FS-AID) and Working Capital Fund Tracking System (WCF-TS) are two modules of a single data management system that share common tables and...

  6. Visual Aid to Demonstrate Change of State and Gas Pressure with Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Shahrokh

    2011-01-01

    Demonstrations are used in chemistry lectures to improve conceptual understanding by direct observation. The visual aid described here is designed to demonstrate the change in state of matter with the change of temperature and the change of pressure with temperature. Temperature is presented by the rate of airflow and pressure is presented by…

  7. Social change communication: a panacea for HIV and AIDS?-An outlook of a program

    OpenAIRE

    Gopal, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

      Abstract. For about three decades of the pandemic of HIV and AIDS, need for an effective response has been felt very strongly. Human behavior being complex; widespread behavior changes are challenging to achieve. Understanding of the dynamics of HIV transmission cannot be separated from an understanding of the broader context of poverty, inequality and social exclusion which create conditions under which unsafe behavior flourishes HIV/AIDS is not a mere health issue: its occurrence is influ...

  8. Analysis, Design, and Evaluation of Acoustic Feedback Cancellation Systems for Hearing Aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic feedback problems occur when the output loudspeaker signal of an audio system is partly returned to the input microphone via an acoustic coupling through the air. This problem often causes significant performance degradations in applications such as public address systems and hearing aids....... In the worst case, the audio system becomes unstable and howling occurs. In this work, first we analyze a general multiple microphone audio processing system, where a cancellation system using adaptive filters is used to cancel the effect of acoustic feedback. We introduce and derive an accurate...... estimation problem in acoustic feedback cancellation for hearing aids. It utilizes a probe noise signal which is generated with a specific characteristic so that it can facilitate an unbiased adaptive filter estimation with fast tracking of feedback path variations/changes despite its low signal level. We...

  9. A Computer Aided System for Tropical Leaf Medicinal Plant Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeni Herdiyeni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to develop a computer aided system for leaf medicinal plant identification using ProbabilisticNeural Network. In Indonesia only 20-22% of medicinal plants have been cultivated. Generally, identification process of medicinalplants has been done manually by a herbarium taxonomist using guidebook of taxonomy/dendrology. This system is designed to helptaxonomist to identify leaf medicinal plant automatically using acomputer-aided system. This system uses three features of leaf toidentify the medicinal plant, i.e., morphology, shape, and texture. Leaf is used in this system for identification because easily to find.To classify medicinal plant we used Probabilistic Neural Network. The features will be combined using Product Decision Rule (PDR.The system was tested on 30 species medicinal plant from Garden of Biopharmaca Research Center and Greenhouse Center of Exsitu Conservation of Medicinal Indonesian Tropical Forest Plants, Faculty of Forestry, Bogor Agriculture University, Indonesia.Experiment results showed that the accuracy of medicinal plant identification using combination of leaf features increase until74,67%.The comparative analysis of leaf features has been performed statistically. It showed that shape is a dominant features for plant identification. This system is very promising to help people identify medicinal plant automatically and for conservation and utilization of medicinal plants.

  10. Science Study Aids 4: Plant Pigments - Studies in Color Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Bill; McCready, R. M.

    This publication is the fourth of a series of seven supplementary investigative materials for use in secondary science classes providing up-to-date research-related investigations. This unit is structured for grades 9 through 12. It deals with physical factors that affect color changes in plant foods during processing and in the preparation of…

  11. Hegemonic Masculinity, HIV/AIDS Risk Perception, and Sexual Behavior Change Among Young People in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganle, John Kuumuori

    2016-05-01

    Among the youth in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa, a paradoxical mix of adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS and high-risk behavior characterizes their daily lives. Based on original qualitative research in Ghana, I explore in this article the ways in which the social construction of masculinity influences youth's responses to behavior change HIV/AIDS prevention interventions. Findings show that although awareness of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and the risks of infection is very high among the youth, a combination of hegemonic masculinity and perceptions of personal invulnerability acts to undermine the processes of young people's HIV/AIDS risk construction and appropriate behavioral change. I argue that if HIV/AIDS prevention is to be effective and sustained, school- and community-based initiatives should be developed to provide supportive social spaces in which the construction of masculinity, the identity of young men and women as gendered persons, and perceptions of their vulnerability to HIV/AIDS infection are challenged. PMID:25721715

  12. Diagnosis aids with artificial intelligence in the PSAD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To improve monitoring and diagnosis capabilities in nuclear power plants, Electricite de France (EDF) has designed an integrated monitoring and diagnosis assistance system: PSAD - Poste de Surveillance et d'Aide au Diagnostic. The development of this sophisticated monitoring and data processing system requires the addition of analysis and diagnosis assistance capabilities. Diagnostic knowledge based systems have thus been added to the functions monitored in PSAD: DIVA for turbine generators, and DIAPO for reactor coolant pumps. These systems rely on a representation of the diagnostic reasoning process of experts and of supporting knowledge. Diagnosis in both systems is performed through an abductive reasoning process applied to component fault models and observations derived from their actual behavior, as provided by the monitoring functions. The basic theoretical elements of this diagnostic model are summarized in a first part of this paper. In a second part, DIVA and DIAPO specific elements are described. (authors)

  13. A computer aided treatment event recognition system in radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Junyi, E-mail: junyi-xia@uiowa.edu; Mart, Christopher [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Bayouth, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 and Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 600 Highland Avenue, K4/B55, Madison, Wisconsin 53792-0600 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: To develop an automated system to safeguard radiation therapy treatments by analyzing electronic treatment records and reporting treatment events. Methods: CATERS (Computer Aided Treatment Event Recognition System) was developed to detect treatment events by retrieving and analyzing electronic treatment records. CATERS is designed to make the treatment monitoring process more efficient by automating the search of the electronic record for possible deviations from physician's intention, such as logical inconsistencies as well as aberrant treatment parameters (e.g., beam energy, dose, table position, prescription change, treatment overrides, etc). Over a 5 month period (July 2012–November 2012), physicists were assisted by the CATERS software in conducting normal weekly chart checks with the aims of (a) determining the relative frequency of particular events in the authors’ clinic and (b) incorporating these checks into the CATERS. During this study period, 491 patients were treated at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics for a total of 7692 fractions. Results: All treatment records from the 5 month analysis period were evaluated using all the checks incorporated into CATERS after the training period. About 553 events were detected as being exceptions, although none of them had significant dosimetric impact on patient treatments. These events included every known event type that was discovered during the trial period. A frequency analysis of the events showed that the top three types of detected events were couch position override (3.2%), extra cone beam imaging (1.85%), and significant couch position deviation (1.31%). The significant couch deviation is defined as the number of treatments where couch vertical exceeded two times standard deviation of all couch verticals, or couch lateral/longitudinal exceeded three times standard deviation of all couch laterals and longitudinals. On average, the application takes about 1 s per patient when

  14. A computer aided treatment event recognition system in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop an automated system to safeguard radiation therapy treatments by analyzing electronic treatment records and reporting treatment events. Methods: CATERS (Computer Aided Treatment Event Recognition System) was developed to detect treatment events by retrieving and analyzing electronic treatment records. CATERS is designed to make the treatment monitoring process more efficient by automating the search of the electronic record for possible deviations from physician's intention, such as logical inconsistencies as well as aberrant treatment parameters (e.g., beam energy, dose, table position, prescription change, treatment overrides, etc). Over a 5 month period (July 2012–November 2012), physicists were assisted by the CATERS software in conducting normal weekly chart checks with the aims of (a) determining the relative frequency of particular events in the authors’ clinic and (b) incorporating these checks into the CATERS. During this study period, 491 patients were treated at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics for a total of 7692 fractions. Results: All treatment records from the 5 month analysis period were evaluated using all the checks incorporated into CATERS after the training period. About 553 events were detected as being exceptions, although none of them had significant dosimetric impact on patient treatments. These events included every known event type that was discovered during the trial period. A frequency analysis of the events showed that the top three types of detected events were couch position override (3.2%), extra cone beam imaging (1.85%), and significant couch position deviation (1.31%). The significant couch deviation is defined as the number of treatments where couch vertical exceeded two times standard deviation of all couch verticals, or couch lateral/longitudinal exceeded three times standard deviation of all couch laterals and longitudinals. On average, the application takes about 1 s per patient when

  15. Change and Chisungu in Zambia's Time of AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Haynes, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Through an examination of amafunde – a Bemba word meaning ‘instruction’, which refers to the training given to a young woman before her marriage – this article explores the social changes that have followed widespread HIV infection on the Zambian Copperbelt. Amafunde today are marked by openness between senior women and those they train for marriage, an openness that they encourage their charges to adopt in married life. This emphasis on direct or ‘straight’ speech stands in stark contrast to...

  16. Operator aids and expert systems in user computer interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent events have demonstrated the potential for catastrophic accidents at process control facilities, resulting in severe economic damages or loss of human life. Human operators play a central role in the outcome of accidents in process control plants, because of their responsibility to make decisions regarding the appropriate corrective actions needed to control the event. In recent years, researchers have been attempting to apply Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods for developing computer-based decision aids for process control operators. Much of this research activity has taken place within the nuclear industry. In order to assess the implications of expert systems for nuclear reactor operators, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) has sponsored a research program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Included in this program have been the development of a prototype expert system for nuclear reactor operators, as well as two experiments to measure the effects of the expert system on operator performance in simulated accident conditions. This paper briefly summarizes the experience gained during this research program and assesses the potential future of expert system decision aids for process control operators

  17. Computer aided earthmoving systems - mine reclamation in a digital age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, James E.; Witler, Michael H. [MWH Americas Inc., (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Mine reclamation is an increasingly important component of a successful mine closeout. The utilization of mine production equipment equipped with computer aided earthmoving system software (CAES) is useful to complete large-scale tailing dam reclamation. This paper illustrated the use of the CAES system for reclamation projects at mine sites in the United States. These case studies provided useful examples of the benefits a mining company can realize by self-performing their tailings impoundment and waste rock stockpile reclamation with their CAES equipped mine production equipment. This paper reviewed the CAES technology and its different applications following the system version. It was demonstrated that the utilization of the CAES system in reclamation projects gives the reclamation and construction teams the ability to manage the large scale mining equipment efficiently and insures that the construction is completed in accordance with the design.

  18. Changes in intensity discrimination following monaural long-term use of a hearing aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, K; Gatehouse, S

    1995-02-01

    Previous work has shown that a normally aided ear tested without the hearing aid is better able to identify speech-in-noise than the unaided ear at high sound levels, while performance for the unaided ear is superior at lower sound levels [S. Gatehouse, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 86, 2103-6 (1989); J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 92, 1258-68 (1992)]. This effect was further explored using intensity discrimination for complex stimuli. Stimuli were half-octave bandpass-filtered tone complexes centered at 0.25 and 3 kHz. Four bilateral, symmetric hearing-impaired listeners with mean HL of 24 dB at 0.25 kHz, and 58 dB at 3 kHz were tested. Intensity discrimination was performed across the dynamic range of the listeners. At sound-pressure levels greater than 85 dB, the normally aided ear tested without the aid was more sensitive to changes in intensity than the unaided ear, whereas at lower levels, the converse occurred. This pattern was observed only for the 3-kHz center frequency, and not for the 0.25-kHz center frequency. Insertion gain measurements using the aids at normal volume showed an average of 20 dB gain at 3 kHz, and -2 dB gain at 0.25 kHz. The changes in intensity discrimination in the normally aided ear are consistent with the frequency-gain characteristics of the hearing aid, and suggest that a change in intensity coding occurred. PMID:7876440

  19. Aurally Aided Visual Search Performance Comparing Virtual Audio Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Horne; Lauritsen, David Skødt; Larsen, Jacob Junker;

    2014-01-01

    Due to increased computational power, reproducing binaural hearing in real-time applications, through usage of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), is now possible. This paper addresses the differences in aurally-aided visual search performance between a HRTF enhanced audio system (3D) and an...... with white dots. The results indicate that 3D audio yields faster search latencies than panning audio, especially with larger amounts of distractors. The applications of this research could fit virtual environments such as video games or virtual simulations....

  20. Aurally Aided Visual Search Performance Comparing Virtual Audio Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Horne; Lauritsen, David Skødt; Larsen, Jacob Junker;

    2014-01-01

    Due to increased computational power reproducing binaural hearing in real-time applications, through usage of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), is now possible. This paper addresses the differences in aurally-aided visual search performance between an HRTF enhanced audio system (3D) and an...... with white dots. The results indicate that 3D audio yields faster search latencies than panning audio, especially with larger amounts of distractors. The applications of this research could fit virtual environments such as video games or virtual simulations....

  1. Handling manual of computer aided tracing system 'CATS' (version I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an application of computer graphics, we have developed a code named as ''CATS'' which stands for computer aided tracing system. With CATS, many kinds of graphs and tables can be fed into the host computer as graphic data by a digitizing tablet. After editing figures on the graphic display terminal, one can obtain color pictures by hard copy unit or fair monocromatic copies by a laser printer through host computer. We employ an interactive graphical input in Japanese, so that users of ''CATS'' can easily edit figures without any knowledge on the complicated FORTRAN utility package for graphic display. The usage of ''CATS'' is summarized in this report. (author)

  2. Application of expert systems in project management decision aiding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Regina; Shaffer, Steven; Stokes, James; Goldstein, David

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of developing an expert systems-based project management decision aid to enhance the performance of NASA project managers was assessed. The research effort included extensive literature reviews in the areas of project management, project management decision aiding, expert systems technology, and human-computer interface engineering. Literature reviews were augmented by focused interviews with NASA managers. Time estimation for project scheduling was identified as the target activity for decision augmentation, and a design was developed for an Integrated NASA System for Intelligent Time Estimation (INSITE). The proposed INSITE design was judged feasible with a low level of risk. A partial proof-of-concept experiment was performed and was successful. Specific conclusions drawn from the research and analyses are included. The INSITE concept is potentially applicable in any management sphere, commercial or government, where time estimation is required for project scheduling. As project scheduling is a nearly universal management activity, the range of possibilities is considerable. The INSITE concept also holds potential for enhancing other management tasks, especially in areas such as cost estimation, where estimation-by-analogy is already a proven method.

  3. Changing local land systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Cecilie; Reenberg, Anette; Heinimann, Andreas;

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the direct and cascading land system consequences of a Chinese company's land acquisition for rubber cultivation in northern Laos. Transnational land acquisitions are increasingly acknowledged as an important driver of direct land use conversion with implications for local...... of negative effects on the entire land use system, especially on soil fertility, rice yields and food production....... and lowland paddy rice cultivation. The changes go beyond the immediate competition for land caused by the rubber plantation: a penalty scheme introduced by the rubber company for damage to rubber trees caused by browsing animals has led the villagers to abandon livestock rearing, causing a cascade...

  4. A novel AIDS/HIV intelligent medical consulting system based on expert systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimi, Alireza Pour; Toloui Ashlaghi, Abbas; Mahdavy Rad, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel intelligent model for AIDS/HIV data based on expert system and using it for developing an intelligent medical consulting system for AIDS/HIV. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive research, 752 frequently asked questions (FAQs) about AIDS/HIV are gathered from numerous websites about this disease. To perform the data mining and extracting the intelligent model, the 6 stages of Crisp method has been completed for FAQs. The 6 stag...

  5. Computer aided systems human engineering: A hypermedia tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boff, Kenneth R.; Monk, Donald L.; Cody, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The Computer Aided Systems Human Engineering (CASHE) system, Version 1.0, is a multimedia ergonomics database on CD-ROM for the Apple Macintosh II computer, being developed for use by human system designers, educators, and researchers. It will initially be available on CD-ROM and will allow users to access ergonomics data and models stored electronically as text, graphics, and audio. The CASHE CD-ROM, Version 1.0 will contain the Boff and Lincoln (1988) Engineering Data Compendium, MIL-STD-1472D and a unique, interactive simulation capability, the Perception and Performance Prototyper. Its features also include a specialized data retrieval, scaling, and analysis capability and the state of the art in information retrieval, browsing, and navigation.

  6. Estimation Of Demand System In An Aids Model:The Opportunity For Exporting Thai Agricultural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waripas Jiumpanyarach

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of the estimation of Almost Ideal Demand System(AIDS model is developed to estimate quantity respond based on price. Five major export agricultural products data from the office of Agricultural Economics, Thailand and Biofuel policy from the office of the National Economic and Social Development Broad were used. The AIDS model estimatesdemand of palm, cassava, and sugar are highly response to changed price. Rubber and rice has less response to the changed price. All of major agricultural products are affect expenditure of Thailand export. This result suggest that the opportunity for increasing supply of energy plants, which benefits to Thai farmer communities for expanding market share in energy plants in domestic and global market.

  7. The computer aided education and training system for accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under severe accident conditions of a nuclear power plant, plant operators and technical support center (TSC) staffs will be under a amount of stress. Therefore, those individuals responsible for managing the plant should promote their understanding about the accident management and operations. Moreover, it is also important to train in ordinary times, so that they can carry out accident management operations effectively on severe accidents. Therefore, the education and training system which works on personal computers was developed by Japanese BWR group (Tokyo Electric Power Co.,Inc., Tohoku Electric Power Co. ,Inc., Chubu Electric Power Co. ,Inc., Hokuriku Electric Power Co.,Inc., Chugoku Electric Power Co.,Inc., Japan Atomic Power Co.,Inc.), and Hitachi, Ltd. The education and training system is composed of two systems. One is computer aided instruction (CAI) education system and the other is education and training system with a computer simulation. Both systems are designed to execute on MS-Windows(R) platform of personal computers. These systems provide plant operators and technical support center staffs with an effective education and training tool for accident management. TEPCO used the simulation system for the emergency exercise assuming the occurrence of hypothetical severe accident, and have performed an effective exercise in March, 2000. (author)

  8. Computer-aided diagnostic system for mass survey chest images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to support screening of chest radiographs on mass survey, a computer-aided diagnostic system that automatically detects abnormality of candidate images using a digital image analysis technique has been developed. Extracting boundary lines of lung fields and examining their shapes allowed various kind of abnormalities to be detected. Correction and expansion were facilitated by describing the system control, image analysis control and judgement of abnormality in the rule type programming language. In the experiments using typical samples of student's radiograms, good results were obtained for the detection of abnormal shape of lung field, cardiac hypertrophy and scoliosis. As for the detection of diaphragmatic abnormality, relatively good results were obtained but further improvements will be necessary

  9. NIST System for Measuring the Directivity Index of Hearing Aids under Simulated Real-Ear Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Randall P.

    2013-01-01

    The directivity index is a parameter that is commonly used to characterize the performance of directional hearing aids, and is determined from the measured directional response. Since this response is different for a hearing aid worn on a person as compared to when it is in a free field, directivity index measurements of hearing aids are usually done under simulated real-ear conditions. Details are provided regarding the NIST system for measuring the hearing aid directivity index under these ...

  10. A handheld computer-aided diagnosis system and simulated analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Mingjian; Zhang, Xuejun; Liu, Brent; Su, Kening; Louie, Ryan

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system based on cellphone and distributed cluster. One of the bottlenecks in building a CAD system for clinical practice is the storage and process of mass pathology samples freely among different devices, and normal pattern matching algorithm on large scale image set is very time consuming. Distributed computation on cluster has demonstrated the ability to relieve this bottleneck. We develop a system enabling the user to compare the mass image to a dataset with feature table by sending datasets to Generic Data Handler Module in Hadoop, where the pattern recognition is undertaken for the detection of skin diseases. A single and combination retrieval algorithm to data pipeline base on Map Reduce framework is used in our system in order to make optimal choice between recognition accuracy and system cost. The profile of lesion area is drawn by doctors manually on the screen, and then uploads this pattern to the server. In our evaluation experiment, an accuracy of 75% diagnosis hit rate is obtained by testing 100 patients with skin illness. Our system has the potential help in building a novel medical image dataset by collecting large amounts of gold standard during medical diagnosis. Once the project is online, the participants are free to join and eventually an abundant sample dataset will soon be gathered enough for learning. These results demonstrate our technology is very promising and expected to be used in clinical practice.

  11. Computer-aided decision system for the clubfeet deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Tien Tuan; Marin, Frédéric; Bensahel, Henri; Ho Ba Tho, Marie Christine

    2011-01-01

    A computer-aided decision system (CADS) based on ontology in pediatric orthopedics was developed to assess, without assumptions performed, the abnormalities of the musculoskeletal system of lower limbs. The CADS consists of four components. The first component is a diagnosis-based ontology, called Ontologie du Système Musculosquelettique des Membres Inférieurs (OSMMI). The second component is a database for collecting clinical observations, e.g., the birth classification of the clubfeet deformities. The third component uses statistical methods (principal component analysis and decision tree) for constructing an approach to evaluate new issues. The last component is an interactive module for managing the interaction between patients, experts, and the due CADS. Our system has been validated clinically with the real patient data obtained from the Infant Surgery Service in the hospital of Robert Debré in Paris. Our CADS is a good solution to compare the studies of the clubfeet deformities before and after the treatment using a universally scoring system. The assessment, conservative treatment, and monitoring were set up. Our system was developed to allow a better assessment for improving the knowledge and thus the evaluation and treatment of the musculoskeletal pathologies, e.g., the clubfeet deformities. PMID:21431604

  12. Fuzzy logic based Adaptive Modulation Using Non Data Aided SNR Estimation for OFDM system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.SESHADRI SASTRY

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As demand for high quality transmission increases increase of spectrum efficiency and an improvement of error performance in wireless communication systems are important . One of the promising approaches to 4G is adaptive OFDM (AOFDM . Fixed modulation systems uses only one type of modulation scheme (or order, so that either performance or capacity should be compromised Adaptive modulated systems are superior to fixed modulated systems, since they change modulation order depending on present SNR. In an adaptive modulation system SNR estimation is important since performance of adaptive modulated system depends of estimated SNR. Non-data-Aided (NDA SNR estimation systems are gaining importance in recent days since they estimate SNR range and requires less data as input .In this paper we propose an adaptive modulated OFDM system which uses NDA(Non-data Aided SNR estimation using fuzzy logic interface.The proposed system is simulated in Matlab 7.4 and The results of computer simulation show the improvement in system capacity .

  13. A Computer-Aided Detection System for Digital Chest Radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-de-Gea, Juan Manuel; García-Mateos, Ginés; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Hernández-Hernández, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Computer-aided detection systems aim at the automatic detection of diseases using different medical imaging modalities. In this paper, a novel approach to detecting normality/pathology in digital chest radiographs is proposed. The problem tackled is complicated since it is not focused on particular diseases but anything that differs from what is considered as normality. First, the areas of interest of the chest are found using template matching on the images. Then, a texture descriptor called local binary patterns (LBP) is computed for those areas. After that, LBP histograms are applied in a classifier algorithm, which produces the final normality/pathology decision. Our experimental results show the feasibility of the proposal, with success rates above 87% in the best cases. Moreover, our technique is able to locate the possible areas of pathology in nonnormal radiographs. Strengths and limitations of the proposed approach are described in the Conclusions. PMID:27372536

  14. The changing donor landscape of health sector aid to Vietnam: a qualitative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallas, Sarah Wood; Khuat, Thi Hai Oanh; Le, Quang Duong; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2015-05-01

    The study objective was to identify how donors and government agencies in Vietnam responded to donor proliferation in health sector aid between 1995 and 2012. Interviews were conducted with key informants from donor agencies, central government, and civil society in Hanoi in 2012 (n = 34 interviews), identified through OECD Creditor Reporting System data, internet research, and snowball sampling. Interview transcripts were coded for key themes using the constant comparative method. Documentary materials were used in triangulation and validation of key informant accounts. The study identified a timeline of key events and key themes. The number of donors providing health sector aid to Vietnam increased sharply during the late 1990s and early 2000s, then leveled off and declined between 2008 and 2012. Reasons for donor entry included Vietnam's health needs, perceptions of health as less politically sensitive, and donor interests in facilitating market access. Reasons for donor withdrawal included Vietnam's achievement of middle-income status, the global financial crisis, and donors' shifting global priorities. Key themes included high competition among donors, strategic actions by government to increase its control over aid, and the multiplicity of government units involved with health sector aid. The study concludes that central government and donor agencies in Vietnam responded to donor proliferation in health sector aid by endorsing aid effectiveness policies but implementing these policies inconsistently in practice. Whereas previous literature has emphasized donor proliferation's transaction costs, this study finds that the benefits of a large number of less coordinated donors may outweigh the increased administrative costs under certain conditions. In Vietnam, these conditions included relatively high capacity within government, low government dependence on aid, and government interest in receiving diverse donor recommendations. Vietnam's experience of donor

  15. Rising oceans, climate change, food aid, and human rights in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlgren, Ingrid; Yamada, Seiji; Wong, Allen

    2014-01-01

    Climate change impacts are expected to produce more frequent, longer and unpredictable drought periods with further saltwater intrusion in the Marshall Islands. As a result, a significant return to traditional food cropping is unlikely. This will lead to an increased dependence on food aid, especially in the outer atoll populations. An examination of the nutritional content of food aid suggests it is likely to lead to poor health outcomes. Dependence on food aid has gradually increased over the past 70 years in the Marshall Islands, starting with population relocation because of war and nuclear testing and most recently because of climate change. The authors argue that the health impacts of the supplemental imported diet, combined with migration to population centers, may result in an even greater prevalence of chronic diseases, and exert pressures that lead to more communicable disease, further exacerbating the syndemics in the Marshall Islands. The authors conclude that food aid donors and the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) government have human rights obligations to ensure that the people in the Marshall Islands have access to adequate nutrition. Accordingly, donors and the government should re-examine the content of food and ensure it is of sufficient quality to meet the right to health obligations. PMID:25618915

  16. The Modern Hearing Aid – an Extreme System Integration Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2013-01-01

    People with reduced hearing generally want to hide this disability and thus the size of hearing aids is constantly decreasing in the effort to make them virtually invisible. However, as for all other modern electrical devices more and more features are constantly added to hearing aids driven by the development in modern IC technology. This has resulted in the modern hearing aid being highly advanced devices where the demands for performance and features at very low supply voltage and power co...

  17. Efficacy of computer-aided detection system for screening mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system for screening mammography (MMG). Screening mammograms of 2,231 women aged over 50 yr were examined. Medio-lateral oblique (MLO) images were obtained, and two expert observers interpreted the mammograms by consensus. First, each mammogram was interpreted without the assistance of CAD, followed immediately by a re-evaluation of areas marked by the CAD system. Data were recorded to measure the effect of CAD on the recall rate, cancer detection rate and detection rate of masses, microcalcifications and other findings. The CAD system increased the recall rate from 2.3% to 2.6%. Six recalled cases were diagnosed as breast cancer pathologically, and CAD detected all of these lesions. Seven additional cases in which CAD detected abnormal findings had no malignancy. The detection rate of CAD for microcalcifications was high (95.0%). However, the detection rate for mass lesions and other findings was low (29.2% and 25.0% respectively). The false positivity rate was 0.13/film for microcalcifications, and 0.25/film for mass lesions. The efficacy of the CAD system for detecting microcalcifications on screening mammograms was confirmed. However, the low detection rate of mass lesions and relatively high rate of false positivity need to be further improved. (author)

  18. A Visual-aided Inertial Navigation and Mapping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Munguía

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available State estimation is a fundamental necessity for any application involving autonomous robots. This paper describes a visual-aided inertial navigation and mapping system for application to autonomous robots. The system, which relies on Kalman filtering, is designed to fuse the measurements obtained from a monocular camera, an inertial measurement unit (IMU and a position sensor (GPS. The estimated state consists of the full state of the vehicle: the position, orientation, their first derivatives and the parameter errors of the inertial sensors (i.e., the bias of gyroscopes and accelerometers. The system also provides the spatial locations of the visual features observed by the camera. The proposed scheme was designed by considering the limited resources commonly available in small mobile robots, while it is intended to be applied to cluttered environments in order to perform fully vision-based navigation in periods where the position sensor is not available. Moreover, the estimated map of visual features would be suitable for multiple tasks: i terrain analysis; ii three dimensional (3D scene reconstruction; iii localization, detection or perception of obstacles and generating trajectories to navigate around these obstacles; and iv autonomous exploration. In this work, simulations and experiments with real data are presented in order to validate and demonstrate the performance of the proposal.

  19. Computer Aided Diagnosis System for Early Lung Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Taher

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer continues to rank as the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. One of the most promising techniques for early detection of cancerous cells relies on sputum cell analysis. This was the motivation behind the design and the development of a new computer aided diagnosis (CAD system for early detection of lung cancer based on the analysis of sputum color images. The proposed CAD system encompasses four main processing steps. First is the preprocessing step which utilizes a Bayesian classification method using histogram analysis. Then, in the second step, mean shift segmentation is applied to segment the nuclei from the cytoplasm. The third step is the feature analysis. In this step, geometric and chromatic features are extracted from the nucleus region. These features are used in the diagnostic process of the sputum images. Finally, the diagnosis is completed using an artificial neural network and support vector machine (SVM for classifying the cells into benign or malignant. The performance of the system was analyzed based on different criteria such as sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. The evaluation was carried out using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve. The experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the SVM classifier over other classifiers, with 97% sensitivity and accuracy as well as a significant reduction in the number of false positive and false negative rates.

  20. Did Cuts in State Aid During the Great Recession Lead to Changes in Local Property Taxes?

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabarti, Rajashri; Livingston, Max; Roy, Joydeep

    2014-01-01

    During the Great Recession and its aftermath, state and local governments' revenue streams dried up due to diminished taxes. Budget cuts affected many aspects of government; in this paper, we investigate whether (and how) local school districts modified their funding and taxing decisions in response to changes in state aid in the post-recession period. Using detailed district-level panel data from New York and a fixed effects as well as an instrumental variables strategy, we find strong evide...

  1. Vision-aided inertial navigation system for robotic mobile mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayoud, Fadi; Skaloud, Jan

    2008-04-01

    A mapping system by vision-aided inertial navigation was developed for areas where GNSS signals are unreachable. In this framework, a methodology on the integration of vision and inertial sensors is presented, analysed and tested. The system employs the method of “SLAM: Simultaneous Localisation And Mapping” where the only external input available to the system at the beginning of the mapping mission is a number of features with known coordinates. SLAM is a term used in the robotics community to describe the problem of mapping the environment and at the same time using this map to determine the location of the mapping device. Differing from the robotics approach, the presented development stems from the frameworks of photogrammetry and kinematic geodesy that are merged in two filters that run in parallel: the Least-Squares Adjustment (LSA) for features coordinates determination and the Kalman filter (KF) for navigation correction. To test this approach, a mapping system-prototype comprising two CCD cameras and one Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) is introduced. Conceptually, the outputs of the LSA photogrammetric resection are used as the external measurements for the KF that corrects the inertial navigation. The filtered position and orientation are subsequently employed in the photogrammetric intersection to map the surrounding features that are used as control points for the resection in the next epoch. We confirm empirically the dependency of navigation performance on the quality of the images and the number of tracked features, as well as on the geometry of the stereo-pair. Due to its autonomous nature, the SLAM's performance is further affected by the quality of IMU initialisation and the a-priory assumptions on error distribution. Using the example of the presented system we show that centimetre accuracy can be achieved in both navigation and mapping when the image geometry is optimal.

  2. Development of computer-aided diagnosis systems in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) is a practice done by medical doctors based on computer image analysis as the second opinion, and CAD studies have been government-adopted projects. CAD is already on popular practice in the cancers of the breast by mammography, lung by flat plate and CT images, and large bowel by CT colonoscopy. This paper describes four examples of authors' actual CAD investigations. First, the temporal subtraction image analysis by CAD is for the detection of abnormality in the chest by radiographs taken at different times. Examples are shown in cases of interstitial pneumonia and lung cancer out of 34 patients with diffuse lung diseases. Second, development of CAD system is recorded for detection of aneurysm by the brain MR angiography (MRA). Third is the CAD detection of fascicles in cerebral white matters by the diffuse tensor MRI, which will help the surgery for brain tumors. Final is an automated patient recognition based on an image-matching technique using previous chest radiographs in the picture archiving and communication systems. This is on the radiograph giving biological fingerprints of the patients. CAD will be applied in a wider field of medicare not only in imaging technology. (T.I)

  3. Astrocyte scar formation aids central nervous system axon regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark A; Burda, Joshua E; Ren, Yilong; Ao, Yan; O'Shea, Timothy M; Kawaguchi, Riki; Coppola, Giovanni; Khakh, Baljit S; Deming, Timothy J; Sofroniew, Michael V

    2016-04-14

    Transected axons fail to regrow in the mature central nervous system. Astrocytic scars are widely regarded as causal in this failure. Here, using three genetically targeted loss-of-function manipulations in adult mice, we show that preventing astrocyte scar formation, attenuating scar-forming astrocytes, or ablating chronic astrocytic scars all failed to result in spontaneous regrowth of transected corticospinal, sensory or serotonergic axons through severe spinal cord injury (SCI) lesions. By contrast, sustained local delivery via hydrogel depots of required axon-specific growth factors not present in SCI lesions, plus growth-activating priming injuries, stimulated robust, laminin-dependent sensory axon regrowth past scar-forming astrocytes and inhibitory molecules in SCI lesions. Preventing astrocytic scar formation significantly reduced this stimulated axon regrowth. RNA sequencing revealed that astrocytes and non-astrocyte cells in SCI lesions express multiple axon-growth-supporting molecules. Our findings show that contrary to the prevailing dogma, astrocyte scar formation aids rather than prevents central nervous system axon regeneration. PMID:27027288

  4. Satellite-aided mobile radio concepts study: Concept definition of a satellite-aided mobile and personal radio communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    The satellite system requires the use of a large satellite antenna and spacecraft array power of about 12 kW or more depending on the operating frequency. Technology developments needed include large offset reflector multibeam antennas, satellite electrical power sybsystems providing greater than 12 kW of power, signal switching hardware, and linearized efficient solid state amplifiers for the satellite-aided mobile band. Presently there is no frequency assignment for this service, and it is recommended that an allocation be pursued. The satellite system appears to be within reasonable extrapolation of the state of the art. It is further recommended that the satellite-aided system spacecraft definition studies and supporting technology development be initiated.

  5. L'échange d'aide dans l'interaction didactique

    OpenAIRE

    Francols, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    Nous avons observé l'aide dans l'interaction entre enfants et enseignants, avec une perspective moins centrée sur l'apprentissage que sur les enjeux relationnels entre les acteurs. Les manières dont l'aide est échangée entre maître et élèves montrent comment se construit au coup par coup le rapport de dépendance et d'autonomie qui fonde les relations humaines. Notre recherche s'inscrit dans le cadre de l'Analyse des Discours en Interaction. La visée est descriptive : à partir d'un corpus film...

  6. AVD: A new system for computer-aided analysis of wall movement abnormalities; first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A man-machine comparison proves the reliability of the new computer-based system. The results with and without the ADV-system agree to a high degree. The computer-aided analysis with two different models yields qualitatively and quantitatively similar results. With the computer-aided system one can save 90% of the time, compared to the manual technique; this is an essential prerequisite for the wide application of quantitative analysis of wall movements. The possibility for a quantitative analysis of wall movements is the basis for inter- and intraindividual comparisons after interventions, i.e. exercise tests, applications of pharmaceuticals or after by-pass surgery. The flexibility of the system allows checks of the result by a repetition of the analysis with a different model. This way the reliability of the findings is improved. The ADV-system in its present shape needs some changes in its program, improved handling and a faster graphic terminal. Common plotters are better than the currently used modified printer. Also, the program should be extended in its new version for batch-processing, i.e. independent of the operator it should process serial analysis of patient collectives. These suggestions have been accepted by the manufacturer in the meantime, and modifications will be made. (orig.)

  7. Development and Challenge of HIV/AIDS Testing Laboratory Network and Quality Assurance System in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the development and challenge of HIV/AIDS testing laboratory network and quality assurance system in China. At present, the HIV/AIDS testing laboratories includes three classes, the National AIDS Reference Laboratory, HIV/AIDS confirmatory laboratories and HIV/AIDS screening laboratories. All of them are accredited by the health authorities, and each class of laboratories take charge of their function strictly according to the "National Management of HIV/AIDS Detection (2006)". A complete quality assurance and quality control system for HIV/AIDS testing has been developed, which includes technical training, strict laboratory monitoring and approval,examination or proficiency testing on HIV/AIDS detection, and quality evaluation and supervision of HIV/AIDS diagnostic kits. Besides conduct the routine anti-HIV antibody test, more and more laboratories began to conduct other tests, such as CD4+ T lymphocyte cell counting, HIV viral load, HIV DNA PCR, genotyping, drug resistance, and HIV-1 recent infection test. The primary challenges faced by the HIV/AIDS testing laboratory network are in the areas of laboratory management and quality control. For example, the provincial PT program is inefficient, the internal quality control is conducted perfunctorily, personnel training can not met the needs of the workplace, which need to be improved.

  8. United Nations system efforts to support the response to AIDS in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; Lin; HE; Joel; REHNSTROM

    2005-01-01

    In the last two years, we have seen a remarkable intensification in the response to AIDS in China. A number of organizations have joined and contributed to the efforts of the Chinese government in responding the AIDS epidemic in China. This article specifically describes the role of the United Nations in supporting and strengthening those responses.Achievements of the United Nations (UN) highlighted in the article include: strengthened leadership and political commitment to respond to AIDS; improved HIV/AIDS surveillance and information; expanded prevention efforts; improved treatment, care and support to people living with HIV and increased resources for AIDS programs. Additional roles of e., one national plan on AIDS; one national coordinating authority for AIDS; and one monitoring and evaluation system for AIDS. In addition, the UN system is expected to strengthen alignment and harmonization of activities of all international organizations and improved accountability and oversight. Remaining challenges identified include increasing awareness of AIDS and reducing stigma and discrimination; reducing vulnerability and risk behaviour among specific groups;providing improved treatment, care and support for people living with HIV; promoting stronger engagement by civil society, and; addressing the gender dimensions of AIDS.

  9. Laser experimental system as teaching aid for demonstrating basic phenomena of laser feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental laser teaching system is developed to demonstrate laser feedback phenomena, which bring great harm to optical communication and benefits to precision measurement. The system consists of an orthogonally polarized He-Ne laser, a feedback mirror which reflects the laser output light into the laser cavity, and an optical attenuator which changes the intensity of the feedback light. As the feedback mirror is driven by a piezoelectric ceramic, the attenuator is adjusted and the feedback mirror is tilted, the system can demonstrate many basic laser feedback phenomena, including weak, moderate and strong optical feedback, multiple feedback and polarization flipping. Demonstrations of these phenomena can give students a better understanding about the intensity and polarization of lasers. The system is well designed and assembled, simple to operate, and provides a valuable teaching aid at an undergraduate level. (paper)

  10. Introduction to ISOCAD (Integrated System of Computer Aided Dosimetry)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel, bar code based computerized application package from BRIT for the Ceric cerous Potentiometric Dose Measurement System for Gamma Irradiators. The present generation of gamma irradiators operating worldwide and catering to the radiation processing requirements of medium and high dose products from the healthcare and food processing industry invariably resort to Ceric cerous Potentiometric Dose Measurement Systems (CCPDMs). BRIT, being of the major supplier of this dose measurement system in the country has expanded its clientele to the Asian continent as well in the recent past, had been endeavoring to provide its valued clients this internationally acclaimed dose measurement system at competitive pricing. The perpetually changing quality conscious business environment with demanding cGMP requirements particularly from the healthcare and the food sector propelled the development of the ISOCAD

  11. The Italian System of Free Aids Provision for People with Disability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria Teresa Agati; Alessandro Giustini; Adelmo Gian Martino Mazzocchi

    2011-01-01

    Aids are only one of the instruments with which the disabled person can often reach a good level of autonomy,he can improve his conditions of life and prevent the aggravating of his situation.Aids serve also to facilitate care on the part of the family.The rights confirmed by Law 104 can also be achieved through the use of aids.The Italian state has planned a system of care with regards to aids so that some of them can be purchased with different tax concessions but essential aids,those necessary for the reaching of autonomy goals and prevention defined by an individual rehabilitative project,are supplied free of charge.In Italy essential aids are part therefore of a rehabilitation plan that is identified for each person with disabilities by a team made up of different professionals.

  12. The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Primary Education in Botswana: Educating Children as Agents of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torstensson, Gabriella; Brundrett, Mark

    2011-01-01

    HIV/AIDS can no longer be regarded solely as a public health issue as its impact extends well into all spheres of life, sectors of society and levels of the education system. This paper argues that not only is it paramount to draw on children's understanding of the impact of AIDS on their lives, but it is equally important to draw on their…

  13. Using System Dynamics to model the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Botswana and Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howell, R.; Wesselink, O.; Pruyt, E.

    2013-01-01

    Uganda and Botswana present two interesting and contrasting cases in the AIDS epidemic. System dynamics models of the AIDS epidemic in Botswana and Uganda were created to examine the future development of the virus in both countries and evaluate existing and future policy measures. The effect of exi

  14. Computer aided decision support system for cervical cancer classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmadwati, Rahmadwati; Naghdy, Golshah; Ros, Montserrat; Todd, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    Conventional analysis of a cervical histology image, such a pap smear or a biopsy sample, is performed by an expert pathologist manually. This involves inspecting the sample for cellular level abnormalities and determining the spread of the abnormalities. Cancer is graded based on the spread of the abnormal cells. This is a tedious, subjective and time-consuming process with considerable variations in diagnosis between the experts. This paper presents a computer aided decision support system (CADSS) tool to help the pathologists in their examination of the cervical cancer biopsies. The main aim of the proposed CADSS system is to identify abnormalities and quantify cancer grading in a systematic and repeatable manner. The paper proposes three different methods which presents and compares the results using 475 images of cervical biopsies which include normal, three stages of pre cancer, and malignant cases. This paper will explore various components of an effective CADSS; image acquisition, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction, classification, grading and disease identification. Cervical histological images are captured using a digital microscope. The images are captured in sufficient resolution to retain enough information for effective classification. Histology images of cervical biopsies consist of three major sections; background, stroma and squamous epithelium. Most diagnostic information are contained within the epithelium region. This paper will present two levels of segmentations; global (macro) and local (micro). At the global level the squamous epithelium is separated from the background and stroma. At the local or cellular level, the nuclei and cytoplasm are segmented for further analysis. Image features that influence the pathologists' decision during the analysis and classification of a cervical biopsy are the nuclei's shape and spread; the ratio of the areas of nuclei and cytoplasm as well as the texture and spread of the abnormalities

  15. Regional changes in the distribution of foreign aid: An entropy approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salois, Matthew J.

    2013-07-01

    Foreign aid contributes significantly to the income levels and economic viability of many developing countries. This paper investigates the dispersion in the distribution of foreign aid using the Theil entropy measure of inequality. Results show that the inequality (dispersion) of foreign aid has increased substantially in recent years. The increased inequality in the total distribution of aid has been due to both increases in the regional inequality of aid and increases in the average inequality of aid within each region. As a result, the distribution of aid is becoming less alike between regions and between countries within regions.

  16. Unconsciousness - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss of consciousness - first aid; Coma - first aid; Mental status change; Altered mental status ... has a change in mental status, follow these first aid steps: Call or tell someone to call 911 . ...

  17. Decision support system for the selection of an ITE or a BTE hearing aid

    OpenAIRE

    Anwar, Naveed; Oakes, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to mine a large set of heterogeneous audiology data to create a decision support system (DSS) to choose between two hearing aid types (ITE and BTE aid). This research is based on the data analysis of audiology data using various statistical and data mining techniques. It uses the data of a large NHS (National Health Services, UK) facility. It uses 180,000 records (covering more than 23,000 different patients) from a hearing aid clinic. The developed system u...

  18. Approach to integrate product conceptual design information into a computer-aided design system

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Macias, Victor H.; Ríos Chueco, José; Vizán Idoipe, Antonio; Pérez García, Jesus Maria

    2013-01-01

    Commercial computer-aided design systems support the geometric definition of product, but they lack utilities to support initial design stages. Typical tasks such as customer need capture, functional requirement formalization, or design parameter definition are conducted in applications that, for instance, support ?quality function deployment? and ?failure modes and effects analysis? techniques. Such applications are noninteroperable with the computer-aided design systems, leading to disconti...

  19. A Framework Study of Bohai Sea Ice Comprehensive Service and Expert Aid Decision-making System

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Xifang; Guo Donglin; Wang Shuo; Zhao Xiangyu; Song Yan; Liu Aichao; Jiang Wenfei; Wang Ruifu; Li Xiaomin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an overall framework about Bohai sea ice comprehensive service and expert aid decision-making system, among which six subsystems consists of sea ice multi-source information acquisition subsystem, sea ice comprehensive information database, sea ice comprehensive information integration subsystem, sea ice expert aid decision-making subsystem, sea ice products release subsystem, and sea ice disaster loss evaluation subsystem. The proposing system has such features as f...

  20. Preserving binaural hearing of hearing impaired subjects with binaural noise reduction systems for hearing aids

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Bogaert, Tim; Wouters, Jan; Moonen, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Hearing aid users experience great difficulty in understanding speech in noisy environments. This has led to the introduction of noise reduction algorithms in hearing aids. The development of these algorithms is typically done monaurally. However, the human auditory system is a binaural system, which compares and combines the signals received by both ears to perceive a sound source as a single entity in space. Providing two monaural, independently operating, noise reduction sys...

  1. AIDS-related primary central nervous system lymphoma: a Norwegian national survey 1989–2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a frequent complication in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The objective of this survey was to investigate incidence, clinical features, radiological findings, histologic diagnosis, treatment and outcome for all patients with histologically verified AIDS-related PCNSL diagnosed in Norway in 1989–2003. We identified the patients by chart review of all cases recorded as PCNSL in The Norwegian Cancer Registry (by law recording all cases of cancer in Norway) and all cases recorded as AIDS-related PCNSL in the autopsy registry at a hospital having 67% autopsy rate and treating 59% of AIDS patients in Norway, from 1989 to 2003. Histologic material and radiological images were reviewed. We used person-time techniques to calculate incidence rates of PCNSL among AIDS patients based on recordings on AIDS at the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases (by law recording all cases of AIDS in Norway). Twenty-nine patients had histologically confirmed, newly diagnosed AIDS-related PCNSL in Norway from 1989–2003. Only 2 patients had this diagnosis established while alive. AIDS patients had 5.5% lifetime risk of PCNSL. Their absolute incidence rate of PCNSL per 100 person-years was 1.7 (95%CI: 1.1–2.4) and decreased during the consecutive 5-year periods from 3.6, to 2.5, and to 0.4 (p < 0.001). Median survival from initial symptom of PCNSL was 2.3 months, but one patient was still alive 4 years after completed radiotherapy. This is the first national survey to confirm decreasing incidence of AIDS-related PCNSL. Despite dismal survival in most patients, the possibility of long term survival should prompt more aggressive diagnostics in suspected PCNSL

  2. Advances in a computer aided bilateral manipulator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper relates developments and experiments carried at Saclay in the frame of ARA/sup b/ program by the computer aided teleoperation (CAT) group. The goal is to improve efficiency and operational safety of remote operations using computer and sensors. They enable to substitute to the to the operator(s) in time sharing and/or in parallel, and augment amount and/or quality of sensory feedback. After describing the test facility in Saclay, the developments of various participants are described. Result of this work will be commercially available with the MA23M and future MAE 200 at La Calhene (France, UK, Japan)

  3. An Adaptive Guidance System for Robotic Walking Aids

    OpenAIRE

    Graf, Birgit

    2009-01-01

    In the last years, several robotic walking aids to assist elderly users with mobility constraints and thus to react to the growing number of elderly persons in our society have been developed. In order to ensure good support for the user, the robotic walker should adapt to the motion of the user while at the same time not losing the target out of sight. Even though some of the existing active robotic walkers are able to guide their user to a target, during guidance, the input of the user is n...

  4. Transponder-aided joint calibration and synchronization compensation for distributed radar systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Qin Wang

    Full Text Available High-precision radiometric calibration and synchronization compensation must be provided for distributed radar system due to separate transmitters and receivers. This paper proposes a transponder-aided joint radiometric calibration, motion compensation and synchronization for distributed radar remote sensing. As the transponder signal can be separated from the normal radar returns, it is used to calibrate the distributed radar for radiometry. Meanwhile, the distributed radar motion compensation and synchronization compensation algorithms are presented by utilizing the transponder signals. This method requires no hardware modifications to both the normal radar transmitter and receiver and no change to the operating pulse repetition frequency (PRF. The distributed radar radiometric calibration and synchronization compensation require only one transponder, but the motion compensation requires six transponders because there are six independent variables in the distributed radar geometry. Furthermore, a maximum likelihood method is used to estimate the transponder signal parameters. The proposed methods are verified by simulation results.

  5. Development of the computer-aided process planning (CAPP system for polymer injection molds manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tepić

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Beginning of production and selling of polymer products largely depends on mold manufacturing. The costs of mold manufacturing have significant share in the final price of a product. The best way to improve and rationalize polymer injection molds production process is by doing mold design automation and manufacturing process planning automation. This paper reviews development of a dedicated process planning system for manufacturing of the mold for injection molding, which integrates computer-aided design (CAD, computer-aided process planning (CAPP and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM technologies.

  6. Changing cocaine use practices: neo-liberalism, HIV-AIDS, and death in an Argentine shantytown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epele, María E

    2003-07-01

    Cocaine consuming patterns are changing among young drug users who live in "The Villa," a shantytown located in Greater Buenos Aires. After years of drug injection dominance, cocaine snorting became the preferred drug consuming practice while deep and fast structural and cultural transformations have been taken place as part of the neoliberal program implemented in Argentina during the 1990s and the final economic default in 2001-2002. In this article, I analyze how drug users understand and explain these changing practices, including the following aspects: deteriorating economic conditions, the transformations of survival strategies, moral codes, social network organization, violence regulating mechanisms, criminal activity, and police repression. Based on an ethnographic study carried out during the last eight months in "The Villa," I suggest that intense and generalized cocaine injection in shantytowns has logistic, organizational, and structural requirements that cocaine snorting does not have. Particularly, I explore two main aspects associated with these changing cocaine consumption practices: the consequences of the many Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-related deaths, which occurred among older drug injectors, and the progressive social fragmentation tied to the extreme economic deprivation, deepened social exclusion, and growing everyday violence. PMID:12908808

  7. A COMPUTER AIDED DIAGNOSIS SYSTEM FOR DETECTION OF LUNG CANCER NODULES USING EXTREME LEARNING MACHINE

    OpenAIRE

    Gomathi, M.; Dr.P.Thangaraj

    2010-01-01

    The Computer Aided Diagnosing (CAD) system is proposed in this paper for detection of lung cancer form the analysis of computed tomography (CT) images of chest. To produce a successful Computer Aided Diagnosissystem, several problems has to be resolved. Segmentation is the first problem to be considered which helps in generation of candidate region for detecting cancer nodules. The second problem is identification of affected nodules from all the candidate nodules. Initially, the basic image ...

  8. Development of a robotic mobile mapping system by vision-aided inertial navigation: a geomatics approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bayoud, Fadi Atef; Merminod, Bertrand

    2007-01-01

    Vision-based inertial-aided navigation is gaining ground due to its many potential applications. In previous decades, the integration of vision and inertial sensors was monopolised by the defence industry due to its complexity and unrealistic economic burden. After the technology advancement, high-quality hardware and computing power became reachable for the investigation and realisation of various applications. In this thesis, a mapping system by vision-aided inertial navigation was develope...

  9. MR imaging with pathologic correlation of central nervous system manifestations of AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the MR findings with the pathologic correlation of various examples of the opportunistic infection and other related conditions of head and neck involvement in patients with AIDS. Included in this exhibit are cryptococcal meningitis, tuberculous meningitis, tuberculoma, demyelinating white matter disease, aspergillosis, cervical osteomyelitis, transverse myelitis, primary central nervous system lymphoma, metastatic lymphoma, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, parotid cysts, AIDS-related otomastoiditis, and severe nasopharyngeal lymphadenopathy. The basis pathology and MR findings of each entity are described

  10. Immune Function Changes among HIV+/ARC/AIDS Patientsand Its Relationship to Disease Progression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Tiejian(冯铁建); HE Jianfan(何建凡); LI Liangcheng(李良成); CHEN Lin(陈琳)

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze HIV replication and immune functionchanges among Chinese patients with HIV/ARC/AIDS andtheir association with disease progression.Methods: T cell subsets, plasma cytokine concentrations andviral loads from 42 HIV+ individuals, and 13 ARC/AIDSpatients, and 10 controls were analyzed by flow cytometry(FCM), quantitative ELISA and reversetranscription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR),respectively.Results: CD4 cell counts and plasma IL-2 in HIV/AIDSpatients were significantly less than in normal control subjects(P<0.001). The plasma concentrations sIL-2R, TNF-α, andNeopterin increased significantly with decreasing CD4 cellcounts. Plasma IL-2 among AIDS/ARC patients was also lessthan in HIV+ patients (P<0.01). CD4 cell counts, the ratio ofCD4 to CD8 and plasma IL-2 levels decreased significantlywith infection duration. CD4 cell counts declined an averageof 43/ml per year. In contrast, the concentration of plasmasIL-2R, sTNFR-I, and Neopterin increased an average of9.03pg/ml, 8.69pg/ml, 2.11ng/ml per year, respectively.Furthermore, a significant reverse linear correlation wasobserved between CD4 cell count, CD4/CD8 ratio, and CD3,CD4 and CD8 counts with plasma levels of sTNFR-I,Neopterin, and HIV RNA load. A positive linear correlationwas noted between plasma sIL-2R levels and changes ofplasma IL-6 level (P<0.001), IL-10 (P<0.001), TNF-α(P<0.001),sTNFR-I (P<0.005), and Neopterin (P<0.002) and betweenIL-6 and TNF-α(P<0.001), Neopterin and IL-10 (P<0.05),sTNFR-I (P<0.001), plasma viral load and sTNFR-I (P<0.001),and Neopterin (P<0.002).Conclusion: These findings suggest a close relationshipbetween IL-6 and TNF-αimmune activation, HIV replicationand disease progression in primary HIV infections and AIDSpatients. Declining CD4 cells and plasma IL-2, and increasingviral load, sIL-2R, TNF-α, sTNFR-I, and Neopterin might beconsidered as important predictors of the progression of HIVinfection to AIDS.

  11. An Architecture of Computer Aided Process Planning System Integrated with Scheduling Using Decision Support System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manish; Kumar; Sunil; Rajotia

    2002-01-01

    Process planning and scheduling are two major plann in g and control activities that consume significant part of the lead-time, theref ore all attempts are being made to reduce lead-time by automating them. Compute r Aided Process Planning (CAPP) is a step in this direction. Most of the existin g CAPP systems do not consider scheduling while generating a process plan. Sched uling is done separately after the process plan has been generated and therefore , it is possible that a process plan so generated is e...

  12. Micrometric precision of prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    das Neves, Flávio Domingues; de Almeida Prado Naves Carneiro, Thiago; do Prado, Célio Jesus; Prudente, Marcel Santana; Zancopé, Karla; Davi, Letícia Resende; Mendonça, Gustavo; Soares, Carlos José

    2014-08-01

    The current study evaluated prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and a computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system using micro-computed tomography to compare the marginal fit. The virtual models were obtained with four different scanning surfaces: typodont (T), regular impressions (RI), master casts (MC), and powdered master casts (PMC). Five virtual models were obtained for each group. For each model, a crown was designed on the software and milled from feldspathic ceramic blocks. Micro-CT images were obtained for marginal gap measurements and the data were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test. The mean vertical misfit was T=62.6±65.2 μm; MC=60.4±38.4 μm; PMC=58.1±38.0 μm, and RI=89.8±62.8 μm. Considering a percentage of vertical marginal gap of up to 75 μm, the results were T=71.5%, RI=49.2%, MC=69.6%, and PMC=71.2%. The percentages of horizontal overextension were T=8.5%, RI=0%, MC=0.8%, and PMC=3.8%. Based on the results, virtual model acquisition by scanning the typodont (simulated mouth) or MC, with or without powder, showed acceptable values for the marginal gap. The higher result of marginal gap of the RI group suggests that it is preferable to scan this directly from the mouth or from MC.

  13. A computer-aided surface roughness measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A diamond stylus profilometer with computer-based data acquisitions/analysis system is being used to characterize surfaces of reactor components and materials, and to examine the effects of surface topography on thermal contact conductance. The current system is described; measurement problems and system development are discussed in general terms and possible future improvements are outlined

  14. Reservoir Systems in Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, W.; Tung, C.; Tai, C.

    2007-12-01

    Climate change may cause more climate variability and further results in more frequent extreme hydrological events which may greatly influence reservoir¡¦s abilities to provide service, such as water supply and flood mitigation, and even danger reservoir¡¦s safety. Some local studies have identified that climate change may cause more flood in wet period and less flow in dry period in Taiwan. To mitigate climate change impacts, more reservoir space, i.e. less storage, may be required to store higher flood in wet periods, while more reservoir storage may be required to supply water for dry periods. The goals to strengthen adaptive capacity of water supply and flood mitigation are conflict under climate change. This study will focus on evaluating the impacts of climate change on reservoir systems. The evaluation procedure includes hydrological models, a reservoir water balance model, and a water supply system dynamics model. The hydrological models are used to simulate reservoir inflows under different climate conditions. Future climate scenarios are derived from several GCMs. Then, the reservoir water balance model is developed to calculate reservoir¡¦s storage and outflows according to the simulated inflows and operational rules. The ability of flood mitigation is also evaluated. At last, those outflows are further input to the system dynamics model to assess whether the goal of water supply can still be met. To mitigate climate change impacts, the implementing adaptation strategies will be suggested with the principles of risk management. Besides, uncertainties of this study will also be analyzed. The Feitsui reservoir system in northern Taiwan is chosen as a case study.

  15. Case Based Reasoning Intelligent System for Network Computer Aided Process Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chunhua; WU Zhengjia; ZHOU Chengjun; ZHU Dalin; LI Haoping

    2006-01-01

    Computer aided process planning system played a key role for integrating design and manufacturing or assembly systems properly considering available resources and design constraints. To take advantage of the enterprise resource, the web CAPP framework was established. Case based reasoning and multi agent system were integrated in the system. The multi agent mechanism was discussed in the paper. And an instance of case base was introduced. They made the system run independently and continuously in the network environment of process planning problems.

  16. Did Cuts in State Aid during the Great Recession Lead to Changes in Local Property Taxes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Rajashri; Livingston, Max; Roy, Joydeep

    2014-01-01

    The Great Recession led to marked declines in state revenue. In this paper we investigate whether (and how) local school districts modified their funding and taxing decisions in response to state aid declines in the post-recession period. Our results reveal school districts responded to state aid cuts in the post-recession period by countering…

  17. Vision Aided State Estimation for Helicopter Slung Load System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Morten; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; la Cour-Harbo, Anders;

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the design and verification of a state estimator for a helicopter based slung load system. The estimator is designed to augment the IMU driven estimator found in many helicopter UAV s and uses vision based updates only. The process model used for the estimator is a simple 4...... state acceleration driven pendulum. Sensor input for the filter is provided by a vision based system that measures the position of the slung load. The estimator needs no prior knowledge of the system as it estimates the length of the suspension system together with the system states. Finally...

  18. Satellite-aided coastal zone monitoring and vessel traffic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The development and demonstration of a coastal zone monitoring and vessel traffic system is described. This technique uses a LORAN-C navigational system and relays signals via the ATS-3 satellite to a computer driven color video display for real time control. Multi-use applications of the system to search and rescue operations, coastal zone management and marine safety are described. It is emphasized that among the advantages of the system are: its unlimited range; compatibility with existing navigation systems; and relatively inexpensive cost.

  19. Two-dimensional layout computer-aided system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Tong; Cao, Juliang; Zhang, Xiong

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents a computer software system for an often encountered 2D layout problem in the shipbuilding and manufacture industries. For an ordered set of irregular as well as rectangular pieces, the system produces rectangles called modules for the pieces at first, and then places these modules into given rectangular sheets of fixed dimensions such that the number of sheets used is minimized. The system also provides the user with an interaction procedure in order to make itself as flexible as possible. This system has been implemented on IBM PC/AT 486 and compatible computers and is supported by AutoCAD system.

  20. Persons with Alzheimer's Disease Make Phone Calls Independently Using a Computer-Aided Telephone System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perilli, Viviana; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Cassano, Germana; Cordiano, Noemi; Pinto, Katia; Minervini, Mauro G.; Oliva, Doretta

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed whether four patients with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease could make independent phone calls via a computer-aided telephone system. The study was carried out according to a non-concurrent multiple baseline design across participants. All participants started with baseline during which the telephone system was not available,…

  1. The Shifting Financial Aid System in Spanish University: Grant-Recipients' Experiences and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Río-Ruiz, Manuel Ángel; Jiménez-Rodrigo, María Luisa; Caro-Cabrera, Manuel Jesús

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 Spain inaugurated a reform of its higher education financial aid system inspired by three principles: cost-sharing, increasing academic performance and school efficiency. This reform has shifted the aim of the system from equality of access to a type of meritocracy that can be defined as class-biased, as it is only applied to low-income…

  2. MVPACK: a computer-aided design tool for multivariable control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and analysis of high-performance controllers for complex plants require a collection of interactive, powerful computer software. MVPACK, an open-ended package for the computer-aided design of control systems, has been developed in the Reactor Control Branch of the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. The package is fully interactive and includes a comprehensive state-of-the-art mathematical library to support development of complex, multivariable, control algorithms. Coded in RATFOR, MVPACK is portable with minimal changes. It operates with a flexible data structure which makes efficient use of minicomputer resources and provides a standard framework for program generation. The existence of a help mechanism enhances the simplicity of package utilization. This paper provides a brief tutorial overview of the package. It reviews the specifications used in the design and implementation of the package and briefly describes the database structure, supporting libraries and some design and analysis modules of MVPACK. Several application examples to illustrate the capability of the package are given. Experience with MVPACK shows that the package provides a synergistic environment for the design of control and regulation systems, and that it is a unique tool for training of control system engineers

  3. Over-the-Counter Hearing Aids: A Lost Decade for Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Yee Ting Chan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hearing aids sold directly to consumers in retail stores or through the internet, without individual prescription by audiological professionals, are termed over-the-counter (OTC devices. This study aimed to determine whether there was any change in the electroacoustic characteristics of OTC devices compared to research carried out a decade earlier. The previous results indicated that most OTC devices were low-frequency-emphasis devices and were unsuitable for elderly people with presbycusis, who were likely to be the major consumers of these products. Methods. Ten OTC devices were selected and their electroacoustic performance was measured. Appropriate clients for the OTC devices were derived, using four linear prescription formulae, and OTC suitability for elderly persons with presbycusis was investigated. Results. OTC electroacoustic characteristics were similar to those in the earlier study. Most OTC devices were not acoustically appropriate for potential consumers with presbycusis. Although several of the devices could match prescriptive targets for individuals with presbycusis, their poor electroacoustic performance—including ineffective volume control function, high equivalent input noise, and irregular frequency response—may override their potential benefit. Conclusion. The low-cost OTC devices were generally not suitable for the main consumers of these products, and there has been little improvement in the appropriateness of these devices over the past decade.

  4. A Mathematical Model for the Dynamics of HIV/AIDS with Gradual Behaviour Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Baryarama

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An HIV/AIDS model that incorporates gradual behaviour change is formulated with a variable force of infection for the adult population. The variability is modelled using a general function of time since introduction of the initial infective and exemplified for three specific functions. Expressions for the time taken for the reproductive number to reduce to unity and expressions for the time taken to attain a stationary steady state are deduced and discussed. Model projections for urban, peri-urban and rural Uganda are compared with corresponding antenatal clinic sites prevalence trends. The analysis shows that the dramatic decline in HIV prevalence in Uganda in the early 1990s was only possible through drastic declines in the force of infection. Since prevalence was high and reductions in frequency of sexual acts was minimal, the huge reduction could be attributed to reductions in probability of transmission per sexual act probably due to increased selective condom use among high risk sexual partnerships since overall condom use was low.

  5. Three-dimensional computer aided design system for plant layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CAD system for three-dimensional plant layout planning, with which the layout of pipings, cable trays, air conditioning ducts and so on in nuclear power plants can be planned and designed effectively in a short period is reported. This system comprises the automatic routing system by storing the rich experience and know-how of designers in a computer as the knowledge, and deciding the layout automatically following the predetermined sequence by using these, the interactive layout system for reviewing the routing results from higher level and modifying to the optimum layout, the layout evaluation system for synthetically evaluating the layout from the viewpoint of the operability such as checkup and maintenance, and the data base system which enables these effective planning and design. In this report, the total constitution of this system and the technical features and effects of the individual subsystems are outlined. In this CAD system for three-dimensional plant layout planning, knowledge engineering, CAD/CAM, computer graphics and other latest technology were introduced, accordingly by applying this system to plant design, the design can be performed quickly, various case studies can be carried out at planning stage, and systematic and optimum layout planning becomes possible. (Kako, I.)

  6. Computer aided production planning - SWZ system of order verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenczyk, D.; Skolud, B.

    2015-11-01

    SWZ (System of order verification) is a computer implementation of the methodology that support fast decision making on the acceptability of a production order, which allows to determine not the best possible solution, but admissible solution that is possible to find in an acceptable time (feasible solution) and acceptable due to the existing constraints. The methodology uses the propagation of constraints techniques and reduced to test a sequence of arbitrarily selected conditions. Fulfilment of all the conditions (the conjunction) provides the ability to perform production orders. In the paper examples of the application of SWZ system comprising the steps of planning and control is presented. The obtained results allowing the determination of acceptable production flow in the system - determination of the manufacturing system parameters those that ensure execution of orders in time under the resource constraints. SWZ also allows to generate the dispatching rules as a sequence of processing operations for each production resource, performed periodically during the production flow in the system. Furthermore the example of SWZ and simulation system integration is shown. SWZ has been enhanced with a module generating files containing the script code of the system model using the internal language of simulation and visualization system.

  7. Systems Design Perspective of Healthcare Provision in Humanitarian Aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Laura Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the role of Systems Design in addressing the challenges of healthcare provision by international emergency relief organizations in developing countries. More specifically the challenges related to the safety and performance of medical equipment that is transferred in the aftermath of a humanitarian crisis. The aim of this paper is to describe the transfer of medical equipment and its associated challenges from a systems perspective and to reflect on the value of Systems Design as an approach to humanitarian innovation, addressing the identified systemic challenges. The concepts of Human Factors and Ergonomics, and Product-Service Systems will be presented as valuable contributions to support designers in handling a larger degree of complexity throughout the design process and to support them to make informed choices regarding this particular context.

  8. Decision support system to help choose between an ITE or a BTE hearing aid

    OpenAIRE

    Anwar, Naveed; Oakes, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A decision support system (DSS) is used for analysing a situation and making decisions. The goal of this research is to mine a large set of heterogeneous audiology data and create a DSS to help audiology technicians to choose between an ITE or BTE hearing aid. Although, in many cases such a choice is clear cut, but at other times this system could be used as a second opinion to predict the hearing aid type. A number of data mining techniques, such as clustering of audiograms, association anal...

  9. Driver-aid system using path-planning for lateral vehicle control

    OpenAIRE

    Lauffenburger, Jean-Philippe; Basset, Michel; Coffin, Frank; Gissinger, Gérard

    2003-01-01

    The Navigation Aided Intelligent Cruise Control (N.A.I.C.C.) system acts in the field of the lateral and longitudinal control of a car. This paper only describes the lateral part of this new driver-aid system. Once the vehicle is located on the road, it determines the distance to the next bend and predicts a reference path to negotiate this bend considering the road profile, the vehicle characteristics and the driver's profile. The use of polar curves for the description of a turn eliminates ...

  10. Computer aided engineering for injection mould cooling system design

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Niall

    1998-01-01

    The time taken in the cooling stage, of a typical injection moulding cycle, is a large factor in the productivity and efficiency of a plastic manufacturing process, and for this reason, must be minimised. In order to do this a cooling system is employed throughout the mould core. This thesis describes the development and implementation of a PC based analysis system that can be used to optimise the size and position of injection mould cooling systems. The software is fully ‘32-Bit’, operat...

  11. Computer aided radiation protection system at Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper described the system in the title for the purpose of more efficient and effective radiation control because the Plant handles a large amount of radioactive substances like U, Pu and FP in 27 facilities in a wide area of 115,000 m2. The system consists of CPU1 connected with area, dust and exhaust-gas monitors and CPU2 which mainly processing the off-line data. CPU2 works for control of dose equivalent rate, of radioactivity concentration in air, of exhausting radioactive gas, of radiation works and of common use. The system has resulted in centralization of data information control, common information owning and level-raising/labor-saving of radiation control. Supporting system for better radiation control and active public opening of the control information are to be planned. (K.H.)

  12. Opening the Market for Lower Cost Hearing Aids: Regulatory Change Can Improve the Health of Older Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Barbara E.

    2016-01-01

    Hearing loss is a leading cause of disability among older people. Yet only one in seven US adults who could benefit from a hearing aid uses one. This fraction has not increased over the past 30 years, nor have hearing aid prices dropped, despite trends of steady improvements and price reductions in the consumer electronics industry. The President’s Council on Science and Technology has proposed changes in the regulation of hearing aids, including the creation of a “basic” low-cost over-the-counter category of devices. We discuss the potential to reduce disability as well as to improve public health, stakeholder responses to the president’s council’s proposal, and public health efforts to further mitigate the burden of disability stemming from age-related hearing loss. PMID:27077339

  13. Opening the Market for Lower Cost Hearing Aids: Regulatory Change Can Improve the Health of Older Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blustein, Jan; Weinstein, Barbara E

    2016-06-01

    Hearing loss is a leading cause of disability among older people. Yet only one in seven US adults who could benefit from a hearing aid uses one. This fraction has not increased over the past 30 years, nor have hearing aid prices dropped, despite trends of steady improvements and price reductions in the consumer electronics industry. The President's Council on Science and Technology has proposed changes in the regulation of hearing aids, including the creation of a "basic" low-cost over-the-counter category of devices. We discuss the potential to reduce disability as well as to improve public health, stakeholder responses to the president's council's proposal, and public health efforts to further mitigate the burden of disability stemming from age-related hearing loss. PMID:27077339

  14. A calculational system to aid economical use of MTRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of a fast and accurate core neutronic calculational system is a valuable asset in the operation and utilization of research reactors. Its primary value lies in optimum reload design, fuel management, safety and utilization studies. In this paper the OSCAR-3 calculational system of the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa (AEC) is discussed in detail. The different components and important features are explained with a short summary of some comparisons with experiments. (author)

  15. Augmented reality aided operation and maintenance system for indoor environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes an Augmented Reality (AR) system to assist operation and maintenance tasks in an indoor environment, such as a nuclear fusion reactor and its building. AR is a technology that enhances real information by adding 3D virtual objects, images, sounds, or movies via a web camera. The AR system often uses “markers” such as QR code to detect the place where the virtual content should appear. However, these markers are unnatural and they can disturb the scenery. We propose an AR system that can detect natural markers, which provides AR content via a network. This system stores the information related to markers and virtual objects on a server. A device connected to this system automatically downloads this content so that the user can watch the AR content via a web camera. We add a real-time numerical simulation function that allows us to simulate physical phenomena by touching AR contents. It also enables us to observe simulation results by downloading a movie of numerical simulation results from the simulation server. Overall, this system allows us to watch the same content with multiple devices and to simulate physical phenomena using various parameters. (author)

  16. Computer-aided prototype system for nose surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T Y; Lin, C H; Lin, H Y

    2001-12-01

    Rhinoplasty, or surgery to reshape the nose, is one of the most common of all plastic-surgery procedures. Rhinoplasty can enhance a patient's appearance and self-confidence, may also correct a birth defect or injury, or help relieve some breathing problem. In this paper, we present a three-dimensional (3-D) surgical simulation system, which can assist surgeons in planning rhinoplasty procedures. This system employs computer graphics and image-processing techniques for the simulation of a rhinoplasty. Although the presented algorithms themselves are not new, the proposed system exploits the new idea to apply 3-D morphing for rhinoplasty, and simulation results are useful for the physicians. According to patients' expectation of what they would like their noses to look like, our system simulates expected results. Our tools provide quantitative measurements of a nose structure. Using these quantitative results, surgeons can arrange appropriate preoperative plans for patients. Finally, experimental results and experiences are reported to evaluate the usefulness of the proposed system. PMID:11759833

  17. Enrolment into Higher Education and Changes in Repayment Obligations of Student Aid: Microeconometric Evidence for Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgartner, Hans J.; Steiner, Viktor

    2004-01-01

    We evaluate the effect of the federal students’ financial assistance scheme (BAfoeG) on enrolment rates into higher education by exploiting the exogenous variation introduced through a discrete shift in the repayment regulations. Supported students had to repay the full loan until 1990. Thereafter, 50 percent of the student aid has been offered as a non-repayable grant. Our results from simple difference-in- difference estimates suggest that student aid is ineffective in raising enrolment rat...

  18. A Hypermedia Computer-Aided Parasitology Tutoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoropoulos, Georgios; Loumos, Vassili

    A hypermedia tutoring system for teaching parasitology to college students was developed using an object oriented software development tool, Knowledge Pro. The program was designed to meet four objectives: knowledge incorporation, tutoring, indexing of key words for Boolean search, and random generation of quiz questions with instant scoring. The…

  19. HIV and AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Kids > HIV and AIDS ... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ...

  20. Variant Computer Aided Process Planning System for Rotational Parts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AHMED Hassan; YAO Zhen-qiang; CAI Jian-guo

    2005-01-01

    The amount of material must be removed away to produce the final product should minimize, excess stock will increase not only the material cost, but also processing cost, fixture cost, tooling cost, and increases machine cycle times.Noticing in recent years that the world is running out of mineral resources, and the price of engineering materials will continually rise in the future, the percentage of the cost of manufactured part that is due to the cost of materials is also rising. This paper proposed a variant CAPP system for rotational parts based on the concept of group technology,this system accepts part features characteristics code number as an input and provides operation details for manufacturing route with the suitable primary processes required to produce the blank work piece as an output.

  1. CAGD - Computer Aided Gripper Design for a Flexible Gripping System

    OpenAIRE

    Bernd Kuhlenkoetter; Michael Sdahl

    2005-01-01

    This paper is a summary of the recently accomplished research work on flexible gripping systems. The goal is to develop a gripper which can be used for a great amount of geometrically variant workpieces. The economic aspect is of particular importance during the whole development. The high flexibility of the gripper is obtained by three parallel used principles. These are human and computer based analysis of the gripping object as well as mechanical adaptation of the gripper to the object wit...

  2. ROCK-CAD - computer aided geological modelling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study discusses surface and solid modelling methods, their use and interfacing with geodata. Application software named ROCK-CAD suitable for geological bedrock modelling has been developed with support from Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO). It has been utilized in the Finnish site characterization programme for spent nuclear fuel waste disposal during the 1980s and 1990s. The system is based on the solid modelling technique. It comprises also rich functionality for the particular geological modelling scheme. The ROCK-CAD system provides, among other things, varying graphical vertical and horizontal intersections and perspective illustrations. The specially developed features are the application of the boundary representation modelling method, parametric object generation language and the discipline approach. The ROCK-CAD system has been utilized in modelling spatial distribution of rock types and fracturing structures in TVO's site characterization. The Olkiluoto site at Eurajoki serves as an example case. The study comprises the description of the modelling process, models and illustration examples. The utilization of bedrock models in site characterization, in tentative repository siting as well as in groundwater flow simulation is depicted. The application software has improved the assessment of the sites studied, given a new basis for the documentation of interpretation and modelling work, substituted hand-drawing and enabled digital transfer to numerical analysis. Finally, aspects of presentation graphics in geological modelling are considered. (84 refs., 30 figs., 11 tabs.)

  3. A PC-aided optical foetal heart rate detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oweis, Rami J; As'ad, Hala; Aldarawsheh, Amany; Al-Khdeirat, Rawan; Lwissy, Kaldoun

    2014-01-01

    Safe monitoring of foetal heart rate is a valuable tool for the healthy evolution and wellbeing of both foetus and mother. This paper presents a non-invasive optical technique that allows for foetal heart rate detection using a photovoltaic infrared (IR) detector placed on the mother's abdomen. The system presented here consists of a photoplethysmography (PPG) circuit, abdomen circuit and a personal computer equipped with MATLAB. A near IR beam having a wavelength of 880 nm is transmitted through the mother's abdomen and foetal tissue. The received abdominal signal that conveys information pertaining to the mother and foetal heart rate is sensed by a low noise photodetector. The PC receives the signal through the National Instrumentation Data Acquisition Card (NIDAQ). After synchronous detection of the abdominal and finger PPG signals, the designed MATLAB-based software saves, analyses and extracts information related to the foetal heart rate. Extraction is carried out using recursive least squares adaptive filtration. Measurements on eight pregnant women with gestational periods ranging from 35-39 weeks were performed using the proposed system and CTG. Results show a correlation coefficient of 0.978 and a correlation confidence interval between 88-99.6%. The t test results in a p value of 0.034, which is less than 0.05. Low power, low cost, high signal-to-noise ratio, reduction of ambient light effect and ease of use are the main characteristics of the proposed system. PMID:24195701

  4. Computer-aided-engineering system for modeling and analysis of ECLSS integration testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepahban, Sonbol

    1987-01-01

    The accurate modeling and analysis of two-phase fluid networks found in environmental control and life support systems is presently undertaken by computer-aided engineering (CAE) techniques whose generalized fluid dynamics package can solve arbitrary flow networks. The CAE system for integrated test bed modeling and analysis will also furnish interfaces and subsystem/test-article mathematical models. Three-dimensional diagrams of the test bed are generated by the system after performing the requisite simulation and analysis.

  5. Evolution of facility layout requirements and CAD [computer-aided design] system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall configuration of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) including the infrastructure and land boundary requirements were developed using a computer-aided design (CAD) system. The evolution of the facility layout requirements and the use of the CAD system are discussed. The emphasis has been on minimizing the amount of input required and maximizing the speed by which the output may be obtained. The computer system used to store the data is also described

  6. LiDAR Scan Matching Aided Inertial Navigation System in GNSS-Denied Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Tang; Yuwei Chen; Xiaoji Niu; Li Wang; Liang Chen; Jingbin Liu; Chuang Shi; Juha Hyyppä

    2015-01-01

    A new scan that matches an aided Inertial Navigation System (INS) with a low-cost LiDAR is proposed as an alternative to GNSS-based navigation systems in GNSS-degraded or -denied environments such as indoor areas, dense forests, or urban canyons. In these areas, INS-based Dead Reckoning (DR) and Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technologies are normally used to estimate positions as separate tools. However, there are critical implementation problems with each standalone system. Th...

  7. The Changing Pathology of NeuroAIDS Associated with Drug Abuse in the Era of HAART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne E. Bell

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Compliance with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART arrests HIV induced immune collapse and reduces the prevalence of severe central nervous system (CNS complications, including HIV associated dementia and encephalitis. However minor cognitive disorders remain common and recent autopsy studies have demonstrated the presence of subtle neuropathological abnormalities in HAART treated individuals, including persistent neuroinflammation and enhanced deposition in the brain of proteins associated with neurodegeneration. The closest comparison group from the pre-HAART era is that comprising presymptomatic HIV infected individuals dying from non HIV related causes. HIV is believed to enter the CNS at or soon after the time of initial infection. Whether this occurs in all HIV infected individuals is unknown. The virus is probably restrained from progressing to a productive CNS infection by systemic and innate immune controls which include surveillance of brain tissue by patrolling CD8 lymphocytes. However HIV is not eliminated from the CNS compartment and is present at low level in the brains of some HAART treated just as in pre-HAART subjects. Brain viral isolates appear to be neuroadapted and clearly persist long term in the sanctuary of the CNS. This review compares and contrasts data derived from studies of the brain in pre and post HAART cohorts. The implications of increasing longevity in treated individuals who may have low level HIV infection of brain tissue, associated with lymphocytic infiltration and microglial/macrophage activation, are discussed. The exact roles of these cellular reactions in relation to viral suppression are unclear at present. The complexity of this scenario is further heightened when other factors such as illicit drug intake and hepatitis-induced encephalopathy contribute to the clinical outcome. These added insults lead to damaging effects in the brain which may augment those induced by HIV/AIDS. Taken together

  8. 76 FR 15311 - Legacy Learning Systems, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... Legacy Learning Systems, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment AGENCY: Federal... draft complaint and the terms of the consent order--embodied in the consent agreement--that would settle... an individual's Social Security Number; date of birth; driver's license number or other...

  9. A Computer Aided System for Correlation and Prediction of Phase Equilibrium Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T.L.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2001-01-01

    based on mathematical programming. This paper describes the development of a computer aided system for the systematic derivation of appropriate property models to be used in the service role for a specified problem. As a first step, a library of well-known property models ha's been developed and a...

  10. Colorado Community College System Financial Aid Services: Cost Analyses and Cost Efficiency Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Dale

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted in two phases. One, the Cost Analysis, reports on inventory and analysis of actual estimated costs for delivering financial aid services to students and potential students in thirteen Colorado Community College System (CCCS) community colleges in Fiscal Year 2003. Additionally, an assessment of services and functions is…

  11. A Computer-Aided Self-Testing System for Biological Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiblum, M. D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes the production of a computer-aided, self-testing system for university students enrolled in a first-year course in biological psychology. Project aspects described include selection, acquisition and description of software; question banks and test structures; modes of use (computer or printed version); evaluation; and future plans. (11…

  12. Computer-aided diagnosis system for bone scintigrams from Japanese patients: importance of training database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horikoshi, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Akihiro; Onoguchi, Masahisa;

    2012-01-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) software for bone scintigrams have recently been introduced as a clinical quality assurance tool. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of two CAD systems, one based on a European and one on a Japanese training database, in a group of bone...

  13. Why AIDS? The Mystery of How HIV Attacks the Immune System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Damaris

    1999-01-01

    Reviews differing theories surrounding the mystery of how human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) attacks the immune system. Claims that understanding how HIV triggers immune-cell depletion may enable researchers to block its effects. New knowledge could reveal strategies for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) therapies that go beyond the drugs…

  14. High phase noise tolerant pilot-tone-aided DP-QPSK optical communication systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xu; Pang, Xiaodan; Deng, Lei;

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we experimentally demonstrate a novel, high phase-noise tolerant, optical dual polarization (DP) quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) communication system based on pilot-tone-aided phase noise cancellation (PNC) algorithm. Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) with...

  15. The Italian System of Free Aids Provision for People with Disability:Future Developments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria Teresa Agati; Alessandro Giustini

    2011-01-01

    The Italian care situation with regards to prostheses and aids is satisfying.The norm which establishes the ways in which aids can be supplied to disabled people goes back to 1999 and,even though it is based on correct principles and even though it has produced positive effects in the improvement of the life of disabled people,it must be updated in the light of the more recent technological and scientific innovations and of the new information instruments such as the diffusion of information and communication systems.

  16. Analysis of Beamformer Directed Single-Channel Noise Reduction System for Hearing Aid Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper; Pedersen, Michael Syskind

    We study multi-microphone noise reduction systems consisting of a beamformer and a single-channel (SC) noise reduction stage. In particular, we present and analyse a maximum likelihood (ML) method for jointly estimating the target and noise power spectral densities (psd's) entering the SC filter....... locations. In a hearing aid context, we analyze the performance of the estimators as a function of target angle-of-arrival and frequency. Finally, we demonstrate the advantage of the proposed method in a hearing aid situation with a target speaker in large-crowd noise....

  17. An Aid for Mechanisation of Flight Control Systems on Micro-Computers

    OpenAIRE

    T.V. Rama Murthy; Seshadri, V.

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of an automated aid to translate the block diagram of flight control system (FCS) to assembly level code. By defining a suitable syntax and by building a matrix of inputs and outputs of the blocks, it becomes easy to translate the block diagram. It is also shown how the process of fault detection can be automated. The results obtained through the automated aid have been validated by ORACLE library using the block diagram of Cstar controller of F8 a...

  18. The inclusion of training aids in environment monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A training program has been developed based upon the Dounreay Environmental Monitoring System (DEMS). The program is written in C on a Harwell Modular computer. The program simulates an accident somewhere within the facility, selected at random and models the spread of contaminants through it in real time. The model considers the dispersion of contaminant in the source room and the distribution of contaminant between rooms. Air contamination levels and radiation doses are calculated at each of the monitoring positions and are displayed on a VDU in the same format as the DEMS display. (author)

  19. Linear networks and systems algorithms and computer-aided implementations

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    1990-01-01

    This two-volume introductory text on modern network and system theory establishes a firm analytic foundation for the analysis, design and optimization of a wide variety of passive and active circuits. Volume 1 is devoted to the fundamentals and Volume 2 to Fourier analysis and state equations. Its prerequisites are basic calculus, dc and ac networks, matrix algebra, and some familiarity with linear differential equations. The objective of the book is to select and feature theories and concepts of fundamental importance that are amendable to a broad range of applications. A special feature of t

  20. Analysis of a clock-aided global navigation satellite system (GNSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a dilution of precision (DOP) analysis of a clock-aided global navigation satellite system (GNSS). Firstly, the analysis shows that a best linear unbiased estimator should be used in the clock-aided GNSS to get the best improvements in accuracy. Secondly, the influence of the clock on vertical DOP (VDOP) and horizontal DOP (HDOP) is analysed by using the clock characteristics as a weighting matrix. The analysis highlights quantitative improvements in the VDOP and HDOP and explains why improvements in the VDOP are superior to those of the HDOP in the clock-aided GNSS. Finally, the paper analyses how incorrectly known a priori clock variances degrade the level of accuracy and offers guidelines for determining a weighting matrix in the cases where the clock characteristics are not clearly known

  1. Validation of a Virtual Sound Environment System for Testing Hearing Aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cubick, Jens; Dau, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    reverberation, background noise, and multiple interfering talkers. Loudspeaker-based sound field reproduction techniques, such as higher-order Ambisonics, allow for the simulation of such complex sound environments and can be used for realistic listening experiments with hearing aids. However, to successfully...... employ such systems, it is crucial to know how experimental results from a virtual environment translate to the corresponding real environment. In this study, speech reception thresholds (SRTs) were measured with normal-hearing listeners wearing hearing aids, both in a real room and in a simulation of...... that room auralized via a spherical array of 29 loudspeakers, using either Ambisonics or a nearest loudspeaker method. The benefit from a static beamforming algorithm was considered in comparison to a hearing aid setting with omnidirectional microphones. The measured SRTs were about 2-4 dB higher, and...

  2. A tone-aided dual vestigial sideband system for digital communications on fading channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Stephen M.; Saulnier, Gary J.; Rafferty, William

    1989-01-01

    A spectrally efficient tone-aided dual vestigial sideband (TA/DVSB) system for digital data communications on fading channels is presented and described analytically. This PSK (phase-shift-keying) system incorporates a feed-forward, tone-aided demodulation technique to compensate for Doppler frequency shift and channel- induced, multipath fading. In contrast to other tone-in-band-type systems, receiver synchronization is derived from the complete data VSBs. Simulation results for the Rician fading channel are presented. These results demonstrate the receiver's ability to mitigate performance degradation due to fading and to obtain proper data carrier synchronization, suggesting that the proposed TA/DVSB system has promise for this application. Simulated BER (bit-error rate) data indicate that the TA/DVSB system effectively alleviates the channel distortions of the land mobile satellite application.

  3. Wireless Secrecy in Cellular Systems with Infrastructure--Aided Cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Popovski, Petar

    2008-01-01

    In cellular systems, confidentiality of uplink transmission with respect to eavesdropping terminals can be ensured by creating intentional inteference via scheduling of concurrent downlink transmissions. In this paper, this basic idea is explored from an information-theoretic standpoint by focusing on a two-cell scenario where the involved base stations are connected via a finite-capacity backbone link. A number of transmission strategies are considered that aim at improving uplink confidentiality under constraints on the downlink rate that acts as an interfering signal. The strategies differ mainly in the way the backbone link is exploited by the cooperating downlink- to the uplink-operated base stations. Achievable rates are derived for both the Gaussian (unfaded) and the fading cases, under different assumptions on the channel state information available at different nodes. Numerical results are also provided to corroborate the analysis. Overall, the analysis reveals that a combination of scheduling and ba...

  4. Aging changes in the male reproductive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aging changes in the male reproductive system may include changes in testicular tissue, sperm production, and erectile ... during a process that some people call andropause. Aging changes in the male reproductive system occur primarily ...

  5. The European CO2 Emission Trading System and State Aid. An assessment of the grandfathering allocation method and the Performance Standard Rate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The center piece of the European Climate Change Program is the ambitious Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS, Directive 2003/87/EC) which helps Member States to fulfill their Kyoto commitments. It particularly facilitates the old EU 15 Member States to make progress towards meeting their particular greenhouse gas emissions reduction goals committed under the Burden Sharing Agreement. EU Member States have developed national greenhouse gas allowances allocation plans and distributed these allowances to around 5000 operators with approximately 12.000 installations. Differences between allocations can give rise to severe anticompetitive effects. European Competition law (Article 87 EC Treaty) seeks to contain government based interference with the competitive positions of market participants (so called undertakings). That is generally referred to as the granting of 'State aid'. The paper examines how (historical) grandfathering and the Performance Standard Rate system (PSR) are to be assessed under State aid rules and how they compare with this regard to each other. The PSR System is a relative benchmark system with an intended cap for all participants but without a cap for individual operators. This alternative approach has been developed and is actually in use for the Dutch NOx Emission Trading System. After the introductory part relevant State aid criteria (Article 87(1) EC Treaty) are cited. Each is introduced in turn and followed by an assessment of the grandfathering system and the PSR system. Subsequently relevant derogations of European State aid rules (Article 87(3) EC Treaty) are introduced and applied to both systems. A conclusion highlights the main points.

  6. Analysis of three-phase power-supply systems using computer-aided design programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major concern of every designer of large, three-phase power-supply systems is the protection of system components from overvoltage transients. At present, three computer-aided circuit design programs are available in the Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) National Computer Center that can be used to analyze three-phase power systems: MINI SCEPTRE, SPICE I, and SPICE II. These programs have been used at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) to analyze the operation of a 200-kV dc, 20-A acceleration power supply for the High Voltage Test Stand. Various overvoltage conditions are simulated and the effectiveness of system protective devices is observed. The simulated overvoltage conditions include such things as circuit breaker openings, pulsed loading, and commutation voltage surges in the rectifiers. These examples are used to illustrate the use of the computer-aided, circuit-design programs discussed in this paper

  7. Computer-aided Nonlinear Control System Design Using Describing Function Models

    CERN Document Server

    Nassirharand, Amir

    2012-01-01

    A systematic computer-aided approach provides a versatile setting for the control engineer to overcome the complications of controller design for highly nonlinear systems. Computer-aided Nonlinear Control System Design provides such an approach based on the use of describing functions. The text deals with a large class of nonlinear systems without restrictions on the system order, the number of inputs and/or outputs or the number, type or arrangement of nonlinear terms. The strongly software-oriented methods detailed facilitate fulfillment of tight performance requirements and help the designer to think in purely nonlinear terms, avoiding the expedient of linearization which can impose substantial and unrealistic model limitations and drive up the cost of the final product. Design procedures are presented in a step-by-step algorithmic format each step being a functional unit with outputs that drive the other steps. This procedure may be easily implemented on a digital computer with example problems from mecha...

  8. Environmental Change, Risky Sexual Behavior, and the HIV/AIDS Pandemic: Linkages Through Livelihoods in Rural Haiti

    OpenAIRE

    HUNTER, LORI M.; Reid-Hresko, John; Dickinson, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Local natural resources are central to rural livelihoods across much of the developing world. Such “natural capital” represents one of several types of assets available to households as they craft livelihood strategies. In order to explore the potential for environmental scarcity and change to contribute to perpetuation of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, we examine the association between declining natural capital and engaging in risky sexual behaviors, as potentially another livelihood strategy. Such...

  9. HIV/AIDS and Tourism in the Caribbean: An Ecological Systems Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Padilla, Mark B.; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Bouris, Alida; Reyes, Armando Matiz

    2010-01-01

    The Caribbean has the highest HIV rates outside of sub-Saharan Africa. In recent decades, tourism has become the most important Caribbean industry. Studies suggest that tourism areas are epicenters of demographic and social changes linked to HIV risk, such as transactional sex, elevated alcohol and substance use, and internal migration. Despite this, no formative HIV-prevention studies have examined tourism areas as ecologies that heighten HIV vulnerability. HIV/AIDS research needs to place e...

  10. Computer aided system for selection of parameters for making metallographic microsections

    OpenAIRE

    L.A. Dobrzański; M. Gumińska

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this work was development of the computer aided system for selection of technological parameters for making the metallographic microsections for the microscopic examinations.Design/methodology/approach: Prolog language – the Artificial Intelligence tool was employed in the project, and the Logic Programming Associate’s VisiRule system, which was used for saving the knowledge base - rules pertaining the objects and their relationships. These tools were used to develop the ...

  11. COMPUTER-AIDED DECISION SYSTEM FOR REFRACTIVE SURGERIES WITH EXCIMER LASER

    OpenAIRE

    Rawan Baroudy; Bassam Lala

    2014-01-01

    124 patients (248 eyes) who intended to refractive surgery by Excimer laser were studied to implement our goal of this study which is design and operate a computer-aided decision system for optimal choosing the best refractive surgery based on patient needs, Starting from corneal topography and aberration images, using RGB and HSI color spaces and decision tree. The system also can calculate percent of vision correction, ablation and residual stroma with high precision. This highly important ...

  12. Computer-aided software understanding systems to enhance confidence of scientific codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A unique characteristic of nuclear waste disposal is the very long time span over which the combined engineered and natural containment system must remain effective: hundreds of thousands of years. Since there is no precedent in human history for such an endeavour, simulation with the use of computers is the only means we have of forecasting possible future outcomes quantitatively. The need for reliable models and software to make such forecasts so far into the future is obvious. One of the critical elements necessary to ensure reliability is the degree of reviewability of the computer program. Among others, there are two very important reasons for this. Firstly, if there is to be any chance at all of validating the conceptual models as implemented by the computer code, peer reviewers must be able to see and understand what the program is doing. It is all but impossible to achieve this understanding by just looking at the code due to possible unfamiliarity with the language and often due as well to the length and complexity of the code. Secondly, a thorough understanding of the code is also necessary to carry out code maintenance activities which include among others, error detection, error correction and code modification for purposes of enhancing its performance, functionality or to adapt it to a changed environment. The emerging concepts of computer-aided software understanding and reverse engineering can answer precisely these needs. This paper will discuss the role they can play in enhancing the confidence one has on computer codes and several examples will be provided. Finally a brief discussion of combining state-of-art forward engineering systems with reverse engineering systems will show how powerfully they can contribute to the overall quality assurance of a computer program. (13 refs., 7 figs.)

  13. Online Design Aid for Evaluating Manure Pit Ventilation Systems to Reduce Entry Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manbeck, Harvey B; Hofstetter, Daniel W; Murphy, Dennis J; Puri, Virendra M

    2016-01-01

    On-farm manure storage pits contain both toxic and asphyxiating gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, and ammonia. Farmers and service personnel occasionally need to enter these pits to conduct repair and maintenance tasks. One intervention to reduce the toxic and asphyxiating gas exposure risk to farm workers when entering manure pits is manure pit ventilation. This article describes an online computational fluid dynamics-based design aid for evaluating the effectiveness of manure pit ventilation systems to reduce the concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases in the manure pits. This design aid, developed by a team of agricultural engineering and agricultural safety specialists at Pennsylvania State University, represents the culmination of more than a decade of research and technology development effort. The article includes a summary of the research efforts leading to the online design aid development and describes protocols for using the online design aid, including procedures for data input and for accessing design aid results. Design aid results include gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment curves inside the manure pit and inside the barns above the manure pits, as well as animated motion pictures of individual gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment in selected horizontal and vertical cut plots in the manure pits and barns. These results allow the user to assess (1) how long one needs to ventilate the pits to remove toxic and asphyxiating gases from the pit and barn, (2) from which portions of the barn and pit these gases are most and least readily evacuated, and (3) whether or not animals and personnel need to be removed from portions of the barn above the manure pit being ventilated. PMID:27303661

  14. Online Design Aid for Evaluating Manure Pit Ventilation Systems to Reduce Entry Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey B. Manbeck

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available On-farm manure storage pits contain both toxic and asphyxiating gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane and ammonia. Farmers and service personnel occasionally need to enter these pits to conduct repair and maintenance tasks. One intervention to reduce the toxic and asphyxiating gas exposure risk to farm workers when entering manure pits is manure pit ventilation. This article describes an online computational fluid dynamics based design aid for evaluating the effectiveness of manure pit ventilation systems to reduce the concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases in the manure pits. This design aid, developed by a team of agricultural engineering and agricultural safety specialists at Pennsylvania State University, represents the culmination of more than a decade of research and technology development effort. The article includes a summary of the research efforts leading to the online design aid development and describes protocols for using the online design aid, including procedures for data input and for accessing design aid results. Design aid results include gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment curves inside the manure pit and inside the barns above the manure pits, as well as animated motion pictures of individual gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment in selected horizontal and vertical cut plots in the manure pits and barns. These results allow the user to assess: (1 how long one needs to ventilate the pits to remove toxic and asphyxiating gases from the pit and barn, (2 from which portions of the barn and pit these gases are most and least readily evacuated, and (3 whether or not animals and personnel need to be removed from portions of the barn above the manure pit being ventilated.

  15. ADAPTIVE EXPERT SYSTEM FOR CALCULATION OF REAL EAR INSERTION GAIN FOR DIGITAL HEARING AID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadagopan Rajkumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The various gain calculating formulae for digital hearing aids is analyzed for different subjects to find out suitable adaptive gain formula for most successful gain recommendations. The object of the work is to design and develop an adaptive expert system, which could be effectively used to perform screening tests to identify the level of hearing impairment and recommend suitable gain suggestions for frequency bands of digital hearing aid. Initially, the design requirements for a digital hearing aid are being arrived by using the standard gain formulae followed such as National Acoustic Laboratory Revised (NAL-R and Prescription of Gain Output (POGO II. The test is carried with 272 subjects aging from 25 to 72 and 221 male and 51 female. Of which gain is recommended for 127 subjects with the standard gain formula. When the recommendations are verified for satisfaction among the hearing aid users only 28 received satisfaction with NAL-R and 25 received satisfactions with POGO II. Remaining subjects received satisfaction only after fine tuning the gain value and recommended gains are stored in adaptive expert system. Subsequently, based on the suggested value of gains and additional data from expert audiologists, gain formula could be made distinct for every language.

  16. Experimental evaluation of an operator decision aid system for BWR power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of an integrated operator decision aid (IODA) system for boiling water reactor (BWR) power plants. The IODA was developed to enhance the operating safety, reliability and quality of plants. It assists an operator's monitoring and diagnostic capabilities under adverse plant situations using computers and color CRT display devices. Three functions - a standby systems management system (SSMS), a disturbance analysis system (DAS), and a post-trip operational guidance (PTOG) system - have been developed as aids corresponding to the operator's various roles in the safe operation of a nuclear power plant. These functions were designed with full consideration of the operator's problem-solving process, and they have been integrated into a comprehensive IODA system for abnormal BWR power plant conditions. To ensure the applicability of the test results to real-life situations, emphasis was placed on establishing realistic test conditions - including a fully equipped experimental control room, a full-scope plant simulator, participation of experienced operating crews, and well-designed test transient scenarios. Experimental data were collected by means of computers and audio-visual devices, and were processed and summarized to facilitate analysis. Qualitative analysis of the test results was performed with emphasis on the decision-making process of an operator. The analysis points to the utility of the IODA as an operator aid, especially in diagnosing adverse plant situations and in formulating strategies for countermeasures. (orig.)

  17. Driving a decade of change: HIV/AIDS, patents and access to medicines for all

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoen Ellen 't

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since 2000, access to antiretroviral drugs to treat HIV infection has dramatically increased to reach more than five million people in developing countries. Essential to this achievement was the dramatic reduction in antiretroviral prices, a result of global political mobilization that cleared the way for competitive production of generic versions of widely patented medicines. Global trade rules agreed upon in 1994 required many developing countries to begin offering patents on medicines for the first time. Government and civil society reaction to expected increases in drug prices precipitated a series of events challenging these rules, culminating in the 2001 World Trade Organization's Doha Declaration on the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights and Public Health. The Declaration affirmed that patent rules should be interpreted and implemented to protect public health and to promote access to medicines for all. Since Doha, more than 60 low- and middle-income countries have procured generic versions of patented medicines on a large scale. Despite these changes, however, a "treatment timebomb" awaits. First, increasing numbers of people need access to newer antiretrovirals, but treatment costs are rising since new ARVs are likely to be more widely patented in developing countries. Second, policy space to produce or import generic versions of patented medicines is shrinking in some developing countries. Third, funding for medicines is falling far short of needs. Expanded use of the existing flexibilities in patent law and new models to address the second wave of the access to medicines crisis are required. One promising new mechanism is the UNITAID-supported Medicines Patent Pool, which seeks to facilitate access to patents to enable competitive generic medicines production and the development of improved products. Such innovative approaches are possible today due to the previous decade of AIDS activism

  18. Driving a decade of change: HIV/AIDS, patents and access to medicines for all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoen, Ellen 't; Berger, Jonathan; Calmy, Alexandra; Moon, Suerie

    2011-01-01

    Since 2000, access to antiretroviral drugs to treat HIV infection has dramatically increased to reach more than five million people in developing countries. Essential to this achievement was the dramatic reduction in antiretroviral prices, a result of global political mobilization that cleared the way for competitive production of generic versions of widely patented medicines.Global trade rules agreed upon in 1994 required many developing countries to begin offering patents on medicines for the first time. Government and civil society reaction to expected increases in drug prices precipitated a series of events challenging these rules, culminating in the 2001 World Trade Organization's Doha Declaration on the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights and Public Health. The Declaration affirmed that patent rules should be interpreted and implemented to protect public health and to promote access to medicines for all. Since Doha, more than 60 low- and middle-income countries have procured generic versions of patented medicines on a large scale.Despite these changes, however, a "treatment timebomb" awaits. First, increasing numbers of people need access to newer antiretrovirals, but treatment costs are rising since new ARVs are likely to be more widely patented in developing countries. Second, policy space to produce or import generic versions of patented medicines is shrinking in some developing countries. Third, funding for medicines is falling far short of needs. Expanded use of the existing flexibilities in patent law and new models to address the second wave of the access to medicines crisis are required.One promising new mechanism is the UNITAID-supported Medicines Patent Pool, which seeks to facilitate access to patents to enable competitive generic medicines production and the development of improved products. Such innovative approaches are possible today due to the previous decade of AIDS activism. However, the Pool is just one of a

  19. Sentinel: An Expert System Decision Aid For A Command, Control And Communications Operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobat, Daniel L.; Rogers, Steven K.; Cross, Stephen E.

    1986-03-01

    The growing complexity and quantity of information used in command, control and communications (C3) networks makes it essential to reduce the workload on the operators of these networks. SENTINEL is an expert system which functions as a decision aid for the strategic missile warning officer, using a simulation of a C3 network that involves multiple missile launches and up to 20 countries. In this research, a blackboard model expert system using rule bases and object oriented programming techniques was developed that permits SENTINEL to deal with uncertainty and offer several layers of explanation. SENTINEL deals with uncertainty by using Cohen's endorsement theory and the pattern recognition techniques of feature sets and prototypes. SENTINEL analyzes the causes of reported events into higher level, yet less precise forms to offer an abstract layer of explanation. The results are applicable to further expert system or decision aid development for C3 networks.

  20. Structured computer-aided digital logic design: the S-1 Design System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widdoes, L.C. Jr.; McWilliams, T.M.

    1977-03-31

    Structured computer-aided digital logic design is defined and an example of it is given, the S-1 Design System. It is noted that such a system has resulted in a very large reduction in the amount of designer effort required to complete the design of a large-scale digital processing system in the first exercise of its capabilities. This basic and generally applicable advance in digital design technology may be expected to affect quite favorably all complex digital systems developments. 3 figures.

  1. Computer-Aided Diagnosis Systems for Brain Diseases in Magnetic Resonance Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuo Yamashita

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the basics and recent researches of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD systems for assisting neuroradiologists in detection of brain diseases, e.g., asymptomatic unruptured aneurysms, Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and multiple sclerosis (MS, in magnetic resonance (MR images. The CAD systems consist of image feature extraction based on image processing techniques and machine learning classifiers such as linear discriminant analysis, artificial neural networks, and support vector machines. We introduce useful examples of the CAD systems in the neuroradiology, and conclude with possibilities in the future of the CAD systems for brain diseases in MR images.

  2. Computer-Aided Design System for CP Single-Screw Compressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Jing-feng; YAO Fu-sheng

    2006-01-01

    To design various optimum parameters and simulate the working process of CP single-screw compressor,the Computer-Aided Design(CAD)system for the CP singlescrew compressor has been established.A new method based on computer graphics technology,database technology,object-oriented programming technology,and visual simulation technology has been adopted in this CAD system.The system has integrated solid modeling function with parameterization design function and animator simulation function based on analyzing the working principle of the CP single-screw compressor.The experimental results show fhat the CAD system for the CP single-screw compressor is practical and feasible.

  3. From wasting to obesity, changes in nutritional concerns in HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankal, Pavan K; Kotler, Donald P

    2014-09-01

    Optimal nutrition is an important part of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care; to support the immune system, limit HIV-associated complications as well as maintain better quality of life and survival. The presentation and nature of malnutrition in patients with HIV has changed dramatically over the past 30 years from predominantly a wasting syndrome to lipodystrophy and, now, frailty. Nevertheless, we continue to see all 3 presentations in patient care today. The pathogenesis of poor nutrition in HIV-infected patients depends on caloric intake, intestinal nutrient absorption/translocation, and resting energy expenditure, which are features seen in all chronic diseases. PMID:25169559

  4. Nervous system manifestations and neuroradiologic findings in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodesch, G.; Parizel, P.M.; Lalmand, B.; Vanderhofstadt, A.; Baleriaux, D.; Farber, C.M.; Calck, M. van; Przedborski, S.; Haens, J. d' ; Taelman, H.

    1989-03-01

    We report a series of thirteen patients with nervous system complications out of a total of thirty AIDS patients admitted to our hospital over the last two years for which CT and/or MRI have been performed. Five were homosexual men and eight patients (5 men, 3 women) were of African origin (Zaire and Rwanda) (n=5) or had had sexual intercourse with the local African population (n=3). The nervous system complications encountered included: Toxoplasma gondii brain abscess (2 patients); cryptococcus neoformans meningitis+toxoplasmosis (1 patient); toxoplasmosis+lymphoma (2 patients); progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (1 patient); lymphocytic meningitis or encephalitis (3 patients); lymphoma (1 patient); polyradiculoneuritis (3 patients). Three of thirteen patients had multiple intracranial abnormalities: One had concomitant intraparenchymal toxoplasma abscess and cryptococcal meningitis; in one patient a lymphoma developed after the successful medical treatment of a toxoplasma abscess; conversely, one patient developed a toxoplasma abscess two years after mediastinal radiotherapy for a systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma. In conclusion, in our experience, nervous system toxoplasmosis is the most frequent AIDS related CNS complication. Our series demonstrates the high frequency of a second neurological disease occurring either concomitantly or separately. In these cases, while CT may readily identify the intracranial abnormalities, it contributes little towards an etiological diagnosis. Finally, our series illustrates the importance of a central African endemic focus for AIDS.

  5. A Toolbox of Aiding Techniques for the HUGIN AUV Integrated Inertial Navigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Jalving

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern AUV designs must handle submerged autonomous operation for long periods of time. The state of the art solution embedded in the HUGIN AUVs is a Doppler Velocity Log (DVL aided Inertial Navigation System (INS that can integrate various forms of position measurement updates. In autonomous operations, position updates are only available in limited periods of time or space, thus the core velocity aided inertial navigation system must exhibit high accuracy However, position uncertainty of a DVL aided inertial navigation system will eventually drift off, compromising either mission operation or requirements for accurate positioning of payload data. To meet the requirements for a range of military and civilian AUV applications, the HUGIN vehicles come with a flexible and powerful set of navigation techniques. Methods for position updates include GPS surface fix, DGPS-USBL, Underwater Transponder Positioning (UTP and bathymetric terrain navigation. Based on synthetic aperture sonar technology, a potentially revolutionary accurate velocity measurement is under development. HUGIN also comes with a navigation post-processing system (NavLab, which can be applied to increase navigational integrity and maximize position accuracy.

  6. SAMO (Sistema de Apoyo Mechanizado a la Operacion): An operational aids computer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stormer, T.D.; Laflor, E.V.

    1989-01-01

    SAMO (Sistema de Apoyo Mechanizado a la Operacion) is a sensor-driven, computer-based, graphic display system designed by Westinghouse to aid the A. N. Asco operations staff during all modes of plant operations, including emergencies. The SAMO system is being implemented in the A. N. Asco plant in two phases that coincide with consecutive refueling outages for each of two nuclear units at the Asco site. Phase 1 of the SAMO system implements the following functions: (1) emergency operational aids, (2) postaccident monitoring, (3) plant graphics display, (4) high-speed transient analysis recording, (5) historical data collection, storage, and retrieval, (6) sequence of events, and (7) posttrip review. During phase 2 of the SAMO project, the current plant computer will be removed and the functions now performed by the plant computer will be performed by the SAMO system. In addition, the following functions will be implemented: (1) normal and simple transients operational aid, (2) plant information graphics; and (3) real-time radiological off-site dose calculation.

  7. SAMO [Sistema de Apoyo Mechanizado a la Operacion]: An operational aids computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SAMO (Sistema de Apoyo Mechanizado a la Operacion) is a sensor-driven, computer-based, graphic display system designed by Westinghouse to aid the A. N. Asco operations staff during all modes of plant operations, including emergencies. The SAMO system is being implemented in the A. N. Asco plant in two phases that coincide with consecutive refueling outages for each of two nuclear units at the Asco site. Phase 1 of the SAMO system implements the following functions: (1) emergency operational aids, (2) postaccident monitoring, (3) plant graphics display, (4) high-speed transient analysis recording, (5) historical data collection, storage, and retrieval, (6) sequence of events, and (7) posttrip review. During phase 2 of the SAMO project, the current plant computer will be removed and the functions now performed by the plant computer will be performed by the SAMO system. In addition, the following functions will be implemented: (1) normal and simple transients operational aid, (2) plant information graphics; and (3) real-time radiological off-site dose calculation

  8. Nervous system manifestations and neuroradiologic findings in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a series of thirteen patients with nervous system complications out of a total of thirty AIDS patients admitted to our hospital over the last two years for which CT and/or MRI have been performed. Five were homosexual men and eight patients (5 men, 3 women) were of African origin (Zaire and Rwanda) (n=5) or had had sexual intercourse with the local African population (n=3). The nervous system complications encountered included: Toxoplasma gondii brain abscess (2 patients); cryptococcus neoformans meningitis+toxoplasmosis (1 patient); toxoplasmosis+lymphoma (2 patients); progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (1 patient); lymphocytic meningitis or encephalitis (3 patients); lymphoma (1 patient); polyradiculoneuritis (3 patients). Three of thirteen patients had multiple intracranial abnormalities: One had concomitant intraparenchymal toxoplasma abscess and cryptococcal meningitis; in one patient a lymphoma developed after the successful medical treatment of a toxoplasma abscess; conversely, one patient developed a toxoplasma abscess two years after mediastinal radiotherapy for a systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma. In conclusion, in our experience, nervous system toxoplasmosis is the most frequent AIDS related CNS complication. Our series demonstrates the high frequency of a second neurological disease occurring either concomitantly or separately. In these cases, while CT may readily identify the intracranial abnormalities, it contributes little towards an etiological diagnosis. Finally, our series illustrates the importance of a central African endemic focus for AIDS. (orig.)

  9. Computer Aided Design and Analysis of Separation Processes with Electrolyte Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takano, Kiyoteru; Gani, Rafiqul; Kolar, P.; Ishikawa, T.

    A methodology for computer aided design and analysis of separation processes involving electrolyte systems is presented. The methodology consists of three main parts. The thermodynamic part 'creates' the problem specific property model package, which is a collection of pure component and mixture...... process alternatives. For the simulation part, a general multi-purpose, multi-phase separation model has been developed and integrated to an existing computer aided system. Application of the design and analysis methodology is highlighted through two illustrative case studies, (C) 2000 Elsevier Science...... property models. The design and analysis part generates process (flowsheet) alternatives, evaluates/analyses feasibility of separation and provides a visual operation path for the desired separation. The simulation part consists of a simulation/calculation engine that allows the screening and validation of...

  10. On Stability and Bifurcation of Solutions of Nonlinear System of Differential Equations for AIDS Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A.A. El-Marouf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study aims to discuss the stability and bifurcation of a system of ordinary differential equations expressing a general nonlinear model of HIV/AIDS which has great interests from scientists and researchers on mathematics, biology, medicine and education. The existance of equilibrium points and their local stability are studied for HIV/AIDS model with two forms of the incidence rates. Conclusion/Recommendations: A comparison with recent published results is given. Hopf bifurcation of solutions of an epidemic model with a general nonlinear incidence rate is established. It is also proved that the system undergoes a series of Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation, i.e., saddle-node bifurcation, Hopf bifurcation and homoclinic bifurcation for suitable values of the parameters.

  11. Computer Aided Design and Analysis of Separation Processes with Electrolyte Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A methodology for computer aided design and analysis of separation processes involving electrolyte systems is presented. The methodology consists of three main parts. The thermodynamic part "creates" the problem specific property model package, which is a collection of pure component and mixture...... property models. The design and analysis part generates process (flowsheet) alternatives, evaluates/analyses feasibility of separation and provides a visual operation path for the desired separation. The simulation part consists of a simulation/calculation engine that allows the screening and validation of...... process alternatives. For the simulation part, a general multi-purpose, multi-phase separation model has been developed and integrated to an existing computer aided system. Application of the design and analysis methodology is highlighted through two illustrative case studies....

  12. Computer Aided Design and Analysis of Separation Processes with Electrolyte Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takano, Kiyoteru; Gani, Rafiqul; Kolar, P.;

    2000-01-01

    A methodology for computer aided design and analysis of separation processes involving electrolyte systems is presented. The methodology consists of three main parts. The thermodynamic part 'creates' the problem specific property model package, which is a collection of pure component and mixture...... property models. The design and analysis part generates process (flowsheet) alternatives, evaluates/analyses feasibility of separation and provides a visual operation path for the desired separation. The simulation part consists of a simulation/calculation engine that allows the screening and validation of...... process alternatives. For the simulation part, a general multi-purpose, multi-phase separation model has been developed and integrated to an existing computer aided system. Application of the design and analysis methodology is highlighted through two illustrative case studies, (C) 2000 Elsevier Science...

  13. Three-dimensional computer-aided design system for plant layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three-dimensional CAD system for plant layout of nuclear power plants has been developed, adopting the latest technologies of knowledge engineering, CAD/CAM, and interactive computer graphics. With this system, Hitachi is now able to plan plant layout more effectively, reduce design time and cost, and detect defective designs before actual construction problems occur. Hitachi is planning to enhance this three-dimensional CAD system to a plant total life computer-aided engineering (CAE) system. This system will include a construction CAE system, a test operation and in-service inspection control system, and a plant maintenance system. After completion of this system, Hitachi will be able to plan, monitor, and control all major aspects in the life of a nuclear power plant from the very first stage of the planning to its decommissioning

  14. Changes in attitude, sexual behaviour and the risk of HIV/AIDS transmission in southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olayinka, B A; Osho, A A

    1997-09-01

    This pilot study was carried out in southwest Nigeria to determine the current trends in sexual behaviours known to be associated with HIV transmission in Nigeria. Knowledge of AIDS in general and as an incurable disease was high (91.4% and 79.4% respectively). Knowledge of the means of AIDS transmission was also very high among both men and women. Overall, condom use was consistent at 25%, inconsistent at 55% and non-existent at 20% for all sexually active respondents. Over 60 per cent of sexually active respondents had two or more sexual partners, with significantly more males than females having this number of sexual partners (p < 0.01). Eighteen per cent of sexually active respondents had a history of sex with commercial sex workers while 25% had a history of at least one sexually transmitted disease. Using multiple logistic regression, the significant determinants of condom use among the sexually active group were: being in a stable sexual relationship, history of sex with commercial sex workers, self-perception of testing positive for HIV and self-perception of HIV/AIDS risk in Nigeria. Prevalence of condom use in this study was much higher than those reported in previous studies, suggesting a probable decline in high risk sexual behaviours among inhabitants of urban Southwest Nigeria since the advent of AIDS. Most sexually active respondents aged 19 years or below (adolescents) who perceived themselves at a high risk of testing positive for HIV had never used condoms. The non usage of condoms among this group of adolescents is disturbing, since they are at greatest risk of spreading the disease. Health education and promotion of safe sex practices need to be extensively targeted at adolescents. PMID:9487429

  15. User interface and database design for software database of the Computer Aided Prototyping System (CAPS)

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Ruey-Wen

    1996-01-01

    CAPS (Computer Aided Prototyping System) is an integrated set of software tools that generate prototypes directly from real time requirements. The success of CAPS depends on being able to generate the prototype quickly so that it can be evaluated, leading to the construction of a program built on true requirements thereby resulting in a better software product. The key to developing prototypes quickly is having a significant software base to choose reusable components from. The problem with t...

  16. A Computer Aided Diagnosis System for Lung Cancer Detection Using Support Vector Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Gomathi, M; P. Thangaraj

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Computer Tomography (CT) has been considered as the most sensitive imaging technique for early detection of lung cancer. Approach: On the other hand, there is a requirement for automated methodology to make use of large amount of data obtained CT images. Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) can be used efficiently for early detection of Lung Cancer. Results: The usage of existing CAD system for early detection of lung cancer with the help of CT images has ...

  17. Development of a computer-aided diagnostic system for Alzheimer's disease using magnetic resonance imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Murase, Kenya; Gondo, Naohiko; Soma, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia accompanied with brain atrophy. Structural measurements of brain atrophy in specific brain structures such as hippocampus using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been reported to detect the development of dementia early in the course of the disease. The purpose of this study was to develop a computer-aided diagnostic system for AD using MRI, which is based on the automatic volumetry of segmented brain images and generation of th...

  18. Real-time Risk Assessment for Aids to Navigation Using Fuzzy-FSA on Three-Dimensional Simulation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbiao Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The risk level of the Aids to Navigation (AtoNs can reflect the ship navigation safety level in the channel to some extent. In order to appreciate the risk level of the aids to navigation (AtoNs in a navigation channel and to provide some decision-making suggestions for the AtoNs Maintenance and Management Department, the risk assessment index system of the AtoNs was built considering the advanced experience of IALA. Under the Formal Safety Assessment frame, taking the advantages of the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, the fuzzy-FSA model of risk assessment for aids to navigation was established. The model was implemented for the assessment of aids to navigation in Shanghai area based on the aids to navigation three-dimensional simulation system. The real-time data were extracted from the existing information system of aids to navigation, and the real-time risk assessment for aids to navigation of the chosen channel was performed on platform of the three-dimensional simulation system, with the risk assessment software. Specifically, the deep-water channel of the Yangtze River estuary was taken as an example to illustrate the general assessment procedure. The method proposed presents practical significance and application prospect on the maintenance and management of the aids to navigation.

  19. Aging changes in the female reproductive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004016.htm Aging changes in the female reproductive system To use ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Aging changes in the female reproductive system result mainly ...

  20. Aging changes in the male reproductive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004017.htm Aging changes in the male reproductive system To use ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Aging changes in the male reproductive system may include ...

  1. Unit cell-based computer-aided manufacturing system for tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaffolds play an important role in the regeneration of artificial tissues or organs. A scaffold is a porous structure with a micro-scale inner architecture in the range of several to several hundreds of micrometers. Therefore, computer-aided construction of scaffolds should provide sophisticated functionality for porous structure design and a tool path generation strategy that can achieve micro-scale architecture. In this study, a new unit cell-based computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) system was developed for the automated design and fabrication of a porous structure with micro-scale inner architecture that can be applied to composite tissue regeneration. The CAM system was developed by first defining a data structure for the computing process of a unit cell representing a single pore structure. Next, an algorithm and software were developed and applied to construct porous structures with a single or multiple pore design using solid freeform fabrication technology and a 3D tooth/spine computer-aided design model. We showed that this system is quite feasible for the design and fabrication of a scaffold for tissue engineering. (paper)

  2. Clinical analysis of neurological system complications in AIDS and HIV positive patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To report the clinical manifestations of AIDS with nervous system complications. Methods:We collected the clinical material of AIDS and HIV positive patients who were admitted to our hospital from January 1998 to July 2006, and retrospectively analyzed the 39 cases having nervous system complications, among 146 cases in total. Results:Among 39 cases, there were 3 cases of HIV dementia, 1 case of vacuolar myelopathy, 3 cases of Gullain-barre syndrome, 3 cases of myopathy and 26 cases of secondary opportunistic infection of CNS,including 9 cases of tuberculosis, 6 cases of cryptococcus, 5 cases of toxoplasma, 3 cases of herpes zoster virus, 2 cases of herpes simples virus, 1 case of cytomegalovirus, 1 case of progressive multifocal leukoencencephalitis. 2 cases with central nervous system lymphoma.Among them 12 patients gave up treatment, other patients received anti-HIV treatment and antimicroorganism treatment. 5 patients died of respiratory failure, 2 patients died of multiple organs failure. Conclusion:Up to now, AIDS still has not very good management. So prevention is very important.

  3. Evaluation methods of solar contribution in solar aided coal-fired power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Five methods for evaluating solar contribution are analyzed. • Method based on the second law of thermodynamics and thermal economics is more suitable for SACPGS. • Providing reliable reference for the formulation of feed-in tariff policies in China. - Abstract: Solar aided coal-fired power plants utilize solar thermal energy to couple with coal-fired power plants of various types by adopting characteristics of different thermal needs of plants. In this way, the costly thermal storage system and power generating system will become unnecessary, meanwhile the intermittent and unsteady nature of power generation can be avoided. In addition, large-scale utilization of solar thermal power and energy saving can be achieved. With the ever-deepening analyses of solar aided coal-fired power plants, the contribution evaluating system of solar thermal power is worth further exploration. In this paper, five common evaluation methods of solar contribution are analyzed, and solar aided coal-fired power plants of 1000 MW, 600 MW and 330 MW are studied with these five methods in a comparative manner. Therefore, this study can serve as a theoretical reference for future research of evaluation methods and subsidies for new energy

  4. COMPUTER-AIDED DECISION SYSTEM FOR REFRACTIVE SURGERIES WITH EXCIMER LASER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawan Baroudy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 124 patients (248 eyes who intended to refractive surgery by Excimer laser were studied to implement our goal of this study which is design and operate a computer-aided decision system for optimal choosing the best refractive surgery based on patient needs, Starting from corneal topography and aberration images, using RGB and HSI color spaces and decision tree. The system also can calculate percent of vision correction, ablation and residual stroma with high precision. This highly important transdisciplinary topic combines aspects from biosystems (human visual system, image acquisition and processing and information management (databases.

  5. Method for the development of reliable software for computer-aided safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Survey of the tasks of a computer-aided safety system, the peculiarities of software development, the great number of measures and methods presently used to reach a high degree of reliability of the software in nuclear engineering. The design methods to be employed during the various stages of development are indicated by the example of the protecting computer system MIRA (microprocessor controlled reactor shutdown system). The various analytic methods and related tools for testing and verification of extremely reliably software are described in brief. (orig./DG)

  6. A vision-aided alignment datum system for coordinate measuring machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Lin, G. C. I.

    1997-07-01

    This paper presents the development of a CAD-based and vision-aided precision measurement system. A new coordinate system alignment technique for coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) is described. This alignment technique involves a machine vision system with CAD-based planning and execution of inspection. The determination method for measuring datums for the coordinate measuring technique, using the AutoCAD development system, is described in more detail. To improve image quality in the machine vision system, a contrast enhancement technique is used on the image background to reduce image noise, and an on-line calibration technique is applied. Some systematic errors may be caused by imperfect geometric features in components during coordinate system alignment. This measurement system approach, with its new measuring coordinate alignment method, can be used for high-precision measurement to overcome such errors.

  7. Systemic model for the aid for operating of the reactor Siloe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Service of the Reactor Siloe (CEA/DRN/DRE/SRS), fully aware of the abilities and knowledge of his teams in the field of research reactor operating, has undertaken a project of knowledge engineering in this domain. The following aims have been defined: knowledge capitalization for the installation in order to insure its perenniality and valorization, elaboration of a project for the aid of the reactor operators. This article deals with the different actions by the SRS to reach the aims: realization of a technical model for the operation of the Siloe reactor, development of a knowledge-based system for the aid for operating. These actions based on a knowledge engineering methodology, SAGACE, and using industrial tools will lead to an amelioration of the security and the operating of the Siloe reactor. (authors). 13 refs., 7 figs

  8. Changing mortality profile among HIV-infected patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: shifting from AIDS to non-AIDS related conditions in the HAART era.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Grinsztejn

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We describe temporal trends in the mortality rates and factors associated with AIDS and non-AIDS related mortality at the Evandro Chagas Clinical Research Institute (IPEC, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ. METHODS: Adult patients enrolling from 1986 through 2009 with a minimum follow up of 60 days were included. Vital status was exhaustively checked using patients' medical charts, through active contact with individuals and family members and by linkage with the Rio de Janeiro Mortality database using a previously validated algorithm. The CoDe protocol was used to establish the cause of death. Extended Cox proportional hazards models were used for multivariate modeling. RESULTS: A total of 3530 individuals met the inclusion criteria, out of which 868 (24.6% deceased; median follow up per patient was 3.9 years (interquartile range 1.7-9.2 years. The dramatic decrease in the overall mortality rates was driven by AIDS-related causes that decreased from 9.19 deaths/100PYs n 1986-1991 to 1.35/100PYs in 2007-2009. Non-AIDS related mortality rates remained stable overtime, at around 1 death/100PYs. Immunodeficiency significantly increased the hazard of both AIDS-related and non-AIDS-related causes of death, while HAART use was strongly associated with a lower hazard of death from either cause. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm the remarkable decrease in AIDS-related mortality as the HIV epidemic evolved and alerts to the conditions not traditionally related to HIV/AIDS which are now becoming more frequent, needing careful monitoring.

  9. Pathological features of the central nervous system lesions with Epstein-Barr virus in patients with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozko V.N.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. HIV infection/AIDS is a social disease and morbidity in some segments of the population is threatening. One of the target organs for HIV is the nervous system. The central nervous system lesion occurring in the form of meningoencephalitison the background of HIV infection is one of the leading death causes in patients with severe immunosuppression. Objective. Reveal the typicalmorphologic changes in the central nervous system during Epstein-Barr virus meningoencephalitis in patients with HIV/AIDS. Methods. Brain tissue and meningesof deceased patients with Epstein-Barr virus meningoencephalitis. Selected 6 deaths – three women and three men, aged 28 to 34 years. Following routine procedure histologic sections were produced, which were stained with hematoxylin and eosin staining, Nissl. Results. We showed signs of development of subacute encephalitis with the presence of giant areas of demyelination by morphological study of the combination of clinical cases of HIV and Epstein-Barr virus infection. In brain tissue we identified giant cells. In addition to this significant feature of the combination of HIV and Epstein-Barr virus infection can be considered productive development of vasculitis with thrombosis and ischemic brain lesions. During histological studies in HIV-infected patients were found: infiltration of the vessel wall by leukocytes, edema and proliferative changes in the intima. All this leads to a narrowing of the lumen and thrombosis with further possible infarct, vessel rupture and hemorrhage. Conclusion. It is established that in case of damage of the central nervous system with Epstein-Barr virus in HIV patients develops subacute giant cell encephalitis with the presence of demyelination areas, a bland astrogliosis, development of productive vasculitis with thrombosis, that complicated by ischemic lesions of the brain.

  10. Principles and models of a co-operative systems of a supervision aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the functioning principles and the necessary models for a cooperative system of supervision aid (SCAS) used for a high-automated workshop. A meta-system of supervision is made up of the operator and the SCAS. The SCAS can operate under 2 different modes: wakefulness and cooperation. On the first one the behaviours of the process and the operator is observed and analysed. On the second one, it helps to solve the problems occurred by the operator. (TEC). 3 refs

  11. Research on solar aided coal-fired power generation system and performance analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG YongPing; CUI YingHong; HOU HongJuan; GUO XiYan; YANG ZhiPing; WANG NinLing

    2008-01-01

    Integrationg rating solar power utilization systems with coal-fired power units, the solar aided coal-fired power generation (SACPG) shows a significant prospect for the large-scale utilization of solar energy and energy saving of thermal power units. The methods and mechanism of system integration were studied. The parabolic trough solar collectors were used to collect solar energy and the integration scheme of SACPG system was determined considering the matching of working fluid flows and energy flows. The thermodynamic characteristics of solar thermal power generation and their effects on the performance of thermal power units were studied, and based on this the integration and optimization model of system structure and parameters were built up. The integration rules and coupling mecha-nism of SACPG systems were summarized in accordance with simulation results. The economic analysis of this SACPG system showed that the solar LEC of a of SEGS, 0.14 S/kW. h.

  12. Development of an integrated decision support system to aid cognitive activities of operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As digital and computer technologies have grown, Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs) have evolved. In safety-critical systems, especially in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), HMIs are important for reducing operational costs, the number of necessary operators, and the probability of accident occurrence. Efforts have been made to improve Main Control Room (MCR) interface design and to develop automated or decision support systems to ensure convenient operation and maintenance. In this paper, an integrated decision support system to aid operator cognitive processes is proposed for advanced MCRs of future NPPs. This work suggests the design concept of a decision support system which accounts for an operator's cognitive processes. The proposed system supports not only a particular task, but also the entire operation process based on a human cognitive process model. In this paper, the operator's operation processes are analyzed according to a human cognitive process model and appropriate support systems that support each cognitive process activity are suggested

  13. Bruises, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Bruises, First Aid A A A Bruises lighten and change color ... Bruises can be a sign of internal bleeding. First Aid Guide If there is external bleeding in addition ...

  14. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    activists, scholars and venture capitalists, discusses the pros and cons of changing the world by ‘voting with your dollars’. Lisa Ann Richey and Stefano Ponte (Professor at Roskilde University and Senior Researcher at DIIS respectively), authors of Brand Aid: Shopping Well to Save the World, highlight how...

  15. Spreading the Eco-Message: Using Proactive Coping to Aid Eco-Rep Behavior Change Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Zawadzki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Making pro-environmental behavior changes can be difficult, particularly when these changes challenge daily routines and comfortable lifestyles. We designed and implemented an eco-representative intervention program to help students reduce their energy use by proactively coping with barriers to pro-environmental behavior change, and then communicate effective behavior change strategies to student peers. Twenty-nine first-year college students participated in a four-week proactive coping training to change five environmentally impactful behaviors and then spread behavior change messages to fellow residents during a two-week energy challenge. Eco-reps successfully changed their own behaviors in a pro-environmental direction by generating important barriers and successful facilitators for behavior change, and eco-rep residence halls were more likely to reduce energy and maintain reductions compared to non-eco-rep halls. Implications for future environmental behavior change interventions are discussed.

  16. Companion cats and the social support systems of men with AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, P; Hart, L A; Zasloff, R L

    2001-08-01

    60 male pet owners with AIDS were given a formal questionnaire including items related to demographic, lifestyle, and pet ownership, as well as the Comfort from Companion Animals Scale, the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale, and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). The men lived in the San Francisco area and received assistance from Pets Are Wonderful Support (PAWS), a community organization, in caring for their companion dogs or cats. Participants were a convenience sample of pet owners who volunteered from among 500 PAWS clients and who do not necessarily represent a random sample of men with AIDS who keep companion animals. For these men, their comfort from companion animals was significantly associated with having cats but not dogs, closeness with friends, dissatisfaction with their practical support system, and listing pets as a source of support. Loneliness was negatively associated with having a large practical support network, scoring as healthy on the General Health Questionnaire, and living alone. For these male pet owners with AIDS, pet cats appeared to complement their supportive relationships with friends and family that were protective against loneliness. PMID:11729540

  17. Development and assessment of a clinically viable system for breast ultrasound computer-aided diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruszauskas, Nicholas Peter

    The chances of surviving a breast cancer diagnosis as well as the effectiveness of any potential treatments increase significantly with early detection of the disease. As such, a considerable amount of research is being conducted to augment the breast cancer detection and diagnosis process. One such area of research involves the investigation and application of sophisticated computer algorithms to assist clinicians in detecting and diagnosing breast cancer on medical images (termed generally as "computer-aided diagnosis" or CAD). This study investigated a previously-developed breast ultrasound CAD system with the intent of translating it into a clinically-viable system. While past studies have demonstrated that breast ultrasound CAD may be a beneficial aid during the diagnosis of breast cancer on ultrasound, there are no investigations concerning its potential clinical translation and there are currently no commercially-available implementations of such systems. This study "bridges the gap" between the laboratory-developed system and the steps necessary for clinical implementation. A novel observer study was conducted that mimicked the clinical use of the breast ultrasound CAD system in order to assess the impact it had on the diagnostic performance of the user. Several robustness studies were also performed: the sonographic features used by the system were evaluated and the databases used for calibration and testing were characterized, the effect of the user's input was assessed by evaluating the performance of the system with variations in lesion identification and image selection, and the performance of the system on different patient populations was investigated by evaluating its performance on a database consisting solely of patients with Asian ethnicity. The analyses performed here indicate that the breast ultrasound CAD system under investigation is robust and demonstrates only minor variability when subjected to "real-world" use. All of these results are

  18. Spreading the Eco-Message: Using Proactive Coping to Aid Eco-Rep Behavior Change Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Zawadzki, Matthew J.; Swim, Janet K.; Brittany Bloodhart

    2013-01-01

    Making pro-environmental behavior changes can be difficult, particularly when these changes challenge daily routines and comfortable lifestyles. We designed and implemented an eco-representative intervention program to help students reduce their energy use by proactively coping with barriers to pro-environmental behavior change, and then communicate effective behavior change strategies to student peers. Twenty-nine first-year college students participated in a four-week proactive coping train...

  19. Model-based Computer Aided Framework for Design of Process Monitoring and Analysis Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ravendra; Gernaey, Krist; Gani, Rafiqul

    2009-01-01

    In the manufacturing industry, for example, the pharmaceutical industry, a thorough understanding of the process is necessary in addition to a properly designed monitoring and analysis system (PAT system) to consistently obtain the desired end-product properties. A model-based computer......-aided framework including the methods and tools through which the design of monitoring and analysis systems for product quality control can be generated, analyzed and/or validated, has been developed. Two important supporting tools developed as part of the framework are a knowledge base and a model library....... The knowledge base provides the necessary information/data during the design of the PAT system while the model library generates additional or missing data needed for design and analysis. Optimization of the PAT system design is achieved in terms of product data analysis time and/or cost of monitoring equipment...

  20. Computer-aided design and distributed system technology development for large space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Ernest S.; Joshi, Suresh M.

    1986-01-01

    Proposed large space structures have many characteristics that make them difficult to analyze and control. They are highly flexible, with components mathematically modeled by partial differential equations or very large systems of ordinary differential equations. They have many resonant frequencies, typically low and closely spaced. Natural damping may be low and/or improperly modeled. Coupled with stringent operational requirements of orientation, shape control, and vibration suppression, and the inability to perform adequate ground testing, these characteristics present an unconventional identification and control design problem to the systems theorist. Some of the research underway within Langley's Spacecraft Control Branch, Guidance and Control Division aimed at developing theory and algorithms to treat large space structures systems identification and control problems is described. The research areas to be considered are computer-aided design algorithms, and systems identification and control of distributed systems.

  1. Second Asia-Pacific Conference on the Computer Aided System Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Chaczko, Zenon; Jacak, Witold; Łuba, Tadeusz; Computational Intelligence and Efficiency in Engineering Systems

    2015-01-01

    This carefully edited and reviewed volume addresses the increasingly popular demand for seeking more clarity in the data that we are immersed in. It offers excellent examples of the intelligent ubiquitous computation, as well as recent advances in systems engineering and informatics. The content represents state-of-the-art foundations for researchers in the domain of modern computation, computer science, system engineering and networking, with many examples that are set in industrial application context. The book includes the carefully selected best contributions to APCASE 2014, the 2nd Asia-Pacific Conference on  Computer Aided System Engineering, held February 10-12, 2014 in South Kuta, Bali, Indonesia. The book consists of four main parts that cover data-oriented engineering science research in a wide range of applications: computational models and knowledge discovery; communications networks and cloud computing; computer-based systems; and data-oriented and software-intensive systems.

  2. Radiological aspects of nuclear accident scenarios. Volume 2 the Rade-Aid system post-Chernobyl action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the event of a nuclear accident, there is a need for a rapid assessment of the resulting levels of environmental contamination in order to facilitate decisions on possible countermeasures. Volume 2 describes the RADE-AID project to develop a computer system which can be used to support the formulation of decisions on countermeasures following an accidental release of radionuclides. The system is intended as an aid following an actual accident and a tool for assistance in planning and training

  3. Development and evaluation of a computer-aided system for analyzing human error in railway operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As human error has been recognized as one of the major contributors to accidents in safety-critical systems, there has been a strong need for techniques that can analyze human error effectively. Although many techniques have been developed so far, much room for improvement remains. As human error analysis is a cognitively demanding and time-consuming task, it is particularly necessary to develop a computerized system supporting this task. This paper presents a computer-aided system for analyzing human error in railway operations, called Computer-Aided System for Human Error Analysis and Reduction (CAS-HEAR). It supports analysts to find multiple levels of error causes and their causal relations by using predefined links between contextual factors and causal factors as well as links between causal factors. In addition, it is based on a complete accident model; hence, it helps analysts to conduct a thorough analysis without missing any important part of human error analysis. A prototype of CAS-HEAR was evaluated by nine field investigators from six railway organizations in Korea. Its overall usefulness in human error analysis was confirmed, although development of its simplified version and some modification of the contextual factors and causal factors are required in order to ensure its practical use.

  4. Computer-aided design of microvasculature systems for use in vascular scaffold production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondy, William Lafayette [Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, University of South Florida, FL (United States); Cameron, Don [Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, University of South Florida, FL (United States); Timmermans, Jean-Pierre [Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Antwerp (Belgium); De Clerck, Nora [Department of Biomedical Sciences University of Antwerp (Belgium); Sasov, Alexander [Skyscan (Belgium); Casteleyn, Christophe [College of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University (Belgium); Piegl, Les A [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of South Florida, FL (United States)

    2009-09-15

    In vitro biomedical engineering of intact, functional vascular networks, which include capillary structures, is a prerequisite for adequate vascular scaffold production. Capillary structures are necessary since they provide the elements and compounds for the growth, function and maintenance of 3D tissue structures. Computer-aided modeling of stereolithographic (STL) micro-computer tomographic (micro-CT) 3D models is a technique that enables us to mimic the design of vascular tree systems containing capillary beds, found in tissues. In our first paper (Mondy et al 2009 Tissue Eng. at press), using micro-CT, we studied the possibility of using vascular tissues to produce data capable of aiding the design of vascular tree scaffolding, which would help in the reverse engineering of a complete vascular tree system including capillary bed structures. In this paper, we used STL models of large datasets of computer-aided design (CAD) data of vascular structures which contained capillary structures that mimic those in the dermal layers of rabbit skin. Using CAD software we created from 3D STL models a bio-CAD design for the development of capillary-containing vascular tree scaffolding for skin. This method is designed to enhance a variety of therapeutic protocols including, but not limited to, organ and tissue repair, systemic disease mediation and cell/tissue transplantation therapy. Our successful approach to in vitro vasculogenesis will allow the bioengineering of various other types of 3D tissue structures, and as such greatly expands the potential applications of biomedical engineering technology into the fields of biomedical research and medicine.

  5. A technique for the development of reliable software for computer-aided security systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This contribution gives a review of the tasks of a computer-aided security system, the specialities of the software design and the many measures and techniques used to reach high reliability of software in nuclear engineering. These measures and techniques can also be transferred to the security systems of other fields of technology. The future tasks of security systems are briefly discussed that cannot be realized without computers. The constructive measures that can be used during the particular development stages are given by means of the distributed security computer system that has been developed at Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center (KfK). The different types of analytical measures as well as the corresponding tools for testing and verification of high reliability software are briefly described. (orig.)

  6. Computer-Aided Diagnosis System for Alzheimer's Disease Using Different Discrete Transform Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessouky, Mohamed M; Elrashidy, Mohamed A; Taha, Taha E; Abdelkader, Hatem M

    2016-05-01

    The different discrete transform techniques such as discrete cosine transform (DCT), discrete sine transform (DST), discrete wavelet transform (DWT), and mel-scale frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) are powerful feature extraction techniques. This article presents a proposed computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for extracting the most effective and significant features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) using these different discrete transform techniques and MFCC techniques. Linear support vector machine has been used as a classifier in this article. Experimental results conclude that the proposed CAD system using MFCC technique for AD recognition has a great improvement for the system performance with small number of significant extracted features, as compared with the CAD system based on DCT, DST, DWT, and the hybrid combination methods of the different transform techniques. PMID:26371347

  7. A Student Response System in an Electronic Classroom: Technology Aids for Large Classroom Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, D.; Errington, P.; Islam, S.; Robertson, T.; Watson, J.

    1997-10-01

    In the fall of 1996, thirteen (13) classrooms on the Ball State campus were equipped with technological aids to enhance learning in large classrooms (for typically 100 students or larger). Each classroom was equipped with the following built-in equipment: computer, zip drive, laser disc player, VCR, LAN and Internet connection, TV monitors, and Elmo overhead camera with large-screen projection system. This past fall semester a student response system was added to a 108-seat classroom in the Physics and Astronomy department for use with large General Education courses. Each student seat was equipped with a hardwired hand-held unit possessing input capabilities and LCD feedback for the student. The introduction of the student response system was added in order enhance more active learning by students in the large classroom environment. Attendance, quizzes, hour exams, and in-class surveys are early uses for the system; initial reactions by student and faculty users will be given.

  8. An integrated computer aided system for integrated design of chemical processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Hytoft, Glen; Jaksland, Cecilia;

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, an Integrated Computer Aided System (ICAS), which is particularly suitable for solving problems related to integrated design of chemical processes; is presented. ICAS features include a model generator (generation of problem specific models including model simplification and model......, design, control form the basis for the toolboxes. The available features of ICAS are highlighted through a case study involving the separation of binary azeotropic mixtures. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd....... reduction), a simulator (use of problem specific simulation strategies for steady state and dynamic simulation), toolboxes (thermodynamic toolbox, synthesis toolbox, control toolbox, design toolbox and analysis toolbox), and an interface for problem defintion. Each toolbox solves aspecific set of problems...

  9. Application of fuzzy logic in computer-aided design of digital systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shragowitz, Eugene B.; Lee, Jun-Yong; Kang, Eric Q.

    1996-06-01

    Application of fuzzy logic structures in computer-aided design (CAD) of electronic systems substantially improves quality of design solutions by providing designers with flexibility in formulating goals and selecting trade-offs. In addition, the following aspects of a design process are positively impacted by application of fuzzy logic: utilization of domain knowledge, interpretation of uncertainties in design data, and adaptation of design algorithms. We successfully applied fuzzy logic structures in conjunction with constructive and iterative algorithms for selecting of design solutions for different stages of the design process. We also introduced a fuzzy logic software development tool to be used in CAD applications.

  10. Influence of Water Quality on the Efficiency of Retention Aids Systems for the Paper Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ordóñez Sanz, Ruth; Hermosilla Redondo, Daphne; de la Fuente González, Elena; Blanco Suárez, Ángeles

    2009-01-01

    It has been reported that about 10-15% of the fresh water intake in a paper mill is used for feeding and diluting retention aids, so significant savings could be achieved by replacing fresh water with process water. Water from different sources and qualitiessfresh water, the outflow from an internal ultrafiltration placed in the machine circuit of a paper mill, and water from a membrane bioreactor used to treat the final effluent of this paper millswere used to prepare a dual retention system...

  11. Development of computer-aided auto-ranging technique for a computed radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a computed radiography system, the authors developed a computer-aided autoranging technique in which the clinically useful image data are automatically mapped to the available display range. The preread image data are inspected to determine the location of collimation. A histogram of the pixels inside the collimation is evaluated regarding characteristic values such as maxima and minima, and then the optimal density and contrast are derived for the display image. The effect of the autoranging technique was investigated at several hospitals in Japan. The average rate of films lost due to undesirable density or contrast was about 0.5%

  12. ACSYNT - A standards-based system for parametric, computer aided conceptual design of aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaram, S.; Myklebust, A.; Gelhausen, P.

    1992-01-01

    A group of eight US aerospace companies together with several NASA and NAVY centers, led by NASA Ames Systems Analysis Branch, and Virginia Tech's CAD Laboratory agreed, through the assistance of Americal Technology Initiative, in 1990 to form the ACSYNT (Aircraft Synthesis) Institute. The Institute is supported by a Joint Sponsored Research Agreement to continue the research and development in computer aided conceptual design of aircraft initiated by NASA Ames Research Center and Virginia Tech's CAD Laboratory. The result of this collaboration, a feature-based, parametric computer aided aircraft conceptual design code called ACSYNT, is described. The code is based on analysis routines begun at NASA Ames in the early 1970's. ACSYNT's CAD system is based entirely on the ISO standard Programmer's Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System and is graphics-device independent. The code includes a highly interactive graphical user interface, automatically generated Hermite and B-Spline surface models, and shaded image displays. Numerous features to enhance aircraft conceptual design are described.

  13. Dynamic changes in Prebiotic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Riofrio, Walter

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute with the debate about the causes that produced the emergence of dynamic organization in living organisms. Understanding the origin of living systems is grasping the most basic capacities that are used in the construction of the organization of these systems. It is possible to think that in the prebiotic epoch the conditions should have existed that enabled the development of the rudiments of a dynamic organization containing the essentials for the subsequent emer...

  14. Musculoskeletal system pathology in aids patients; Patologia del sistema musculosqueletico en pacientes con sida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabala, R.; Oleaga, L.; Garcia Bolado, A.; Grande, D.; Gorrino, O.; Lecumberri, I. [Hospital de Basurto. Bilbao (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    We studied 22 AIDS patients who presented musculoskeletal system pathology. The affected area underwent simple X-ray and MR. The MR study was performed using a 1 Tesla magnet. T1 and T2 weighted echo spin sequences, as well as sequences of short T1 inversion recovery (STIR). In nine cases, intravenous gadolinium was used at a dose of 0.2cc/kg. The study plane was selected depending on the location of the lesion and surface coils were used when appropriate. In those patients showing pathology which was removed from the appendicular skeleton, the principal magnet was used as both transmitter and receiver. In one case, an On-Tine Tomography (CT) was also carried out. The evaluated ata were: a) localization; b) bony erosion; c) soft-tissue mass; d) articular effusion; e) cartilaginous changes; f) and T2 signals, and g) gadolinium enhancement. A diagnosis was made on the basis of biopsy or clinical culture, and evolution. Spinal cord alterations were the most frequent, being found in 13 cases. Twelve were caused by spondylodiscitis, 10 by tuberculosis, one by staphylococcal infection and one by candidiasis. In all cases, there appeared disk damage, as well as bone marrow signal alterations in the affected area and disks soft-tissue. In the mine cases in which gadolinium was used, the disk, vertebral plates and cases in which gadolinium was used, the disk, vertebral plates and soft-tissue mass heterogeneously enhanced, demonstrating an abscess with ring enhancement, and a central necrotic area in one case. In one patient, a spinal cord alteration due to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was observed. In six cases,there was observed and infectious arthritis two in coxofemoral joints, three in knees and one in a glenohumeral joint. Isolated germs were staphylococcal in three cases one being Mycobacterium tuberculosis, another being M. kansasii and the third identified as. Candida. In all cases, there was observed joint effusion, synovial thickening, joint cartilage damage and

  15. Computer-Aided Modeling and Analysis of Power Processing Systems (CAMAPPS), phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.; Lee, J.; Cho, B. H.; Lee, F. C.

    1986-01-01

    The large-signal behaviors of a regulator depend largely on the type of power circuit topology and control. Thus, for maximum flexibility, it is best to develop models for each functional block a independent modules. A regulator can then be configured by collecting appropriate pre-defined modules for each functional block. In order to complete the component model generation for a comprehensive spacecraft power system, the following modules were developed: solar array switching unit and control; shunt regulators; and battery discharger. The capability of each module is demonstrated using a simplified Direct Energy Transfer (DET) system. Large-signal behaviors of solar array power systems were analyzed. Stability of the solar array system operating points with a nonlinear load is analyzed. The state-plane analysis illustrates trajectories of the system operating point under various conditions. Stability and transient responses of the system operating near the solar array's maximum power point are also analyzed. The solar array system mode of operation is described using the DET spacecraft power system. The DET system is simulated for various operating conditions. Transfer of the software program CAMAPPS (Computer Aided Modeling and Analysis of Power Processing Systems) to NASA/GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) was accomplished.

  16. Computer aided system for generating fuel shuffling configurations based on knowledge engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a PWR core, approximately 1/3 of the burned fuels are replaced by fresh fuels after about a year's operation. Reload cores are designed so as to minimize the radial power peaking factor under design requirements and some administrative constraints. The conventional way of generating an appropriate fuel loading pattern is a method of trial error, which is laborious and requires much computer time. A computer aided system has therefore been developed to speed up and make more efficient the determination of fuel shuffling configurations in reload cores. The system consists of a rule-base system employing artificial intelligence techniques, a pin-wise diffusion code and a feedback program based on fuel assembly power distributions. It was successfully applied to cores with only burnable poison rods, with gadolinium-dispersed fuels and also to cores employing low leakage fuel management strategy. (author)

  17. Java interface to a computer-aided diagnosis system for acute pulmonary embolism using PIOPED findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Erik D.; Tourassi, Georgia D.; Gauger, Matthew; Floyd, Carey E., Jr.

    1999-05-01

    An interface to a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system for diagnosis of Acute Pulmonary Embolism (PE) from PIOPED radiographic findings was developed. The interface is based on Internet technology which is user-friendly and available on a broad range of computing platforms. It was designed to be used as a research tool and as a data collection tool, allowing researchers to observe the behavior of a CAD system and to collect radiographic findings on ventilation-perfusion lung scans and chest radiographs. The interface collects findings from physicians in the PIOPED reporting format, processes those findings and presents them as inputs to an artificial neural network (ANN) previously trained on findings from 1,064 patients from the Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis (PIOPED) study. The likelihood of PE predicted by the ANN and by the physician using the system is then saved for later analysis.

  18. Use of logic flowgraph models in a computer aided process analysis and management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a multi-function computer-aided process analysis and management (CAPAM) system, to be implemented in nuclear power plant control rooms, is proposed and discussed. The design goals identified for such a system are early disturbance detection and diagnosis, accompanied by identification of the best possible recovery actions or alternative success paths. The CAPAM structure is articulated in three functional levels with dedicated CRT displays. Increasing amount of diagnostic or recovery information is made available to the operators at the lower display levels. Probabilistic safety margins to the loss of important safety functions may be also calculated. The proposed implementation of the CAPAM concept is based on the use of logic flowgraph networks for the more detailed system modeling. Examples of such an implementation are given. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Virtual environment and computer-aided technologies used for system prototyping and requirements development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Cory; Maida, James; Goldsby, Michael; Clark, Jim; Wu, Liew; Prenger, Henk

    1993-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) Data Management System (DMS) consists of distributed hardware and software which monitor and control the many onboard systems. Virtual environment and off-the-shelf computer technologies can be used at critical points in project development to aid in objectives and requirements development. Geometric models (images) coupled with off-the-shelf hardware and software technologies were used in The Space Station Mockup and Trainer Facility (SSMTF) Crew Operational Assessment Project. Rapid prototyping is shown to be a valuable tool for operational procedure and system hardware and software requirements development. The project objectives, hardware and software technologies used, data gained, current activities, future development and training objectives shall be discussed. The importance of defining prototyping objectives and staying focused while maintaining schedules are discussed along with project pitfalls.

  20. A Web-based Computer-Aided Material-Selection System for Aircraft Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanpei Lan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A web-based computer-aided material-selection system for aircraft design was put forward, applying a material-selection strategy combined screening and ranking methods. This combined strategy could make good use of selection experience and material testing data, thus making the selection results more reasonable and bringing more standardization to the material selection process. The system’s Browser/ Server (B/S architecture together with its implementation details was described. The B/S system could be accessed with web browser conveniently. The system’s effectiveness was demonstrated by two aircraft-design material-selection case in actual applications. This system could help designer select suitable materials for airframe, provide knowledge for inexperienced engineer and accumulate enterprise-level material-selection expertise.

  1. The development of expertise using an intelligent computer-aided training system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Debra Steele

    1991-01-01

    An initial examination was conducted of an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) developed for use in industry. The ITS, developed by NASA, simulated a satellite deployment task. More specifically, the PD (Payload Assist Module Deployment)/ICAT (Intelligent Computer Aided Training) System simulated a nominal Payload Assist Module (PAM) deployment. The development of expertise on this task was examined using three Flight Dynamics Officer (FDO) candidates who has no previous experience with this task. The results indicated that performance improved rapidly until Trial 5, followed by more gradual improvements through Trial 12. The performance dimensions measured included performance speed, actions completed, errors, help required, and display fields checked. Suggestions for further refining the software and for deciding when to expose trainees to more difficult task scenarios are discussed. Further, the results provide an initial demonstration of the effectiveness of the PD/ICAT system in training the nominal PAM deployment task and indicate the potential benefits of using ITS's for training other FDO tasks.

  2. NHS System Reform: Structural Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Ravaghi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The National Health Service (NHS was established in 1948 to provide equitable healthcare for all citizens. Over the years the NHS has gone under different reforms and changes. In 2002 the NHS launched one of its biggest changes in structure since its commencement in 1948. The scale of these changes are greater than those established following the white paper “Working for Patients” in 1989 (Conservative Government that indicated the introduction of the internal market (focus on efficiency. This review therefore proposes to give a brief summarize of the structural changes and current structure of the NHS in the England. The NHS plan was published in July 2000 (Labour Government and outlined a 10 year plan of investment in the NHS. This delineates a vision for a service planned around the patients and more responsive to patients’ needs. The Government emphasizes on the empowering of staff at all levels as a way to achieve this vision. "Shifting the Balance of Power" is part of the Government’s plans for implementation of the NHS Plan and has directed to the establishment of new structures. The main feature of change has been giving locally based Primary Care Trusts the role of running the NHS and, with the local authorities, improving health in their areas. The PCTs are receiving 75% of the NHS budget to act as primary services provider, commissioner (service purchaser, network developer and controller. In addition, all former Health Authorities have been abolished and new Strategic Health Authorities (SHA have been created to serve larger areas and with a more strategic role. The SHAs are responsible for developing strategic frameworks for the local health service; performance of the local health service; and building capacity in the local health service. The Department of Health is also refocusing to reflect these changes, including the abolition of its Regional Offices and relegating some of its operational responsibilities to SHAs and

  3. Aging changes in the nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... article/004023.htm Aging changes in the nervous system To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The brain and nervous system are your body's central control center. They control ...

  4. A COMPUTER AIDED DIAGNOSIS SYSTEM FOR DETECTION OF LUNG CANCER NODULES USING EXTREME LEARNING MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.GOMATHI

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Computer Aided Diagnosing (CAD system is proposed in this paper for detection of lung cancer form the analysis of computed tomography (CT images of chest. To produce a successful Computer Aided Diagnosissystem, several problems has to be resolved. Segmentation is the first problem to be considered which helps in generation of candidate region for detecting cancer nodules. The second problem is identification of affected nodules from all the candidate nodules. Initially, the basic image processing techniques such as Bit-Plane Slicing, Erosion, Median Filter, Dilation, Outlining, Lung Border Extraction and Flood-Fill algorithms are applied to the CT scan image in order to detect the lung region. Then the segmentation algorithm is applied in order to detect the cancer nodules from the extracted lung image. In this paper, Fuzzy Possibilistic C Mean (FPCM algorithm is used for segmentation because of its accuracy. After segmentation, rule based technique is applied to classify the cancernodules. Finally, a set of diagnosis rules are generated from the extracted features. From these rules, the occurrences of cancer nodules are identified clearly. The learning is performed with the help of Extreme Learning Machine (ELM because of its better classification. For experimentation of the proposed technique, the CT images are collected from reputed hospital. The proposed system can be able to detect the false positive nodules accurately.

  5. Computer-aided design system for technical and economical comparison of crane electrical drives

    OpenAIRE

    Gerasymiak, Rostyslav; Busher, Viktor; Shvets, Liudmyla; Savich, Svitlana

    2012-01-01

    Computer-aided design system for technical and economic comparison of crane electrical drives, considering the ratio of static and dynamic modes, load and moment inertia, relative running time with reduced speed, is designed. The computer-aided design system provides an opportunity to make a better informed decision about the choice or upgrading of electrical drives. Розроблено програмний комплекс для техніко-економічного порівняння кранових електроприводів з урахуванням співвідношення ста...

  6. Operator function modeling: Cognitive task analysis, modeling and intelligent aiding in supervisory control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Christine M.

    1990-01-01

    The design, implementation, and empirical evaluation of task-analytic models and intelligent aids for operators in the control of complex dynamic systems, specifically aerospace systems, are studied. Three related activities are included: (1) the models of operator decision making in complex and predominantly automated space systems were used and developed; (2) the Operator Function Model (OFM) was used to represent operator activities; and (3) Operator Function Model Expert System (OFMspert), a stand-alone knowledge-based system was developed, that interacts with a human operator in a manner similar to a human assistant in the control of aerospace systems. OFMspert is an architecture for an operator's assistant that uses the OFM as its system and operator knowledge base and a blackboard paradigm of problem solving to dynamically generate expectations about upcoming operator activities and interpreting actual operator actions. An experiment validated the OFMspert's intent inferencing capability and showed that it inferred the intentions of operators in ways comparable to both a human expert and operators themselves. OFMspert was also augmented with control capabilities. An interface allowed the operator to interact with OFMspert, delegating as much or as little control responsibility as the operator chose. With its design based on the OFM, OFMspert's control capabilities were available at multiple levels of abstraction and allowed the operator a great deal of discretion over the amount and level of delegated control. An experiment showed that overall system performance was comparable for teams consisting of two human operators versus a human operator and OFMspert team.

  7. Aid and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Tarp, Finn

    2006-01-01

    Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categoriz...

  8. Radiological changes in systemic lupus erythematosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a study of 50 patients with systemic lupus erythematosis, radiologically demonstrable lung changes and pleural effusions were found in 50%. Changes in the peripheral skeleton, such as osteoporosis, erosions or mutilations, were seen in only two patients. Our radiological analysis has shown that systemic lupus erythematosis does not produce changes in the joints, but is responsible for abnormalities in the lungs, as well as for pericardial and pleural effusions. (orig.)

  9. Development of a change management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Cathy Bonifas

    1993-01-01

    The complexity and interdependence of software on a computer system can create a situation where a solution to one problem causes failures in dependent software. In the computer industry, software problems arise and are often solved with 'quick and dirty' solutions. But in implementing these solutions, documentation about the solution or user notification of changes is often overlooked, and new problems are frequently introduced because of insufficient review or testing. These problems increase when numerous heterogeneous systems are involved. Because of this situation, a change management system plays an integral part in the maintenance of any multisystem computing environment. At the NASA Ames Advanced Computational Facility (ACF), the Online Change Management System (OCMS) was designed and developed to manage the changes being applied to its multivendor computing environment. This paper documents the research, design, and modifications that went into the development of this change management system (CMS).

  10. Systemic change increases forecast uncertainty of land use change models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstegen, J. A.; Karssenberg, D.; van der Hilst, F.; Faaij, A.

    2013-12-01

    Cellular Automaton (CA) models of land use change are based on the assumption that the relationship between land use change and its explanatory processes is stationary. This means that model structure and parameterization are usually kept constant over time, ignoring potential systemic changes in this relationship resulting from societal changes, thereby overlooking a source of uncertainty. Evaluation of the stationarity of the relationship between land use and a set of spatial attributes has been done by others (e.g., Bakker and Veldkamp, 2012). These studies, however, use logistic regression, separate from the land use change model. Therefore, they do not gain information on how to implement the spatial attributes into the model. In addition, they often compare observations for only two points in time and do not check whether the change is statistically significant. To overcome these restrictions, we assimilate a time series of observations of real land use into a land use change CA (Verstegen et al., 2012), using a Bayesian data assimilation technique, the particle filter. The particle filter was used to update the prior knowledge about the parameterization and model structure, i.e. the selection and relative importance of the drivers of location of land use change. In a case study of sugar cane expansion in Brazil, optimal model structure and parameterization were determined for each point in time for which observations were available (all years from 2004 to 2012). A systemic change, i.e. a statistically significant deviation in model structure, was detected for the period 2006 to 2008. In this period the influence on the location of sugar cane expansion of the driver sugar cane in the neighborhood doubled, while the influence of slope and potential yield decreased by 75% and 25% respectively. Allowing these systemic changes to occur in our CA in the future (up to 2022) resulted in an increase in model forecast uncertainty by a factor two compared to the

  11. Physical-Layer Security of a Buffer-Aided Full-Duplex Relaying System

    KAUST Repository

    El Shafie, Ahmed

    2016-07-07

    This letter proposes a novel hybrid half-/full-duplex relaying scheme to enhance the relay channel security. A source node (Alice) communicates with her destination node (Bob) in the presence of a buffer-aided full-duplex relay node (Rooney) and a potential eavesdropper (Eve). Rooney adopts two different relaying, namely randomize-and-forward and decode-andforward relaying strategies, to improve the security of the legitimate system. In the first relaying strategy, Rooney uses a codebook different from that used at Alice. In the second relaying strategy, Rooney and Alice use the same codebooks. In addition, Rooney switches between half-duplex and full-duplex modes to further enhance the security of the legitimate system. The numerical results demonstrate that our proposed scheme achieves a significant average secrecy end-to-end throughput improvement relative to the conventional bufferless full-duplex relaying scheme.

  12. A practical technique for benefit-cost analysis of computer-aided design and drafting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of benefits and costs associated with the operation of Computer-Aided Design and Drafting Systems (CADDS) are needed to derive economic justification for acquiring new systems, as well as to evaluate the performance of existing installations. In practice, however, such analyses are difficult to perform since most technical and economic advantages of CADDS are ΣirreduciblesΣ, i.e. cannot be readily translated into monetary terms. In this paper, a practical technique for economic analysis of CADDS in a drawing office environment is presented. A Σworst caseΣ approach is taken since increase in productivity of existing manpower is the only benefit considered, while all foreseen costs are taken into account. Methods of estimating benefits and costs are described. The procedure for performing the analysis is illustrated by a case study based on the drawing office activities at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. (auth)

  13. A Computer Aided Detection system for mammographic images implemented on a GRID infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Bottigli, U; Delogu, P; Fantacci, M E; Fauci, F; Forni, G; Golosio, B; Indovina, P L; Lauria, A; Magro, R; Masala, G L; Oliva, P R; Palmiero, R; Raso, G; Retico, A; Stefanini, A; Stumbo, S; Tangaro, S; Torres, E L

    2003-01-01

    The use of an automatic system for the analysis of mammographic images has proven to be very useful to radiologists in the investigation of breast cancer, especially in the framework of mammographic-screening programs. A breast neoplasia is often marked by the presence of microcalcification clusters and massive lesions in the mammogram: hence the need for tools able to recognize such lesions at an early stage. In the framework of the GPCALMA (GRID Platform for Computer Assisted Library for MAmmography) project, the co-working of italian physicists and radiologists built a large distributed database of digitized mammographic images (about 5500 images corresponding to 1650 patients) and developed a CAD (Computer Aided Detection) system, able to make an automatic search of massive lesions and microcalcification clusters. The CAD is implemented in the GPCALMA integrated station, which can be used also for digitization, as archive and to perform statistical analyses. Some GPCALMA integrated stations have already b...

  14. Cooperation between man and decision aid system in supervisory loop of continuous processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complexity of automated industrial processes makes the operator's supervision tasks difficult to perform and can cause errors which may lead to serious consequences. A solution to these problems consists in introducing decision aid systems in the supervisory computer. These can offer useful information to the operator, such as prediction, diagnonis, and corrective advice. However they raise important problems in the communication with users. This paper proposes a methodology for designing the interface between human operators and these systems. This methodology is based on the use of an original model of cooperation between man and computer, and which enables to specify the functional characteristics of the interface to be developed. The cooperation model is presented through an industrial application. (author) 28 refs

  15. Evaluation of a computer aided X-ray fluorographic system: Part II - image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TV imagery from a computer aided X-ray fluorographic system has been digitally processed with an I2S model 70E image processor, controlled by a PDP 11/60 minicomputer. The image processor allowed valuable processing for detection of defects in cast components to be carried out at television frame rates. Summation of TV frames was used to reduce noise, and hence improve the thickness sensitivity of the system. A displaced differencing technique and interactive contrast enhancement were then used to improve the reliability of inspection by removing spurious blemishes and interference lines, while simultaneously enhancing the visibility of real defects. The times required for these operations are given, and the benefits provided for X-ray fluorography are illustrated by the results from inspection of aero engine castings. (author)

  16. Shadow and feature recognition aids for rapid image geo-registration in UAV vision system architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Wolfgang; Kölsch, Mathias

    2009-05-01

    The problem of real-time image geo-referencing is encountered in all vision based cognitive systems. In this paper we present a model-image feedback approach to this problem and show how it can be applied to image exploitation from Unmanned Arial Vehicle (UAV) vision systems. By calculating reference images from a known terrain database, using a novel ray trace algorithm, we are able to eliminate foreshortening, elevation, and lighting distortions, introduce registration aids and reduce the geo-referencing problem to a linear transformation search over the two dimensional image space. A method for shadow calculation that maintains real-time performance is also presented. The paper then discusses the implementation of our model-image feedback approach in the Perspective View Nascent Technology (PVNT) software package and provides sample results from UAV mission control and target mensuration experiments conducted at China Lake and Camp Roberts, California.

  17. Practical support aids addiction recovery: the positive identity model of change

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, Ayna B.; Brendryen, Håvar; Darnell, Farnad J; Wennesland, Dag K

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a need for studies that can highlight principles of addiction recovery. Because social relationships are involved in all change processes, understanding how social motivations affect the recovery process is vital to guide support programs. Methods The objective was to develop a model of recovery by examining addicted individuals’ social motivations through longitudinal assessment o...

  18. Research on solar aided coal-fired power generation system and performance analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Integrating solar power utilization systems with coal-fired power units, the solar aided coal-fired power generation (SACPG) shows a significant prospect for the large-scale utilization of solar energy and energy saving of thermal power units. The methods and mechanism of system integration were studied. The parabolic trough solar collectors were used to collect solar energy and the integration scheme of SACPG system was determined considering the matching of working fluid flows and energy flows. The thermodynamic characteristics of solar thermal power generation and their effects on the performance of thermal power units were studied, and based on this the integration and optimization model of system structure and parameters were built up. The integration rules and coupling mecha- nism of SACPG systems were summarized in accordance with simulation results. The economic analysis of this SACPG system showed that the solar LEC of a typical SACPG system, considering CO2 avoidance, is 0.098 $/kW·h, lower than that of SEGS, 0.14 $/kW·h.

  19. Modern numerical techniques and software for photo- and thermoemission electron optical systems computer-aided design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monastyrski, Mikhail A.; Andreev, Sergei V.; Gaidukova, Inna S.; Tarasov, Victor A.; Filachev, Anatoly M.

    1997-09-01

    The paper is devoted to software development for simulation, optimization, and computer-aided design of photo/thermo- emission electron optical systems and units. The first part of the paper presents the applied program package (APP) 'ELIMDYNAMICS\\ intended for computer-aided design of dynamic photo-emission image tubes with electro/magnetostatic focusing and deflection (streak tubes). The developed software allows highly precise computation of basic image quality characteristics both in static and streak modes. One of the main advantages of the new program version presented is that 'through' electron beam computation from the photocathode to image receiver is available with regard to dynamic aberrations caused by scattering fields located nearby the edges of deflecting plates. In the second part, the possibility is shown to generalize some numerical techniques being effectively applied in photo-emission imaging electron optics (namely, the (tau) -variation - and the first kind integral equations techniques) to simulation of the thermo-emission electron beam technology units. Functions of the new APP 'CHARGE' are presented, and some numerical aspects of the self-coordinated problem are discussed.

  20. The study of Social Representation Systems: Relationships Involving Representations on Agings, AIDS and the Body.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camargo, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Past studies have pointed out that social representations on AIDS, aging and the body might be connected. The present paper reports an exploratory study that aims at characterizing their relationships. The sample was composed of 1118 secondary school and university undergraduate students, who completed a questionnaire about one of the three objects. The main task was to choose 3 of 12 words extracted from the literature that were more strongly related with the object in question, and then justify their choices. Data analysis consisted of descriptive statistics, correspondence analysis and typical vocabulary analysis. The results from correspondence analysis suggested that the representations on AIDS and the body are associated with the element young, whereas the representations on the body and old age intersect on elements ‘health’ and ‘life’. It is concluded that there is empirical evidence of interaction zones involving the mentioned representations, and the reference to thêmata and recent developments from the structural approach might provide the guidelines to the underlying logic of a representational system.

  1. Practical support aids addiction recovery: the positive identity model of change

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, Ayna B.; Brendryen, Håvar; Darnell, Farnad J; Wennesland, Dag K

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a need for studies that can highlight principles of addiction recovery. Because social relationships are involved in all change processes, understanding how social motivations affect the recovery process is vital to guide support programs. Methods The objective was to develop a model of recovery by examining addicted individuals’ social motivations through longitudinal assessment of non-professional support dyads. A qualitative, longitudinal study design was used, combinin...

  2. Computer-aided modelling and analysis of PV systems: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukouvaos, Charalambos; Kandris, Dionisis; Samarakou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Modern scientific advances have enabled remarkable efficacy for photovoltaic systems with regard to the exploitation of solar energy, boosting them into having a rapidly growing position among the systems developed for the production of renewable energy. However, in many cases the design, analysis, and control of photovoltaic systems are tasks which are quite complex and thus difficult to be carried out. In order to cope with this kind of problems, appropriate software tools have been developed either as standalone products or parts of general purpose software platforms used to model and simulate the generation, transmission, and distribution of solar energy. The utilization of this kind of software tools may be extremely helpful to the successful performance evaluation of energy systems with maximum accuracy and minimum cost in time and effort. The work presented in this paper aims on a first level at the performance analysis of various configurations of photovoltaic systems through computer-aided modelling. On a second level, it provides a comparative evaluation of the credibility of two of the most advanced graphical programming environments, namely, Simulink and LabVIEW, with regard to their application in photovoltaic systems. PMID:24772007

  3. Computer aided system for selection of parameters for making metallographic microsections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The goal of this work was development of the computer aided system for selection of technological parameters for making the metallographic microsections for the microscopic examinations.Design/methodology/approach: Prolog language – the Artificial Intelligence tool was employed in the project, and the Logic Programming Associate’s VisiRule system, which was used for saving the knowledge base - rules pertaining the objects and their relationships. These tools were used to develop the expert system for selection of the recommended technology for the metallographic microsections.Findings: Knowledge acquisition process was carried out to cover recommendations of manufacturers of the equipment for metallographic microsections. Formulation of the pertinent knowledge in the LPA-Prolog VisiRule tool is presented along with the results of technology instruction sheet presentation.Research limitations/implications: The expert system for selection of parameters for making the metallographic microsections is currently at the testing and development stage.Originality/value: Making the metallographic microsections is a time consuming task, sometimes material for examination is scarce, so any system that ensures good quality of microsections is very valuable. The system under development offers the best advice to anybody striving to obtain the best quality of the specimens.

  4. Modelling, Simulation and Testing of a Reconfigurable Cable-Based Parallel Manipulator as Motion Aiding System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Castelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results on the modelling, simulation and experimental tests of a cable-based parallel manipulator to be used as an aiding or guiding system for people with motion disabilities. There is a high level of motivation for people with a motion disability or the elderly to perform basic daily-living activities independently. Therefore, it is of great interest to design and implement safe and reliable motion assisting and guiding devices that are able to help end-users. In general, a robot for a medical application should be able to interact with a patient in safety conditions, i.e. it must not damage people or surroundings; it must be designed to guarantee high accuracy and low acceleration during the operation. Furthermore, it should not be too bulky and it should exert limited wrenches after close interaction with people. It can be advisable to have a portable system which can be easily brought into and assembled in a hospital or a domestic environment. Cable-based robotic structures can fulfil those requirements because of their main characteristics that make them light and intrinsically safe. In this paper, a reconfigurable four-cable-based parallel manipulator has been proposed as a motion assisting and guiding device to help people to accomplish a number of tasks, such as an aiding or guiding system to move the upper and lower limbs or the whole body. Modelling and simulation are presented in the ADAMS environment. Moreover, experimental tests are reported as based on an available laboratory prototype.

  5. Development of a computer-aided diagnostic scheme for detection of interval changes in successive whole-body bone scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scintigraphy is the most frequent examination among various diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. It is a well-established imaging modality for the diagnosis of osseous metastasis and for monitoring osseous tumor response to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Although the sensitivity of bone scan examinations for detection of bone abnormalities has been considered to be relatively high, it is time consuming to identify multiple lesions such as bone metastases of prostate and breast cancers. In addition, it is very difficult to detect subtle interval changes between two successive abnormal bone scans, because of variations in patient conditions, the accumulation of radioisotopes during each examination, and the image quality of gamma cameras. Therefore, we developed a new computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme for the detection of interval changes in successive whole-body bone scans by use of a temporal subtraction image which was obtained with a nonlinear image-warping technique. We carried out 58 pairs of successive bone scans in which each scan included both posterior and anterior views. We determined 107 'gold-standard' interval changes among the 58 pairs based on the consensus of three radiologists. Our computerized scheme consisted of seven steps, i.e., initial image density normalization on each image, image matching for the paired images, temporal subtraction by use of the nonlinear image-warping technique, initial detection of interval changes by use of temporal-subtraction images, image feature extraction of candidates of interval changes, rule-based tests by use of 16 image features for removing some false positives, and display of the computer output for identified interval changes. One hundred seven gold standard interval changes included 71 hot lesions (uptake was increased compared with the previous scan, or there was new uptake in the current scan) and 36 cold lesions (uptake was decreased or disappeared) for anterior and posterior views. The

  6. Designing Control System Application Software for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, Richard

    2001-01-01

    The Unified Modeling Language (UML) was used to design the Environmental Systems Test Stand (ESTS) control system software. The UML was chosen for its ability to facilitate a clear dialog between software designer and customer, from which requirements are discovered and documented in a manner which transposes directly to program objects. Applying the UML to control system software design has resulted in a baseline set of documents from which change and effort of that change can be accurately measured. As the Environmental Systems Test Stand evolves, accurate estimates of the time and effort required to change the control system software will be made. Accurate quantification of the cost of software change can be before implementation, improving schedule and budget accuracy.

  7. A GIS-aided response model of high-altitude permafrost to global change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新; 程国栋

    1999-01-01

    Two models are used to simulate the high-altitude permafrost distribution on the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. The two models are the "altitude model", a Gaussian distribution function used to describe the latitudinal zonation of permafrost based on the three-dimensional rules of high-altitude permafrost, and the "frost number model", a dimensionless ratio defined by manipulation of freezing and thawing degree-day sums. The results show that the "altitude model" can simulate the high-altitude permafrost distribution under present climate conditions accurately. Given the essential hypotheses and using the GCM scenarios from HADCM2, the "altitude model" is used for predicting the permafrost distribution change on the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. The results show that the permafrost on the plateau will not change significantly during 20—50 a, the percentage of the total disappeared area will not be over 19%. However, by the year 2099, if the air temperature increases by an average of 2.91℃ on the plateau, the decre

  8. Open systems dependability dependability engineering for ever-changing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tokoro, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The book describes a fundamentally new approach to software dependability, considering a software system as an ever-changing system due to changes in service objectives, users' requirements, standards and regulations, and to advances in technology. Such a system is viewed as an Open System since its functions, structures, and boundaries are constantly changing. Thus, the approach to dependability is called Open Systems Dependability. The DEOS technology realizes Open Systems Dependability. It puts more emphasis on stakeholders' agreement and accountability achievement for business/service cont

  9. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and network system for chest diagnosis based on multislice CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Mori, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kakinuma, Ryutarou; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru

    2007-03-01

    Multislice CT scanner advanced remarkably at the speed at which the chest CT images were acquired for mass screening. Mass screening based on multislice CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. To overcome this problem, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images and a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification. Moreover, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by using a lung cancer screening algorithm built into mobile helical CT scanner for the lung cancer mass screening done in the region without the hospital. We also have developed electronic medical recording system and prototype internet system for the community health in two or more regions by using the Virtual Private Network router and Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system for safety of medical information. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have now developed a new computer-aided workstation and database that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. This paper describes basic studies that have been conducted to evaluate this new system.

  10. Implementation of Computer Aided Diagnosis System Based on Parallel Approach of Ant Based Medical Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayabalan Jaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this study is to develop Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD system for the detection of brain tumor by using parallel implementation of ACO system for medical image segmentation applications due to the rapid execution for obtaining and extracting the Region of Interest (ROI from the images for diagnostic purposes in medical field. Approach: For ROI segmentation, metaheuristic based Parallel Ant colony Optimization (PACO approach has been implemented. The system has been simulated in the Mat lab for the parallel processing, using the master slave approach and information exchange. The scheme is tested up to 10 real time MRI brain images. Here parallelism is inherent in program loops, which focused on performing searching operation in parallel. Results: The computational results shows that parallel ACO systems uses the concept of the parallelization approach enabled the utilization of the intensity similarity measurement technique because of the capability of parallel processing. Conclusion: Medical image segmentation and detection at the early stage played vital roles for many health-related applications such as medical diagnostics, drug evaluation, medical research, training and teaching. Due to the rapid progress in the technologies for segmenting digital images for diagnostic purposes in medical field parallel Ant based CAD system are technologically feasible for Medical Domain which will certainly reduce the mortality rate.

  11. Simulation of embedded heat exchangers of solar aided ground source heat pump system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 郑茂余; 邵俊鹏; 李忠建

    2008-01-01

    Aimed at unbalance of soil temperature field of ground source heat pump system, solar aided energy storage system was established. In solar assisted ground-source heat pump (SAGSHP) system with soil storage, solar energy collected in three seasons was stored in the soil by vertical U type soil exchangers. The heat abstracted by the ground-source heat pump and collected by the solar collector was employed to heating. Some of the soil heat exchangers were used to store solar energy in the soil so as to be used in next winter after this heating period; and the others were used to extract cooling energy directly in the soil by circulation pump for air conditioning in summer. After that solar energy began to be stored in the soil and ended before heating period. Three dimensional dynamic numerical simulations were built for soil and soil heat exchanger through finite element method. Simulation was done in different strata month by month. Variation and restoration of soil temperature were studied. Economy and reliability of long term SAGSHP system were revealed. It can be seen that soil temperature is about 3 ℃ higher than the original one after one year’s running. It is beneficial for the system to operate for long period.

  12. Computer-aided system for measuring the mandibular cortical width on panoramic radiographs in osteoporosis diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifin, Agus Zainal; Asano, Akira; Taguchi, Akira; Nakamoto, Takashi; Ohtsuka, Masahiko; Tanimoto, Keiji

    2005-04-01

    Osteoporotic fractures are associated with substantial morbidity, increased medical cost and high mortality risk. Several equipments of bone assessment have been developed to identify individuals, especially postmenopausal women, with high risk of osteoporotic fracture; however, a large segment of women with low skeletal bone mineral density (BMD), namely women with high risk of osteoporotic fractures, cannot be identified sufficiently because osteoporosis is asymptomatic. Recent studies have been demonstrating that mandibular inferior cortical width manually measured on panoramic radiographs may be useful for the identification of women with low BMD. Automatic measurement of cortical width may enable us to identify a large number of asymptomatic women with low BMD. The purpose of this study was to develop a computer-aided system for measuring the mandibular cortical width on panoramic radiographs. Initially, oral radiologists determined the region of interest based on the position of mental foramen. Some enhancing image techniques were applied so as to measure the cortical width at the best point. Panoramic radiographs of 100 women who had BMD assessments of the lumbar spine and femoral neck were used to confirm the efficacy of our new system. Cortical width measured with our system was compared with skeletal BMD. There were significant correlation between cortical width measured with our system and skeletal BMD. These correlations were similar with those between cortical width manually measured by the dentist and skeletal BMD. Our results suggest that our new system may be useful for mass screening of osteoporosis.

  13. Computer Aided Design of Transformer Station Grounding System Using CDEGS Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nikolovski

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a computer-aided design of a transformer station grounding system. Fault conditions in a transformer station can produce huge damage to transformer station equipment if the grounding system is not designed properly. A well designed grounding system is a very important part of the project for transformer station design as a whole. This paper analyses a procedure for transformer grounding system design and spatial distribution of touch and step voltage on the ground surface level, using the CDEGS (Current Distribution Electromagnetic Interference Grounding and Soil Structure Analysis software. Spatial distribution is needed for checking and finding dangerous step and touch voltages above and around the transformer station. Apparent earth resistivity data is measured and analyzed using the RESAP module of the CDEGS software. Because of the very high current flow into the grounding system during a single line to ground fault or a three phase fault in the transformer station, very high and dangerous potentials can be induced on the metallic structures including the fence, which can cause dangerous situations for people and animals near the station and for the personnel inside the station. The PLOT module of CDEGS is used to view the results of the scalar potential, step and touch voltage on the surface. Graphic displays include equipotent contour lines and potential profiles (gradients in 3D and 2D perspective and apparent soil resistivity (Wm versus inter electrode spacing (m. The results of alternative grid designs may be displayed simultaneously for the purpose of comparison.

  14. Operation and validation of the decision aid system 'CAIRE' in complex terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In cases of nuclear emergencies it is the primary task of emergency response forces and decision making authorities to act properly. Based on telemetric surveillance networks, an advanced automatic on-line decision support system named CAIRE (Computer Aided Response to Emergencies) has been developed and is in operation now at 4 sites as a real time emergency response tool. This tool is designed to provide decision makers with precise radiation exposure data for the population at risk. Depending on the individual layout of the connected telemetric networks, CAIRE is able to satisfy the following main requirements: automatic identification of the source location and of the source term, automatic diagnosis of the actual radiological situation and identification of the endangered area, projection of the radiological situation, delivery of all this information in the form computer graphics. (R.P.)

  15. Large Advanced Space Systems (LASS) computer-aided design program additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    The LSS preliminary and conceptual design requires extensive iteractive analysis because of the effects of structural, thermal, and control intercoupling. A computer aided design program that will permit integrating and interfacing of required large space system (LSS) analyses is discussed. The primary objective of this program is the implementation of modeling techniques and analysis algorithms that permit interactive design and tradeoff studies of LSS concepts. Eight software modules were added to the program. The existing rigid body controls module was modified to include solar pressure effects. The new model generator modules and appendage synthesizer module are integrated (interfaced) to permit interactive definition and generation of LSS concepts. The mass properties module permits interactive specification of discrete masses and their locations. The other modules permit interactive analysis of orbital transfer requirements, antenna primary beam n, and attitude control requirements.

  16. Decision aiding handbooks for managing contaminated food production systems, drinking water and inhabited areas in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisbet, A.F.; Brown, J.; Howard, B.J.;

    2010-01-01

    government departments and agencies, emergency services, radiation protection experts, the agriculture and food production sectors, industry and others who may be affected. The handbooks include management options for application in the different phases of an incident. Sources of contamination considered in......Three handbooks have been developed, in conjunction with a wide range of stakeholders to assist in the management of contaminated food production systems, inhabited areas and drinking water following a radiological incident. The handbooks are aimed at national and local authorities, central...... comprehensive, state-of-the-art datasheets for around 100 management options and guidance on planning in advance. A decision-aiding framework comprising colour coded selection tables, look-up tables and decision trees and several worked examples are also included. The handbooks can be used as a preparatory tool...

  17. Development of a computer-aided diagnostic system for Alzheimer's disease using magnetic resonance imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Murase, Kenya; Soma, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia accompanied with brain atrophy. Structural measurements of brain atrophy in specific brain structures such as hippocampus using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been reported to detect the development of dementia early in the course of the disease. The purpose of this study was to develop a computer-aided diagnostic system for AD using MRI, which is based on the automatic volumetry of segmented brain images and generation of three-dimensional cortical thickness images using the Eulerian partial differential equation (PDE) approach. We investigated the effect of the inhomogeneity of magnetic field strength and statistical noise on the accuracy of our automatic volumetry and the PDE approach using the simulated MR images generated from BrainWeb. Our automatic volumetry and PDE approach were robust against inhomogeneous magnetic field strength. Although the accuracy of our automatic volumetry decreased with increasing statistical noise, it was mai...

  18. DVL Velocity Aiding in the HUGIN 1000 Integrated Inertial Navigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Jalving

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The RDI WHN-600 Doppler Velocity Log (DVL is a key navigation sensor for the HUG1N 1000 Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV. HUGIN 1000 is designed for autonomous submerged operation for long periods of time. This is facilitated by a low drift velocity aided Inertial Navigation System (INS. Major factors determining the position error growth are the IMU and DVL error characteristics and the mission plan pattern_ For instance, low frequency DVL errors cause an approximately linear drift in a straight-line trajectory, while these errors tend to be cancelled out by a lawn mower pattern_ The paper focuses on the accuracy offered by the DVL. HUGIN 1000 is a permanent organic mine countermeasure (MCM capacity on the Royal Norwegian Navy MCM vessel KNM Karmoy. HUGIN 1000 will be part of the NATO force MCMFORNORTH in fall 2004.

  19. In situ tuning of omnidirectional microelectromechanical-systems microphones to improve performance fit in hearing aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Je, Sang-Soo; Kim, Jeonghwan; Harrison, Jere C.; Kozicki, Michael N.; Chae, Junseok

    2008-09-01

    Hearing aids are not a one-size-fits-all solution to hearing problems; they must be uniquely tuned for each wearer. There are currently no low-cost and/or effective methods for in situ tuning. This paper describes a microelectromechanical-systems (MEMS)-based dual omnidirectional microphone that can be tuned by growing metallic nanostructures. The nanostructures are grown on integrated solid electrolyte layers on a suspended parylene diaphragm using an external bias and tune the MEMS microphones in situ thereby limiting mismatch. In our tests, this tuning improved the directivity index from 3.5 (fair directionality) to 4.6 dB (excellent directionality) in normal (room temperature) operating environments.

  20. Effects of Computer-Aided Personalized System of Instruction in Developing Knowledge and Critical Thinking in Blended Learning Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenningsen, Louis; Pear, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess an online version of Keller's personalized system of instruction, called computer-aided personalized system of instruction (CAPSI), as part of a blended learning design with regard to course knowledge and critical thinking development. In Experiment 1, two lecture sections of an introduction to University…

  1. Environmental management systems and organizational change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg

    2000-01-01

    The establishment of an environmental management system and its continuous improvements is a process towards a reduction of the companies' and the products' environmental impact. The organizations' ability to change is crucial in order to establish a dynamic environmental management system...... and environmental management systems. The structure of the organizations has changed, the relationships with external partners have strengthened and the implementation of quality and environmental management systems has trimmed the organizations to manage and develop these areas. The organization analysis is based...... and to achieve continuous environmental improvements. The study of changes gives an insight into how organizations function, as well as their forces and barriers. This article focuses on the organizational changes that two companies have undergone from 1992 up until today in connection with their quality...

  2. Changing Dashboard build system to Bamboo

    CERN Document Server

    Varga, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this project is to change Cosmic custom build system to an Automated build system used Bamboo CI System services. The goal is when a developer performs some changes on the source code, the system builds installation packages for different architectures and runs tests automatically on the software modules as soon as possible. The Bamboo build system polls the git repository which is a commonly used source code repository by the developers of the IT department. Bamboo CI System is a widely used system by the department. Thus the project uses widely accepted tools by the department which makes the Cosmic project even more standardized. Project also aims to create packages for every versions of Cosmic modules for different architectures (SLC5/SLC6) which can be accessed by different package repositories on AFS file system. The created package repositories can be used for automated deploy environment such as puppet.

  3. Changing Social and Environmental Reporting Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Mia; Riise Johansen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Based on a case study of a large multinational group, this paper addresses the way in which social and environmental reporting (SER) systems were changed and the consequences and controversies associated with this change. Drawing on Power's work on the processes by which things are made auditable...

  4. Changing Configuration of Alternative Energy Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bhuyan, Radhika; Mytelka, Lynn K.

    2008-01-01

    Recent and rampant regulatory changes for sustainable development are seeking to transform current energy systems towards cleaner and greener forms of energy sources. In this scenario, alternative energy technologies are considered the building blocks towards this transformed energy system. This chapter will show how the alternative energy market since the 1970s changed, in response to external oil price shocks and to other selective pressures and institutions. It will observe that the config...

  5. Entransy in phase-change systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Junjie

    2014-01-01

    Entransy in Phase-Change Systems summarizes recent developments in the area of entransy, especially on phase-change processes. This book covers new developments in the area including the great potential for energy saving for process industries, decreasing carbon dioxide emissions, reducing energy bills and improving overall efficiency of systems. This concise volume is an ideal book for engineers and scientists in energy-related industries.

  6. LiDAR Scan Matching Aided Inertial Navigation System in GNSS-Denied Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jian; Chen, Yuwei; Niu, Xiaoji; Wang, Li; Chen, Liang; Liu, Jingbin; Shi, Chuang; Hyyppä, Juha

    2015-01-01

    A new scan that matches an aided Inertial Navigation System (INS) with a low-cost LiDAR is proposed as an alternative to GNSS-based navigation systems in GNSS-degraded or -denied environments such as indoor areas, dense forests, or urban canyons. In these areas, INS-based Dead Reckoning (DR) and Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technologies are normally used to estimate positions as separate tools. However, there are critical implementation problems with each standalone system. The drift errors of velocity, position, and heading angles in an INS will accumulate over time, and on-line calibration is a must for sustaining positioning accuracy. SLAM performance is poor in featureless environments where the matching errors can significantly increase. Each standalone positioning method cannot offer a sustainable navigation solution with acceptable accuracy. This paper integrates two complementary technologies-INS and LiDAR SLAM-into one navigation frame with a loosely coupled Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) to use the advantages and overcome the drawbacks of each system to establish a stable long-term navigation process. Static and dynamic field tests were carried out with a self-developed Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) platform-NAVIS. The results prove that the proposed approach can provide positioning accuracy at the centimetre level for long-term operations, even in a featureless indoor environment. PMID:26184206

  7. Reproducibility - an important factor determining the quality of computer aided detection (CAD) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To test the reproducibility of markings on mammography films set by a commercial computer aided detection (CAD) system. Patients and methods: One hundred unilateral mammography examinations (each in CC and MLO) of 100 patients with mammographically detected suspicious foci, which were histopathologically proven to be malignant, were scanned three times with the CAD system, retrospectively. Every fifth patient of the institutional tumor case sampler was enrolled in the study. Only cases with one visible lesion were included in the study. Reproducibility and sensitivity (in both the strict and the broader sense) were determined. Strict sensitivity means the correct set of markers in both images, whereas broader sensitivity means the correct set in at least one of the images. Sixteen of 100 malignancies were indicated by focal suspicious microcalcification clusters, 53 tumors by masses and 31 cases by both signs of breast cancer. The CAD evaluation was divided into only two different markers: one for microcalcifications and one for masses. Thus, 47 (16+31) tumor-induced microcalcifications and 84 (53+31) malignancy-related masses were checked using the CAD system. Results: Eighteen of 100 unilateral mammography examinations revealed identical patterns in all three scans (18% reproducibility). Eleven of 47 suspicious focal microcalcification clusters and 43/84 masses were correctly marked on both mammographic views in all three CAD scans (strict and broader sensitivity, 23.4 and 51.1%, respectively). Six of 47 microcalcification clusters and 8/84 masses were totally missed in all images by the system (false negative rate, 12.8 and 9.6%, respectively). Conclusion: Reproducibility is essential for CAD systems. Currently, reproducibility of the used CAD system appears to be insufficient for clinical routine. Improvement of the system characteristics would make such systems valuable as a 'second reader' in clinical examination

  8. Clinical application of a novel computer-aided detection system based on three-dimensional CT images on pulmonary nodule

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Jian-Ye; Ye, Hai-Hong; Yang, Shi-xiong; Jin, Ren-Chao; Huang, Qi-Liang; Wei, Yong-Chu; Huang, Si-Guang; Wang, Bin-Qiang; Ye, Jia-Zhou; Qin, Jian-Ying

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical application effects of a novel computer-aided detection (CAD) system based on three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) images on pulmonary nodule. 98 cases with pulmonary nodule (PN) in our hospital from Jun, 2009 to Jun, 2013 were analysed in this study. All cases underwent PN detection both by the simple spiral CT scan and by the computer-aided system based on 3D CT images, respectively. Postoperative pathological results were consider...

  9. Reduction of false-positive shadows in computer. Aided diagnosis system for chest x-ray CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we report how we have improved our method for reducing the false-positive rate in computer-aided diagnosis in the Lung cancer Screening system by CT (LSCT). We had changed the target size for the detection of cancers from more than 10 mm to more than 5 mm in diameter. As a result of this change, many false positives with a diameter of less than 10 mm were observed. In order to reduce this false-positive rate, we propose a method involving feature analysis of candidate cancers using feature parameters. First, we calculate 13 feature parameters containing 4 new parameters that we have defined. These new parameters were designed to reflect the shape features of candidate cancers less than 10 mm in diameter; specifically, revised circularity, modified elongation, convexity, and the ratio of convergent figures. Next, candidate cancers were divided into 4 classes based on the area and the thickness parameter, and cancers and false positives were distinguished based on the values of the feature parameters in each class. This reduction method was applied to LSCT images of 83 samples, and the method reduced the total number of candidate cancers from 12399 to 977. The average number of false positives per sample was 10.7, without any additional false positives. These results show the effectiveness of the proposed method. (author)

  10. Systemic change increases model projection uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstegen, Judith; Karssenberg, Derek; van der Hilst, Floor; Faaij, André

    2014-05-01

    Most spatio-temporal models are based on the assumption that the relationship between system state change and its explanatory processes is stationary. This means that model structure and parameterization are usually kept constant over time, ignoring potential systemic changes in this relationship resulting from e.g., climatic or societal changes, thereby overlooking a source of uncertainty. We define systemic change as a change in the system indicated by a system state change that cannot be simulated using a constant model structure. We have developed a method to detect systemic change, using a Bayesian data assimilation technique, the particle filter. The particle filter was used to update the prior knowledge about the model structure. In contrast to the traditional particle filter approach (e.g., Verstegen et al., 2014), we apply the filter separately for each point in time for which observations are available, obtaining the optimal model structure for each of the time periods in between. This allows us to create a time series of the evolution of the model structure. The Runs test (Wald and Wolfowitz, 1940), a stationarity test, is used to check whether variation in this time series can be attributed to randomness or not. If not, this indicates systemic change. The uncertainty that the systemic change adds to the existing model projection uncertainty can be determined by comparing model outcomes of a model with a stationary model structure and a model with a model structure changing according to the variation found in the time series. To test the systemic change detection methodology, we apply it to a land use change cellular automaton (CA) (Verstegen et al., 2012) and use observations of real land use from all years from 2004 to 2012 and associated uncertainty as observational data in the particle filter. A systemic change was detected for the period 2006 to 2008. In this period the influence on the location of sugar cane expansion of the driver sugar cane in

  11. Changing Foundations for Global Business Systems Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Gubi, Ebbe

    2011-01-01

    the operations configurations have been changing over time and affecting the overall business system. The paper identifies the key determinants and outcomes of this change. Moreover, it proposes how the design of operations configurations can be improved through the development of a distinct systemic approach......Companies are actively seeking new competitive advantages by changing the location and ownership of their manufacturing processes. This process results in increasing fragmentation and dispersion of global business systems of companies. The purpose of this paper is to identify how companies may...... improve the integration of such business systems. The paper draws on a case study of a Danish industrial equipment firm. The paper describes and analyzes the company’s operations network configurations, which lay at the foundations of the company’s global business system. It is demonstrated how...

  12. Computer-Aided System Engineering and Analysis (CASE/A) Programmer's Manual, Version 5.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    The Computer Aided System Engineering and Analysis (CASE/A) Version 5.0 Programmer's Manual provides the programmer and user with information regarding the internal structure of the CASE/A 5.0 software system. CASE/A 5.0 is a trade study tool that provides modeling/simulation capabilities for analyzing environmental control and life support systems and active thermal control systems. CASE/A has been successfully used in studies such as the evaluation of carbon dioxide removal in the space station. CASE/A modeling provides a graphical and command-driven interface for the user. This interface allows the user to construct a model by placing equipment components in a graphical layout of the system hardware, then connect the components via flow streams and define their operating parameters. Once the equipment is placed, the simulation time and other control parameters can be set to run the simulation based on the model constructed. After completion of the simulation, graphical plots or text files can be obtained for evaluation of the simulation results over time. Additionally, users have the capability to control the simulation and extract information at various times in the simulation (e.g., control equipment operating parameters over the simulation time or extract plot data) by using "User Operations (OPS) Code." This OPS code is written in FORTRAN with a canned set of utility subroutines for performing common tasks. CASE/A version 5.0 software runs under the VAX VMS(Trademark) environment. It utilizes the Tektronics 4014(Trademark) graphics display system and the VTIOO(Trademark) text manipulation/display system.

  13. A general-purpose development environment for intelligent computer-aided training systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savely, Robert T.

    1990-01-01

    Space station training will be a major task, requiring the creation of large numbers of simulation-based training systems for crew, flight controllers, and ground-based support personnel. Given the long duration of space station missions and the large number of activities supported by the space station, the extension of space shuttle training methods to space station training may prove to be impractical. The application of artificial intelligence technology to simulation training can provide the ability to deliver individualized training to large numbers of personnel in a distributed workstation environment. The principal objective of this project is the creation of a software development environment which can be used to build intelligent training systems for procedural tasks associated with the operation of the space station. Current NASA Johnson Space Center projects and joint projects with other NASA operational centers will result in specific training systems for existing space shuttle crew, ground support personnel, and flight controller tasks. Concurrently with the creation of these systems, a general-purpose development environment for intelligent computer-aided training systems will be built. Such an environment would permit the rapid production, delivery, and evolution of training systems for space station crew, flight controllers, and other support personnel. The widespread use of such systems will serve to preserve task and training expertise, support the training of many personnel in a distributed manner, and ensure the uniformity and verifiability of training experiences. As a result, significant reductions in training costs can be realized while safety and the probability of mission success can be enhanced.

  14. Changes in lipids over twelve months after initiating protease inhibitor therapy among persons treated for HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hogg Robert S

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protease inhibitors are known to alter the lipid profiles in subjects treated for HIV/AIDS. However, the magnitude of this effect on plasma lipoproteins and lipids has not been adequately quantified. Objective To estimate the changes in plasma lipoproteins and triglycerides occurring within 12 months of initiating PI-based antiretroviral therapy among HIV/AIDS afflicted subjects. Methods We included all antiretroviral naïve HIV-infected persons treated at St-Paul's Hospital, British Columbia, Canada, who initiated therapy with protease inhibitor antiretroviral (ARV drugs between August 1996 and January 2002 and who had at least one plasma lipid measurement. Longitudinal associations between medication use and plasma lipids were estimated using mixed effects models that accounted for repeated measures on the same subjects and were adjusted for age, sex, time dependent CD4+ T-cell count, and time dependent cumulative use of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and adherence. The cumulative number of prescriptions filled for PIs was considered time dependent. We estimated the changes in the 12 months following any initiation of a PI based regimen. Results A total of 679 eligible subjects were dispensed nucleoside analogues and PI at the initiation of therapy. Over a median 47 months of follow-up (interquartile range (IQR: 29–62, subjects had a median of 3 (IQR: 1–6 blood lipid measurements. Twelve months after treatment initiation of PI use, there was an estimated 20% (95% confidence interval: 17% – 24% increase in total cholesterol and 22% (12% – 33% increase in triglycerides. Conclusions Twelve months after treatment initiation with PIs, statistically significant increases in total cholesterol and triglycerides levels were observed in HIV-infected patients under conditions of standard treatment. Our results contribute to the growing body of evidence implicating PIs in the development of blood lipid

  15. Occupancy change detection system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, David J. [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A. [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-09-01

    A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller. The system controller executes instructions for producing an occupancy grid map of an environment around the robot, scanning the environment to generate a current obstacle map relative to a current robot position, and converting the current obstacle map to a current occupancy grid map. The instructions also include processing each grid cell in the occupancy grid map. Within the processing of each grid cell, the instructions include comparing each grid cell in the occupancy grid map to a corresponding grid cell in the current occupancy grid map. For grid cells with a difference, the instructions include defining a change vector for each changed grid cell, wherein the change vector includes a direction from the robot to the changed grid cell and a range from the robot to the changed grid cell.

  16. Overcoming the Financial Aid Barrier for E-Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloux, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Financial aid systems help make higher education available to all who can benefit. To "adjust" the existing financial aid system to make it more student friendly and open doors currently closed to many part-time learners and students with the greatest financial challenges, state policy changes and greater private sector initiatives targeted at…

  17. The Personal Hearing System—A Software Hearing Aid for a Personal Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giso Grimm

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A concept and architecture of a personal communication system (PCS is introduced that integrates audio communication and hearing support for the elderly and hearing-impaired through a personal hearing system (PHS. The concept envisions a central processor connected to audio headsets via a wireless body area network (WBAN. To demonstrate the concept, a prototype PCS is presented that is implemented on a netbook computer with a dedicated audio interface in combination with a mobile phone. The prototype can be used for field-testing possible applications and to reveal possibilities and limitations of the concept of integrating hearing support in consumer audio communication devices. It is shown that the prototype PCS can integrate hearing aid functionality, telephony, public announcement systems, and home entertainment. An exemplary binaural speech enhancement scheme that represents a large class of possible PHS processing schemes is shown to be compatible with the general concept. However, an analysis of hardware and software architectures shows that the implementation of a PCS on future advanced cell phone-like devices is challenging. Because of limitations in processing power, recoding of prototype implementations into fixed point arithmetic will be required and WBAN performance is still a limiting factor in terms of data rate and delay.

  18. MVPACK: a package for the computer-aided design of multivariable control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and analysis of high performing controllers for large complex plants require a collection of interactive, powerful computer software. MVPACK, an open-ended package for the computer aided design of control systems has been developed in the Reactor Control Branch of the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. The package is fully interactive, and includes a comprehensive state-of-the-art mathematical library to support development of complex multivariable control algorithms. Coded in RATFOR, MVPACK operates with a flexible data structure which makes efficient use of minicomputer resources and provides a standard framework for program generation. The existence of a help mechanism enhances the simplicity of package utilization. This report provides the technical description of the package. It reviews the specifications used in the design and implementation of the package. The database structure, the supporting libraries and the design and analysis modules of MVPACK are described. The report includes several application examples to illustrate the capability of the package. Experience with MVPACK shows that the package provides a synergistic environment for control and regulation systems design, and that it is a unique tool in training of control system engineers

  19. Web-based computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) system for bone age assessment (BAA) of children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aifeng; Uyeda, Joshua; Tsao, Sinchai; Ma, Kevin; Vachon, Linda A.; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, H. K.

    2008-03-01

    Bone age assessment (BAA) of children is a clinical procedure frequently performed in pediatric radiology to evaluate the stage of skeletal maturation based on a left hand and wrist radiograph. The most commonly used standard: Greulich and Pyle (G&P) Hand Atlas was developed 50 years ago and exclusively based on Caucasian population. Moreover, inter- & intra-observer discrepancies using this method create a need of an objective and automatic BAA method. A digital hand atlas (DHA) has been collected with 1,400 hand images of normal children from Asian, African American, Caucasian and Hispanic descends. Based on DHA, a fully automatic, objective computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) method was developed and it was adapted to specific population. To bring DHA and CAD method to the clinical environment as a useful tool in assisting radiologist to achieve higher accuracy in BAA, a web-based system with direct connection to a clinical site is designed as a novel clinical implementation approach for online and real time BAA. The core of the system, a CAD server receives the image from clinical site, processes it by the CAD method and finally, generates report. A web service publishes the results and radiologists at the clinical site can review it online within minutes. This prototype can be easily extended to multiple clinical sites and will provide the foundation for broader use of the CAD system for BAA.

  20. New GPS-aided SINU System Modeling using an Autoregressive Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chot Hun Lim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Stochastic error in the Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS Strapdown Inertial Navigation Unit (SINU is the primary issue causing sensors to be unable to operate as a standalone device. Conventional implementation of MEMS SINU fuses measurement with a global positioning system (GPS through a Kalman filter in order to achieve long-term accuracy. Such integration is known as a GPS-aided SINU system, and its estimation accuracy relies on how precise the stochastic error prediction is in Kalman filtering operation. In this paper, a comprehensive study on stochastic error modeling and analysis through a Gauss- Markov (GM model and autoregressive (AR model are presented. A wavelet denoising technique is introduced prior to error modeling to remove the MEMS SINU's high frequency noise. Without a wavelet denoising technique, neither the GM model nor AR model can be utilized to represent the stochastic error of SINU. Next, details of the Kalman filter implementation to accommodate the AR model are presented. The modeling outcomes are implemented on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV for on-board motion sensing. The experimental results show that AR model implementation, compared to a conventional GM model, significantly reduced the estimated errors while preserving the position, velocity and orientation measurements.

  1. The Personal Hearing System—A Software Hearing Aid for a Personal Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Giso; Guilmin, Gwénaël; Poppen, Frank; Vlaming, Marcel S. M. G.; Hohmann, Volker

    2009-12-01

    A concept and architecture of a personal communication system (PCS) is introduced that integrates audio communication and hearing support for the elderly and hearing-impaired through a personal hearing system (PHS). The concept envisions a central processor connected to audio headsets via a wireless body area network (WBAN). To demonstrate the concept, a prototype PCS is presented that is implemented on a netbook computer with a dedicated audio interface in combination with a mobile phone. The prototype can be used for field-testing possible applications and to reveal possibilities and limitations of the concept of integrating hearing support in consumer audio communication devices. It is shown that the prototype PCS can integrate hearing aid functionality, telephony, public announcement systems, and home entertainment. An exemplary binaural speech enhancement scheme that represents a large class of possible PHS processing schemes is shown to be compatible with the general concept. However, an analysis of hardware and software architectures shows that the implementation of a PCS on future advanced cell phone-like devices is challenging. Because of limitations in processing power, recoding of prototype implementations into fixed point arithmetic will be required and WBAN performance is still a limiting factor in terms of data rate and delay.

  2. Computer-Aided Prostate Cancer Diagnosis From Digitized Histopathology: A Review on Texture-Based Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera-Lopez, Clara; Agaian, Sos; Velez-Hoyos, Alejandro; Thompson, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is currently diagnosed by microscopic evaluation of biopsy samples. Since tissue assessment heavily relies on the pathologists level of expertise and interpretation criteria, it is still a subjective process with high intra- and interobserver variabilities. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) may have a major impact on detection and grading of PCa by reducing the pathologists reading time, and increasing the accuracy and reproducibility of diagnosis outcomes. However, the complexity of the prostatic tissue and the large volumes of data generated by biopsy procedures make the development of CAD systems for PCa a challenging task. The problem of automated diagnosis of prostatic carcinoma from histopathology has received a lot of attention. As a result, a number of CAD systems, have been proposed for quantitative image analysis and classification. This review aims at providing a detailed description of selected literature in the field of CAD of PCa, emphasizing the role of texture analysis methods in tissue description. It includes a review of image analysis tools for image preprocessing, feature extraction, classification, and validation techniques used in PCa detection and grading, as well as future directions in pursuit of better texture-based CAD systems. PMID:25055385

  3. A Comprehensive Computer-Aided Polyp Detection System for Colonoscopy Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajbakhsh, Nima; Gurudu, Suryakanth R; Liang, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    Computer-aided detection (CAD) can help colonoscopists reduce their polyp miss-rate, but existing CAD systems are handicapped by using either shape, texture, or temporal information for detecting polyps, achieving limited sensitivity and specificity. To overcome this limitation, our key contribution of this paper is to fuse all possible polyp features by exploiting the strengths of each feature while minimizing its weaknesses. Our new CAD system has two stages, where the first stage builds on the robustness of shape features to reliably generate a set of candidates with a high sensitivity, while the second stage utilizes the high discriminative power of the computationally expensive features to effectively reduce false positives. Specifically, we employ a unique edge classifier and an original voting scheme to capture geometric features of polyps in context and then harness the power of convolutional neural networks in a novel score fusion approach to extract and combine shape, color, texture, and temporal information of the candidates. Our experimental results based on FROC curves and a new analysis of polyp detection latency demonstrate a superiority over the state-of-the-art where our system yields a lower polyp detection latency and achieves a significantly higher sensitivity while generating dramatically fewer false positives. This performance improvement is attributed to our reliable candidate generation and effective false positive reduction methods. PMID:26221684

  4. A computer-aided MFCC-based HMM system for automatic auscultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Sunita; Wang, Ping; Sing Lim, Chu; Anantharaman, V

    2008-02-01

    Auscultation, the act of listening to the sounds of internal organs, is a valuable medical diagnostic tool. Auscultation methods provide the information about a vast variety of internal body sounds originated by various organs such as heart, lungs, bowel, vascular disorders, etc. In this study, a cardiac sound registration system has been designed incorporating functions such as heart signals segmentation, classification and characterization for automated identification and ease of interpretation by the users. Considering a synergy with the domain of speech analysis, the authors introduced Mel-frequency cepstral coefficient (MFCC) to extract representative features and develop hidden Markov model (HMM) for signal classification. This system was applied to 1381 data sets of real and simulated, normal and abnormal domains. Classification rates for normal and abnormal heart sounds were found to be 95.7% for continuous murmurs, 96.25% for systolic murmurs and 90% for diastolic murmurs by a probabilistic comparison approach. This implies a high potential for the system as a diagnostic aid for primary health-care sectors. PMID:18045582

  5. The use of a spatial information system in the management of HIV/AIDS in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busgeeth Karishma

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa is experiencing an HIV/AIDS pandemic of shattering dimensions. The availability and provision of antiretroviral (ARV drugs could bring relief to the situation, but the treatment is unfortunately complex with each patient being assigned a different antiretroviral therapy varying in diet-medication regiment. The context of South Africa, its variety of urban and rural settings adds to the challenge of administering and monitoring the HIV+ person throughout the treatment, which will last for the rest of their lives. The lack of physical infrastructure, reliable statistics and adequate resources hinder the efficient management of HIV/AIDS. Results The collection of reliable data will be a first step to assess the status of HIV/AIDS in communities. A number of hospitals have started this process using the conventional approach to collect information about their patients using a paper-based system. Since time is of essence in the fight against the pandemic, data exchange between various hospitals, municipalities and decision-making bodies is becoming more and more important. The logical response to such a need is a computerised system, which will collect and administer HIV/AIDS related information within the local context and allow a monitored access to the data from a number of stakeholders. Conclusions The purpose of this study was to design and develop an HIV/AIDS database, which is embedded in a Spatial Information Management System. The pilot study area is the Gugulethu township in Cape Town where more than 27% of the 325 000 residents are HIV+. It is shown that the implementation of the HIV/AIDS database and the Spatial Information Management System can play a critical role in determining where and when to intervene, improving the quality of care for HIV+ patients, increasing accessibility of service and delivering a cost-effective mode of information.

  6. Studies on computer-aided diagnosis systems for chest radiographs and mammograms (in Japanese)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems for chest radiographs and mammograms. Preprocessing and imaging processing methods for each CAD system include dynamic range compression and region segmentation technique. A new pattern recognition technique combines genetic algorithms with template matching methods to detect lung nodules. A genetic algorithm was employed to select the optimal shape of simulated nodular shadows to be compared with real lesions on digitized chest images. Detection performance was evaluated using 332 chest radiographs from the database of the Japanese Society of Radiological Technology. Our average true-positive rate was 72.8% with an average of 11 false-positive findings per image. A new detection method using high resolution digital images with 0.05 mm sampling is also proposed for the mammogram CAD system to detect very small microcalcifications. An automated classification method uses feature extraction based on fractal dimension analysis of masses. Using over 200 cases to evaluate the detection of mammographic masses and calcifications, the detection rate of masses and microcalcifications were 87% and 96% with 1.5 and 1.8 false-positive findings, respectively. The classification performance on benign vs malignant lesions, the Az values that were defined by the areas under the ROC curves derived from classification schemes of masses and microcalcifications were 0.84 and 0.89. To demonstrate the practicality of these CAD systems in a computer-network environment, we propose to use the mammogram CAD system via the Internet and WWW. A common gateway interface and server-client approach for the CAD system via the Internet will permit display of the CAD results on ordinary computers

  7. THE CHARACTER, ORGANIZATION CHANGE AND INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santo F. Wijaya

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The success of building an integrated information system is an expectation of every company management to achieve effective and efficient working system. However, in the real business practices, not a few companies failed in building an integrated information system caused by the absence of several factors: strong commitment, hard work and smart effort conducted by a team. The team determines the success level in building an integrated information system. A factor of intelligence and mental maturity of users in running a new information system that has not been known is also another key to success. Therefore, it takes a good users character supported by a management decision to make management changes to achieve the building success level. This study aims to address the role of character and organization changes in achieving a success building an integrated information system.

  8. 76 FR 46774 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records-Federal Student Aid Application File

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... information provided by applicants for Title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended, (HEA) program... Title IV, HEA program assistance, State assistance, and aid awarded by institutions of higher education... postsecondary education assistance and for the award of aid by eligible institutions of higher education...

  9. HIV/AIDS epidemic and the development of comprehensive surveillance system in China with challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lu; WANG Ning

    2010-01-01

    @@ AIDS is the most severe infectious disease that has appeared in the second half of the 20th century.Since the United States Center of Disease Control & Prevention (US CDC) reported the first case of HIV carrier in the men who had sex with men (MSM)population in 1981, HIV/AIDS had spread globally. By the end of December 2008, UNAIDS and WHO estimated that there were 3340 million (3110-3580 million)infected with HIV/AIDS worldwide.1 While the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Asia began later than the epidemic in Europe, America and Africa, experts predict that countries in Asia, especially in three countries, China,India and Indonesia, which have a population of more than 100 million, will have the world's largest number of HIV/AIDS in the near future.

  10. Computer-aided analysis of bypass in direct vessel vertical injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances in three-dimensional computer-aided design has rendered it practicable to lend itself to commercial computational fluid dynamics and structural mechanics finite element analysis codes to cross-communicate detailed geometric data. The main focus is placed on application of this powerful design tool in examining performance of the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) employing the direct vessel injection (DVI) in the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400 MWe). In this work a new method of direct vessel vertical injection (DVVI) is proposed as an advanced type of DVI for the APR1400. In view of the ECCS function to efficaciously cool down the core during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), for example, the concept of DVVI is geared to increasing the downward momentum of the injected water so as to maximize penetration into the downcomer versus by pass through the break. Furthermore, one needs to pay a special attention to the structural integrity of the injection nozzle on account of the radioactive primary system environment. In particular, vibration and pressure induced by the safety injection (SI) flow will tend to exert predomination forces onto the DVVI nozzles having an elbow. Therefore, in this work, focus is placed on the flow regime at the tip of the DVVI nozzle and the structural impact caused by rapid injection of the emergency core cooling (ECC) water in the APR1400. The current work consists of a three-dimensional (3D) computer-aided design (CAD) modeling using CATIA V5R9, CFX 5.5 and ANSYS 6.1 to determine the most vulnerable spot of the DVVI nozzle, and to check on the performance efficiency of DVVI during the ECC injection period. In this study it was considered that the 3D CAD model for the DVVI nozzle was submerged in a high-velocity steam. The effect of the rebounding force of the injected water has also been simulated. The 3D CAD model for the DVVI nozzle simulates its mass, texture and constitution material. In this work the DVVI

  11. A computer aided diagnosis system for thyroid disease using extreme learning machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Na; Ouyang, Ji-Hong; Chen, Hui-Ling; Liu, Da-You

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we present an effective and efficient computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system based on principle component analysis (PCA) and extreme learning machine (ELM) to assist the task of thyroid disease diagnosis. The CAD system is comprised of three stages. Focusing on dimension reduction, the first stage applies PCA to construct the most discriminative new feature set. After then, the system switches to the second stage whose target is model construction. ELM classifier is explored to train an optimal predictive model whose parameters are optimized. As we known, the number of hidden neurons has an important role in the performance of ELM, so we propose an experimental method to hunt for the optimal value. Finally, the obtained optimal ELM model proceeds to perform the thyroid disease diagnosis tasks using the most discriminative new feature set and the optimal parameters. The effectiveness of the resultant CAD system (PCA-ELM) has been rigorously estimated on a thyroid disease dataset which is taken from UCI machine learning repository. We compare it with other related methods in terms of their classification accuracy. Experimental results demonstrate that PCA-ELM outperforms other ones reported so far by 10-fold cross-validation method, with the mean accuracy of 97.73% and with the maximum accuracy of 98.1%. Besides, PCA-ELM performs much faster than support vector machines (SVM) based CAD system. Consequently, the proposed method PCA-ELM can be considered as a new powerful tools for diagnosing thyroid disease with excellent performance and less time. PMID:22327384

  12. A semantically-aided architecture for a web-based monitoring system for carotid atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolias, Vassileios D; Stamou, Giorgos; Golemati, Spyretta; Stoitsis, Giannis; Gkekas, Christos D; Liapis, Christos D; Nikita, Konstantina S

    2015-08-01

    Carotid atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease and its clinical diagnosis depends on the evaluation of heterogeneous clinical data, such as imaging exams, biochemical tests and the patient's clinical history. The lack of interoperability between Health Information Systems (HIS) does not allow the physicians to acquire all the necessary data for the diagnostic process. In this paper, a semantically-aided architecture is proposed for a web-based monitoring system for carotid atherosclerosis that is able to gather and unify heterogeneous data with the use of an ontology and to create a common interface for data access enhancing the interoperability of HIS. The architecture is based on an application ontology of carotid atherosclerosis that is used to (a) integrate heterogeneous data sources on the basis of semantic representation and ontological reasoning and (b) access the critical information using SPARQL query rewriting and ontology-based data access services. The architecture was tested over a carotid atherosclerosis dataset consisting of the imaging exams and the clinical profile of 233 patients, using a set of complex queries, constructed by the physicians. The proposed architecture was evaluated with respect to the complexity of the queries that the physicians could make and the retrieval speed. The proposed architecture gave promising results in terms of interoperability, data integration of heterogeneous sources with an ontological way and expanded capabilities of query and retrieval in HIS. PMID:26736524

  13. A Computer-Aided Telephone System to Enable Five Persons with Alzheimer's Disease to Make Phone Calls Independently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perilli, Viviana; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Laporta, Dominga; Paparella, Adele; Caffo, Alessandro O.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Oliva, Doretta

    2013-01-01

    This study extended the assessment of a computer-aided telephone system to enable five patients with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease to make phone calls independently. The patients were divided into two groups and exposed to intervention according to a non-concurrent multiple baseline design across groups. All patients started with baseline in…

  14. Two Adults with Multiple Disabilities Use a Computer-Aided Telephone System to Make Phone Calls Independently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Oliva, Doretta; Alberti, Gloria; Lang, Russell

    2011-01-01

    This study extended the assessment of a newly developed computer-aided telephone system with two participants (adults) who presented with blindness or severe visual impairment and motor or motor and intellectual disabilities. For each participant, the study was carried out according to an ABAB design, in which the A represented baseline phases and…

  15. THE EFFECTS OF TELEVISION AND RADIO COMMERCIALS ON BEHAVIOR AND ATTITUDE CHANGES TOWARDS THE CAMPAIGN AGAINST THE SPREAD OF HIV/AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Pharm. Adibe M.O; Dr. Okonta J.M; Pharm. Udeogaranya P.O

    2010-01-01

    Background: The role of information has not been over looked in Nigeria. Information on AIDS is disseminated through various information media such as newspapers, magazines, radio and television. Symposia and conferences have also been organized for the purpose of creating awareness and an attempt to change public attitude. Aim: This study was aimed at ascertaining the effect of television and radio commercials on behaviour and attitude changes towards the campaign against the spread of H...

  16. [AIDS in Tanzania].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barstad, S

    1993-04-20

    The World Health Organization has announced that within 3 years 10% of Tanzania's population of 26 million will be infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). But there is some faint hope in the research of Tanzanian traditional medicine. An almost 90-year-man, Waziri Mrisho, is credited with having treated AIDS patients successfully with herbs that strengthen the immune system. Margaret Nakamya was stricken by the symptoms of AIDs in March 1990. She was referred to Waziri and started using his herbs. 3 years later she weighs 49 kg compared to 40 kg before. The old man's son set up a little factory where he pulverizes herbs and sells them at the price he can command The 3 types of trees that the herbal medicine is taken from grow in the wild, but some have also been planted around the factory. Even if these herbs are effective, it will take years before the AIDS epidemic is over, when people have changed their lifestyles. The means of communication (TV, cinema, radio, telephone) are missing or inadequate. In the Kagera region, with 1.2 million inhabitants, 25% of pregnant women are HIV-infected and 65,000 children lost their parents to AIDS. There are 2000 children in Dar Es Salaam living in the streets. The Anglican St. Albans Church runs a center for street kids where they get meals 3 times a week. The nurse Ruth Nesje enlisted a Norwegian physician and homeopath in a research project involving 30 AIDS patients in Norway. The University in Bergen will do in vitro testing. One group of patients will receive both AZT and the herbs, another group will get only AZT, and the 3rd group will obtain only the herbs. The Norwegian Nursing Association, NORAD, and DANIDA also plan various projects in the Tanga region. PMID:8499187

  17. Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials Reveal Changes in Audibility with Nonlinear Frequency Compression in Hearing Aids for Children: Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Teresa Y C; Zhang, Vicky W; Hou, Sanna; Van Buynder, Patricia

    2016-02-01

    Hearing loss in children is detected soon after birth via newborn hearing screening. Procedures for early hearing assessment and hearing aid fitting are well established, but methods for evaluating the effectiveness of amplification for young children are limited. One promising approach to validating hearing aid fittings is to measure cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs). This article provides first a brief overview of reports on the use of CAEPs for evaluation of hearing aids. Second, a study that measured CAEPs to evaluate nonlinear frequency compression (NLFC) in hearing aids for 27 children (between 6.1 and 16.8 years old) who have mild to severe hearing loss is reported. There was no significant difference in aided sensation level or the detection of CAEPs for /g/ between NLFC on and off conditions. The activation of NLFC was associated with a significant increase in aided sensation levels for /t/ and /s/. It also was associated with an increase in detection of CAEPs for /t/ and /s/. The findings support the use of CAEPs for checking audibility provided by hearing aids. Based on the current data, a clinical protocol for using CAEPs to validate audibility with amplification is presented. PMID:27587920

  18. Stand alone computer system to aid the development of Mirror Fusion Test Facility rf heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) control system architecture requires the Supervisory Control and Diagnostic System (SCDS) to communicate with a LSI-11 Local Control Computer (LCC) that in turn communicates via a fiber optic link to CAMAC based control hardware located near the machine. In many cases, the control hardware is very complex and requires a sizable development effort prior to being integrated into the overall MFTF-B system. One such effort was the development of the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) system. It became clear that a stand alone computer system was needed to simulate the functions of SCDS. This paper describes the hardware and software necessary to implement the SCDS Simulation Computer (SSC). It consists of a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) LSI-11 computer and a Winchester/Floppy disk operating under the DEC RT-11 operating system. All application software for MFTF-B is programmed in PASCAL, which allowed us to adapt procedures originally written for SCDS to the SSC. This nearly identical software interface means that software written during the equipment development will be useful to the SCDS programmers in the integration phase

  19. The second change of system in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balog Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available According to János Kornai, the leading Hungarian economist, the change of regime in the economy took place in Hungary only a decade after the fall of the communist political system. Now, the change of regime, i.e. privatisation, seems to be financially rational in the health care system and high education, too. However, this may also increase the concentration of power, a reactionary tradition of the region, in both spheres. Thus, strong active and passive mass resistance is an obvious response to this challenge.

  20. Public engagement with energy system change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public acceptability represents a major challenge for delivery of energy policy, in the UK and internationally. This article sets out three arguments about public engagement with energy transitions derived from research into public perspectives of whole energy system change. It argues for the need to consider values that underlay preferences, the importance of understanding problem and solution framing, and the significance of considering views on process as well as outcomes. Overall, insights are offered into how to better approach public engagement with energy system change.

  1. Therapeutic imprinting of the immune system: towards a remission of AIDS in primates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savarino Andrea

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Our inability to cure HIV/AIDS is related to the ability of the virus to establish reservoirs during treatment. In order to develop new strategies, it is certainly essential that a suitable animal model be implemented. In the recent work of Shytaj et al., it has been possible to inhibit viral replication to levels below the assay detection limit in the macaque AIDS model. Moreover, different therapeutic regimens applied to the rhesus macaque AIDS model (herein reviewed, including ours, are starting to show the potential to induce, following therapy suspension, conditions reminiscent of a drug-free control of the infection.

  2. A novel computer-aided lung nodule detection system for CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The paper presents a complete computer-aided detection (CAD) system for the detection of lung nodules in computed tomography images. A new mixed feature selection and classification methodology is applied for the first time on a difficult medical image analysis problem. Methods: The CAD system was trained and tested on images from the publicly available Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) on the National Cancer Institute website. The detection stage of the system consists of a nodule segmentation method based on nodule and vessel enhancement filters and a computed divergence feature to locate the centers of the nodule clusters. In the subsequent classification stage, invariant features, defined on a gauge coordinates system, are used to differentiate between real nodules and some forms of blood vessels that are easily generating false positive detections. The performance of the novel feature-selective classifier based on genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks (ANNs) is compared with that of two other established classifiers, namely, support vector machines (SVMs) and fixed-topology neural networks. A set of 235 randomly selected cases from the LIDC database was used to train the CAD system. The system has been tested on 125 independent cases from the LIDC database. Results: The overall performance of the fixed-topology ANN classifier slightly exceeds that of the other classifiers, provided the number of internal ANN nodes is chosen well. Making educated guesses about the number of internal ANN nodes is not needed in the new feature-selective classifier, and therefore this classifier remains interesting due to its flexibility and adaptability to the complexity of the classification problem to be solved. Our fixed-topology ANN classifier with 11 hidden nodes reaches a detection sensitivity of 87.5% with an average of four false positives per scan, for nodules with diameter greater than or equal to 3 mm. Analysis of the false positive items

  3. A novel computer-aided lung nodule detection system for CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Maxine; Deklerck, Rudi; Jansen, Bart; Bister, Michel; Cornelis, Jan [Department of Electronics and Informatics (ETRO), Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussel (Belgium); Department of Electronics and Informatics (ETRO), Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussel, Belgium and Interdisciplinary Institute for Broadband Technology (IBBT), Gaston Crommenlaan 8, 9050 Gent (Belgium); Department of Electronics and Informatics (ETRO), Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussel (Belgium)

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: The paper presents a complete computer-aided detection (CAD) system for the detection of lung nodules in computed tomography images. A new mixed feature selection and classification methodology is applied for the first time on a difficult medical image analysis problem. Methods: The CAD system was trained and tested on images from the publicly available Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) on the National Cancer Institute website. The detection stage of the system consists of a nodule segmentation method based on nodule and vessel enhancement filters and a computed divergence feature to locate the centers of the nodule clusters. In the subsequent classification stage, invariant features, defined on a gauge coordinates system, are used to differentiate between real nodules and some forms of blood vessels that are easily generating false positive detections. The performance of the novel feature-selective classifier based on genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks (ANNs) is compared with that of two other established classifiers, namely, support vector machines (SVMs) and fixed-topology neural networks. A set of 235 randomly selected cases from the LIDC database was used to train the CAD system. The system has been tested on 125 independent cases from the LIDC database. Results: The overall performance of the fixed-topology ANN classifier slightly exceeds that of the other classifiers, provided the number of internal ANN nodes is chosen well. Making educated guesses about the number of internal ANN nodes is not needed in the new feature-selective classifier, and therefore this classifier remains interesting due to its flexibility and adaptability to the complexity of the classification problem to be solved. Our fixed-topology ANN classifier with 11 hidden nodes reaches a detection sensitivity of 87.5% with an average of four false positives per scan, for nodules with diameter greater than or equal to 3 mm. Analysis of the false positive items

  4. Why foreign aid fails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokopijević Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main point of this paper is that foreign aid fails because the structure of its incentives resembles that of central planning. Aid is not only ineffective, it is arguably counterproductive. Contrary to business firms that are paid by those they are supposed to serve (customers, aid agencies are paid by tax payers of developed countries and not by those they serve. This inverse structure of incentives breaks the stream of pressure that exists on the commercial market. It also creates larger loopholes in the principle-agent relationship on each point along the chain of aid delivery. Both factors enhance corruption, moral hazard and negative selection. Instead of promoting development, aid extends the life of bad institutions and those in power. Proposals to reform foreign aid – like aid privatization and aid conditionality – do not change the existing structure of the incentives in aid delivery, and their implementation may just slightly improve aid efficacy. Larger improvement is not possible. For that reason, foreign aid will continue to be a waste of resources, probably serving some objectives different to those that are usually mentioned, like recipient’s development poverty reduction and pain relief.

  5. STRATEGY FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SAFETY AND EFFICIENCY OF COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN ANALYSIS OF CIVIL ENGINEERING STRUCTURES ON THE BASIS OF THE SYSTEM APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaikin Vladimir Genrikhovich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors highlight three problems of the age of information technologies and proposes the strategy for their resolution in relation to the computer-aided design of civil engineering structures. The authors express their concerns in respect of globalization of software programmes designated for the analysis of civil engineering structures and employed outside of Russia. The problem of the poor quality of the input data has reached Russia. Lately, the rate of accidents of buildings and structures has been growing not only in Russia. Control over efficiency of design projects is hardly performed. This attitude should be changed. Development and introduction of CAD along with the application the efficient methods of projection of behaviour of building structures are in demand. Computer-aided calculations have the function of a logical nucleus, and they need proper control. The system approach to computer-aided calculations and technologies designated for the projection of accidents is formulated by the authors. Two tasks of the system approach and fundamentals of the strategy for its implementation are formulated. The study of cases of negative results of computer-aided design of engineering structures was performed and multi-component design patterns were developed. Conclusions concerning the results of researches aimed at regular and wide-scale implementation of the strategy fundamentals are formulated. Organizational and innovative actions concerning the projected behaviour of civil engineering structures proposed in the strategy are to facilitate: safety and reliability improvement of buildings and structures; saving of building materials and resources; improvement of labour efficiency of designers; modernization and improvement of accuracy of projected behaviour of buildings and building standards; closer ties between civil and building engineering researchers and construction companies; development of competitive environment to boost

  6. Implementation of a tolerance model in a computer aided design and inspection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hunter

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose of this paper is present a detailed framework to integrate the Computer Aided Design (CAD and Inspection (CAI systems through the integration of the Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T with the inspection process in coordinate measuring machines (CMMs.Design/methodology/approach: The approach used to develop a prototype of a Knowledge Based System (KBS applied to inspection process establishes a new methodology for integrate the geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T. The integration is achieved through the definition of the knowledge units for functional properties of GD&T, inspection resources and inspection operations in a common knowledge model. The manufacturing and processing applications are the main topics approach of this paper.Findings: The findings are focused in modeling the features and interactions between knowledge units associated to topology, geometry and tolerances with the inspection process activities. The implementation of the product knowledge model is presented in a computer platform that extracts and represents the GD&T information in a CAI system.Research limitations/implications: The implications are focused on the automation of the inspection process in a KBS application. The future research is focused on the use of artificial intelligent technique, such as genetic algorithms and neural networks, to optimize the time to execute the inspection process.Practical implications: The main outcomes and implication of the KBS prototype application are focused on the reduction of the time spend to develop the inspection process. This KBS application provides the needed information to elaborate this process without the human interface.Originality/value: The original value of this paper is the integration of the design and inspection specification in a unique prototype application. The knowledge model has been defined in a common modeling language (UML and can be implemented in different

  7. Drug delivery strategies and systems for HIV/AIDS pre-exposure prophylaxis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Antoinette G; Zhang, Xiaoping; Ganapathi, Usha; Szekely, Zoltan; Flexner, Charles W; Owen, Andrew; Sinko, Patrick J

    2015-12-10

    The year 2016 will mark an important milestone - the 35th anniversary of the first reported cases of HIV/AIDS. Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) including Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) drug regimens is widely considered to be one of the greatest achievements in therapeutic drug research having transformed HIV infection into a chronically managed disease. Unfortunately, the lack of widespread preventive measures and the inability to eradicate HIV from infected cells highlight the significant challenges remaining today. Moving forward there are at least three high priority goals for anti-HIV drug delivery (DD) research: (1) to prevent new HIV infections from occurring, (2) to facilitate a functional cure, i.e., when HIV is present but the body controls it without drugs and (3) to eradicate established infection. Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) represents a significant step forward in preventing the establishment of chronic HIV infection. However, the ultimate success of PrEP will depend on achieving sustained antiretroviral (ARV) tissue concentrations and will require strict patient adherence to the regimen. While first generation long acting/extended release (LA/ER) DD Systems (DDS) currently in development show considerable promise, significant DD treatment and prevention challenges persist. First, there is a critical need to improve cell specificity through targeting in order to selectively achieve efficacious drug concentrations in HIV reservoir sites to control/eradicate HIV as well as mitigate systemic side effects. In addition, approaches for reducing cellular efflux and metabolism of ARV drugs to prolong effective concentrations in target cells need to be developed. Finally, given the current understanding of HIV pathogenesis, next generation anti-HIV DDS need to address selective DD to the gut mucosa and lymph nodes. The current review focuses on the DDS technologies, critical challenges, opportunities, strategies, and approaches by which novel

  8. Construction of a system for aid in running irradiated fuel reprocessing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of a diagnostic aid tool may prove to be extremely useful for monitoring complex processes such as those employed in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. In the case of a malfunction, the choice of a corrective action demands the accurate knowledge of the disturbed state, because the same action applied to two distinct states of the process may have different consequences. The very high non-linearity of the responses of the process and the complexity of the mechanisms involved preclude the use of expert systems to perform the diagnosis. It was therefore decided to construct a diagnostic program based on the use of an available model allowing the dynamic simulation of the process. The program serves to identify a disturbance from its consequences, thus in some way achieving the 'inversion' of the model. The method adopted uses a regular mesh of a disturbance space and uses simulation to calculate the corresponding response space, in which a point close to the measured response is identified, thus helping to locate the disturbance. Tests on simulated and experimental data proved fairly conclusive, making it possible to consider the application of techniques used in industrial processes, despite the scale of the data processing resources required

  9. Clinical evaluation of a computer-aided diagnosis system for determining cancer aggressiveness in prostate MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litjens, Geert J.S.; Barentsz, Jelle O.; Karssemeijer, Nico; Huisman, Henkjan J. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2015-11-15

    To investigate the added value of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) on the diagnostic accuracy of PIRADS reporting and the assessment of cancer aggressiveness. Multi-parametric MRI and histopathological outcome of MR-guided biopsies of a consecutive set of 130 patients were included. All cases were prospectively PIRADS reported and the reported lesions underwent CAD analysis. Logistic regression combined the CAD prediction and radiologist PIRADS score into a combination score. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and Spearman's correlation coefficient were used to assess the diagnostic accuracy and correlation to cancer grade. Evaluation was performed for discriminating benign lesions from cancer and for discriminating indolent from aggressive lesions. In total 141 lesions (107 patients) were included for final analysis. The area-under-the-ROC-curve of the combination score was higher than for the PIRADS score of the radiologist (benign vs. cancer, 0.88 vs. 0.81, p = 0.013 and indolent vs. aggressive, 0.88 vs. 0.78, p < 0.01). The combination score correlated significantly stronger with cancer grade (0.69, p = 0.0014) than the individual CAD system or radiologist (0.54 and 0.58). Combining CAD prediction and PIRADS into a combination score has the potential to improve diagnostic accuracy. Furthermore, such a combination score has a strong correlation with cancer grade. (orig.)

  10. Clinical evaluation of a computer-aided diagnosis system for determining cancer aggressiveness in prostate MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the added value of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) on the diagnostic accuracy of PIRADS reporting and the assessment of cancer aggressiveness. Multi-parametric MRI and histopathological outcome of MR-guided biopsies of a consecutive set of 130 patients were included. All cases were prospectively PIRADS reported and the reported lesions underwent CAD analysis. Logistic regression combined the CAD prediction and radiologist PIRADS score into a combination score. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and Spearman's correlation coefficient were used to assess the diagnostic accuracy and correlation to cancer grade. Evaluation was performed for discriminating benign lesions from cancer and for discriminating indolent from aggressive lesions. In total 141 lesions (107 patients) were included for final analysis. The area-under-the-ROC-curve of the combination score was higher than for the PIRADS score of the radiologist (benign vs. cancer, 0.88 vs. 0.81, p = 0.013 and indolent vs. aggressive, 0.88 vs. 0.78, p < 0.01). The combination score correlated significantly stronger with cancer grade (0.69, p = 0.0014) than the individual CAD system or radiologist (0.54 and 0.58). Combining CAD prediction and PIRADS into a combination score has the potential to improve diagnostic accuracy. Furthermore, such a combination score has a strong correlation with cancer grade. (orig.)

  11. Computer-aided detection in CT colonography: initial clinical experience using a prototype system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer-aided detection (CAD) algorithms help to detect colonic polyps at CT colonography (CTC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of CAD versus an expert reader in CTC. One hundred forty individuals (67 men, 73 women; mean age, 59 years) underwent screening 64-MDCT colonography after full cathartic bowel cleansing without fecal tagging. One expert reader interpreted supine and prone scans using a 3D workstation with integrated CAD used as ''second reader.'' The system's sensitivity for the detection of polyps, the number of false-positive findings, and its running time were evaluated. Polyps were classified as small (≤5 mm), medium (6-9 mm), and large (≥10 mm). A total of 118 polyps (small, 85; medium, 19; large, 14) were found in 56 patients. CAD detected 72 polyps (61%) with an average of 2.2 false-positives. Sensitivity was 51% (43/85) for small, 90% (17/19) for medium, and 86% (12/14) for large polyps. For all polyps, per-patient sensitivity was 89% (50/56) for the radiologist and 73% (41/56) for CAD. For large and medium polyps, per-patient sensitivity was 100% for the radiologist, and 96% for CAD. In conclusion, CAD shows high sensitivity in the detection of clinically significant polyps with acceptable false-positive rates. (orig.)

  12. TAO-2/SPARTE, a language-enhanced computer aided teleoperation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TAO-2 is a computer system designed by CEA/DTA/UR for the remote control of nuclear servicing servomanipulators. It results from several years of research which have led to the current availability of an industrial product featuring highly advanced performances. For undersea applications, a development has also been carried out with CYBERNETIX for controlling the new hydraulic arm built by this company. An integral element of TAO-2 is the SPARTE language which deals with off-line task programming and focuses on combined manual, automatic and mixed control modes. Additionally, it takes into account the on-line part of the human operator relative to adjustment, monitoring and incident recovery. Other promising features are hybrid control specification, mechanisms for the management of external events and 'learning by touching' capabilities. The present paper describes the basic principles of TAO-2. It first recalls the fundamentals of Computer Aided Teleoperation (CAT). The functional and hardware architectures which implement the TAO-2 CAT concepts are then outlined. The next parts emphasize the original characteristics of the SPARTE control and programming language. The paper ends with a brief presentation of our approach for CAT symbolic control

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging: early detection of central nervous system involvement in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central Nervous System (CNS) involvement, whether primary by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus - HIV - itself, or secondary (toxoplasmosis or lymphoma) is remarkably frequent in AIDS, in 40 to 70% of cases, depending upon the author. In order to study the natural history of this illness, a cohort of 25 asymptomatic seropositive patients have been established. Every 6 months these patients undergo biological and clinical examinations, as well as Magnetic Resonance brain scans. After two examinations at a 6 month's interval, the first results are reported. Out of these 25 cases, 9 present anomalies: One patient with diffuse cerebral atrophy and 8 others with high signal intensity areas on T2 weighted sequences, like those of the Multiple Sclerosis. No relationship could be demonstrated between the existence of these lesions and various criteria such as age, sex, risk factors and T4 cells count. The nature of these lesions is not lear. They certainly indicate early involvement of the CNS after primary infection by the HIV virus. They may either represent scars of the primary infection or early alterations announcing developing encephalopathy

  14. Radiographic imaging of aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has impacted the civilized world like no other disease. This research aimed to discuss some of the main aids-related complications and their detection by radiology tests, specifically central nervous system and musculoskeletal system disorders. The objectives are: to show specific characteristics of various diseases of HIV patient, to analyze the effect of pathology in patients by radiology, to enhance the knowledge of technologists in aids imaging and to improve communication skills between patient and radiology technologists

  15. Radiographic imaging of aids

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, M B

    2002-01-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has impacted the civilized world like no other disease. This research aimed to discuss some of the main aids-related complications and their detection by radiology tests, specifically central nervous system and musculoskeletal system disorders. The objectives are: to show specific characteristics of various diseases of HIV patient, to analyze the effect of pathology in patients by radiology, to enhance the knowledge of technologists in aids imaging and to improve communication skills between patient and radiology technologists.

  16. COMPUTER AIDED SOLVENT DESIGN FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION - PARIS II (SYSTEMS ANALYSIS BRANCH, SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY DIVISION, NRMRL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This method was designed to facilitate the replacement of environmentally objectionable industrial solvents by using computer aided methods to design benign replacement solvents or solvent mixtures. The method generates a short list of recommended replacement solvents or mixtures...

  17. HIV/AIDS prevention in Zambia a preliminary study of obstacles to behavior change in the copperbelt

    OpenAIRE

    Nyerges, Jana Ramona Alley

    2006-01-01

    Since the nineteen-eighties, HIV prevention programs around the world have continuously expanded in attempts to meet challenges in the fight against HIV/AIDS. These programs are generally based on primary prevention, which uses Information Education and Communication (IEC) to modify individual behavior. In Africa, as in many underdeveloped countries, various country-specific studies report that a majority of the population is knowledgeable about HIV/AIDS, and how to prevent transmission. ...

  18. Computer-aided operations engineering with integrated models of systems and operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Ryan, Dan; Fleming, Land

    1994-01-01

    CONFIG 3 is a prototype software tool that supports integrated conceptual design evaluation from early in the product life cycle, by supporting isolated or integrated modeling, simulation, and analysis of the function, structure, behavior, failures and operation of system designs. Integration and reuse of models is supported in an object-oriented environment providing capabilities for graph analysis and discrete event simulation. Integration is supported among diverse modeling approaches (component view, configuration or flow path view, and procedure view) and diverse simulation and analysis approaches. Support is provided for integrated engineering in diverse design domains, including mechanical and electro-mechanical systems, distributed computer systems, and chemical processing and transport systems. CONFIG supports abstracted qualitative and symbolic modeling, for early conceptual design. System models are component structure models with operating modes, with embedded time-related behavior models. CONFIG supports failure modeling and modeling of state or configuration changes that result in dynamic changes in dependencies among components. Operations and procedure models are activity structure models that interact with system models. CONFIG is designed to support evaluation of system operability, diagnosability and fault tolerance, and analysis of the development of system effects of problems over time, including faults, failures, and procedural or environmental difficulties.

  19. The use and impact of a computer-based support system for people living with AIDS and HIV infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafson, D. H.; Hawkins, R. P.; Boberg, E. W.; Bricker, E.; Pingree, S.; Chan, C L

    1994-01-01

    CHESS (the Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System) is an interactive, computer-based system to support people facing AIDS/HIV Infection and other health-related crises or concerns. CHESS provides information, referral to service providers, support in making tough decisions and networking to experts and others facing the same concerns. CHESS is designed to improve access to health and human services for people who would otherwise face psychological, social, economic or geographic barr...

  20. Experiences in control system design aided by interactive computer programs: temperature control of the laser isotope separation vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A robust control system has been designed to regulate temperature in a vacuum vessel. The thermodynamic process is modeled by a set of nonlinear, implicit differential equations. The control design and analysis task exercised many of the computer-aided control systems design software packages, including MATLAB, DELIGHT, and LSAP. The working environment is a VAX computer. Advantages and limitations of the software and environment, and the impact on final controller design is discussed

  1. [Age-related changes of sensory system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Hanyu, Haruo; Umahara, Takahiko

    2013-10-01

    Pathological processes usually superimpose on physiological aging even in the sensory system including visual, hearing, olfactory, taste and somatosensory functions. Representative changes of age-related changes are presbyopia, cataracts, and presbyacusis. Reduced sense of smell is seen in normal aging, but the prominent reduction detected by the odor stick identification test is noticed especially in early stage of Alzheimer or Parkinson disease. Reduced sense of taste is well-known especially in salty sense, while the changes of sweet, bitter, and sour tastes are different among individuals. Finally, deep sensation of vibration and proprioception is decreased with age as well as superficial sensation (touch, temperature, pain). As a result, impaired sensory system could induce deterioration of the activities of daily living and quality of life in the elderly. PMID:24261198

  2. Climate change impacts on food system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Cai, X.; Zhu, T.

    2014-12-01

    Food system includes biophysical factors (climate, land and water), human environments (production technologies and food consumption, distribution and marketing), as well as the dynamic interactions within them. Climate change affects agriculture and food systems in various ways. Agricultural production can be influenced directly by climatic factors such as mean temperature rising, change in rainfall patterns, and more frequent extreme events. Eventually, climate change could cause shift of arable land, alteration of water availability, abnormal fluctuation of food prices, and increase of people at risk of malnutrition. This work aims to evaluate how climate change would affect agricultural production biophysically and how these effects would propagate to social factors at the global level. In order to model the complex interactions between the natural and social components, a Global Optimization model of Agricultural Land and Water resources (GOALW) is applied to the analysis. GOALW includes various demands of human society (food, feed, other), explicit production module, and irrigation water availability constraint. The objective of GOALW is to maximize global social welfare (consumers' surplus and producers' surplus).Crop-wise irrigation water use in different regions around the world are determined by the model; marginal value of water (MVW) can be obtained from the model, which implies how much additional welfare benefit could be gained with one unit increase in local water availability. Using GOALW, we will analyze two questions in this presentation: 1) how climate change will alter irrigation requirements and how the social system would buffer that by price/demand adjustment; 2) how will the MVW be affected by climate change and what are the controlling factors. These results facilitate meaningful insights for investment and adaptation strategies in sustaining world's food security under climate change.

  3. CASTLE3D - A Computer Aided System for Labelling Archaeological Excavations in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshiar, H.; Borrmann, D.; Elseberg, J.; Nüchter, A.; Näth, F.; Winkler, S.

    2015-08-01

    Documentation of archaeological excavation sites with conventional methods and tools such as hand drawings, measuring tape and archaeological notes is time consuming. This process is prone to human errors and the quality of the documentation depends on the qualification of the archaeologist on site. Use of modern technology and methods in 3D surveying and 3D robotics facilitate and improve this process. Computer-aided systems and databases improve the documentation quality and increase the speed of data acquisition. 3D laser scanning is the state of the art in modelling archaeological excavation sites, historical sites and even entire cities or landscapes. Modern laser scanners are capable of data acquisition of up to 1 million points per second. This provides a very detailed 3D point cloud of the environment. 3D point clouds and 3D models of an excavation site provide a better representation of the environment for the archaeologist and for documentation. The point cloud can be used both for further studies on the excavation and for the presentation of results. This paper introduces a Computer aided system for labelling archaeological excavations in 3D (CASTLE3D). Consisting of a set of tools for recording and georeferencing the 3D data from an excavation site, CASTLE3D is a novel documentation approach in industrial archaeology. It provides a 2D and 3D visualisation of the data and an easy-to-use interface that enables the archaeologist to select regions of interest and to interact with the data in both representations. The 2D visualisation and a 3D orthogonal view of the data provide cuts of the environment that resemble the traditional hand drawings. The 3D perspective view gives a realistic view of the environment. CASTLE3D is designed as an easy-to-use on-site semantic mapping tool for archaeologists. Each project contains a predefined set of semantic information that can be used to label findings in the data. Multiple regions of interest can be joined under

  4. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and data base system for chest diagnosis based on multihelical CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images and a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification. We also have developed electronic medical recording system and prototype internet system for the community health in two or more regions by using the Virtual Private Network router, Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system for safety of medical information. The results of this study indicate that our computer-aided diagnosis workstation and network system can increase diagnostic speed, diagnostic accuracy and safety of medical information. (author)

  5. Image-based retrieval system and computer-aided diagnosis system for renal cortical scintigraphy images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumcuoğlu, Erkan; Nar, Fatih; Uğur, Omer; Bozkurt, M. Fani; Aslan, Mehmet

    2008-03-01

    Cortical renal (kidney) scintigraphy images are 2D images (256x256) acquired in three projection angles (posterior, right-posterior-oblique and left-posterior-oblique). These images are used by nuclear medicine specialists to examine the functional morphology of kidney parenchyma. The main visual features examined in reading the images are: size, location, shape and activity distribution (pixel intensity distribution within the boundary of each kidney). Among the above features, activity distribution (in finding scars if any) was found to have the least interobserver reproducibility. Therefore, in this study, we developed an image-based retrieval (IBR) and a computer-based diagnosis (CAD) system, focused on this feature in particular. The developed IBR and CAD algorithms start with automatic segmentation, boundary and landmark detection. Then, shape and activity distribution features are computed. Activity distribution feature is obtained using the acquired image and image set statistics of the normal patients. Active Shape Model (ASM) technique is used for more accurate kidney segmentation. In the training step of ASM, normal patient images are used. Retrieval performance is evaluated by calculating precision and recall. CAD performance is evaluated by specificity and sensitivity. To our knowledge, this paper is the first IBR or CAD system reported in the literature on renal cortical scintigraphy images.

  6. The integration of automated knowledge acquisition with computer-aided software engineering for space shuttle expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modesitt, Kenneth L.

    1990-01-01

    A prediction was made that the terms expert systems and knowledge acquisition would begin to disappear over the next several years. This is not because they are falling into disuse; it is rather that practitioners are realizing that they are valuable adjuncts to software engineering, in terms of problem domains addressed, user acceptance, and in development methodologies. A specific problem was discussed, that of constructing an automated test analysis system for the Space Shuttle Main Engine. In this domain, knowledge acquisition was part of requirements systems analysis, and was performed with the aid of a powerful inductive ESBT in conjunction with a computer aided software engineering (CASE) tool. The original prediction is not a very risky one -- it has already been accomplished.

  7. Climate Change Education in Earth System Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänsel, Stephanie; Matschullat, Jörg

    2013-04-01

    The course "Atmospheric Research - Climate Change" is offered to master Earth System Science students within the specialisation "Climate and Environment" at the Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg. This module takes a comprehensive approach to climate sciences, reaching from the natural sciences background of climate change via the social components of the issue to the statistical analysis of changes in climate parameters. The course aims at qualifying the students to structure the physical and chemical basics of the climate system including relevant feedbacks. The students can evaluate relevant drivers of climate variability and change on various temporal and spatial scales and can transform knowledge from climate history to the present and the future. Special focus is given to the assessment of uncertainties related to climate observations and projections as well as the specific challenges of extreme weather and climate events. At the end of the course the students are able to critically reflect and evaluate climate change related results of scientific studies and related issues in media. The course is divided into two parts - "Climate Change" and "Climate Data Analysis" and encompasses two lectures, one seminar and one exercise. The weekly "Climate change" lecture transmits the physical and chemical background for climate variation and change. (Pre)historical, observed and projected climate changes and their effects on various sectors are being introduced and discussed regarding their implications for society, economics, ecology and politics. The related seminar presents and discusses the multiple reasons for controversy in climate change issues, based on various texts. Students train the presentation of scientific content and the discussion of climate change aspects. The biweekly lecture on "Climate data analysis" introduces the most relevant statistical tools and methods in climate science. Starting with checking data quality via tools of exploratory

  8. Effectiveness of HIV/AIDS School-based Programme Delivery on Behaviour Change for Sustainable Development among Zimbabwean ‘O’ Level Secondary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muguwe Emely

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to find out the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS School-based programme delivery on behavior change for sustainable development among Zimbabwean ‘O’ secondary school students. The sample consisted of one hundred and twenty students, twenty-four teachers and twelve school heads, drawn from the twelve secondary schools in GweruUrban District of Zimbabwe. Simple random sampling technique was used to come up with a sample of students while teachers and heads were purposively sampled. Questionnaires were administered to students and teachers while school heads were interviewed. The study found out that the school based programme is effective to a reasonable extent. The majority of the respondents rated the programme as important since it helped to bring awareness to students that AIDS is a reality. Heads revealed that HIV/AIDS should be examinable for it to get the attention that it deserves. Results indicated that students were aware of the objectives of the programme. Students revealed that areas mostly emphasized in delivery were, peer pressure resistance and decision making, communication and attitudes and facts about HIV/AIDS. Students revealed that they had managed to maintain and or change their behaviour as a result of programme delivery. However teachers indicated that peer pressure remained a serious problem among the youth and rendered some aspects of the programme ineffective. Some heads indicated that behaviour change was a long term process which required a close follow-up. One of the heads indicated that students benefitted from the programme. Peer education was rated an effective strategy in programme delivery. Teachers and heads cited time constraints, some students’ negative attitudes, shortage of resources and large enrolments as some of the major challenges in programme delivery. Students cited problems of peer pressure and unavailability of literature and unruly behaviours. Students revealed that

  9. Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    Controversy over the aggregate impact of foreign aid has focused on reduced form estimates of the aid-growth link. The causal chain, through which aid affects developmental outcomes including growth, has received much less attention. We address this gap by: (i) specifying a structural model of the...... main relationships; (ii) estimating the impact of aid on a range of final and intermediate outcomes; and (iii) quantifying a simplied representation of the full structural form, where aid impacts on growth through key intermediate outcomes. A coherent picture emerges: aid stimulates growth and reduces...

  10. 49 CFR 38.83 - Mobility aid accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mobility aid accessibility. 38.83 Section 38.83... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.83 Mobility aid accessibility. (a... shall provide a level-change mechanism or boarding device (e.g., lift, ramp or bridge plate)...

  11. 49 CFR 38.23 - Mobility aid accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mobility aid accessibility. 38.23 Section 38.23... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.23 Mobility aid accessibility. (a) General. All vehicles covered by this subpart shall provide a level-change mechanism or boarding device...

  12. Evaluation of alveolar bone grafting in unilateral cleft lip and palate patients using a computer-aided diagnosis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutthiprapaporn, Pipop; Kongsomboon, Supaporn; Limmonthol, Saowaluck; Pisek, Poonsak; Keinprasit, Chutimaporn [Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen (Thailand); Tanimoto, Keiji; Nakamoto, Takashi [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2012-09-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the trabecular bone changes after alveolar bone grafting in unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patients using a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system. The occlusal radiographs taken from 50 UCLP patients were surveyed retrospectively. The images were categorized as: 50 images in group 0 (before bone grafting), 33 images in group 1 (one month after bone grafting), 24 images in group 2 (2-4 months after bone grafting), 15 images in group 3 (5-7 months after bone grafting), and 21 images in group 4 (8 or more months after bone grafting). Each image was grouped as either 'non-cleft side' or 'cleft side'. The CAD system was used five times for each side to calculate the pixel area based on the mathematical morphology. Significant differences were found using a Wilcoxon signed ranks test or paired samples t test. The pixel area showed a significant difference between the 'non-cleft side' and 'cleft side' in group 0 (404.27{+-}103.72/117.73{+-}92.25; p=0.00), group 1 (434.29{+-}86.70/388.31{+-}109.51; p=0.01), and group 4 (430.98{+-}98.11/366.71{+-}154.59; p=0.02). No significant differences were found in group 2 (423.57{+-}98.12/383.47{+-}135.88; p=0.06) or group 3 (433.02{+-}116.07/384.16{+-}146.55; p=0.19). Based on the design of this study, alveolar bone grafting was similar to normal bone within 2-7 months postoperatively.

  13. Evaluation of alveolar bone grafting in unilateral cleft lip and palate patients using a computer-aided diagnosis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to evaluate the trabecular bone changes after alveolar bone grafting in unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patients using a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system. The occlusal radiographs taken from 50 UCLP patients were surveyed retrospectively. The images were categorized as: 50 images in group 0 (before bone grafting), 33 images in group 1 (one month after bone grafting), 24 images in group 2 (2-4 months after bone grafting), 15 images in group 3 (5-7 months after bone grafting), and 21 images in group 4 (8 or more months after bone grafting). Each image was grouped as either 'non-cleft side' or 'cleft side'. The CAD system was used five times for each side to calculate the pixel area based on the mathematical morphology. Significant differences were found using a Wilcoxon signed ranks test or paired samples t test. The pixel area showed a significant difference between the 'non-cleft side' and 'cleft side' in group 0 (404.27±103.72/117.73±92.25; p=0.00), group 1 (434.29±86.70/388.31±109.51; p=0.01), and group 4 (430.98±98.11/366.71±154.59; p=0.02). No significant differences were found in group 2 (423.57±98.12/383.47±135.88; p=0.06) or group 3 (433.02±116.07/384.16±146.55; p=0.19). Based on the design of this study, alveolar bone grafting was similar to normal bone within 2-7 months postoperatively.

  14. Evaluation of a computer-aided skin cancer diagnosis system for conventional digital photography with manual segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Adam; Chang, Wen-Yu; Hsieh, Cheng-Han; Liu, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Gwo-Shing

    2014-03-01

    We evaluate a computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) system developed for both melanocytic and non-melanocytic skin lesions by using conventional digital photographs with lesion boundaries manually marked by a dermatologist. Clinical images of skin lesions taken by conventional digital cameras can capture useful information such as shape, color, and texture for diagnosing skin cancer. However, shape/border features are difficult to analyze automatically because skin surface reflections may change skin color and make segmentation a challenging task. In this study, two non-medical users manually mark the boundaries of a dataset of 769 (174 malignant, 595 benign) conventional photographs of melanocytic and non-melanocytic skin lesions. A state-of-the-art software system for segmenting color images, JSEG, is also tested on the same dataset. Their results are compared to a dermatologist's markings, which are used as the gold standard in this study. The human users' markings are relatively close to the gold standard and achieve an overlapping rate of 70.4% (+/- 15.3%, std) and 74.5% (+/- 14.7%, std). Compared to human users, JSEG only succeeds in segmenting 636 (82.7%) out of 769 lesions and achieves an overlapping rate of 72.4% (+/-20.4%) for these 636 lesions. The estimated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of the CADx by using lesion boundary markings of users 1, 2, and JSEG are 0.915, 0.940, and 0.857 respectively. Our preliminary results indicate that manual segmentation can be repeated relatively consistent compared to automatic segmentation.

  15. The importance of decision-making aids in the energy area: from planning to the management of disorder and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this article is to situate decision-making aids in the energy area in France and show how the tools have changed over time as a function of the changing economic and political context. The challenges faced, already important in the post-war era due to reconstruction, are now huge due to supply constraints and global warming. While it is the State's responsibility to address these issues, as the players in the energy area currently are mainly in the private sphere, we look at decisions taken both by the State and by companies. Schematically, we compare two major periods: that of post-war planning through the eighties, and that of risk management, which has been current practice since market deregulation. From the methodological standpoint, we show that decision-making aids borrow tools from varied disciplines ranging from economics through management to futurology and long range planning. (author)

  16. INTERVENTIONAL STUDY OF IMMEDIATE AND LONG TERM CHANGES IN HIV/AIDS KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE AMONG SCHOOL STUDENTS IN AN URBAN SLUM IN MUMBAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manasi Shekhar Padhyegurjar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Education sector plays an important role in imparting vital information regarding HIV AIDS to large number of adolescents. The present study was carried out to assess the baseline level of knowledge and attitude regarding HIV / AIDS and retention of various aspects of information over the period of one year among ninth standard school students in Mumbai. Methods and Material: The present study was designed as a school based interventional follow up study. Health education sessions on HIV/AIDS were conducted. Pre test, immediate post test, along with a follow up post test at six months and one year were administered. SPSS (Version 16 and Excel software were used for statistical analysis. Z tests for difference between proportions were applied. Results: The proportion of correct responses regarding some of the aspects of knowledge of HIV / AIDS significantly increased on health education intervention. However, no significant change in the proportion of correct responses regarding blood donation leading to HIV transmission was observed. Significant waning (p < 0.01 away of the effect of health education has been observed in some important aspects especially regarding spread without being aware of transmission, involvement of infected needles, condoms as mode of prevention and no complete cure till date. Though there is a general acceptance of HIV positive patients, attitudes involving sexual mode of transmission, drug abuse and homosexuality did not show positive change post intervention. Conclusions: Health education sessions were very effective in increasing knowledge. However, students tend to lose information regarding certain aspects. We thus need strategies for reinforcing knowledge as well as attitude aspect in school AIDS education.

  17. A hearing aid on-chip system based on accuracy optimized front- and back-end blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hearing aid on-chip system based on accuracy optimized front- and back-end blocks is presented for enhancing the signal processing accuracy of the hearing aid. Compared with the conventional system, the accuracy optimized system is characterized by the dual feedback network and the gain compensation technique used in the front- and back-end blocks, respectively, so as to alleviate the nonlinearity distortion caused by the output swing. By using the technique, the accuracy of the whole hearing aid system can be significantly improved. The prototype chip has been designed with a 0.13 μm standard CMOS process and tested with 1 V supply voltage. The measurement results show that, for driving a 16 Ω loudspeaker with a normalized output level of 300 mVp-p, the total harmonic distortion reached about −60 dB, achieving at least three times reduction compared to the previously reported works. In addition, the typical input referred noise is only about 5 μVrms. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  18. Systemically induced changes in skeletal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of systemic designs leading the radiographically detectable bone and joint changes is legion. Some disorders (notably the arthridites), while qualifying as diseases with protean systemic manifestations are discussed elsewhere in this book. Other disorders (e.g., achondroplasia), while not representing diseases per se, are included in this chapter for the sake of completeness and due to their relative frequency and their interesting radiographic characteristics. The author focuses on a number of selected conditions, some commonly seen and some relatively infrequently encountered. They are classified into he following categories: endocrinologic; metabolic; hematologic and reticuloendothelial; and dysplastic

  19. AIDS (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medication can suppress symptoms. ...

  20. Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  1. Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... electrical nerve impulses and send them to the auditory nerve, which connects the inner ear to the ... prefer. Cleaning makes a difference in hearing aid comfort. A perfectly comfortable hearing aid can become pretty ...

  2. Exploding the Ivory Tower: Systemic Change for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, William R.; Watson, Sunnie Lee

    2013-01-01

    Higher education faces increasing pressures to change to better meet the needs of modern society. Systemic change applies systems thinking and systems theory to change a complex system to a new paradigm. This paper argues for the need for the systemic change of higher education and presents educational technologists as particularly well placed to…

  3. Computer Aided Education Systems in Knowledge Based Society: from SUPER-Test to MULTIMEDIA & OFFICE-Test

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitru TODOROI; Elena NECHITA; Crisan, Gloria Cerasela; Zinaida TODOROI; Nicoleta TODOROI

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the testing and self-testing processes for the Computer Aided Education System (CAES) SuperTest Package [14], used at the Academy of Economic Studies of Chisinau, Moldova and recently implemented at the University of Bacau, Romania and Ciprian Porumbescu College, Chisinau. We also discuss here the development of such type of CAES as MULTIMEDIA and MULTIMEDIA&OFFICE Testing Methods - the CAES software - from the Information Society and Knowledge Society point of view.

  4. PUTTING A BAND-AID ON A CORPSE: INCENTIVES FOR NURSES IN THE INDIAN PUBLIC HEALTH CARE SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Abhijit V.; Glennerster, Rachel; Duflo, Esther

    2008-01-01

    The public Indian health care system is plagued by high staff absence, low effort by providers, and limited use by potential beneficiaries who prefer private alternatives. This artice reports the results of an experiment carried out with a district administration and a nongovernmental organization (NGO). The presence of government nurses in government public health facilities (subcenters and aid-posts) was recorded by the NGO, and the government took steps to punish the worst delinquents. Ini...

  5. Studies to assess the effect of pet training aids specifically remote static pulse systems on the welfare of domestic dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Jonathan; Wright, Hannah; Mills, Daniel; Casey, Rachel; Blackwell, Emily; Van Driel, Katja; Lines, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    This project assessed the welfare of dogs trained with pet training aids, specifically remote static pulse collar systems (e-collars). Previous work has focused on a very limited number of devices in a very limited range of contexts and the evidence of the impact of such devices on dog's overall quality of life is inconclusive. Project AW1402 aimed to assess the physical characteristics of the e-collars and the physiological, behavioural and psychological consequences of their use in dog trai...

  6. Cerebral involvement in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Involvement of the central nervous system in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is usually due to opportunistic infections; these frequently offer a difficult differential diagnostic problem. Imaging methods play an important part in the elucidation of symptoms. CT and MR findings were analysed in 13 patients with AIDS and neurological symptoms. Some infections of the central nervous system (encephalitis of unknown aetiology, cytomegalic encephalitis, meningitis) may show cerebral atrophy or even no morphological changes. Toxoplasmosis and PML are the most common opportunistic infections typical changes on CT and MR may lead to diagnosis. MR offers advantages compared with CT in its higher sensitivity for the demonstration even of small lesions. (orig.)

  7. Multilevel Drivers of HIV/AIDS among Black Philadelphians: Exploration Using Community Ethnography and Geographic Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawner, Bridgette M.; Reason, Janaiya L.; Goodman, Bridget A.; Schensul, Jean J.; Guthrie, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Background Unequal HIV/AIDS distribution is influenced by certain social and structural contexts that facilitate HIV transmission and concentrate HIV in disease epicenters. Thus, one of the first steps in designing effective community-level HIV/AIDS initiatives is to disentangle the influence of individual, social, and structural factors on HIV risk. Combining ethnographic methodology with geographic information systems (GIS) mapping can allow for a complex exploration of multilevel factors within communities that facilitate HIV transmission in highly affected areas. Objectives We present the formative comparative community-based case study findings of an investigation of individual-, social- , and structural-level factors that contribute to the HIV/AIDS epidemic among Black Philadelphians. Methods Communities were defined using census tracts. The methodology included ethnographic and GIS mapping, observation, informal conversations with residents and business owners, and secondary analyses of census tract-level data in four Philadelphia neighborhoods. Results Factors such as overcrowding, disadvantage, permeability in community boundaries, and availability and accessibility of health-related resources varied significantly. Further, HIV/AIDS trended with social and structural inequities above and beyond the community’s racial composition. Discussion This study was a first step to disentangle relationships between community-level factors and potential risk for HIV in an HIV epicenter. The findings also highlight stark sociodemographic differences within and across racial groups, and further substantiate the need for comprehensive, community-level HIV prevention interventions. These findings from targeted United States urban communities have potential applicability for examining the distribution of HIV/AIDS in broader national and international geosocial contexts. PMID:25738621

  8. Evaluating Knowledge, Attitudinal, and Behavioral Change Effects from a Multinational HIV/AIDS Education Program for Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardre, Patricia L.; Garcia, Fe; Apamo, Peter; Mutheu, Lucy; Ndege, Monica; Bois, Iderle

    2010-01-01

    This project tracked the mid-term evaluation processes, practices, and products of a multinational program to reduce at-risk behaviors for HIV/AIDS among children in Kenya, Tanzania, and Haiti. It focused on participant and community perceptions; program effectiveness in promoting abstinence and monogamy decisions; and factors supporting ongoing…

  9. Application of a B ampersand W developed computer aided pictorial process planning system to CQMS for manufacturing process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babcock ampersand Wilcox (B ampersand W) will utilize its internally developed Computer Aided Pictorial Process Planning or CAPPP (pronounced open-quotes cap cubedclose quotes) system to create a paperless manufacturing environment for the Collider Quadruple Magnets (CQM). The CAPPP system consists of networked personal computer hardware and software used to: (1) generate and maintain the documents necessary for product fabrication, (2) communicate the information contained in these documents to the production floor, and (3) obtain quality assurance and manufacturing feedback information from the production floor. The purpose of this paper is to describe the various components of the CAPPP system and explain their applicability to product fabrication, specifically quality assurance functions

  10. The community state aid action plan and the challenge of developing an optimal enforcement system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemplinerová, Alena

    Alphen aan den Rijn: Kluwer Law International, 2010 - (Lianos, I.; Kokkoris, I.), s. 521-535 ISBN 978-90-411-2692-4 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : state aid * EU control Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  11. NEW METHODS OF PRODUCT CLASSIFICATION FOR COMPUTER AIDED PROCESS PLANNING SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Kuric, Ivan; Kuba, Jozef

    2007-01-01

    Classification of engineering parts is a very demanding activity especially in process planning. It is one of the important methods utilised in the group technology approach to computer aided process planning. This paper deals with a new method of classification, which extends the possibility of engineering part classification, especially for the process planning of non-cutting processes (forging, casting, etc.)

  12. Distortion of interaural time cues by directional noise reduction systems in modern digital hearing aids

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Bogaert, Tim; Wouters, Jan; Klasen, Thomas James; Moonen, Marc

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the distortion of interaural time information by modern digital hearing aids. It is shown that two popular noise reduction techniques, namely a directional microphone and an adaptive directional microphone, are very sensitive to intermicrophone mismatch which results in the distortion of interaural time information. This interaural information is crucial for sound localization and speech perception in noise.

  13. Hearing Aid-Induced Plasticity in the Auditory System of Older Adults: Evidence from Speech Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie, Limor; Banai, Karen; Karni, Avi; Attias, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We tested whether using hearing aids can improve unaided performance in speech perception tasks in older adults with hearing impairment. Method: Unaided performance was evaluated in dichotic listening and speech-­in-­noise tests in 47 older adults with hearing impairment; 36 participants in 3 study groups were tested before hearing aid…

  14. The Changing Perception of the Solar System

    CERN Document Server

    Nesvorny, D

    2015-01-01

    The solar system has changed dramatically since its birth, and so did our understanding of it. A considerable research effort has been invested in the past decade in an attempt to reconstruct the solar system history, including the earliest stages some 4.5 billion years ago. The results indicate how several processes, such as planetary migration and dynamical instabilities, acted to relax the orbital spacing of the outer planets, and provided the needed perturbation to explain the present planetary orbits that are not precisely circular and coplanar. Here we highlight this work and illustrate the key results in a computer simulation that unifies several recently developed theories. The emerging view represents another step away from the initial perception of the solar system as part of unchanging heavens.

  15. The challenge of changing healthcare systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, F

    1996-01-01

    Healthcare systems are in flux throughout the world. Traditional structures and attitudes are changing. The balance of power between political bodies, payers, providers and patients is being destabilised. New approaches by governments and forward integration by drug companies and payers into care management are all major changes from the past. In the future, healthcare providers, particularly hospitals, will have to complement medical with business skills to survive in a more competitive environment. Experience shows that there is major potential for improvement in terms of radical rethinking of how care is provided (e.g. at least a 30% reduction in hospital days per insured life together with quality-of-care improvements). In particular, the economic value of changes in treatment (e.g. ambulatory surgery, switch to home therapy) should be understood and optimised. In a new world scenario, payers and providers will shape the healthcare environment by introducing novel approaches and integrating healthcare delivery. This process, coupled with the introduction of new approaches to competition and risk sharing by the government, could cause the emergency of high performance and more cost-effective healthcare systems. PMID:8869840

  16. Metropolitan social environments and pre-HAART/HAART era changes in mortality rates (per 10,000 adult residents among injection drug users living with AIDS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel R Friedman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among the largest US metropolitan areas, trends in mortality rates for injection drug users (IDUs with AIDS vary substantially. Ecosocial, risk environment and dialectical theories suggest many metropolitan areas characteristics that might drive this variation. We assess metropolitan area characteristics associated with decline in mortality rates among IDUs living with AIDS (per 10,000 adult MSA residents after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART was developed. METHODS: This is an ecological cohort study of 86 large US metropolitan areas from 1993-2006. The proportional rate of decline in mortality among IDUs diagnosed with AIDS (as a proportion of adult residents from 1993-1995 to 2004-2006 was the outcome of interest. This rate of decline was modeled as a function of MSA-level variables suggested by ecosocial, risk environment and dialectical theories. In multiple regression analyses, we used 1993-1995 mortality rates to (partially control for pre-HAART epidemic history and study how other independent variables affected the outcomes. RESULTS: In multivariable models, pre-HAART to HAART era increases in 'hard drug' arrest rates and higher pre-HAART income inequality were associated with lower relative declines in mortality rates. Pre-HAART per capita health expenditure and drug abuse treatment rates, and pre- to HAART-era increases in HIV counseling and testing rates, were weakly associated with greater decline in AIDS mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality among IDUs living with AIDS might be decreased by reducing metropolitan income inequality, increasing public health expenditures, and perhaps increasing drug abuse treatment and HIV testing services. Given prior evidence that drug-related arrest rates are associated with higher HIV prevalence rates among IDUs and do not seem to decrease IDU population prevalence, changes in laws and policing practices to reduce such arrests while still protecting public order should be

  17. The software developing method for multichannel computer-aided system for physical experiments control, realized by resources of national instruments LabVIEW instrumental package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is describing the method of developing the computer-aided control system in integrated environment of LabVIEW. Using the object-oriented design of complex systems, the hypothetical model for methods of developing the software for computer-aided system for physical experiments control was constructed. Within the framework of that model architecture solutions and implementations of suggested method were described. (author)

  18. The use and impact of a computer-based support system for people living with AIDS and HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, D H; Hawkins, R P; Boberg, E W; Bricker, E; Pingree, S; Chan, C L

    1994-01-01

    CHESS (the Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System) is an interactive, computer-based system to support people facing AIDS/HIV Infection and other health-related crises or concerns. CHESS provides information, referral to service providers, support in making tough decisions and networking to experts and others facing the same concerns. CHESS is designed to improve access to health and human services for people who would otherwise face psychological, social, economic or geographic barriers to receiving services. CHESS has been evaluated in a random-assignment study with over 200 men and women living with AIDS and HIV infection. When CHESS was placed in subjects' homes for 3-6 months, use of CHESS was extremely heavy, with the average subject using CHESS 138 times for 39 hours. Compared with a control group which did not receive CHESS, subjects who used CHESS reported significantly higher quality of life in several dimensions, including social support and cognitive functioning. Users also reported significant reductions in some types of health care costs, especially inpatient services (hospitalizations). All segments of the study population used and benefited from CHESS, including women, minorities and those subjects with lower levels of education. Thus, CHESS appears to be an effective means of delivering education and support to the diverse populations which are affected by AIDS and HIV infection. PMID:7949999

  19. Using computer aided system to determine the maximum depth of visualization of B-Mode diagnostic ultrasound image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslebu, G.; Adi, K.; Suryono

    2016-03-01

    In the service unit of radiology, ultrasound modality is widely used because it has advantages over other modalities, such as relatively inexpensive, non-invasive, does not use ionizing radiation, and portable. Until now, the method for determining the depth visualization on quality control program is through the visual observation of ultrasound image on the monitor. The purpose of this study is to develop a computer-aided system to determine maximum depth of visualization. Data acquisition was done by using B-Mode Diagnostic Ultrasound machine and Multi-purpose Multi-tissue Ultrasound Phantom model 040GSE. Phantom was scanned at fixed frequency of 1,8 MHz, 2,2 MHz, 3,6 MHz and 5,0 MHz with a gain variation of 30 dB, 45 dB, and 60 dB. Global thresholding and Euclidean distance method were used to determine maximum visualization depth. From this study, it is proved that the visualization depth using computer aided provide deeper visualization than visual interpretation. The differences between expert verification and the result of image processing are <6%. Thus, computer aided system can be used for the purpose of quality control in determining maximum visualization depth of B-Mode diagnostic ultrasound image.

  20. Genetic Immunity to AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In an article on genetic immunity to AIDS published in Science magazine, American and Chinese scientists claim to have discovered why certain HIV carriers do not develop full-blown AIDS. They say that the key to this conundrum lies in a particular protein in the endocrine system that inhibits development of HIV.

  1. A Survey of Phase Change Memory Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏飞; 蒋德钧; 熊劲; 孙凝晖

    2015-01-01

    As the scaling of applications increases, the demand of main memory capacity increases in order to serve large working set. It is difficult for DRAM (dynamic random access memory) based memory system to satisfy the memory capacity requirement due to its limited scalability and high energy consumption. Compared to DRAM, PCM (phase change memory) has better scalability, lower energy leakage, and non-volatility. PCM memory systems have become a hot topic of academic and industrial research. However, PCM technology has the following three drawbacks: long write latency, limited write endurance, and high write energy, which raises challenges to its adoption in practice. This paper surveys architectural research work to optimize PCM memory systems. First, this paper introduces the background of PCM. Then, it surveys research efforts on PCM memory systems in performance optimization, lifetime improving, and energy saving in detail, respectively. This paper also compares and summarizes these techniques from multiple dimensions. Finally, it concludes these optimization techniques and discusses possible research directions of PCM memory systems in future.

  2. THE EFFECTS OF TELEVISION AND RADIO COMMERCIALS ON BEHAVIOR AND ATTITUDE CHANGES TOWARDS THE CAMPAIGN AGAINST THE SPREAD OF HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pharm. Adibe M.O

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of information has not been over looked in Nigeria. Information on AIDS is disseminated through various information media such as newspapers, magazines, radio and television. Symposia and conferences have also been organized for the purpose of creating awareness and an attempt to change public attitude. Aim: This study was aimed at ascertaining the effect of television and radio commercials on behaviour and attitude changes towards the campaign against the spread of HIV/AIDS, using residents of Nsukka urban. Methods: This study employed a cross sectional, household survey using interviewer administered questionnaires. A mixture of cluster and systematic random techniques were employed. Nsukka was grouped into 10 clusters based on geographical locations as established by a map designed by Nsukka Graduates Association. Six sections or clusters were randomly selected from the ten clusters using a random sampling technique. In each section, the first house in each street was identified, followed by systematic sampling of the next three houses. A total of 637 persons were met in the exercise after covering the selected clusters. All respondents were assured of confidentiality and anonymity. The survey was carried out from August to December, 2009. Data were entered into the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, version 14 and descriptive analysis conducted. Responses were reported as percentages. Results: Most of the respondents studied were youth and students. All the participants had either radio or television or both. More than 60% of respondents rated the quality of the campaign as excellent and effective. The Areas of prevention or control which the campaigns focused on (in their decreasing order were unprotected sex, having multiple sexual partners (infidelity, abstinence, transfusion of infected blood, and sharing of sharp objects. The respondent agreed that knowing HIV/AIDS status (>70% and stopping

  3. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and telemedicine network system for chest diagnosis based on multislice CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kakinuma, Ryutaru; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2009-02-01

    Mass screening based on multi-helical CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. Moreover, the doctor who diagnoses a medical image is insufficient in Japan. To overcome these problems, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images, a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification and a vertebra body analysis algorithm for quantitative evaluation of osteoporosis likelihood by using helical CT scanner for the lung cancer mass screening. The functions to observe suspicious shadow in detail are provided in computer-aided diagnosis workstation with these screening algorithms. We also have developed the telemedicine network by using Web medical image conference system with the security improvement of images transmission, Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system. Biometric face authentication used on site of telemedicine makes "Encryption of file" and "Success in login" effective. As a result, patients' private information is protected. We can share the screen of Web medical image conference system from two or more web conference terminals at the same time. An opinion can be exchanged mutually by using a camera and a microphone that are connected with workstation. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have developed a new computer-aided workstation and a new telemedicine network that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. The results of this study indicate that our radiological information system without film by using computer-aided diagnosis workstation and our telemedicine network system can increase diagnostic speed, diagnostic accuracy and

  4. CASE/A - COMPUTER AIDED SYSTEM ENGINEERING AND ANALYSIS, ECLSS/ATCS SERIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacskay, A.

    1994-01-01

    , specific heat, density, and viscosity) is generated at user-selected output intervals and stored for reference. The Integrated Plot Utility (IPU) provides plotting capability for all data output. System utility commands are provided to enable the user to operate more efficiently in the CASE/A environment. The user is able to customize a simulation through optional operations FORTRAN logic. This user-developed code is compiled and linked with a CASE/A model and enables the user to control and timeline component operating parameters during various phases of the iterative solution process. CASE/A provides for transient tracking of the flow stream constituents and determination of their thermodynamic state throughout an ECLSS/ATCS simulation, performing heat transfer, chemical reaction, mass/energy balance, and system pressure drop analysis based on user-specified operating conditions. The program tracks each constituent through all combination and decomposition states while maintaining a mass and energy balance on the overall system. This allows rapid assessment of ECLSS designs, the impact of alternate technologies, and impacts due to changes in metabolic forcing functions, consumables usage, and system control considerations. CASE/A is written in FORTRAN 77 for the DEC VAX/VMS computer series, and requires 12Mb of disk storage and a minimum paging file quota of 20,000 pages. The program operates on the Tektronix 4014 graphics standard and VT100 text standard. The program requires a Tektronix 4014 or later graphics terminal, third party composite graphics/text terminal, or personal computer loaded with appropriate VT100/TEK 4014 emulator software. The use of composite terminals or personal computers with popular emulation software is recommended for enhanced CASE/A operations and general ease of use. The program is available on an unlabeled 9-track 6250 BPI DEC VAX BACKUP format magnetic tape. CASE/A development began in 1985 under contract to NASA/Marshall Space Flight

  5. The changing political economy of sex in South Africa: the significance of unemployment and inequalities to the scale of the AIDS pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Mark

    2007-02-01

    Between 1990 and 2005, HIV prevalence rates in South Africa jumped from less than 1% to around 29%. Important scholarship has demonstrated how racialized structures entrenched by colonialism and apartheid set the scene for the rapid unfolding of the AIDS pandemic, like other causes of ill-health before it. Of particular relevance is the legacy of circular male-migration, an institution that for much of the 20th century helped to propel the transmission of sexually transmitted infections among black South Africans denied permanent urban residence. But while the deep-rooted antecedents of AIDS have been noted, less attention has been given to more recent changes in the political economy of sex, including those resulting from the post-apartheid government's adoption of broadly neo-liberal policies. As an unintentional consequence, male migration and apartheid can be seen as almost inevitably resulting in AIDS, a view that can disconnect the pandemic from contemporary social and economic debates. Combining ethnographic, historical, and demographic approaches, and focusing on sexuality in the late apartheid and early post-apartheid periods, this article outlines three interlinked dynamics critical to understanding the scale of the AIDS pandemic: (1) rising unemployment and social inequalities that leave some groups, especially poor women, extremely vulnerable; (2) greatly reduced marital rates and the subsequent increase of one person households; and (3) rising levels of women's migration, especially through circular movements between rural areas and informal settlements/urban areas. As a window into these changes, the article gives primary attention to the country's burgeoning informal settlements--spaces in which HIV rates are reported to be twice the national average--and to connections between poverty and money/sex exchanges. PMID:17097204

  6. A Novel Data-Aided Channel Estimation with Reduced Complexity for TDS-OFDM Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ming; Hélard, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to the classical cyclic prefix (CP)-OFDM, the time domain synchronous (TDS)-OFDM employs a known pseudo noise (PN) sequence as guard interval (GI). Conventional channel estimation methods for TDS-OFDM are based on the exploitation of the PN sequence and consequently suffer from intersymbol interference (ISI). This paper proposes a novel dataaided channel estimation method which combines the channel estimates obtained from the PN sequence and, most importantly, additional channel estimates extracted from OFDM data symbols. Data-aided channel estimation is carried out using the rebuilt OFDM data symbols as virtual training sequences. In contrast to the classical turbo channel estimation, interleaving and decoding functions are not included in the feedback loop when rebuilding OFDM data symbols thereby reducing the complexity. Several improved techniques are proposed to refine the data-aided channel estimates, namely one-dimensional (1-D)/two-dimensional (2-D) moving average and Wiener filtering. Fin...

  7. Computer-aided topological analysis of Nd-Fe-B ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three-dimensional partially matrixed topological model of the Nd-Fe-B ternary phase diagram has been established based on experimental results assessed comprehensively with the aid of a computer-aided design and graphic and graphics software, AutoCAD (R10), and application programs developed in this work. Vertical sections at 5.88 at.% B, Nd:B = 1:1, Fe-Nd/sub 2/Fe/sub 14/B-Nd, Nd/sub 2/Fe/sub 17/-Nd/sub 2/Fe/sub 7/B/sub 6/ have been cut out from the model and the corresponding phase relationships have been analyzed. Among them, those on the Nd-rich protons of both the sections at 5.88 at.% B and Nd:B = 2:1 and those on the Nd/sub 2/Fe/sub 14/B-Nd section are given for the first time. (author)

  8. [Changes in life-style, needs and difficulties faced by caregivers of AIDS patients in home care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gir, E; Reis, R K

    2001-12-01

    This study aimed at delineating the social and demographic profile of 17 home caregivers for AIDS patients, identifying the alterations occurring in their life style and detecting the main needs and doubts presented by them when assisting a person living with AIDS at home, as well as the difficulties stemming from the disease and the care given by them. We identified that the introduction of HIV/AIDS within the family generates a crisis situation and awakens many negative feelings in caretakers. An alteration in life routine takes place and there is also an overload of tasks to be carried out. The main difficulties of caretakers are related to taking care of the patient at home in addition to financial and emotional difficulties. We have shown the need for more effective orientation as to protection measure while caring for the patient. We have also pointed out the importance of orientation and educational actions to be given by health professionals, during which nurses' participation in home assistance/visits is essential. PMID:12483976

  9. Computer-Aided Systems Engineering for Flight Research Projects Using a Workgroup Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Masahi

    2004-01-01

    An online systems engineering tool for flight research projects has been developed through the use of a workgroup database. Capabilities are implemented for typical flight research systems engineering needs in document library, configuration control, hazard analysis, hardware database, requirements management, action item tracking, project team information, and technical performance metrics. Repetitive tasks are automated to reduce workload and errors. Current data and documents are instantly available online and can be worked on collaboratively. Existing forms and conventional processes are used, rather than inventing or changing processes to fit the tool. An integrated tool set offers advantages by automatically cross-referencing data, minimizing redundant data entry, and reducing the number of programs that must be learned. With a simplified approach, significant improvements are attained over existing capabilities for minimal cost. By using a workgroup-level database platform, personnel most directly involved in the project can develop, modify, and maintain the system, thereby saving time and money. As a pilot project, the system has been used to support an in-house flight experiment. Options are proposed for developing and deploying this type of tool on a more extensive basis.

  10. SINCRO/CAR: An interactive numerical system for computer-aided control engineering and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation describes a dialogue-oriented software implemented on a portable computer for computer-aided engineering and training in control instrumentation and also for on-line verification of the performances of the analog controllers installed on power plants. The SINCRO/CAR software includes algorithms for controller design, simulation, identification, optimization, frequency response and real time data acquisition. Various results obtained on fossil-fired and nuclear plants are given to illustrate the efficiency of the SINCRO/CAR software

  11. Music and hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  12. NEXUS/NASCAD- NASA ENGINEERING EXTENDIBLE UNIFIED SOFTWARE SYSTEM WITH NASA COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, L. R.

    1994-01-01

    NEXUS, the NASA Engineering Extendible Unified Software system, is a research set of computer programs designed to support the full sequence of activities encountered in NASA engineering projects. This sequence spans preliminary design, design analysis, detailed design, manufacturing, assembly, and testing. NEXUS primarily addresses the process of prototype engineering, the task of getting a single or small number of copies of a product to work. Prototype engineering is a critical element of large scale industrial production. The time and cost needed to introduce a new product are heavily dependent on two factors: 1) how efficiently required product prototypes can be developed, and 2) how efficiently required production facilities, also a prototype engineering development, can be completed. NEXUS extendibility and unification are achieved by organizing the system as an arbitrarily large set of computer programs accessed in a common manner through a standard user interface. The NEXUS interface is a multipurpose interactive graphics interface called NASCAD (NASA Computer Aided Design). NASCAD can be used to build and display two and three-dimensional geometries, to annotate models with dimension lines, text strings, etc., and to store and retrieve design related information such as names, masses, and power requirements of components used in the design. From the user's standpoint, NASCAD allows the construction, viewing, modification, and other processing of data structures that represent the design. Four basic types of data structures are supported by NASCAD: 1) three-dimensional geometric models of the object being designed, 2) alphanumeric arrays to hold data ranging from numeric scalars to multidimensional arrays of numbers or characters, 3) tabular data sets that provide a relational data base capability, and 4) procedure definitions to combine groups of system commands or other user procedures to create more powerful functions. NASCAD has extensive abilities to

  13. Optimizing operation of a solar-aided coal-fired power system based on the solar contribution evaluation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The solar contribution of the solar-aided coal-fired power plant was calculated. • Adjusting heat transfer fluid flow rate to improve the performance of the system. • The generation revenue function was proposed to evaluate the system. - Abstract: A solar-aided coal-fired power system (SACFPS) model with five load conditions (100%, 85%, 75%, 50%, and 40%) was built based on thermodynamic and thermoeconomic theories. SACFPS is a combination of a parabolic trough solar power system and a 660 MW coal-fired generation plant. The solar contribution evaluation method was introduced into the model to calculate the generation share of the solar power system. Results show that solar contribution decreases after an initial increase as effective solar normal irradiation increases. Optimization strategies, adjusting heat transfer fluid flow rate, have been proposed to maintain solar contribution at a high level. Thus, SACFPS with five load conditions has been optimized. This study also establishes a generation revenue function to evaluate the economics of SACFPS. Income generation of SACFPS after optimization is significantly higher than that without optimization

  14. Detection of polyomavirus simian virus 40 tumor antigen DNA in AIDS-related systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilchez, Regis A.; Lednicky, John A.; Halvorson, Steven J.; White, Zoe S.; Kozinetz, Claudia A.; Butel, Janet S.

    2002-01-01

    Systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma (S-NHL) is a common malignancy during HIV infection, and it is hypothesized that infectious agents may be involved in the etiology. Epstein-Barr virus DNA is found in pathogenesis. We analyzed AIDS-related S-NHL samples, NHL samples from HIV-negative patients, peripheral blood leukocytes from HIV-infected and -uninfected patients without NHL, and lymph nodes without tumors from HIV-infected patients. Specimens were examined by polymerase chain reaction analysis with use of primers specific for an N-terminal region of the oncoprotein large tumor antigen ( T-ag ) gene conserved among all three polyomaviruses (simian virus 40 [SV40], JC virus, and BK virus). Polyomavirus T-ag DNA sequences, proven to be SV40-specific, were detected more frequently in AIDS-related S-NHL samples (6 of 26) than in peripheral blood leukocytes from HIV-infected patients (6 of 26 vs. 0 of 69; p =.0001), NHL samples from HIV-negative patients (6 of 26 vs. 0 of 10; p =.09), or lymph nodes (6 of 26 vs. 0 of 7; p =.16). Sequences of C-terminal T-ag DNA from SV40 were amplified from two AIDS-related S-NHL samples. Epstein-Barr virus DNA sequences were detected in 38% (10 of 26) AIDS-related S-NHL samples, 50% (5 of 10) HIV-negative S-NHL samples, and 57% (4 of 7) lymph nodes. None of the S-NHL samples were positive for both Epstein-Barr virus DNA and SV40 DNA. Further studies of the possible role of SV40 in the pathogenesis of S-NHL are warranted.

  15. A computer-aided design system geared toward conceptual design in a research environment. [for hypersonic vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    STACK S. H.

    1981-01-01

    A computer-aided design system has recently been developed specifically for the small research group environment. The system is implemented on a Prime 400 minicomputer linked with a CDC 6600 computer. The goal was to assign the minicomputer specific tasks, such as data input and graphics, thereby reserving the large mainframe computer for time-consuming analysis codes. The basic structure of the design system consists of GEMPAK, a computer code that generates detailed configuration geometry from a minimum of input; interface programs that reformat GEMPAK geometry for input to the analysis codes; and utility programs that simplify computer access and data interpretation. The working system has had a large positive impact on the quantity and quality of research performed by the originating group. This paper describes the system, the major factors that contributed to its particular form, and presents examples of its application.

  16. Achievement report for fiscal 1998. Esophageal vocalization aid system; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Shokudo hassei hojo sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    Development has been made on element technologies for an esophageal vocalization aid system. With regard to the speaker, selection and trial production were performed on a speaker used for a phono-coupler to be used in coupling with a telephone transmitter. Performance not differing from that in the currently used telephone set was obtained in the overall characteristics evaluation using a dummy telephone circuitry. For the microphone, two kinds of hands-free microphones were fabricated on a trial basis. In order to develop pitch extraction and amplitude pitch conversion systems, pitch extraction performances were compared and discussed on the following five methods: the auto-correlation method, the Cepstram method, the average magnitude difference function (AMDF) method, the simplified inverse filter tracking (SIFT) method, and the time-domain excitation extractor using minimum perturbation operator (TEMPO) method. The hauling phenomenon, having come up as a problem in an auxiliary digital device, was analyzed to discuss methods for prevention thereof. In developing a voice/unvoiced distinction judgment method, a method using low domain power and high domain power was discussed. Development has been made on exclusive ICs, a voice analyzer, and the using feeling enhancing technology. In developing a total system, a digital unit incorporated esophageal vocalization aid system was developed and improved. (NEDO)

  17. 201Tl brain SPECT in differentiating central nervous system lymphoma from toxoplasmosis in AIDS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In AIDS patients, toxoplasmosis and lymphoma are the leading causes of CNS mass lesions. It is important to make the correct diagnosis expeditiously, since the two diseases require markedly different treatments and have different prognoses. In general, CT and MR imaging have failed to provide specific distinguishing characteristics to differentiate CNS lymphoma from toxoplasmosis, and it is difficult to differentiate these entities clinically. We performed 201Tl brain SPECT in order to differentiate two diseases. Counts ratio of a lesion to the normal brain (L/N ratio) was elevated in patients of lymphoma compared in patients of toxoplasmosis. 201Tl brain SPECT is useful to differentiate CNS lymphoma from toxoplasmosis. (author)

  18. Computer-aided formative assessment considering as example the CAMPUS system for teaching and learning

    OpenAIRE

    Sütterlin, Thomas; Heid, Jörn; Bauch, Matthias; Hess, Frank; Haag, Martin; Leven, Franz-Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Due to the “Approbationsordnung für Ärzte“ in Germany, it is mandatory that medical curricula and their courses are designed in a problem-oriented and case-based way. Therefore it is necessary to carry out problem-oriented and case-based assessments. The evaluation of computer-aided formative assessments is introduced and explained by a concept that was developed in a master theses at Heidelberg and Heilbronn University by an approbated physician. The categorisation of medical actions plays a...

  19. Finger Movement Based Wearable Communication & Navigation Aid for partially disabled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jobin Jose

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The FMBWCN Aid is a portable and wearable multi-purpose system for the partially disabled. The Aid is a glove-based system in which different trained finger movements leads to different modes of operation of the system such as APR Voice Module and Wheelchair Controller Module. The finger movements (bending movement leads to the flexion of the flex sensor attached to the glove. Flexion leads to change in resistance of the flex sensors, which will be recorded via a microcontroller (Arduino Uno and different sets of movement of the fingers will lead to different modules of operation as specified in the default settings of the FMBWCN Aid.

  20. Dynamic MRI-based computer aided diagnostic systems for early detection of kidney transplant rejection: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostapha, Mahmoud; Khalifa, Fahmi; Alansary, Amir; Soliman, Ahmed; Gimel'farb, Georgy; El-Baz, Ayman

    2013-10-01

    Early detection of renal transplant rejection is important to implement appropriate medical and immune therapy in patients with transplanted kidneys. In literature, a large number of computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) systems using different image modalities, such as ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and radionuclide imaging, have been proposed for early detection of kidney diseases. A typical CAD system for kidney diagnosis consists of a set of processing steps including: motion correction, segmentation of the kidney and/or its internal structures (e.g., cortex, medulla), construction of agent kinetic curves, functional parameter estimation, diagnosis, and assessment of the kidney status. In this paper, we survey the current state-of-the-art CAD systems that have been developed for kidney disease diagnosis using dynamic MRI. In addition, the paper addresses several challenges that researchers face in developing efficient, fast and reliable CAD systems for the early detection of kidney diseases.

  1. Situation-assessment and decision-aid production-rule analysis system for nuclear plant monitoring and emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Production-Rule Analysis System is developed for Nuclear Plant Monitoring. The signals generated by the Zion-1 Plant are considered. A Situation-Assessment and Decision-Aid capability is provided for monitoring the integrity of the Plant Radiation, the Reactor Coolant, the Fuel Clad, and the Containment Systems. A total of 41 signals are currently fed as facts to an Inference Engine functioning in the backward-chaining mode and built along the same structure as the E-Mycin system. The Goal-Tree constituting the Knowledge Base was generated using a representation in the form of Fault Trees deduced from plant procedures information. The system is constructed in support of the Data Analysis and Emergency Preparedness tasks at the Illinois Radiological Emergency Assessment Center (REAC)

  2. Effectiveness of HIV/AIDS School-based Programme Delivery on Behaviour Change for Sustainable Development among Zimbabwean ‘O’ Level Secondary School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Muguwe Emely

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to find out the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS School-based programme delivery on behavior change for sustainable development among Zimbabwean ‘O’ secondary school students. The sample consisted of one hundred and twenty students, twenty-four teachers and twelve school heads, drawn from the twelve secondary schools in GweruUrban District of Zimbabwe. Simple random sampling technique was used to come up with a sample of students while teachers and heads were purposively s...

  3. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying the white blood cells ... It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most ...

  4. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Casual contact, such as hugging Mosquitoes Participating in sports Touching items that were touched by a person ... 20 years. People with AIDS have had their immune system damaged by HIV. They are at very high ...

  5. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It kills or damages the body's immune system cells. AIDS stands ... is the most advanced stage of infection with HIV. HIV most often spreads through unprotected sex with ...

  6. Computer-aided planning and surgical guiding system fabrication in premolar autotransplantation: a 12-month follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Wicher Joerd; Jansma, Johan; Delli, Konstantina; Livas, Christos

    2016-08-01

    This case report describes the autotransplantation of maxillary right second premolar into the contralateral position in a 14-year-old female using computerized tomographic data and a customized guiding system produced by computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture technology. Using innovative surgical guides and keys with navigation features, modification of the recipient socket and handling of the transplant were facilitated without harming the periodontal membrane. Postoperative clinical and radiographic examination showed periodontal and pulp healing earlier than 6 months after surgery. PMID:26667222

  7. System-Level Power Optimization for a ΣΔ D/A Converter for Hearing-Aid Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pracný, Peter; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Bruun, Erik

    2013-01-01

    for audio applications we take the maximum gain of the modulator noise transfer function (NTF) as a design parameter. By increasing the maximum NTF gain the cutoff frequency of modulator loop filter is increased which lowers the in-band quantization noise but also lowers the maximum stable amplitude...... entire hearing-aid audio back-end system resulting in less hardware and power consumption in the interpolation filter, in the sigma-delta modulator and reduced switching rate of the Class D output stage....

  8. A web-based computer aided system for liver surgery planning: initial implementation on RayPlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ming; Yuan, Rong; Sun, Zhi; Li, Tianhong; Xie, Qingguo

    2016-03-01

    At present, computer aided systems for liver surgery design and risk evaluation are widely used in clinical all over the world. However, most systems are local applications that run on high-performance workstations, and the images have to processed offline. Compared with local applications, a web-based system is accessible anywhere and for a range of regardless of relative processing power or operating system. RayPlus (http://rayplus.life.hust.edu.cn), a B/S platform for medical image processing, was developed to give a jump start on web-based medical image processing. In this paper, we implement a computer aided system for liver surgery planning on the architecture of RayPlus. The system consists of a series of processing to CT images including filtering, segmentation, visualization and analyzing. Each processing is packaged into an executable program and runs on the server side. CT images in DICOM format are processed step by to interactive modeling on browser with zero-installation and server-side computing. The system supports users to semi-automatically segment the liver, intrahepatic vessel and tumor from the pre-processed images. Then, surface and volume models are built to analyze the vessel structure and the relative position between adjacent organs. The results show that the initial implementation meets satisfactorily its first-order objectives and provide an accurate 3D delineation of the liver anatomy. Vessel labeling and resection simulation are planned to add in the future. The system is available on Internet at the link mentioned above and an open username for testing is offered.

  9. Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prefer the open-fit hearing aid because their perception of their voice does not sound “plugged up.” ... My voice sounds too loud. The “plugged-up” sensation that causes a hearing aid user’s voice to ...

  10. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    A critical account of the rise of celebrity-driven “compassionate consumption” Cofounded by the rock star Bono in 2006, Product RED exemplifies a new trend in celebrity-driven international aid and development, one explicitly linked to commerce, not philanthropy. Brand Aid offers a deeply informed...

  11. Computer-aided formative assessment considering as example the CAMPUS system for teaching and learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sütterlin, Thomas

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the “Approbationsordnung für Ärzte“ in Germany, it is mandatory that medical curricula and their courses are designed in a problem-oriented and case-based way. Therefore it is necessary to carry out problem-oriented and case-based assessments. The evaluation of computer-aided formative assessments is introduced and explained by a concept that was developed in a master theses at Heidelberg and Heilbronn University by an approbated physician. The categorisation of medical actions plays an essential role in this concept. The available categories depend on the type of the medical action. A prototype was developed in order to demonstrate the concept on the basis of the evaluation of a CAMPUS case treatment. The applicability of the software for formative assessments was confirmed by the future users. These proposed that the user should have the possibility to comment every single medical action in order to give a direct feedback. At first the use of computer-aided formative assessment is planned for assessments with a lower level of importance in order to evaluate the usability of the software.

  12. Overloaded Minimum Total Squared Correlation Signatures Based Pilot Aided System for MC-CDMA and STBC MC-CDMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifianto, M. S.; Chekima, A.; Hamid, M. Y.; Barukang, L.; Viswacheda, D. V.

    This paper proposes multiple-access schemes based on Overloaded Minimum Total Squared Correlation (TSC) signatures, namely Pilot Aided Multi-Carrier Code-Division Multiple-Access (MC-CDMA) and Pilot Aided Space Time Block Codes (STBC) MC-CDMA. Since overloaded minimum TSC signatures were used as the spreading codes, a number of sub-channels in the MC-CDMA and STBC MC-CDMA schemes were not utilized for data transmission. These empty sub-channels can be exploited for comb-type pilot signaling. To maintain low system complexity, for the pilot sub-channels Least Square (LS) estimation was employed and for interpolating the characteristics of the data sub-channels linear interpolator was applied. The validity of the schemes is confirmed by comparing them with the original MC-CDMA method using Walsh-Hadamard orthogonal codes and also with Walsh-Hadamard based STBC MC-CDMA with block-type pilot. All systems use Equal Gain Combining (EGC) or Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC) in the MC-CDMA block at the receiver. The simulation result shows that although the spreading codes of interest are not fully orthogonal codes, for a low number of users the systems under investigation performed better than their Walsh-Hadamard based counterpart. This will be valuable for Wireless Personal Area Network (PAN) where the number of users is typically low.

  13. A hybrid feature-based segmentation and classification system for the computer aided self-diagnosis of otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shie, Chuen-Kai; Chang, Hao-Ting; Fan, Fu-Cheng; Chen, Chung-Jung; Fang, Te-Yung; Wang, Pa-Chun

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel hybrid otitis media (OM) computer aided detection (CAD) system, designed to aid in the self-diagnosis of various forms of OM. OM is a prevalent disease in both children and adults. Our system is able to differentiate normal ear from acute otitis media (AOM), otitis media with effusion (OME) and the multi-categories of chronic otitis media including perforation, retraction, cholesteatoma, etc. We propose a modified double active contour segmentation method designed for use with otoscope images, and enabled to handle user acquired data. To describe the visual symptoms (e.g., red, bulging, effusion, perforation, retraction, etc.) of otitis media accurately, we extract color, geometric and texture features by grid color moment, Gabor filter, local binary pattern and histogram of oriented gradients. A powerful classification structure based on Adaboost is used to select the most useful features and build a strong classifier. Our system achieves classification accuracy as high as 88.06% and is suitable for real use. In addition, some interesting observations about OM otoscope images are also discussed. PMID:25571030

  14. Global NeuroAIDS roundtable

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, J.; Achim, CL; Boivin, MJ; Brew, BJ; Clifford, DB; Colosi, DA; Ellis, RJ; Heaton, RK; Gallo-Diop, A; Grant, I; Kanmogne, GD; Kumar, M; Letendre, S; Marcotte, TD; Nath, A

    2013-01-01

    In May 2012, the Division of AIDS Research at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) organized the "Global NeuroAIDS Roundtable" in conjunction with the 11th International Symposium on Neurovirology and the 2012 Conference on HIV in the Nervous System. The meeting was held in New York, NY, USA and brought together NIMH-funded investigators who are currently working on projects related to the neurological complications of AIDS (NeuroAIDS) in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, and Latin Amer...

  15. Study on the application of computer-aided information systems in the planning and control of nuclear fuel cycle projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report on hand presents possible applications of a project planning and coordination system for projects concerning the nuclear fuel cycle, with special regard to waste management. The relevant licencing procedures applied to said projects as well as basic elements of project planning systems, e.g. project structure plan, ''milestone-plan'' and network plan are dealt with in this report. For the licensing procedure under atomic law, a possible project structure is indicated. Furthermore, processes and occurances to be considered in the elaboration of particular network plans are listed. In addition, particulars for the schedules degree of specifications are given. To round up the report, recommendations are given for future lines of proceeding in the introduction of computer-aided information systems for use in projets on the nuclear fuel cycle. (orig.)

  16. Intelligent computer aided training systems in the real world: Making the technology accessible to the educational mainstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarik, Madeline

    1993-01-01

    Intelligent computer aided training systems hold great promise for the application of this technology to mainstream education and training. Yet, this technology, which holds such a vast potential impact for the future of education and training, has had little impact beyond the enclaves of government research labs. This is largely due to the inaccessibility of the technology to those individuals in whose hands it can have the greatest impact, teachers and educators. Simply throwing technology at an educator and expecting them to use it as an effective tool is not the answer. This paper provides a background into the use of technology as a training tool. MindLink, developed by HyperTech Systems, provides trainers with a powerful rule-based tool that can be integrated directly into a Windows application. By embedding expert systems technology it becomes more accessible and easier to master.

  17. Computer aided reliability, availability, and safety modeling for fault-tolerant computer systems with commentary on the HARP program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shooman, Martin L.

    1991-01-01

    Many of the most challenging reliability problems of our present decade involve complex distributed systems such as interconnected telephone switching computers, air traffic control centers, aircraft and space vehicles, and local area and wide area computer networks. In addition to the challenge of complexity, modern fault-tolerant computer systems require very high levels of reliability, e.g., avionic computers with MTTF goals of one billion hours. Most analysts find that it is too difficult to model such complex systems without computer aided design programs. In response to this need, NASA has developed a suite of computer aided reliability modeling programs beginning with CARE 3 and including a group of new programs such as: HARP, HARP-PC, Reliability Analysts Workbench (Combination of model solvers SURE, STEM, PAWS, and common front-end model ASSIST), and the Fault Tree Compiler. The HARP program is studied and how well the user can model systems using this program is investigated. One of the important objectives will be to study how user friendly this program is, e.g., how easy it is to model the system, provide the input information, and interpret the results. The experiences of the author and his graduate students who used HARP in two graduate courses are described. Some brief comparisons were made with the ARIES program which the students also used. Theoretical studies of the modeling techniques used in HARP are also included. Of course no answer can be any more accurate than the fidelity of the model, thus an Appendix is included which discusses modeling accuracy. A broad viewpoint is taken and all problems which occurred in the use of HARP are discussed. Such problems include: computer system problems, installation manual problems, user manual problems, program inconsistencies, program limitations, confusing notation, long run times, accuracy problems, etc.

  18. Toward a systemic theory of organisational change

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    Change is the subject matter for this thesis which reports on a research programme that has investigated the issue of effective and sustainable organisational change. Organisational change possesses an almost obsessive interest for many organisational and behavioural scholars. Nevertheless, it has been observed that a majority of organisational change initiatives fail, or fail to realise the promise intended by the managers who institute such programmes. This research programme, and the assoc...

  19. Study of human motion patterns for developing a transfer aid system for the elderly; Koreisha no tame no ijo kaijo kiki kaihatsu wo mokuteki toshita hito no dosa pattern ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuruga, T.; Ino, S.; Ifukube, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Sato, M. [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Tanaka, T. [Sapporo Medical College, Sapporo (Japan); Izumi, T. [Hokkaido Tokai University, Hokkaido (Japan); Muro, M.; Wakisaka, Y. [Nippon Seiko K.K., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    We have developed a transfer aid system for the elderly who need assistance in moving from a bed or a chair. We studied a comfortable posture for the elderly at an initial phase of standing. The subjects were divided into two age groups, the young group (mean 29.6 years), the elderly group (mean 65.0 years). In this experiment, the subjects were allowed to stand up from a chair by changing the angle of their ankles at the initial phase of standing. Sagittal plane kinematics, surface electromyographic (EMG) signals at lower limbs and ground reaction forces were measured using a 3 dimension motion analyzer, when each subject stood up from a chair. From the experimental results, when the initial angle of ankles was about 70 degrees and initial angle of the trunk was about 45 degrees while standing from a bed, the comfortable transfer aid motion was determined. From the above results, We ware designed a transfer aid system by using of a MH (Metal Hydride) actuator which is light, powerful, no-vibratile and silent. The transfer aid could enable a comfortable posture thanks to the help of the chest and knee pads at the initial phase. 12 refs., 12 figs.

  20. Photonic-aided pre-coding QAM signal transmission in multi-antenna radio over fiber system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Yu, Jianjun; Li, Xinying; Zhu, Ming; Xin, Xiangjun; Chang, Gee-Kung

    2015-11-01

    A novel method has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated to provide photonic-aided pre-coding quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signal transmission in multi-antenna radio over fiber system to increase the throughput. For downlink, two different multi-level amplitude-shift-keying (M-ASK) modulated signals, such as 4-ASK signals, are applied on two uncorrelated optical Mach-Zehnder modulators at central office. After photonic-aided pre-coding module and photo-detection process, the received M-ASK mm-waves from two remote access units (RAUs) can be synthesized to a M2-QAM signal in the proposed system. Regardless of forward error correction (FEC) coding overhead, the 4-Gb/s and 8-Gb/s 16-QAM mm-wave signals are obtained from two independent 2-Gb/s and 4-Gb/s 4-ASK 40-GHz channels, respectively. The experimental results show that a doubled bit rate of the original 4-ASK one can be achieved without additional digital signal processing (DSP) in small cell RAUs and mobile users.

  1. A laboratory study on a capacitive displacement sensor as an implant microphone in totally implant cochlear hearing aid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ping; Guo, Jun; Megerian, Cliff A; Young, Darrin J; Ko, Wen H

    2007-01-01

    A totally implant cochlear hearing aids system, integrating an implant microphone, interface electronics, a speech processor, a stimulator, and cochlear electrodes, can overcome the uncomfortable, inconvenient, and stigma problems associated with the conventional and semi-implantable hearing aids. This paper presents a laboratory feasibility study on the use of an electret condenser microphone (ECM) displacement sensor, serving as an implant microphone, and combined with a spring coupler to directly sense the umbo acoustic vibration. The umbo vibration characteristics were extracted from literature to determine the coupler and sensor requirements. A laboratory model was built to simulate the vibration source and experimentally study the transmission coefficient. Experimental data demonstrate that by using a 5 N/m stiffness spring, the umbo vibration amplitude as high as 67% can be transmitted to the sensor. Measurement of the sensor system on the temporal bone was also made. The minimum detectable sound pressure level (SPL) at 1 kHz is 41 and 67 dB for laboratory and 38 and 64 dB for temporal bone measurement for 1 and 388 Hz bandwidth, respectively. Better performance was achieved in a higher frequency. Results and analysis of this study can be used as a guideline for the future design of displacement sensors as implant microphones. PMID:18003304

  2. Preditores de mudanças nos regimes terapêuticos para o tratamento de Aids em crianças Predictors of changes in drug regimens for treating AIDS in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ribeiro Macedo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Identificar as causas de mudanças de esquemas terapêuticos no tratamento de Aids em crianças contaminadas por transmissão vertical. Estudo caso-controle, sendo o grupo controle constituído de 49 crianças que não efetuaram troca de esquema antirretroviral, e o grupo caso, de 62 crianças que já efetuaram troca de janeiro de 2000 a dezembro de 2005. Foram utilizados dados do prontuário e roteiro de entrevista semi-estruturada. A análise dos dados foi pelo programa SPSS, usado teste qui-quadrado e regressão logística. As principais causas para mudança do tratamento foram: piora virológica (48,4%, imunológica (46,6% e clínica (35,5% dos pacientes. O ajuste dos dados através de análise da regressão logística demonstrou que a intolerância medicamentosa foi a variável que mais contribui para a mudança da medicação (OR ajustado:79,94; IC95%:6,28-1034,55 A adesão não foi apontada como responsável pela troca de tratamento antirretroviral, esse fato foi atribuído à organização do serviço e a atuação da equipe interdisciplinar.To identify the causes of changes in therapeutic regimens for treating AIDS in children infected through vertical transmission. This was a case-control study in which the control group consisted of 49 children who had not had any changes to their antiretroviral regimen and the case group consisted of 62 children who had had changes between January 2000 and December 2005. Data from the patients' medical files and a semistructured interview were used. The data analysis was carried out using the SPSS software, and the chi-square test and logistic regression were applied. The main causes of changes in treatment were: increased viral load (48.4%, poor immunological response (46.6% and clinical worsening (35.5% of the patients. The adjustment of the data through logistic regression analysis showed that drug intolerance was the variable that contributed most to the change in medication (adjusted OR: 79

  3. How the biodiversity sciences may aid biological tools and ecological engineering to assess the impact of climatic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morand, S; Guégan, J-F

    2008-08-01

    This paper addresses how climate changes interact with other global changes caused by humans (habitat fragmentation, changes in land use, bioinvasions) to affect biodiversity. Changes in biodiversity at all levels (genetic, population and community) affect the functioning of ecosystems, in particular host-pathogen interactions, with major consequences in health ecology (emergence and re-emergence; the evolution of virulence and resistance). In this paper, the authors demonstrate that the biodiversity sciences, epidemiological theory and evolutionary ecology are indispensable in assessing the impact of climate changes, and also for modelling the evolution of host-pathogen interactions in a changing environment. The next step is to apply health ecology to the science of ecological engineering. PMID:18819665

  4. Tissue mitochondrial DNA changes. A stochastic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopsidas, G; Kovalenko, S A; Heffernan, D R; Yarovaya, N; Kramarova, L; Stojanovski, D; Borg, J; Islam, M M; Caragounis, A; Linnane, A W

    2000-06-01

    detected in gracilis muscle which is predominantly dependent upon glycolysis with regard to its energy requirements. Finally, a comprehensive hypothesis is presented that features the stochastic nature of the mitochondrial system. The basis of the hypothesis is that a dynamic relationship exists between endogenous mutagen production, DNA repair, mtDNA turnover, and nuclear control of mtDNA copy number and that age-associated changes in the dynamics of this relationship lead to a loss of functional full-length mtDNA that eventually leads to bioenergy decline. PMID:10911962

  5. Hearing Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Food and Drug Administration Staff FDA permits marketing of new laser-based hearing aid with potential ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  6. QFT Controller Design for Uncertain Multivariable Linear Systems With Constraint on Bandwidth, With the Aid of an Internal Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Karimi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the explained and proved theorems, this paper presents a new robust QFT controller design for uncertain multivariable linear systems with hard time-domain constraints on their output signals, as well as constraints on their bandwidth. In this method, the multivariable process is converted to a new process using an internal feedback and diagonal controller. With the aid of basically non-interacting(BNI method in QFT, the resulting process is devided into several SISO systems and proper controllers is then designed by QFT. Controller transfer function matrix is diagonal, therefore, desired bandwidth can be acquired. Finally a comparison of the proposed method and the conventional QFT method, as well as its application, is shown in an example.

  7. Performance Aided Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario

    2014-01-01

    The paper present the methodologies and tools developed in the framework of Performance Aided Design (PAD), a term that indicates the shift in the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools from a mere translation in a digital environment of the operations once carried on paper, to an evolving...... paradigm where the increasing integration of parametric tools and performative analysis is changing the way we learn and design. The term Performance Aided Architectural Design (PAD) is proposed at the Master of Science of Architecture and Design at Aalborg University, with the aim of extending a tectonic...... tradition of architecture with computational tools, preparing the basis for the creation of the figure of a modern master builder, sitting at the boundary of the disciplines of architecture and engineering. Performance Aided Design focuses on the role of performative analysis, embedded tectonics, and...

  8. Morphological changes in the digestive system of 93 human immunodeficiency virus positive patients: an autopsy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda Calheiros Guimarães

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Involvement of the digestive system in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS is frequent and many changes in these patients are diagnosed only at autopsy. There are few studies of autopsy with detailed analysis of this system and only one was conducted in Brazil. We evaluated each segment of the digestive system in 93 consecutive autopsies of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and the importance of these lesions to death. Of these, 90 (96.8% patients had AIDS. We reviewed medical records, autopsy reports and histological sections from tongue to rectum stained with hematoxylin-eosin. When necessary, we analyzed special stains and immunohistochemistry to investigate infections. There was damage to the digestive system in 73 (78.5% cases. The most common infections were candidiasis (42%, cytomegalovirus (29%, histoplasmosis (11.8%, toxoplasmosis (9.7% and mycobacterial infection (9.7%. Malignancies were rare, present in four (4.3% cases (two Kaposi's sarcoma, one adenocarcinoma and one metastatic embryonal carcinoma. All segments showed lesions: tongue (48.6%, esophagus (44.8%, stomach (44.7%, colon (43.2% and small intestine (28.9%. The lesions found were immediate cause of death in five (5.4% cases. In another 36 (38.7% cases the basic disease was systemic and also compromised the digestive system.

  9. Using computer aided system to determine the maximum depth of visualization of B-Mode diagnostic ultrasound image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslebu, G.; Adi, K.; Suryono

    2016-03-01

    In the service unit of radiology, ultrasound modality is widely used because it has advantages over other modalities, such as relatively inexpensive, non-invasive, does not use ionizing radiation, and portable. Until now, the method for determining the depth visualization on quality control program is through the visual observation of ultrasound image on the monitor. The purpose of this study is to develop a computer-aided system to determine maximum depth of visualization. Data acquisition was done by using B-Mode Diagnostic Ultrasound machine and Multi-purpose Multi-tissue Ultrasound Phantom model 040GSE. Phantom was scanned at fixed frequency of 1,8 MHz, 2,2 MHz, 3,6 MHz and 5,0 MHz with a gain variation of 30 dB, 45 dB, and 60 dB. Global thresholding and Euclidean distance method were used to determine maximum visualization depth. From this study, it is proved that the visualization depth using computer aided provide deeper visualization than visual interpretation. The differences between expert verification and the result of image processing are control in determining maximum visualization depth of B-Mode diagnostic ultrasound image.

  10. An Improved Location aided Cluster Based Routing Protocol with Intrusion Detection System in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mangai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Routing and security are the main challenges for ad hoc networks due to dynamic topology as well as resource constraints. A designed protocol must provide scalable routing with better security. Lack of any central coordination and shared wireless medium makes them more vulnerable to attacks than wired networks. And also resource constraints such as limited energy and size also play an important role in the protocols designed for security. Approach: In this study, Improved Location aided Cluster based Routing Protocol (ILCRP for GPS enabled MANETs was analysed in MANETs with malicious nodes and an Intrusion Detection System was used to increase the packet delivery ratio. ILCRP makes use of location aided routing in the presence of cluster based routing Protocol. Results: Use of location information with security against attacks results in high packet delivery ratio for the cluster based routing protocol. Simulations are performed using NS2 by varying the number of nodes. Conclusion: The results illustrate ILCRP provides higher delivery ratio with IDS.

  11. Heterogeneous software system interoperability through computer-aided resolution of modeling differences

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Paul E.

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Meeting future system requirements by integrating existing stand-alone systems is attracting renewed interest. Computer communications advances, functional similarities in related systems, and enhanced information description mechanisms suggest that improved capabilities may be possible; but full realization of this potential can only be achieved if stand-alone systems are fully interoperable. Interoperability among independently devel...

  12. Restructure Staff Development for Systemic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a systems approach based on the work of W. Edwards Deming to system wide, high impact staff development. Deming has pointed out the significance of structure in systems. By restructuring the process of staff development we can bring about cost effective improvement of the whole system. We can improve student achievement while…

  13. Inertial Aided Kinematic GPS Cycle Slip Detection and Correction for GPS/INS Tightly Coupled System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAN Houzeng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the navigation performance and robustness, a GPS/INS tightly coupled model has been developed, the INS related bias and ionospheric errors were compensated and corrected, the impact of combination observations on cycle slip detection was investigated, and four combinations with the characteristics of longer wavelength, smaller noise and lower ionosphere effect were determined, then an innovative inertial aided adaptive cycle slip detection and correction algorithm based on the selected combination observations was presented, and the impact of INS positioning errors on cycle slip detection has been investigated, the probability of false alarm and success rate of cycle slip correction were utilized to enhance the integrity of cycle slip detection and correction, a new threshold determination criterion was provided to achieve robust cycle slip detection and correction. At last, a field test was utilized to verify and evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, multi-cycle slips and GPS gap scenarios were simulated, the results show that the scheme works effectively as long as the complete GPS data outage period is less than 20 second, the performance degrades as the outage period becomes longer; while during the partial data outage durations, the proposed scheme can fix the cycle slips correctly for the simulated 90 second partial outage due to the improved positioning accuracy, a total of 170 dense cycle slips (1 slip per 5 epochswere introduced, it shows that all introduced cycle slips are successfully detected and the true fixing rate reaches 99.41%.

  14. Using Public AID Programs to Finance Innovation in Multi-Level Governance Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel GUISADO-GONZÁLEZ

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how different public administrations (regional, national, European and Framework Program allocate public resources to promote innovation among innovative companies in the Spanish manufacturing industry. We incorporate variables that have never been treated in this line of research before, such as exportoriented and Pavitt’s taxonomy among others. In order to know the preferences of each public program aimed at promoting innovation we use two econometric estimation techniques: first, a binary logistic regression and, second, another binary logistic regression corrected for selection bias derived from the lack of consideration of certain relevant characteristics of manufacturing firms that do not innovate. We check if the importance and statistical significance of certain explanatory variables depend on the estimation method used. We found that the four public administrations preferably assign public resources to Spanish companies that cooperate with other domestic companies. We also found that European programs (EU and Framework Program show their allocation preferences towards innovative firms that export outside EU. The public aid from the Spanish central administration seeks to promote the creation of large ‘national champions’.

  15. Crop Management to Cope with Global Change: A Systems Perspective Aided by Information Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optimizing crop management must consider the dynamic interaction of abiotic and biotic factors within the context of economic, environmental, sociological, and policy constraints. A wide array of information technologies exists to assist producers, consultants, scientists, agribusiness, action agenc...

  16. Decision optimization of case-based computer-aided decision systems using genetic algorithms with application to mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an optimization framework for improving case-based computer-aided decision (CB-CAD) systems. The underlying hypothesis of the study is that each example in the knowledge database of a medical decision support system has different importance in the decision making process. A new decision algorithm incorporating an importance weight for each example is proposed to account for these differences. The search for the best set of importance weights is defined as an optimization problem and a genetic algorithm is employed to solve it. The optimization process is tailored to maximize the system's performance according to clinically relevant evaluation criteria. The study was performed using a CAD system developed for the classification of regions of interests (ROIs) in mammograms as depicting masses or normal tissue. The system was constructed and evaluated using a dataset of ROIs extracted from the Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM). Experimental results show that, according to receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis, the proposed method significantly improves the overall performance of the CAD system as well as its average specificity for high breast mass detection rates

  17. Building a computer-aided design capability using a standard time share operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieszczanski, J.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes how an integrated system of engineering computer programs can be built using a standard commercially available operating system. The discussion opens with an outline of the auxiliary functions that an operating system can perform for a team of engineers involved in a large and complex task. An example of a specific integrated system is provided to explain how the standard operating system features can be used to organize the programs into a simple and inexpensive but effective system. Applications to an aircraft structural design study are discussed to illustrate the use of an integrated system as a flexible and efficient engineering tool. The discussion concludes with an engineer's assessment of an operating system's capabilities and desirable improvements.

  18. Visualization and Representation of Physical Systems: Wavemaker as an Aid to Conceptualizing Wave Phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Philip M.; Whitney, Charles A.; Shore, Linda; Deutsch, Freeman

    1999-01-01

    Describes Wavemaker, a simulation environment developed to graphically reveal the behavior of periodic systems using a series of increasingly sophisticated visual tools. Results indicate that the software is helpful in connecting real to simulated systems. (Author/CCM)

  19. Decision Aid for Planning Local Energy Systems : Application of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Catrinu, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Planning is what sustains an energy system. It is a process of analysis and ongoing decision making about what resources and energy technologies to use when supplying energy to society. This research focuses on integrated energy systems, i.e. systems that are comprised of several energy carriers – electricity, gas, hot water - and energy distribution networks. The planning of these kinds of systems is a complex process, influenced by many factors, among which the most important are the availa...

  20. Computer-aided safety analysis of computer-controlled systems : a case example

    OpenAIRE

    Biegert, Uwe

    2000-01-01

    Computer controlled systems consist of a complex interaction between technical process, human task and software. For the development of safety critical systems new method are required, which not only consider one of these parts of a computer-controlled system. In this paper a qualitative modeling method is presented. The method is called SQMA, Situationbased Qualitative Modeling and Analysis and it origin goes back to Qualitative Reasoning. First, all parts of a system are modeled separated a...

  1. CUCKOO SEARCH-AIDED LMS ALGORITHM FOR CHANNEL ESTIMATION IN MC-CDMA SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Balaji, S.; N. Vasudevan

    2014-01-01

    In the progress of transmission systems that uses the diversity in various domains, the execution of competent baseband receivers categorized by affordable computational load is an essential thing. This would be an imperative point in the future expansion of 4G systems in which the space, time and frequency diversity will be merged together to enhance the system throughput. Here, we develop a channel estimation technique for MC-CDMA system for the minimization of BER and the maximization of t...

  2. Development and Evaluation of Computer-Aided Music-Learning System for the Hearing Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H.-J.; Lay, Y.-L.; Liou, Y.-C.; Tsao, W.-Y.; Lin, C.-K.

    2007-01-01

    A computer-assisted music-learning system (CAMLS) has been developed to help the hearing impaired practice playing a musical melody. The music-learning performance is evaluated to test the usability of the system. This system can be a computer-supported learning tool for the hearing impaired to help them understand what pitch and tempo are, and…

  3. A case-based reasoning system using feature scaling for computer aided breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a CBR system for mammography CAD that uses feature scaling to improve the systems classification performance is proposed. The CBR system was evaluated on the public DDSM mammography database. We use ROC analysis and leaving-one-out sampling to show that the feature weighting approach results in improved ROC performance. (orig.)

  4. Computer-aided detection system applied to full-field digital mammograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega Bolivar, Alfonso; Sanchez Gomez, Sonia; Merino, Paula; Alonso-Bartolome, Pilar; Ortega Garcia, Estrella (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Marques of Valdecilla Hospital, Santander (Spain)), e-mail: avegab@telefonica.net; Munoz Cacho, Pedro (Dept. of Statistics, Univ. Marques of Valdecilla Hospital, Santander (Spain)); Hoffmeister, Jeffrey W. (iCAD, Inc., Nashua, NH (United States))

    2010-12-15

    Background: Although mammography remains the mainstay for breast cancer screening, it is an imperfect examination with a sensitivity of 75-92% for breast cancer. Computer-aided detection (CAD) has been developed to improve mammographic detection of breast cancer. Purpose: To retrospectively estimate CAD sensitivity and false-positive rate with full-field digital mammograms (FFDMs). Material and Methods: CAD was used to evaluate 151 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) (n=48) and invasive breast cancer (n=103) detected with FFDM. Retrospectively, CAD sensitivity was estimated based on breast density, mammographic presentation, histopathology type, and lesion size. CAD false-positive rate was estimated with screening FFDMs from 200 women. Results: CAD detected 93% (141/151) of cancer cases: 97% (28/29) in fatty breasts, 94% (81/86) in breasts containing scattered fibroglandular densities, 90% (28/31) in heterogeneously dense breasts, and 80% (4/5) in extremely dense breasts. CAD detected 98% (54/55) of cancers manifesting as calcifications, 89% (74/83) as masses, and 100% (13/13) as mixed masses and calcifications. CAD detected 92% (73/79) of invasive ductal carcinomas, 89% (8/9) of invasive lobular carcinomas, 93% (14/15) of other invasive carcinomas, and 96% (46/48) of DCIS. CAD sensitivity for cancers 1-10 mm was 87% (47/54); 11-20 mm, 99% (70/71); 21-30 mm, 86% (12/14); and larger than 30 mm, 100% (12/12). The CAD false-positive rate was 2.5 marks per case. Conclusion: CAD with FFDM showed a high sensitivity in identifying cancers manifesting as calcifications or masses. CAD sensitivity was maintained in small lesions (1-20 mm) and invasive lobular carcinomas, which have lower mammographic sensitivity

  5. Development of a computer-aided diagnosis system using fuzzy inference in 201TlCl exercise myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have been working on the development of a computer-aided diagnosis system for images in nuclear medicine by using artificial neural networks. A physician's diagnosis of coronary artery disease in nuclear cardiology is performed not only on the basis of imaging data but also includes other factors such as measurement data from exercise scintigraphy. Therefore, we propose an expert system that uses fuzzy inference to estimate the number of abnormal vessels in cases of single- or multi-vessel disease (including normal vessels) of the coronary arteries. The main characteristic of this system is that it integrates information from various sources, including the physician's impressions. In this study, we investigated the system's clinical effectiveness. Results indicated a rate of agreement between the system's confidence level of inference and the physician's diagnosis of 62.2% and a rate of sensitivity of 83% for coronary artery disease. The computer made it possible to utilize vague factors such as a physician's assessment based on experience and intuition. These results demonstrate the usefulness of our proposed technique. (author)

  6. Computer Aided System of Decoration%室内装饰工程计算机辅助系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭轶; 姜立; 熊志坚; 王会一

    2011-01-01

    目前在进行建筑装修设计时,要完成三维建模、效果图制作、动画展示、材料统计及施工图表绘制等不同过程,需要不同的软件;如何在一个系统中实现装修设计各个环节的一体化,是现实专业设计软件中的一个难题,同时也是相关领域的空白。文章研究了针对装修行业的室内装饰工程计算机辅助系统的开发,论述了行业软件应用现状,描述了软件的系统架构、整体功能,并阐述了软件中的重要技术手段,最后结合工程实例验证了室内装饰工程计算机辅助系统的实用性和有效性。系统成功地将装修设计过程中的方案设计和施工设计进行了统一,充分满足了设计者的需求。系统作为商品化软件已经应用,提高了建筑装修设计的整体工作效率。%In the process of architectural modeling and decoration designing, it needs different softwares to finish 3D modeling, effect drawing, animation , the material statistics and the 2D drawing; It is a real difficult problem to combine the several different simulation procedures in only one system. This article does some research on computer aided system of decoration, discourses the current application situation of the decoration software, discusses the basic system simulation theory, introduces the frame about computer aided system of decoration, and describes several important technology measures. At last, it validates the validity of this simulation system using the real applications. The system successfully integrates several functions including 3D modeling, drawing, animation, mixing scene, sticking picture, which satisfied the needs of designers. Meanwhile the system has been widely used for designing as a commercial software, and enhances the whole work efficiency of architecture and decoration designing.

  7. Sustaining organizational culture change in health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Cameron David; Saul, Jessie; Bevan, Helen; Scheirer, Mary Ann; Best, Allan; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Mannion, Russell; Cornelissen, Evelyn; Howland, David; Jenkins, Emily; Bitz, Jennifer

    2016-03-21

    Purpose - The questions addressed by this review are: first, what are the guiding principles underlying efforts to stimulate sustained cultural change; second, what are the mechanisms by which these principles operate; and, finally, what are the contextual factors that influence the likelihood of these principles being effective? The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach - The authors conducted a literature review informed by rapid realist review methodology that examined how interventions interact with contexts and mechanisms to influence the sustainability of cultural change. Reference and expert panelists assisted in refining the research questions, systematically searching published and grey literature, and helping to identify interactions between interventions, mechanisms and contexts. Findings - Six guiding principles were identified: align vision and action; make incremental changes within a comprehensive transformation strategy; foster distributed leadership; promote staff engagement; create collaborative relationships; and continuously assess and learn from change. These principles interact with contextual elements such as local power distributions, pre-existing values and beliefs and readiness to engage. Mechanisms influencing how these principles sustain cultural change include activation of a shared sense of urgency and fostering flexible levels of engagement. Practical implications - The principles identified in this review, along with the contexts and mechanisms that influence their effectiveness, are useful domains for policy and practice leaders to explore when grappling with cultural change. These principles are sufficiently broad to allow local flexibilities in adoption and application. Originality/value - This is the first study to adopt a realist approach for understanding how changes in organizational culture may be sustained. Through doing so, this review highlights the broad principles by which organizational action

  8. Development of the engineering design integration (EDIN) system: A computer aided design development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatt, C. R.; Hirsch, G. N.

    1977-01-01

    The EDIN (Engineering Design Integration) System which provides a collection of hardware and software, enabling the engineer to perform man-in-the-loop interactive evaluation of aerospace vehicle concepts, was considered. Study efforts were concentrated in the following areas: (1) integration of hardware with the Univac Exec 8 System; (2) development of interactive software for the EDIN System; (3) upgrading of the EDIN technology module library to an interactive status; (4) verification of the soundness of the developing EDIN System; (5) support of NASA in design analysis studies using the EDIN System; (6) provide training and documentation in the use of the EDIN System; and (7) provide an implementation plan for the next phase of development and recommendations for meeting long range objectives.

  9. Designing for the home: a comparative study of support aids for central heating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, J; Wastell, D G; Schmeink, C

    2009-03-01

    The study examined the influence of different types of enhanced system support on user performance during the management of a central heating system. A computer-based simulation of a central heating system, called CHESS V2.0, was used to model different interface options, providing different support facilities to the user (e.g., historical, predictive, and instructional displays). Seventy-five participants took part in the study and completed a series of operational scenarios under different support conditions. The simulation environment allowed the collection of performance measures (e.g., energy consumption), information sampling, and system control behaviour. Subjective user evaluations of various aspects of the system were also measured. The results showed performance gains for predictive displays whereas no such benefits were observed for the other display types. The data also revealed that status and predictive displays were valued most highly by users. The implications of the findings for designers of central heating systems are discussed. PMID:18433730

  10. SYSTEMIC PERSPECTIVE TO MARKETING FOR AIDING OVERALL COMPETITIVENESS IN DYNAMIC BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    KUMAR SHALENDER AND NRIPENDRA SINGH

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to revisit the concept of marketing from system perspective in the backdrop of increased environmental dynamism. System view, with its holistic and diversified characteristic helps to bring in more agility and completeness in overall marketing efforts of the firmby effectively coordinating and efficiently integrating the efforts ofvarious contributing elements of marketing. With the insights based on extensive literature review of system and marketing, pap...

  11. A simple model for computer-aided optimization and design of sucker-rod pumping systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miska, S. [Department of Petroleum Engineering, University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK (United States); Sharaki, A.; Rajtar, J.M. [Department of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, MN (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Design or optimization of a sucker-rod pumping system requires an evaluation of the system performance under different operating conditions. The precise evaluation of the performance is a complex task. A dynamic behavior of the sucker-rod string and complex interactions between components of the system and fluids in motion have to be taken into consideration. In this paper, a simple model of a sucker-rod pumping system is presented, and performance and applications of the model are outlined. A comprehensive, mathematical model of the system accounts for fluid and rod string dynamic behavior. Approximate surface and downhole dynamometer cards, production rates, downhole and surface forces, and energy consumption of sucker-rod pumping system are simulated with high accuracy for a variety of operating conditions. The model is defined by a system of linear algebraic equations derived from the straightforward Bergeron method rather than from numerical differentiation of wave equations. Example results of modeling indicate a good agreement with field data. The model was used to optimize an existing sucker-rod pumping system. Example results indicate significant savings over unoptimized operation. The model may also have an application at the design stage of the sucker-rod system development. The outline of the design procedure with application of the new model is presented

  12. An expert system-based aid for analysis of Emergency Operating Procedures in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs) generally and an accident management (AM) particularly play a significant part in the safety philosophy on NPPs since many years. A better methodology for development and validation of EOPs is desired. A prototype of an Emergency Operating Procedures Analysis System (EOPAS), which has been developed at GRS, is presented in the paper. The hardware configuration and software organisation of the system is briefly reviewed. The main components of the system such as the knowledge base of an expert system and the engineering simulator are described. (author)

  13. Types of Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Types of Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... some features for hearing aids? What are hearing aids? Hearing aids are sound-amplifying devices designed to ...

  14. Changing Behavior by Memory Aids: A Social Psychological Model of Prospective Memory and Habit Development Tested with Dynamic Field Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a social psychological model of prospective memory and habit development. The model is based on relevant research literature, and its dynamics were investigated by computer simulations. Time-series data from a behavior-change campaign in Cuba were used for calibration and validation of the model. The model scored well in…

  15. The large scale microelectronics Computer-Aided Design and Test (CADAT) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    The CADAT system consists of a number of computer programs written in FORTRAN that provide the capability to simulate, lay out, analyze, and create the artwork for large scale microelectronics. The function of each software component of the system is described with references to specific documentation for each software component.

  16. Case-Based Reasoning Systems: From Automation to Decision-Aiding and Stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Dutta (Shantanu); B. Wierenga (Berend); A. Dalebout

    1997-01-01

    textabstractOver the past decade, case-based reasoning (CBR) has emerged as a major research area within the artificial intelligence research field due to both its widespread usage by humans and its appeal as a methodology for building intelligent systems. Conventional CBR systems have been largely

  17. Airborne Digital Sensor System and GPS-aided inertial technology for direct geopositioning in rough terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Richard D.

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution airborne digital cameras with onboard data collection based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial navigation systems (INS) technology may offer a real-time means to gather accurate topographic map information by reducing ground control and eliminating aerial triangulation. Past evaluations of this integrated system over relatively flat terrain have proven successful. The author uses Emerge Digital Sensor System (DSS) combined with Applanix Corporation?s Position and Orientation Solutions for Direct Georeferencing to examine the positional mapping accuracy in rough terrain. The positional accuracy documented in this study did not meet large-scale mapping requirements owing to an apparent system mechanical failure. Nonetheless, the findings yield important information on a new approach for mapping in Antarctica and other remote or inaccessible areas of the world.

  18. A computer-aided telescope pointing system utilizing a video star tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorell, K. R.; Murphy, J. P.; Swift, C. D.

    1976-01-01

    The Video Inertial Pointing (VIP) System is being developed to satisfy the acquisition and pointing requirements of astronomical telescopes. VIP employs a single video sensor to generate three-axis pointing error signals and to provide inputs for a cathode ray tube (CRT) display of the star field. The pointing error signals update the telescope's gyro stabilization system. The CRT display facilitates target acquisition and positioning of the telescope by a remote operator. The present paper describes the analysis, simulation, and hardware development of a prototype, advanced VIP system. An early model of the system utilizing a silicon-intensified target vidicon camera has flown on a balloon-borne telescope and is briefly described. The advanced system, which can employ either a vidicon camera or a charge-coupled device video sensor, has been tested using an analog/digital hybrid simulation. The advanced VIP hardware is described, and the simulation results presented.

  19. Incorporating texture features in a computer-aided breast lesion diagnosis system for automated three-dimensional breast ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haixia; Tan, Tao; van Zelst, Jan; Mann, Ritse; Karssemeijer, Nico; Platel, Bram

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the benefits of incorporating texture features into an existing computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for classifying benign and malignant lesions in automated three-dimensional breast ultrasound images. The existing system takes into account 11 different features, describing different lesion properties; however, it does not include texture features. In this work, we expand the system by including texture features based on local binary patterns, gray level co-occurrence matrices, and Gabor filters computed from each lesion to be diagnosed. To deal with the resulting large number of features, we proposed a combination of feature-oriented classifiers combining each group of texture features into a single likelihood, resulting in three additional features used for the final classification. The classification was performed using support vector machine classifiers, and the evaluation was done with 10-fold cross validation on a dataset containing 424 lesions (239 benign and 185 malignant lesions). We compared the classification performance of the CAD system with and without texture features. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve increased from 0.90 to 0.91 after adding texture features ([Formula: see text]). PMID:26158036

  20. Performance enhancement of MC-CDMA system through novel sensitive bit algorithm aided turbo multi user detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaravel, Rasadurai; Narayanaswamy, Kumaratharan

    2015-01-01

    Multi carrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) system is a promising multi carrier modulation (MCM) technique for high data rate wireless communication over frequency selective fading channels. MC-CDMA system is a combination of code division multiple access (CDMA) and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). The OFDM parts reduce multipath fading and inter symbol interference (ISI) and the CDMA part increases spectrum utilization. Advantages of this technique are its robustness in case of multipath propagation and improve security with the minimize ISI. Nevertheless, due to the loss of orthogonality at the receiver in a mobile environment, the multiple access interference (MAI) appears. The MAI is one of the factors that degrade the bit error rate (BER) performance of MC-CDMA system. The multiuser detection (MUD) and turbo coding are the two dominant techniques for enhancing the performance of the MC-CDMA systems in terms of BER as a solution of overcome to MAI effects. In this paper a low complexity iterative soft sensitive bits algorithm (SBA) aided logarithmic-Maximum a-Posteriori algorithm (Log MAP) based turbo MUD is proposed. Simulation results show that the proposed method provides better BER performance with low complexity decoding, by mitigating the detrimental effects of MAI. PMID:25714917