WorldWideScience

Sample records for chandra x-ray observations

  1. First Terrestrial Soft X-ray Aurora Observations by Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Elsner, Ronald F.; Gladstone, G. Randall; Waite, J. Hunter, Jr.; Cravens, Thomas E.; Ostgaard, Nikolai; Chang, Shen-Wu; Metzger, Albert E.; Majeed, Tariq

    2004-01-01

    Northern polar "auroral" regions of Earth was observed by High-Resolution Camera in imaging mode (T32C-I) aboard Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO) during mid December 2003 - mid April 2004. Ten CXO observations, each approximately 20 min duration, were made in a non-conventional method (due to CXO technical issues), such that Chandra was aimed at a fixed point in sky and the Earth's polar cusp was allowed to drift through the HRC-I field-of-view. The observations were performed when CXO was near apogee and timed during northern winter mostly near midnight (6 hr), except two observations which occurred around 1200 UT, so that northern polar region is entirely in dark and solar fluoresced x-ray contamination can be avoided. These observations were aimed at searching the Earth's soft x-ray aurora and to do a comparative study with Jupiter's x-ray aurora, where a pulsating x-ray hot-spot near the northern magnetic pole has been observed by Chandra that implies a particle source region near Jupiter's magnetopause, and entry of heavy solar wind ions due to high-latitude reconnection as a viable explanation for the soft x-ray emissions. The first Chandra soft (0.1-2 keV) x-ray observations of Earth's aurora show that it is highly variable (intense arc, multiple arcs, diffuse, at times almost absent). In at least one of the observations an isolated blob of emission is observed where we expect cusp to be: giving indication of solar wind charge-exchange signature in x-rays. We are comparing the Chandra x-ray observations with observations at other wavelengths and particle data from Earth-orbiting satellites and solar wind measurements from near-Earth ACE and SOH0 spacecraft. Preliminary results from these unique CXO-Earth observations will be presented and discussed.

  2. The Chandra X-Ray Observatory: Observations of Neutron Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2004-01-01

    We present here an overview of the status of the Chandra X-ray Observatory which has now been operating for five years. The Observatory is running smoothly, and the scientific return continues to be outstanding. We provide some details on the molecular contamination of the ACIS filters and its impact on observations. We review the observations with Chandra of the pulsar in the Crab Nebula and add some general comments as to the analysis of X-ray spectra. We conclude with comments about the fu...

  3. First Terrestrial Soft X-Ray Auroral Observation by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Gladstone, G. Randall; Elsner, Ronald F.; Oestgaard, Nikolai; Waite, J. Hunter, Jr.; Cravens, Thomas E.; Chang, Shen-Wu; Majeed, Tariq; Metzger, Albert E.

    2007-01-01

    Northern auroral regions of Earth were imaged with energetic photons in the 0.1-10keV range using the High-Resolution Camera (HRC-I) aboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory at 10 epochs (each approx.20 min duration) between mid- December 2003 and mid-April 2004. These observations aimed at searching for Earth's soft (X-ray aurora in a comparative study with Jupiter's X-ray aurora, where a pulsating X-ray "hot-spot" has been previously observed by Chandra. The first Chandra soft X-ray observations of Earth's aurora show that it is highly variable 0ntense arcs, multiple arcs, diffuse patches, at times absent). In at least one of the observations an isolated blob of emission is observed near the expected cusp location. A fortuitous overflight of DMSP satellite F13 provided SSJ/4 energetic particle measurements above a bright arc seen by Chandra on 24 January 2004, 20:01-20:22 UT. A model of the emissions expected strongly suggests that the observed soft X-ray signal is bremsstrahlung and characteristic K-shell line emissions of nitrogen and oxygen in the atmosphere produced by electrons.

  4. Chandra Observations of SN 1987A: The Soft X-Ray Light Curve Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helder, E. A.; Broos, P. S.; Dewey, D.; Dwek, E.; McCray, R.; Park, S.; Racusin, J. L.; Zhekov, S. A.; Burrows, D. N.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the present stage of SN 1987A as observed by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. We reanalyze published Chandra observations and add three more epochs of Chandra data to get a consistent picture of the evolution of the X-ray fluxes in several energy bands. We discuss the implications of several calibration issues for Chandra data. Using the most recent Chandra calibration files, we find that the 0.5-2.0 keV band fluxes of SN 1987A have increased by approximately 6 x 10(exp-13) erg s(exp-1)cm(exp-2) per year since 2009. This is in contrast with our previous result that the 0.5-2.0 keV light curve showed a sudden flattening in 2009. Based on our new analysis, we conclude that the forward shock is still in full interaction with the equatorial ring.

  5. Observations of the core of the Pleiades with the Chandra X-ray Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnamurthi, A; Linsky, J L; Martin, E; Gagna, M; Krishnamurthi, Anita; Reynolds, Christopher S; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Martin, Eduardo; Gagna, Marc

    2001-01-01

    We present results from a 36-ksec observation of the core of the Pleiades open cluster using ACIS-I on the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We have detected 57 sources, most of which do not have previously known optical counterparts. Follow-up photometry indicates that many of the detections are likely to be AGNs, in accordance with extragalactic source counts, but some of the sources may be previously undiscovered low-mass members of the Pleiades. We discuss our dataset and our findings about X-ray emission from early-type stars as well as very late type stars. In particular, the large X-ray fluxes, lack of variability, and hardness ratios of the four Pleiades B6 IV -- F4 V stars suggest a tentative conclusion that Pleiades stars in this spectral type range are intrinsic X-ray sources rather than previously unknown binaries in which the X-ray emission is from a late-type companion. Also the sensitivity of Chandra allowed us to detect nonflare X-ray emission from late-M stars.

  6. Chandra Observations and Modeling of Geocoronal Charge Exchange X-Ray Emission During Solar Wind Gusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornbleuth, Marc; Wargelin, Bradford J.; Juda, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) X-rays are emitted when highly charged solar wind ions such as O7+ collide with neutral gas. The best known examples of this occur around comets, but SWCX emission also arises in the Earth's tenuous outer atmosphere and throughout the heliosphere as neutral H and He from the interstellar medium flows into the solar system. This geocoronal and heliospheric emission comprises much of the soft X-ray background and is seen in every X-ray observation. Geocoronal emission, although usually weaker than heliospheric emission, arises within a few tens of Earth radii and therefore responds much more quickly (on time scales of less than an hour) to changes in solar wind intensity than the widely distributed heliospheric emission.We have studied a dozen Chandra observations when the flux of solar wind protons and O7+ ions was at its highest. These gusts of wind cause correspondingly abrupt changes in geocoronal SWCX X-ray emission,which may or may not be apparent in Chandra data depending on a given observation's line of sight through the magnetosphere. We compare observed changes in the X-ray background with predictions from a fully 3D analysis of SWCX emission based on magnetospheric simulations using the BATS-R-US model.

  7. X-ray observations of dust obscured galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Corral, A; Comastri, A; Ranalli, P; Akylas, A; Salvato, M; Lanzuisi, G; Vignali, C; Koutoulidis, L

    2016-01-01

    We present the properties of X-ray detected dust obscured galaxies (DOGs) in the Chandra Deep Field South. In recent years, it has been proposed that a significant percentage of the elusive Compton-thick (CT) active galactic nuclei (AGN) could be hidden among DOGs. In a previous work, we presented the properties of X-ray detected DOGs by making use of the deepest X-ray observations available at that time, the 2Ms observations of the Chandra deep fields. In that work, we only found a moderate percentage ($<$ 50%) of CT AGN among the DOGs sample, but we were limited by poor photon statistics. In this paper, we use not only a deeper 6 Ms Chandra survey of the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), but combine these data with the 3 Ms XMM-Newton survey of the CDF-S. We also take advantage of the great coverage of the CDF-S region from the UV to the far-IR to fit the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of our sources. Out of the 14 AGN composing our sample, 9 are highly absorbed (but only 3 could be CT AGN), wherea...

  8. Chandra Observations of Variable Embedded X-ray sources in Orion. Paper I: Resolving Orion Trapezium

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, N. S.; Canizares, C.; Huenemoerder, D.; Kastner, J.H.; Taylor, S. C.; Bergstrom, E. J.

    2000-01-01

    We used the High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS) onboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory to perform two observations, separated by three weeks, of the Orion Trapezium region. The zeroth order images on the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) provide spatial resolution of 0.5" and moderate energy resolution. Within a 160"x140" region around the Orion Trapezium we resolve 111 X-ray sources with luminosities between 7x10^{28} ergs/s and 2x10^{32} ergs/s. We do not detect any ...

  9. Chandra X-ray observation of the HII region Gum 31 in the Carina Nebula complex

    CERN Document Server

    Preibisch, T; Townsley, L; Broos, P; Ratzka, T

    2014-01-01

    (abridged) We used the Chandra observatory to perform a deep (70 ksec) X-ray observation of the Gum 31 region and detected 679 X-ray point sources. This extends and complements the X-ray survey of the central Carina nebula regions performed in the Chandra Carina Complex Project. Using deep near-infrared images from our recent VISTA survey of the Carina nebula complex, our Spitzer point-source catalog, and optical archive data, we identify counterparts for 75% of these X-ray sources. Their spatial distribution shows two major concentrations, the central cluster NGC 3324 and a partly embedded cluster in the southern rim of the HII region, but majority of X-ray sources constitute a rather homogeneously distributed population of young stars. Our color-magnitude diagram analysis suggests ages of ~1-2 Myr for the two clusters, whereas the distributed population shows a wider age range up to ~10 Myr. We also identify previously unknown companions to two of the three O-type members of NGC 3324 and detect diffuse X-ra...

  10. X-ray luminous galaxies I. Chandra observations of IRAS00317-2142

    CERN Document Server

    Georgantopoulos, I; Ward, M J

    2003-01-01

    We present Chandra observations of the enigmatic galaxy IRAS00317-2142, which is classified as a star-forming galaxy on the basis of the ionization level of its emission lines. However, a weak broad H\\alpha wing and a high X-ray luminosity give away the presence of an active nucleus. The Chandra image reveals a nuclear point source (L_(2-10 keV) 6x10^{41} erg s-1), contributing over 80% of the galaxy X-ray counts in the 0.3-8 keV band. This is surrounded by some fainter nebulosity extending up to 6 kpc. The nucleus does not show evidence for short-term variability. However, we detect long term variations between the ROSAT, ASCA and Chandra epoch. Indeed,the source has decreased its flux by over a factor of 25 in a period of about 10 years. The nuclear X-ray spectrum is well represented by a power-law with a photon index of 1.91^{+0.17}_{-0.15} while the extended emission by a Raymond-Smith component with a temperature of 0.6 keV. We find no evidence for the presence of an Fe line. The nucleus is absorbed by a...

  11. Chandra X-ray Observations of NGC 4258: Iron Absorption Lines from the Nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Young, A J

    2004-01-01

    We report sub-arcsecond resolution X-ray imaging spectroscopy of the low luminosity active galactic nucleus of NGC 4258 and its immediate surroundings with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. NGC 4258 was observed four times, with the first two observations separated by one month, followed over a year later by two consecutive observations. The spectrum of the nucleus is well described by a heavily absorbed, hard X-ray power law of variable luminosity, plus a constant, thermal soft X-ray component. We do not detect an iron K alpha emission line with the upper limit to the equivalent width of a narrow, neutral iron line ranging between 94 and 887 eV (90% confidence) for the different observations. During the second observation on 2000-04-17, two narrow absorption features are seen with >99.5% confidence at ~6.4 keV and ~6.9 keV, which we identify as resonant absorption lines of Fe XVIII - Fe XIX K alpha and Fe XXVI K alpha, respectively. In addition, the 6.9 keV absorption line is probably variable on a timescale of...

  12. Simulating the sensitivity to stellar point sources of Chandra X-ray observations

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Nicholas J; Guarcello, Mario G; Kashyap, Vinay L; Zezas, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The Chandra Cygnus OB2 Legacy Survey is a wide and deep X-ray survey of the nearby and massive Cygnus OB2 association. The survey has detected ~8,000 X-ray sources, the majority of which are pre-main sequence X-ray emitting young stars in the association itself. To facilitate quantitative scientific studies of these sources as well as the underlying OB association it is important to understand the sensitivity of the observations and the level of completeness the observations have obtained. Here we describe the use of a hierarchical Monte Carlo simulation to achieve this goal by combining the empirical properties of the observations, analytic estimates of the source verification process, and an extensive set of source detection simulations. We find that our survey reaches a 90% completeness level for a pre-main-sequence population at the distance of Cyg OB2 at an X-ray luminosity of 4 x 10^30 ergs/s and a stellar mass of 1.3 Msun for a randomly distributed population. For a spatially clustered population such ...

  13. Contemporaneous Chandra HETG and Suzaku X-ray Observations of NGC 4051

    OpenAIRE

    Lobban, AP; Reeves, JN; Miller, LL; Turner, TJ; Braito, V.; Kraemer, SB; Crenshaw, DM

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a deep 300ks Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) observation of the highly variable narrow-line Seyfert Type 1 galaxy NGC 4051. The HETG spectrum reveals 28 significant soft X-ray ionized lines in either emission or absorption; primarily originating from H-like and He-like K-shell transitions of O, Ne, Mg and Si (including higher order lines and strong forbidden emission lines from Ovii and Neix) plus high-ionization L-shell transitions from Fexvii to Fex...

  14. Simultaneous H.E.S.S. and Chandra observations of Sgr A* during an X-ray flare

    OpenAIRE

    Hinton, Jim; Vivier, Matthieu; Bühler, Rolf; Pühlhofer, Gerd; Wagner, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    The rapidly varying non-thermal X-ray emission observed from Sgr A* points to particle acceleration taking place close to the supermassive black hole. The TeV gamma-ray source HESS J1745-290 is coincident with Sgr A* and may be closely related to the X-ray emission. Simultaneous X-ray and TeV observations are required to elucidate the relationship between these two objects. Here we report on joint H.E.S.S./Chandra observations in July 2005, during which an X-ray flare was detected. Despite a ...

  15. Coordinated Optical/X-ray observations of the CTTS V2129 Oph The Chandra View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaccomio, E.; Argiroffi, C.; Alencar, S. H. P.; Bouvier, J.; Donati, J.-F.; Getman, K.; Gregory, S. G.; Hussain, G.; Ibrahimov, M.; Jardine, M. M.; Skelly, M.; Walter, F.

    2011-12-01

    Young low-mass accreting stars (classical T Tauri stars; CTTSs) possess strong magnetic fields that are responsible for the regulation of the accretion and outflow processes, and the confinement and heating of coronal plasma. Understanding the physics of CTTS magnetospheres and of their interaction with circumstellar disks can elucidate the history and evolution of our own Sun and Solar System, at the stage when planets were being formed. In June 2009 we have conducted an extensive multi-wavelength observing campaign of V2129 Oph, a K5 CTTS in the ρ Ophiuchi molecular cloud, with the goal of obtaining a synoptic view of its photosphere, magnetic field, coronal plasma, and of its accretion spot(s) and funnel flow(s). We here report on the X-ray emission, as observed by the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG). High-density plasma, presumably from the accretion shock, is responsible for the soft X-ray emission, at least during the first half of the observation. The X-ray emission from both the coronal plasma (T˜20MK) and the cooler and denser material from the accretion spot (T˜3MK) is observed to vary between the first and second half of the observation. From the high-resolution X-ray spectra we constrain the emission measure of the two components and the density of the cool plasma. Finally we interpret the time variability of the cool plasma component in terms of stellar rotation and the time-changing viewing angle of the accretion stream, as constrained by simultaneous optical observations.

  16. The X-ray spectrum of delta Orionis observed by LETGS aboard Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Raassen, A J J

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the high-resolution X-ray spectrum of the supergiant O-star delta Orionis (O9.5II) with line ratios of He-like ions and a thermal plasma model, and we examine its variability. The O-supergiant delta Ori was observed in the wavelength range 5-175 Angstrom by the X-ray detector HRC-S in combination with the grating LETG aboard Chandra. We studied the He-like ions in combination with the UV-radiation field to determine local plasma temperatures and to establish the distance of the X-ray emitting ions to the stellar surface. We measured individual lines by means of Gaussian profiles, folded through the response matrix, to obtain wavelengths, line fluxes, half widths at half maximum (HWHM) and line shifts to characterize the plasma. We consider multitemperature models in collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE) to determine temperatures, emission measures, and abundances. Analysis of the He-like triplets extended to N VI and C V implies ionization stratification with the hottest plasma to be found withi...

  17. Chandra and Swift X-ray Observations of the X-ray Pulsar SMC X-2 During the Outburst of 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Li, K L; Lin, L C C; Kong, Albert K H

    2016-01-01

    We report the Chandra/HRC-S and Swift/XRT observations for the 2015 outburst of the high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) pulsar in the Small Magellanic Cloud, SMC X-2. While previous studies suggested that either an O star or a Be star in the field is the high-mass companion of SMC X-2, our Chandra/HRC-S image unambiguously confirms the O-type star as the true optical counterpart. Using the Swift/XRT observations, we extracted accurate orbital parameters of the pulsar binary through a time of arrivals (TOAs) analysis. In addition, there were two X-ray dips near the inferior conjunction, which are possibly caused by eclipses or an ionized high-density shadow wind near the companion's surface. Finally, we propose that an outflow driven by the radiation pressure from day ~10 played an important role in the X-ray/optical evolution of the outburst.

  18. The Chandra Survey of Extragalactic Sources in the 3CR Catalog: X-ray Emission from Nuclei, Jets, and Hotspots in the Chandra Archival Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Massaro, F; Liuzzo, E; Orienti, M; Paladino, R; Paggi, A; Tremblay, G R; Wilkes, B J; Kuraszkiewicz, J; Baum, S A; O'Dea, C P

    2016-01-01

    As part of our program to build a complete radio and X-ray database of all the 3CR extragalactic radio sources, we present an analysis of 93 sources for which Chandra archival data are available. Most of these sources have been already published. Here we provide a uniform re-analysis and present nuclear X-ray fluxes and X-ray emission associated with radio jet knots and hotspots using both publicly available radio images and new radio images that have been constructed from data available in the VLA archive. For about 1/3 of the sources in the selected sample a comparison between the Chandra and the radio observations was not reported in the literature: we find X-ray detections of 2 new radio jet knots and 17 hotspots. We also report the X-ray detection of extended emission from the intergalactic medium of 15 galaxy clusters, two of which were most likely unknown previously.

  19. Chandra X-Ray Observatory Observation of the High-Redshift Cluster MS 1054-0321

    CERN Document Server

    Jeltema, T E; Bautz, M W; Malm, M R; Donahue, M; Garmire, G P; Jeltema, Tesla E.; Canizares, Claude R.; Bautz, Mark W.; Malm, Michael R.; Donahue, Megan; Garmire, Gordon P.

    2001-01-01

    We observed MS 1054-0321, the highest redshift cluster of galaxies in the Einstein Medium Sensitivity Survey (EMSS), with the Chandra ACIS-S detector. We find the X-ray temperature of the cluster to be 10.4 +1.7 -1.5 keV, lower than, but statistically consistent with, the temperature inferred previously. This temperature agrees well with the observed velocity dispersion and that found from weak lensing. We are also able to make the first positive identification of an iron line in this cluster and find a value of 0.26 +/- 0.15 for the abundance relative to solar, consistent with early enrichment of the ICM. We confirm significant substructure in the form of two distinct clumps in the X-ray distribution. The eastern clump seems to coincide with the main cluster component. It has a temperature of 10.5 +3.4 -2.1 keV, approximately the same as the average spectral temperature for the whole cluster. The western clump is cooler, with a temperature of 6.7 +1.7 -1.2 and may be a subgroup falling into the cluster. Thou...

  20. Chandra and Swift X-ray Observations of the X-ray Pulsar SMC X-2 During the Outburst of 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Li, K L; Hu, C. -P; Lin, L. C. C.; Kong, Albert K. H.

    2016-01-01

    We report the Chandra/HRC-S and Swift/XRT observations for the 2015 outburst of the high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) pulsar in the Small Magellanic Cloud, SMC X-2. While previous studies suggested that either an O star or a Be star in the field is the high-mass companion of SMC X-2, our Chandra/HRC-S image unambiguously confirms the O-type star as the true optical counterpart. Using the Swift/XRT observations, we extracted accurate orbital parameters of the pulsar binary through a time of arriva...

  1. Deep Chandra Observations of the Compact Starburst Galaxy Henize 2-10: X-rays from the Massive Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Reines, Amy; Miller, Jon; Sivakoff, Gregory; Greene, Jenny; Hickox, Ryan; Johnson, Kelsey

    2016-01-01

    We present follow-up X-ray observations of the candidate massive black hole (BH) in the nucleus of the low-mass, compact starburst galaxy Henize 2-10. Using new high-resolution observations from the Chandra X-ray Observatory totaling 200 ks in duration, as well as archival Chandra observations from 2001, we demonstrate the presence of a previously unidentified X-ray point source that is spatially coincident with the known nuclear radio source in Henize 2-10 (i.e., the massive BH). We show that the hard X-ray emission previously identified in the 2001 observation is dominated by a source that is distinct from the nucleus, with the properties expected for a high-mass X-ray binary. The X-ray luminosity of the nuclear source suggests the massive BH is radiating significantly below its Eddington limit (~10^-6 L_Edd), and the soft spectrum resembles other weakly accreting massive BHs including Sagittarius A*. Analysis of the X-ray light curve of the nucleus reveals the tentative detection of a ~9-hour periodicity, ...

  2. Contemporaneous Chandra HETG and Suzaku X-ray observations of NGC 4051

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobban, A. P.; Reeves, J. N.; Miller, L.; Turner, T. J.; Braito, V.; Kraemer, S. B.; Crenshaw, D. M.

    2011-07-01

    We present the results of a deep 300 ks Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) observation of the highly variable narrow-line Seyfert Type 1 galaxy NGC 4051. The HETG spectrum reveals 28 significant soft X-ray ionized lines in either emission or absorption; primarily originating from H-like and He-like K-shell transitions of O, Ne, Mg and Si (including higher order lines and strong forbidden emission lines from O VII and Ne IX) plus high-ionization L-shell transitions from Fe XVII to Fe XXII and lower ionization inner-shell lines (e.g. O VI). Modelling the data with XSTAR requires four distinct ionization zones for the gas, all outflowing with velocities log ξ= 4.1+0.2-0.1; vout˜-0.02c) which potentially may have a significant effect on the host galaxy environment via feedback. Finally, we also simultaneously model the broad-band 2008 XIS+HXD (Hard X-ray Detector) Suzaku data with archival Suzaku data from 2005 when the source was observed to have entered an extended period of low flux in an attempt to analyse the cause of the long-term spectral variability. We find that we can account for this by allowing for large variations in the normalization of the intrinsic power-law component which may be interpreted as being due to significant changes in the covering fraction of a Compton-thick partial-coverer obscuring the central continuum emission.

  3. Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observations of AWM 7 - I: Investigating X-ray surface brightness fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, J S

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the levels of small scale structure in surface brightness images of the core of the X-ray bright cool-core galaxy cluster AWM 7. After subtraction of a model of the smooth cluster emission, we find a number of approximately radial surface brightness depressions which are not present in simulated images and are seen in both the Chandra and XMM-Newton data. The depressions are most strongly seen in the south of the cluster and have a magnitude of around 4 per cent in surface brightness. We see these features in both an energy band sensitive to the density (0.6 to 5 keV) and a band more sensitive to the pressure (3.5 to 7.5 keV). Histograms of surface brightness in the data, when compared to realisations of a smooth model, reveal stronger surface brightness variations. We use the Delta-variance technique to characterise the magnitude of the fluctuations as a function of length scale. We find that the spectrum in the 0.6 to 5 keV band is flatter than expected for Kolmogorov index fluctuations. If c...

  4. Contemporaneous Chandra HETG and Suzaku X-ray Observations of NGC 4051

    CERN Document Server

    Lobban, A P; Miller, L; Turner, T J; Braito, V; Kraemer, S B; Crenshaw, D M

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a deep 300 ks Chandra HETG observation of the highly variable narrow-line Seyfert Type 1 galaxy NGC 4051. The HETG spectrum reveals 28 significant soft X-ray ionised lines in either emission or absorption; primarily originating from H-like and He-like K-shell transitions of O, Ne, Mg and Si (including higher order lines and strong forbidden emission lines from O VII and Ne IX) plus high ionisation L-shell transitions from Fe XVII to Fe XXII and lower ionisation inner-shell lines (e.g. O VI). Modelling the data with XSTAR requires four distinct ionisation zones for the gas, all outflowing with velocities < 1000 km/s. A selection of the strongest emission/absorption lines appear to be resolved with FWHM of ~600 km/s. We also present the results from a quasi-simultaneous 350 ks Suzaku observation of NGC 4051 where the XIS spectrum reveals strong evidence for blueshifted absorption lines at ~6.8 and ~7.1 keV, consistent with previous findings. Modelling with XSTAR suggests that this i...

  5. The Soft X-ray Spectrum from NGC 1068 Observed with LETGS on Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Brinkman, A C; Van der Meer, R L J; Kinkhabwala, A; Behar, E; Kahn, S M; Paerels, F B S; Sako, M

    2002-01-01

    Using the combined spectral and spatial resolving power of the Low Energy Transmission Grating (LETGS) on board Chandra, we obtain separate spectra from the bright central source of NGC 1068 (Primary region), and from a fainter bright spot 4" to the NE (Secondary region). Both spectra are dominated by line emission from H- and He-like ions of C through S, and from Fe L-shell ions, but also include narrow radiative recombination continua, indicating that most of the soft X-ray emission arises in low-temperature (kT few eV) photoionized plasma. We confirm the conclusions of Kinkhabwala et al. (2002), based on XMM-Newton RGS observations, that the entire nuclear spectrum can be explained by recombination/radiative cascade following photoionization, and radiative decay following photoexcitation, with no evidence for hot, collisionally ionized plasma. In addition, this model also provides an excellent fit to the spectrum of the Secondary region, albeit with radial column densities a factor of three lower, as would...

  6. Chandra Deep X-ray Observation of a Typical Galactic Plane Region and Near-Infrared Identification

    CERN Document Server

    Ebisawa, K; Paizis, A; Hamaguchi, K; Bamba, A; Cutri, R; Kaneda, H; Maeda, Y; Sato, G; Senda, A; Ueno, M; Yamauchi, S; Beckmann, V; Courvoisier, T J L; Nishihara, P D E

    2005-01-01

    Using the Chandra Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer Imaging array (ACIS-I), we have carried out a deep hard X-ray observation of the Galactic plane region at (l,b) ~ (28.5, 0.0), where no discrete X-ray source had been reported previously. We have detected 274 new point X-ray sources (4 sigma confidence) as well as strong Galactic diffuse emission within two partially overlapping ACIS-I fields (~250 arcmin^2in total). Sum of all the detected point source fluxes accounts for only ~ 10 % of the total X-ray flux in the field of view. Even hypothesizing a new population of much dimmer and numerous Galactic point sources, the total observed X-ray flux cannot be explained. Therefore, we conclude that X-ray emission from the Galactic plane has truly diffuse origin. Only 26 point sources were detected both in the soft and hard bands, indicating that there are two distinct classes of the X-ray sources distinguished by the spectral hardness ratio. Surface number density of the hard sources is only slightly higher than ...

  7. The Soft X-ray Spectrum from NGC 1068 Observed with LETGS on Chandra

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkman, A. C.; Kaastra, J.S.; Van Der Meer, R.L.J.; Kinkhabwala, A.; Behar, E; Kahn, S. M.; Paerels, F. B. S.; Sako, M.

    2002-01-01

    Using the combined spectral and spatial resolving power of the Low Energy Transmission Grating (LETGS) on board Chandra, we obtain separate spectra from the bright central source of NGC 1068 (Primary region), and from a fainter bright spot 4" to the NE (Secondary region). Both spectra are dominated by line emission from H- and He-like ions of C through S, and from Fe L-shell ions, but also include narrow radiative recombination continua, indicating that most of the soft X-ray emission arises ...

  8. Chandra & XMM-Newton Observations of NGC5253. Analysis of the X-ray Emission from a Dwarf Starburst Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Summers, L K; Strickland, D K; Heckman, T M; Summers, Lesley K.; Stevens, Ian R.; Strickland, David K.; Heckman, Timothy M.

    2004-01-01

    We present Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray data of NGC5253, a local starbursting dwarf elliptical galaxy, in the early stages of a starburst episode. Contributions to the X-ray emission come from discrete point sources and extended diffuse emission, in the form of what appear to be multiple superbubbles, and smaller bubbles probably associated with individual star clusters. Chandra detects 17 sources within the optical extent of NGC5253 down to a completeness level corresponding to a luminosity of 1.5E37 erg/s.The slope of the point source X-ray luminosity function is -0.54, similar to that of other nearby dwarf starburst galaxies. Several different types of source are detected within the galaxy, including X-ray binaries and the emission associated with star-clusters. Comparison of the diffuse X-ray emission with the observed Halpha emission shows similarities in their extent. The best spectral fit to the diffuse emission is obtained with an absorbed, two temperature model giving temperatures for the two gas com...

  9. CHANDRA-LETGS X-ray observations of Capella Temperature, density and abundance diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Ness, J U; Schmitt, J H M M; Raassen, A J J; Porquet, D; Kaastra, J S; Van der Meer, R L J; Burwitz, V; Predehl, P

    2001-01-01

    Electron density diagnostics based on the triplets of Helium-like CV, NVI, and OVII are applied to the X-ray spectra of Capella and Procyon measured with the Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS) on board the Chandra X-ray Observatory. New theoretical models for the calculation of the line ratios between the forbidden (f), intercombination (i), and the resonance (r) lines of the helium-like triplets are used. The derived densities are quite typical of densities found in the solar active regions, and also pressures and temperatures in Procyon's and Capella's corona at a level of T=10^6K are quite similar. We find no evidence for densities as high as measured in solar flares. Comparison of our Capella and Procyon measurements with the Sun shows little difference in the physical properties of the layers producing the CV, NVI, and OVII emission. Assuming the X-ray emitting plasma to be confined in magnetic loops, we obtain typical loop length scales of L_Capella > 8 L_Procyon from the loop scaling ...

  10. Thermodynamic perturbations in the X-ray halo of 33 clusters of galaxies observed with Chandra ACIS

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, F; Nandra, K; Clerc, N; Gaspari, M

    2016-01-01

    In high-resolution X-ray observations of the hot plasma in clusters of galaxies significant structures caused by AGN feedback, mergers, and turbulence can be detected. Many clusters have been observed by Chandra in great depth and at high resolution. Using archival data taken with the Chandra ACIS instrument the aim was to study thermodynamic perturbations of the X-ray emitting plasma and to apply this to better understand the thermodynamic and dynamic state of the intra cluster medium (ICM). We analysed deep observations for a sample of 33 clusters with more than 100 ks of Chandra exposure each at distances between redshift 0.025 and 0.45. The combined exposure of the sample is 8 Ms. Fitting emission models to different regions of the extended X-ray emission we searched for perturbations in density, temperature, pressure, and entropy of the hot plasma. For individual clusters we mapped the thermodynamic properties of the ICM and measured their spread in circular concentric annuli. Comparing the spread of dif...

  11. Chandra observation of the fast X-ray transient IGR J17544-2619: evidence for a neutron star?

    CERN Document Server

    in 't Zand, J J M

    2005-01-01

    IGR J17544-2619 belongs to a distinct group of at least seven fast X-ray transients that cannot readily be associated with nearby flare stars or pre-main sequence stars and most probably are X-ray binaries with wind accretion. Sofar, the nature of the accretor has been determined in only one case (SAX J1819.3-2525/V4641 Sgr). We carried out a 20 ks Chandra ACIS-S observation of IGR J17544-2619 which shows the source in quiescence going into outburst. The Chandra position confirms the previous tentative identification of the optical counterpart, a blue O9Ib supergiant at 3 to 4 kpc (Pellizza, Chaty & Negueruela, in prep.). This is the first detection of a fast X-ray transient in quiescence. The quiescent spectrum is very soft. The photon index of 5.9+/-1.2 (90% confidence error margin) is much softer than 6 quiescent black hole candidates that were observed with Chandra ACIS-S (Kong et al. 2002; Tomsick et al. 2003). Assuming that a significant fraction of the quiescent photons comes from the accretor and ...

  12. Chandra X-ray Observations of the Young Stellar Cluster NGC 6193 in the Ara OB1 Association

    CERN Document Server

    Skinner, S L; Palla, F; Barbosa, C L D R

    2005-01-01

    A 90 ks Chandra HETG observation of the young stellar cluster NGC 6193 in the southern Ara OB1 association detected 43 X-ray sources in a 2' x 2' core region centered on the young O stars HD 150135 (O6.5V) and HD 150136 (O3+O6V). The cluster is dominated by exceptionally bright X-ray emission from the two O stars, which are separated by only 10 arcsecs. The X-ray luminosity of HD 150136 is log Lx = 33.39 (ergs/s), making it one of the most luminous O-star X-ray sources known. All of the fainter X-ray sources in the core region have near-IR counterparts, but JHK photometry provides little evidence for near-IR excesses. These core sources have typical mean photon energies of 2 keV and about one-third are variable. It is likely that some are young low-mass stars in the cluster, but cluster membership remains to be determined. Grating spectra show that the X-ray properties of HD 150135 and HD 150136 are similar, but not identical. Both have moderately broadened unshifted emission lines and their emission is domin...

  13. Simultaneous H.E.S.S. and Chandra observations of Sgr A* during an X-ray flare

    CERN Document Server

    Hinton, Jim; Bühler, Rolf; Pühlhofer, Gerd; Wagner, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    The rapidly varying non-thermal X-ray emission observed from Sgr A* points to particle acceleration taking place close to the supermassive black hole. The TeV gamma-ray source HESS J1745-290 is coincident with Sgr A* and may be closely related to the X-ray emission. Simultaneous X-ray and TeV observations are required to elucidate the relationship between these two objects. Here we report on joint H.E.S.S./Chandra observations in July 2005, during which an X-ray flare was detected. Despite a factor >10 increase in the X-ray flux of Sgr A*, no evidence is found for an increase in the TeV gamma-ray flux. We find that an increase of the gamma-ray flux of a factor 2 or greater can be excluded at a confidence level of 99%. This finding disfavours scenarios in which the bulk of the gamma-ray emission observed is produced close to Sgr A*.

  14. Chandra and XMM-Newton X-Ray Observations of the Hyperactive T Tauri Star RY Tau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Stephen L.; Audard, Marc; Güdel, Manuel

    2016-07-01

    We present results of pointed X-ray observations of the accreting jet-driving T Tauri star RY Tau using Chandra and XMM-Newton. We obtained high-resolution grating spectra and excellent-quality CCD spectra and light curves with the objective of identifying the physical mechanisms underlying RY Tau’s bright X-ray emission. Grating spectra reveal numerous emission lines spanning a broad range of temperature superimposed on a hot continuum. The X-ray emission measure distribution is dominated by very hot plasma at T hot ˜ 50 MK, but higher temperatures were present during flares. A weaker cool plasma component is also present as revealed by low-temperature lines such as O viii. X-ray light curves show complex variability consisting of short-duration (˜hours) superhot flares accompanied by fluorescent Fe emission at 6.4 keV superimposed on a slowly varying (˜one day) component that may be tied to stellar rotation. The hot flaring component is undoubtedly of magnetic (e.g., coronal) origin. Soft- and hard-band light curves undergo similar slow variability implying that at least some of the cool plasma shares a common magnetic origin with the hot plasma. Any contribution to the X-ray emission from cool shocked plasma is small compared to the dominant hot component but production of individual low-temperature lines such as O viii in an accretion shock is not ruled out.

  15. Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of the first quasars X-rays from the age of cosmic enlightenment

    CERN Document Server

    Vignali, C; Schneider, D P; Anderson, S F; Fan, X; Gunn, J E; Kaspi, S; Richards, G T; Strauss, M A; Strauss, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    We report on Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of a sample of 13 quasars at z~4.7-5.4 mostly taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The present sample complements previous X-ray studies of z>4 quasars, in which the majority of the objects are optically more luminous and at lower redshifts. All but two of our quasars have been detected in the X-ray band, thus doubling the number of z>4.8 X-ray detected quasars. The two non-detections are likely to be due to a short exposure time and to the presence of intrinsic absorption. We confirm and extend to the highest redshifts the presence of a correlation between AB1450(1+z) magnitude and soft X-ray flux for z>4 quasars, and the presence of a steeper optical-to-X-ray spectral energy distribution (parameterized by aox) for high-luminosity, high-redshift quasars than for lower-luminosity, lower-redshift quasars. The second effect is likely due to the known anti-correlation between aox and rest-frame 2500 Angstrom luminosity, whose significance is confirmed v...

  16. Chandra observations of NGC4342, an optically faint, X-ray gas-rich early-type galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Bogdan, Akos; Kraft, Ralph P; Jones, Christine; Randall, Scott W; Zhang, Zhongli; Zhuravleva, Irina; Churazov, Eugene; Li, Zhiyuan; Nulsen, Paul E J; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Boehringer, Hans; Schindler, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Chandra X-ray observations of NGC4342, a low stellar mass (M_K=-22.79 mag) early-type galaxy, show luminous, diffuse X-ray emission originating from hot gas with temperature of kT~0.56 keV. The observed 0.5-2 keV band luminosity of the diffuse X-ray emission within the D_25 ellipse is L_0.5-2keV = 2.7 x 10^39 erg/s. The hot gas has a significantly broader distribution than the stellar light, and shows strong hydrodynamic disturbances with a sharp surface brightness edge to the northeast and a trailing tail. We identify the edge as a cold front and conclude that the distorted morphology of the hot gas is produced by ram pressure as NGC4342 moves through external gas. From the thermal pressure ratios inside and outside the cold front, we estimate the velocity of NGC4342 and find that it moves supersonically (M~2.6) towards the northeast. We also resolve eight bright (L_0.5-8keV > 3 x 10^37 erg/s) point sources within the D_25 ellipse of the galaxy, most of them being low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). The luminos...

  17. The Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Observation of an X-ray Ionization Cone in Markarian 3

    CERN Document Server

    Sako, M; Paerels, F B S; Liedahl, D A; Sako, Masao; Kahn, Steven M.; Paerels, Frits; Liedahl, Duane A.

    2000-01-01

    We present a preliminary analysis of the first high-resolution X-ray spectrum of a Seyfert 2 galaxy, Mkn 3, obtained with the High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer onboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The high-energy spectrum (lambda < 4 Ang) is dominated by reflection of the AGN continuum radiation in a cold optically thick medium and contains bright K-alpha fluorescent lines from iron and silicon, as well as weak, blended lines from sulfur and magnesium. The soft X-ray emission (4 < lambda < 23 Ang) is spatially extended along the [O III] ionization cone and shows discrete signatures of emission following recombination and photoexcitation produced in a warm photoionized region. The measured iron L line fluxes indicate that emission from collisionally ionized plasma is almost completely negligible, and does not contribute significantly to the total energy budget of the X-ray emission. We find that significant fractions of the H- and He-like resonance lines, as well as the observed iron L l...

  18. Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray Observations of the Hyperactive T Tauri Star RY Tau

    CERN Document Server

    Skinner, Stephen L; Guedel, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    We present results of pointed X-ray observations of the accreting jet-driving T Tauri star RY Tau using Chandra and XMM-Newton. We obtained high-resolution grating spectra and excellent-quality CCD spectra and light curves with the objective of identifying the physical mechanisms underlying RY Tau's bright X-ray emission. Grating spectra reveal numerous emission lines spanning a broad range of temperature superimposed on a hot continuum. The X-ray emission measure distribution is dominated by very hot plasma at T_hot ~ 50 MK but higher temperatures were present during flares. A weaker cool plasma component is also present as revealed by low-temperature lines such as O VIII. X-ray light curves show complex variability consisting of short-duration (~hours) superhot flares accompanied by fluorescent Fe emission at 6.4 keV superimposed on a slowly-varying (~one day) component that may be tied to stellar rotation. The hot flaring component is undoubtedly of magnetic (e.g. coronal) origin. Soft and hard-band light ...

  19. The Chandra X-Ray Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Weisskopf, Martin C

    2011-01-01

    Significant advances in science always take place when the state of the art in instrumentation improves dramatically. NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory represents such an advance. Launched in July of 1999, Chandra is an observatory designed to study the x-ray emission from all categories of astronomical objects --- from comets, planets, and normal stars to quasars, galaxies, and clusters of galaxies. At the heart of this observatory is the precision X-Ray optic that has been vital for Chandra's outstanding success and which features an angular resolution improved by an order of magnitude compared to its forerunners. The Chandra mission is now entering its 13-th year of operation. Given that the Observatory was designed for a minimum of 3 years of operation testifies to its robust and carefully thought out design. We review the design and construction of the remarkable telescope, present examples of its usage for astronomy and astrophysics, and speculate upon the future.

  20. A DEEP CHANDRA OBSERVATION OF THE GIANT H II REGION N11. I. X-RAY SOURCES IN THE FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazé, Yaël [GAPHE, Department AGO, Université de Liège, Allée du 6 Août 17 Bat. B5C, B-4000 Liège (Belgium); Wang, Q. Daniel [Department of Astronomy, B619E-LGRT, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Chu, You-Hua; Gruendl, Robert [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Oskinova, Lida, E-mail: naze@astro.ulg.ac.be [Institute for Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2014-08-01

    A very sensitive X-ray investigation of the giant H II region N11 in the Large Megallanic Cloud was performed using the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The 300 ks observation reveals X-ray sources with luminosities down to 10{sup 32} erg s{sup –1}, increasing the number of known point sources in the field by more than a factor of five. Among these detections are 13 massive stars (3 compact groups of massive stars, 9 O stars, and one early B star) with log (L {sub X}/L {sub BOL}) ∼–6.5 to –7, which may suggest that they are highly magnetic or colliding-wind systems. On the other hand, the stacked signal for regions corresponding to undetected O stars yields log (L {sub X}/L {sub BOL}) ∼–7.3, i.e., an emission level comparable to similar Galactic stars despite the lower metallicity. Other point sources coincide with 11 foreground stars, 6 late-B/A stars in N11, and many background objects. This observation also uncovers the extent and detailed spatial properties of the soft, diffuse emission regions, but the presence of some hotter plasma in their spectra suggests contamination by the unresolved stellar population.

  1. Revealing the heavily obscured AGN population of High Redshift 3CRR Sources with Chandra X-ray Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkes, Belinda J; Haas, Martin; Barthel, Peter; Leipski, Christian; Willner, S P; Worrall, D M; Birkinshaw, Mark; Antonucci, Robert; Ashby, M L N; Chini, Rolf; Fazio, G G; Lawrence, Charles; Ogle, Patrick; Schulz, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Chandra observations of a complete, flux-limited sample of 38 high-redshift (10) indicating obscuration (log N_H ~ 22-24 cm^-2). These properties and the correlation between obscuration and radio core-fraction are consistent with orientation-dependent obscuration as in Unification models. About half the NLRGs have soft X-ray hardness ratios and/or high [OIII] emission line to X-ray luminosity ratio suggesting obscuration by Compton thick (CT) material so that scattered nuclear or extended X-ray emission dominates (as in NGC1068). The ratios of unobscured to Compton-thin (10^{22} 1.5 x 10^{24} cm^-2) is 2.5:1.4:1 in this high luminosity, radio-selected sample. The obscured fraction is 0.5, higher than is typically reported for AGN at comparable luminosities from multi-wavelength surveys (0.1-0.3). Assuming random nuclear orientation, the unobscured half-opening angle of the disk/wind/torus structure is ~ 60deg and the obscuring material covers 30deg of which ~ 12deg is Compton thick. The multi-wavelength prope...

  2. Contributions of the NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory performed its first observations over a decade ago. Chandra's spectacular images and detailed spectra of astrophysical systems ranging from solar system objects to distant galaxies and galaxy clusters have provided information on such diverse topics as the properties of planetary and cometary atmospheres, stellar formation and demise, black hole-galaxy-cluster interactions, and properties of dark matter and dark energy. This presentation highlights some discoveries made with Chandra and briefly discusses future prospects.

  3. The Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Observation of an X-ray Ionization Cone in Markarian 3

    OpenAIRE

    Sako, Masao; Kahn, Steven M.; Paerels, Frits; Liedahl, Duane A.

    2000-01-01

    We present a preliminary analysis of the first high-resolution X-ray spectrum of a Seyfert 2 galaxy, Mkn 3, obtained with the High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer onboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The high-energy spectrum (lambda < 4 Ang) is dominated by reflection of the AGN continuum radiation in a cold optically thick medium and contains bright K-alpha fluorescent lines from iron and silicon, as well as weak, blended lines from sulfur and magnesium. The soft X-ray emission (4...

  4. A Catalog of X-ray Point Sources from Two Megaseconds of Chandra Observations of the Galactic Center

    CERN Document Server

    Muno, M P; Baganoff, F K; Bandyopadhyay, R M; Bower, G C; Brandt, W N; Broos, P S; Cotera, A; Eikenberry, S S; Garmire, G P; Hyman, S D; Kassim, N E; Lang, C C; Lazio, T J W; Law, C; Mauerhan, J C; Morris, M R; Nagata, T; Nishiyama, S; Park, S; Ramírez, S V; Stolovy, S R; Wijnands, R; Wang, Q D; Wang, Z; Yusef-Zadeh, F

    2008-01-01

    We present a catalog of 9017 X-ray sources identified in Chandra observations of a 2 by 0.8 degree field around the Galactic center. We increase the number of known X-ray sources in the region by a factor of 2.5. The catalog incorporates all of the ACIS-I observations as of 2007 August, which total 2.25 Msec of exposure. At the distance to the Galactic center (8 kpc), we are sensitive to sources with luminosities >4e32 erg/s (0.5-8.0 keV; 90% confidence) over an area of one square degree, and up to an order of magnitude more sensitive in the deepest exposure (1.0 Msec) around Sgr A*. The positions of 60% of our sources are accurate to <1" (95% confidence), and 20% have positions accurate to <0.5". We search for variable sources, and find that 3% exhibit flux variations within an observation, 10% exhibit variations from observation-to-observation. We also find one source, CXOUGC J174622.7-285218, with a periodic 1745 s signal (1.4% chance probability), which is probably a magnetically-accreting cataclysm...

  5. Chandra and ASCA X-ray Observations of the Radio Supernova SN1979C IN NGC 4321

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, A; Schlegel, E M

    2001-01-01

    We report on the X-ray observation of the radio selected supernova SN1979C carried out with ASCA in 1997 December and serendipitously available from a Chandra Guaranteed Time Observation in 1999 November. The supernova, of type SN II-Linear (SN IIL), was first observed in the optical and occurred in the weakly barred, almost face on spiral galaxy NGC 4321 (M100). The galaxy, a member of the Virgo S cluster, is at a distance of 17.1 Mpc, and contains at least three other supernovae discovered in this century. The useful exposure time was ~25 ks for the Solid-State Imaging Spectrometer (SIS), ~28 ks for the Gas Scintillation Imaging Spectrometer (GIS), and ~2.5 ks for Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS). No point source was detected at the radio position of SN1979C in a 3' diameter half power response circle in the ASCA data. The background and galaxy subtracted SN signal had a 3sigma upper limit to the flux of 6.3x10^-14 ergs/s/cm^-2 in the full ASCA SIS band (0.4-10.0 keV) and a 3sigma upper li...

  6. X-ray Sources in the Magellanic Clouds: analysis of 15 Years of XMM-Newton and Chandra Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Laycock, S.; Christodoulou, D.; Drake, J.; Fingerman, S.; Hong, J.; Zezas, A.; Antoniou, V.; Coe, M.; Ho, W.

    2016-06-01

    Using ˜160 XMM-Newton, ˜180 Chandra, and all weekly RXTE observations, we have generated a comprehensive library of the known pulsars in the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds (SMC, LMC). We classify various pulsar properties in the range of log L_{X}=32-38 erg s^{-1} and incorporate related parameters in theoretical models. With the high time-resolution data of the EPIC and Chandra cameras and the latest calibration files and software, our 15 year pipeline generates a suite of useful products for each pulsar detection: event lists, high time-resolution light curves, periodograms, spectra, and complete histories of the dot{P}, the pulse fraction, etc., in the broad, soft (0.2-2 keV), and hard (2-12 keV) energy bands. After combining the observations from these telescopes, we found that 15 pulsars are clearly spinning up and another 15 pulsars are distinctly spinning down. We also used the faintest and brightest sources to map out the propeller line and the Eddington line, respectively. We compared the observed pulse profiles to geometric models of X-ray emission in order to constrain the physical parameters of the pulsars. We are preparing a public release of this library so that it can be used by other groups as well.

  7. Chandra X-Ray Observations of Young Clusters. III. NGC 2264 and the Orion Flanking Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Rebull, L M; Micela, G; Ramírez, S V; Sciortino, S; Stauffer, J R; Strom, S E; Wolff, S C

    2006-01-01

    Chandra observations of solar-like pre-main sequence (PMS) stars in the Orion Flanking Fields (age ~1 Myr) and NGC 2264 (~3 Myr) are compared with the results of the COUP survey of similar objects in the ONC (~0.5 Myr). The correlations between log Lx and mass found for PMS stars on convective tracks in these clusters are consistent with the relationships found for the ONC, indicating little change in the median values of either log Lx or log Lx/Lbol during the first ~3-5 Myr of evolution down convective tracks. The fraction of stars with extreme values of Lx, more than 10 times higher than the average for a given Lbol or with log Lx/Lbol greater than the canonical saturation value of -2.9, is however larger by a factor of two in the younger ONC when compared with the Orion FF and NGC 2264. PMS stars in NGC 2264 on radiative tracks have Lx/Lbol values that are systematically lower by a factor of ~10 times than those found for stars of similar mass on convective tracks. The dramatic decrease in flux from conve...

  8. Beyond Chandra - the X-ray Surveyor

    CERN Document Server

    Weisskopf, Martin C; Tananbaum, Harvey; Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 16 years, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has provided an unparalleled means for exploring the universe with its half-arcsecond angular resolution. Chandra studies have deepened our understanding of galaxy clusters, active galactic nuclei, galaxies, supernova remnants, planets, and solar system objects addressing almost all areas of current interest in astronomy and astrophysics. As we look beyond Chandra, it is clear that comparable or even better angular resolution with greatly increased photon throughput is essential to address even more demanding science questions, such as the formation and subsequent growth of black hole seeds at very high redshift; the emergence of the first galaxy groups; and details of feedback over a large range of scales from galaxies to galaxy clusters. Recently, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, together with the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, has initiated a concept study for such a mission named the X-ray Surveyor. This study starts with a baseline payloa...

  9. The Megasecond Chandra X-Ray Visionary Project Observation of NGC 3115 (II): properties of point sources

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Dacheng; Wong, Ka-wah; Jennings, Zachary G; Homan, Jeroen; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Strader, Jay; Sivakoff, Gregory R; Brodie, Jean P; Remillard, Ronald A

    2015-01-01

    We have carried out an in-depth study of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) detected in the nearby lenticular galaxy NGC 3115, using the Megasecond Chandra X-Ray Visionary Project observation (total exposure time 1.1 Ms). In total we found 136 candidate LMXBs in the field and 49 in globular clusters (GCs) above 2\\sigma\\ detection, with 0.3--8 keV luminosity L_X ~10^36-10^39 erg/s. Other than 13 transient candidates, the sources overall have less long-term variability at higher luminosity, at least at L_X > 2x10^37 erg/s. In order to identify the nature and spectral state of our sources, we compared their collective spectral properties based on single-component models (a simple power law or a multicolor disk) with the spectral evolution seen in representative Galactic LMXBs. We found that in the L_X versus photon index \\Gamma_PL and L_X versus disk temperature kT_MCD plots, most of our sources fall on a narrow track in which the spectral shape hardens with increasing luminosity below L_X~7x10^37 erg/s but is rela...

  10. A Census of X-ray gas in NGC 1068: Results from 450ks of Chandra HETG Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallman, T.; Evans, Daniel A.; Marshall, H.; Canizares, C.; Longinotti, A.; Nowak, M.; Schulz, N.

    2016-01-01

    We present models for the X-ray spectrum of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068. These are fitted to data obtained using the High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) on the Chandra X-ray observatory. The data show line and radiative recombination continuum (RRC) emission from a broad range of ions and elements. The models explore the importance of excitation processes for these lines including photoionization followed by recombination, radiative excitation by absorption of continuum radiation and inner shell fluorescence. The models show that the relative importance of these processes depends on the conditions in the emitting gas, and that no single emitting component can fit the entire spectrum. In particular, the relative importance of radiative excitation and photoionization/recombination differs according to the element and ion stage emitting the line. This in turn implies a diversity of values for the ionization parameter of the various components of gas responsible for the emission, ranging from log(ξ)=1 – 3. Using this, we obtain an estimate for the total amount of gas responsible for the observed emission. The mass flux through the region included in the HETG extraction region is approximately 0.3 M⊙ yr−1 assuming ordered flow at the speed characterizing the line widths. This can be compared with what is known about this object from other techniques.

  11. Helium-like triplet density diagnostics: Applications to CHANDRA--LETGS X-ray observations of Capella and Procyon

    OpenAIRE

    Ness, J. U.; Mewe, R.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Raassen, A. J. J.; Porquet, D.; Kaastra, J. S.; Van Der Meer, R.L.J.; Burwitz, V.; Predehl, P.

    2000-01-01

    Electron density diagnostics based on the triplets of Helium-like CV, NVI, and OVII are applied to the X-ray spectra of Capella and Procyon measured with the Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS) on board the Chandra X-ray Observatory. New theoretical models for the calculation of the line ratios between the forbidden (f), intercombination (i), and the resonance (r) lines of the helium-like triplets are used. The derived densities are quite typical of densities found in the sol...

  12. X-ray Lighthouses of the High-Redshift Universe. II. Further Snapshot Observations of the Most Luminous z>4 Quasars with Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Vignali, C; Schneider, D P; Kaspi, S

    2005-01-01

    We report on Chandra observations of a sample of 11 optically luminous (Mb4 quasars known and hence represent ideal witnesses of the end of the "dark age ''. Nine quasars are detected by Chandra, with ~2-57 counts in the observed 0.5-8 keV band. These detections increase the number of X-ray detected AGN at z>4 to ~90; overall, Chandra has detected ~85% of the high-redshift quasars observed with snapshot (few kilosecond) observations. PSS 1506+5220, one of the two X-ray undetected quasars, displays a number of notable features in its rest-frame ultraviolet spectrum, the most prominent being broad, deep SiIV and CIV absorption lines. The average optical-to-X-ray spectral index for the present sample (=-1.88+/-0.05) is steeper than that typically found for z>4 quasars but consistent with the expected value from the known dependence of this spectral index on quasar luminosity. We present joint X-ray spectral fitting for a sample of 48 radio-quiet quasars in the redshift range 3.99-6.28 for which Chandra observati...

  13. Chandra and ASCA Observations of the X-ray-brightest T-Tauri Stars in the Rho Ophiuchi Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Imanishi, K; Koyama, K; Imanishi, Kensuke; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Koyama, Katsuji

    2002-01-01

    We present the Chandra ACIS and ASCA GIS results for a series of four long-term observations on DoAr 21, ROXs 21 and ROXs 31; the X-ray brightest T-Tauri stars (TTSs) in the Rho Ophiuchi cloud. In the four observations with a net exposure of ~600 ksec, we found six, three and two flares from DoAr 21, ROXs 21 and ROXs 31, respectively; hence the flare rate is fairly high. The spectra of DoAr 21 are well fitted with a single-temperature plasma model, while those of ROXs 21 and ROXs 31 need an additional soft plasma component. Since DoAr 21 is younger (~10^5 yr) than ROXs 21 and ROXs 31 (~10^6 yr), these results may indicate that the soft component gradually increases as T-Tauri stars age. The abundances are generally sub-solar and vary from element to element. Both high-FIP (first ionization potential) and low-FIP elements show enhancement over the mean abundances. An unusual giant flare is detected from ROXs 31. The peak luminosity and temperature are ~10^33 ergs s^-1 and ~10 keV, respectively. The temperature...

  14. Highlights and Discoveries from the Chandra X-ray Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Tananbaum, H; Tucker, W; Wilkes, B; Edmonds, P

    2014-01-01

    Within 40 years of the detection of the first extrasolar X-ray source in 1962,NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has achieved an increase in sensitivity of 10 orders of magnitude, comparable to the gain in going from naked-eye observations to the most powerful optical telescopes over the past 400 years. Chandra is unique in its capabilities for producing sub-arcsecond X-ray images with 100-200 eV energy resolution for energies in the range 0.08X-ray sources to high precision, detecting extremely faint sources, and obtaining high resolution spectra of selected cosmic phenomena. The extended Chandra mission provides a long observing baseline with stable and well-calibrated instruments, enabling temporal studies over time-scales from milliseconds to years. In this report we present a selection of highlights that illustrate how observations using Chandra, sometimes alone, but often in conjunction with other telescopes, have deepened, and in some instances revolutionized, our understanding ...

  15. The Chandra X-Ray Observatory: Progress Report and Highlights

    CERN Document Server

    Weisskopf, Martin C

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 13 years, the Chandra X-ray Observatory's ability to provide high resolution X-ray images and spectra have established it as one of the most versatile and powerful tools for astrophysical research in the 21st century. Chandra explores the hot, x-ray-emitting regions of the universe, observing sources with fluxes spanning more than 10 orders of magnitude, from the X-ray brightest, Sco X-1, to the faintest sources in the Chandra Deep Field South survey. Thanks to its continuing operational life, the Chandra mission now also provides a long observing baseline which, in and of itself, is opening new research opportunities. In addition, observations in the past few years have deepened our understanding of the co-evolution of supermassive black holes and galaxies, the details of black hole accretion, the nature of dark energy and dark matter, the details of supernovae and their progenitors, the interiors of neutron stars, the evolution of massive stars, and the high-energy environment of protoplanetar...

  16. Chandra X-ray observations of the HII region G5.89-0.39 and TeV Source HESSJ1800-240B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, G.; Horns, D.; Uchiyama, Y.; Funk, S.; Wagner, S.; Nicholas, B.; H.E.S.S. Collaboration

    The TeV gamma-ray sources in the field of the old age (> 10000 yr) supernova remnant (SNR) W28 present a unique opportunity to probe for a new type of multi-TeV particle accelerator, namely, HII regions. One such example is the TeV source HESS J1800-240B which is found towards the highly unusual HII region complex G5.89-0.39. In this context X-rays studies are highly valuable in probing the particle acceleration potential of such HII regions and their subsequent contribution to the gamma-ray emission. Previous high resolution XMM-Newton X-ray observations despite being affected by stray light from a nearby X-ray binary, revealed several sources co-located with the two star forming components of G5.89-0.39, namely G5.89-0.39A, a HII region, as well as G5.89-0.39B, an ultracompact or UCHII region. Here we describe preliminary analysis and results from our Chandra observations towards G5.89-0.39 and HESS J1800-240B (∼80 ks) which are not affected by stray light. With Chandra, we reveal over 200 X-ray sources which appear to cluster somewhat towards G5.89-0.39A and B respectively. This includes possibly extended emission towards a massive O5 or earlier spectral type star (known as Feldt's star) thought to provide much of the ionisation and energetics in G5.89-0.39B. Some of the X-ray sources exhibit energetics typical of young moderate to high mass stars. Our Chandra observations reveal for the first time the extent of star formation in the two HII components. Ongoing work centres on detailed spectral studies, cross-correlation with stellar catalogues, and the search for extended X-ray emission.

  17. Highlights and discoveries from the Chandra X-ray Observatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tananbaum, H; Weisskopf, M C; Tucker, W; Wilkes, B; Edmonds, P

    2014-06-01

    Within 40 years of the detection of the first extra-solar x-ray source in 1962, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has achieved an increase in sensitivity of 10 orders of magnitude, comparable to the gain in going from naked-eye observations to the most powerful optical telescopes over the past 400 years. Chandra is unique in its capabilities for producing sub-arcsecond x-ray images with 100-200 eV energy resolution for energies in the range 0.08 black holes; the growth of supermassive black holes and their role in the regulation of star formation and growth of galaxies; impacts of collisions, mergers, and feedback on growth and evolution of groups and clusters of galaxies; and properties of dark matter and dark energy. PMID:24913425

  18. Discovery of X-rays from Mars with Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Dennerl, K

    2002-01-01

    On 4 July 2001, X-rays from Mars were detected for the first time. The observation was performed with the ACIS-I detector onboard Chandra and yielded data of high spatial and temporal resolution, together with spectral information. Mars is clearly detected as an almost fully illuminated disk, with an indication of limb brightening at the sunward side, accompanied by some fading on the opposite side. The morphology and the X-ray luminosity of ~4 MW are fully consistent with fluorescent scattering of solar X-rays in the upper Mars atmosphere. The X-ray spectrum is dominated by a single narrow emission line, which is most likely caused by O-K_alpha fluorescence. No evidence for temporal variability is found. This is in agreement with the solar X-ray flux, which was almost constant during the observation. In addition to the X-ray fluorescence, there is evidence for an additional source of X-ray emission, indicated by a faint X-ray halo which can be traced to about three Mars radii, and by an additional component ...

  19. The discovery of X-rays from Venus with Chandra

    OpenAIRE

    Dennerl, K.; Burwitz, V.; Englhauser, J.; Lisse, C.; Wolk, S.

    2002-01-01

    On January 10 and 13, 2001, Venus was observed for the first time with an X-ray astronomy satellite. The observation, performed with the ACIS-I and LETG/ACIS-S instruments on Chandra, yielded data of high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution. Venus is clearly detected as a half-lit crescent, with considerable brightening on the sunward limb. The morphology agrees well with that expected from fluorescent scattering of solar X-rays in the planetary atmosphere. The radiation is observed at...

  20. Discovery of X-rays from Venus with Chandra

    OpenAIRE

    Dennerl, K.; Burwitz, V.; Englhauser, J.; Lisse, C.; Wolk, S.

    2002-01-01

    On January 10 and 13, 2001, Venus was observed for the first time with an X-ray astronomy satellite. The observation, performed with the ACIS-I and LETG/ACIS-S instruments on Chandra, yielded data of high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution. Venus is clearly detected as a half-lit crescent, with considerable brightening on the sunward limb. The morphology agrees well with that expected from fluorescent scattering of solar X-rays in the planetary atmosphere. The radiation is observed at...

  1. NASA Unveils First Images From Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-01

    to precisely measure these X-rays tells how much of each element is present. With this information, astronomers can investigate how the elements necessary for life are created and spread throughout the galaxy by exploding stars. "Chandra will help to confirm one of the most fascinating theories of modern science -- that we came from the stars," said Professor Robert Kirshner of Harvard University. "Its ability to make X-ray images of comparable quality to optical images will have an impact on virtually every area of astronomy." Chandra also imaged a distant and very luminous quasar -- a single star-like object -- sporting a powerful X-ray jet blasting into space. The quasar radiates with the power of 10 trillion suns, energy which scientists believe comes from a supermassive black hole at its center. Chandra's image, combined with radio telescope observations, should provide insight into the process by which supermassive black holes can produce such cosmic jets. "Chandra has allowed NASA to seize the opportunity to put the U.S. back in the lead of observational X-ray astronomy," said Dr. Edward Weiler, Associate Administrator of Space Science, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC. "History teaches us that whenever you develop a telescope 10 times better than what came before, you will revolutionize astronomy. Chandra is poised to do just that." The Chandra X-ray observatory was named in honor of the late Nobel laureate Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center manages the Chandra program. TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, CA, is the prime contractor for the spacecraft. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Center controls science and flight operations from Cambridge, MA. Press: Fact Sheet The first Chandra images will be posted to the Internet at: http://chandra.nasa.gov and http://chandra.harvard.edu NASA press releases and other information are available automatically by sending an Internet electronic mail message to domo@hq.nasa.gov. In the body of the

  2. Discovery of X-rays from Mars with Chandra

    OpenAIRE

    Dennerl, Konrad

    2002-01-01

    On 4 July 2001, X-rays from Mars were detected for the first time. The observation was performed with the ACIS-I detector onboard Chandra and yielded data of high spatial and temporal resolution, together with spectral information. Mars is clearly detected as an almost fully illuminated disk, with an indication of limb brightening at the sunward side, accompanied by some fading on the opposite side. The morphology and the X-ray luminosity of ~4 MW are fully consistent with fluorescent scatter...

  3. Observations of the Crab Nebula with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory During the Gamma-Ray Flare of 2011 April

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, using the AGILE and Fermi satellites, gamma-ray flares have been discovered from the direction of the Crab Nebula (Tavani et al. 2011, Abdo et al. 2011). We have been using the Chandra X-Ray observatory to monitor the Crab on a monthly cadence since just after the 2010 September gamma-ray flare. We were fortunate to trigger series of pre-planned target of opportunity observations during the 2011 April flare. We present the results of these observations and address some implications both for now and for the future.

  4. Chandra X-ray Observatory Optical Axis and Aimpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Chandra X-ray Observatory revolutionized the X-ray astronomy as being the first, and so far the only, X-ray telescope achieving sub-arcsecond resolution. Chandra comprises of three principal elements: the High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA), Pointing Control and Aspect Determination (PCAD) system, and the Science Instrument Module (SIM). To achieve and retain the unprecedented imaging quality, it is critical that these three principal elements stay rigid and stable for the entire life time of the Chandra operation. Tracking the Chandra optical axis and aimpoint with respect to detector positions is the most relevant measurement for understanding telescope stability. The study shows that both the optical axis and the aimpoint has been drifting since Chandra launch. I will discuss the telescope focal-point, optical axis, aimpoint, their positiondrifts during the mission, the impact to Chandra operations, and the permanent default aimpoint, to be implemented in Chandra cycle 18.

  5. Chandra observations of five INTEGRAL sources: new X-ray positions for IGR J16393-4643 and IGR J17091-3624

    CERN Document Server

    Bodaghee, Arash; Tomsick, John A; Rodriguez, Jerome

    2012-01-01

    The Chandra High Resolution Camera observed the fields of five hard X-ray sources in order to help us obtain X-ray coordinates with sub-arcsecond precision. These observations provide the most accurate X-ray positions known for IGR J16393-4643 and for IGR J17091-3624. The obscured X-ray pulsar IGR J16393-4643 lies at R.A. (J2000) = 16:39:05.47, and Dec. = -46:42:13.0 (error radius of 0.6" at 90% confidence). This position is incompatible with the previously-proposed counterpart 2MASS J16390535-4642137, and it points instead to a new counterpart candidate that is possibly blended with the 2MASS star. The black hole candidate IGR J17091-3624 was observed during its 2011 outburst providing coordinates of R.A. = 17:09:07.59, and Dec. = -36:24:25.4. This position is compatible with those of the proposed optical/IR and radio counterparts, solidifying the source's status as a microquasar. The other three targets, IGR J14043-6148, IGR J16358-4726, and IGR J17597-2201, were not detected with 3{\\sigma} upper limits of,...

  6. SPATIALLY RESOLVING A STARBURST GALAXY AT HARD X-RAY ENERGIES: NuSTAR, CHANDRA, AND VLBA OBSERVATIONS OF NGC 253

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wik, D. R.; Lehmer, B. D.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Yukita, M.; Ptak, A.; Venters, T.; Zhang, W. W. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Zezas, A. [Physics Department, University of Crete, Heraklion (Greece); Antoniou, V. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Argo, M. K. [ASTRON, The Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990-AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Bechtol, K. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Boggs, S.; Craig, W.; Krivonos, R. [U.C. Berkeley Space Sciences Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Christensen, F. [National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Hailey, C. [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Harrison, F. [Caltech Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, Pasadena, CA (United States); Maccarone, T. J. [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2014-12-20

    Prior to the launch of NuSTAR, it was not feasible to spatially resolve the hard (E > 10 keV) emission from galaxies beyond the Local Group. The combined NuSTAR data set, comprised of three ∼165 ks observations, allows spatial characterization of the hard X-ray emission in the galaxy NGC 253 for the first time. As a follow up to our initial study of its nuclear region, we present the first results concerning the full galaxy from simultaneous NuSTAR, Chandra, and Very Long Baseline Array monitoring of the local starburst galaxy NGC 253. Above ∼10 keV, nearly all the emission is concentrated within 100'' of the galactic center, produced almost exclusively by three nuclear sources, an off-nuclear ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX), and a pulsar candidate that we identify for the first time in these observations. We detect 21 distinct sources in energy bands up to 25 keV, mostly consisting of intermediate state black hole X-ray binaries. The global X-ray emission of the galaxy—dominated by the off-nuclear ULX and nuclear sources, which are also likely ULXs—falls steeply (photon index ≳ 3) above 10 keV, consistent with other NuSTAR-observed ULXs, and no significant excess above the background is detected at E > 40 keV. We report upper limits on diffuse inverse Compton emission for a range of spatial models. For the most extended morphologies considered, these hard X-ray constraints disfavor a dominant inverse Compton component to explain the γ-ray emission detected with Fermi and H.E.S.S. If NGC 253 is typical of starburst galaxies at higher redshift, their contribution to the E > 10 keV cosmic X-ray background is <1%.

  7. X-ray Observations of Planetary Nebulae

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero, M. A.; Chu, Y.-H.; Gruendl, R A

    2003-01-01

    Planetary nebulae (PNe) are an exciting addition to the zoo of X-ray sources. Recent Chandra and XMM-Newton observations have detected diffuse X-ray emission from shocked fast winds in PN interiors as well as bow-shocks of fast collimated outflows impinging on the nebular envelope. Point X-ray sources associated with PN central stars are also detected, with the soft X-ray (>0.5 keV) emission from instability shocks in the fast stellar wind itself or from a low-mass companion's coronal activit...

  8. Spatially Resolving a Starburst Galaxy at Hard X-ray Energies: NuSTAR, Chandra, AND VLBA Observations of NGC 253

    CERN Document Server

    Wik, Daniel R; Hornschemeier, Ann E; Yukita, Mihoko; Ptak, Andrew; Zezas, Andreas; Antoniou, Vallia; Argo, Megan K; Bechtol, Keith; Boggs, Steven; Christensen, Finn; Craig, William; Hailey, Charles; Harrison, Fiona; Krivanos, Roman; Maccarone, Thomas J; Stern, Daniel; Venters, Tonia; Zhang, William W

    2014-01-01

    Prior to the launch of NuSTAR, it was not feasible to spatially resolve the hard (E > 10 keV) emission from galaxies beyond the Local Group. The combined NuSTAR dataset, comprised of three ~165 ks observations, allows spatial characterization of the hard X-ray emission in the galaxy NGC 253 for the first time. As a follow up to our initial study of its nuclear region, we present the first results concerning the full galaxy from simultaneous NuSTAR, Chandra, and VLBA monitoring of the local starburst galaxy NGC 253. Above ~10 keV, nearly all the emission is concentrated within 100" of the galactic center, produced almost exclusively by three nuclear sources, an off-nuclear ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX), and a pulsar candidate that we identify for the first time in these observations. We detect 21 distinct sources in energy bands up to 25 keV, mostly consisting of intermediate state black hole X-ray binaries. The global X-ray emission of the galaxy - dominated by the off-nuclear ULX and nuclear sources, whic...

  9. 7.1 keV sterile neutrino constraints from X-ray observations of 33 clusters of galaxies with Chandra ACIS

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, F.; Sanders, J. S.; Nandra, K.; Clerc, N; De Gaspari, M.

    2016-01-01

    Recently an unidentified emission line at 3.55 keV has been detected in X-ray spectra of clusters of galaxies. The line has been discussed as a possible decay signature of 7.1 keV sterile neutrinos, which have been proposed as a dark matter candidate. We aim at putting constraints on the proposed line emission in a large sample of Chandra-observed clusters and obtain limits on the mixing-angle in a 7.1 keV sterile neutrino dark matter scenario. For a sample of 33 high-mass clusters of galaxie...

  10. Chandra Finds Most Distant X-ray Galaxy Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-01

    The most distant X-ray cluster of galaxies yet has been found by astronomers using NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory. Approximately 10 billion light years from Earth, the cluster 3C294 is 40 percent farther than the next most distant X-ray galaxy cluster. The existence of such a distant galaxy cluster is important for understanding how the universe evolved. "Distant objects like 3C294 provide snapshots to how these galaxy clusters looked billions of years ago," said Andrew Fabian of the Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge, England and lead author of the paper accepted for publication in the Monthly Notices of Britain’s Royal Astronomical Society. "These latest results help us better understand what the universe was like when it was only 20 percent of its current age." Chandra’s image reveals an hourglass-shaped region of X-ray emission centered on the previously known central radio source. This X-ray emission extends outward from the central galaxy for at least 300,000 light years and shows that the known radio source is in the central galaxy of a massive cluster. Scientists have long suspected that distant radio-emitting galaxies like 3C294 are part of larger groups of galaxies known as "clusters." However, radio data provides astronomers with only a partial picture of these distant objects. Confirmation of the existence of clusters at great distances - and, hence, at early stages of the universe - requires information from other wavelengths. Optical observations can be used to pinpoint individual galaxies, but X-ray data are needed to detect the hot gas that fills the space within the cluster. "Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe," said Fabian. "We do not expect to find many massive objects, such as the 3C294 cluster, in early times because structure is thought to grow from small scales to large scales." The vast clouds of hot gas that envelope galaxies in clusters are thought to be heated by collapse toward the

  11. The CHANDRA X-ray Grating Spectrum of Eta Carinae

    CERN Document Server

    Corcoran, M F; Petre, R; Ishibashi, K; Davidson, K; Townsley, L K; Smith, R; White, S; Viotti, R; Damineli, A

    2001-01-01

    Eta Car may be the most massive and luminous star in the Galaxy and is suspected to be a massive, colliding wind binary system. The CHANDRA X-ray observatory has obtained a calibrated, high-resolution X-ray spectrum of the star uncontaminated by the nearby extended soft X-ray emisssion. Our 89 ksec CHANDRA observation with the High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS) shows that the hot gas near the star is non-isothermal. The temperature distribution may represent the emission on either side of the colliding wind bow shock, effectively ``resolving'' the shock. The pre-shock wind velocities are ~500 and ~ 2000 km/s in our analysis, and these velocities are interpreted as the terminal velocities of the winds from Eta Car and from the hidden companion star. The abundances of Si and Fe are significantly non-solar based on the strengths of the observed H- and He-like emission lines. The iron fluorescent line at 1.93 Angstrom, first detected by ASCA, is clearly resolved from the thermal iron line in th...

  12. The unusual X-ray morphology of NGC4636 revealed by deep Chandra observations: cavities and shocks created by past AGN outbursts

    CERN Document Server

    Baldi, A; Jones, C; Kraft, R; Nulsen, P; Churazov, E; David, L; Giacintucci, S

    2009-01-01

    We present Chandra ACIS-I and ACIS-S observations ($\\sim$200 ks in total) of the X-ray luminous elliptical galaxy NGC 4636, located in the outskirts of the Virgo cluster. A soft band (0.5-2 keV) image shows the presence of a bright core in the center surrounded by an extended X-ray corona and two pronounced quasi-symmetric, 8 kpc long, arm-like features. Each of this features defines the rimof an ellipsoidal bubble. An additional bubble-like feature, whose northern rim is located $\\sim2$ kpc south of the north-eastern arm, is detected as well. We present surface brightness and temperature profiles across the rims of the bubbles, showing that their edges are sharp and characterized by temperature jumps of about 20-25%. Through a comparison of the observed profiles with theoretical shock models, we demonstrate that a scenario where the bubbles were produced by shocks, probably driven by energy deposited off-center by jets, is the most viable explanation to the X-ray morphology observed in the central part of NG...

  13. Spatially resolving a starburst galaxy at hard X-ray energies: NuSTAR, CHANDRA, AND VLBA observations of NGC 253

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wik, D. R.; Lehmer, B. D.; Hornschemeier, A. E.;

    2014-01-01

    intermediate state black hole X-ray binaries. The global X-ray emission of the galaxy-dominated by the off-nuclear ULX and nuclear sources, which are also likely ULXs-falls steeply (photon index ≳ 3) above 10 keV, consistent with other NuSTAR-observed ULXs, and no significant excess above the background is...... the first time. As a follow up to our initial study of its nuclear region, we present the first results concerning the full galaxy from simultaneous NuSTAR, Chandra, and Very Long Baseline Array monitoring of the local starburst galaxy NGC 253. Above ~10 keV, nearly all the emission is concentrated...... within 100" of the galactic center, produced almost exclusively by three nuclear sources, an off-nuclear ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX), and a pulsar candidate that we identify for the first time in these observations. We detect 21 distinct sources in energy bands up to 25 keV, mostly consisting of...

  14. The X-ray Zurich Environmental Study (X-ZENS). I. Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of AGNs in galaxies in nearby groups

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, J D; Finoguenov, A; Carollo, C M; Cibinel, A; Lilly, S J; Schawinski, K

    2013-01-01

    We describe X-ray observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton of 18 galaxy groups (M_group ~ 1-6x10^13 Msolar, z~0.05) from the Zurich Environmental Study (ZENS). We aim to establish the frequency and properties, unaffected by host galaxy dilution and obscuration, of AGNs in central and satellite galaxy members, also as a function of halo-centric distance. X-ray point-source detections are reported for 22 of 177 observed galaxies, down to a limit of f_(0.5-8 keV) ~ 5x10^-15 erg cm^-2 s^-1, corresponding to a limiting luminosity of L_(0.5-8 keV)~3x10^40 erg s^-1. With the majority of the X-ray sources attributed to AGNs of low-to-moderate levels (L/L_Edd>~10^-4), we discuss the detection rate in the context of the occupation of AGNs to halos of this mass scale and redshift, and compare the structural/morphological properties between AGN-active and non-active galaxies of different rank and location within the group halos. We see a slight tendency for AGN hosts to have either relatively brighter/denser disks (or re...

  15. The Megasecond Chandra X-Ray Visionary Project Observation of NGC 3115 (III): luminosity functions of LMXBs and dependence on stellar environments

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Dacheng; Wong, Ka-wah; Jennings, Zachary G; Homan, Jeroen; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Strader, Jay; Brodie, Jean P; Sivakoff, Gregory R; Remillard, Ronald A

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) in the nearby lenticular galaxy NGC 3115, using the Megasecond Chandra X-Ray Visionary Project Observation. With a total exposure time of ~1.1 Ms, we constructed the XLF down to a limiting luminosity of ~10^36 erg/s, much deeper than typically reached for other early-type galaxies. We found significant flattening of the overall LMXB XLF from dN/dL \\propto L^{-2.2\\pm0.4} above 5.5x10^37 erg/s to dN/dL \\propto L^{-1.0\\pm0.1} below it, though we could not rule out a fit with a higher break at ~1.6x10^38 erg/s. We also found evidence that the XLF of LMXBs in globular clusters (GCs) is overall flatter than that of field LMXBs. Thus our results for this galaxy do not support the idea that all LMXBs are formed in GCs. The XLF of field LMXBs seems to show spatial variation, with the XLF in the inner region of the galaxy being flatter than that in the outer region, probably due to contamination of LMXBs from undetected and/or disrup...

  16. The Chandra X-Ray Observatory: Five Years of Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2005-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory is the X-ray component of NASA's Great Observatory Program and has been operating successfully for over five years. We present here brief overview of the technical performance and some of the remarkable discoveries.

  17. The Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO): An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    1999-01-01

    Significant advances in science inevitably occur when the state of the art in instrumentation improves. NASA's newest Great Observatory, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO) -- formally known as the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) -- launched on July 23, 1999 and represents such an advance. The CXO is designed to study the x-ray emission from all categories of astronomical objects from normal stars to quasars.

  18. 7.1 keV sterile neutrino constraints from X-ray observations of 33 clusters of galaxies with Chandra ACIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, F.; Sanders, J. S.; Nandra, K.; Clerc, N.; Gaspari, M.

    2016-08-01

    Context. Recently an unidentified emission line at 3.55 keV has been detected in X-ray spectra of clusters of galaxies. The line has been discussed as a possible decay signature of 7.1 keV sterile neutrinos, which have been proposed as a dark matter (DM) candidate. Aims: We aim to put constraints on the proposed line emission in a large sample of Chandra-observed clusters and obtain limits on the mixing angle in a 7.1 keV sterile neutrino DM scenario. Methods: For a sample of 33 high-mass clusters of galaxies, we merge all observations from the Chandra data archive. Each cluster has more than 100 ks of combined exposure. The resulting high signal-to-noise spectra are used to constrain the flux of an unidentified line emission at 3.55 keV in the individual spectra and a merged spectrum of all clusters. Results: We obtained very detailed spectra around the 3.55 keV range and limits on an unidentified emission line. Assuming all DM were made of 7.1 keV sterile neutrinos, the upper limits on the mixing angle are sin2(2Θ) < 10.1×10-11 from ACIS-I and < 40.3×10-11 from ACIS-S data at 99.7 per cent confidence level. Conclusions: We do not find evidence for an unidentified emission line at 3.55 keV. The sample extends the list of objects searched for an emission line at 3.55 keV and will help to identify the best targets for future studies of the potential DM decay line with upcoming X-ray observatories like Hitomi (Astro-H), eROSITA, and Athena.

  19. Invisible Giant: Chandra's Limits on X-rays from Betelgeuse

    CERN Document Server

    Posson-Brown, J; Pease, D O; Drake, J J; Posson-Brown, Jennifer; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Pease, Deron O.; Drake, Jeremy J.

    2006-01-01

    We have analyzed Chandra calibration observations of Betelgeuse ($\\alpha$ Ori, M2 Iab, $m_{V} = 0.58$, 131 pc) obtained at the aimpoint locations of the HRC-I (8 ks), HRC-S (8 ks), and ACIS-I (5 ks). Betelgeuse is undetected in all the individual observations as well as cumulatively. We derive $3\\sigma$ upper limits to its X-ray count rates and compute the corresponding X-ray flux upper limits for isothermal coronal plasma over a range of temperatures, $T=0.3-10$~MK. We place a flux limit at the telescope of $\\fx\\approx4\\times10^{-15}$~ergs~s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ at T=1~MK. The upper limit is lowered by a factor of $\\approx3$ at higher temperatures, roughly an order of magnitude lower than that obtained previously. Assuming that the entire stellar surface is active, these fluxes correspond to a surface flux limit that ranges from 30-7000~ergs~s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ at T=1~MK, to $\\approx 1$~ergs~s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ at higher temperatures, five orders of magnitude lower than the quiet Sun X-ray surface flux. We discuss...

  20. 7.1 keV sterile neutrino constraints from X-ray observations of 33 clusters of galaxies with Chandra ACIS

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, F; Nandra, K; Clerc, N; Gaspari, M

    2016-01-01

    Recently an unidentified emission line at 3.55 keV has been detected in X-ray spectra of clusters of galaxies. The line has been discussed as a possible decay signature of 7.1 keV sterile neutrinos, which have been proposed as a dark matter candidate. We aim at putting constraints on the proposed line emission in a large sample of Chandra-observed clusters and obtain limits on the mixing-angle in a 7.1 keV sterile neutrino dark matter scenario. For a sample of 33 high-mass clusters of galaxies we merge all observations from the Chandra data archive. Each cluster has more than 100 ks of combined exposure. The resulting high signal-to-noise spectra are used to constrain the flux of an unidentified line emission at 3.55 keV in the individual spectra and a merged spectrum of all clusters. We obtained very detailed spectra around the 3.55 keV range and limits on an unidentified emission line. Assuming all dark matter were made of 7.1 keV sterile neutrinos the upper limits on the mixing angle are $\\rm{sin^2(2\\Theta...

  1. High-Resolution Chandra X-ray Imaging and Spectroscopy of the Sigma Orionis Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Skinner, S.L.; Sokal, K. R.; Cohen, D. H.; Gagne, M.; Owocki, S.P.; Townsend, R. D.

    2008-01-01

    We present results of a 90 ksec Chandra X-ray observation of the young sigma Orionis cluster (age ~3 Myr) obtained with the High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer. We use the high resolution grating spectrum and moderate resolution CCD spectrum of the massive central star sigma Ori AB (O9.5V + B0.5V) to test wind shock theories of X-ray emission and also analyze the high spatial resolution zero-order ACIS-S image of the central cluster region. Chandra detected 42 X-ray sources on the p...

  2. The CHANDRA HETGS X-ray Grating Spectrum of Eta Car

    OpenAIRE

    Corcoran, M. F; Swank, J.H.; Petre, R.; Ishibashi, K.; Davidson, K.; Townsley, L.; Smith, R.; S. White; Viotti, R; A. Damineli

    2001-01-01

    Eta Car may be the most massive and luminous star in the Galaxy and is suspected to be a massive, colliding wind binary system. The CHANDRA X-ray observatory has obtained a calibrated, high-resolution X-ray spectrum of the star uncontaminated by the nearby extended soft X-ray emisssion. Our 89 ksec CHANDRA observation with the High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS) shows that the hot gas near the star is non-isothermal. The temperature distribution may represent the emission on...

  3. The X-ray Zurich environmental study (X-zens). I. Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of active galactic nuclei in galaxies in nearby groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, J. D. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, the University of Tokyo (Kavli IPMU, WPI), Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Miniati, F.; Carollo, C. M.; Cibinel, A.; Lilly, S. J.; Schawinski, K. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich, CH-8093, Zürich (Switzerland); Finoguenov, A., E-mail: john.silverman@ipmu.jp [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2a, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-01-01

    We describe X-ray observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton of 18 M {sub group} ∼ 1-6 × 10{sup 13} M {sub ☉}, z ∼ 0.05 galaxy groups from the Zurich ENvironmental Study. The X-ray data aim at establishing the frequency and properties, unaffected by host galaxy dilution and obscuration, of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in central and satellite galaxies, also as a function of halo-centric distance. X-ray point-source detections are reported for 22 of the 177 galaxies, down to a sensitivity level of f {sub 0.5} {sub –} {sub 8} {sub keV} ∼ 5 × 10{sup –15} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}, corresponding to a limiting luminosity of L {sub 0.5} {sub –} {sub 8} {sub keV} ∼ 3 × 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1}. With the majority of the X-ray sources attributed to AGNs of low-to-moderate levels (L/L {sub Edd} ≳ 10{sup –4}), we discuss the detection rate in the context of the occupation of AGNs to halos of this mass scale and redshift and compare the structural and morphological properties between AGN-active and non-active galaxies. At galaxy mass scales <10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}, central galaxies appear to be a factor of ∼4 more likely to host AGNs than satellite galaxies of similar mass. This effect, coupled with the tendency for AGNs to be hosted by massive galaxies, explains the (weak) trend for AGNs to be preferentially found in the inner parts of group halos, with no detectable trend with halo-centric distance in the frequency of AGNs within the satellite population. Finally, our data indicate that the rate of decline with redshift of AGN activity in galaxy groups matches that of the global AGN population, indicating that either AGN activity occurs preferentially in group halos or that the evolution rate is independent of halo mass.

  4. How To Cover NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-01

    NASA's newest space telescope, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, is scheduled for launch not earlier than July 20, 1999, aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-93. The world's most powerful X-ray observatory, Chandra will join the Hubble Space Telescope and NASA's other great observatories in an unprecedented study of our universe. With its capability to "see" an otherwise invisible but violent, vibrant and ever-changing universe, Chandra will provide insights into the universe's structure and evolution. The following information is designed to assist news media representatives cover launch and activation of the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Covering from the Chandra Control Center NASA will establish a news center at the Chandra X-ray Observatory Operations Control Center in Cambridge, Mass., during the critical period of launch and early activation. The news center will be open from approximately two days prior to launch until the observatory is established in its operating orbit approximately 11 days after launch. The telephone numbers for the news center are: (617) 496-4454 (617) 496-4462 (617) 496-4484 The news center will be staffed around the clock during the Shuttle mission by media relations officers knowledgeable about the Chandra mission and its status. Media covering from the news center will be provided work space and have opportunities for face-to-face interviews with Chandra management, control team members and Chandra scientists. They will be able to participate in daily Chandra status briefings and have access to a special control room viewing area. Additionally, media covering from Cambridge will receive periodic status reports on Chandra and the STS-93 mission, and will be able to participate in interactive televised briefings on the STS-93 mission originating from other NASA centers. While advance accreditation is not required, media interested in covering Chandra from the Operations Control Center should contact Dave Drachlis by telephone at (256) 544

  5. Chandra reveals a black-hole X-ray binary within the ultraluminous supernova remnant MF 16

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, T P; Colbert, E. J. M.

    2003-01-01

    We present evidence, based on Chandra ACIS-S observations of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 6946, that the extraodinary X-ray luminosity of the MF 16 supernova remnant actually arises in a black-hole X-ray binary. This conclusion is drawn from the point-like nature of the X-ray source, its X-ray spectrum closely resembling the spectrum of other ultraluminous X-ray sources thought to be black-hole X-ray binary systems, and the detection of rapid hard X-ray variability from the source. We briefly...

  6. Automated classification of Chandra X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehm, Derek; Kargaltsev, O.; Rangelov, B.; Volkov, I.; Pavlov, G. G.

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of the latest generation X-ray telescopes there has been a major influx of data associated with the detection of hundreds of thousands X-ray sources. As one can rarely tell a source type from its X-ray properties alone, the full potential of the X-ray catalogs can only be unlocked by correlating multiwavelength (MW) properties via cross-identification with other surveys. However, one would spend an enormous amount of time classifying these objects by their physical nature if the classification was to be done on a source-by-source basis by humans. Therefore, we are using a supervised learning algorithm to classify sources detected by the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The classifications are based on a training dataset which currently includes about 7,000 X-ray sources of known nature (main sequence stars, Wolf-Rayet stars, young stars, active galactic nuclei, low mass X-ray binaries, high mass x-ray binaries, and neutron stars). For each source, the training dataset includes up to 24 multiwavelength properties. The efficiency and accuracy of the classification is verified by dividing the training dataset in two and performing cross-validation. The results are also inspected by plotting source properties in 2D slices of the parameter space. As an application of our automated procedure we classified unidentified sources in the supernova remnant (SNR) G352.7-0.1, in the field of HESS J1809-193, and in part of the Chandra Source Catalog 1.0. We present the results of the verification tests and the classification results. This research was partially supported by NASA/SAO grant AR3-14017X.

  7. Synchrotron Radiation from Outer Space and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2006-01-01

    The universe provides numerous extremely interesting astrophysical sources of synchrotron X radiation. The Chandra X-ray Observatory and other X-ray missions provide powerful probes of these and other cosmic X-ray sources. Chandra is the X-ray component of NASA's Great Observatory Program which also includes the Hubble Space telescope, the Spitzer Infrared Telescope Facility, and the now defunct Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory. The Chandra X-Ray Observatory provides the best angular resolution ...

  8. The statistical uncertainties on X-ray flux and spectral parameters from Chandra ACIS-I observations of faint sources: Application to the Cygnus OB2 Association

    CERN Document Server

    Albacete-Colombo, J F; Drake, J J; Wright, N J; Guarcello, M; Kashyap, V

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the uncertainties of fitted X-ray model parameters and fluxes for relatively faint Chandra ACIS-I source spectra. Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations are employed to construct a large set of 150,000 fake X-ray spectra in the low photon count statistics regime (from 20 to 350 net counts) using the XSPEC spectral model fitting package. The simulations employed both absorbed thermal (APEC) and non-thermal (power-law) models, in concert with the Chandra ACIS-I instrument response and interstellar absorption. Simulated X-ray spectra were fit assuming a wide set of different input parameters and C-statistic minimization criteria to avoid numerical artifacts in the accepted solutions. Results provide an error estimate for each parameter (absorption, NH, plasma temperature, kT, or power-law slope, Gamma, and flux, and for different background contamination levels. The distributions of these errors are studied as a function of the 1 sigma quantiles and we show how these correlate with different model parameter...

  9. The CHANDRA HETGS X-ray Grating Spectrum of Eta Carinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, M. F.; Swank, J. H.; Petre, R.; Ishibashi, K.; Davidson, K.; Townsley, L.; Smith, R.; White, S.; Viotti, R.; Damineli, A.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Eta Carinae may be the most massive and luminous star in the Galaxy and is suspected to be a massive, colliding wind binary system. The CHANDRA X-ray observatory has obtained a calibrated, high-resolution X-ray spectrum of the star uncontaminated by the nearby extended soft X-ray emission. Our 89 ksec CHANDRA observation with the High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS) shows that the hot gas near the star is non-isothermal. The temperature distribution may represent the emission on either side of the colliding wind bow shock, effectively 'resolving' the shock. If so, the pre-shock wind velocities are approximately 700 and 1800 km/s in our analysis, and these velocities may be interpreted as the terminal velocities of the winds from 71 Carinae and from the hidden companion star. The forbidden-to-intercombination line ratios for the He-like ions of S, Si, and Fe are large, indicating that the line forming region lies far from the stellar photosphere. The iron fluorescent line at 1.93 angstroms, first detected by ASCA, is clearly resolved from the thermal iron line in the CHANDRA grating spectrum. The Fe fluorescent line is weaker in our CHANDRA observation than in any of the ASCA spectra. The CHANDRA observation also provides the first high-time resolution lightcurve of the uncontaminated stellar X-ray emission from 77 Carinae and shows that there is no significant, coherent variability during the CHANDRA observation. The 77 Carinae CHANDRA grating spectrum is unlike recently published X-ray grating spectra of single massive stars in significant ways and is generally consistent with colliding wind emission in a massive binary.

  10. X-rays beware: the deepest Chandra catalogue of point sources in M31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulic, N.; Gallagher, S. C.; Barmby, P.

    2016-10-01

    This study represents the most sensitive Chandra X-ray point source catalogue of M31. Using 133 publicly available Chandra ACIS-I/S observations totalling ˜1 Ms, we detected 795 X-ray sources in the bulge, north-east, and south-west fields of M31, covering an area of ≈0.6 deg2, to a limiting unabsorbed 0.5-8.0 keV luminosity of ˜1034 erg s-1. In the inner bulge, where exposure is approximately constant, X-ray fluxes represent average values because they were determined from many observations over a long period of time. Similarly, our catalogue is more complete in the bulge fields since monitoring allowed more transient sources to be detected. The catalogue was cross-correlated with a previous XMM-Newton catalogue of M31's D25 isophote consisting of 1948 X-ray sources, with only 979 within the field of view of our survey. We found 387 (49 per cent) of our Chandra sources (352 or 44 per cent unique sources) matched to within 5 arcsec of 352 XMM-Newton sources. Combining this result with matching done to previous Chandra X-ray sources we detected 259. new sources in our catalogue. We created X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) in the soft (0.5-2.0 keV) and hard (2.0-8.0 keV) bands that are the most sensitive for any large galaxy based on our detection limits. Completeness-corrected XLFs show a break around ≈1.3 × 1037 erg s-1, consistent with previous work. As in past surveys, we find that the bulge XLFs are flatter than the disc, indicating a lack of bright high-mass X-ray binaries in the disc and an aging population of low-mass X-ray binaries in the bulge.

  11. Chandra X-ray Observation of a Mature Cloud-Shock Interaction in the Bright Eastern Knot Region of Puppis A

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, U; Petre, R; Hwang, Una; Flanagan, Kathryn A.

    2005-01-01

    We present Chandra X-ray images and spectra of the most prominent cloud-shock interaction region in the Puppis A supernova remnant. The Bright Eastern Knot (BEK) has two main morphological components: (1) a bright compact knot that lies directly behind the apex of an indentation in the eastern X-ray boundary and (2) lying 1' westward behind the shock, a curved vertical structure (bar) that is separated from a smaller bright cloud (cap) by faint diffuse emission. Based on hardness images and spectra, we identify the bar and cap as a single shocked interstellar cloud. Its morphology strongly resembles the ``voided sphere'' structures seen at late times in Klein et al.'s experimental simulations of cloud-shock interactions, when the crushing of the cloud by shear instabilities is well underway. We infer an interaction time of roughly 3 cloud-crushing timescales, which translates to 2000-4000 years, based on the X-ray temperature, physical size, and estimated expansion of the shocked cloud. This is the first X-ra...

  12. The Chandra Local Volume Survey: The X-ray Point Source Population of NGC 404

    CERN Document Server

    Binder, B; Eracleous, M; Gaetz, T J; Kong, A K H; Skillman, E D; Weisz, D R

    2012-01-01

    We present a comprehensive X-ray point source catalog of NGC 404 obtained as part of the Chandra Local Volume Survey. A new, 97 ks Chandra ACIS-S observation of NGC 404 was combined with archival observations for a total exposure of ~123 ks. Our survey yields 74 highly significant X-ray point sources and is sensitive to a limiting unabsorbed luminosity of ~6x10^35 erg s^-1 in the 0.35-8 keV band. To constrain the nature of each X-ray source, cross-correlations with multi-wavelength data were generated. We searched overlapping HST observations for optical counterparts to our X-ray detections, but find only two X-ray sources with candidate optical counterparts. We find 21 likely low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), although this number is a lower limit due to the difficulties in separating LMXBs from background AGN. The X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) in both the soft and hard energy bands are presented. The XLFs in the soft band (0.5-2 keV) and the hard band (2-8 keV) have a limiting luminosity at the 90% comple...

  13. Historical Remembrances of the Chandra X-ray Observatory: How Partnerships Created Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Robert

    2009-09-01

    As the astronomy community plans for new ventures in space, we're forced to find creative solutions to operate within the ever increasing fiscal constraints of the current economic environment. The Chandra X-ray Observatory program offers an example of how missions can be successfully developed within manageable budget constraints. The ten year anniversary offers us the chance to look back at the Chandra team's special partnership between scientists, managers, and industry that led to our success.Chandra experienced many of the challenges common to major observatories: state-of-the-art technical requirements, budget-induced slips, and restructurings. Yet the Chandra team achieved excellent performance for dramatically lower cost. In fact, Chandra completed its prime mission for billions of dollars less than originally planned. In 1992, NASA MSFC and Northrop Grumman (then TRW) together led a major restructure that saved approximately 3.4B in program cost, while we improved the imaging capability and observing efficiency of Chandra. This was accomplished by a combination of team-work, systems engineering, advanced technology insertion, and effective approaches for program implementation, combined with a high performance culture that aligned goals and focused on mission success. Northrop Grumman is proud of our role in supporting the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and our academic partners in advancing the frontiers of x-ray astronomy and scientific discovery with Chandra. As Chandra continues its extended mission, the observatory continues to provide superb scientific performance.

  14. BeppoSAX and Chandra Observations of SAXJ0103.2-7209 = 2E0101.5-7225 a new Persistent 345s X-ray Pulsar in the SMC

    CERN Document Server

    Israel, G L; Covino, S; Dal Fiume, D; Gaetz, T J; Mereghetti, S; Oosterbroek, T; Orlandini, M; Parmar, A N; Ricci, D; Stella, L

    2000-01-01

    We report the results of a 1998 July BeppoSAX observation of a field in the SMC which led to the discovery of 345s pulsations in the X-ray flux of SAXJ0103.2-7209. The BeppoSAX X-ray spectrum is well fit by an absorbed power-law with photon index 1.0 plus a black body component with kT=0.1keV. The unabsorbed luminosity in the 2-10 keV energy range is 1.2x10^{36} erg/s. In a very recent Chandra observation the 345s pulsations are also detected. The available period measurements provide a constant period derivative of -1.7s/yr over the last three years making SAXJ0103.2-7209 one of the most rapidly spinning-up X-ray pulsars known. The BeppoSAX position is consistent with that of the Einstein source 2E0101.5-7225 and the ROSAT source RXJ0103.2-7209. This source was detected at a luminosity level of few 10^{35}-10^{36} erg/s in all datasets of past X-ray missions since 1979. The ROSAT HRI and Chandra positions are consistent with that of a m_V=14.8 Be spectral type star already proposed as the likely optical coun...

  15. Chandra Image Gives First Look at Mars Emitted X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Giving scientists their first look, Chandra observed x-rays produced by fluorescent radiation from oxygen atoms of the Sun in the sparse upper atmosphere of Mars, about 120 kilometers (75 miles) above its surface. The x-ray power detected from the Martian atmosphere is very small, amounting to only 4 megawatts, comparable to the x-ray power of about ten thousand medical x-ray machines. At the time of the Chandra observation, a huge dust storm developed on Mars that covered about one hemisphere, later to cover the entire planet. This hemisphere rotated out of view over the 9-hour observation, but no change was observed in the x-ray intensity indicating that the dust storm did not affect the upper atmosphere. Scientists also observed a halo of x-rays extending out to 7,000 kilometers above the surface of Mars believed to be produced by collisions of ions racing away from the Sun (the solar wind).

  16. Stellar X-ray sources in the Chandra COSMOS survey

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Nicholas J; Civano, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of the X-ray properties of a sample of solar- and late-type field stars identified in the Chandra Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS), a deep (160ks) and wide (0.9 deg2) extragalactic survey. The sample of 60 sources was identified using both morphological and photometric star/galaxy separation methods. We determine X-ray count rates, extract spectra and light curves and perform spectral fits to determine fluxes and plasma temperatures. Complementary optical and near-IR photometry is also presented and combined with spectroscopy for 48 of the sources to determine spectral types and distances for the sample. We find distances ranging from 30pc to ~12kpc, including a number of the most distant and highly active stellar X-ray sources ever detected. This stellar sample extends the known coverage of the L_X-distance plane to greater distances and higher luminosities, but we do not detect as many intrinsically faint X-ray sources compared to previous surveys. Overall the sample is typically more...

  17. An Overview of the Performance of the Chandra X-ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, M. C.; Aldcroft, T. L.; Bautz, M.; Cameron, R. A.; Dewey, D.; Drake, J. J.; Grant, C. E.; Marshall, H. L.; Murray, S. S.

    2003-08-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory is the X-ray component of NASA’s Great Observatory Program which includes the recently launched Spitzer Infrared Telescope, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for observations in the visible, and the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) which, after providing years of useful data has reentered the atmosphere. All these facilities provide, or provided, scientific data to the international astronomical community in response to peer-reviewed proposals for their use. The Chandra X-ray Observatory was the result of the efforts of many academic, commercial, and government organizations primarily in the United States but also in Europe. NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) manages the project and provides project science; Northrop Grumman Space Technology (NGST formerly TRW) served as prime contractor responsible for providing the spacecraft, the telescope, and assembling and testing the observatory; and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) provides technical support and is responsible for ground operations including the Chandra X-ray Center (CXC). Telescope and instrument teams at SAO, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), the Pennsylvania State University (PSU), the Space Research Institute of the Netherlands (SRON), the Max-Planck Institüt für extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), and the University of Kiel also provide technical support to the Chandra Project. We present here a detailed description of the hardware, its on-orbit performance, and a brief overview of some of the remarkable discoveries that illustrate that performance.

  18. The Chandra ACIS Timing Survey Project: glimpsing a sample of faint X-ray pulsators

    CERN Document Server

    Israel, Gian Luca; Castillo, Guillermo Andres Rodriguez; Sidoli, Lara

    2016-01-01

    We report on the discovery of 41 new pulsating sources in the data of the Chandra Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer, which is sensitive to X-ray photons in the 0.3-10 keV band. The archival data of the first 15 years of Chandra observations were retrieved and analysed by means of fast Fourier transforms, employing a peak-detection algorithm able to screen candidate signals in an automatic fashion. We carried out the search for new X-ray pulsators in light curves with more than 50 photons, for a total of about 190,000 lightcurves out of about 430,000 extracted. With these numbers, the ChAndra Timing Survey at Brera And Roma astronomical observatories (CATS@BAR) - as we called the project - represents the largest ever systematic search for coherent signals in the classic X-ray band. More than 50 per cent of the signals were confirmed by further Chandra (for those sources with two or more pointings), XMM-Newton or ROSAT data. The period distribution of the new X-ray pulsators above about 2,000s resembles that of...

  19. Joint Analysis of Cluster Observations: II. Chandra/XMM-Newton X-ray and Weak Lensing Scaling Relations for a Sample of 50 Rich Clusters of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Mahdavi, A; Babul, A; Bildfell, C; Jeltema, T; Henry, J P

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of multiwavelength X-ray and weak lensing scaling relations for a sample of 50 clusters of galaxies. Our analysis combines Chandra and XMM-Newton data using an energy-dependent cross-calibration. After considering a number of scaling relations, we find that gas mass is the most robust estimator of weak lensing mass, yielding 15 +/- 6% intrinsic scatter at r500. The scatter does not change when measured within a fixed physical radius of 1 Mpc. Clusters with small BCG to X-ray peak offsets constitute a very regular population whose members have the same gas mass fractions and whose even smaller <10% deviations from regularity can be ascribed to line of sight geometrical effects alone. Cool-core clusters, while a somewhat different population, also show the same (<10%) scatter in the gas mass-lensing mass relation. There is a good correlation and a hint of bimodality in the plane defined by BCG offset and central entropy (or central cooling time). The pseudo-pressure YX does not discrimi...

  20. Chandra X-ray Detection of the Enigmatic Field Star BP Psc

    CERN Document Server

    Kastner, Joel H; Rodriguez, David; Grosso, Nicolas; Zuckerman, B; Perrin, Marshall D; Forveille, Thierry; Graham, James R

    2010-01-01

    BP Psc is a remarkable emission-line field star that is orbited by a dusty disk and drives a parsec-scale system of jets. We report the detection by the Chandra X-ray Observatory of a weak X-ray point source coincident with the centroids of optical/IR and submillimeter continuum emission at BP Psc. As the star's photosphere is obscured throughout the visible and near-infrared, the Chandra X-ray source likely represents the first detection of BP Psc itself. The X-rays most likely originate with magnetic activity at BP Psc and hence can be attributed either to a stellar corona or to star-disk interactions. The log of the ratio of X-ray to bolometric luminosity (log(L_X/L_{bol}) lies in the range -5.8 to -4.2. This is smaller than log(L_X/L_{bol}) ratios typical of low-mass, pre-main sequence stars, but is well within the log(L_X/L_{bol}) range observed for rapidly-rotating (FK Com-type) G giant stars. Hence, the Chandra results favor an exotic model wherein the disk/jet system of BP Psc is the result of its ver...

  1. An Overview of the Performance of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Weisskopf, M C; Bautz, M; Cameron, R A; Dewey, D; Drake, J J; Grant, C E; Marshall, H L; Murray, S S

    2003-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory is the X-ray component of NASA's Great Observatory Program which includes the recently launched Spitzer Infrared Telescope, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for observations in the visible, and the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) which, after providing years of useful data has reentered the atmosphere. All these facilities provide, or provided, scientific data to the international astronomical community in response to peer-reviewed proposals for their use. The Chandra X-ray Observatory was the result of the efforts of many academic, commercial, and government organizations primarily in the United States but also in Europe. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) manages the Project and provides Project Science; Northrop Grumman Space Technology (NGST -- formerly TRW) served as prime contractor responsible for providing the spacecraft, the telescope, and assembling and testing the Observatory; and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) provides technical support a...

  2. X-ray Sources in the Hubble Deep Field Detected by Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Hornschemeier, A E; Garmire, G P; Schneider, D P; Broos, P S; Townsley, L K; Bautz, M W; Burrows, D N; Chartas, G; Feigelson, E D; Griffiths, R; Lumb, D H; Nousek, J A; Sargent, W L W

    2000-01-01

    We present first results from an X-ray study of the Hubble Deep Field North (HDF-N) and its environs obtained using 166 ks of data collected by the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) on board the Chandra X-ray Observatory. This is the deepest X-ray observation ever reported, and in the HDF-N itself we detect six X-ray sources down to a 0.5--8 keV flux limit of 4E-16 erg cm^-2 s^-1. Comparing these sources with objects seen in multiwavelength HDF-N studies shows positional coincidences with the extremely red object NICMOS J123651.74 +621221.4, an active galactic nucleus (AGN), three elliptical galaxies, and one nearby spiral galaxy. The X-ray emission from the ellipticals is consistent with that expected from a hot interstellar medium, and the spiral galaxy emission may arise from a `super-Eddington' X-ray binary or ultraluminous supernova remnant. Four of the X-ray sources have been detected at radio wavelengths. We also place X-ray upper limits on AGN candidates found in the HDF-N, and we present the t...

  3. The Restless Universe - Understanding X-Ray Astronomy in the Age of Chandra and Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Eric M.

    2002-10-01

    Carl Sagan once noted that there is only one generation that gets to see things for the first time. We are in the midst of such a time right now, standing on the threshold of discovery in the young and remarkable field of X-ray astronomy. In The Restless Universe , astronomer Eric Schlegel offers readers an informative survey of this cutting-edge science. Two major space observatories launched in the last few years--NASA's Chandra and the European Newton --are now orbiting the Earth, sending back a gold mine of data on the X-ray universe. Schlegel, who has worked on the Chandra project for seven years, describes the building and launching of this space-based X-ray observatory. But the book goes far beyond the story of Chandra . What Schlegel provides here is the background a nonscientist would need to grasp the present and follow the future of X-ray astronomy. He looks at the relatively brief history of the field, the hardware used to detect X-rays, the satellites--past, present, and future--that have been or will be flown to collect the data, the way astronomers interpret this data, and, perhaps most important, the insights we have already learned as well as speculations about what we may soon discover. And throughout the book, Schlegel conveys the excitement of looking at the universe from the perspective brought by these new observatories and the sharper view they deliver. Drawing on observations obtained from Chandra, Newton , and previous X-ray observatories, The Restless Universe gives a first look at an exciting field which significantly enriches our understanding of the universe.

  4. A Chandra Search for Coronal X Rays from the Cool White Dwarf GD 356

    CERN Document Server

    Weisskopf, M C; Trimble, V; O'Dell, S L; Elsner, R F; Zavlin, V E; Kouveliotou, C; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Wu, Kinwah; Trimble, Virginia; Dell, Stephen L. O'; Elsner, Ronald F.; Zavlin, Vyacheslav E.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    2006-01-01

    We report observations with the Chandra X-ray Observatory of the single, cool, magnetic white dwarf GD 356. For consistent comparison with other X-ray observations of single white dwarfs, we also re-analyzed archival ROSAT data for GD 356 (GJ 1205), G 99-47 (GR 290 = V1201 Ori), GD 90, G 195-19 (EG250 = GJ 339.1), and WD 2316+123 and archival Chandra data for LHS 1038 (GJ 1004) and GD 358 (V777 Her). Our Chandra observation detected no X rays from GD 356, setting the most restrictive upper limit to the X-ray luminosity from any cool white dwarf -- L_{X} < 6.0 x 10^{25} ergs/s, at 99.7% confidence, for a 1-keV thermal-bremsstrahlung spectrum. The corresponding limit to the electron density is n_{0} < 4.4 x 10^{11} cm^{-3}. Our re-analysis of the archival data confirmed the non-detections reported by the original investigators. We discuss the implications of our and prior observations on models for coronal emission from white dwarfs. For magnetic white dwarfs, we emphasize the more stringent constraints i...

  5. Chandra Studies of Unidentified X-ray Sources in the Galactic Bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hideyuki

    2013-09-01

    We propose to study a complete X-ray sample in the luminosity range of > 10^34 erg s^-1 in the Galactic bulge, including 5 unidentified sources detected in the ROSAT All Sky Survey. Our goal is to obtain a clear picture about X-ray populations in the bulge, by utilizing the excellent Chandra position accuracy leading to unique optical identification together with the X-ray spectral properties. This is a new step toward understanding the formation history of the bulge. Furthermore, because the luminosity range we observe corresponds to a ``missing link'' region ever studied for a neutron star or blackhole X-ray binary, our results are also unique to test accretion disk theories at intermediate mass accretion rates.

  6. Six Years Into Its Mission, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory Continues to Achieve Scientific Firsts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    In August 1999, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory opened for business. Six years later, it continues to achieve scientific firsts. "When Chandra opened its sunshade doors for the first time, it opened the possibility of studying the X-ray emission of the universe with unprecedented clarity," said Chandra project scientist Dr. Martin Weisskopf of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. "Already surpassing its goal of a five-year life, Chandra continues to rewrite textbooks with discoveries about our own solar system and images of celestial objects as far as billions of light years away." Based on the observatory's outstanding results, NASA Headquarters in Washington decided in 2001 to extend Chandra s mission from five years to ten. During the observatory s sixth year of operation, auroras from Jupiter, X-rays from Saturn, and the early days of our solar system were the focus of Chandra discoveries close to home -- discoveries with the potential to better understand the dynamics of life on Earth. Jupiter's auroras are the most spectacular and active auroras in the solar system. Extended Chandra observations revealed that Jupiter s auroral X-rays are caused by highly charged particles crashing into the atmosphere above Jupiter's poles. These results gave scientists information needed to compare Jupiter's auroras with those from Earth, and determine if they are triggered by different cosmic and planetary events. Mysterious X-rays from Saturn also received attention, as Chandra completed the first observation of a solar X-ray flare reflected from Saturn's low-latitudes, the region that correlates to Earth's equator and tropics. This observation led scientists to conclude the ringed planet may act as a mirror, reflecting explosive activity from the sun. Solar-storm watchers on Earth might see a surprising benefit. The results imply scientists could use giant planets like Saturn as remote-sensing tools to help monitor X-ray flaring on portions of the sun

  7. A Chandra/HETGS Census of X-ray Variability From Sgr A* During 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Neilsen, J; Gammie, C; Dexter, J; Markoff, S; Haggard, D; Nayakshin, S; Wang, Q D; Grosso, N; Porquet, D; Tomsick, J A; Degenaar, N; Fragile, P C; Wijnands, R; Miller, J M; Baganoff, F K

    2013-01-01

    We present the first systematic analysis of the X-ray variability of Sgr A* during the Chandra X-ray Observatory's 2012 Sgr A* X-ray Visionary Project (XVP). With 38 High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS) observations spaced an average of 7 days apart, this unprecedented campaign enables detailed study of the X-ray emission from this supermassive black hole at high spatial, spectral and timing resolution. In 3 Ms of observations, we detect 39 X-ray flares from Sgr A*, lasting from a few hundred seconds to approximately 8 ks, and ranging in 2-10 keV luminosity from ~1e34 erg/s to 2e35 erg/s. Despite tentative evidence for a gap in the distribution of flare peak count rates, there is no evidence for X-ray color differences between faint and bright flares. Our preliminary X-ray flare luminosity distribution dN/dL is consistent with a power law with index -1.9 (+0.3 -0.4); this is similar to some estimates of Sgr A*'s NIR flux distribution. The observed flares contribute one-third of the total X-ra...

  8. Chandra X-ray spectroscopy of a clear dip in GX 13+1

    CERN Document Server

    D'Aì, A; Di Salvo, T; Riggio, A; Burderi, L; Robba, N R

    2014-01-01

    The source GX 13+1 is a persistent, bright Galactic X-ray binary hosting an accreting neutron star. It shows highly ionized absorption features, with a blueshift of $\\sim$ 400 km s$^{-1}$ and an outflow-mass rate similar to the accretion rate. Many other X-ray sources exhibit warm absorption features, and they all show periodic dipping behavior at the same time. Recently, a dipping periodicity has also been determined for GX 13+1 using long-term X-ray folded light-curves, leading to a clear identification of one of such periodic dips in an archival Chandra observation. We give the first spectral characterization of the periodic dip of GX 13+1 found in this archival Chandra observation performed in 2010. We used Chandra/HETGS data (1.0--10 keV band) and contemporaneous RXTE/PCA data (3.5--25 keV) to analyze the broadband X-ray spectrum. We adopted different spectral models to describe the continuum emission and used the XSTAR-derived warm absorber component to constrain the highly ionized absorption features. ...

  9. X-Rays Beware: The Deepest Chandra Catalogue of Point Sources in M31

    CERN Document Server

    Vulic, N; Barmby, P

    2016-01-01

    This study represents the most sensitive Chandra X-ray point source catalogue of M31. Using 133 publicly available Chandra ACIS-I/S observations totalling ~1 Ms, we detected 795 X-ray sources in the bulge, northeast, and southwest fields of M31, covering an area of approximately 0.6 deg$^{2}$, to a limiting unabsorbed 0.5-8.0 keV luminosity of $10^{34}$ erg/s. In the inner bulge, where exposure is approximately constant, X-ray fluxes represent average values because they were determined from many observations over a long period of time. Similarly, our catalogue is more complete in the bulge fields since monitoring allowed more transient sources to be detected. The catalogue was cross-correlated with a previous XMM-Newton catalogue of M31's $D_{25}$ isophote consisting of 1948 X-ray sources, with only 979 within the field of view of our survey. We found 387 (49%) of our Chandra sources (352 or 44% unique sources) matched to within 5 arcsec of 352 XMM-Newton sources. Combining this result with matching done to ...

  10. The Nature of the Faint Chandra X-ray Sources in the Galactic Centre

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiter, A.J.; Belczynski, K.; Harrison, T. E.

    2005-01-01

    Recent Chandra observations have revealed a large population of faint X-ray point sources in the Galactic Centre. The observed population consists of about 2000 faint sources in the luminosity range ~10^31-10^33 erg/s. The majority of these sources (70%) are described by hard spectra, while the rest are rather soft. The nature of these sources still remains unknown. Belczynski & Taam (2004) demonstrated that X-ray binaries with neutron star or black hole accretors may account for most of the ...

  11. Chandra Observations of Starburst Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestwich, Andrea; Lavoie, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We present early X-ray results from Chandra for two starburst galaxies, M82 and NGC3256, obtained using AXAF CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS-I) and the HRC. For M82 the arcsecond spatial resolution enables us to separate the point source component from the extended emission for the first time. Astrometry reveals that most of the X-ray sources are not coincident with the family of compact radio sources believed to be Super Nova Remnants (SNRs). In addition, based on three epoch Chandra observations, several of the X-ray sources are clearly variable indicating that they are binaries. When we deconvolve the extended and point source components detected in the hard X-ray band, we find that 50 percent arises from the extended component. This fact, together with its morphology, constrains the various models proposed to explain the hard X-ray emission. For NGC3256 we resolve two closely separated nuclei. These new data support a pure starburst origin for the total X-ray emission rather than a composite AGN/starburst, thereby making NGC3256 one of the most X-ray luminous starburst galaxies known.

  12. CHANDRA DETECTION OF X-RAY EMISSION FROM ULTRACOMPACT DWARF GALAXIES AND EXTENDED STAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Meicun; Li, Zhiyuan, E-mail: lizy@nju.edu.cn [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2016-03-10

    We have conducted a systematic study of X-ray emission from ultracompact dwarf (UCD) galaxies and extended star clusters (ESCs), based on archival Chandra observations. Among a sample of 511 UCDs and ESCs complied from the literature, 17 X-ray counterparts with 0.5–8 keV luminosities above ∼5 × 10{sup 36} erg s{sup −1} are identified, which are distributed in eight early-type host galaxies. To facilitate comparison, we also identify X-ray counterparts of 360 globular clusters (GCs) distributed in four of the eight galaxies. The X-ray properties of the UCDs and ESCs are found to be broadly similar to those of the GCs. The incidence rate of X-ray-detected UCDs and ESCs, 3.3% ± 0.8%, while lower than that of the X-ray-detected GCs (7.0% ± 0.4%), is substantially higher than expected from the field populations of external galaxies. A stacking analysis of the individually undetected UCDs/ESCs further reveals significant X-ray signals, which corresponds to an equivalent 0.5–8 keV luminosity of ∼4 × 10{sup 35} erg s{sup −1} per source. Taken together, these provide strong evidence that the X-ray emission from UCDs and ESCs is dominated by low-mass X-ray binaries having formed from stellar dynamical interactions, consistent with the stellar populations in these dense systems being predominantly old. For the most massive UCDs, there remains the possibility that a putative central massive black hole gives rise to the observed X-ray emission.

  13. An X-ray Tour of Massive Star-forming Regions with Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Townsley, L K

    2006-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory is providing fascinating new views of massive star-forming regions, revealing all stages in the life cycles of massive stars and their effects on their surroundings. I present a Chandra tour of some of the most famous of these regions: M17, NGC 3576, W3, Tr14 in Carina, and 30 Doradus. Chandra highlights the physical processes that characterize the lives of these clusters, from the ionizing sources of ultracompact HII regions (W3) to superbubbles so large that they shape our views of galaxies (30 Dor). X-ray observations usually reveal hundreds of pre-main sequence (lower-mass) stars accompanying the OB stars that power these great HII region complexes, although in one case (W3 North) this population is mysteriously absent. The most massive stars themselves are often anomalously hard X-ray emitters; this may be a new indicator of close binarity. These complexes are sometimes suffused by soft diffuse X-rays (M17, NGC 3576), signatures of multi-million-degree plasmas created by fas...

  14. The Chandra planetary nebula survey (CHANPLANS). II. X-ray emission from compact planetary nebulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, M.; Kastner, J. H. [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Montez, R. Jr. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Balick, B. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Frew, D. J.; De Marco, O.; Parker, Q. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Macquarie Research Centre for Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrophotonics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Jones, D. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Atacama, Copayapu 485, Copiapó (Chile); Miszalski, B. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory, 7935 (South Africa); Sahai, R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 183-900, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Blackman, E.; Frank, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Chu, Y.-H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Guerrero, M. A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, IAA-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, Granada, E-18008 (Spain); Lopez, J. A. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Ensenada, Apdo. Postal 22860, Ensenada, B. C. (Mexico); Zijlstra, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Bujarrabal, V. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Corradi, R. L. M. [Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Nordhaus, J. [NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Fellow, Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); and others

    2014-10-20

    We present results from the most recent set of observations obtained as part of the Chandra X-ray observatory Planetary Nebula Survey (CHANPLANS), the first comprehensive X-ray survey of planetary nebulae (PNe) in the solar neighborhood (i.e., within ∼1.5 kpc of the Sun). The survey is designed to place constraints on the frequency of appearance and range of X-ray spectral characteristics of X-ray-emitting PN central stars and the evolutionary timescales of wind-shock-heated bubbles within PNe. CHANPLANS began with a combined Cycle 12 and archive Chandra survey of 35 PNe. CHANPLANS continued via a Chandra Cycle 14 Large Program which targeted all (24) remaining known compact (R {sub neb} ≲ 0.4 pc), young PNe that lie within ∼1.5 kpc. Results from these Cycle 14 observations include first-time X-ray detections of hot bubbles within NGC 1501, 3918, 6153, and 6369, and point sources in HbDs 1, NGC 6337, and Sp 1. The addition of the Cycle 14 results brings the overall CHANPLANS diffuse X-ray detection rate to ∼27% and the point source detection rate to ∼36%. It has become clearer that diffuse X-ray emission is associated with young (≲ 5 × 10{sup 3} yr), and likewise compact (R {sub neb} ≲ 0.15 pc), PNe with closed structures and high central electron densities (n{sub e} ≳ 1000 cm{sup –3}), and is rarely associated with PNe that show H{sub 2} emission and/or pronounced butterfly structures. Hb 5 is one such exception of a PN with a butterfly structure that hosts diffuse X-ray emission. Additionally, two of the five new diffuse X-ray detections (NGC 1501 and NGC 6369) host [WR]-type central stars, supporting the hypothesis that PNe with central stars of [WR]-type are likely to display diffuse X-ray emission.

  15. A Systematic Chandra study of Sgr A$^{\\star}$: I. X-ray flare detection

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Qiang; Wang, Q. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Daily X-ray flaring represents an enigmatic phenomenon of Sgr A$^{\\star}$ --- the supermassive black hole at the center of our Galaxy. We report initial results from a systematic X-ray study of this phenomenon, based on extensive {\\it Chandra} observations obtained from 1999 to 2012, totaling about 4.5 Ms. We detect flares, using a combination of the maximum likelihood and Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods, which allow for a direct accounting for the pile-up effect in the modeling of the flare...

  16. X-ray Monitoring of Gravitational Lenses With Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Bin; Kochanek, Christopher S; Chartas, George; Blackburne, Jeffery A; Morgan, Christopher W

    2012-01-01

    We present \\emph{Chandra} monitoring data for six gravitationally lensed quasars: QJ 0158$-$4325, HE 0435$-$1223, HE 1104$-$1805, SDSS 0924+0219, SDSS 1004+4112, and Q 2237+0305. We detect X-ray microlensing variability in all six lenses with high confidence. We detect energy dependent microlensing in HE 0435$-$1223, SDSS 1004+4112, SDSS 0924+0219 and Q 2237+0305. We present a detailed spectral analysis for each lens, and find that simple power-law models plus Gaussian emission lines give good fits to the spectra. We detect intrinsic spectral variability in two epochs of Q 2237+0305. We detect differential absorption between images in four lenses. We also detect the \\feka\\ emission line in all six lenses, and the Ni XXVII K$\\alpha$ line in two images of Q 2237+0305. The rest frame equivalent widths of the \\feka\\ lines are measured to be 0.4--1.2 keV, significantly higher than those measured in typical active galactic nuclei of similar X-ray luminosities. This suggests that the \\feka\\ emission region is more c...

  17. The Chandra X-ray Survey of Planetary Nebulae (ChanPlaNS): Probing Binarity, Magnetic Fields, and Wind Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Kastner, J H; Balick, B; Frew, D J; Miszalski, B; Sahai, R; Blackman, E; Chu, Y -H; De Marco, O; Frank, A; Guerrero, M A; Lopez, J A; Rapson, V; Zijlstra, A; Behar, E; Bujarrabal, V; Corradi, R L M; Nordhaus, J; Parker, Q; Sandin, C; Schönberner, D; Soker, N; Sokoloski, J L; Steffen, M; Ueta, T; Villaver, E

    2012-01-01

    We present an overview of the initial results from the Chandra Planetary Nebula Survey (ChanPlaNS), the first systematic (volume-limited) Chandra X-ray Observatory survey of planetary nebulae (PNe) in the solar neighborhood. The first phase of ChanPlaNS targeted 21 mostly high-excitation PNe within ~1.5 kpc of Earth, yielding 3 detections of diffuse X-ray emission and 9 detections of X-ray-luminous point sources at the central stars (CSPNe) of these objects. Combining these results with those obtained from Chandra archival data for all (14) other PNe within ~1.5 kpc that have been observed to date, we find an overall X-ray detection rate of 68%. Roughly 50% of the PNe observed by Chandra harbor X-ray-luminous CSPNe, while soft, diffuse X-ray emission tracing shocks formed by energetic wind collisions is detected in ~30%; five objects display both diffuse and point-like emission components. The presence of X-ray sources appears correlated with PN density structure, in that molecule-poor, elliptical nebulae are...

  18. The 3 Ms Chandra Campaign on Sgr A*: A Census of X-ray Flaring Activity from the Galactic Center

    CERN Document Server

    Neilsen, J; Gammie, C; Dexter, J; Markoff, S; Haggard, D; Nayakshin, S; Wang, Q D; Grosso, N; Porquet, D; Tomsick, J A; Degenaar, N; Fragile, P C; Houck, J C; Wijnands, R; Miller, J M; Baganoff, F K

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, X-ray observations of Sgr A* have revealed a black hole in a deep sleep, punctuated roughly once per day by brief flares. The extreme X-ray faintness of this supermassive black hole has been a long-standing puzzle in black hole accretion. To study the accretion processes in the Galactic Center, Chandra (in concert with numerous ground- and space-based observatories) undertook a 3 Ms campaign on Sgr A* in 2012. With its excellent observing cadence, sensitivity, and spectral resolution, this Chandra X-ray Visionary Project (XVP) provides an unprecedented opportunity to study the behavior of the closest supermassive black hole. We present a progress report from our ongoing study of X-ray flares, including the brightest flare ever seen from Sgr A*. Focusing on the statistics of the flares and the quiescent emission, we discuss the physical implications of X-ray variability in the Galactic Center.

  19. Chandra and NuSTAR studies of the ultraluminous X-ray sources in M82

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightman, Murray; Harrison, Fiona; Walton, Dom; Fuerst, Felix; Bachetti, Matteo; Zezas, Andreas; Ptak, Andrew; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Yukita, Mihoko; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Grefenstette, Brian

    2016-04-01

    With the discovery of the ultraluminous X-ray pulsar in M82 by Bachetti et al (2014), there has been renewed interest in the galaxy, which also hosts one of the best candidates for an intermediate-mass black hole. We present results on the spectral and temporal properties of the pulsar from 15 years of Chandra observations with implications for theoretical modeling of the source, as well as the high-energy constraints on both sources from NuSTAR.

  20. JOINT ANALYSIS OF CLUSTER OBSERVATIONS. II. CHANDRA/XMM-NEWTON X-RAY AND WEAK LENSING SCALING RELATIONS FOR A SAMPLE OF 50 RICH CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdavi, Andisheh [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA 94131 (United States); Hoekstra, Henk [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Babul, Arif; Bildfell, Chris [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Jeltema, Tesla [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, UC Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Henry, J. Patrick [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2013-04-20

    We present a study of multiwavelength X-ray and weak lensing scaling relations for a sample of 50 clusters of galaxies. Our analysis combines Chandra and XMM-Newton data using an energy-dependent cross-calibration. After considering a number of scaling relations, we find that gas mass is the most robust estimator of weak lensing mass, yielding 15% {+-} 6% intrinsic scatter at r{sub 500}{sup WL} (the pseudo-pressure Y{sub X} yields a consistent scatter of 22% {+-} 5%). The scatter does not change when measured within a fixed physical radius of 1 Mpc. Clusters with small brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) to X-ray peak offsets constitute a very regular population whose members have the same gas mass fractions and whose even smaller (<10%) deviations from regularity can be ascribed to line of sight geometrical effects alone. Cool-core clusters, while a somewhat different population, also show the same (<10%) scatter in the gas mass-lensing mass relation. There is a good correlation and a hint of bimodality in the plane defined by BCG offset and central entropy (or central cooling time). The pseudo-pressure Y{sub X} does not discriminate between the more relaxed and less relaxed populations, making it perhaps the more even-handed mass proxy for surveys. Overall, hydrostatic masses underestimate weak lensing masses by 10% on the average at r{sub 500}{sup WL}; but cool-core clusters are consistent with no bias, while non-cool-core clusters have a large and constant 15%-20% bias between r{sub 2500}{sup WL} and r{sub 500}{sup WL}, in agreement with N-body simulations incorporating unthermalized gas. For non-cool-core clusters, the bias correlates well with BCG ellipticity. We also examine centroid shift variance and power ratios to quantify substructure; these quantities do not correlate with residuals in the scaling relations. Individual clusters have for the most part forgotten the source of their departures from self-similarity.

  1. Deep X-ray and UV Surveys of Galaxies with Chandra, XMM-Newton, and GALEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornschemeier, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Only with the deepest Chandra surveys has X-ray emission from normal and star forming galaxies (as opposed to AGN, which dominate the X-ray sky) been accessible at cosmologically interesting distances. The X-ray emission from accreting binaries provide a critical glimpse into the binary phase of stellar evolution and studies of the hot gas reservoir constrain past star formation. UV studies provide important, sensitive diagnostics of the young star forming populations and provide the most mature means for studying galaxies at 2 luminosity function of galaxies and important constraints on star formation scaling relations such as the X-ray-Star Formation Rate correlation and the X-ray/Stellar Mass correlation. We will discuss what we learn from these deep observations of Coma, including the recently established suppression of the X-ray emission from galaxies in the Coma outskirts that is likely associated with lower levels of past star formation and/or the results of tidal gas stripping.

  2. The outer regions of galaxy clusters: Chandra constraints on the X-ray surface brightness

    CERN Document Server

    Ettori, S

    2008-01-01

    (Abridged version) We study the properties of the X-ray surface brightness profiles in a sample of galaxy clusters that are observed with Chandra and have emission detectable with a signal-to-noise ratio larger than 2 at a radius beyond R500 ~ 0.7 R200. Our study aims at measuring the slopes of the X-ray surface brightness and of the gas density profiles in the outskirts of massive clusters. These constraints are then compared to similar results obtained from observations and numerical simulations of the temperature and dark matter density profiles with the intention to present a consistent picture of the outer regions of galaxy clusters. We extract the surface brightness profiles S_b(r) from X-ray exposures obtained with Chandra of 52 X-ray luminous galaxy clusters at z>0.3. We estimate R200 both using a beta-model to reproduce the surface brightness profile and scaling relations from the literature, showing that the two methods converge to comparable values. We evaluate then the radius, R_S2N, at which the ...

  3. Finding Rare AGN: X-ray Number Counts of Chandra Sources in Stripe 82

    CERN Document Server

    LaMassa, Stephanie M; Glikman, Eilat; Cappelluti, Nico; Civano, Francesca; Comastri, Andrea; Treister, Ezequiel; Arifin,; Boehringer, Hans; Cardamone, Carie; Chon, Gayoung; Kephart, Miranda; Murray, Stephen S; Richards, Gordon; Ross, Nic; Rozner, Joshua S; Schawinski, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    We present the first results of a wide area X-ray survey within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82, a 300 deg$^2$ region of the sky with a substantial investment in multi-wavelength coverage. We analyzed archival {\\it Chandra} observations that cover 7.5 deg$^2$ within Stripe 82 ("Stripe 82 ACX"), reaching 4.5$\\sigma$ flux limits of 7.9$\\times10^{-16}$, 3.4$\\times10^{-15}$ and 1.8$\\times10^{-15}$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ in the soft (0.5-2 keV), hard (2-7 keV) and full (0.5-7 keV) bands, to find 774, 239 and 1118 X-ray sources, respectively. Three hundred twenty-one sources are detected only in the full band and 9 sources are detected solely in the soft band. Utilizing data products from the {\\it Chandra} Source Catalog, we construct independent Log$N$-Log$S$ relationships, detailing the number density of X-ray sources as a function of flux, which show general agreement with previous {\\it Chandra} surveys. We compare the luminosity distribution of Stripe 82 ACX with the smaller, deeper CDF-S + E-CDFS...

  4. The Chandra Cygnus OB2 Legacy Survey: Design and X-ray Point Source Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Nicholas J; Guarcello, Mario G; Aldcroft, Tom L; Kashyap, Vinay L; Damiani, Francesco; DePasquale, Joe; Fruscione, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    The Cygnus OB2 association is the largest concentration of young and massive stars within 2 kpc of the Sun, including an estimated 65 O-type stars and hundreds of OB stars. The Chandra Cygnus OB2 Legacy Survey is a large imaging program undertaken with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer onboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The survey has imaged the central 0.5 deg^2 of the Cyg OB2 association with an effective exposure of 120ks and an outer 0.35 deg^2 area with an exposure of 60ks. Here we describe the survey design and observations, the data reduction and source detection, and present a catalog of 8,000 X-ray point sources. The survey design employs a grid of 36 heavily (~50%) overlapping pointings, a method that overcomes Chandra's low off-axis sensitivity and produces a highly uniform exposure over the inner 0.5 deg^2. The full X-ray catalog is described here and is made available online.

  5. A spectral and spatial analysis of eta Carinae's diffuse X-ray emission using CHANDRA

    CERN Document Server

    Weis, K; Bomans, D J; Davidson, K; Weis, Kerstin; Corcoran, Michael F.; Bomans, Dominik J.; Davidson, Kris

    2004-01-01

    The luminous unstable star (star system) eta Carinae is surrounded by an optically bright bipolar nebula, the Homunculus and a fainter but much larger nebula, the so-called outer ejecta. As images from the EINSTEIN and ROSAT satellites have shown, the outer ejecta is also visible in soft X-rays, while the central source is present in the harder X-ray bands. With our CHANDRA observations we show that the morphology and properties of the X-ray nebula are the result of shocks from fast clumps in the outer ejecta moving into a pre-existing denser circumstellar medium. An additional contribution to the soft X-ray flux results from mutual interactions of clumps within the ejecta. Spectra extracted from the CHANDRA data yield gas temperatures kT of 0.6-0.76 keV. The implied pre-shock velocities of 670-760 km/s are within the scatter of the velocities we measure for the majority of the clumps in the corresponding regions. Significant nitrogen enhancements over solar abundances are needed for acceptable fits in all pa...

  6. High-Resolution Chandra X-ray Imaging and Spectroscopy of the Sigma Orionis Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Skinner, S L; Cohen, D H; Gagné, M; Owocki, S P; Townsend, R D

    2008-01-01

    We present results of a 90 ksec Chandra X-ray observation of the young sigma Orionis cluster (age ~3 Myr) obtained with the High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer. We use the high resolution grating spectrum and moderate resolution CCD spectrum of the massive central star sigma Ori AB (O9.5V + B0.5V) to test wind shock theories of X-ray emission and also analyze the high spatial resolution zero-order ACIS-S image of the central cluster region. Chandra detected 42 X-ray sources on the primary CCD (ACIS-S3). All but five have near-IR or optical counterparts and about one-fourth are variable. Notable high-mass stellar detections are sigma Ori AB, the magnetic B star sigma Ori E, and the B5V binary HD 37525. Most of the other detections have properties consistent with lower mass K or M-type stars. We present the first X-ray spectrum of the unusual infrared source IRS1 located 3.3 arc-sec north of sigma Ori AB, which is likely an embedded T Tauri star whose disk/envelope is being photoevaporated by sigma Or...

  7. Swift Observations of X-ray supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    Li, K. L.; Pun, Chun. S. J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a result of X-ray supernovae (SNe) survey using the Swift satellite public archive. An automatic searching program was designed to search X-ray SNe among all of the Swift archival observations between November 2004 and February 2011. Using the C++ program, 24 X-ray detectable supernovae have been found in the archive and 3 of them were newly-discovered in X-rays which are SN 1986L, SN 2003lx, and SN 2007od. In addition, SN 2003lx is a Type Ia supernova which may be the second X-ray...

  8. The X-ray Flux Distribution of Sagittarius A* as Seen by Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Neilsen, J; Nowak, M A; Dexter, J; Witzel, G; Barrière, N; Li, Y; Baganoff, F K; Degenaar, N; Fragile, P C; Gammie, C; Goldwurm, A; Grosso, N; Haggard, D

    2014-01-01

    We present a statistical analysis of the X-ray flux distribution of Sgr A* from the Chandra X-ray Observatory's 3 Ms Sgr A* X-ray Visionary Project (XVP) in 2012. Our analysis indicates that the observed X-ray flux distribution can be decomposed into a steady quiescent component, represented by a Poisson process with rate $Q=(5.24\\pm0.08)\\times10^{-3}$ cts s$^{-1},$ and a variable component, represented by a power law process ($dN/dF\\propto F^{-\\xi},$ $\\xi=1.92_{-0.02}^{+0.03}$). This slope matches our recently-reported distribution of flare luminosities. The variability may also be described by a log-normal process with a median unabsorbed 2-8 keV flux of $1.8^{+0.9}_{-0.6}\\times10^{-14}$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ and a shape parameter $\\sigma=2.4\\pm0.2,$ but the power law provides a superior description of the data. In this decomposition of the flux distribution, all of the intrinsic X-ray variability of Sgr A* (spanning at least three orders of magnitude in flux) can be attributed to flaring activity, likely ...

  9. THE X-RAY FLUX DISTRIBUTION OF SAGITTARIUS A* AS SEEN BY CHANDRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilsen, J. [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Markoff, S. [Astronomical Institute, " Anton Pannekoek," University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nowak, M. A.; Baganoff, F. K. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Dexter, J. [Department of Astronomy, Hearst Field Annex, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Witzel, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Barrière, N. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Li, Y. [Department of Astronomy and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Degenaar, N. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 OHA (United Kingdom); Fragile, P. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); Gammie, C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Goldwurm, A. [AstroParticule et Cosmologie (APC), Université Paris 7 Denis Diderot, F-75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); Grosso, N. [Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Haggard, D., E-mail: jneilsen@space.mit.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, AC# 2244, Amherst College, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We present a statistical analysis of the X-ray flux distribution of Sgr A* from the Chandra X-Ray Observatory's 3 Ms Sgr A* X-ray Visionary Project in 2012. Our analysis indicates that the observed X-ray flux distribution can be decomposed into a steady quiescent component, represented by a Poisson process with rate Q = (5.24 ± 0.08) × 10{sup –3} counts s{sup –1}, and a variable component, represented by a power law process (dN/dF∝F {sup –ξ}, ξ=1.92{sub −0.02}{sup +0.03}). This slope matches our recently reported distribution of flare luminosities. The variability may also be described by a log-normal process with a median unabsorbed 2-8 keV flux of 1.8{sub −0.6}{sup +0.8}×10{sup −14} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2} and a shape parameter σ = 2.4 ± 0.2, but the power law provides a superior description of the data. In this decomposition of the flux distribution, all of the intrinsic X-ray variability of Sgr A* (spanning at least three orders of magnitude in flux) can be attributed to flaring activity, likely in the inner accretion flow. We confirm that at the faint end, the variable component contributes ∼10% of the apparent quiescent flux, as previously indicated by our statistical analysis of X-ray flares in these Chandra observations. Our flux distribution provides a new and important observational constraint on theoretical models of Sgr A*, and we use simple radiation models to explore the extent to which a statistical comparison of the X-ray and infrared can provide insights into the physics of the X-ray emission mechanism.

  10. Chandra Reveals The X-Ray Glint In The Cat's Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    central star to create this "lukewarm" area. However, this theory apparently does not apply for NGC 6543. Chu and her colleagues found that the chemical abundances within the hot gas were like those in the wind from the star, and different from the cooler outer material. These results indicate that mixing is not occurring, and that the cooling between the inner and outer shells of material is due to some other process. The intensity of the X-rays from the central star was also unexpected. The star itself has a surface temperature of about 60,000 degrees, whereas the X-ray measurement indicates a temperature of a few million degrees. "We could be seeing shock waves in the fast stellar wind itself," said Martin Guerrero of the University of Illinois, lead author on a companion paper that describes the central star. "This is the first time we see such X-ray emission from the central star of a planetary nebula." A planetary nebula (so called because it looks like a planet when viewed with a small telescope) is formed when a dying red giant star puffs off its outer layer, leaving behind a hot core that will eventually collapse to form a dense star called a white dwarf. A fast wind emanating from the hot core rams into the ejected atmosphere, pushes it outward, and creates the graceful filamentary structures seen with optical telescopes. With Chandra, it is now possible to see the high-pressure hot bubble inside these filaments and study how the nebula is formed in more detail. The Cat's Eye Nebula, which is about 3,000 light years from Earth, was formed about a thousand years ago. Other members of the research team include Robert Gruendl, and James Kaler (University of Illinois), and Rosa Williams (National Research Council). NGC 6543 was observed with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) on May 10-11, 1999, for a total exposure time of 46,000 seconds. The ACIS X-ray camera was developed for NASA by Pennsylvania State University and MIT. NASA's Marshall Space Flight

  11. The Making of the Chandra X-ray Observatory: the Project Scientist's Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2010-01-01

    The history of the development of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory is reviewed from a personal perspective. This review is necessarily biased and limited by space because it attempts to cover a time span approaching five decades.

  12. CHANDRA ACIS Survey of X-Ray Point Sources: The Source Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Song; Liu, Jifeng; Qiu, Yanli; Bai, Yu; Yang, Huiqin; Guo, Jincheng; Zhang, Peng

    2016-06-01

    The Chandra archival data is a valuable resource for various studies on different X-ray astronomy topics. In this paper, we utilize this wealth of information and present a uniformly processed data set, which can be used to address a wide range of scientific questions. The data analysis procedures are applied to 10,029 Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer observations, which produces 363,530 source detections belonging to 217,828 distinct X-ray sources. This number is twice the size of the Chandra Source Catalog (Version 1.1). The catalogs in this paper provide abundant estimates of the detected X-ray source properties, including source positions, counts, colors, fluxes, luminosities, variability statistics, etc. Cross-correlation of these objects with galaxies shows that 17,828 sources are located within the D 25 isophotes of 1110 galaxies, and 7504 sources are located between the D 25 and 2D 25 isophotes of 910 galaxies. Contamination analysis with the log N–log S relation indicates that 51.3% of objects within 2D 25 isophotes are truly relevant to galaxies, and the “net” source fraction increases to 58.9%, 67.3%, and 69.1% for sources with luminosities above 1037, 1038, and 1039 erg s‑1, respectively. Among the possible scientific uses of this catalog, we discuss the possibility of studying intra-observation variability, inter-observation variability, and supersoft sources (SSSs). About 17,092 detected sources above 10 counts are classified as variable in individual observation with the Kolmogorov–Smirnov (K–S) criterion (P K–S < 0.01). There are 99,647 sources observed more than once and 11,843 sources observed 10 times or more, offering us a wealth of data with which to explore the long-term variability. There are 1638 individual objects (˜2350 detections) classified as SSSs. As a quite interesting subclass, detailed studies on X-ray spectra and optical spectroscopic follow-up are needed to categorize these SSSs and pinpoint their properties. In

  13. CHANDRA ACIS Survey of X-Ray Point Sources: The Source Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Song; Liu, Jifeng; Qiu, Yanli; Bai, Yu; Yang, Huiqin; Guo, Jincheng; Zhang, Peng

    2016-06-01

    The Chandra archival data is a valuable resource for various studies on different X-ray astronomy topics. In this paper, we utilize this wealth of information and present a uniformly processed data set, which can be used to address a wide range of scientific questions. The data analysis procedures are applied to 10,029 Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer observations, which produces 363,530 source detections belonging to 217,828 distinct X-ray sources. This number is twice the size of the Chandra Source Catalog (Version 1.1). The catalogs in this paper provide abundant estimates of the detected X-ray source properties, including source positions, counts, colors, fluxes, luminosities, variability statistics, etc. Cross-correlation of these objects with galaxies shows that 17,828 sources are located within the D 25 isophotes of 1110 galaxies, and 7504 sources are located between the D 25 and 2D 25 isophotes of 910 galaxies. Contamination analysis with the log N–log S relation indicates that 51.3% of objects within 2D 25 isophotes are truly relevant to galaxies, and the “net” source fraction increases to 58.9%, 67.3%, and 69.1% for sources with luminosities above 1037, 1038, and 1039 erg s‑1, respectively. Among the possible scientific uses of this catalog, we discuss the possibility of studying intra-observation variability, inter-observation variability, and supersoft sources (SSSs). About 17,092 detected sources above 10 counts are classified as variable in individual observation with the Kolmogorov–Smirnov (K–S) criterion (P K–S sources observed more than once and 11,843 sources observed 10 times or more, offering us a wealth of data with which to explore the long-term variability. There are 1638 individual objects (∼2350 detections) classified as SSSs. As a quite interesting subclass, detailed studies on X-ray spectra and optical spectroscopic follow-up are needed to categorize these SSSs and pinpoint their properties. In addition, this survey can

  14. The Chandra Deep Field-North Survey and the Cosmic X-ray Background

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, W N; Bauer, F E; Hornschemeier, A E

    2002-01-01

    Chandra has performed a 1.4 Ms survey centred on the Hubble Deep Field-North (HDF-N), probing the X-ray Universe 55-550 times deeper than was possible with pre-Chandra missions. We describe the detected point and extended X-ray sources and discuss their overall multiwavelength (optical, infrared, submillimeter, and radio) properties. Special attention is paid to the HDF-N X-ray sources, luminous infrared starburst galaxies, optically faint X-ray sources, and high-to-extreme redshift AGN. We also describe how stacking analyses have been used to probe the average X-ray emission properties of normal and starburst galaxies at cosmologically interesting distances. Finally, we discuss plans to extend the survey and argue that a 5-10 Ms Chandra survey would lay key groundwork for future missions such as XEUS and Generation-X.

  15. Using ACIS on the Chandra X-ray Observatory as a particle radiation monitor

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, C. E.; LaMarr, B.; Bautz, M.W.; O'Dell, S. L.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) is one of two focal-plane instruments on the Chandra X-ray Observatory. During initial radiation-belt passes, the exposed ACIS suffered significant radiation damage from trapped soft protons scattering off the x-ray telescope's mirrors. The primary effect of this damage was to increase the charge-transfer inefficiency (CTI) of the ACIS 8 front-illuminated CCDs. Subsequently, the Chandra team implemented procedures to remove the ACIS from the telesc...

  16. Chandra ACIS Survey of X-ray Point Sources: The Source Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Song; Qiu, Yanli; Bai, Yu; Yang, Huiqin; Guo, Jincheng; Zhang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    The $Chandra$ archival data is a valuable resource for various studies on different topics of X-ray astronomy. In this paper, we utilize this wealth and present a uniformly processed data set, which can be used to address a wide range of scientific questions. The data analysis procedures are applied to 10,029 ACIS observations, which produces 363,530 source detections, belonging to 217,828 distinct X-ray sources. This number is twice the size of the $Chandra$ Source Catalog (Version 1.1). The catalogs in this paper provide abundant estimates of the detected X-ray source properties, including source positions, counts, colors, fluxes, luminosities, variability statistics, etc. Cross-correlation of these objects with galaxies shows 17,828 sources are located within the $D_{25}$ isophotes of 1110 galaxies, and 7504 sources are located between the $D_{25}$ and 2$D_{25}$ isophotes of 910 galaxies. Contamination analysis with the log$N$--log$S$ relation indicates that 51.3\\% of objects within 2$D_{25}$ isophotes are...

  17. Localizing INTEGRAL Sources with Chandra: X-Ray and Multi-Wavelength Identifications and Energy Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Tomsick, John A; Chaty, Sylvain; Rodriguez, Jerome; Rahoui, Farid; Halpern, Jules; Kalemci, Emrah; Arabaci, Mehtap Ozbey

    2012-01-01

    We report on Chandra observations of 18 hard X-ray (>20 keV) sources discovered with the INTEGRAL satellite near the Galactic plane. For 14 of the INTEGRAL sources, we have uncovered one or two potential Chandra counterparts per source. These provide soft X-ray (0.3-10 keV) spectra and sub-arcsecond localizations, which we use to identify counterparts at other wavelengths, providing information about the nature of each source. Despite the fact that all of the sources are within 5 degrees of the plane, four of the IGR sources are AGN (IGR J01545+6437, IGR J15391-5307, IGR J15415-5029, and IGR J21565+5948) and four others are likely AGN (IGR J03103+5706, IGR J09189-4418, IGR J16413-4046, and IGR J16560-4958) based on each of them having a strong IR excess and/or extended optical or near-IR emission. We compare the X-ray and near-IR fluxes of this group of sources to those of AGN selected by their 2-10 keV emission in previous studies and find that these IGR AGN are in the range of typical values. There is evide...

  18. The Chandra X-Ray Observatory's Radiation Environment and the AP-8/AE-8 Model

    CERN Document Server

    Virani, S N; Plucinsky, P P; Butt, Y M; Virani, Shanil N.; Mueller-Mellin, Reinhold; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Butt, Yousaf M.

    2000-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO) was launched on July 23, 1999 and reached its final orbit on August 7, 1999. The CXO is in a highly elliptical orbit, approximately 140,000 km x 10,000 km, and has a period of approximately 63.5 hours (~ 2.65 days). It transits the Earth's Van Allen belts once per orbit during which no science observations can be performed due to the high radiation environment. The Chandra X-ray Observatory Center (CXC) currently uses the National Space Science Data Center's ``near Earth'' AP-8/AE-8 radiation belt model to predict the start and end times of passage through the radiation belts. However, our scheduling software uses only a simple dipole model of the Earth's magnetic field. The resulting B, L magnetic coordinates, do not always give sufficiently accurate predictions of the start and end times of transit of the Van Allen belts. We show this by comparing to the data from Chandra's on-board radiation monitor, the EPHIN (Electron, Proton, Helium Instrument particle detector) instr...

  19. The Chandra Planetary Nebula Survey (ChanPlaNS). II. X-ray Emission from Compact Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, M; Montez, R; Balick, B; Frew, D J; Jones, D; Miszalski, B; Sahai, R; Blackman, E; Chu, Y -H; De Marco, O; Frank, A; Guerrero, M A; Lopez, J A; Zijlstra, A; Bujarrabal, V; Corradi, R L M; Nordhaus, J; Parker, Q A; Sandin, C; Schönberner, D; Soker, N; Sokoloski, J L; Steffen, M; Toalá, J A; Ueta, T; Villaver, E

    2014-01-01

    We present results from the most recent set of observations obtained as part of the Chandra X-ray observatory Planetary Nebula Survey (ChanPlaNS), the first comprehensive X-ray survey of planetary nebulae (PNe) in the solar neighborhood (i.e., within ~1.5 kpc of the Sun). The survey is designed to place constraints on the frequency of appearance and range of X-ray spectral characteristics of X-ray-emitting PN central stars and the evolutionary timescales of wind-shock-heated bubbles within PNe. ChanPlaNS began with a combined Cycle 12 and archive Chandra survey of 35 PNe. ChanPlaNS continued via a Chandra Cycle 14 Large Program which targeted all (24) remaining known compact (R_neb ~1000 cm^-3), and rarely associated with PNe that show H_2 emission and/or pronounced butterfly structures. Hb 5 is one such exception of a PN with a butterfly structure that hosts diffuse X-ray emission. Additionally, of the five new diffuse X-ray detections, two host [WR]-type CSPNe, NGC 1501 and NGC 6369, supporting the hypothes...

  20. Finding Supernova Ia Progenitors with the Chandra X-ray Observatory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikkel T. B.; Nelemans, Gijs; Voss, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    We examine pre-supernova Chandra images to find X-ray luminosities of type Ia supernova progenitors. At present, we have one possible direct detection and upper limits for the X-ray luminosities of a number of other supernova progenitors. The method has also yielded a possible detection of a X...

  1. The End of Days -- Chandra Catches X-ray Glow From Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Through a combination of serendipity and skill, scientists have used NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory to capture a rare glimpse of X-radiation from the early phases of a supernova, one of the most violent events in nature. Although more than a thousand supernovas have been observed by optical astronomers, the early X-ray glow from the explosions has been detected in less than a dozen cases. The Chandra observations were made under the direction of a team of scientists from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, led by Walter Lewin and his graduate student, Derek Fox. When combined with simultaneous observations by radio and optical telescopes, the X-ray observations tell about the thickness of the shell that was blown off, its density, its speed, and how much material was shed by the star before it exploded. Chandra observed an X-ray glow from SN1999em with the total power of 50,000 suns. Ten days later it observed the supernova for another nine hours, and found that the X rays had faded to half their previous intensity. The optical luminosity, which had the brightness of 200 million suns, had faded somewhat less. No radio emission was detected at any time. With this information, the MIT group and their colleagues are already piecing together a picture of the catastrophic explosion. Observations by optical astronomers showed that SN1999em was a Type II supernova produced by the collapse of the core of a star ten or more times as massive as the Sun. The intense heat generated in the collapse produces a cataclysmic rebound that sends high speed debris flying outward at speeds in excess of 20 million miles per hour. The debris crashes into matter shed by the former star before the explosion. This awesome collision generates shock waves that heat expanding debris to three million degrees. The X-ray glow from this hot gas was detected by Chandra and gives astrophysicists a better understanding of the dynamics of the explosion, as well as the

  2. Recent Advances in X-ray Observations of Cataclysmic Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Mukai, K.

    2004-01-01

    A personal selection of noteworthy X-ray results on CVs are presented, with emphasis on XMM-Newton and Chandra observations. Progressing roughly from broad-band view to narrow-band, high spectral resolution studies, I summarize: the energy balance of polars; X-ray confirmation of IPs; eclipses in non-magnetic CVs; search for magnetism in "non-magnetic" CVs; multi-temperature plasma emission from the boundary layer; complex absorption in magnetic CVs; temperature and density diagnostics; and X...

  3. Chandra X-ray Observatory Study of the Orion Nebula Cluster and BN/KL Region

    OpenAIRE

    Garmire, Gordon,; Feigelson, Eric D.; Broos, Patrick; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Pravdo, Steven H.; Townsley, Leisa; Tsuboi, Yohko

    2000-01-01

    About 1000 X-ray emitting young pre-main sequence (PMS) stars distributed in mass from 0.05 to 50 solar masses are detected in an image of the Orion Nebula obtained with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer on board the Chandra X-ray Observatory. This is the richest field of sources ever obtained in X-ray astronomy. ACIS sources include 85-90% of V

  4. Finding Supernova Ia Progenitors with the Chandra X-ray Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, M. T. B.; Nelemans, G.A.; Voss, R.

    2010-01-01

    We examine pre-supernova Chandra images to find X-ray luminosities of type Ia supernova progenitors. At present, we have one possible direct detection and upper limits for the X-ray luminosities of a number of other supernova progenitors. The method has also yielded a possible detection of a X-ray binary Wolf-Rayet system as the progenitor of a type Ib supernova.

  5. Chandra Discovers the X-ray Signature of a Powerful Wind from a Galactic Microquasar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has detected, for the first time in X rays, a stellar fingerprint known as a P Cygni profile--the distinctive spectral signature of a powerful wind produced by an object in space. The discovery reveals a 4.5-million-mile-per-hour wind coming from a highly compact pair of stars in our galaxy, report researchers from Penn State and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in a paper they will present on 8 November 2000 during a meeting of the High-Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomical Society in Honolulu, Hawaii. The paper also has been accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal Letters. "To our knowledge, these are the first P Cygni profiles reported in X rays," say researchers Niel Brandt, assistant professor of astronomy and astrophysics at Penn State, and Norbert S. Schulz, research scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The team made the discovery during their first observation of a binary-star system with the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which was launched into space in July 1999. The system, known as Circinus X-1, is located about 20,000 light years from Earth in the constellation Circinus near the Southern Cross. It contains a super-dense neutron star in orbit around a normal fusion-burning star like our Sun. Although Circinus X-1 was discovered in 1971, many properties of this system remain mysterious because Circinus X-1 lies in the galactic plane where obscuring dust and gas have blocked its effective study in many wavelengths. The P Cygni spectral profile, previously detected primarily at ultraviolet and optical wavelengths but never before in X rays, is the textbook tool astronomers rely on for probing stellar winds. The profile looks like the outline of a roller coaster, with one really big hill and valley in the middle, on a data plot with velocity on one axis and the flow rate of photons per second on the other. It is named after the famous star P Cygni, in which such

  6. Lessons from the development and operation of the Chandra x-ray observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Daniel A.

    2014-07-01

    Genuine teamwork was a key ingredient of the success of the Chandra x-ray observatory mission. Examples are the science center personnel working as part of the instrument principal investigators (IPI) teams during pre-launch development, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) supporting NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) by directly working with the prime contractor, TRW (now Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems), and TRW acceptance of outside scientists performing the data reduction and analysis for qualification of the aspect camera. An end-to-end thread was defined early on, based on the MSFC/SAO operation of the Einstein observatory x-ray telescope, and covered the cycle from solicitation and peer review of observation proposals through scheduling to data processing and delivery. An open science working group chaired by MSFC included instrument principal investigators and interdisciplinary scientists spanning diverse astrophysical and instrumental expertise.

  7. A Deep Chandra X-ray Spectrum of the Accreting Young Star TW Hydrae

    OpenAIRE

    Brickhouse, N. S.; Cranmer, S. R.; Dupree, A. K.; Luna, G. J. M.; Wolk, S.

    2010-01-01

    We present X-ray spectral analysis of the accreting young star TW Hydrae from a 489 ks observation using the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating. The spectrum provides a rich set of diagnostics for electron temperature T_e, electron density N_e, hydrogen column density N_H, relative elemental abundances and velocities and reveals its source in 3 distinct regions of the stellar atmosphere: the stellar corona, the accretion shock, and a very large extended volume of warm postshock plasma. ...

  8. The jet and counterjet of 3C 270 (NGC 4261) viewed in the X-ray with Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Worrall, D M; O'Sullivan, E; Zezas, A; Wolter, A; Trinchieri, G; Fabbiano, G

    2010-01-01

    The radio source 3C 270, hosted by NGC 4261, is the brightest known example of counterjet X-ray emission from a low-power radio galaxy. We report on the X-ray emission of the jet and counterjet from 130 ks of Chandra data. We argue that the X-ray emission is synchrotron radiation and that the internal properties of the jet and counterjet are remarkably similar. We find a smooth connection in X-ray hardness and X-ray to radio ratio between the jet and one of the X-ray components within the core spectrum. We observe wedge-like depressions in diffuse X-ray surface brightness surrounding the jets, and interpret them as regions where an aged population of electrons provides pressure to balance the interstellar medium of NGC 4261. About 20% of the mass of the interstellar medium has been displaced by the radio source. Treating 3C 270 as a twin-jet system, we find an interesting agreement between the ratio of jet-to-counterjet length in X-rays and that expected if X-rays are observed over the distance that an outflo...

  9. The XBootes Chandra Survey Paper II: The X-ray Source Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Kenter, A; Forman, W R; Jones, C; Green, P; Kochanek, C S; Vikhlinin, A; Fabricant, D; Fazio, G; Brand, K; Brown, M J I; Dey, A; Jannuzi, B T; Najita, J; McNamara, B; Shields, J; Rieke, M; Kenter, Almus; Murray, Stephen S.; Forman, William R.; Jones, Christine; Green, Paul; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Fabricant, Daniel; Fazio, Giovani; Brand, Katherine; Brown, Michael J. I.; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Najita, Joan; Namara, Brian Mc; Shields, Joseph; Rieke, Marcia

    2005-01-01

    We present results from a Chandra survey of the nine square degree Bootes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey (NDWFS). This XBootes survey consists of 126 separate contiguous ACIS-I observations each of approximately 5000 seconds in duration. These unique Chandra observations allow us to search for large scale structure and to calculate X-ray source statistics o ver a wide, contiguous field of view with arcsecond angular resolution and uniform coverage. Optical spectroscopic follow-up observations and the rich NDWFS data set will allow us to identify and classify these X-ray selected sources. Using wavelet decomposition, we detect 4642 point sources with n $\\ge$ 2 counts. In order to keep our detections ~99% reliable, we limit our list to sources with n $\\ge$ 4 counts. The full 0.5--7 keV band n $\\ge$ 4 count list has 3293 point sources. In addition to the point sources, 43 extended sources have been detected consistent, with the depth of these observations and the number counts of clusters. We present h...

  10. Recent and Future Observations in the X-ray and Gamma-ray Bands: Chandra, Suzaku, GLAST, and NuSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madejski, Greg; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2005-12-02

    This paper presents a brief overview of the accomplishments of the Chandra satellite that are shedding light on the origin of high energy particles in astrophysical sources, with the emphasis on clusters of galaxies. It also discusses the prospects for the new data to be collected with instruments recently launched--such as Suzaku--or those to be deployed in the near future, and this includes GLAST and NuSTAR.

  11. Deep Chandra X-ray Imaging of a Nearby Radio Galaxy 4C+29.30: X-ray/Radio Connection

    CERN Document Server

    Siemiginowska, Aneta; Cheung, Chi C; Aldcroft, Thomas L; Bechtold, Jill; Burke, D J; Evans, Daniel; Holt, Joanna; Jamrozy, Marek; Migliori, Giulia; .,

    2012-01-01

    We report results from our deep Chandra X-ray observations of a nearby radio galaxy, 4C+29.30 (z=0.0647). The Chandra image resolves structures on sub-arcsec to arcsec scales, revealing complex X-ray morphology and detecting the main radio features: the nucleus, a jet, hotspots, and lobes. The nucleus is absorbed (N(H)=3.95 (+0.27/-0.33)x10^23 atoms/cm^2) with an unabsorbed luminosity of L(2-10 keV) ~ (5.08 +/-0.52) 10^43 erg/s characteristic of Type 2 AGN. Regions of soft (<2 keV) X-ray emission that trace the hot interstellar medium (ISM) are correlated with radio structures along the main radio axis indicating a strong relation between the two. The X-ray emission beyond the radio source correlates with the morphology of optical line-emitting regions. We measured the ISM temperature in several regions across the galaxy to be kT ~ 0.5 with slightly higher temperatures (of a few keV) in the center and in the vicinity of the radio hotspots. Assuming these regions were heated by weak shocks driven by the exp...

  12. Testing Photoionization Calculations Using Chandra X-ray Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallman, Tim

    2008-01-01

    A great deal of work has been devoted to the accumulation of accurate quantities describing atomic processes for use in analysis of astrophysical spectra. But in many situations of interest the interpretation of a quantity which is observed, such as a line flux, depends on the results of a modeling- or spectrum synthesis code. The results of such a code depends in turn on many atomic rates or cross sections, and the sensitivity of the observable quantity on the various rates and cross sections may be non-linear and if so cannot easily be derived analytically. In such cases the most practical approach to understanding the sensitivity of observables to atomic cross sections is to perform numerical experiments, by calculating models with various rates perturbed by random (but known) factors. In addition, it is useful to compare the results of such experiments with some sample observations, in order to focus attention on the rates which are of the greatest relevance to real observations. In this paper I will present some attempts to carry out this program, focussing on two sample datasets taken with the Chandra HETG. I will discuss the sensitivity of synthetic spectra to atomic data affecting ionization balance, temperature, and line opacity or emissivity, and discuss the implications for the ultimate goal of inferring astrophysical parameters.

  13. LOCALIZING INTEGRAL SOURCES WITH CHANDRA: X-RAY AND MULTI-WAVELENGTH IDENTIFICATIONS AND ENERGY SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomsick, John A.; Bodaghee, Arash [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Chaty, Sylvain; Rodriguez, Jerome [AIM (UMR-E 9005 CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot) Irfu/Service d' Astrophysique, Centre de Saclay, FR-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Rahoui, Farid [Astronomy Department, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Halpern, Jules [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027-6601 (United States); Kalemci, Emrah [Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabanc Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I University, Orhanl Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I -Tuzla, Istanbul 34956 (Turkey); Oezbey Arabaci, Mehtap, E-mail: jtomsick@ssl.berkeley.edu [Physics Department, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06531 (Turkey)

    2012-08-01

    We report on Chandra observations of 18 hard X-ray (>20 keV) sources discovered with the INTEGRAL satellite near the Galactic plane. For 14 of the INTEGRAL sources, we have uncovered one or two potential Chandra counterparts per source. These provide soft X-ray (0.3-10 keV) spectra and subarcsecond localizations, which we use to identify counterparts at other wavelengths, providing information about the nature of each source. Despite the fact that all of the sources are within 5 Degree-Sign of the plane, four of the IGR sources are active galactic nuclei (AGNs; IGR J01545+6437, IGR J15391-5307, IGR J15415-5029, and IGR J21565+5948) and four others are likely AGNs (IGR J03103+5706, IGR J09189-4418, IGR J16413-4046, and IGR J16560-4958) based on each of them having a strong IR excess and/or extended optical or near-IR emission. We compare the X-ray and near-IR fluxes of this group of sources to those of AGNs selected by their 2-10 keV emission in previous studies and find that these IGR AGNs are in the range of typical values. There is evidence in favor of four of the sources being Galactic (IGR J12489-6243, IGR J15293-5609, IGR J16173-5023, and IGR J16206-5253), but only IGR J15293-5609 is confirmed as a Galactic source as it has a unique Chandra counterpart and a parallax measurement from previous optical observations that puts its distance at 1.56 {+-} 0.12 kpc. The 0.3-10 keV luminosity for this source is (1.4{sup +1.0}{sub -0.4}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 32} erg s{sup -1}, and its optical/IR spectral energy distribution is well described by a blackbody with a temperature of 4200-7000 K and a radius of 12.0-16.4 R{sub Sun }. These values suggest that IGR J15293-5609 is a symbiotic binary with an early K-type giant and a white dwarf accretor. We also obtained likely Chandra identifications for IGR J13402-6428 and IGR J15368-5102, but follow-up observations are required to constrain their source types.

  14. Chandra Reveals Twin X-ray Jets in the Powerful FR-II Radio Galaxy 3C353

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, J.; Stawarz, L.; Harris, D.E.; Siemiginowska, A.; Ostrowski, M.; Swain, M.R.; Hardcastle, M.J.; Goodger, J.L.; Iwasawa, K.; Edwards, P.G.

    2008-06-13

    We report X-ray imaging of the powerful FR II radio galaxy 3C 353 using the Chandra X-ray Observatory. 3C 353's two 4-inch wide and 2-feet long jets allow us to study in detail the internal structure of the large-scale relativistic outflows at both radio and X-ray photon energies with the sub-arcsecond spatial resolution provided by the VLA and Chandra instruments. In a 90 ks Chandra observation, we have detected X-ray emission from most radio structures in 3C 353, including the nucleus, the jet and the counterjet, the terminal jet regions (hotspots), and one radio lobe. We show that the detection of the X-ray emission associated with the radio knots and counterknots, which is most likely non-thermal in origin, puts several crucial constraints on the X-ray emission mechanisms in powerful large-scale jets of quasars and FR II sources. In particular, we show that this detection is inconsistent with the inverse-Compton model proposed in the literature, and instead implies a synchrotron origin of the X-ray jet photons. We also find that the width of the X-ray counterjet is possibly narrower than that measured in radio bands, that the radio-to-X-ray flux ratio decreases systematically downstream along the jets, and that there are substantial (kpc-scale) offsets between the positions of the X-ray and radio intensity maxima within each knot, whose magnitudes increase away from the nucleus. We discuss all these findings in the wider context of the physics of extragalactic jets, proposing some particular though not definitive solutions or interpretations for each problem. In general, we find that the synchrotron X-ray emission of extragalactic large-scale jets is not only shaped by the global hydrodynamical configuration of the outflows, but is also likely to be very sensitive to the microscopic parameters of the jet plasma. A complete, self-consistent model for the X-ray emission of extragalactic jets still remains elusive.

  15. A Chandra Observation of the Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy IRAS 19254-7245 (The Superantennae): X-Ray Emission from the Compton-Thick Active Galactic Nucleus and the Diffuse Starburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jianjun; Ptak, Andrew; Heckman, Timothy M.; Braito, Valentina; Reeves, James

    2012-01-01

    We present a Chandra observation of IRAS 19254-7245, a nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxy also known as the Superantennae. The high spatial resolution of Chandra allows us to disentangle for the first time the diffuse starburst (SB) emission from the embedded Compton-thick active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the southern nucleus. No AGN activity is detected in the northern nucleus. The 2-10 keV spectrum of the AGN emission is fitted by a flat power law (TAU = 1.3) and an He-like Fe Kalpha line with equivalent width 1.5 keV, consistent with previous observations. The Fe K line profile could be resolved as a blend of a neutral 6.4 keV line and an ionized 6.7 keV (He-like) or 6.9 keV (H-like) line. Variability of the neutral line is detected compared with the previous XMM-Newton and Suzaku observations, demonstrating the compact size of the iron line emission. The spectrum of the galaxy-scale extended emission excluding the AGN and other bright point sources is fitted with a thermal component with a best-fit kT of approximately 0.8 keV. The 2-10 keV luminosity of the extended emission is about one order of magnitude lower than that of the AGN. The basic physical and structural properties of the extended emission are fully consistent with a galactic wind being driven by the SB. A candidate ultraluminous X-ray source is detected 8 south of the southern nucleus. The 0.3 - 10 keV luminosity of this off-nuclear point source is approximately 6 x 10(exp 40) erg per second if the emission is isotropic and the source is associated with the Superantennae.

  16. Contributions of the "Great" X-Ray Observatories (XMM-Newton and Chandra) to Astronomy and Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Martin

    2011-01-01

    NASA s Chandra X-ray Observatory and ESA s XMM-Newton made their first observations over a decade ago. The unprecedented and complementary capabilities of these observatories to detect, image, and measure the energy of cosmic X-rays, achieved less than 50 years after the first detection of an extra-solar X-ray source, represent an increase in sensitivity comparable in going from naked-eye observations to the most powerful optical telescopes over the past 400 years. In this presentation we highlight some of the many discoveries made using these powerful X-ray observatories that have transformed 21st century astronomy. We briefly discuss future prospects for this truly exciting field.

  17. Chandra Observations of SNR RCW 103

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Kari A.; Burrows, David N.; Park, Sangwook

    2015-01-01

    We analyze three Chandra observations, with a combined exposure time of 99 ks, of the Galactic supernova remnant RCW 103, a young supernova remnant, previously with no clear detection of metal-rich ejecta. Based on our imaging and spectral analyses of these deep Chandra data, we find evidence for metal-rich ejecta emission scattered throughout the remnant. X-ray emission from the shocked ejecta is generally weak, and the shocked circumstellar medium (CSM) is a largely dominant component acros...

  18. Chandra Discovery of an X-ray jet and Extended X-ray Structure in z=0.63 quasar, B2 0738+313

    CERN Document Server

    Siemiginowska, A L; Brunetti, G; Fiore, F; Aldcroft, T L; Bechtold, J; Elvis, M; Murray, S S; Antonelli, L A; Colafrancesco, S; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Stanghellini, Carlo; Brunetti, Gianfranco; Fiore, Fabrizio; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Bechtold, Jill; Elvis, Martin; Murray, Stephen S.

    2003-01-01

    We have made a 30 ksec Chandra observation of the redshift z=0.63 GPS quasar B2 0738+313. We detected X-ray emission from the core and have discovered a 200 kpc (projected on the sky) X-ray jet. The X-ray jet is narrow and curves, following the extended radio structure to the south of the quasar, and ending with a hot spot at the southernmost part of the radio lobe. The jet has a knot at ~13 arcsec away from the core. The knot emission is consistent with the X-rays being created by the inverse Compton scattering of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons and requires jet bulk Lorentz factors of a few (Gamma_{bulk} ~ 5-7). We discuss the emission mechanisms that may be responsible for the jet emission. We present new VLA data of the core and jet, and discuss the relation between the extended radio and X-ray emission. Extended emission observed in several GPS sources has been interpreted as a signature of the source past activity, while the GPS source is young and newly expanded. We argue that B2~0738+313...

  19. Chandra X-ray Grating Spectrometry of Eta Carinae near X-ray Minimum: I. Variability of the Sulfur and Silicon Emission Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Henley, D B; Pittard, J M; Stevens, I R; Hamaguchi, K; Gull, T R

    2008-01-01

    We report on variations in important X-ray emission lines in a series of Chandra grating spectra of the supermassive colliding wind binary star Eta Carinae, including key phases around the X-ray minimum/periastron passage in 2003.5. The X-rays arise from the collision of the slow, dense wind of Eta Car with the fast, low-density wind of an otherwise hidden companion star. The X-ray emission lines provide the only direct measure of the flow dynamics of the companion's wind along the wind-wind collision zone. We concentrate here on the silicon and sulfur lines, which are the strongest and best resolved lines in the X-ray spectra. Most of the line profiles can be adequately fit with symmetric Gaussians with little significant skewness. Both the silicon and sulfur lines show significant velocity shifts and correlated increases in line widths through the observations. The R = forbidden-to-intercombination ratio from the Si XIII and S XV triplets is near or above the low-density limit in all observations, suggestin...

  20. X-Ray Spectroscopy of diffuse Galactic Interstellar Matter with Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Norbert S.; Paerels, Frits

    One of the expectations with the advent of the High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) spectrometer onboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory was to measure precise photoelectric edges of major cosmic elements such as O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ar, Ca, and Fe. Early studies revealed complex absorption structures around the O K, Fe L, and Ne K edges which were identified with absorption from the various phases of the interstellar medium and which could place limits on ionization fractions in these phases. The dust content in interstellar matter as well as, for example, the fraction of how much oxygen is locked into dust are issues of importance and here resolved X-ray edges can determine significant limits. I will review predictions made by cross-sections and depletion factors and compare with current observations specifically with respect to silicon absorption in the interstellar medium. Dust grain models and in conjunction with laboratory measurements are now used to improve current interstellar X-ray absorption models.

  1. X-ray Source Population in the Elliptical Galaxy NGC 720 with Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Jeltema, T E; Buote, D A; Garmire, G P; Jeltema, Tesla E.; Canizares, Claude R.; Buote, David A.; Garmire, Gordon P.

    2003-01-01

    With a Chandra ACIS-S3 observation, we detect 42 X-ray point sources in the elliptical galaxy NGC 720, including a possible central source. Most of these sources will be low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), and 12 are located within 2" of globular cluster candidates. We investigate both the hardness ratios and combined spectra of the sources. They exhibit a distribution of X-ray colors similar to those seen in other early-type galaxies. We find that there is a population of highly absorbed sources located at large distances from the center of the galaxy. The overall spatial distribution of sources is consistent with the ellipticity and position angle of the galaxy, but the sources appear to form several arcs. NGC 720 contains nine ultraluminous sources (L_x >= 10^39 ergs/s). This number is more than have previously been detected in an early-type galaxy but similar to the number seen in the Antennae merger system. The ratio L_ULX/L_B for NGC 720 is more than double the ratio for the S0 galaxy NGC 1553 and a factor...

  2. Unifying X-ray winds in radio galaxies with Chandra HETG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, Francesco

    2013-09-01

    X-ray winds are routinely observed in the spectra of Seyfert galaxies. They can be classified as warm absorbers (WAs), with v~100-1,000km/s, and ultra-fast outflows (UFOs), with v>10,000km/s. In stark contrast, the lack of sensitive enough observations allowed the detection of WAs or UFOs only in very few radio galaxies. Therefore, we propose to observe a small sample of three radio galaxies with the Chandra HETG - 3C111 for 150ks, 3C390.3 for 150ks and 3C120 for 200ks - to detect and study in detail their WAs. We will quantify the importance of mechanical feedback from winds in radio galaxies and compare them to the radio jet power. We will also test whether WAs and UFOs can be unified in a single, multi-phase and multi-scale outflow, as recently reported for Seyferts.

  3. A Chandra X-ray Study of NGC 1068: II. The Luminous X-ray Source Population

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, David A.; Wilson, Andrew S.

    2003-01-01

    We present an analysis of the compact X-ray source population in the Seyfert~2 galaxy NGC 1068, imaged with Chandra. We find a total of 84 compact sources, of which 66 are projected onto the galactic disk of NGC 1068. Spectra of the brightest sources have been modeled with both multi-color disk blackbody and power-law models. The power-law model provides the better description of the spectrum for most of these sources. Five sources have 0.4-8 keV intrinsic luminosities greater than 10^{39} er...

  4. Chandra Phase-Resolved X-ray Spectroscopy of the Crab Pulsar II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Tennant, Allyn F.; Yakovlev, Dimitry G.; Harding, Alice; Zavlin, Vyacheslav E.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Becker, Werner

    2012-01-01

    We present a new study of the X-ray spectral properties of the Crab Pulsar. The superb angular resolution of the Chandra X-ray Observatory enables distinguishing the pulsar from the surrounding nebulosity. Analysis of the spectrum as a function of pulse phase allows the least-biased measure of interstellar X-ray extinction due primarily to photoelectric absorption and secondarily to scattering by dust grains in the direction of the Crab Nebula. We modify previous findings that the line-of-sight to the Crab is under-abundant in oxygen and provide measurements with improved accuracy and less bias. Using the abundances and cross sections from Wilms, Allen & McCray (2000) we find [O/H] = (5.28+\\-0.28) x 10(exp -4) (4.9 x 10(exp -4) is solar abundance). \\rVe also measure for the first time the impact of scattering of flux out of the image by interstellar grains. \\rYe find T(sub scat) = 0.147+/-0.043. Analysis of the spectrum as a function of pulse phase also measures the X-ray spectral index even at pulse minimum - albeit with increasing statistical uncertainty. The spectral variations are, by and large, consistent with a sinusoidal variation. The only significant variation from the sinusoid occurs over the same phase range as some rather abrupt behavior in the optical polarization magnitude and position angle. We compare these spectral variations to those observed in Gamma-rays and conclude that our measurements are both a challenge and a guide to future modeling and will thus eventually help us understand pair cascade processes in pulsar magnetospheres. The data were also used to set new. and less biased, upper limits to the surface temperature of the neutron star for different models of the neutron star atmosphere.

  5. Modeling Contamination Migration on the Chandra X-Ray Observatory - III

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Swartz, Douglas A.; Tice, Neil W.; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Grant, Catherine E.; Marshall, Herman L.; Vikhlinin, Alexy A.; Tennant, Allyn F.; Dahmer, Matthew T.

    2015-01-01

    During its first 16 years of operation, the cold (about -60 C) optical blocking filter of the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS), aboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory, has accumulated a growing layer of molecular contamination that attenuates low-energy x rays. Over the past few years, the accumulation rate, spatial distribution, and composition have changed. This evolution has motivated further analysis of contamination migration within and near the ACIS cavity, in part to evaluate potential bake-out scenarios intended to reduce the level of contamination. Keywords: X-ray astronomy, CCDs, contamination, modeling and simulation, spacecraft operations

  6. X-ray spectral properties of AGN in the Chandra Deep Field South

    OpenAIRE

    Tozzi, P.; Gilli, R.; Mainieri, V.; C. Norman(JHU, Baltimore, USA); Risaliti, G.; Rosati, P.; Bergeron, J.; Borgani, S.; Giacconi, R.; Hasinger, G.; Nonino, M.; Streblyanska, A.; Szokoly, G.; Wang, J X; Zheng, W.

    2006-01-01

    We present a detailed X-ray spectral analysis of the sources in the 1Ms catalog of the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS) taking advantage of optical spectroscopy and photometric redshifts for 321 sources. As a default spectral model, we adopt a power law with slope Gamma with an intrinsic redshifted absorption N_H, a fixed Galactic absorption and an unresolved Fe emission line. For 82 X-ray bright sources, we perform the X-ray spectral analysis leaving both Gamma and N_H free. The weighted mean...

  7. Cosmic Star Formation History and Deep X-ray Imaging in the XMM-NEWTON and CHANDRA Era

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Pranab

    2002-01-01

    I summarize X-ray diagnostic studies of cosmic star formation in terms of evolutionary schemes for X-ray binary evolution in normal galaxies with evolving star formation. Deep X-ray imaging studies by CHANDRA and XMM-NEWTON are beginning to constrain both the X-ray luminosity evolution of galaxies and the log N - log S diagnostics of the X-ray background: I discuss these in the above context, summarizing current understanding and future prospects.

  8. Chandra X-ray Grating Spectrometry of Eta Carinae near X-ray Minimum: I. Variability of the Sulfur and Silicon Emission Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, D. B.; Corcoran, M. F.; Pittard, J. M.; Stevens, I. R.; Hamaguchi, K.; Gull, T. R.

    2008-01-01

    We report on variations in important X-ray emission lines in a series of Chandra grating spectra of the supermassive colliding wind binary star eta Car, including key phases around the X-ray minimum/periastron passage in 2003.5. The X-rays arise from the collision of the slow, dense wind of eta Car with the fast, low-density wind of an otherwise hidden companion star. The X-ray emission lines provide the only direct measure of the flow dynamics of the companion's wind along the wind-wind collision zone. We concentrate here on the silicon and sulfur lines, which are the strongest and best resolved lines in the X-ray spectra. Most of the line profiles can be adequately fit with symmetric Gaussians with little significant skewness. Both the silicon and sulfur lines show significant velocity shifts and correlated increases in line widths through the observations. The R = forbidden-to-intercombination ratio from the Si XIII and S XV triplets is near or above the low-density limit in all observations, suggesting that the line-forming region is > 1.6 stellar radii from the companion star, and that the emitting plasma may be in a non-equilibrium state. We show that simple geometrical models cannot simultaneously fit both the observed centroid variations and changes in line width as a function of phase. We show that the observed profiles can be fitted with synthetic profiles with a reasonable model of the emissivity along the wind-wind collision boundary. We use this analysis to help constrain the line formation region as a function of orbital phase, and the orbital geometry. Subject headings: X-rays: stars -stars: early-type-stars: individual (q Car)

  9. Simulating X-ray Observations with Python

    CERN Document Server

    ZuHone, John A; Hallman, Eric J; Randall, Scott W; Foster, Adam R; Schmid, Christian

    2014-01-01

    X-ray astronomy is an important tool in the astrophysicist's toolkit to investigate high-energy astrophysical phenomena. Theoretical numerical simulations of astrophysical sources are fully three-dimensional representations of physical quantities such as density, temperature, and pressure, whereas astronomical observations are two-dimensional projections of the emission generated via mechanisms dependent on these quantities. To bridge the gap between simulations and observations, algorithms for generating synthetic observations of simulated data have been developed. We present an implementation of such an algorithm in the yt analysis software package. We describe the underlying model for generating the X-ray photons, the important role that yt and other Python packages play in its implementation, and present a detailed workable example of the creation of simulated X-ray observations.

  10. Infrared Counterparts to Chandra X-Ray Sources in the Antennae

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, D M; Brandl, B R; Wilson, J C; Carson, J C; Henderson, C P; Hayward, T L; Barry, D J; Ptak, A F; Colbert, E J M

    2006-01-01

    We use deep J and Ks images of the Antennae (NGC 4038/9) obtained with WIRC on the Palomar 200-inch telescope, together with the Chandra X-ray source list of Zezas et al. (2002a), to search for IR counterparts to X-ray point sources. We establish an X-ray/IR astrometric frame tie with 0.5" rms residuals over a \\~4.3' field. We find 13 ``strong'' IR counterparts brighter than Ks = 17.8 mag and < 1.0" from X-ray sources, and an additional 6 ``possible'' IR counterparts between 1.0" and 1.5" from X-ray sources. The surface density of IR sources near the X-ray sources suggests only ~2 of the ``strong'' counterparts and ~3 of the ``possible'' counterparts are chance superpositions of unrelated objects. Comparing both strong and possible IR counterparts to our photometric study of ~220 Antennae, IR clusters, we find the IR counterparts to X-ray sources are \\~1.2 mag more luminous in Ks than average non-X-ray clusters. We also note that the X-ray/IR matches are concentrated in the spiral arms and ``overlap'' regi...

  11. A Chandra X-ray Study of Cygnus A. 2; The Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Andrew J.; Wilson, Andrew; Terashima, Yuichi; Arnaud, Keith A.; Smith, David A.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We report Chandra Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer and quasi-simultaneous Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the nearby, powerful radio galaxy Cygnus A, with the present paper focusing on the properties of the active nucleus. In the Chandra observation, the hard (less than a few keV) X-ray emission is spatially unresolved with a size is approximately 1" (1.5 kpc, H(sub 0) = 50 km/s/Mpc) and coincides with the radio and near-infrared nuclei. In contrast, the soft (less than 2 keV) emission exhibits a bipolar nebulosity that aligns with the optical bipolar continuum and emission-line structures and approximately with the radio jet. In particular, the soft X-ray emission corresponds very well with the [O III] (lambda)5007 and H(alpha) + [N II] lambda(lambda)6548, 6583 nebulosity imaged with Hubble Space Telescope. At the location of the nucleus, there is only weak soft X-ray emission, an effect that may be intrinsic or result from a dust lane that crosses the nucleus perpendicular to the source axis. The spectra of the various X-ray components have been obtained by simultaneous fits to the six detectors. The compact nucleus is detected to 100 keV and is well described by a heavily absorbed power-law spectrum with Gamma(sub h) = 1.52(sup + 0.12, sub -0.12) (similar to other 0.12 narrow-line radio galaxies) and equivalent hydrogen column N(sub H)(nuc) = 2.0(sup +0.1, sub -0.1) x 10(exp 23)/sq cm. This 0.2 column is compatible with the dust obscuration to the near-infrared source for a normal gas-to-dust ratio. The soft (less than 2 keV) emission from the nucleus may be described by a power-law spectrum with the same index (i.e., Gamma(sub l) = Gamma(sub h), although direct fits suggest a slightly larger value for Gamma(sub l). Narrow emission lines from highly ionized neon and silicon, as well as a "neutral" Fe K(alpha) line, are detected in the nucleus and its vicinity (r approximately less than 2 kpc). The equivalent width (EW) of the Fe K(alpha) line

  12. Chandra ACIS Survey of X-ray Point Sources in Nearby Galaxies. II. X-ray Luminosity Functions and Ultraluminous X-ray Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Song; Liu, Jifeng; Bregman, Joel N

    2016-01-01

    Based on the recently completed {\\it Chandra}/ACIS survey of X-ray point sources in nearby galaxies, we study the X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) for X-ray point sources in different types of galaxies and the statistical properties of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). Uniform procedures are developed to compute the detection threshold, to estimate the foreground/background contamination, and to calculate the XLFs for individual galaxies and groups of galaxies, resulting in an XLF library for 343 galaxies of different types. With the large number of surveyed galaxies, we have studied the XLFs and ULX properties across different host galaxy types, and confirm with good statistics that the XLF slope flattens from lenticular ($\\alpha\\sim1.50\\pm0.07$) to elliptical ($\\sim1.21\\pm0.02$), to spirals ($\\sim0.80\\pm0.02$), to peculiars ($\\sim0.55\\pm0.30$), and to irregulars ($\\sim0.26\\pm0.10$). The XLF break dividing the neutron star and black hole binaries is also confirmed, albeit at quite different break luminosi...

  13. Chandra X-ray Spectroscopy of Kes75, its Young Pulsar, and its Synchrotron Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, B F; Helfand, D J

    2001-01-01

    We have observed the young Galactic supernova remnant Kes 75 with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. This object is one of an increasing number of examples of a shell-type remnant with a central extended radio core harboring a pulsar. Here we present a preliminary spatially resolved spectroscopic analysis of the Kes~75 system. We find that the spectrum of the pulsar is significantly harder than that of the wind nebula, and both of these components can be isolated from the diffuse thermal emission that seems to follow the same distribution as the extended radio shell. When we characterize the thermal emission with a model of an under-ionized plasma and non-solar elemental abundances, we require a significant diffuse high energy component, which we model as a power-law with a photon index similar to that of the synchrotron nebula.

  14. A Narrow Band Chandra X-ray Analysis of SNR 3C 391

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Su; Yang Chen

    2005-01-01

    We present narrow-band and equivalent width (EW) images of the thermal composite supernova remnant (SNR) 3C 391 in the X-ray emission lines of Mg, Si and S using the Chandra ACIS Observational data. The EW images re veal the spatial distribution of the emission of the metal species Mg, Si and S in the remnant. They have a clumpy structure similar to that seen in the broadband diffuse emission, suggesting that they are largely of interstellar origin. We find an interesting finger-like feature protruding outside the southwestern radio border of the remnant, somewhat similar to the jet-like Si structure found in the famous SNR Cas A. This feature may possibly be the debris of the jet of ejecta from an asymmetrical supernova explosion of a massive progenitor star.

  15. A Systematic Chandra study of Sgr A$^{\\star}$: I. X-ray flare detection

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Daily X-ray flaring represents an enigmatic phenomenon of Sgr A$^{\\star}$ --- the supermassive black hole at the center of our Galaxy. We report initial results from a systematic X-ray study of this phenomenon, based on extensive {\\it Chandra} observations obtained from 1999 to 2012, totaling about 4.5 Ms. We detect flares, using a combination of the maximum likelihood and Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods, which allow for a direct accounting for the pile-up effect in the modeling of the flare lightcurves and an optimal use of the data, as well as the measurements of flare parameters, including their uncertainties. A total of 82 flares are detected. About one third of them are relatively faint, which were not detected previously. The observation-to-observation variation of the quiescent emission has an average root-mean-square of $6\\%-14\\%$, including the Poisson statistical fluctuation of faint flares below our detection limits. We find no significant long-term variation in the quiescent emission and the flar...

  16. CHANDRA/ACIS-I STUDY OF THE X-RAY PROPERTIES OF THE NGC 6611 AND M16 STELLAR POPULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guarcello, M. G.; Drake, J. J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, MS-67, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Caramazza, M.; Micela, G.; Sciortino, S.; Prisinzano, L. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, 90134 Palermo (Italy)

    2012-07-10

    Mechanisms regulating the origin of X-rays in young stellar objects and the correlation with their evolutionary stage are under debate. Studies of the X-ray properties in young clusters allow us to understand these mechanisms. One ideal target for this analysis is the Eagle Nebula (M16), with its central cluster NGC 6611. At 1750 pc from the Sun, it harbors 93 OB stars, together with a population of low-mass stars from embedded protostars to disk-less Class III objects, with age {<=}3 Myr. We study an archival 78 ks Chandra/ACIS-I observation of NGC 6611 and two new 80 ks observations of the outer region of M16, one centered on the Column V and the other on a region of the molecular cloud with ongoing star formation. We detect 1755 point sources with 1183 candidate cluster members (219 disk-bearing and 964 disk-less). We study the global X-ray properties of M16 and compare them with those of the Orion Nebula Cluster. We also compare the level of X-ray emission of Class II and Class III stars and analyze the X-ray spectral properties of OB stars. Our study supports the lower level of X-ray activity for the disk-bearing stars with respect to the disk-less members. The X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of M16 is similar to that of Orion, supporting the universality of the XLF in young clusters. Eighty-five percent of the O stars of NGC 6611 have been detected in X-rays. With only one possible exception, they show soft spectra with no hard components, indicating that mechanisms for the production of hard X-ray emission in O stars are not operating in NGC 6611.

  17. Modeling Contamination Migration on the Chandra X-ray Observatory II

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Steve; Swartz, Doug; Tice, Neil; Plucinsky, Paul; Grant, Catherine; Marshall, Herman; Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2013-01-01

    During its first 14 years of operation, the cold (about -60degC) optical blocking filter of the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS), aboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory, has accumulated a growing layer of molecular contamination that attenuates low-energy x rays. Over the past few years, the accumulation rate, spatial distribution, and composition may have changed, perhaps partially related to changes in the operating temperature of the ACIS housing. This evolution of the accumulation of the molecular contamination has motivated further analysis of contamination migration on the Chandra X-ray Observatory, particularly within and near the ACIS cavity. To this end, the current study employs a higher-fidelity geometric model of the ACIS cavity, detailed thermal modeling based upon monitored temperature data, and an accordingly refined model of the molecular transport.

  18. The Role of Project Science in the Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2006-01-01

    The Chandra X-Ray Observatory, one of NASA's Great Observatories, has an outstanding record of scientific and technical success. This success results from the efforts of a team comprising NASA, its contractors, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, the instrument groups, and other elements of the scientific community, including thousands of scientists who utilize this powerful facility for astrophysical research. We discuss the role of NASA Project Science in the formulation, development, calibration, and operation of the Chandra X-ray Observatory. In addition to representing the scientific community within the Project, Project Science performed what we term "science systems engineering". This activity encompasses translation of science requirements into technical requirements and assessment of the scientific impact of programmatic and technical trades. We briefly describe several examples of science systems engineering conducted by Chandra Project Science.

  19. Using ACIS on the Chandra X-ray Observatory as a particle radiation monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, C E; Bautz, M W; O'Dell, S L

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) is one of two focal-plane instruments on the Chandra X-ray Observatory. During initial radiation-belt passes, the exposed ACIS suffered significant radiation damage from trapped soft protons scattering off the x-ray telescope's mirrors. The primary effect of this damage was to increase the charge-transfer inefficiency (CTI) of the ACIS 8 front-illuminated CCDs. Subsequently, the Chandra team implemented procedures to remove the ACIS from the telescope's focus during high-radiation events: planned protection during radiation-belt transits; autonomous protection triggered by an on-board radiation monitor; and manual intervention based upon assessment of space-weather conditions. However, as Chandra's multilayer insulation ages, elevated temperatures have reduced the effectiveness of the on-board radiation monitor for autonomous protection. Here we investigate using the ACIS CCDs themselves as a radiation monitor. We explore the 10-year database to evaluate the CCDs' ...

  20. A Deep Chandra X-ray Spectrum of the Accreting Young Star TW Hydrae

    CERN Document Server

    Brickhouse, N S; Dupree, A K; Luna, G J M; Wolk, S

    2010-01-01

    We present X-ray spectral analysis of the accreting young star TW Hydrae from a 489 ks observation using the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating. The spectrum provides a rich set of diagnostics for electron temperature T_e, electron density N_e, hydrogen column density N_H, relative elemental abundances and velocities and reveals its source in 3 distinct regions of the stellar atmosphere: the stellar corona, the accretion shock, and a very large extended volume of warm postshock plasma. The presence of Mg XII, Si XIII, and Si XIV emission lines in the spectrum requires coronal structures at ~10 MK. Lower temperature lines (e.g., from O VIII, Ne IX, and Mg XI) formed at 2.5 MK appear more consistent with emission from an accretion shock. He-like Ne IX line ratio diagnostics indicate that T_e = 2.50 +/- 0.25 MK and N_e = 3.0 +/- 0.2 x 10^(12) cm^(-3) in the shock. These values agree well with standard magnetic accretion models. However, the Chandra observations significantly diverge from current model pred...

  1. A new method for determining the sensitivity of X-ray imaging observations and the X-ray number counts

    CERN Document Server

    Georgakakis, A; Laird, E S; Aird, J; Trichas, M

    2008-01-01

    We present a new method for determining the sensitivity of X-ray imaging observations, which correctly accounts for the observational biases that affect the probability of detecting a source of a given X-ray flux, without the need to perform a large number of time consuming simulations. We use this new technique to estimate the X-ray source counts in different spectral bands (0.5-2, 0.5-10, 2-10 and 5-10keV) by combining deep pencil-beam and shallow wide-area Chandra observations. The sample has a total of 6295 unique sources over an area of $\\rm 11.8deg^2$ and is the largest used to date to determine the X-ray number counts. We determine, for the first time, the break flux in the 5-10 keV band, in the case of a double power-law source count distribution. We also find an upturn in the 0.5-2keV counts at fluxes below about 6e-17erg/s/cm2. We show that this can be explained by the emergence of normal star-forming galaxies which dominate the X-ray population at faint fluxes. The fraction of the diffuse X-ray bac...

  2. A Chandra X-Ray Survey of Ejecta in the Cassiopeia A Supernova Remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Una; Laming, J. Martin

    2011-01-01

    We present a survey of the X-ray emitting ejecta in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant based on an extensive analysis of over 6000 spectral regions extracted on 2.5-10" angular scales using the Chandra 1 Ms observation. We interpret these results in the context of hydrodynamical models for the evolution of the remnant. The distributions of fitted temperature and ionization age are highly peaked and suggest that the ejecta were subjected to multiple secondary shocks. Based on the fitted emission measure and element abundances, and an estimate of the emitting volume, we derive masses for the X-ray emitting ejecta as well as showing the distribution of the mass of various elements over the remnant. The total shocked Fe mass appears to be roughly 0.14 Solar Mass, which accounts for nearly all of the mass expected in Fe ejecta. We find two populations of Fe ejecta, that associated with normal Si-burning and that associated with alpha-rich freeze-out, with a mass ratio of approximately 2:1. Surprisingly, essentially all of this Fe (both components) is well outside the central regions of the SNR, presumably having been ejected by hydrodynamic instabilities during the explosion. We discuss this, and its implications for the neutron star kick.

  3. A Deep Chandra X-Ray Spectrum of the Accreting Young Star TW Hydrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickhouse, N. S.; Cranmer, S. R.; Dupree, A. K.; Luna, G. J. M.; Wolk, S.

    2010-02-01

    We present X-ray spectral analysis of the accreting young star TW Hydrae from a 489 ks observation using the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating. The spectrum provides a rich set of diagnostics for electron temperature Te , electron density Ne , hydrogen column density NH , relative elemental abundances, and velocities, and reveals its source in three distinct regions of the stellar atmosphere: the stellar corona, the accretion shock, and a very large extended volume of warm postshock plasma. The presence of Mg XII, Si XIII, and Si XIV emission lines in the spectrum requires coronal structures at ~10 MK. Lower temperature lines (e.g., from O VIII, Ne IX, and Mg XI) formed at 2.5 MK appear more consistent with emission from an accretion shock. He-like Ne IX line ratio diagnostics indicate that Te = 2.50 ± 0.25 MK and Ne = 3.0 ± 0.2 × 1012 cm-3 in the shock. These values agree well with standard magnetic accretion models. However, the Chandra observations significantly diverge from current model predictions for the postshock plasma. This gas is expected to cool radiatively, producing O VII as it flows into an increasingly dense stellar atmosphere. Surprisingly, O VII indicates Ne = 5.7+4.4 -1.2 × 1011 cm-3, 5 times lower than Ne in the accretion shock itself and ~7 times lower than the model prediction. We estimate that the postshock region producing O VII has roughly 300 times larger volume and 30 times more emitting mass than the shock itself. Apparently, the shocked plasma heats the surrounding stellar atmosphere to soft X-ray emitting temperatures and supplies this material to nearby large magnetic structures—which may be closed magnetic loops or open magnetic field leading to mass outflow. Our model explains the soft X-ray excess found in many accreting systems as well as the failure to observe high Ne signatures in some stars. Such accretion-fed coronae may be ubiquitous in the atmospheres of accreting young stars.

  4. The Norma arm region Chandra survey catalog: X-ray populations in the spiral arms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornasini, Francesca M. [Astronomy Department, University of California, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Tomsick, John A.; Bodaghee, Arash; Krivonos, Roman A. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); An, Hongjun [Department of Physics, McGill University, Rutherford Physics Building, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Rahoui, Farid [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Gotthelf, Eric V. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Bauer, Franz E. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Stern, Daniel, E-mail: f.fornasini@berkeley.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MS 169-506, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We present a catalog of 1415 X-ray sources identified in the Norma Arm Region Chandra Survey (NARCS), which covers a 2° × 0.°8 region in the direction of the Norma spiral arm to a depth of ≈20 ks. Of these sources, 1130 are point-like sources detected with ≥3σ confidence in at least one of three energy bands (0.5-10, 0.5-2, and 2-10 keV), five have extended emission, and the remainder are detected at low significance. Since most sources have too few counts to permit individual classification, they are divided into five spectral groups defined by their quantile properties. We analyze stacked spectra of X-ray sources within each group, in conjunction with their fluxes, variability, and infrared counterparts, to identify the dominant populations in our survey. We find that ∼50% of our sources are foreground sources located within 1-2 kpc, which is consistent with expectations from previous surveys. Approximately 20% of sources are likely located in the proximity of the Scutum-Crux and near Norma arm, while 30% are more distant, in the proximity of the far Norma arm or beyond. We argue that a mixture of magnetic and nonmagnetic cataclysmic variables dominates the Scutum-Crux and near Norma arms, while intermediate polars and high-mass stars (isolated or in binaries) dominate the far Norma arm. We also present the cumulative number count distribution for sources in our survey that are detected in the hard energy band. A population of very hard sources in the vicinity of the far Norma arm and active galactic nuclei dominate the hard X-ray emission down to f{sub X} ≈ 10{sup –14} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}, but the distribution curve flattens at fainter fluxes. We find good agreement between the observed distribution and predictions based on other surveys.

  5. Probing Wolf-Rayet Winds: Chandra/HETG X-Ray Spectra of WR 6

    CERN Document Server

    Huenemoerder, David P; Hamann, Wolf-Rainer; Ignace, Richard; Nichols, Joy S; Oskinova, Lidia; Pollock, Andrew M T; Schulz, Norbert S; Shenar, Tomer

    2015-01-01

    With a deep Chandra/HETGS exposure of WR 6, we have resolved emission lines whose profiles show that the X-rays originate from a uniformly expanding spherical wind of high X-ray-continuum optical depth. The presence of strong helium-like forbidden lines places the source of X-ray emission at tens to hundreds of stellar radii from the photosphere. Variability was present in X-rays and simultaneous optical photometry, but neither were correlated with the known period of the system or with each other. An enhanced abundance of sodium revealed nuclear processed material, a quantity related to the evolutionary state of the star. The characterization of the extent and nature of the hot plasma in WR 6 will help to pave the way to a more fundamental theoretical understanding of the winds and evolution of massive stars.

  6. TRW Ships NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory To Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Two U.S. Air Force C-5 Galaxy transport planes carrying the observatory and its ground support equipment landed at Kennedy's Space Shuttle Landing Facility at 2:40 p.m. EST this afternoon. REDONDO BEACH, CA.--(Business Wire)--Feb. 4, 1999--TRW has shipped NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory ("Chandra") to the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), in Florida, in preparation for a Space Shuttle launch later this year. The 45-foot-tall, 5-ton science satellite will provide astronomers with new information on supernova remnants, the surroundings of black holes, and other celestial phenomena that produce vast quantities of X-rays. Cradled safely in the cargo hold of a tractor-trailer rig called the Space Cargo Transportation System (SCTS), NASA's newest space telescope was ferried on Feb. 4 from Los Angeles International Airport to KSC aboard an Air Force C-5 Galaxy transporter. The SCTS, an Air Force container, closely resembles the size and shape of the Shuttle cargo bay. Over the next few months, Chandra will undergo final tests at KSC and be mated to a Boeing-provided Inertial Upper Stage for launch aboard Space Shuttle Columbia. A launch date for the Space Shuttle STS-93 mission is expected to be announced later this week. The third in NASA's family of Great Observatories that includes the Hubble Space Telescope and the TRW-built Compton Gamma Ray observatory, Chandra will use the world's most powerful X-ray telescope to allow scientists to "see" and monitor cosmic events that are invisible to conventional optical telescopes. Chandra's X-ray images will yield new insight into celestial phenomena such as the temperature and extent of gas clouds that comprise clusters of galaxies and the superheating of gas and dust particles as they swirl into black holes. A TRW-led team that includes the Eastman Kodak Co., Raytheon Optical Systems Inc., and Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. designed and built the Chandra X-ray Observatory for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The

  7. Chandra Phase-resolved X-Ray Spectroscopy of the Crab Pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Tennant, Allyn F.; Yakovlev, Dmitry G.; Harding, Alice; Zavlin, Vyacheslav E.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Becker, Werner

    2011-12-01

    We present a new study of the X-ray spectral properties of the Crab Pulsar. The superb angular resolution of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory enables distinguishing the pulsar from the surrounding nebulosity. Analysis of the spectrum as a function of pulse phase allows the least-biased measure of interstellar X-ray extinction due primarily to photoelectric absorption and secondarily to scattering by dust grains in the direction of the Crab Nebula. We modify previous findings that the line of sight to the Crab is underabundant in oxygen and provide measurements with improved accuracy and less bias. Using the abundances and cross sections from Wilms et al. we find [O/H] = (5.28 ± 0.28) × 10-4 (4.9 × 10-4 is solar abundance). We also measure for the first time the impact of scattering of flux out of the image by interstellar grains. We find τscat = 0.147 ± 0.043. Analysis of the spectrum as a function of pulse phase also measures the X-ray spectral index even at pulse minimum—albeit with increasing statistical uncertainty. The spectral variations are, by and large, consistent with a sinusoidal variation. The only significant variation from the sinusoid occurs over the same phase range as some rather abrupt behavior in the optical polarization magnitude and position angle. We also compare these spectral variations to those observed in gamma-rays and conclude that our measurements are both a challenge and a guide to future modeling and will thus eventually help us understand pair cascade processes in pulsar magnetospheres. The data are also used to set new, and less biased, upper limits to the surface temperature of the neutron star for different models of the neutron star atmosphere. We discuss how such data are best connected to theoretical models of neutron star cooling and neutron star interiors. The data restrict the neutrino emission rate in the pulsar core and the amount of light elements in the heat-blanketing envelope. The observations allow the pulsar

  8. Observation of extragalactic X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A narrow angular resolution detection apparatus using a high performance collimator has proved particularly well suited for the programs of observation of X ray sources. The experimental set-up and its performance are described. One chapter deals with the particular problems involved in the observation of X ray sources with the aid of sounding balloons. The absorption of extraterrestrial photons by the earth atmosphere is taken into account in the procesing of the observation data using two methods of calculation: digital and with simulation techniques. The results of three balloon flights are then presented with the interpretation of the observations carried out using both thermal and non thermal emission models. This analysis leads to some possible characteristics of structure of the Perseus galaxy cluster

  9. Modeling Contamination Migration on the Chandra X-ray Observatory - II

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Swartz, Douglas A.; Tice, Neil W.; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Grant, Catherine E.; Marshall, Herman L.; Vikhlinin, Alexey A.; Tennant, Allyn F.

    2013-01-01

    During its first 14 years of operation, the cold (about -60C) optical blocking filter of the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS), aboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory, has accumulated a growing layer of molecular contamination that attenuates low-energy x rays. Over the past few years, the accumulation rate, spatial distribution, and composition have changed. This evolution has motivated further analysis of contamination migration within and near the ACIS cavity. To this end, the current study employs a higher-fidelity geometric model of the ACIS cavity, detailed thermal modeling based upon temperature data, and a refined model of the molecular transport.

  10. A Chandra X-ray Study of Cygnus A - III. The Cluster of Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, David A.; Wilson, Andrew S.; Arnaud, Keith A.; Terashima, Yuichi; Young, Andrew J.

    2001-01-01

    The results from a recent Chandra ACIS-S study of the cluster surrounding Cygnus A are presented. We have deprojected the X-ray spectra taken from various elliptical shells in order to derive the run of temperature, density, pressure, and abundance for the ICM as a function of radius. We confirm a drop in temperature of the X-ray emitting gas from $\\sim 8$ keV more than $\\sim 2^{\\prime}$ from the center to $\\simeq 5$ keV some $30^{\\prime\\prime}$ from the center, with the coolest gas immediate...

  11. Observation of femtosecond X-ray interactions with matter using an X-ray-X-ray pump-probe scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Ichiro; Inubushi, Yuichi; Sato, Takahiro; Tono, Kensuke; Katayama, Tetsuo; Kameshima, Takashi; Ogawa, Kanade; Togashi, Tadashi; Owada, Shigeki; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Takashi; Hara, Toru; Yabashi, Makina

    2016-02-01

    Resolution in the X-ray structure determination of noncrystalline samples has been limited to several tens of nanometers, because deep X-ray irradiation required for enhanced resolution causes radiation damage to samples. However, theoretical studies predict that the femtosecond (fs) durations of X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) pulses make it possible to record scattering signals before the initiation of X-ray damage processes; thus, an ultraintense X-ray beam can be used beyond the conventional limit of radiation dose. Here, we verify this scenario by directly observing femtosecond X-ray damage processes in diamond irradiated with extraordinarily intense (∼10(19) W/cm(2)) XFEL pulses. An X-ray pump-probe diffraction scheme was developed in this study; tightly focused double-5-fs XFEL pulses with time separations ranging from sub-fs to 80 fs were used to excite (i.e., pump) the diamond and characterize (i.e., probe) the temporal changes of the crystalline structures through Bragg reflection. It was found that the pump and probe diffraction intensities remain almost constant for shorter time separations of the double pulse, whereas the probe diffraction intensities decreased after 20 fs following pump pulse irradiation due to the X-ray-induced atomic displacement. This result indicates that sub-10-fs XFEL pulses enable conductions of damageless structural determinations and supports the validity of the theoretical predictions of ultraintense X-ray-matter interactions. The X-ray pump-probe scheme demonstrated here would be effective for understanding ultraintense X-ray-matter interactions, which will greatly stimulate advanced XFEL applications, such as atomic structure determination of a single molecule and generation of exotic matters with high energy densities.

  12. Groups of Galaxies in AEGIS: The 200 ksec Chandra Extended X-ray Source catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Jeltema, Tesla E; Laird, Elise S; Willmer, Christopher N A; Coil, Alison L; Cooper, Michael C; Davis, Marc; Nandra, Kirpal; Newman, Jeffrey A

    2009-01-01

    We present the discovery of seven X-ray emitting groups of galaxies selected as extended X-ray sources in the 200 ksec Chandra coverage of the All-wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS). In addition, we report on AGN activity associated to these systems. Using the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey coverage, we identify optical counterparts and determine velocity dispersions. In particular, we find three massive high-redshift groups at z>0.7, one of which is at z=1.13, the first X-ray detections of spectroscopically selected DEEP2 groups. We also present a first look at the the L_X-T, L_X-sigma, and sigma-T scaling relations for high-redshift massive groups. We find that the properties of these X-ray selected systems agree well with the scaling relations of similar systems at low redshift, although there are X-ray undetected groups in the DEEP2 catalogue with similar velocity dispersions. The other three X-ray groups with identified redshifts are associated with lower mass groups at z~0.07 and...

  13. Swift J1644+57: Chandra observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levan, A. J.; Tanvir, N. R.

    2012-11-01

    We observed the X-ray counterpart to the candidate relativistic tidal disruption event Swift J1644+57 (Levan et al. 2011 Science, 333 199; Bloom et al. 2011 Science 333 202; Burrows et al. 2011 Nature 476 421; Zauderer et al. 2011 Nature 476 425) with the Chandra X-ray Observatory, beginning on 26 November 2012 at 10:25 UT. A total integration of 24.7 ks was obtained, and the object was placed at the default position on the ACIS S3 chip.

  14. Chandra Smells a RRAT: X-ray Detection of a Rotating Radio Transient

    CERN Document Server

    Gaensler, B M; Reynolds, S; Borkowski, K; Rea, N; Possenti, A; Israel, G; Burgay, M; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Krämer, M; Lyne, A; Stairs, I

    2006-01-01

    "Rotating RAdio Transients" (RRATs) are a newly discovered astronomical phenomenon, characterised by occasional brief radio bursts, with average intervals between bursts ranging from minutes to hours. The burst spacings allow identification of periodicities, which fall in the range 0.4 to 7 seconds. The RRATs thus seem to be rotating neutron stars, albeit with properties very different from the rest of the population. We here present the serendipitous detection with the Chandra X-ray Observatory of a bright point-like X-ray source coincident with one of the RRATs. We discuss the temporal and spectral properties of this X-ray emission, consider counterparts in other wavebands, and interpret these results in the context of possible explanations for the RRAT population.

  15. The O VII X-Ray Forest Toward Markarian 421: Consistency between XMM-Newton and Chandra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaastra, J.S.; Werner, N.; Herder, J.W.A.den; /SRON, Utrecht; Paerels, F.B.S.; /Columbia U., Astron. Astrophys.; de Plaa, J.; /SRON, Utrecht; Rasmussen, A.P.; /KIPAC, Menlo; de Vries, C.P.; /SRON, Utrecht

    2006-04-28

    Recently the first detections of highly ionized gas associated with two Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM) filaments have been reported. The evidence is based on X-ray absorption lines due to O VII and other ions observed by Chandra towards the bright blazar Mrk 421. We investigate the robustness of this detection by a re-analysis of the original Chandra LETGS spectra, the analysis of a large set of XMM-Newton RGS spectra of Mrk 421, and additional Chandra observations. We address the reliability of individual spectral features belonging to the absorption components, and assess the significance of the detection of these components. We also use Monte Carlo simulations of spectra. We confirm the apparent strength of several features in the Chandra spectra, but demonstrate that they are statistically not significant. This decreased significance is due to the number of redshift trials that are made and that are not taken into account in the original discovery paper. Therefore these features must be attributed to statistical fluctuations. This is confirmed by the RGS spectra, which have a higher signal to noise ratio than the Chandra spectra, but do not show features at the same wavelengths. Finally, we show that the possible association with a Ly{alpha} absorption system also lacks sufficient statistical evidence. We conclude that there is insufficient observational proof for the existence of the two proposed WHIM filaments towards Mrk 421, the brightest X-ray blazar on the sky. Therefore, the highly ionized component of the WHIM still remains to be discovered.

  16. Chandra X-ray Observatory Arcsecond Imaging of the Young, Oxygen-rich Supernova Remnant 1E0102.2-7219

    OpenAIRE

    Gaetz, T. J.; Butt, Yousaf M.; Edgar, Richard J.; Eriksen, Kristoffer A.; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Schlegel, Eric M.; Smith, Randall K.

    2000-01-01

    We present observations of the young, Oxygen-rich supernova remnant 1E0102.2-7219 taken by the Chandra X-ray Observatory during Chandra's Orbital Activation and Checkout phase. The boundary of the blast wave shock is clearly seen for the first time, allowing the diameter of the remnant and the mean blast wave velocity to be determined accurately. The prominent X-ray bright ring of material may be the result of the reverse shock encountering ejecta; the radial variation of O VII vs. O VIII emi...

  17. High-Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy of the Seyfert 2 Galaxy Circinus with Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambruna, Rita M.; Netzer, Hagai; Kaspi, Shai; Brandt, W. N.; Chartas, G.; Garmire, G. P.; Nousek, John A.; Weaver, K. A.

    2000-01-01

    Results from a 60 ks Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS) observation of the nearby Seyfert 2 Circinus are presented. The spectrum shows a wealth of emission lines at both soft and hard X-rays, including lines of Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ar, Ca, and Fe, and a prominent Fe K(alpha) line at 6.4 keV. We identify several of the He-like components and measure several of the Lyman lines of the N-like ions. The lines' profiles are unresolved at the limited signal-to-noise ratio of the data. Our analysis of the zeroth-order image in a companion paper constrains the size of the emission region to be 20-60 pc, suggesting that emission within this volume is almost entirely due to the reprocessing of the obscured central source. Here we show that a model containing two distinct components can reproduce almost all the observed properties of this gas. The ionized component can explain the observed intensities of the ionized species, assuming twice-solar composition and an N is proportional r(exp -1.5) density distribution. The neutral component is highly concentrated, well within the 0.8" point source, and is responsible for almost all of the observed K(alpha) (6.4 keV) emission. Circinus seems to be different than Mkn 3 in terms of its gas distribution.

  18. X-ray spectroscopy of the ADC source X1822-371 with Chandra and XMM-Newton

    OpenAIRE

    Iaria, R.; T. Di Salvo; D'Aì, A.; Burderi, L.; Mineo, T.; Riggio, A.; Papitto, A.; Robba, N.

    2012-01-01

    The eclipsing low-mass X-ray binary X1822-371 is the prototype of the accretion disc corona (ADC) sources. We analyse two Chandra observations and one XMM-Newton observation to study the discrete features and their variation as a function of the orbital phase, deriving constraints on the temperature, density, and location of the plasma responsible for emission lines. The HETGS and XMM/Epic-pn observed X1822-371 for 140 and 50 ks, respectively. We extracted an averaged spectrum and five spectr...

  19. The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey: optical catalogue and point-source counterparts to X-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Wevers, T; Jonker, P G; Bassa, C; Nelemans, G; van Grunsven, T; Gonzalez-Solares, E A; Torres, M A P; Heinke, C; Steeghs, D; Maccarone, T J; Britt, C; Hynes, R I; Johnson, C; Wu, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS), we present a catalogue of optical sources in the GBS footprint. This consists of two regions centered at Galactic latitude b = 1.5 degrees above and below the Galactic Centre, spanning (l x b) = (6x1) degrees. The catalogue consists of 2 or more epochs of observations for each line of sight in r', i' and H{\\alpha} filters. It is complete down to r' = 20.2 and i' = 19.2 mag; the mean 5{\\sigma} depth is r' = 22.5 and i' = 21.1 mag. The mean root-mean-square residuals of the astrometric solutions is 0.04 arcsec. We cross-correlate this optical catalogue with the 1640 unique X-ray sources detected in Chandra observations of the GBS area, and find candidate optical counterparts to 1480 X-ray sources. We use a false alarm probability analysis to estimate the contamination by interlopers, and expect ~ 10 per cent of optical counterparts to be chance alignments. To determine the most likely counterpart for each X-ray source, we compute the likelihood ratio for all o...

  20. Managing radiation degradation of CCDs on the Chandra X-ray Observatory II

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Bissell, Bradley A.; Blackwell, William C.; Cameron, Robert A.; Chappell, Jon II.; DePasquale, Joseph M.; Gage, Kenneth R.; Grant, Catherine E.; Harbison, Christine F.

    2005-01-01

    The CCDs on the Chandra X-ray Observatory are vulnerable to radiation damage from low-energy protons scattered off the telescope's mirrors onto the focal plane. Following unexpected damage incurred early in the mission, the Chandra Team developed, implemented, and maintains a radiation-protection program. This program - involving scheduled radiation safing during radiation-belt passes, intervention based upon real-time space-weather conditions and radiation-environment modeling, and on-board radiation monitoring with autonomous radiation safing - has successfully managed the radiation damage to the CCDs. Since implementing the program, the charge-transfer inefficiency (CTI) has increased at an average annual rate of only 2.9x10^-6 (2.3%) for the front- illuminated CCDs and 0.95x10^-6 (6.5%) for the back-illuminated CCDs. This paper describes the current status of Chandra radiation-management program.

  1. Chandra measurements of non-thermal X-ray emission from massive, merging, radio-halo clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Million, E T

    2008-01-01

    We report the discovery of spatially-extended, non-thermal or hot, quasi-thermal emission components in Chandra X-ray spectra for five of a sample of seven massive, merging galaxy clusters with powerful radio halos: Abell 665, 2163, 2255, 2319, and 1E0657-56. The emission components can be fitted by power-law models with mean photon indices in the range 1.4 20 keV. A control sample of regular, dynamically relaxed clusters without radio halos but with comparable thermal temperatures and luminosities shows no evidence for similar components in their Chandra spectra. Detailed X-ray spectral mapping reveals the complex thermodynamic states of the radio halo clusters. We report the discovery of a clear, large-scale shock front in Abell 2219. Our deepest observations, of the Bullet Cluster 1E0657-56, demonstrate a spatial correlation between the strongest power law X-ray emission, highest thermal pressure, and brightest 1.34GHz radio halo emission in this cluster. The integrated flux and mean spectral index of the...

  2. Infrared Counterparts to Chandra X-Ray Sources in the Antennae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. M.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Brandl, B. R.; Wilson, J. C.; Carson, J. C.; Henderson, C. P.; Hayward, T. L.; Barry, D. J.; Ptak, A. F.; Colbert, E. J. M.

    2007-03-01

    We use deep J (1.25 μm) and Ks (2.15 μm) images of the Antennae (NGC 4038/4039) obtained with the Wide-field InfraRed Camera on the Palomar 200 inch (5 m) telescope, together with the Chandra X-ray source list of Zezas and coworkers to search for infrared counterparts to X-ray point sources. We establish an X-ray/IR astrometric frame tie with ~0.5" rms residuals over a ~4.3' field. We find 13 ``strong'' IR counterparts brighter than Ks=17.8 mag and ray sources, and an additional 6 ``possible'' IR counterparts between 1.0'' and 1.5'' from X-ray sources. Based on a detailed study of the surface density of IR sources near the X-ray sources, we expect only ~2 of the ``strong'' counterparts and ~3 of the ``possible'' counterparts to be chance superpositions of unrelated objects. Comparing both strong and possible IR counterparts to our photometric study of ~220 IR clusters in the Antennae, we find with a >99.9% confidence level that IR counterparts to X-ray sources are ΔMKs~1.2 mag more luminous than average non-X-ray clusters. We also note that the X-ray/IR matches are concentrated in the spiral arms and ``overlap'' regions of the Antennae. This implies that these X-ray sources lie in the most ``super'' of the Antennae's super star clusters, and thus trace the recent massive star formation history here. Based on the NH inferred from the X-ray sources without IR counterparts, we determine that the absence of most of the ``missing'' IR counterparts is not due to extinction, but that these sources are intrinsically less luminous in the IR, implying that they trace a different (possibly older) stellar population. We find no clear correlation between X-ray luminosity classes and IR properties of the sources, although small-number statistics hamper this analysis.

  3. Soft X-ray Spectroscopy of NGC 1068 with XMM-Newton RGS and Chandra LETGS

    CERN Document Server

    Kinkhabwala, A; Behar, E; Kahn, S M; Paerels, F B S; Brinkman, A C; Kaastra, J S; Van der Meer, R L J; Gu, M F; Liedahl, D A

    2002-01-01

    We present high-resolution soft-X-ray spectra of the prototypical Seyfert 2 galaxy, NGC 1068, taken with XMM-Newton RGS and Chandra LETGS. Its rich emission-line spectrum is dominated by recombination in a warm plasma (bright, narrow radiative recombination continua provide the ``smoking gun''), which is photoionized by the inferred nuclear power-law continuum. Radiative decay following photoexcitation of resonant transitions is also significant. A self-consistent model of an irradiated cone of gas is capable of reproducing the hydrogenic/heliumlike ionic line series in detail. The radial ionic column densities we infer are consistent with absorption measurements (the ``warm absorber'') in Seyfert 1 galaxies. This strongly suggests that the emission spectrum we observe from NGC 1068 emanates from its ``warm absorber.'' The observed extent of the ionization-cone/''warm absorber'' in NGC 1068 of 500 pc implies that a large fraction of the gas associated with generic ``warm absorbers'' may typically exist on the...

  4. Chandra Imaging of the X-ray Core of the Virgo Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Young, A J; Mundell, C G

    2002-01-01

    We report sub-arcsecond X-ray imaging spectroscopy of M87 and the core of the Virgo cluster with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The X-ray morphology shows structure on arcsecond (~100 pc) to ten arcminute (~50 kpc) scales, the most prominent feature being an "arc" running from the east, across the central region of M87 and off to the southwest. A ridge in the radio map, ending in an "ear"-shaped structure, follows the arc to the east, and the radio emission appears to be wrapped around the arc to the southwest. Depressions in the X-ray surface brightness correspond to the inner radio lobes. There are also at least two approximately circular (centered near the nucleus) "edges" in the X-ray brightness distribution, the radii of which are similar to the nuclear distances of the inner radio lobes and intermediate radio ridges. We speculate that these discontinuities may be spherical pulses or "fronts" driven by the same jet activity as is responsible for the radio structure; such pulses are found in recent numeri...

  5. Some observational aspects of compact galactic X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis contains the following observations of compact galactic X-ray sources: i) the X-ray experiments onboard the Astronomical Netherlands Satellite ANS, ii) a rocket-borne ultra soft X-ray experiment and iii) the Objective Grating Spectrometer onboard the EINSTEIN observatory. In Chapter I the various types of compact galactic X-ray sources are reviewed and put into the perspective of earlier and following observations. In Chapter II the author presents some of the observations of high luminosity X-ray sources, made with ANS, including the detection of soft X-rays from the compact X-ray binary Hercules X-1 and the ''return to the high state'' of the black hole candidate Cygnus X-1. Chapter III deals with transient X-ray phenomena. Results on low luminosity galactic X-ray sources are collected in Chapter IV. (Auth.)

  6. The variable hard x-ray emission of NGC 4945 as observed by NUSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puccetti, Simonetta; Comastri, Andrea; Fiore, Fabrizio;

    2014-01-01

    We present a broadband (~0.5-79 keV) spectral and temporal analysis of multiple NuSTAR observations combined with archival Suzaku and Chandra data of NGC 4945, the brightest extragalactic source at 100 keV. We observe hard X-ray (>10 keV) flux and spectral variability, with flux variations of a f...

  7. THE CHANDRA MULTI-WAVELENGTH PROJECT: OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY AND THE BROADBAND SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF X-RAY-SELECTED AGNs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trichas, Markos; Green, Paul J.; Aldcroft, Tom; Kim, Dong-Woo; Mossman, Amy [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Silverman, John D. [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU), University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Barkhouse, Wayne [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND 58202 (United States); Cameron, Robert A. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Constantin, Anca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, James Madison University, PHCH, Harrisonburg, VA 22807 (United States); Ellison, Sara L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8P 1A1 (Canada); Foltz, Craig [Division of Astronomical Sciences, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, VA 22230 (United States); Haggard, Daryl [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Jannuzi, Buell T. [NOAO, Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Marshall, Herman L. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Perez, Laura M. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Romero-Colmenero, Encarni [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory, 7935 (South Africa); Ruiz, Angel [Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera-INAF, Milan (Italy); Smith, Malcolm G., E-mail: mtrichas@cfa.harvard.edu [Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory, La Serena (Chile); and others

    2012-06-01

    From optical spectroscopy of X-ray sources observed as part of the Chandra Multi-wavelength Project (ChaMP), we present redshifts and classifications for a total of 1569 Chandra sources from our targeted spectroscopic follow-up using the FLWO/1.5 m, SAAO/1.9 m, WIYN 3.5 m, CTIO/4 m, KPNO/4 m, Magellan/6.5 m, MMT/6.5 m, and Gemini/8 m telescopes, and from archival Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopy. We classify the optical counterparts as 50% broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs), 16% emission line galaxies, 14% absorption line galaxies, and 20% stars. We detect QSOs out to z {approx} 5.5 and galaxies out to z {approx} 3. We have compiled extensive photometry, including X-ray (ChaMP), ultraviolet (GALEX), optical (SDSS and ChaMP-NOAO/MOSAIC follow-up), near-infrared (UKIDSS, Two Micron All Sky Survey, and ChaMP-CTIO/ISPI follow-up), mid-infrared (WISE), and radio (FIRST and NVSS) bands. Together with our spectroscopic information, this enables us to derive detailed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for our extragalactic sources. We fit a variety of template SEDs to determine bolometric luminosities, and to constrain AGNs and starburst components where both are present. While {approx}58% of X-ray Seyferts (10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1} < L{sub 2-10keV} <10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}) require a starburst event (>5% starburst contribution to bolometric luminosity) to fit observed photometry only 26% of the X-ray QSO (L{sub 2-10keV} >10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}) population appear to have some kind of star formation contribution. This is significantly lower than for the Seyferts, especially if we take into account torus contamination at z > 1 where the majority of our X-ray QSOs lie. In addition, we observe a rapid drop of the percentage of starburst contribution as X-ray luminosity increases. This is consistent with the quenching of star formation by powerful QSOs, as predicted by the merger model, or with a time lag between the peak of star formation and QSO

  8. THE CHANDRA MULTI-WAVELENGTH PROJECT: OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY AND THE BROADBAND SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF X-RAY-SELECTED AGNs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From optical spectroscopy of X-ray sources observed as part of the Chandra Multi-wavelength Project (ChaMP), we present redshifts and classifications for a total of 1569 Chandra sources from our targeted spectroscopic follow-up using the FLWO/1.5 m, SAAO/1.9 m, WIYN 3.5 m, CTIO/4 m, KPNO/4 m, Magellan/6.5 m, MMT/6.5 m, and Gemini/8 m telescopes, and from archival Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopy. We classify the optical counterparts as 50% broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs), 16% emission line galaxies, 14% absorption line galaxies, and 20% stars. We detect QSOs out to z ∼ 5.5 and galaxies out to z ∼ 3. We have compiled extensive photometry, including X-ray (ChaMP), ultraviolet (GALEX), optical (SDSS and ChaMP-NOAO/MOSAIC follow-up), near-infrared (UKIDSS, Two Micron All Sky Survey, and ChaMP-CTIO/ISPI follow-up), mid-infrared (WISE), and radio (FIRST and NVSS) bands. Together with our spectroscopic information, this enables us to derive detailed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for our extragalactic sources. We fit a variety of template SEDs to determine bolometric luminosities, and to constrain AGNs and starburst components where both are present. While ∼58% of X-ray Seyferts (1042 erg s–1 2–10keV 44 erg s–1) require a starburst event (>5% starburst contribution to bolometric luminosity) to fit observed photometry only 26% of the X-ray QSO (L2–10keV >1044 erg s–1) population appear to have some kind of star formation contribution. This is significantly lower than for the Seyferts, especially if we take into account torus contamination at z > 1 where the majority of our X-ray QSOs lie. In addition, we observe a rapid drop of the percentage of starburst contribution as X-ray luminosity increases. This is consistent with the quenching of star formation by powerful QSOs, as predicted by the merger model, or with a time lag between the peak of star formation and QSO activity. We have tested the hypothesis that there should be a

  9. A CHANDRA X-RAY STUDY OF THE INTERACTING BINARIES IN THE OLD OPEN CLUSTER NGC 6791

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Berg, Maureen [Astronomical Institute ' ' Anton Pannekoek' ' , University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Verbunt, Frank [Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Belloni, Tomaso [INAF/Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Bedin, Luigi R. [INAF/Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Platais, Imants, E-mail: M.C.vandenBerg@uva.nl [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    We present the first X-ray study of NGC 6791, one of the oldest open clusters known (8 Gyr). Our Chandra observation is aimed at uncovering the population of close interacting binaries down to L{sub X} Almost-Equal-To 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} erg s{sup -1} (0.3-7 keV). We detect 86 sources within 8' of the cluster center, including 59 inside the half-mass radius. We identify 20 sources with proper-motion cluster members, which are a mix of cataclysmic variables (CVs), active binaries (ABs), and binaries containing sub-subgiants. With follow-up optical spectroscopy, we confirm the nature of one CV. We discover one new, X-ray variable candidate CV with Balmer and He II emission lines in its optical spectrum; this is the first X-ray-selected CV in an open cluster. The number of CVs per unit mass is consistent with the field, suggesting that the 3-4 CVs observed in NGC 6791 are primordial. We compare the X-ray properties of NGC 6791 with those of a few old open (NGC 6819, M 67) and globular clusters (47 Tuc, NGC 6397). It is puzzling that the number of ABs brighter than 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} erg s{sup -1} normalized by cluster mass is lower in NGC 6791 than in M 67 by a factor {approx}3-7. CVs, ABs, and sub-subgiants brighter than 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} erg s{sup -1} are under-represented per unit mass in the globular clusters compared to the oldest open clusters, and this accounts for the lower total X-ray luminosity per unit mass of the former. This indicates that the net effect of dynamical encounters may be the destruction of even some of the hardest (i.e., X-ray-emitting) binaries.

  10. A Chandra X-ray study of the interacting binaries in the old open cluster NGC6791

    CERN Document Server

    Berg, Maureen van den; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Belloni, Tomaso; Bedin, Luigi R; Platais, Imants

    2013-01-01

    We present the first X-ray study of NGC6791, one of the oldest open clusters known (8 Gyr). Our Chandra observation is aimed at uncovering the population of close interacting binaries down to Lx ~ 1e30 erg/s (0.3-7 keV). We detect 86 sources within 8 arcmin of the cluster center, including 59 inside the half-mass radius. We identify twenty sources with proper-motion cluster members, which are a mix of cataclysmic variables (CVs), active binaries (ABs), and binaries containing sub-subgiants. With follow-up optical spectroscopy we confirm the nature of one CV. We discover one new, X-ray variable candidate CV with Balmer and HeII emission lines in its optical spectrum; this is the first X-ray--selected CV confirmed in an open cluster. The number of CVs per unit mass is consistent with the field, suggesting that the 3-4 CVs observed in NGC6791 are primordial. We compare the X-ray properties of NGC6791 with those of a few old open (NGC6819, M67) and globular clusters (47Tuc, NGC6397). It is puzzling that the numbe...

  11. Chandra Cluster Cosmology Project. II. Samples and X-Ray Data Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikhlinin, A.; Burenin, R. A.; Ebeling, H.;

    2009-01-01

    of relations between the total cluster mass and its X-ray indicators (TX , M gas, and YX ) based on a subsample of low-z relaxed clusters, and present a first measurement of the evolving LX -M tot relation (with M tot estimated from YX ) obtained from a well defined statistically complete cluster sample......We discuss the measurements of the galaxy cluster mass functions at z ≈ 0.05 and z ≈ 0.5 using high-quality Chandra observations of samples derived from the ROSAT PSPC All-Sky and 400 deg2 surveys. We provide a full reference for the data analysis procedures, present updated calibration...... at a fixed mass threshold, e.g., by a factor of 5.0 ± 1.2 at M 500 = 2.5 × 1014 h –1 M sun between z = 0 and 0.5. This evolution reflects the growth of density perturbations, and can be used for the cosmological constraints complementing those from the distance-redshift relation....

  12. Inferring coronal structure using X-ray spectra: A Chandra study of AB Dor

    CERN Document Server

    Hussain, G A J; Dupree, A K; Jardine, M; Van Ballegooijen, A A; Cameron, A C; Donati, J F; Favata, F

    2004-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray observatory monitored the single cool star, AB Doradus, continuously for a period lasting 88ksec (1.98 Prot) in 2002 December with the LETG/HRC-S. The X-ray lightcurve shows significant rotational modulation. It can be represented as having a flat level of emission superimposed with bright flaring regions that appear at the same phases in both rotation cycles. Phase-binned OVIII line profiles show centroid shifts that also repeat in consecutive rotation cycles. These Doppler shifts trace a roughly sinusoidal pattern with a a semi-amplitude of 30 +/-10km/s. By taking both the lightcurve and spectral diagnostics into account along with constraints on the rotational broadening of line profiles (provided by archival Chandra HETG FeXVII line profiles) we can construct a simple model of the X-ray corona. The corona can be described as having two components, one component is homogeneously distributed, extending less than 1.75R*; and the other consists of at least two compact emitting regions near t...

  13. The Chandra COSMOS-Legacy survey: Source X-ray spectral properties

    CERN Document Server

    Marchesi, S; Civano, F; Iwasawa, K; Suh, H; Comastri, A; Zamorani, G; Allevato, V; Griffiths, R; Miyaji, T; Ranalli, P; Salvato, M; Schawinski, K; Silverman, J; Treister, E; Urry, C M; Vignali, C

    2016-01-01

    We present the X-ray spectral analysis of the 1855 extragalactic sources in the Chandra COSMOS-Legacy survey catalog having more than 30 net counts in the 0.5-7 keV band. 38% of the sources are optically classified Type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGN), 60% are Type 2 AGN and 2% are passive, low-redshift galaxies. We study the distribution of AGN photon index and of the intrinsic absorption N(H,z) based on the sources optical classification: Type 1 have a slightly steeper mean photon index than Type 2 AGN, which on the other hand have average intrinsic absorption ~3 times higher than Type 1 AGN. We find that ~15% of Type 1 AGN have N(H,z)>1E22 cm^(-2), i.e., are obscured according to the X-ray spectral fitting; the vast majority of these sources have L(2-10keV)>$1E44 erg/s. The existence of these objects suggests that optical and X-ray obscuration can be caused by different phenomena, the X-ray obscuration being for example caused by dust-free material surrounding the inner part of the nuclei. ~18% of Type 2 AG...

  14. Chandra Phase-Resolved X-ray Spectroscopy of the Crab Pulsar II

    CERN Document Server

    Weisskopf, Martin C; Yakovlev, Dmitry G; Harding, Alice; Zavlin, Vyacheslav E; O'Dell, Stephen L; Elsner, Ronald F; Becker, Werner

    2011-01-01

    We present a new study of the X-ray spectral properties of the Crab Pulsar. The superb angular resolution of the Chandra X-ray Observatory enables distinguishing the pulsar from the surrounding nebulosity. Analysis of the spectrum as a function of pulse phase allows the least-biased measure of interstellar X-ray extinction due primarily to photoelectric absorption and secondarily to scattering by dust grains in the direction of the Crab Nebula. We modify previous findings that the line-of-sight to the Crab is under-abundant in oxygen and provide measurements with improved accuracy and less bias. Using the abundances and cross sections from Wilms, Allen & McCray (2000) we find [O/H] = $(5.28 \\pm 0.28)\\times10^{-4}$ ($4.9 \\times10^{-4}$ is solar abundance). We also measure for the first time the impact of scattering of flux out of the image by interstellar grains. We find $\\tau_{\\rm scat} = 0.147 \\pm 0.043$. Analysis of the spectrum as a function of pulse phase also measures the X-ray spectral index even at...

  15. High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of Procyon by Chandra and XMM-Newton

    OpenAIRE

    Raassen, A.J.J.; Mewe, R.; Audard, M.; Guedel, M.; Behar, E; Kaastra, J.S.; Van Der Meer, R.L.J.; Foley, C. R.; Ness, J.-U.

    2002-01-01

    We report the analysis of the high-resolution soft X-ray spectrum of the nearby F-type star Procyon in the wavelength range from 5 to 175 Angstrom obtained with the Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS) on board Chandra and with the Reflection Grating Spectrometers (RGS) and the EPIC-MOS CCD spectrometers on board XMM-Newton. Line fluxes have been measured separately for the RGS and LETGS. Spectra have been fitted globally to obtain self-consistent temperatures, emission measur...

  16. Using ACIS on the Chandra X-ray Observatory as a particle radiation monitor II

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, C E; Bautz, M W; O'Dell, S L

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer is an instrument on the Chandra X-ray Observatory. CCDs are vulnerable to radiation damage, particularly by soft protons in the radiation belts and solar storms. The Chandra team has implemented procedures to protect ACIS during high-radiation events including autonomous protection triggered by an on-board radiation monitor. Elevated temperatures have reduced the effectiveness of the on-board monitor. The ACIS team has developed an algorithm which uses data from the CCDs themselves to detect periods of high radiation and a flight software patch to apply this algorithm is currently active on-board the instrument. In this paper, we explore the ACIS response to particle radiation through comparisons to a number of external measures of the radiation environment. We hope to better understand the efficiency of the algorithm as a function of the flux and spectrum of the particles and the time-profile of the radiation event.

  17. Six Years of Chandra Observations of Supernova Remnants

    OpenAIRE

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Hughes, John P.

    2005-01-01

    We present a review of the first six years of Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of supernova remnants. From the official "first-light" observation of Cassiopeia A that revealed for the first time the compact remnant of the explosion, to the recent million-second spectrally-resolved observation that revealed new details of the stellar composition and dynamics of the original explosion, Chandra observations have provided new insights into the supernova phenomenon. We present an admittedly ...

  18. X-Ray Properties of the Point Source Population in the Spiral Galaxy NGC 5055(M63)with Chandra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Luo; Ji-Yao Chen; Zhong-Li Zhang; Yu Wang; Jing-Ying Wang; Hai-Guang Xu

    2007-01-01

    Using Chandra ACIS S3 data we studied the X-ray properties of low-and high mass X-ray binary populations in the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 5055.A total of 43 X-ray point sources were detected within two effective radii.with 31 sources located on the disk and the rest 12 sources in the bulge.The resolved point sources dominate the X-ray emission of the galaxy.accounting for about 80% of the total counts in 0.3-10 keV From spectral fittings we calculated the 0.3-10.0 keV luminosities of all the detected X-ray point sources and found that they span a wide range from a few times 1037 erg s-1 to over 1039 erg s-1.After compensating for incompleteness at the low luminosity end.we found that the corrected XLF of the bulge population is well fitted with a broken power-law with a break at 1.57+0.21-0.20×1038 erg s-1.while the profile of the disk population's XLF agrees with a single power1038 erg s-1 than the bulge population,indicating that the disk may have undergone relatively recent,strong starbursts that significantly increased the HMXB population,although ongoing starbursts are also observed in the nuclear region.Similar XLF profiles of the bulge and disk populations were found in M81.However,in most other spiral galaxies different patterns of spatial variation of the XLF profiles from the bulge to the disk have been observed,indicating that the star formation and evolution history may be more complex than we have expected.

  19. First X-ray observations of Low-Power Compact Steep Spectrum Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Kunert-Bajraszewska, M; Siemiginowska, A; Guainazzi, M

    2013-01-01

    We report first X-ray Chandra observations of a sample of seven low luminosity compact (LLC) sources. They belong to a class of young compact steep spectrum (CSS) radio sources. Four of them have been detected, the other three have upper limit estimations for X-ray flux, one CSS galaxy is associated with an X-ray cluster. We have used the new observations together with the observational data for known strong CSS and gigahertz-peaked spectrum (GPS) objects and large scale FRIs and FRIIs to study the relation between morphology, X-ray properties and excitation modes in radio-loud AGNs. We found that: (1) The low power objects fit well to the already established X-ray - radio luminosity correlation for AGNs and occupy the space among, weaker in the X-rays, FRI objects. (2) The high excitation galaxies (HEG) and low excitation galaxies (LEG) occupy distinct locus in the radio/X-ray luminosity plane, notwithstanding their evolutionary stage. This is in agreement with the postulated different origin of the X-ray em...

  20. A Joint Chandra and Swift View of the 2015 X-Ray Dust Scattering Echo of V404 Cygni

    CERN Document Server

    Heinz, S; Smith, R; Brandt, W N; Jonker, P G; Plotkin, R M; Neilsen, J

    2016-01-01

    We present a combined analysis of the Chandra and Swift observations of the 2015 X-ray echo of V404 Cygni. Using stacking analysis, we identify eight separate rings in the echo. We reconstruct the soft X-ray lightcurve of the June 2015 outburst using the high-resolution Chandra images and cross-correlations of the radial intensity profiles, indicating that about 70% of the outburst fluence occurred during the bright flare at the end of the outburst on MJD 57199.8.By deconvolving the intensity profiles with the reconstructed outburst lightcurve, we show that the rings correspond to eight separate dust concentrations with precise distance determinations. We further show that the column density of the clouds varies significantly across the field of view, with the centroid of most of the clouds shifted toward the Galactic plane, relative to the position of V404 Cyg, invalidating the assumption of uniform cloud column typically made in attempts to constrain dust properties from light echoes. We present a new XSPEC...

  1. Near-infrared counterparts to Chandra X-ray sources toward the Galactic Center. II. Discovery of Wolf-Rayet stars and O supergiants

    CERN Document Server

    Mauerhan, Jon C; Morris, Mark R; Stolovy, Susan R; Cotera, Angela S

    2009-01-01

    We present new identifications of infrared counterparts to the population of hard X-ray sources near the Galactic center detected by the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We have confirmed 16 new massive stellar counterparts to the X-ray population, including nitrogen-type (WN) and carbon-type (WC) Wolf-Rayet stars, and O supergiants. For the majority of these sources, the X-ray photometry is consistent with thermal emission from plasma having temperatures in the range of kT=1-8 keV or non-thermal emission having power-law indices in the range of -1X-ray luminosities in the range of Lx~1e32-1e34 erg/s. Several sources have exhibited X-ray variability of several factors between separate observations. The X-ray properties are not a ubiquitous feature of single massive stars but are typical of massive binaries, in which the high-energy emission is generated by the collision of supersonic winds, or by accretion onto a compact companion. However, the possibility of intrinsic hard X-ray generation from...

  2. THE CHANDRA PLANETARY NEBULA SURVEY (ChanPlaNS). III. X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE CENTRAL STARS OF PLANETARY NEBULAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montez, R. Jr. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37212 (United States); Kastner, J. H.; Freeman, M. [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); and others

    2015-02-10

    We present X-ray spectral analysis of 20 point-like X-ray sources detected in Chandra Planetary Nebula Survey observations of 59 planetary nebulae (PNe) in the solar neighborhood. Most of these 20 detections are associated with luminous central stars within relatively young, compact nebulae. The vast majority of these point-like X-ray-emitting sources at PN cores display relatively ''hard'' (≥0.5 keV) X-ray emission components that are unlikely to be due to photospheric emission from the hot central stars (CSPN). Instead, we demonstrate that these sources are well modeled by optically thin thermal plasmas. From the plasma properties, we identify two classes of CSPN X-ray emission: (1) high-temperature plasmas with X-ray luminosities, L {sub X}, that appear uncorrelated with the CSPN bolometric luminosity, L {sub bol} and (2) lower-temperature plasmas with L {sub X}/L {sub bol} ∼ 10{sup –7}. We suggest these two classes correspond to the physical processes of magnetically active binary companions and self-shocking stellar winds, respectively. In many cases this conclusion is supported by corroborative multiwavelength evidence for the wind and binary properties of the PN central stars. By thus honing in on the origins of X-ray emission from PN central stars, we enhance the ability of CSPN X-ray sources to constrain models of PN shaping that invoke wind interactions and binarity.

  3. The spatial distribution of X-ray selected AGN in the Chandra deep fields: a theoretical perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Marulli, Federico; Branchini, Enzo; Gilli, Roberto; Moscardini, Lauro; Springel, Volker

    2009-01-01

    We study the spatial distribution of X-ray selected AGN in the framework of hierarchical co-evolution of supermassive black holes and their host galaxies and dark matter haloes. To this end, we have applied the model developed by Croton et al.(2006), De Lucia & Blaizot(2007) and Marulli et al.(2008) to the output of the Millennium Run and obtained hundreds of realizations of past light-cones from which we have extracted realistic mock AGN catalogues that mimic the Chandra deep fields. We find that the model AGN number counts are in fair agreement with observations, except at fluxes <1e-15 erg/cm^2/s. The spatial two-point correlation function predicted by the model is well described by a power-law relation out to 20 Mpc/h, in close agreement with observations. Our model matches the correlation length r_0 of AGN in the Chandra Deep Field North but underestimates it in the Chandra Deep Field South. When fixing the slope to gamma = 1.4, as in Gilli et al. (2005), the statistical significance of the mismat...

  4. Chandra & HST Imaging of the Quasars PKS B0106+013 & 3C345: Inverse Compton X-rays and Magnetized Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Kharb, Preeti; Marshall, Herman; Hogan, Brandon

    2012-01-01

    We present results from deep (70 ks) Chandra ACIS observations and Hubble Space Telescope ACS F475W observations of two highly optically polarized quasars belonging to the MOJAVE blazar sample, viz., PKS B0106+013 and 1641+399 (3C345). These observations reveal X-ray and optical emission from the jets in both sources. X-ray emission is detected from the entire length of the 0106+013 radio jet, which shows clear bends or wiggles - the X-ray emission is brightest at the first prominent kpc jet bend. A picture of a helical kpc jet with the first kpc-scale bend representing a jet segment moving close(r) to our line of sight, and getting Doppler boosted at both radio and X-ray frequencies, is consistent with these observations. The X-ray emission from the jet end however peaks at about 0.4" (~3.4 kpc) upstream of the radio hot spot. Optical emission is detected both at the X-ray jet termination peak and at the radio hot spot. The X-ray jet termination peak is found upstream of the radio hot spot by around 0.2" (~1...

  5. Chandra Observations of QSO 2237+0305

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, X; Agol, E; Bautz, M W; Garmire, G P

    2003-01-01

    We present the observations of the gravitationally lensed system QSO 2237+0305 performed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory on 2000 Sept. 6, and on 2001 Dec. 8 for 30.3 ks and 9.5 ks, respectively. Imaging analysis resolves the four X-ray images of the Einstein Cross. A possible fifth image is detected; however, this detection less certain. Fits to the combined spectrum of all images of the Einstein Cross assuming a simple power law with Galactic and intervening absorption at the lensing galaxy yield a photon index of 1.90(+0.05,-0.05). For the first observation, this spectral model yields a 0.4-8.0 keV X-ray flux of 4.6e-13 erg cm-2 s-1 and a 0.4-8.0 keV lensed luminosity of 1.0e46 erg s-1. The source exhibits variability both over long and short time scales. The X-ray flux has dropped by 20% between the two observations, and the K-S test showed that image A is variable at the 97% confidence level within the first observation. Furthermore, a possible time-delay of 2.7(+0.5,-0.9) hours between images A and B ...

  6. Optically selected fossil groups; X-ray observations and galaxy properties

    CERN Document Server

    Khosroshahi, Habib G; Rasmussen, Jesper; Molaeinezhad, Alireza; Ponman, Trevor; Dariush, Ali A; Sanderson, Alastair J R

    2014-01-01

    We report on the X-ray and optical observations of galaxy groups selected from the 2dfGRS group catalog, to explore the possibility that galaxy groups hosting a giant elliptical galaxy and a large optical luminosity gap present between the two brightest group galaxies, can be associated with an extended X-ray emission, similar to that observed in fossil galaxy groups. The X-ray observations of 4 galaxy groups were carried out with Chandra telescope with 10-20 ksec exposure time. Combining the X-ray and the optical observations we find evidences for the presence of a diffuse extended X-ray emission beyond the optical size of the brightest group galaxy. Taking both the X-ray and the optical criteria, one of the groups is identified as a fossil group and one is ruled out because of the contamination in the earlier optical selection. For the two remaining systems, the X-ay luminosity threshold is close to the convention know for fossil groups. In all cases the X-ray luminosity is below the expected value from the...

  7. A DEEP CHANDRA X-RAY LIMIT ON THE PUTATIVE IMBH IN OMEGA CENTAURI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haggard, Daryl [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics, Physics and Astronomy Department, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Cool, Adrienne M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Ave., San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Heinke, Craig O. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Room 238 CEB, Edmonton, AB T6G 2G7 (Canada); Van der Marel, Roeland; Anderson, Jay [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Cohn, Haldan N.; Lugger, Phyllis M., E-mail: dhaggard@northwestern.edu, E-mail: cool@sfsu.edu [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 E. Third St., Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States)

    2013-08-20

    We report a sensitive X-ray search for the proposed intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) in the massive Galactic cluster, {omega} Centauri (NGC 5139). Combining Chandra X-ray Observatory data from Cycles 1 and 13, we obtain a deep ({approx}291 ks) exposure of the central regions of the cluster. We find no evidence for an X-ray point source near any of the cluster's proposed dynamical centers, and place an upper limit on the X-ray flux from a central source of f{sub X}(0.5-7.0 keV) {<=}5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -16} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, after correcting for absorption. This corresponds to an unabsorbed X-ray luminosity of L{sub X}(0.5-7.0 keV) {<=}1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} erg s{sup -1}, for a cluster distance of 5.2 kpc, Galactic column density N{sub H} = 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2}, and power-law spectrum with {Gamma} = 2.3. If a {approx}10{sup 4} M{sub sun} IMBH resides in the cluster's core, as suggested by some stellar dynamical studies, its Eddington luminosity would be L{sub Edd} {approx}10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}. The new X-ray limit would then establish an Eddington ratio of L{sub X}/L{sub Edd} {approx}< 10{sup -12}, a factor of {approx}10 lower than even the quiescent state of our Galaxy's notoriously inefficient supermassive black hole Sgr A*, and imply accretion efficiencies as low as {eta} {approx}< 10{sup -6}-10{sup -8}. This study leaves open three possibilities: either {omega} Cen does not harbor an IMBH or, if an IMBH does exist, it must experience very little or very inefficient accretion.

  8. Chandra Observations of Eight Sources Discovered by INTEGRAL

    CERN Document Server

    Tomsick, John A; Wang, Qinan; Bodaghee, Arash; Chaty, Sylvain; Rahoui, Farid; Rodriguez, Jerome; Fornasini, Francesca M

    2015-01-01

    We report on 0.3-10 keV observations with the Chandra X-ray Observatory of eight hard X-ray sources discovered within 8 degrees of the Galactic plane by the INTEGRAL satellite. The short (5 ks) Chandra observations of the IGR source fields have yielded very likely identifications of X-ray counterparts for three of the IGR sources: IGR J14091-6108, IGR J18088-2741, and IGR J18381-0924. The first two have very hard spectra in the Chandra band that can be described by a power-law with photon indices of Gamma = 0.6+/-0.4 and -0.7(+0.4)(-0.3), respectively (90% confidence errors are given), and both have a unique near-IR counterpart consistent with the Chandra position. IGR J14091-6108 also displays a strong iron line and a relatively low X-ray luminosity, and we argue that the most likely source type is a Cataclysmic Variable (CV), although we do not completely rule out the possibility of a High Mass X-ray Binary. IGR J18088-2741 has an optical counterpart with a previously measured 6.84 hr periodicity, which may...

  9. First Observation of Planet-Induced X-ray Emission: The System HD 179949

    OpenAIRE

    Saar, S. H.; Cuntz, M.; Kashyap, V. L.; Hall, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    We present the first observation of planet-induced stellar X-ray activity, identified for the HD 179949 system, using Chandra / ACIS-S. The HD 179949 system consists of a close-in giant planet orbiting an F9V star. Previous ground-based observations already showed enhancements in Ca II K in phase with the planetary orbit. We find an ~30% increase in the X-ray flux over quiescent levels coincident with the phase of the Ca II enhancements. There is also a trend for the emission to be hotter at ...

  10. High-Resolution X-ray and Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of the Complex Intrinsic Absorption in NGC 4051 with Chandra and HST

    OpenAIRE

    Collinge, M. J.; Brandt, W. N.; Kaspi, Shai; Crenshaw, D. Michael; Elvis, Martin; Kraemer, Steven B.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Sambruna, Rita M.; Wills, Beverley J.

    2001-01-01

    We present the results from simultaneous observations of the Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4051 with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer and the HST Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. The X-ray grating spectrum reveals absorption and emission lines from hydrogen-like and helium-like ions of O, Ne, Mg and Si. We resolve two distinct X-ray absorption systems: a high-velocity blueshifted system at -2340+/-130 km/s and a low-velocity blueshifted system at -600+/-130 km...

  11. High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of Procyon by Chandra and XMM-Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Raassen, A J J; Audard, M; Güdel, M; Behar, E; Kaastra, J S; Van der Meer, R L J; Foley, C R; Ness, J U

    2002-01-01

    We report the analysis of the high-resolution soft X-ray spectrum of the nearby F-type star Procyon in the wavelength range from 5 to 175 Angstrom obtained with the Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS) on board Chandra and with the Reflection Grating Spectrometers (RGS) and the EPIC-MOS CCD spectrometers on board XMM-Newton. Line fluxes have been measured separately for the RGS and LETGS. Spectra have been fitted globally to obtain self-consistent temperatures, emission measures, and abundances. The total volume emission measure is ~4.1 x 10e50/cm3 with a peak between 1 and 3 MK. No indications for a dominant hot component (T > 4 MK) were found. We present additional evidence for the lack of a solar-type FIP-effect, confirming earlier EUVE results.

  12. An ALMA Survey of Submillimeter Galaxies in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South: The AGN Fraction and X-ray Properties of Submillimeter Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, S X; Luo, B; Smail, I; Alexander, D M; Danielson, A L R; Hodge, J A; Karim, A; Lehmer, B D; Simpson, J M; Swinbank, A M; Walter, F; Wardlow, J L; Xue, Y Q; Chapman, S C; Coppin, K E K; Dannerbauer, H; De Breuck, C; Menten, K M; van der Werf, P

    2013-01-01

    The large gas and dust reservoirs of submm galaxies (SMGs) could potentially provide ample fuel to trigger an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN), but previous studies of the AGN fraction in SMGs have been controversial largely due to the inhomogeneity and limited angular resolution of the available submillimeter surveys. Here we set improved constraints on the AGN fraction and X-ray properties of the SMGs with ALMA and Chandra observations in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (E-CDF-S). This study is the first among similar works to have unambiguously identified the X-ray counterparts of SMGs; this is accomplished using the fully submm-identified, statistically reliable SMG catalog with 99 SMGs from the ALMA LABOCA E-CDF-S Submillimeter Survey (ALESS). We found 10 X-ray sources associated with SMGs (median redshift z = 2.3), of which 8 were identified as AGNs using several techniques that enable cross-checking. The other 2 X-ray detected SMGs have levels of X-ray emission that can be plausibly explained by the...

  13. The Norma Arm Region Chandra Survey: X-ray Populations in the Spiral Arms

    CERN Document Server

    Fornasini, Francesca M; Bodaghee, Arash; Krivonos, Roman A; An, Hongjun; Rahoui, Farid; Gotthelf, Eric V; Bauer, Franz E; Stern, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We present a catalog of 1415 X-ray sources identified in the Norma arm region Chandra survey (NARCS), which covers a 2 deg x 0.8 deg region in the direction of the Norma spiral arm to a depth of $\\approx$20 ks. Of these sources, 1130 are point-like sources detected with $\\geq3\\sigma$ confidence in at least one of three energy bands (0.5-10, 0.5-2, and 2-10 keV), five have extended emission, and the remainder are detected at low significance. Since most sources have too few counts to permit individual classification, they are divided into five spectral groups defined by their quantile properties. We analyze stacked spectra of X-ray sources within each group, in conjunction with their fluxes, variability, and infrared counterparts, to identify the dominant populations in our survey. We find that $\\sim$50% of our sources are foreground sources located within 1-2 kpc, which is consistent with expectations from previous surveys. Approximately 20% of sources are likely located in the proximity of the Scutum-Crux an...

  14. HST/ACS Imaging of Omega Centauri: Optical Counterparts of Chandra X-Ray Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Cool, Adrienne M; Arias, Tersi; Brochmann, Michelle; Dorfman, Jason; Gafford, April; White, Vivian; Anderson, Jay

    2012-01-01

    We present results of a search for optical counterparts of X-ray sources in and toward the globular cluster Omega Centauri (NGC 5139) using the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope. The ACS data consist of a mosaic of Wide Field Channel (WFC) images obtained using F625W, F435W, and F658N filters; with 9 pointings we cover the central ~10'x10' of the cluster and encompass 109 known Chandra sources. We find promising optical counterparts for 59 of the sources, ~40 of which are likely to be associated with the cluster. These include 27 candidate cataclysmic variables (CVs), 24 of which are reported here for the first time. Fourteen of the CV candidates are very faint, with absolute magnitudes in the range M_625 = 10.4 - 12.6, making them comparable in brightness to field CVs near the period minimum discovered in the SDSS (Gansicke et al. 2009). Additional optical counterparts include three BY Dra candidates, a possible blue straggler, and a previously-reported quiescent low-mass X-ray ...

  15. Precise Localization of the Soft Gamma Repeater SGR 1627-41 with Chandra and the Anomalous X-Ray Pulsar AXP 1E1841-045 with Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Stefanie; Patel, Sandeep K.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Bouchet, Patrice; Ozel, Feryal; Tennant, Allyn F.; Woods, Peter M.; Hurley, Kevin; Becker, Werner; Slane, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    We present precise localizations of AXP 1E184-045 and SGR 1627-41 with Chandra. We obtained new infrared observations of SGR 1627-41 and reanalyzed archival observations of AXP 1E1841-045 in order to refine their positions and search for infrared counterparts. A faint source is detected inside the error circle of AXP 1E1841-045. In the case of SGR 1627-41, several sources are located within the error radius of the X-ray position, and we discuss the likelihood of one of them being the counterpart. We compare the properties of our candidates to those of other known anomalous X-ray pulsar (AXP) and soft gamma repeater (SGR) counterparts. We find that the counterpart candidates for SGR 1627-41 and SGR 1806-20 would have to be intrinsically much brighter than AXPs in order to have counterparts detectable with the observational limits currently available for these sources. To confirm the reported counterpart of SGR 1806-20, we obtained new infrared observations during the 2003 July burst activation of the source. No brightening of the suggested counterpart is detected, implying that the counterpart of SGR 1806-20 remains yet to be identified.

  16. X-ray outflows of active galactic nuclei warm absorbers: A 900 ks Chandra simulated spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Ramirez-Velasquez, J M

    2016-01-01

    We report on the performance of the statistical, X-ray absorption lines identification procedure XLINE-ID. As illustration, it is used to estimate the time averaged gas density $n_H(r)$ of a representative AGN's warm absorber ($T\\approx 10^5$~K) X-ray simulated spectrum. The method relies on three key ingredients: (1) a well established emission continuum level; (2) a robust grid of photoionisation models spanning several orders of magnitude in gas density ($n_H$), plasma column density ($N_H$), and in ionization states; (3) theoretical curves of growth for a large set of atomic lines. By comparing theoretical and observed equivalent widths of a large set of lines, spanning highly ionized charge states from O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ar, and the Fe L-shell and K-shell, we are able to infer the location of the X-ray warm absorber.

  17. Shuttle and Transfer Orbit Thermal Analysis and Testing of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory CCD Imaging Spectrometer Radiator Shades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, John R.

    2001-01-01

    Contents include the following: (1) Introduction: Chandra X-ray observatory. Advanced CCD imaging spectrometer. (2) LEO and transfer orbit analyses: Geometric modeling in TSS w/specularity. Low earth orbital heating calculations. (3) Thermal testing and LMAC. (4) Problem solving. (5) VDA overcoat analyses. (6) VDA overcoat testing and MSFC. (7) Post-MSFC test evaluation.

  18. X-ray spectroscopy of the ADC source X1822-371 with Chandra and XMM-Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Iaria, R; D'Aì, A; Burderi, L; Mineo, T; Riggio, A; Papitto, A; Robba, N R

    2012-01-01

    The eclipsing low-mass X-ray binary X1822-371 is the prototype of the accretion disc corona (ADC) sources. We analyse two Chandra observations and one XMM-Newton observation to study the discrete features and their variation as a function of the orbital phase, deriving constraints on the temperature, density, and location of the plasma responsible for emission lines. The HETGS and XMM/Epic-pn observed X1822-371 for 140 and 50 ks, respectively. We extracted an averaged spectrum and five spectra from five selected orbital-phase intervals that are 0.04-0.25, 0.25-0.50, 0.50-0.75, 0.75-0.95, and, finally, 0.95-1.04; the orbital phase zero corresponds to the eclipse time. All spectra cover the energy band between 0.35 and 12 keV. We confirm the presence of local neutral matter that partially covers the X-ray emitting region; the equivalent hydrogen column is $5 \\times 10^{22}$ cm$ ^{-2}$ and the covered fraction is about 60-65%. We identify emission lines from highly ionised elements, and a prominent fluorescence ...

  19. Cosmological constraints from Chandra observations of galaxy clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Steven W

    2002-09-15

    Chandra observations of rich, relaxed galaxy clusters allow the properties of the X-ray gas and the total gravitating mass to be determined precisely. Here, we present results for a sample of the most X-ray luminous, dynamically relaxed clusters known. We show that the Chandra data and independent gravitational lensing studies provide consistent answers on the mass distributions in the clusters. The mass profiles exhibit a form in good agreement with the predictions from numerical simulations. Combining Chandra results on the X-ray gas mass fractions in the clusters with independent measurements of the Hubble constant and the mean baryonic matter density in the Universe, we obtain a tight constraint on the mean total matter density of the Universe, Omega(m), and an interesting constraint on the cosmological constant, Omega(Lambda). We also describe the 'virial relations' linking the masses, X-ray temperatures and luminosities of galaxy clusters. These relations provide a key step in linking the observed number density and spatial distribution of clusters to the predictions from cosmological models. The Chandra data confirm the presence of a systematic offset of ca. 40% between the normalization of the observed mass-temperature relation and the predictions from standard simulations. This finding leads to a significant revision of the best-fit value of sigma(8) inferred from the observed temperature and luminosity functions of clusters.

  20. The Evolution of Normal Galaxy X-ray Emission Through Cosmic History: Constraints from the 6 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South

    CERN Document Server

    Lehmer, B D; Mineo, S; Brandt, W N; Eufrasio, R T; Fragos, T; Hornschemeier, A E; Luo, B; Xue, Y Q; Bauer, F E; Gilfanov, M; Ranalli, P; Schneider, D P; Shemmer, O; Tozzi, P; Trump, J R; Vignali, C; Wang, J -X; Yukita, M; Zezas, A

    2016-01-01

    We present measurements of the evolution of normal-galaxy X-ray emission from $z \\approx$ 0-7 using local galaxies and galaxy samples in the 6 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) survey. The majority of the CDF-S galaxies are observed at rest-frame energies above 2 keV, where the emission is expected to be dominated by X-ray binary (XRB) populations; however, hot gas is expected to provide small contributions to the observed- frame < 1 keV emission at $z < 1$. We show that a single scaling relation between X-ray luminosity ($L_{\\rm X}$) and star-formation rate (SFR) is insufficient for characterizing the average X-ray emission at all redshifts. We establish that scaling relations involving not only SFR, but also stellar mass ($M_\\star$) and redshift, provide significantly improved characterizations of the average X-ray emission from normal galaxy populations at $z \\approx$ 0-7. We further provide the first empirical constraints on the redshift evolution of X-ray emission from both low-mass XRB (LMXB) an...

  1. High-Resolution X-ray and Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of the Complex Intrinsic Absorption in NGC 4051 with Chandra and HST

    CERN Document Server

    Collinge, M J; Kaspi, S; Crenshaw, D M; Elvis, M; Krämer, S B; Reynolds, C S; Sambruna, R M; Wills, B J; Kaspi, Shai; Elvis, Martin; Kraemer, Steven B.; Reynolds, Christopher S; Sambruna, Rita M.; Wills, Beverley J.

    2001-01-01

    We present the results from simultaneous observations of the Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4051 with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer and the HST Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. The X-ray grating spectrum reveals absorption and emission lines from hydrogen-like and helium-like ions of O, Ne, Mg and Si. We resolve two distinct X-ray absorption systems: a high-velocity blueshifted system at -2340+/-130 km/s and a low-velocity blueshifted system at -600+/-130 km/s. In the UV spectrum we detect strong absorption, mainly from C IV, N V and Si IV, that is resolved into as many as nine different intrinsic absorption systems with velocities between -650 km/s and 30 km/s. Although the low-velocity X-ray absorption is consistent in velocity with many of the UV absorption systems, the high-velocity X-ray absorption seems to have no UV counterpart. In addition to the absorption and emission lines, we also observe rapid X-ray variability and a state of low X-ray flux during the last ~15 k...

  2. Simultaneous radio and X-ray observations of Galactic Centre low mass X-ray binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Berendsen, S.G.H.; Fender, R.; Kuulkers, E; Heise, J.; M. van der Klis(Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands)

    2000-01-01

    We have performed simultaneous X-ray and radio observations of thirteen Galactic centre low-mass X-ray binaries in 1998 April using the Wide-Field Cameras onboard BeppoSAX and the Australia Telescope Compact Array, the latter simultaneously at 4.8 and 8.64 GHz. We detect two Z sources, GX 17+2 and GX 5-1, and the unusual `hybrid' source GX 13+1. Upper limits, which are significantly deeper than previous non-detections, are placed on the radio emission from two more Z sources and seven atoll s...

  3. X-ray selected Infrared Excess AGN in the Chandra Deep Fields: a moderate fraction of Compton-thick sources

    CERN Document Server

    Georgantopoulos, I; Xilouris, E M; Comastri, A; Akylas, A

    2010-01-01

    We examine the properties of the X-ray detected, Infrared Excess AGN or Dust Obscured Galaxies (DOGs) in the Chandra Deep Fields (CDF). We find 26 X-ray selected sources which obey the 24 micron to R-band flux ratio criterion f_24/f_R>1000. These are at a median redshift of 2.3 while their IR luminosities are above 10^12 solar. Their X-ray luminosities are all above a few times 10^42 erg s-1 in the 2-10 keV band unambiguously arguing that these host AGN. Nevertheless, their IR Spectral Energy Distributions are split between AGN (Mrk231) and star-forming templates (Arp220). Our primary goal is to examine their individual X-ray spectra in order to assess whether this X-ray detected DOG population contains heavily obscured or even Compton-thick sources. The X-ray spectroscopy reveals a mixed bag of objects. We find that four out of the 12 sources with adequate photon statistics and hence reliable X-ray spectra, show evidence for a hard X-ray spectral index (~1) or harder,consistent with a Compton-thick spectrum....

  4. A Joint Chandra and Swift View of the 2015 X-ray Dust-scattering Echo of V404 Cygni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, S.; Corrales, L.; Smith, R.; Brandt, W. N.; Jonker, P. G.; Plotkin, R. M.; Neilsen, J.

    2016-07-01

    We present a combined analysis of the Chandra and Swift observations of the 2015 X-ray echo of V404 Cygni. Using a stacking analysis, we identify eight separate rings in the echo. We reconstruct the soft X-ray light curve of the 2015 June outburst using the high-resolution Chandra images and cross-correlations of the radial intensity profiles, indicating that about 70% of the outburst fluence occurred during the bright flare at the end of the outburst on MJD 57199.8. By deconvolving the intensity profiles with the reconstructed outburst light curve, we show that the rings correspond to eight separate dust concentrations with precise distance determinations. We further show that the column density of the clouds varies significantly across the field of view, with the centroid of most of the clouds shifted toward the Galactic plane, relative to the position of V404 Cyg, invalidating the assumption of uniform cloud column typically made in attempts to constrain dust properties from light echoes. We present a new XSPEC spectral dust-scattering model that calculates the differential dust-scattering cross section for a range of commonly used dust distributions and compositions and use it to jointly fit the entire set of Swift echo data. We find that a standard Mathis–Rumpl–Nordsieck model provides an adequate fit to the ensemble of echo data. The fit is improved by allowing steeper dust distributions, and models with simple silicate and graphite grains are preferred over models with more complex composition.

  5. Chandra X-ray Observatory Arcsecond Imaging of the Young, Oxygen-rich Supernova Remnant 1E0102.2-7219

    CERN Document Server

    Gaetz, T J; Edgar, R J; Eriksen, K A; Plucinsky, P P; Schlegel, E M; Smith, R K; Butt, Yousaf M.; Edgar, Richard J.; Eriksen, Kristoffer A.; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Schlegel, Eric M.; Smith, Randall K.

    2000-01-01

    We present observations of the young, Oxygen-rich supernova remnant 1E0102.2-7219 taken by the Chandra X-ray Observatory during Chandra's Orbital Activation and Checkout phase. The boundary of the blast wave shock is clearly seen for the first time, allowing the diameter of the remnant and the mean blast wave velocity to be accurately determined. The prominent X-ray bright ring of material may be the result of the reverse shock encountering ejecta; the radial variation of O VII vs. O VIII emission indicates an ionizing shock propagating inwards, possibly through a strong density gradient in the ejecta. We compare the X-ray emission to Australia Telescope Compact Array 6 cm radio observations (Amy and Ball 1993) and to archival Hubble Space Telescope [O III] observations. The ring of radio emission is predominantly inwards of the outer blast wave, consistent with an interpretation as synchrotron radiation originating behind the blast wave, but outwards of the bright X-ray ring of emission. Many (but not all) o...

  6. Extended X-ray Monitoring of Gravitational Lenses with Chandra and Joint Constraints on X-ray Emission Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Guerras, Eduardo; Steele, Shaun; Liu, Ang; Kochanek, Christopher S; Chartas, George; Morgan, Christopher W; Chen, Bin

    2016-01-01

    We present an X-ray photometric analysis of six gravitationally lensed quasars spanning from 5 to 14 years, measuring the total (0.83-21.8 keV restframe), soft (0.83-3.6 keV), and hard (3.6-21.8 keV) band image flux ratios for each epoch. Using the ratios of the model-predicted macro-magnifications as baselines, we build differential microlensing curves and obtain joint likelihood functions for the average X-ray emission region sizes. Our analysis yields a Probability Distribution Function for the average half-light radius of the X-Ray emission region in the sample that peaks slightly above 1 gravitational radius, and yields nearly indistinguishable 68 % confidence (one-sided) upper limits of 17.8 (18.9) gravitational radii for the soft (hard) X-ray emitting region, assuming a mean stellar mass of 0.3 solar masses. We see hints of energy dependent microlensing between the soft and hard bands in two of the objects. In a separate analysis on the root-mean-square (RMS) of the microlensing variability, we find si...

  7. Deep Chandra observations of Pictor A

    CERN Document Server

    Hardcastle, M J; Birkinshaw, M; Croston, J H; Goodger, J L; Marshall, H L; Perlman, E S; Siemiginowska, A; Stawarz, L; Worrall, D M

    2015-01-01

    We report on deep Chandra observations of the nearby broad-line radio galaxy Pictor A, which we combine with new Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) observations. The new X-ray data have a factor 4 more exposure than observations previously presented and span a 15-year time baseline, allowing a detailed study of the spatial, temporal and spectral properties of the AGN, jet, hotspot and lobes. We present evidence for further time variation of the jet, though the flare that we reported in previous work remains the most significantly detected time-varying feature. We also confirm previous tentative evidence for a faint counterjet. Based on the radio through X-ray spectrum of the jet and its detailed spatial structure, and on the properties of the counterjet, we argue that inverse-Compton models can be conclusively rejected, and propose that the X-ray emission from the jet is synchrotron emission from particles accelerated in the boundary layer of a relativistic jet. For the first time, we find evidence that...

  8. Chandra X-ray spectroscopy of the very early O supergiant HD 93129A: constraints on wind shocks and the mass-loss rate

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, David H; Leutenegger, Maurice A; MacArthur, James P; Wollman, Emma E; Sundqvist, Jon O; Fullerton, Alex W; Owocki, Stanley P

    2011-01-01

    We present analysis of both the resolved X-ray emission line profiles and the broadband X-ray spectrum of the O2 If* star HD 93129A, measured with the Chandra HETGS. This star is among the earliest and most massive stars in the Galaxy, and provides a test of the embedded wind shock scenario in a very dense and powerful wind. A major new result is that continuum absorption by the dense wind is the primary cause of the hardness of the observed X-ray spectrum, while intrinsically hard emission from colliding wind shocks contributes less than 10% of the X-ray flux. We find results consistent with the predictions of numerical simulations of the line-driving instability, including line broadening indicating an onset radius of X-ray emission of several tenths Rstar. Helium-like forbidden-to-intercombination line ratios are consistent with this onset radius, and inconsistent with being formed in a wind-collision interface with the star's closest visual companion at a distance of ~100 AU. The broadband X-ray spectrum ...

  9. The Chandra Planetary Nebulae Survey (ChanPlaNS): III. X-ray Emission from the Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Montez, R; Balick, B; Behar, E; Blackman, E; Bujarrabal, V; Chu, Y -H; Corradi, R L M; De Marco, O; Frank, A; Freeman, M; Frew, D J; Guerrero, M A; Jones, D; Lopez, J A; Miszalski, B; Nordhaus, J; Parker, Q A; Sahai, R; Sandin, C; Schonberner, D; Soker, N; Sokoloski, J L; Steffen, M; Toalá, J A; Ueta, T; Villaver, E; Zijlstra, A

    2014-01-01

    We present X-ray spectral analysis of 20 point-like X-ray sources detected in Chandra Planetary Nebula Survey (ChanPlaNS) observations of 59 planetary nebulae (PNe) in the solar neighborhood. Most of these 20 detections are associated with luminous central stars within relatively young, compact nebulae. The vast majority of these point-like X-ray-emitting sources at PN cores display relatively "hard" ($\\geq0.5$~keV) X-ray emission components that are unlikely to be due to photospheric emission from the hot central stars (CSPN). Instead, we demonstrate that these sources are well modeled by optically-thin thermal plasmas. From the plasma properties, we identify two classes of CSPN X-ray emission: (1) high-temperature plasmas with X-ray luminosities, $L_{\\rm X}$, that appear uncorrelated with the CSPN bolometric luminosity, $L_{\\rm bol}$; and (2) lower-temperature plasmas with $L_{\\rm X}/L_{\\rm bol}\\sim10^{-7}$. We suggest these two classes correspond to the physical processes of magnetically active binary comp...

  10. The Flare Activity of SgrA*; New Coordinated mm to X-Ray Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Eckart, A; Bautz, M W; Bower, G C; Brandt, W N; Garmire, G P; Genzel, R; Marrone, D; Moran, J M; Morris, M; Ott, T; Rao, R; Ricker, G R; Roberts, D A; Schödel, R; Straubmeier, C; Trippe, S; Viehmann, T; Yusef-Zadeh, F; Zhao, J H

    2005-01-01

    We report new simultaneous near-infrared/sub-millimeter/X-ray observations of the SgrA* counterpart associated with the massive 3-4x10**6 solar mass black hole at the Galactic Center. The main aim is to investigate the physical processes responsible for the variable emission from SgrA*. The observations have been carried out using the NACO adaptive optics (AO) instrument at the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope and the ACIS-I instrument aboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory as well as the Submillimeter Array SMA on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, and the Very Large Array in New Mexico. We detected one moderately bright flare event in the X-ray domain and 5 events at infrared wavelengths.

  11. The Magnetic Properties of an L Dwarf Derived from Simultaneous Radio, X-ray, and H-alpha Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, E.; Rutledge, R. E.; Reid, I N; Bildsten, L.; Gizis, J. E.; Liebert, J.; martin, E.; Basri, G.; Jayawardhana, R.; Brandeker, A.; Fleming, T.A.; Johns-Krull, C. M.; Giampapa, M. S.; Hawley, S. L.; Schmitt, J.H.M.M.

    2005-01-01

    We present the first simultaneous, multi-wavelength observations of an L dwarf, the L3.5 candidate brown dwarf 2MASS J00361617+1821104, conducted with the Very Large Array, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the Kitt Peak 4-m telescope. We detect strongly variable and periodic radio emission (P=3 hr) with a fraction of about 60% circular polarization. No X-ray emission is detected to a limit of L_X/L_{bol}

  12. TRANSIT OBSERVATIONS OF THE HOT JUPITER HD 189733b AT X-RAY WAVELENGTHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present new X-ray observations obtained with Chandra ACIS-S of the HD 189733 system, consisting of a K-type star orbited by a transiting Hot Jupiter and an M-type stellar companion. We report a detection of the planetary transit in soft X-rays with a significantly deeper transit depth than observed in the optical. The X-ray data favor a transit depth of 6%-8%, versus a broadband optical transit depth of 2.41%. While we are able to exclude several possible stellar origins for this deep transit, additional observations will be necessary to fully exclude the possibility that coronal inhomogeneities influence the result. From the available data, we interpret the deep X-ray transit to be caused by a thin outer planetary atmosphere which is transparent at optical wavelengths, but dense enough to be opaque to X-rays. The X-ray radius appears to be larger than the radius observed at far-UV wavelengths, most likely due to high temperatures in the outer atmosphere at which hydrogen is mostly ionized. We furthermore detect the stellar companion HD 189733B in X-rays for the first time with an X-ray luminosity of log LX = 26.67 erg s–1. We show that the magnetic activity level of the companion is at odds with the activity level observed for the planet-hosting primary. The discrepancy may be caused by tidal interaction between the Hot Jupiter and its host star

  13. Einstein X-ray observations of M101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchieri, G.; Fabbiano, G.; Romaine, S.

    1990-01-01

    The Einstein X-ray observations of the face-on spiral galaxy M101 are presented. The global X-ray luminosity L(x) of M101 is about 1.2 x 10 to the 40th ergs/s for D = 7.2 Mpc, consistent with the expected X-ray luminosity of normal spiral galaxies of its optical magnitude. The X-ray emission is mostly due to very luminous individual sources, with L(x) greater than 10 to the 38th ergs/s each, most likely very massive accreting binary systems. The data suggest a deficiency of sources in the luminosity range of L(x) from about 10 to the 37th to about 10 to the 38th ergs/s, which would indicate that the luminosity distribution of the X-ray sources in M101 might be different from that of M31 or M33.

  14. NASA Chandra X-ray Observatory Selected as Editor's Choice in 2000 Discover Magazine Awards for Technological Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory, NASA's newest and most powerful X-ray space telescope, has been selected as the winner of the Editor's Choice category of the 2000 Discover Magazine Awards for Technological Innovation. The team of government, industry, university and research institutions that designed, built and deployed Chandra for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala, will be formally recognized June 24 at a gala awards celebration at Epcot at the Walt Disney World Resort in Orlando, Fl. Dr. Harvey Tananbaum, director of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's Chandra X-ray Science Center, Cambridge, Mass., which conducts the Chandra science mission for NASA, will receive the award on behalf of the team. "Chandra has opened a new window for astronomers into the universe of high-energy cosmic events such as pulsars, supernova remnants and black holes," said Tananbaum. "We're now able to create spectacularly detailed images of celestial phenomena whose mere existence we could only hypothesize before." Among Chandra's most significant discoveries to date, he lists the detection of a giant ring around the heart of the Crab Nebula, details of the shock wave created by an exploding star and resolution of the high-energy X-ray "glow" in the universe into millions of specific light sources. "The successful launch, deployment and on-orbit operations of NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory is a testament to the solid partnership between TRW, NASA and the science community that has been enabling NASA's most important space science missions for the past 40 years," said Timothy W. Hannemann, executive vice president and general manager, TRW Space & Electronics Group. "The extraordinary images that Chandra is delivering daily speaks loudly not only to the quality of the science instruments on board, but also to the engineering talents and dedication to mission success exhibited by every member of NASA's Chandra mission team." Chandra, named in honor of Nobel

  15. Chandra and Swift Observations of Unidentified Fermi-LAT Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Davide; Cheung, T.; Gehrels, N.

    2010-03-01

    In the last year we targeted some of the unidentified Fermi-LAT objects (UFOs) at high Galactic latitude with Chandra and Swift in order to determine the basic properties (positions, fluxes, hardness ratios) of all X-ray sources within the Fermi-LAT localization circles. These satellites enable us to detect the X-ray conterparts with a flux limit that is at least an order of magnitude lower than achieved in extant RASS data and to further follow-up at other wavelengths, with the ultimate goal to reveal the nature of these enigmatic gamma-ray sources. Here we present the results obtained with 5 Chandra pointings of high Galactic latitude UFOs in the Fermi-LAT 3-months bright source list. The association of detected X-ray sources within the improved 11-months Fermi-LAT localization circles with available optical and radio observations is discussed.

  16. The Origin of T Tauri X-ray Emission: New Insights from the Chandra Orion Ultradeep Project

    CERN Document Server

    Preibisch, T; Favata, F; Feigelson, E D; Flaccomio, E; Getman, K; Micela, G; Sciortino, S; Stassun, K G; Stelzer, B; Zinnecker, H; Preibisch, Thomas; Kim, Yong -Cheol; Favata, Fabio; Feigelson, Eric D.; Flaccomio, Ettore; Getman, Konstantin; Micela, Giusi; Sciortino, Salvatore; Stassun, Keivan; Stelzer, Beate; Zinnecker, Hans

    2005-01-01

    We use the data of the Chandra Orion Ultradeep Project (COUP) to study the nearly 600 X-ray sources that can be reliably identified with optically well characterized T Tauri stars (TTS) in the Orion Nebula Cluster. We detect X-ray emission from more than 97% of the optically visible late-type (spectral types F to M) cluster stars. This proofs that there is no ``X-ray quiet'' population of late-type stars with suppressed magnetic activity. All TTS with known rotation periods lie in the saturated or super-saturated regime of the relation between activity and Rossby numbers seen for main-sequence (MS) stars, but the TTS show a much larger scatter in X-ray activity than seen for the MS stars. Strong near-linear relations between X-ray luminosities, bolometric luminosities and mass are present. We also find that the fractional X-ray luminosity rises slowly with mass over the 0.1 - 2 M_sun range. The plasma temperatures determined from the X-ray spectra of the TTS are much hotter than in MS stars, but seem to follo...

  17. Deep Chandra observations of Pictor A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, M. J.; Lenc, E.; Birkinshaw, M.; Croston, J. H.; Goodger, J. L.; Marshall, H. L.; Perlman, E. S.; Siemiginowska, A.; Stawarz, Ł.; Worrall, D. M.

    2016-02-01

    We report on deep Chandra observations of the nearby broad-line radio galaxy Pictor A, which we combine with new Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) observations. The new X-ray data have a factor of 4 more exposure than observations previously presented and span a 15 yr time baseline, allowing a detailed study of the spatial, temporal and spectral properties of the AGN, jet, hotspot and lobes. We present evidence for further time variation of the jet, though the flare that we reported in previous work remains the most significantly detected time-varying feature. We also confirm previous tentative evidence for a faint counterjet. Based on the radio through X-ray spectrum of the jet and its detailed spatial structure, and on the properties of the counterjet, we argue that inverse-Compton models can be conclusively rejected, and propose that the X-ray emission from the jet is synchrotron emission from particles accelerated in the boundary layer of a relativistic jet. For the first time, we find evidence that the bright western hotspot is also time-varying in X-rays, and we connect this to the small-scale structure in the hotspot seen in high-resolution radio observations. The new data allow us to confirm that the spectrum of the lobes is in good agreement with the predictions of an inverse-Compton model and we show that the data favour models in which the filaments seen in the radio images are predominantly the result of spatial variation of magnetic fields in the presence of a relatively uniform electron distribution.

  18. X-ray Observations of Novae with Swift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Kim

    2016-07-01

    The rapid response capabilities of the Swift satellite, together with the daily planning of its observing schedule, make it an ideal mission for following novae in the X-ray and UV bands, particularly during their early phases of rapid evolution. A number of both classical and recurrent novae have been extensively monitored by Swift throughout their super-soft phase and later decline. We report results from these observations, including the high-amplitude flux variation often see at the start of the super-soft emission, the differing relationships between the X-ray and UV variability, and the spectral evolution seen in the X-ray band.

  19. OBSERVATIONS OF SOME X-RAY TRANSIENTS WITH RXTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. BOROZDIN; W. PRIEDHORSKY; ET AL

    1999-11-01

    We present results of observations of several X-ray transients with RXTE in 1996-1998, namely, GRS 1739-278, XTE J1748-288, GS 1354-64, 2S1803-245 and XTE J0421+560 (CI Cam). We studied light curves and spectra of their outbursts and compared them with observations of other X-ray transients. We discuss fits of high state spectra with BMC model, and similarities and differences between black holes and neutron stars in their low state. Special attention is paid to CI Cam as possible legate for new class of X-ray transients.

  20. X-ray and optical observations of four polars

    CERN Document Server

    Worpel, H; Granzer, T; Reinsch, K; Schwarz, R; Traulsen, I

    2016-01-01

    We aim to study the temporal and spectral behaviour of four polar CVs from the infrared to X-ray regimes, refine our knowledge of the physical parameters of these systems at different accretion rates, and to search for a possible excess of soft X-ray photons. We analysed four XMM X-ray observations of three of the sources, two of them discovered in SDSS, one in RASS. The X-ray data were complemented by optical photometry and spectroscopy and, for two sources, archival Swift observations. SDSSJ0328 was X-ray bright in two XMM and two Swift observations, and shows transitions from high and low accretion states over a few months. It has no strong soft excess. We measured the magnetic field strength at the main pole to be 39 MG, the inclination to be 45X-ray faint. We measured a faint phase X-ray flux and plasma temperature for this source, which spends almost all of its time accreting at a low level. Its inclination is less than about 76...

  1. X-ray binary systems - Ariel V SSI observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basis of our current theoretical understanding of galactic x-ray sources is reviewed. Models are outlined involving close binary systems containing a compact object accreting mass which has been lost from the nondegenerate star by a variety of mechanisms. The present status of galactic x-ray astronomy is discussed, with emphasis on the links between established observational categories and the characteristics of the proposed models. Observational results, consisting primarily of extended x-ray light curves derived from analysis of Ariel V SSI data are presented for two main classes of galactic x-ray source: (i) high-mass x-ray binaries containing an early-type giant or supergiant star; (ii) low-mass x-ray binaries in which the nondegenerate star is a late-type dwarf. For the high-mass binaries emphasis is placed on the determination and improvement of the orbital parameters; for the low-mass binaries, where a less complete picture is available, the discussion centres on the type of system involved, taking into account the optical observations of the source. Finally, the properties of two further categories - the sources in the galactic bulge and those associated with dwarf novae - are discussed as examples of rather different types of galactic x-ray emitter. In the case of the galactic bulge sources current observations have not led so far to a clear picture of the nature of the systems involved, indeed their binary membership is not established. X-ray emission from dwarf novae and related objects is a relatively recent discovery and represents the opening up of a new field of galactic x-ray astronomy. (author)

  2. X-ray Spectroscopy and Variability of AGN Detected in the 2 Ms Chandra Deep Field-North Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, F. E.; Vignali, C.; Alexander, D M; Brandt, W. N.; Garmire, G. P.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Broos, P. S.; Townsley, L. K.; Schneider, D. P.

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the nature of the faint X-ray source population through X-ray spectroscopy and variability analyses of 136 AGN detected in the 2 Ms Chandra Deep Field-North survey with > 200 background-subtracted 0.5-8.0 keV counts [F(0.5-8.0 keV)=(1.4-200)e-15 erg cm^{-2} s^{-1}]. Our preliminary spectral analyses yield median spectral parameters of Gamma=1.61 and intrinsic N_H=6.2e21 cm^{-2} (z=1 assumed when no redshift available) when the AGN spectra are fitted with a simple absorbed power...

  3. Resolved Companions of Cepheids: Testing the Candidates with X-Ray Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Pillitteri, Ignazio; Wolk, Scott; Karovska, Margarita; Tingle, Evan; Guinan, Edward; Engle, Scott; Bond, Howard E.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Mason, Brian D.

    2016-04-01

    We have made XMM-Newton observations of 14 Galactic Cepheids that have candidate resolved (≥5″) companion stars based on our earlier HST Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) imaging survey. Main-sequence stars that are young enough to be physical companions of Cepheids are expected to be strong X-ray producers in contrast to field stars. XMM-Newton exposures were set to detect essentially all companions hotter than spectral type M0 (corresponding to 0.5 M⊙). The large majority of our candidate companions were not detected in X-rays, and hence are not confirmed as young companions. One resolved candidate (S Nor #4) was unambiguously detected, but the Cepheid is a member of a populous cluster. For this reason, it is likely that S Nor #4 is a cluster member rather than a gravitationally bound companion. Two further Cepheids (S Mus and R Cru) have X-ray emission that might be produced by either the Cepheid or the candidate resolved companion. A subsequent Chandra observation of S Mus shows that the X-rays are at the location of the Cepheid/spectroscopic binary. R Cru and also V659 Cen (also X-ray bright) have possible companions closer than 5″ (the limit for this study) which are the likely sources of X-rays. One final X-ray detection (V473 Lyr) has no known optical companion, so the prime suspect is the Cepheid itself. It is a unique Cepheid with a variable amplitude. The 14 stars that we observed with XMM constitute 36% of the 39 Cepheids found to have candidate companions in our HST/WFC3 optical survey. No young probable binary companions were found with separations of ≥5″ or 4000 au. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and the USA (NASA).

  4. Chandra Observations of Eight Sources Discovered by INTEGRAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsick, John A.; Krivonos, Roman; Wang, Qinan; Bodaghee, Arash; Chaty, Sylvain; Rahoui, Farid; Rodriguez, Jerome; Fornasini, Francesca M.

    2016-01-01

    We report on 0.3-10 keV observations with the Chandra X-ray Observatory of eight hard X-ray sources discovered within 8° of the Galactic plane by the International Gamma-ray Astrophysics Laboratory satellite. The short (˜5 ks) Chandra observations of the IGR source fields have yielded very likely identifications of X-ray counterparts for three of the IGR sources: IGR J14091-6108, IGR J18088-2741, and IGR J18381-0924. The first two have very hard spectra in the Chandra band that can be described by a power law with photon indices of Γ = 0.6 ± 0.4 and -{0.7}-0.3+0.4, respectively (90% confidence errors are given), and both have a unique near-IR counterpart consistent with the Chandra position. IGR J14091-6108 also displays a strong iron line and a relatively low X-ray luminosity, and we argue that the most likely source type is a cataclysmic variable (CV), although we do not completely rule out the possibility of a high mass X-ray binary. IGR J18088-2741 has an optical counterpart with a previously measured 6.84 hr periodicity, which may be the binary orbital period. We also detect five cycles of a possible 800-950 s period in the Chandra light curve, which may be the compact object spin period. We suggest that IGR J18088-2741 is also most likely a CV. For IGR J18381-0924, the spectrum is intrinsically softer with {{Γ }}={1.5}-0.4+0.5, and it is moderately absorbed, NH = (4 ± 1) × 1022 cm-2. There are two near-IR sources consistent with the Chandra position, and they are both classified as galaxies, making it likely that IGR J18381-0924 is an active galactic nucleus. For the other five IGR sources, we provide lists of nearby Chandra sources, which may be used along with further observations to identify the correct counterparts, and we discuss the implications of the low inferred Chandra count rates for these five sources.

  5. Further X-ray observations of EXO 0748-676 in quiescence: evidence for a cooling neutron star crust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Degenaar; M.T. Wolff; P.S. Ray; K.S. Wood; J. Homan; W.H.G. Lewin; P.G. Jonker; E.M. Cackett; J.M. Miller; E.F. Brown; R. Wijnands

    2011-01-01

    In late 2008, the quasi-persistent neutron star X-ray transient and eclipsing binary EXO 0748−676 started a transition from outburst to quiescence, after it actively accreted for more than 24 yr. In a previous work, we discussed Chandra and Swift observations obtained during the first 5 months of th

  6. RESOLVED COMPANIONS OF CEPHEIDS: TESTING THE CANDIDATES WITH X-RAY OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Pillitteri, Ignazio; Wolk, Scott; Karovska, Margarita; Tingle, Evan [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, MS 4, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Guinan, Edward; Engle, Scott [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Villanova University, 800 Lancaster Ave., Villanova, PA 19085 (United States); Bond, Howard E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Schaefer, Gail H. [The CHARA Array of Georgia State University, Mount Wilson, California 91023 (United States); Mason, Brian D., E-mail: nevans@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: heb11@psu.edu, E-mail: schaefer@chara-array.org [US Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20392-5420 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    We have made XMM-Newton observations of 14 Galactic Cepheids that have candidate resolved (≥5″) companion stars based on our earlier HST Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) imaging survey. Main-sequence stars that are young enough to be physical companions of Cepheids are expected to be strong X-ray producers in contrast to field stars. XMM-Newton exposures were set to detect essentially all companions hotter than spectral type M0 (corresponding to 0.5 M{sub ⊙}). The large majority of our candidate companions were not detected in X-rays, and hence are not confirmed as young companions. One resolved candidate (S Nor #4) was unambiguously detected, but the Cepheid is a member of a populous cluster. For this reason, it is likely that S Nor #4 is a cluster member rather than a gravitationally bound companion. Two further Cepheids (S Mus and R Cru) have X-ray emission that might be produced by either the Cepheid or the candidate resolved companion. A subsequent Chandra observation of S Mus shows that the X-rays are at the location of the Cepheid/spectroscopic binary. R Cru and also V659 Cen (also X-ray bright) have possible companions closer than 5″ (the limit for this study) which are the likely sources of X-rays. One final X-ray detection (V473 Lyr) has no known optical companion, so the prime suspect is the Cepheid itself. It is a unique Cepheid with a variable amplitude. The 14 stars that we observed with XMM constitute 36% of the 39 Cepheids found to have candidate companions in our HST/WFC3 optical survey. No young probable binary companions were found with separations of ≥5″ or 4000 au.

  7. Inferring coronal structure from X-ray lightcurves and Doppler shifts: a Chandra study of AB Doradus

    CERN Document Server

    Hussain, G A J; Dupree, A K; Jardine, M M; Van Ballegooijen, A A; Hoogerwerf, R; Cameron, A C; Donati, J F; Favata, F

    2004-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray observatory monitored the single cool star, AB Doradus, continuously for a period lasting 88 ksec (1.98 Prot) in 2002 December with the LETG/HRC-S. The X-ray lightcurve shows rotational modulation, with three peaks that repeat in two consecutive rotation cycles. These peaks may indicate the presence of compact emitting regions in the quiescent corona. Centroid shifts as a function of phase in the strongest line profile, O VIII 18.97 A, indicate Doppler rotational velocities with a semi-amplitude of 30 +/- 10 km/s. By taking these diagnostics into account along with constraints on the rotational broadening of line profiles (provided by archival Chandra HETG Fe XVII and FUSE Fe XVIII profile) we can construct a simple model of the X-ray corona that requires two components. One of these components is responsible for 80% of the X-ray emission, and arises from the pole and/or a homogeneously distributed corona. The second component consists of two or three compact active regions that cause modula...

  8. The restless universe understanding X-ray astronomy in the age of Chandra and Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Schlegel, Eric M

    2002-01-01

    This title tells the story of the development and launch of a major space-based telescope, and explains the discoveries of the nature of the universe in the X-ray spectre. The author looks at the brief history of X-ray astronomy to explore what can and has been learnt by using X-ray.

  9. X-ray and Radio Observations of the Massive Star Forming Region IRAS 20126+4104

    CERN Document Server

    Montes, Virginie A; Anderson, Crystal; Rosero, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    We present results of Chandra ACIS-I and Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) 6 cm continuum observations of the IRAS 20126+4104 massive star forming region. We detect 150 X-ray sources within the 17 arcmin x 17 arcmin ACIS-I field, and a total of 13 radio sources within the 9'.2 primary beam at 4.9 GHz. Among these are the first 6 cm detections of the central sources reported by Hofner et al. (2007), namely I20N1, I20S, and I20var. A new variable radio sources is also reported. Searching the 2MASS archive we identified 88 NIR counterparts to the X-ray sources. Only 4 of the X-ray sources had 6 cm counterparts. Based on an NIR color-color analysis, and on the Besancon simulation of Galactic stellar populations (Robin et al. 2003), we estimate that about 90 X-ray sources are associated with this massive star forming region. We detect an increasing surface density of X-ray sources toward the massive protostar and infer the presence of a cluster of at least 46 YSOs within a distance of 1.2 pc from the massive p...

  10. Investigating the Nature of IGR J17454-2919 Using X-Ray and Near-Infrared Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paizis, A.; Nowak, M. A.; Rodriguez, J.;

    2015-01-01

    are compatible with an absorbed power law, Γ ∼ 1.6-1.8, NH ∼ (10-12) x 1022 cm-2, with no trace of a cut-off in the data up to about 100 keV, and with an average absorbed 0.5-100 keV flux of about (7.1-9.7) x 10-10 erg cm-2 s-1. With Chandra, we determine the most accurate X-ray position of IGR J17454......IGR J17454-2919 is a hard X-ray transient discovered by INTEGRAL on 2014 September 27. We report on our 20 ks Chandra observation of the source, performed about five weeks after the discovery, as well as on INTEGRAL and Swift long-term monitoring observations. X-ray broad-band spectra of the source...

  11. Observational studies of X-ray binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject of Chapter 1 is theoretical. The other chapters, Ch. 2 to 6, contain original observational data and efforts towards their interpretation. Of these, Ch. 3, 4 and 5 deal with massive X-ray binaries, Ch. 6 with low-mass systems and Ch. 2 with Cygnus X-3, which we have not yet been able to assign to any of these two classes. The X-ray observations described were made with the COS-B satellite. Work based on UV and optical observations is described in Ch. 5. The UV observations were made with the IUE satellite, the optical observations at several ground-based observatories. (Auth.)

  12. Chandra Observations of Tycho’s Supernova Remnant

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U. Hwang; R. Petre; A. E. Szymkowiak; S. S. Holt

    2002-03-01

    We present a new Chandra observation of Tycho’s supernova remnant with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer. Multicolor X-ray imaging reveals new details of the outer shock and ejecta. At energies between 4 and 6 keV, the outline of the outer shock is clearly revealed in X-rays for the first time. The distribution of the emission from lines of Si and Fe are confirmed to have a different morphology from each other, and the Si ejecta are shown to extend to the blast shock at several locations. Characteristic spectra of the outer shock and ejecta are also presented.

  13. Constraints on the mass and radius of neutron stars from X-ray observations

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhaosheng

    2015-01-01

    This article gives a very brief introduction about measuring the mass and radius of neutron star from X-ray observations. The masses and radii of neutron stars can be determined from photospheric radius expansion bursts in low-mass X-ray binaries, X-ray pulse profile modeling in accreting X-ray pulsars, gravitational redshift measurement in low-mass X-ray binaries and thermal X-ray spectral fitting in quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries.

  14. A CHANDRA-VLA INVESTIGATION OF THE X-RAY CAVITY SYSTEM AND RADIO MINI-HALO IN THE GALAXY CLUSTER RBS 797

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doria, Alberto [Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Gitti, Myriam; Brighenti, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, Bologna 40127 (Italy); Ettori, Stefano [Astronomical Observatory of Bologna-INAF, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Nulsen, Paul E. J.; McNamara, Brian R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    We present a study of the cavity system in the galaxy cluster RBS 797 based on Chandra and Very Large Array (VLA) data. RBS 797 (z = 0.35) is one of the most distant galaxy clusters in which two pronounced X-ray cavities have been discovered. The Chandra data confirm the presence of a cool core and indicate a higher metallicity along the cavity directions. This is likely due to the active galactic nucleus outburst, which lifts cool metal-rich gas from the center along the cavities, as seen in other systems. We find indications that the cavities are hotter than the surrounding gas. Moreover, the new Chandra images show bright rims contrasting with the deep, X-ray deficient cavities. The likely cause is that the expanding 1.4 GHz radio lobes have displaced the gas, compressing it into a shell that appears as bright cool arms. Finally, we show that the large-scale radio emission detected with our VLA observations may be classified as a radio mini-halo, powered by the cooling flow, as it nicely follows the trend P{sub radio} versus P{sub CF} predicted by the reacceleration model.

  15. A Chandra - VLA Investigation of the X-ray Cavity System and Radio Mini-Halo in the Galaxy Cluster RBS 797

    CERN Document Server

    Doria, Alberto; Ettori, Stefano; Brighenti, Fabrizio; Nulsen, Paul E J; McNamara, Brian R

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of the cavity system in the galaxy cluster RBS 797 based on Chandra and VLA data. RBS 797 (z = 0.35), is one of the most distant galaxy clusters in which two pronounced X-ray cavities have been discovered. The Chandra data confirm the presence of a cool core and indicate an higher metallicity along the cavity directions. This is likely due to the AGN outburst, which lifts cool metal-rich gas from the center along the cavities, as seen in other systems. We find indications that the cavities are hotter than the surrounding gas. Moreover, the new Chandra images show bright rims contrasting with the deep, X-ray deficient cavities. The likely cause is that the expanding 1.4 GHz radio lobes have displaced the gas, compressing it into a shell that appears as bright cool arms. Finally we show that the large-scale radio emission detected with our VLA observations may be classified as a radio mini-halo, powered by the cooling flow (CF), as it nicely follows the trend P_radio vs. P_CF predicted by the...

  16. X-ray and Radio Observations of the gamma Cygni Supernova Remnant G78.2+2.1

    CERN Document Server

    Leahy, D A; Ranasinghe, S

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of ROSAT and CHANDRA ACIS X-ray observations of the gamma Cygni supernova remnant (G78.2+2.1, DR4) and also analyze radio HI absorption spectra. The ROSAT All-Sky-Survey image shows extended X-ray emission from G78.2+2.1 and also an adjacent limb-brightened shell on its northern boundary. A new mosaic created from ROSAT pointed PSPC data shows details of the X-ray emission over the entire face of G78.2+2.1, including X-ray bright features along the southern, eastern and northern rim but a faint center and a faint western rim. We assemble all available Chandra archival data to create a new mosaic which covers a large part of the northern rim and central regions of G78.2+2.1. The HI absorption spectrum is used to obtain a distance limit on the SNR of 2-4 kpc. Chandra spectral parameters are used to constrain the physical properties of G78.2+2.1: we find an X-ray temperature of 0.6-1.2 keV (90% error), and that the SNR is well explained by a Sedov model with age of 8000-16000 yr and blast ...

  17. Symbiotic stars in X-rays III: Suzaku observations

    CERN Document Server

    Nuñez, N E; Mukai, K; Sokoloski, J L; Luna, G J M

    2016-01-01

    We describe the X-ray emission as observed with Suzaku from five symbiotic stars that we selected for deep Suzaku observations after their initial detection with ROSAT, ASCA and Swift. We find that the X-ray spectra of all five sources can be adequately fit with absorbed, optically thin thermal plasma models, with either single- or multi-temperature plasmas. These models are compatible with the X-ray emission originating in the boundary layer between an accretion disk and a white dwarf. The high plasma temperatures of kT$~>3$ keV for all five targets were greater than expected for colliding winds. Based on these high temperatures, as well as previous measurements of UV variability and UV luminosity, and the large amplitude of X-ray flickering in 4 Dra, we conclude that all five sources are accretion-powered through predominantly optically thick boundary layers. Our X-ray data allow us to observe a small, optically thin portion of the emission from these boundary layers. Given the time between previous observa...

  18. pyXSIM: Synthetic X-ray observations generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZuHone, John A., Hallman, Eric. J.

    2016-08-01

    pyXSIM simulates X-ray observations from astrophysical sources. X-rays probe the high-energy universe, from hot galaxy clusters to compact objects such as neutron stars and black holes and many interesting sources in between. pyXSIM generates synthetic X-ray observations of these sources from a wide variety of models, whether from grid-based simulation codes such as FLASH (ascl:1010.082), Enzo (ascl:1010.072), and Athena (ascl:1010.014), to particle-based codes such as Gadget (ascl:0003.001) and AREPO, and even from datasets that have been created “by hand”, such as from NumPy arrays. pyXSIM can also manipulate the synthetic observations it produces in various ways and export the simulated X-ray events to other software packages to simulate the end products of specific X-ray observatories. pyXSIM is an implementation of the PHOX (ascl:1112.004) algorithm and was initially the photon_simulator analysis module in yt (ascl:1011.022); it is dependent on yt.

  19. The Evolution of Normal Galaxy X-Ray Emission through Cosmic History: Constraints from the 6 MS Chandra Deep Field-South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmer, B. D.; Basu-Zych, A. R.; Mineo, S.; Brandt, W. N.; Eufrasio, R. T.; Fragos, T.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Luo, B.; Xue, Y. Q.; Bauer, F. E.; Gilfanov, M.; Ranalli, P.; Schneider, D. P.; Shemmer, O.; Tozzi, P.; Trump, J. R.; Vignali, C.; Wang, J.-X.; Yukita, M.; Zezas, A.

    2016-07-01

    We present measurements of the evolution of normal-galaxy X-ray emission from z\\quad ≈ 0–7 using local galaxies and galaxy samples in the ≈6 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) survey. The majority of the CDF-S galaxies are observed at rest-frame energies above 2 keV, where the emission is expected to be dominated by X-ray binary (XRB) populations; however, hot gas is expected to provide small contributions to the observed-frame ≲1 keV emission at z ≲ 1. We show that a single scaling relation between X-ray luminosity ({L}{{X}}) and star-formation rate (SFR) literature, is insufficient for characterizing the average X-ray emission at all redshifts. We establish that scaling relations involving not only SFR, but also stellar mass ({M}\\star ) and redshift, provide significantly improved characterizations of the average X-ray emission from normal galaxy populations at z\\quad ≈ 0–7. We further provide the first empirical constraints on the redshift evolution of X-ray emission from both low-mass XRB (LMXB) and high-mass XRB (HMXB) populations and their scalings with {M}\\star and SFR, respectively. We find {L}2-10{keV}(LMXB)/{M}\\star \\propto {(1+z)}2-3 and {L}2-10{keV}(HMXB)/SFR \\propto \\quad (1+z), and show that these relations are consistent with XRB population-synthesis model predictions, which attribute the increase in LMXB and HMXB scaling relations with redshift as being due to declining host galaxy stellar ages and metallicities, respectively. We discuss how emission from XRBs could provide an important source of heating to the intergalactic medium in the early universe, exceeding that of active galactic nuclei.

  20. Weak Hard X-Ray Emission from Two Broad Absorption Line Quasars Observed with NuStar: Compton-Thick Absorption or Intrinsic X-Ray Weakness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.; Harrison, F. A.; Stern, D.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Craig, W. W..; Fabian, A. C.; Farrah, D.; Fiore, F.; Fuerst, F.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Hickox, R.; Madsen, K. K.; Matt, G.; Ogle, P.; Risaliti, G.; Saez, C.; Teng, S. H.; Walton, D. J.; Zhang, W. W.

    2013-01-01

    We present Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) hard X-ray observations of two X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, PG 1004+130 (radio loud) and PG 1700+518 (radio quiet). Many BAL quasars appear X-ray weak, probably due to absorption by the shielding gas between the nucleus and the accretion-disk wind. The two targets are among the optically brightest BAL quasars, yet they are known to be significantly X-ray weak at rest-frame 2-10 keV (16-120 times fainter than typical quasars). We would expect to obtain approx. or equal to 400-600 hard X-ray (is greater than or equal to 10 keV) photons with NuSTAR, provided that these photons are not significantly absorbed N(sub H) is less than or equal to 10(exp24) cm(exp-2). However, both BAL quasars are only detected in the softer NuSTAR bands (e.g., 4-20 keV) but not in its harder bands (e.g., 20-30 keV), suggesting that either the shielding gas is highly Compton-thick or the two targets are intrinsically X-ray weak. We constrain the column densities for both to be N(sub H) 7 × 10(exp 24) cm(exp-2) if the weak hard X-ray emission is caused by obscuration from the shielding gas. We discuss a few possibilities for how PG 1004+130 could have Compton-thick shielding gas without strong Fe Ka line emission; dilution from jet-linked X-ray emission is one likely explanation. We also discuss the intrinsic X-ray weakness scenario based on a coronal-quenching model relevant to the shielding gas and disk wind of BAL quasars. Motivated by our NuSTAR results, we perform a Chandra stacking analysis with the Large Bright Quasar Survey BAL quasar sample and place statistical constraints upon the fraction of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars; this fraction is likely 17%-40%.

  1. A shock front in the merging galaxy cluster Abell 754: X-ray and radio observations

    CERN Document Server

    Macario, Giulia; Giacintucci, Simona; Brunetti, Gianfranco; Venturi, Tiziana; Murray, Stephen S

    2010-01-01

    We present new Chandra X-ray and Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT) radio observations of the nearby merging galaxy cluster Abell 754. Our X-ray data confirm the presence of a shock front by obtaining the first direct measurement of a gas temperature jump across the X-ray brightness edge previously seen in the imaging data. A754 is only the fourth galaxy cluster with confirmed merger shock fronts, and it has the weakest shock of those, with a Mach number M=1.57+0.16-0.12. In our new GMRT observation at 330 MHz, we find that the previously-known centrally located radio halo extends eastward to the position of the shock. The X-ray shock front also coincides with the position of a radio relic previously observed at 74 MHz. The radio spectrum of the post-shock region, using our radio data and the earlier results at 74 MHz and 1.4 GHz, is very steep. We argue that acceleration of electrons at the shock front directly from thermal to ultrarelativistic energies is problematic due to energy arguments, while reacc...

  2. Observing Galactic Black Hole Sources in Hard X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, A R

    2013-01-01

    Observations of Galactic black hole sources are traditionally done in the classical X-ray range (2 -- 10 keV) due to sensitivity constraints. Most of the accretion power, however, is radiated above 10 keV and the study of these sources in hard X-rays has the potential to unravel the radiation mechanisms operating at the inner region of the accretion disk, which is believed to be the seat of a myriad of fascinating features like jet emission, high frequency QPO emission etc. I will briefly summarise the long term hard X-ray observational features like spectral state identification, state transitions and hints of polarised emission, and describe the new insights that would be provided by the forthcoming Astrosat satellite, particularly emphasising the contributions expected from the CZT-Imager payload.

  3. A Chandra detection of diffuse hard X-ray emission associated with the lobes of the radio galaxy 3C 452

    CERN Document Server

    Isobe, N; Makishima, K; Iyomoto, N; Suzuki, M; Murakami, M M; Mori, M; Abe, K

    2002-01-01

    An 80 ksec Chandra ACIS observation of the radio galaxy 3C 452 is reported. A diffuse X-ray emission associated with the lobes has been detected with high statistical significance, together with the X-ray nucleus of the host galaxy. The 0.5--5 keV ACIS spectrum of the diffuse emission is described by a two-component model, consisting of a soft thermal plasma emission from the host galaxy halo and a hard non-thermal power-law component. The hard component is ascribed to the inverse Comptonization of cosmic microwave background photons by the synchrotron emitting electrons in the lobes, because its spectral energy index, 0.68+-0.28, is consistent with the radio synchrotron index, 0.78. These results reveal a significant electron dominance in the lobes. The electrons are inferred to have a relatively uniform distribution, while the magnetic field is compressed toward the lobe periphery.

  4. An X-ray look at the Seyfert 1 Galaxy Mrk 590: XMM-Newton and Chandra reveal complexity in circumnuclear gas

    OpenAIRE

    Longinotti, A. L.; Bianchi, S.; Santos-Lleo, M.; Rodriguez-Pascual, P.; Guainazzi, M.; Cardaci, M.; Pollock, A.M.T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a partially simultaneous observation of the bright Seyfert 1 Galaxy Mrk590, performed by XMM-Newton and Chandra. The long exposure (~100 ks) allows to investigate with great detail the Fe K complex at 6-7 keV and the presence of soft X-ray spectral features. We have analysed XMM-Newton data from the European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) in the 0.5-12 keV band and from the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) in the 0.35-2.5 keV band, and data from the High Energy Transm...

  5. X-ray observations of SN 1006 with INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalemci, E.; Reynolds, S.P.; Boggs, S.E.;

    2006-01-01

    The remnant of the supernova of 1006 AD, the remnant first showing evidence for the presence of X-ray synchrotron emission from shock-accelerated electrons, was observed for similar to 1000 ks with INTEGRAL in order to study electron acceleration to very high energies. The aim of the observation...

  6. The High Energy X-ray Imager Technology (HEXITEC) for Solar Hard X-ray Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christe, Steven; Shih, Albert Y.; Gaskin, Jessica; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Seller, Paul; Wilson, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    High angular resolution HXR optics require detectors with a large number of fine pixels in order to adequately sample the telescope point spread function (PSF) over the entire field of view. Excessively over-sampling the PSF will increase readout noise and require more processing with no appreciable increase in image quality. An appropriate level of over-sampling is to have 3 pixels within the HPD. For current high resolution X-ray mirrors, the HPD is about 25 arcsec. Over a 6-m focal length this converts to 750 µm, the optimum pixel size is around 250 µm. Annother requirement are that the detectors must also have high efficiency in the HXR region, good energy resolution, low background, low power requirements, and low sensitivity to radiation damage. For solar observations, the ability to handle high counting rates is also extremely desirable. The Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK has been developing the electronics for such a detector. Dubbed HEXITEC, for High Energy X-Ray Imaging Technology, this Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), can be bonded to 1- or 2- mm-thick Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) or Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT), to create a fine (250 µm pitch) HXR detector. The NASA Marshall Space Flight CenterMSFC and the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been working with RAL over the past few years to develop these detectors to be used with HXR focusing telescopes. We present on recent results and capabilities as applied to solar observations.

  7. Chandra Observations of SNR RCW 103

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Kari A; Park, Sangwook

    2015-01-01

    We analyze three Chandra observations, with a combined exposure time of 99 ks, of the Galactic supernova remnant RCW 103, a young supernova remnant, previously with no clear detection of metal-rich ejecta. Based on our imaging and spectral analyses of these deep Chandra data, we find evidence for metal-rich ejecta emission scattered throughout the remnant. X-ray emission from the shocked ejecta is generally weak, and the shocked circumstellar medium (CSM) is a largely dominant component across the entire remnant. The CSM component shows abundances of ~0.5 solar, while Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe abundances of the ejecta are up to a few times solar. Comparison of these ejecta abundances with yields from supernova nucleosynthesis models suggests, together with the existence of a central neutron star, a progenitor mass of ~18-20 M$_\\odot$, though the Fe/Si ratios are larger than predicted. The shocked CSM emission suggests a progenitor with high mass-loss rate and subsolar metallicity.

  8. X-ray spectral components observed in the afterglow of GRB 130925A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellm, Eric C.; Barrière, Nicolas M.; Bhalerao, Varun;

    2014-01-01

    We have identified spectral features in the late-time X-ray afterglow of the unusually long, slow-decaying GRB 130925A using NuSTAR, Swift/X-Ray Telescope, and Chandra. A spectral component in addition to an absorbed power law is required at >4σ significance, and its spectral shape varies between...

  9. Deducing Electron Properties From Hard X-Ray Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Kontar, E.P.; Brown, J. C.; Emslie, A. G.; Hajdas, W.; Holman, G. D.; Hurford, G. J.; Kasparova, J.; Mallik, P. C. V.; Massone, A. M.; McConnell, M. L.; M. Piana; Prato, M.; Schmahl, E. J.; Suarez-Garcia, E.

    2011-01-01

    X-radiation from energetic electrons is the prime diagnostic of flare-accelerated electrons. The observed X-ray flux (and polarization state) is fundamentally a convolution of the cross-section for the hard X-ray emission process(es) in question with the electron distribution function, which is in turn a function of energy, direction, spatial location and time. To address the problems of particle propagation and acceleration one needs to infer as much information as possible on this electron ...

  10. Einstein x-ray observations of cataclysmic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observations with the imaging x-ray detectors on the Einstein Observatory have led to a large increase in the number of low luminosity x-ray sources known to be associated with cataclysmic variable stars (CVs). The high sensitivity of the Einstein instrumentation has permitted study of their short timescale variability and spectra. The data are adding significantly to our knowledge of the accretion process in cataclysmic variables and forcing some revision in our ideas concerning the origin of the optical variability in these stars

  11. X-ray spectroscopy of the ADC source X1822-371 with Chandra and XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaria, R.; Di Salvo, T.; D'Aì, A.; Burderi, L.; Mineo, T.; Riggio, A.; Papitto, A.; Robba, N. R.

    2013-01-01

    Context. The eclipsing low-mass X-ray binary X1822-371 is the prototype of the accretion disc corona (ADC) sources. Its inclination angle (≃82.5°) is high enough that flux from the neutron star is blocked by the edge-on accretion disc. Because the neutron star's direct emission is hidden, its ADC emission is visible. The physical properties of the ADC in X1822-371 have been widely studied, but are still debated in literature. In light of the recent literature and of the results reported in this work we show that the ADC is optically thin. Aims: We analyse two Chandra observations and one XMM-Newton observation to study the discrete features in this source and their variation as a function of the orbital phase, deriving constraints on the temperature, density, and location of the plasma responsible for emission lines. Methods: The HETGS and XMM/Epic-pn observed X1822-371 for 140 and 50 ks, respectively. We extracted an averaged spectrum and five spectra from five selected orbital-phase intervals that are 0.04-0.25, 0.25-0.50, 0.50-0.75, 0.75-0.95, and, finally, 0.95-1.04; the orbital phase zero corresponds to the eclipse time. All spectra cover the energy band between 0.35 and 12 keV. Results: We confirm the presence of local neutral matter that partially covers the X-ray emitting region; the equivalent hydrogen column is 5 × 1022 cm-2 and the covered fraction is about 60-65%. We identify several emission lines of He-like and H-like ions, and a prominent fluorescence iron line associated with a blending of Fe i-Fe xv resonant transitions. The transitions of He-like ions show that the intercombination dominates over the forbidden and resonance lines. The line fluxes are the highest during the orbital phases between 0.04 and 0.75. Conclusions: We discuss the presence of an extended, optically thin corona with optical depth of about 0.01 that scatters the X-ray photons from the innermost region into the line of sight. The photoionised plasma producing the O viii

  12. Further X-ray observations of EXO 0748-676 in quiescence: evidence for a cooling neutron star crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenaar, N.; Wolff, M. T.; Ray, P. S.; Wood, K. S.; Homan, J.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Jonker, P. G.; Cackett, E. M.; Miller, J. M.; Brown, E. F.; Wijnands, R.

    2011-04-01

    In late 2008, the quasi-persistent neutron star X-ray transient and eclipsing binary EXO 0748-676 started a transition from outburst to quiescence, after it actively accreted for more than 24 yr. In a previous work, we discussed Chandra and Swift observations obtained during the first 5 months of this transition. Here, we report on further X-ray observations of EXO 0748-676, extending the quiescent monitoring to 1.6 yr. Chandra and XMM-Newton data reveal quiescent X-ray spectra composed of a soft, thermal component that is well fitted by a neutron star atmosphere model. An additional hard power-law tail is detected that changes non-monotonically over time, contributing between 4 and 20 per cent to the total unabsorbed 0.5-10 keV flux. The combined set of Chandra, XMM-Newton and Swift data reveals that the thermal bolometric luminosity fades from ˜ 1 × 1034 to 6 × 1033 (D/7.4 kpc)2 erg s -1, whereas the inferred neutron star effective temperature decreases from ˜124 to 109 eV. We interpret the observed decay as cooling of the neutron star crust and show that the fractional quiescent temperature change of EXO 0748-676 is markedly smaller than observed for three other neutron star X-ray binaries that underwent prolonged accretion outbursts.

  13. X-ray and optical observations of four polars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worpel, H.; Schwope, A. D.; Granzer, T.; Reinsch, K.; Schwarz, R.; Traulsen, I.

    2016-08-01

    Aims: We investigate the temporal and spectral behaviour of four polar cataclysmic variables from the infrared to X-ray regimes, refine our knowledge of the physical parameters of these systems at different accretion rates, and search for a possible excess of soft X-ray photons. Methods: We obtained and analysed four XMM-Newton X-ray observations of three of the sources, two of them discovered with the SDSS and one in the RASS. The X-ray data were complemented by optical photometric and spectroscopic observations and, for two sources, archival Swift observations. Results: SDSSJ032855.00+052254.2 was X-ray bright in two XMM-Newton and two Swift observations, and shows transitions from high and low accretion states on a timescale of a few months. The source shows no significant soft excess. We measured the magnetic field strength at the main accreting pole to be 39 MG and the inclination to be 45° ≤ i ≤ 77°, and we refined the long-term ephemeris. SDSSJ133309.20+143706.9 was X-ray faint. We measured a faint phase X-ray flux and plasma temperature for this source, which seems to spend almost all of its time accreting at a low level. Its inclination is less than about 76°. 1RXSJ173006.4+033813 was X-ray bright in the XMM-Newton observation. Its spectrum contained a modest soft blackbody component, not luminous enough to be considered a significant soft excess. We inferred a magnetic field strength at the main accreting pole of 20 to 25 MG, and that the inclination is less than 77° and probably less than 63°. V808 Aur, also known as CSS081231:J071126+440405, was X-ray faint in the Swift observation, but there is nonetheless strong evidence for bright and faint phases in X-rays and perhaps in UV. Residual X-ray flux from the faint phase is difficult to explain by thermal emission from the white dwarf surface, or by accretion onto the second pole. We present a revised distance estimate of 250 pc. Conclusions: The three systems we were able to study in detail

  14. X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF DISRUPTED RECYCLED PULSARS: NO REFUGE FOR ORPHANED CENTRAL COMPACT OBJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a Chandra X-ray survey of the disrupted recycled pulsars (DRPs), isolated radio pulsars with P > 20 ms and Bs 10 G. These observations were motivated as a search for the immediate descendants of the ≈10 central compact objects (CCOs) in supernova remnants (SNRs), 3 of which have similar timing and magnetic properties as the DRPs, but are bright, thermal X-ray sources consistent with minimal neutron star (NS) cooling curves. Since none of the DPRs were detected in this survey, there is no evidence that they are ''orphaned'' CCOs, NSs whose SNRs has dissipated. Upper limits on their thermal X-ray luminosities are in the range of log Lx [erg s–1] = 31.8-32.8, which implies cooling ages >104-105 yr, roughly 10 times the ages of the ≈10 known CCOs in a similar volume of the Galaxy. The order of a hundred CCO descendants that could be detected by this method are thus either intrinsically radio quiet or occupy a different region of (P, Bs ) parameter space from the DRPs. This motivates a new X-ray search for orphaned CCOs among radio pulsars with larger B-fields, which could verify the theory that their fields are buried by the fall-back of supernova ejecta, but quickly regrow to join the normal pulsar population

  15. Observing Evolution in Star-Forming Galaxies in X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptak, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The Chandra Deep Fields (CDFs) have reached flux limits where normal/starburst galaxies are significant contributors to the X-ray number counts (approximately 40% at F _{0.5-2.0} = 1 x 10(^)-17). Based on these results and current theoretical models of X-ray binary evolution we will discuss expectations for observing galaxy evolution in X-rays in IXO deep surveys. With the high sensitivity of IXO (particularly approximately 5" resolution constant across the WFI FOV and high effective area) IXO surveys should detect large numbers of galaxies which will allow evolution to be studied in multiple redshift bins. High spatial resolution will also drive the need to minimize source confusion below F _{0.5-2.0 keV} = 10^{-17} ergs/s/cm^2. In addition to detecting starburst galaxies individually, stacking will be used to constrain their properties on average, particularly Lyman-break galaxies at z greater than 2. We will also discuss challenges in segregating galaxies from obscured AGN in IXO deep fields and expectations proposed survey X-ray missions.

  16. Chandra Characterization of X-ray Emission in the Young F-Star Binary System HD 113766

    CERN Document Server

    Lisse, C M; Wolk, S J; Günther, H M; Chen, C H; Grady, C A

    2016-01-01

    Using Chandra we have obtained imaging X-ray spectroscopy of the 10 to 16 Myr old F-star binary HD 113766. We individually resolve the binary components for the first time in the X-ray and find a total 0.3 to 2.0 keV luminosity of 2.2e29 erg/sec, consistent with previous RASS estimates. We find emission from the easternmost, infrared-bright, dusty member HD 113766A to be only 10% that of the western, infrared-faint member HD 113766B. There is no evidence for a 3rd late-type stellar or sub-stellar member of HD113766 with Lx > 6e25 erg s-1 within 2 arcmin of the binary pair. The ratio of the two stars Xray luminosity is consistent with their assignments as F2V and F6V by Pecaut et al. (2012). The emission is soft for both stars, kTApec = 0.30 to 0.50 keV, suggesting X-rays produced by stellar rotation and/or convection in young dynamos, but not accretion or outflow shocks which we rule out. A possible 2.8 +/- 0.15 (2{\\sigma}) hr modulation in the HD 113766B X-ray emission is seen, but at very low confidence and...

  17. Observing Solar Hard X-rays from Heliospheric Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurford, Gordon J.; Benz, A.; Dennis, B.; Krucker, S.; Limousin, O.; Lin, R.; Vilmer, N.

    2010-05-01

    The coming decade provides two opportunities to acquire a different observational perspective on solar hard x-ray emission. Both ESA's Solar Orbiter and NASA's Solar Probe Plus missions will be in heliocentric orbits with perihelia of 0.28 au and 0.05 au respectively. This poster indicates the unique scientific advantages of hard x-ray imaging/spectroscopy observations from such platforms. These advantages stem from three factors: First, in combination with other payload elements, the hard x-rays provide the ability to observationally link accelerated electrons at the Sun to radio observations of the propagating electrons and to direct observations of in situ electrons. Second, the substantial gain in sensitivity afforded by close-in vantage points enables exploration of the origin of non-flare associated SEP events to be studied and the character of quiescent active-region heating and electron acceleration to be evaluated. Third, the different observational perspectives provided by the heliocentric orbits compared to low-Earth orbits enable improved separation of coronal and footpoint sources as well as measurements of the isotropy of the x-ray emission. Despite the limited payload resources (mass, power, telemetry) afforded by such missions, scientifically effective hard x-ray imaging spectroscopy from 5 keV to 150 keV is still feasible. The Spectrometer/Telescope for Imaging X-rays (STIX), accepted as part of the Solar Orbiter payload, combines high spectral resolution ( 1 keV FWHM at 10 keV) with spatial resolution as good as 1500 km, and can efficiently encode the data for several hundred optimized images per hour within a modest telemetry allocation and 4 kg / 4 watt budget. The X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (XIS) proposed for Solar Probe Plus, views the Sun through its thermal shield. It also features high spectral resolution from 6 to 150 keV and spatial resolution of 1500 km at perihelion. The poster describes the imaging principles and current configurations

  18. The spatial distribution of X-ray selected AGN in the Chandra deep fields: a theoretical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Marulli, Federico; Bonoli, Silvia; Branchini, Enzo; Gilli, Roberto; Moscardini, Lauro; Springel, Volker

    2009-01-01

    We study the spatial distribution of X-ray selected AGN in the framework of hierarchical co-evolution of supermassive black holes and their host galaxies and dark matter haloes. To this end, we have applied the model developed by Croton et al.(2006), De Lucia & Blaizot(2007) and Marulli et al.(2008) to the output of the Millennium Run and obtained hundreds of realizations of past light-cones from which we have extracted realistic mock AGN catalogues that mimic the Chandra deep fields. We find...

  19. Innovations in the Analysis of Chandra-ACIS Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Broos, Patrick S; Feigelson, Eric D; Getman, Konstantin V; Bauer, Franz E; Garmire, Gordon P

    2010-01-01

    As members of the instrument team for the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) on NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and as Chandra General Observers, we have developed a wide variety of data analysis methods that we believe are useful to the Chandra community, and have constructed a significant body of publicly-available software (the ACIS Extract package) addressing important ACIS data and science analysis tasks. This paper seeks to describe these data analysis methods for two purposes: to document the data analysis work performed in our own science projects, and to help other ACIS observers judge whether these methods may be useful in their own projects (regardless of what tools and procedures they choose to implement those methods). The ACIS data analysis recommendations we offer here address much of the workflow in a typical ACIS project, including data preparation, point source detection via both wavelet decomposition and image reconstruction, masking point sources, identification of diffuse structure...

  20. Chandra LETG Observations of Supernova Remnant 1987A

    CERN Document Server

    Zhekov, S A; Burrows, D N; McCray, R; Park, S; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Burrows, David N.; Cray, Richard Mc; Park, Sangwook; Zhekov, Svetozar A.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the results from deep Chandra LETG observations of the supernova remnant 1987A (SNR 1987A). We find that a distribution of shocks, spanning the same range of velocities (from 300 to 1700 km/s) as deduced in the first part of our analysis (Zhekov et al. 2005, ApJL, 628, L127), can account for the entire X-ray spectrum of this object. The post-shock temperature distribution is bimodal, peaking at kT 0.5 and 3 keV. Abundances inferred from the X-ray spectrum have values similar to those for the inner circumstellar ring, except that the abundances of nitrogen and oxygen are approximately a factor of two lower than those inferred from the optical/UV spectrum. The velocity of the X-ray emitting plasma has decreased since 1999, apparently because the blast wave has entered the main body of the inner circumstellar ring.

  1. Symbiotic Stars in X-rays. II. Faint Sources Detected with XMM-Newton and Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, N. E.; Luna, G. J. M.; Pillitteri, I.; Mukai, K.

    2014-01-01

    We report the detection from four symbiotic stars that were not known to be X-ray sources. These four object show a ß-type X-ray spectrum, that is, their spectra can be modeled with an absorbed optically thin thermal emission with temperatures of a few million degrees. Photometric series obtained with the Optical Monitor on board XMM-Newton from V2416 Sgr and NSV 25735 support the proposed scenario where the X-ray emission is produced in a shock-heated region inside the symbiotic nebulae.

  2. Simultaneous Ultraviolet and X-ray Observations of the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 4151. I. Physical Conditions in the X-ray Absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Krämer, S B; Crenshaw, D M; Gabel, J R; Turner, T J; Gull, T R; Hutchings, J B; Kriss, G A; Mushotzky, R F; Netzer, H; Peterson, B M; Behar, E; Behar, Ehud

    2005-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the intrinsic X-ray absorption in the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151 using Chandra/HETGS data obtained 2002 May, as part of a program which included simultaneous UV spectra using HST/STIS and FUSE. NGC 4151 was in a relatively low flux state during the observations reported here, although roughly 2.5 times as bright in the 2 --10 keV band as during a Chandra observation in 2000. The soft X-ray band was dominated by emission lines, which show no discernible variation in flux between the two observations. The 2002 data show the presence of a very highly ionized absorber, in the form of H-like and He-like Mg, Si, and S lines, as well as lower ionization gas via the presence of inner-shell absorption lines from lower-ionization species of these elements. The former is too highly ionized to be radiatively accelerated in a sub-Eddington source such as NGC 4151. We find that the lower ionization gas had a column density a factor of ~ 3 higher during the 2000 observation. If due to bulk m...

  3. The Secret XUV Lives of Cepheids: FUV/X-ray Observations of Polaris and beta Dor

    CERN Document Server

    Engle, Scott G; DePasquale, Joseph; Evans, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    We report on the surprising recent discovery of strong FUV emissions in two bright, nearby Classical Cepheids from analyses of FUSE archival observations and one of our own approved observations just prior to the failure of the satellite. Polaris and beta Dor are currently the only two Cepheids to have been observed with FUSE, and beta Dor is the only one to have multiple spectra. Both Cepheids show strong C III (977A, 1176A) and O VI (1032A, 1038A) emissions, indicative of 50,000-500,000 K plasma, well above the photospheric temperatures of the stars. More remarkably, beta Dor displays variability in the FUV emission strengths which appears to be correlated to its 9.84-d pulsation period. This phenomenon has never before been observed in Cepheids. The FUV studies are presented along with our recent Chandra/XMM X-ray observations of Polaris and beta Dor, in which X-ray detections were found for both stars (as well as for the prototype Classical Cepheid, delta Cep). Further X-ray observations have been propose...

  4. X Ray Detection of GJ 581 and simultaneous UV Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Vitale, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Context. GJ 581, an M3 dwarf, hosts a rich system of exo-planets, some of which are potentially within or at the edge of the Habitable Zone. Nevertheless the system habitability might be reduced by large and sterilizing high energy emission flares, if these are frequent. Aims. The GJ 581 radiation environment was studied with simultaneous X-ray and UV observations, performed with the XRT and UVOT instruments, respectively, on board of the SWIFT satellite. Methods. X-ray and UV data were analysed with the distributed standard tools. Results. GJ 581 was detected for the first time in the 0.2-10 keV range, with an intensity of (8+-2)x10^{-4} cts/s and a signal-to-noise ratio of 3.6. If black-body or APEC spectra are assumed then the source X-ray flux is found to be between 1.8 and 3.3x10^{-14}erg cm^{-2}s^{-1} and log10(L_{X}) between 25.914 and 26.176. Despite hints of X-ray variability, better statistics will be needed to establish robust evidence for that. The UV measurements, obtained during 13 pointings, ar...

  5. Simultaneous Chandra and VLA Observations of Young Stars and Protostars in rho Ophiuchus Cloud Core A

    OpenAIRE

    Gagne, Marc; Skinner, Stephen L.; Daniel, Kathryne J.

    2004-01-01

    A 96-ks Chandra X-ray observation of rho Ophiuchus cloud core A detected 87 sources, of which 60 were identified with counterparts at other wavelengths. The X-ray detections include 12 of 14 known classical T Tauri stars in the field, 15 of 17 known weak-lined TTS, and 4 of 15 brown dwarf candidates. The X-ray detections are characterized by hard, heavily absorbed emission. The mean photon energy of a typical source is 3 keV, and more than half of the detections are variable. Prominent X-ray ...

  6. X-Ray Observations of VY Scl-Type Nova-Like Binaries in the High and Low State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemko, P.; Orio, M.; Mukai, K.; Shugarov, S.

    2014-01-01

    Four VY Scl-type nova-like systems were observed in X-rays during both the low- and the high-optical states. We examined Chandra, ROSAT, Swift and Suzaku archival observations of BZ Cam, MV Lyr, TT Ari and V794 Aql. The X-ray flux of BZ Cam is higher during the low state, but there is no supersoft X-ray source (SSS) as hypothesized in previous articles. No SSS was detected in the low state of the any of the other systems, with the X-ray flux decreasing by a factor between 2 and 50. The best fit to the Swift X-ray spectra is obtained with a multicomponent model of plasma in collisional ionization equilibrium. The high-state high-resolution spectra of TT Ari taken with Chandra Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS-S) and the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) shows a rich emission line spectrum, with prominent lines of Mg, Si, Ne and S. The complexity of this spectrum seems to have origin in more than one region, or more than one single physical mechanism. While several emission lines are consistent with a cooling flow in an accretion stream, there is at least an additional component. We discuss the origin of this component, which is probably arising in a wind from the system. We also examine the possibility that the VY Scl systems may be intermediate polars, and that while the boundary layer of the accretion disc emits only in the extreme ultraviolet, part of the X-ray flux may be due to magnetically driven accretion.

  7. Observing Solvation Dynamics with Simultaneous Femtosecond X-ray Emission Spectroscopy and X-ray Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Kristoffer; Gawelda, Wojciech; Abela, Rafael;

    2016-01-01

    rearrangement of the solute with X-ray emission spectroscopy, thus establishing time zero for the ensuing X-ray diffuse scattering analysis. The simultaneously recorded X-ray diffuse scattering atterns reveal slower subpicosecond dynamics triggered by the intramolecular structural dynamics of the photoexcited......, confirming previous ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Structural changes in the aqueous solvent associated with density and temperature changes occur with similar to 1 ps time constants, characteristic for structural dynamics in water. This slower time scale of the solvent response allows us...

  8. Thin fused silica optics for a high angular resolution and large collecting area X Ray telescope after Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareschi, Giovanni; Citterio, Oberto; Civitani, Marta M; Basso, Stefano; Campana, Sergio; Conconi, Paolo; Ghigo, Mauro; Mattaini, Enrico; Moretti, Alberto; Parodi, Giancarlo; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero

    2014-08-01

    The implementation of an X-ray mission with high imaging capabilities, similar to those achieved with Chandra (SMART-X project, led by CfA together with other US institutes. This project is based on adjustable segments of thin foil mirrors with piezo-electric actuators, aiming to achieve an effective area >2 m2 at 1 keV and an angular resolution better than 1 arcsec HEW. Another attractive technology to realize an X-ray telescope with similar characteristics is being developed at NASA/Goddard. In this case the mirrors are based on Si substrates that are super-polished and figured starting from a bulky Si ingot, from which they are properly cut. Here we propose an alternative method based on precise direct grinding, figuring and polishing of thin (a few mm) glass shells with innovative deterministic polishing methods. This is followed by a final correction via ion figuring to obtain the desired accuracy. For this purpose, a temporary stiffening structure is used to support the shell from the polishing operations up to its integration in the telescope supporting structure. This paper deals with the technological process under development, the results achieved so far and some mission scenarios based on this kind of optics, aiming to achieve an effective area more than 10 times larger than Chandra and an angular resolution of 1 arcsec HEW on axis and of a few arcsec off-axis across a large field of view (1o in diameter).

  9. The discovery of lensed radio and X-ray sources behind the Frontier Fields cluster MACS J0717.5+3745 with the JVLA and Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    van Weeren, R J; Jones, C; Forman, W R; Andrade-Santos, F; Bonafede, A; Brüggen, M; Bulbul, E; Clarke, T E; Churazov, E; David, L; Dawson, W A; Donahue, M; Goulding, A; Kraft, R P; Mason, B; Merten, J; Mroczkowski, T; Murray, S S; Nulsen, P E J; Rosati, P; Roediger, E; Randall, S W; Sayers, J; Umetsu, K; Vikhlinin, A; Zitrin, A

    2015-01-01

    We report on high-resolution JVLA and Chandra observations of the HST Frontier Cluster MACS J0717.5+3745. MACS J0717.5+3745 offers the largest contiguous magnified area of any known cluster, making it a promising target to search for lensed radio and X-ray sources. With the high-resolution 1.0-6.5 GHz JVLA imaging in A and B configuration, we detect a total of 51 compact radio sources within the area covered by the HST imaging. Within this sample we find 7 lensed sources with amplification factors larger than $2$. None of these sources are identified as multiply-lensed. Based on the radio luminosities, the majority of these sources are likely star forming galaxies with star formation rates of 10-50 M$_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$ located at $1 \\lesssim z \\lesssim 2$. Two of the lensed radio sources are also detected in the Chandra image of the cluster. These two sources are likely AGN, given their $2-10$ keV X-ray luminosities of $\\sim 10^{43-44}$ erg s$^{-1}$. From the derived radio luminosity function, we find evidence...

  10. The High Resolution X-ray Spectrum of SS 433 using the Chandra HETGS

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, H L; Schulz, N S; Marshall, Herman L.; Canizares, Claude R.; Schulz, Norbert S.

    2001-01-01

    We present observations of SS 433 using the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer. Many emission lines of highly ionized elements are detected with the relativistic blue and red Doppler shifts. The lines are measurably broadened to 1700 km/s (FWHM) and the widths do not depend significantly on the characteristic emission temperature, suggesting that the emission occurs in a freely expanding region of constant collimation with opening angle of 1.23 +/- 0.06 deg. The blue shifts of lines from low temperature gas are the same as those of high temperature gas within our uncertainties, again indicating that the hottest gas we observe to emit emission lines is already at terminal velocity. Fits to the emission line fluxes give a range of temperatures in the jet from 5e6 to 1e8 K. We derive the emission measure as a function of temperature for a four component model that fits the line flux data. Using the density sensitive Si XIII triplet, the characteristic electron density is 1e14 cm^{-3}, where th...

  11. Deducing Electron Properties From Hard X-Ray Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Kontar, E P; Emslie, A G; Hajdas, W; Holman, G D; Hurford, G J; Kasparova, J; Mallik, P C V; Massone, A M; McConnell, M L; Piana, M; Prato, M; Schmahl, E J; Suarez-Garcia, E

    2011-01-01

    X-radiation from energetic electrons is the prime diagnostic of flare-accelerated electrons. The observed X-ray flux (and polarization state) is fundamentally a convolution of the cross-section for the hard X-ray emission process(es) in question with the electron distribution function, which is in turn a function of energy, direction, spatial location and time. To address the problems of particle propagation and acceleration one needs to infer as much information as possible on this electron distribution function, through a deconvolution of this fundamental relationship. This review presents recent progress toward this goal using spectroscopic, imaging and polarization measurements, primarily from the \\textit{Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager} ({\\em RHESSI}). Previous conclusions regarding the energy, angular (pitch angle) and spatial distributions of energetic electrons in solar flares are critically reviewed. We discuss the role and the observational evidence of several radiation processe...

  12. A Chandra Observation of Abell 13: Investigating the Origin of the Radio Relic

    CERN Document Server

    Juett, Adrienne M; Clarke, Tracy E; Andernach, Heinz; Ehle, Matthias; Fujita, Yutaka; Kempner, Joshua C; Roy, Alan L; Rudnick, Lawrence; Slee, O Bruce

    2007-01-01

    We present results from the Chandra X-ray observation of Abell 13, a galaxy cluster that contains an unusual noncentral radio source, also known as a radio relic. This is the first pointed X-ray observation of Abell 13, providing a more sensitive study of the properties of the X-ray gas. The X-ray emission from Abell 13 is extended to the northwest of the X-ray peak and shows substructure indicative of a recent merger event. The cluster X-ray emission is centered on the bright galaxy H of Slee et al. 2001. We find no evidence for a cooling flow in the cluster. A knot of excess X-ray emission is coincident with the other bright elliptical galaxy F. This knot of emission has properties similar to the enhanced emission associated with the large galaxies in the Coma cluster. With these Chandra data we are able to compare the properties of the hot X-ray gas with those of the radio relic from VLA data, to study the interaction of the X-ray gas with the radio emitting electrons. Our results suggest that the radio re...

  13. THE CHANDRA SURVEY OF THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD 'BAR'. II. OPTICAL COUNTERPARTS OF X-RAY SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the most likely optical counterparts of 113 X-ray sources detected in our Chandra survey of the central region of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) based on the OGLE-II and Magellanic Clouds Photometric Survey catalogs. We estimate that the foreground contamination and chance coincidence probability are minimal for the bright optical counterparts (corresponding to OB type stars; 35 in total). We propose here for the first time 13 high-mass X-ray binaries, of which four are Be/X-ray binaries (Be-XRBs), and we confirm the previous classification of 18 Be-XRBs. We estimate that the new candidate Be-XRBs have an age of ∼15-85 Myr, consistent with the age of Be stars. We also examine the 'overabundance' of Be-XRBs in the SMC fields covered by Chandra, in comparison with the Galaxy. In luminosities down to ∼1034 erg s-1, we find that SMC Be-XRBs are ∼1.5 times more common when compared to the Milky Way even after taking into account the difference in the formation rates of OB stars. This residual excess can be attributed to the lower metallicity of the SMC. Finally, we find that the mixing of Be-XRBs with other than their natal stellar population is not an issue in our comparisons of Be-XRBs and stellar populations in the SMC. Instead, we find indication for variation of the SMC XRB populations on kiloparsec scales, related to local variations of the formation rate of OB stars and slight variation of their age, which results in different relative numbers of Be stars and therefore XRBs.

  14. Galaxy Cluster Scaling Relations between Bolocam Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect and Chandra X-ray Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Czakon, N G; Mantz, A; Golwala, S R; Downes, T P; Koch, P M; Lin, K -Y; Molnar, S M; Moustakas, L A; Mroczkowski, T; Pierpaoli, E; Shitanishi, J A; Siegel, S; Umetsu, K

    2014-01-01

    We present scaling relations between the integrated Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect (SZE) signal, $Y_{\\rm SZ}$, its X-ray analogue, $Y_{\\rm X}$$\\equiv$$M_{\\rm gas}$$T_{\\rm X}$, and total mass, $M_{\\rm tot}$, for the 45 galaxy clusters in the Bolocam X-ray-SZ (BOXSZ) sample. All parameters are integrated within $r_{2500}$. $Y_{2500}$ values are measured using SZE data collected with Bolocam, operating at 140 GHz at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). The temperature, $T_{\\rm X}$, and mass, $M_{\\rm gas,2500}$, of the intracluster medium are determined using X-ray data collected with \\emph{Chandra}, and $M_{\\rm tot}$ is derived from $M_{\\rm gas}$ using a constant gas mass fraction. Our analysis accounts for several potential sources of bias, including: selection effects, contamination from radio point sources, and the loss of SZE signal due to noise filtering and beam-smoothing effects. We measure the $Y_{2500}$-$Y_{\\rm X}$ scaling to have a logarithmic slope of $0.84\\pm0.07$, and a fractional intrinsic scatt...

  15. Optical observations of binary X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here I shall consider only those systems where the compact object is a neutron star (or in a few cases perhaps a black hole). Since van Paradijs (1982) has recently produced an excellent and comprehensive review of optical observations of compact galactic X-ray sources I shall summarise the basic properties of the optical counterparts and discuss a few representative systems in some detail. (orig./WL)

  16. Maxi observations of long X-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Serino, Motoko; Tamagawa, Toru; Sakamoto, Takanori; Nakahira, Satoshi; Matsuoka, Masaru; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Negoro, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    We report nine long X-ray bursts from neutron stars, detected with Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI). Some of these bursts lasted for hours, and hence are qualified as superbursts, which are prolonged thermonuclear flashes on neutron stars and are relatively rare events. MAXI observes roughly 85% of the whole sky every 92 minutes in the 2-20 keV energy band, and has detected nine bursts with a long e-folding decay time, ranging from 0.27 to 5.2 hours, since its launch in 2009 August until 2015 August. The majority of the nine events were found to originate from transient X-ray sources. The persistent luminosities of the sources, when these prolonged bursts were observed, were lower than 1% of the Eddington luminosity for five of them and lower than 20% for the rest. This trend is contrastive to the 18 superbursts observed before MAXI, all but two of which originated from bright persistent sources. The distribution of the total emitted energy, i.e., the product of e-folding time and luminosity, of these bu...

  17. X-ray outflows of active galactic nuclei warm absorbers: A 900 ks Chandra simulated spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez-Velasquez, J. M.; Garcia, J.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the performance of the statistical, X-ray absorption lines identification procedure XLINE-ID. As illustration, it is used to estimate the time averaged gas density $n_H(r)$ of a representative AGN's warm absorber ($T\\approx 10^5$~K) X-ray simulated spectrum. The method relies on three key ingredients: (1) a well established emission continuum level; (2) a robust grid of photoionisation models spanning several orders of magnitude in gas density ($n_H$), plasma column density ($N_H...

  18. MOG Weak Field Approximation: A Modified Gravity Compatible with Chandra X-ray Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Moffat, J W

    2013-01-01

    We use the covariant Scalar-Vector-Tensor theory of gravity (so-called MOG), in the weak field approximation limit to study the dynamics of clusters of galaxies. The ionized gas density and the temperature profile of the clusters are our observables, which have been measured by the Chandra telescope for the nearby clusters. The MOG effective gravitational potential in the weak field approximation is composed of attractive Newtonian and repulsive Yukawa terms. Two parameters $\\alpha$ and $\\mu$ in the effective potential determine the asymptotic gravitational constant and the mass of the vector field, respectively. These parameters have been fixed by fitting MOG dynamics to the rotation curves of galaxies. Our analysis shows that the internal dynamics of clusters can be well explained within $1\\sigma$ with a virial theorem in the framework of MOG, such that the best fit for the ratio of the dynamical mass to the baryonic mass is: $M_{\\rm dyn}/M_{\\rm b} = 0.98^{+0.02}_{-0.02}$. This result means that MOG is a th...

  19. The X-ray Spectrum of the Rapid Burster using the Chandra HETGS

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, H L; Fox, D; Miller, J M; Guerriero, R; Morgan, E; Van der Klis, M; Bildsten, L; Dotani, T; Lewin, W H G

    2001-01-01

    We present observations of the Rapid Burster (RB, also known as MXB 1730-335) using the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer. The average interval between type II (accretion) bursts was about 40 s. There was one type I (thermonuclear flash) burst and about 20 "mini-bursts" which are probably type II bursts whose peak flux is 10-40% of the average peak flux of the other type II bursts. The time averaged spectra of the type II bursts are well fit by a blackbody with a temperature of kT = 1.6 keV, a radius of 8.9 km for a distance of 8.6 kpc, and an interstellar column density of 1.7e22 per sq. cm. No narrow emission or absorption lines were clearly detected. The 3 sigma upper limits to the equivalent widths of any features are < 10 eV in the 1.1-7.0 keV band and as small as 1.5 eV near 1.7 keV. We suggest that Comptonization destroys absorption features such as the resonance line of Fe XXVI.

  20. The Puzzling Detection of X-rays From Pluto by Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Lisse, C M; Wolk, S J; Bagenal, F; Stern, S A; Gladstone, G R; Cravens, T E; Hill, M E; Kollmann, P; Weaver, H A; Strobel, D F; Elliott, H A; McComas, D J; Binzel, R P; Snios, B T; Bhardwaj, A; Chutjian, A; Young, L A; Olkin, C B; Ennico, K A

    2016-01-01

    Using Chandra ACIS-S, we have obtained imaging Xray spectrophotometry of the Pluto system in support of the New Horizons flyby on 14 July 2015. 174 ksec of observations were obtained on 4 visits in Feb 2014 to Aug 2015. We measured a net signal of 6.8 counts and a noise level of 1.2 counts in a comoving 11 x 11 pixel box (100 x 100 R_Pluto) in the 0.31 to 0.60 keV passband for a detection at > 99.95 C.L. The Pluto photons do not match the background spectrum, are coincident with a 90% flux aperture comoving with Pluto, and are not sky source confused. The mean 0.31 to 0.60 keV Xray power from Pluto is 200 MW, in the midrange of Xray power levels seen for known solar system emission sources: auroral precipitation, solar Xray scattering, and charge exchange (CXE) between solar wind (SW) ions & atmospheric neutrals. We eliminate auroral effects as a source, as Pluto has no known magnetic field & the New Horizons Alice UV spectrometer detected no airglow from Pluto during the flyby. Nano-scale atmospheric...

  1. Chandra Studies of the X-ray gas properties of fossil systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhen-Zhen

    2016-03-01

    We study ten galaxy groups and clusters suggested in the literature to be “fossil systems (FSs)” based on Chandra observations. According to the M500 - T and LX - T relations, the gas properties of FSs are not physically distinct from ordinary galaxy groups or clusters. We also first study the fgas, 2500 - T relation and find that the FSs exhibit the same trend as ordinary systems. The gas densities of FSs within 0.1r200 are ˜ 10-3 cm-3, which is the same order of magnitude as galaxy clusters. The entropies within 01r200 (S0.1r200) of FSs are systematically lower than those inordinary galaxy groups, which is consistent with previous reports, but we find their S0.1r200 - T relation is more similar to galaxy clusters. The derived mass profiles of FSs are consistent with the Navarro, Frenk and White model in (0.1 - 1)r200, and the relation between scale radius rs and characteristic mass density δc indicates self-similarity of dark matter halos of FSs. The ranges of rs and δc for FSs are also close to those of galaxy clusters. Therefore, FSs share more common characteristics with galaxy clusters. The special birth place of the FS makes it a distinct type of galaxy system.

  2. Chandra Studies of the X-ray Gas Properties of Fossil Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Zhenzhen

    2015-01-01

    We study ten galaxy groups and clusters suggested in the literature to be "fossil system (FS)" based on \\chandra\\ observations. According to the $M_{500}-T$ and $L_{\\rm X}-T$ relations, the gas properties of FSs are not physically distinct from ordinary galaxy groups or clusters. We also first study the $f_{\\rm gas,~2500}-T$ relation and find that the FS exhibits same as ordinary systems. The gas densities of FSs within $0.1r_{200}$, are $\\sim 10^{-3}$ cm$^{-3}$, which is the same order as galaxy clusters. The entropies within $0.1r_{200}$ ($S_{0.1r_{200}}$) of FSs are systematically lower than those in ordinary galaxy groups which is consistent with previous report, but we find their $S_{0.1r_{200}}-T$ relation is more similar to galaxy clusters. The derived mass profiles of FSs are consistent with the Navarro, Frenk, \\& White model in $(0.1-1)r_{200}$, and the relation between scale radius $r_{\\rm s}$ and characteristic mass density $ta_{\\rm c}$ indicates the self-similarity of dark matter halos of FSs....

  3. Probing the wind-wind collision in Gamma Velorum with high-resolution Chandra X-ray spectroscopy: evidence for sudden radiative braking and non-equilibrium ionization

    CERN Document Server

    Henley, D B; Pittard, J M

    2004-01-01

    We present a new analysis of an archived Chandra HETGS X-ray spectrum of the WR+O colliding wind binary Gamma Velorum. The spectrum is dominated by emission lines from astrophysically abundant elements: Ne, Mg, Si, S and Fe. From a combination of broad-band spectral analysis and an analysis of line flux ratios we infer a wide range of temperatures in the X-ray emitting plasma (~4-40 MK). As in the previously published analysis, we find the X-ray emission lines are essentially unshifted, with a mean FWHM of 1240 +/- 30 km/s. Calculations of line profiles based on hydrodynamical simulations of the wind-wind collision predict lines that are blueshifted by a few hundred km/s. The lack of any observed shift in the lines may be evidence of a large shock-cone opening half-angle (> 85 degrees), and we suggest this may be evidence of sudden radiative braking. From the R and G ratios measured from He-like forbidden-intercombination-resonance triplets we find evidence that the Mg XI emission originates from hotter gas c...

  4. Resolved Companions of Cepheids: Testing the Candidates with X-Ray Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Wolk, Scott; Karovska, Margarita; Tingle, Evan; Guinan, Edward; Engle, Scott; Bond, Howard E; Schaefer, Gail H; Mason, Brian D

    2016-01-01

    We have made {\\it XMM-Newton\\/} observations of 14 Galactic Cepheids that have candidate resolved ($\\geq$5$\\arcsec$) companion stars based on our earlier {\\it HST\\/} WFC3 imaging survey. Main-sequence stars that are young enough to be physical companions of Cepheids are expected to be strong X-ray producers in contrast to field stars. {\\it XMM-Newton\\/} exposures were set to detect essentially all companions hotter than spectral type M0 (corresponding to 0.5 $ M_\\odot$.) The large majority of our candidate companions were not detected in X-rays, and hence are not confirmed as young companions. One resolved candidate (S~Nor \\#4) was unambiguously detected, but the Cepheid is a member of a populous cluster. For this reason, it is likely that S~Nor \\#4 is a cluster member rather than a gravitationally bound companion. Two further Cepheids (S~Mus and R~Cru) have X-ray emission that might be produced by either the Cepheid or the candidate resolved companion. A subsequent {\\it Chandra} observation of S Mus shows th...

  5. Uhuru observations of the Norma X-ray burster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindlay, J.; Gursky, H.

    1976-01-01

    Four X-ray bursts consistent with a single source in Norma are reported which were discovered by reexamining Uhuru data obtained between 1970 and 1973. The temporal and spectral characteristics of the bursts are described and shown to be similar to those displayed by bursts from the globular cluster NGC 6224. An error box of the source location is given, and it is found that both the position and intensity of the four bursts are consistent with those of 10 bursts detected by the Vela satellites in 1976. It is concluded that the source is the same as that observed by the Vela and is an X-ray burster with characteristics similar to those of certain other bursters. XB 1608-52 is suggested as the designation of this burster, possible burst models are considered, and it is noted that the error box of the present source contains an identified globular cluster.

  6. Deducing Electron Properties from Hard X-ray Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, E. P.; Brown, J. C.; Emslie, A. G.; Hajdas, W.; Holman, G. D.; Hurford, G. J.; Kašparová, J.; Mallik, P. C. V.; Massone, A. M.; McConnell, M. L.; Piana, M.; Prato, M.; Schmahl, E. J.; Suarez-Garcia, E.

    2011-09-01

    X-radiation from energetic electrons is the prime diagnostic of flare-accelerated electrons. The observed X-ray flux (and polarization state) is fundamentally a convolution of the cross-section for the hard X-ray emission process(es) in question with the electron distribution function, which is in turn a function of energy, direction, spatial location and time. To address the problems of particle propagation and acceleration one needs to infer as much information as possible on this electron distribution function, through a deconvolution of this fundamental relationship. This review presents recent progress toward this goal using spectroscopic, imaging and polarization measurements, primarily from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager ( RHESSI). Previous conclusions regarding the energy, angular (pitch angle) and spatial distributions of energetic electrons in solar flares are critically reviewed. We discuss the role and the observational evidence of several radiation processes: free-free electron-ion, free-free electron-electron, free-bound electron-ion, photoelectric absorption and Compton backscatter (albedo), using both spectroscopic and imaging techniques. This unprecedented quality of data allows for the first time inference of the angular distributions of the X-ray-emitting electrons and improved model-independent inference of electron energy spectra and emission measures of thermal plasma. Moreover, imaging spectroscopy has revealed hitherto unknown details of solar flare morphology and detailed spectroscopy of coronal, footpoint and extended sources in flaring regions. Additional attempts to measure hard X-ray polarization were not sufficient to put constraints on the degree of anisotropy of electrons, but point to the importance of obtaining good quality polarization data in the future.

  7. Low Frequency Radio Observations of X-ray Ghost Bubbles in Abell 2597: A History of Radio Activity in the Core

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, T E; Blanton, E L; Neumann, D M; Kassim, N E

    2005-01-01

    A previous analysis of the Chandra X-ray image of the center of the cooling core cluster Abell 2597 showed two ``ghost holes'' in the X-ray emission to the west and northeast of the central radio galaxy PKS 2322-123. Previous radio observations did not detect any radio emission coming from the interior of the X-ray holes. We present new low frequency radio observations of Abell 2597. At 330 MHz, radio emission extends into the interior of the western ghost bubble, but not the northeast one. Our re-analysis of the archival Chandra data shows evidence for an X-ray tunnel (elongated region of reduced X-ray emission) extending from near the center of the cD out to the west ghost bubble. We also detect a smaller X-ray hole to the northeast of the center of the cD and closer than the outer ghost bubbles. Radio observations at 1.3 GHz show extensions to the west along the X-ray tunnel toward the west ghost bubble, to the northeast into the new X-ray hole, and to the northwest. All of these structures are much larger...

  8. Synoptic IPS and Yohkoh soft X-ray observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hick, P.; Jackson, B. V.; Rappoport, S.; Woan, G.; Slater, G.; Strong, K.; Uchida, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Interplanetary scintillation measurements of the disturbance factor, g, from October 1991 to October 1992 are used to construct synoptic Carrington maps. These maps, which show the structure of the quiet solar wind, are compared with X-ray Carrington maps from the Yohkoh Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) instrument. For the period studied the global structure outlined by (weakly) enhanced g-values apparent in the interplanetary scintillation (IPS) maps tend to match the active regions (as shown in the X-ray maps) significantly better than the heliospheric current sheet. Contrary to traditional opinion, which views active regions as magnetically closed structures that do not have any significant impact on the solar wind flow, our results suggest that density fluctuations in the solar wind are significantly enhanced over active regions. These results support the suggestion by Uchida et al. (1992), based on Yohkoh observations of expanding active regions, that active regions play a role in feeding mass into the quiet solar wind.

  9. An Observational Diagnostic for Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Kalogera, V; Ivanova, N; King, A R

    2004-01-01

    We consider observational tests for the nature of Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). These must distinguish between thermal-timescale mass transfer on to stellar-mass black holes leading to anisotropic X-ray emission, and accretion on to intermediate-mass black holes. We suggest that long-term transient behavior via the thermal-viscous disk instability could discriminate between these two possibilities for ULXs in regions of young stellar populations. Thermal-timescale mass transfer generally produces stable disks and persistent X-ray emission. In contrast, mass transfer from massive stars to black holes produces unstable disks and thus transient behavior, provided that the black hole mass exceeds some minimum value. This minimum mass depends primarily on the donor mass and evolutionary state. We show that it exceeds 50 solar masses for a large fraction (greater than 90%) of the mass-transfer lifetime for the most likely donors in young clusters. Thus if long-term monitoring reveals a large transient fractio...

  10. Decoding X-ray observations from centres of galaxy clusters using MCMC

    CERN Document Server

    Lakhchaura, Kiran; Sharma, Prateek

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally the thermodynamic profiles (gas density, temperature, etc.) of galaxy clusters are obtained by assuming spherical symmetry and modeling projected X-ray spectra in each annulus. The outer annuli contribute to the inner ones and their contribution needs to be subtracted to obtain the temperature and density of spherical shells. The usual deprojection methods lead to propagation of errors from outside to in and do not model the covariance of parameters in different radial shells. In this paper we describe a method based on a free-form model of clusters with cluster parameters (density, temperature) given in spherical shells, which we {\\it jointly} forward fit to the X-ray data by constructing a Bayesian posterior probability distribution that we sample using the MCMC technique. By systematically marginalising over the nuisance outer shells, we estimate the inner entropy profiles of clusters and fit them to various models for a sample of Chandra X-ray observations of 17 clusters. We show that the en...

  11. The Variable Hard X-Ray Emission of NGC4945 as Observed by NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccetti, Simonetta; Comastri, Andrea; Fiore, Fabrizio; Arevalo, Patricia; Risaliti, Guido; Bauer, Franz E.; Brandt, William N.; Stern, Daniel; Harrison, Fiona A.; Alexander, David M.; Boggs, Steve E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Gandhi, Poshak; Hailey, Charles J.; Koss, Michael R.; Lansbury, George B.; Luo, Bin; Madejski, Greg M.; Matt, Giorgio; Walton, Dominic J.; Zhang, Will

    2014-01-01

    We present a broadband (approx. 0.5 - 79 keV) spectral and temporal analysis of multiple NuSTAR observations combined with archival Suzaku and Chandra data of NGC4945, the brightest extragalactic source at 100 keV. We observe hard X-ray (> 10 keV) flux and spectral variability, with flux variations of a factor 2 on timescales of 20 ksec. A variable primary continuum dominates the high energy spectrum (> 10 keV) in all the states, while the reflected/scattered flux which dominates at E< 10 keV stays approximately constant. From modelling the complex reflection/transmission spectrum we derive a Compton depth along the line of sight of Thomson approx.2.9, and a global covering factor for the circumnuclear gas of approx. 0.15. This agrees with the constraints derived from the high energy variability, which implies that most of the high energy flux is transmitted, rather that Compton-scattered. This demonstrates the effectiveness of spectral analysis in constraining the geometric properties of the circumnuclear gas, and validates similar methods used for analyzing the spectra of other bright, Compton-thick AGN. The lower limits on the e-folding energy are between 200 - 300 keV, consistent with previous BeppoSAX, Suzaku and Swift BAT observations. The accretion rate, estimated from the X-ray luminosity and assuming a bolometric correction typical of type 2 AGN, is in the range approx. 0.1 - 0.3 lambda(sub Edd) depending on the flux state. The substantial observed X-ray luminosity variability of NGC4945 implies that large errors can arise from using single-epoch X-ray data to derive L/L(sub Edd) values for obscured AGNs.

  12. The variable hard X-ray emission of NGC 4945 as observed by NuSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puccetti, Simonetta [ASDC-ASI, Via del Politecnico, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Comastri, Andrea [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Fiore, Fabrizio [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (RM) (Italy); Arévalo, Patricia; Bauer, Franz E. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Risaliti, Guido [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Brandt, William N.; Luo, Bin [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Harrison, Fiona A. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Alexander, David M.; Gandhi, Poshak; Lansbury, George B. [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Boggs, Steve E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Koss, Michael J. [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Madejski, Greg M. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Matt, Giorgio [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Universit' a Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); and others

    2014-09-20

    We present a broadband (∼0.5-79 keV) spectral and temporal analysis of multiple NuSTAR observations combined with archival Suzaku and Chandra data of NGC 4945, the brightest extragalactic source at 100 keV. We observe hard X-ray (>10 keV) flux and spectral variability, with flux variations of a factor of two on timescales of 20 ks. A variable primary continuum dominates the high-energy spectrum (>10 keV) in all states, while the reflected/scattered flux that dominates at E <10 keV stays approximately constant. From modeling the complex reflection/transmission spectrum, we derive a Compton depth along the line of sight of τ{sub Thomson} ∼ 2.9, and a global covering factor for the circumnuclear gas of ∼0.15. This agrees with the constraints derived from the high-energy variability, which implies that most of the high-energy flux is transmitted rather than Compton-scattered. This demonstrates the effectiveness of spectral analysis at constraining the geometric properties of the circumnuclear gas, and validates similar methods used for analyzing the spectra of other bright, Compton-thick active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The lower limits on the e-folding energy are between 200 and 300 keV, consistent with previous BeppoSAX, Suzaku, and Swift Burst Alert Telescope observations. The accretion rate, estimated from the X-ray luminosity and assuming a bolometric correction typical of type 2 AGN, is in the range ∼0.1-0.3 λ{sub Edd} depending on the flux state. The substantial observed X-ray luminosity variability of NGC 4945 implies that large errors can arise from using single-epoch X-ray data to derive L/L {sub Edd} values for obscured AGNs.

  13. Optical/infrared observations unveiling the formation, nature and evolution of High-Mass X-ray Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Chaty, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    In this review I first describe the nature of the three kinds of High-Mass X-ray Binaries (HMXBs), accreting through: (i) Be circumstellar disc, (ii) supergiant stellar wind, and (iii) Roche lobe filling supergiants. I then report on the discovery of two new populations of HMXBs hosting supergiant stars, recently revealed by a wealth of new observations, coming from the high energy side (INTEGRAL, Swift, XMM, Chandra satellites), and complemented by multi-wavelength optical/infrared observations (mainly ESO facilities). The first population is constituted of obscured supergiant HMXBs, the second one of supergiant fast X-ray transients (SFXTs), exhibiting short and intense X-ray flares. I finally discuss the formation and evolution of HMXBs, constrain the accretion models (e.g. clumpy winds, transitory accretion disc, magneto-centrifugal barrier), show evidences suggesting the existence of an evolutionary link, include comparisons with population synthesis models, and finally build a consistent scenario explai...

  14. X-ray bursts observed with JEM-X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren Kristian; Chenevez, Jérôme; Lund, Niels;

    2006-01-01

    We report on the search for X-ray bursts in the JEM-X X-ray monitor on INTEGRAL during the first two years of operations. More than 350 bursts from 25 different type-I X-ray burst sources were found.......We report on the search for X-ray bursts in the JEM-X X-ray monitor on INTEGRAL during the first two years of operations. More than 350 bursts from 25 different type-I X-ray burst sources were found....

  15. X-ray observations of eight young open star clusters : I. Membership and X-ray Luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatt, Himali; Singh, K P; Sagar, Ram; Kumar, Brijesh

    2013-01-01

    We present a detailed investigation of X-ray source contents of eight young open clusters with ages between 4 to 46 Myr using archival X-ray data from XMM-Newton. The probable cluster memberships of the X-ray sources have been established on the basis of multi-wavelength archival data, and samples of 152 pre-main sequence (PMS) low mass ( 10 M_\\odot) stars have been generated. X-ray spectral analyses of high mass stars reveal the presence of high temperature plasma with temperature <2 keV, and mean L_X/L_{bol} of 10^{-6.9}. In the case of PMS low mass stars, the plasma temperatures have been found to be in the range of 0.2 keV to 3 keV with a median value of ~1.3 keV, with no significant difference in plasma temperatures during their evolution from 4 to 46 Myr. The X-ray luminosity distributions of the PMS low mass stars have been found to be similar in the young star clusters under study. This may suggest a nearly uniform X-ray activity in the PMS low mass stars of ages ~4--14 Myr. These observed values o...

  16. Probing the wind-wind collision in Gamma Velorum with high-resolution Chandra X-ray spectroscopy: evidence for sudden radiative braking and non-equilibrium ionization

    OpenAIRE

    Henley, D. B.; Stevens, I. R.; Pittard, J. M.

    2004-01-01

    We present a new analysis of an archived Chandra HETGS X-ray spectrum of the WR+O colliding wind binary Gamma Velorum. The spectrum is dominated by emission lines from astrophysically abundant elements: Ne, Mg, Si, S and Fe. From a combination of broad-band spectral analysis and an analysis of line flux ratios we infer a wide range of temperatures in the X-ray emitting plasma (~4-40 MK). As in the previously published analysis, we find the X-ray emission lines are essentially unshifted, with ...

  17. X-ray Observations of Eight Young Open Star Clusters: I. Membership and X-ray Luminosity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Himali Bhatt; J. C. Pandey; K. P. Singh; Ram Sagar; Brijesh Kumar

    2013-12-01

    We present a detailed investigation of X-ray source contents of eight young open clusters with ages between 4 to 46 Myr using archival X-ray data from XMM-NEWTON. The probable cluster memberships of the X-ray sources have been established on the basis of multi-wavelength archival data, and samples of 152 pre-main sequence (PMS) low mass (< 2⊙), 36 intermediate mass (2-10⊙) and 16 massive (> 10⊙) stars have been generated. X-ray spectral analyses of high mass stars reveal the presence of high temperature plasma with temperature < 2 keV, and mean /bol of 10-6.9. In the case of PMS low mass stars, the plasma temperatures have been found to be in the range of 0.2 keV to 3 keV with a median value of ∼ 1.3 keV, with no significant difference in plasma temperatures during their evolution from 4 to 46 Myr. The X-ray luminosity distributions of the PMS low mass stars have been found to be similar in the young star clusters under study. This may suggest a nearly uniform X-ray activity in the PMS low mass stars of ages ∼ 4–14 Myr. These observed values of /bol are found to have a mean value of 10-3.6 ± 0.4, which is below the X-ray saturation level. The /bol values for the PMS low mass stars are well correlated with their bolometric luminosities, that implies its dependence on the internal structure of the low mass stars. The difference between the X-ray luminosity distributions of the intermediate mass stars and the PMS low mass stars has not been found to be statistically significant. Their /bol values, however have been found to be significantly different from each other with a confidence level greater than 99.999% and the strength of X-ray activity in the intermediate mass stars is found to be lower compared to the low mass stars. However, the possibility of X-ray emission from the intermediate mass stars due to a low mass star in close proximity of the intermediate mass star can not be ruled out.

  18. Observational Aspects of Hard X-ray Polarimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Chattopadhyay, Tanmoy; Vadawale, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    Sensitive polarization measurements in X-ray may address a wealth of astrophysical phenomena, which so far remain beyond our understanding through available X-ray spectroscopic, imaging, and timing studies. Though scientific potential of X-ray polarimetry was realized long ago, there has not been any significant advancement in this field for the last four decades since the birth of X-ray astronomy. The only successful polarization measurement in X-rays dates ...

  19. Near-Infrared and X-ray Observations of the Enigmatic G70.7+1.2

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, P B

    2007-01-01

    We present high resolution imaging of the puzzling radio and optical nebula G70.7+1.2 with the Keck Observatory's laser guide star adaptive optics (LGS-AO) system and the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The archival X-ray observations show a hard (Gamma ~ 1.8), low luminosity (L_X ~ 4 x 10^31 ergs/s) point source at the center of the nebula. Follow-up LGS-AO near-infrared imaging of the Chandra error circle reveals a relatively bright (K' ~ 14 magnitude) counterpart. Both its color and brightness are consistent with a heavily obscured B-star or possibly a late-G/early-K giant. The most plausible explanation is that this newly discovered X-ray source is a non-accreting B-star/pulsar binary powering the radio and optical nebula. If so, the luminous Be-star discussed in the literature seemingly embedded in the nebula is not the dominant force responsible for shaping G70.7+1.2. Thus, we suggest that G70.7+1.2 is the result of two unrelated objects (a B-star X-ray binary and a Be star) interacting with a dense molecula...

  20. Chandra X-ray spectroscopy of the focused wind in the Cygnus X-1 system I. The non-dip spectrum in the low/hard state

    CERN Document Server

    Hanke, Manfred; Nowak, Michael A; Pottschmidt, Katja; Schulz, Norbert S; Lee, Julia C

    2008-01-01

    We present analyses of a 50 ks observation of the supergiant X-ray binary system Cygnus X-1/HDE 226868 taken with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS). Cyg X-1 was in its spectrally hard state and the observation was performed during superior conjunction of the black hole, allowing for the spectroscopic analysis of the accreted stellar wind along the line of sight. A significant part of the observation covers X-ray dips as commonly observed for Cyg X-1 at this orbital phase, however, here we only analyze the high count rate non-dip spectrum. The full 0.5-10 keV continuum can be described by a single model consisting of a disk, a narrow and a relativistically broadened Fe Kalpha line, and a power law component, which is consistent with simultaneous RXTE broad band data. We detect absorption edges from overabundant neutral O, Ne and Fe, and absorption line series from highly ionized ions and infer column densities and Doppler shifts. With emission lines of He-like Mg XI, we detect t...

  1. INNOVATIONS IN THE ANALYSIS OF CHANDRA-ACIS OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As members of the instrument team for the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) on NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and as Chandra General Observers, we have developed a wide variety of data analysis methods that we believe are useful to the Chandra community, and have constructed a significant body of publicly available software (the ACIS Extract package) addressing important ACIS data and science analysis tasks. This paper seeks to describe these data analysis methods for two purposes: to document the data analysis work performed in our own science projects and to help other ACIS observers judge whether these methods may be useful in their own projects (regardless of what tools and procedures they choose to implement those methods). The ACIS data analysis recommendations we offer here address much of the workflow in a typical ACIS project, including data preparation, point source detection via both wavelet decomposition and image reconstruction, masking point sources, identification of diffuse structures, event extraction for both point and diffuse sources, merging extractions from multiple observations, nonparametric broadband photometry, analysis of low-count spectra, and automation of these tasks. Many of the innovations presented here arise from several, often interwoven, complications that are found in many Chandra projects: large numbers of point sources (hundreds to several thousand), faint point sources, misaligned multiple observations of an astronomical field, point source crowding, and scientifically relevant diffuse emission.

  2. Chandra Observations of Neutron Stars -- An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Weisskopf, M. C.

    2002-01-01

    We present a brief review of Chandra observations of neutron stars, with a concentration on neutron stars in supernova remnants. The early Chandra results clearly demonstrate how critical the angular resolution has been in order to separate the neutron star emission from the surrounding nebulosity.

  3. The Discovery of Lensed Radio and X-Ray Sources behind the Frontier Fields Cluster MACS J0717.5+3745 with the JVLA and Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Weeren, R. J.; Ogrean, G. A.; Jones, C.; Forman, W. R.; Andrade-Santos, F.; Bonafede, A.; Brüggen, M.; Bulbul, E.; Clarke, T. E.; Churazov, E.; David, L.; Dawson, W. A.; Donahue, M.; Goulding, A.; Kraft, R. P.; Mason, B.; Merten, J.; Mroczkowski, T.; Murray, S. S.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Rosati, P.; Roediger, E.; Randall, S. W.; Sayers, J.; Umetsu, K.; Vikhlinin, A.; Zitrin, A.

    2016-02-01

    We report on high-resolution JVLA and Chandra observations of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Frontier Cluster MACS J0717.5+3745. MACS J0717.5+3745 offers the largest contiguous magnified area of any known cluster, making it a promising target to search for lensed radio and X-ray sources. With the high-resolution 1.0-6.5 GHz JVLA imaging in A and B configuration, we detect a total of 51 compact radio sources within the area covered by the HST imaging. Within this sample, we find seven lensed sources with amplification factors larger than two. None of these sources are identified as multiply lensed. Based on the radio luminosities, the majority of these sources are likely star-forming galaxies with star-formation rates (SFRs) of 10-50 {M}⊙ yr-1 located at 1≲ z≲ 2. Two of the lensed radio sources are also detected in the Chandra image of the cluster. These two sources are likely active galactic nuclei, given their 2-10 keV X-ray luminosities of ˜1043-44 erg s-1. From the derived radio luminosity function, we find evidence for an increase in the number density of radio sources at 0.6\\lt z\\lt 2.0, compared to a z\\lt 0.3 sample. Our observations indicate that deep radio imaging of lensing clusters can be used to study star-forming galaxies, with SFRs as low as ˜10 M⊙ yr-1, at the peak of cosmic star formation history.

  4. Observation constraints of the hard X-ray modulation telescope HXMT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The hard X-ray modulation telescope HXMT is a low orbit X-ray space telescope whose main science goals are to accomplish a hard X-ray all sky survey and to study timing and spectral characteristics of X-ray sources.HXMT has three kinds of science instruments:the high energy X-ray detector(HE),the medium energy X-ray detector(ME) and the low energy X-ray detector(LE).The observation schedule of HXMT is a key to achieving the science goal of HXMT,and the analysis of the observation constraints is one of the first tasks in making the observation schedule.This paper analyzes how the observation constraints influence the sky visibility and the visible time distribution of X-ray sources and discusses the schedule strategy with regard to the observation constraints.

  5. AMI observations of 10 CLASH galaxy clusters: SZ and X-ray data used together to determine cluster dynamical states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, Clare; Olamaie, Malak; Perrott, Yvette C.; Russell, Helen R.; Feroz, Farhan; Grainge, Keith J. B.; Handley, Will J.; Hobson, Michael P.; Saunders, Richard D. E.; Schammel, Michel P.

    2016-07-01

    Using Arcminute Microkelvin Imager (AMI) Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) observations towards 10 CLASH (Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble) clusters, we investigate the influence of cluster mergers on observational galaxy cluster studies. Although selected to be largely relaxed, there is disagreement in the literature on the dynamical states of CLASH sample members. We analyse our AMI data in a fully Bayesian way to produce estimated cluster parameters and consider the intrinsic correlations in our Navarro, Frenk and White/generalized Navarro, Frenk and White-based model. Varying pressure profile shape parameters, illustrating an influence of mergers on scaling relations, induces small deviations from the canonical self-similar predictions - in agreement with simulations of Poole et al. (2007) who found that merger activity causes only small scatter perpendicular to the relations. We demonstrate this effect observationally using the different dependences of SZ and X-ray signals to ne that cause different sensitivities to the shocking and/or fractionation produced by mergers. Plotting YX-Mgas relations (where YX = MgasT) derived from AMI SZ and from Chandra X-ray gives ratios of AMI and Chandra YX and Mgas estimates that indicate movement of clusters along the scaling relation, as predicted by Poole et al. (2007). Clusters that have moved most along the relation have the most discrepant TSZ and TX estimates: all the other clusters (apart from one) have SZ and X-ray estimates of Mgas, T and YX that agree within r500. We use SZ versus X-ray discrepancies in conjunction with Chandra maps and TX profiles, making comparisons with simulated cluster merger maps in Poole et al. (2006) to identify disturbed members of our sample and estimate merger stages.

  6. X-ray observations and the search for Fermi-LAT gamma-ray pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Parkinson, P M Saz; Caraveo, P; De Luca, A; Marelli, M

    2013-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on Fermi has detected ~150 gamma-ray pulsars, about a third of which were discovered in blind searches of the $\\gamma$-ray data. Because the angular resolution of the LAT is relatively poor and blind searches for pulsars (especially millisecond pulsars, MSPs) are very sensitive to an error in the position, one must typically scan large numbers of locations. Identifying plausible X-ray counterparts of a putative pulsar drastically reduces the number of trials, thus improving the sensitivity of pulsar blind searches with the LAT. I discuss our ongoing program of Swift, XMM-Newton, and Chandra observations of LAT unassociated sources in the context of our blind searches for gamma-ray pulsars.

  7. Near-Infrared Counterparts to Chandra X-ray Sources toward the Galactic Center. I. Statistics and a Catalog of Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Mauerhan, Jon C; Morris, Mark R; Bauer, Franz E; Nishiyama, Shogo; Nagata, Tetsuya

    2009-01-01

    We present a catalog of 5184 candidate infrared counterparts to X-ray sources detected towards the Galactic center. The X-ray sample contains 9017 point sources detected in this region by the Chandra X-ray Observatory, including data from a recent deep survey of the central 2 x 0.8 deg of the Galactic plane. A total of 6760 of these sources have hard X-ray colors, and the majority of them lie near the Galactic center; while most of the remaining 2257 soft X-ray sources lie in the foreground. We cross-correlated the X-ray source positions with the 2MASS and SIRIUS near-infrared catalogs, which collectively contain stars with a 10-sigma limiting flux of K_s=0.9 and <=0.9 mag, respectively. We find that 5.8(1.5)% of the hard X-ray sources have real infrared counterparts, of which 228(99) are red and 166(27) are blue. The red counterparts are probably comprised of WR/O stars, HMXBs, and symbiotics near the Galactic center. We also find that 39.4(1.0)% of the soft X-ray sources have blue infrared counterparts; ...

  8. Soft X-Ray Observations of the Galactic Halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Robin; Kuntz, K. D.

    2003-01-01

    In this project, my co-I (K.D. Kuntz) and I plan to extract the soft X-ray spectrum emitted by the hot gas along a high latitude line of sight. We plan to subtract off the local component (garnered from other observations) in order to isolate the halo component. We then plan to combine this spectral information with the ultraviolet resonance line emission produced by slightly cooler gas along the line of sight and use the two observations as a constraint on models. My co-I, K.D., Kuntz has been working on the determination of the instrumental background. I have not yet drawn any of the funds for this project. I have just moved from J h s Hopkins University to the University of Georgia and anticipate finishing the project while at the University of Georgia.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: X-ray observations of HCG galaxies (Tzanavaris+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanavaris, P.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Gallagher, S. C.; Lenkic, L.; Desjardins, T. D.; Walker, L. M.; Johnson, K. E.; Mulchaey, J. S.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we study a sample of 15 compact groups (CGs) observed with Chandra/ACIS, Swift/UVOT and Spitzer/IRAC-MIPS for which archival data exist, allowing us to obtain SFRs, stellar masses, sSFRs and X-ray fluxes and luminosities. Table 1 shows the group sample, including redshifts, luminosity distances and group evolutionary types. Allowing for the fact that some galaxies do not fall in the field of view of all three instruments, the total number of CG galaxies analyzed is 47. Details on the Swift and Spitzer observations and data for systems in this sample can be found in Tzanavaris et al. (2010ApJ...716..556T) and (L. Lenkic et al. 2015, in preparation). For Chandra/ACIS observations we refer the reader to Tzanavaris et al. (2014, J/ApJS/212/9) and Desjardins et al. (2013ApJ...763..121D; 2014ApJ...790..132D). (2 data files).

  10. X-Ray and Radio Observations of the Massive Star-forming Region IRAS 20126+4104

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, V. A.; Hofner, P.; Anderson, C.; Rosero, V.

    2015-08-01

    We present results from Chandra ACIS-I and Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array 6 cm continuum observations of the IRAS 20126+4104 massive star-forming region. We detect 150 X-ray sources within the 17‧ × 17‧ ACIS-I field, and a total of 13 radio sources within the 9.‧2 primary beam at 4.9 GHz. Among these observtions are the first 6 cm detections of the central sources reported by Hofner et al., namely, I20N1, I20S, and I20var. A new variable radio source is also reported. Searching the 2MASS archive, we identified 88 near-infrared (NIR) counterparts to the X-ray sources. Only four of the X-ray sources had 6 cm counterparts. Based on an NIR color-color analysis and on the Besançon simulation of Galactic stellar populations, we estimate that approximately 80 X-ray sources are associated with this massive star-forming region. We detect an increasing surface density of X-ray sources toward the massive protostar and infer the presence of a cluster of at least 43 young stellar objects within a distance of 1.2 pc from the massive protostar.

  11. X-RAY AND RADIO OBSERVATIONS OF THE MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGION IRAS 20126+4104

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, V. A.; Hofner, P.; Anderson, C.; Rosero, V. [Physics Department, New Mexico Tech, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    We present results from Chandra ACIS-I and Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array 6 cm continuum observations of the IRAS 20126+4104 massive star-forming region. We detect 150 X-ray sources within the 17′ × 17′ ACIS-I field, and a total of 13 radio sources within the 9.′2 primary beam at 4.9 GHz. Among these observtions are the first 6 cm detections of the central sources reported by Hofner et al., namely, I20N1, I20S, and I20var. A new variable radio source is also reported. Searching the 2MASS archive, we identified 88 near-infrared (NIR) counterparts to the X-ray sources. Only four of the X-ray sources had 6 cm counterparts. Based on an NIR color–color analysis and on the Besançon simulation of Galactic stellar populations, we estimate that approximately 80 X-ray sources are associated with this massive star-forming region. We detect an increasing surface density of X-ray sources toward the massive protostar and infer the presence of a cluster of at least 43 young stellar objects within a distance of 1.2 pc from the massive protostar.

  12. Chandra observations of comet 9P/Tempel 1 during the Deep Impact campaign

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisse, C. M.; Dennerl, K.; Christian, D. J.; Wolk, S. J.; Bodewits, D.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Hansen, K. C.; Hoekstra, R.; Combi, M.; Fry, C. D.; Dryer, M.; Maekinen, T.; Sun, W.; Jansen, K.C.; Mäkinen, T.

    2007-01-01

    We present results from the Chandra X-ray Observatory's extensive campaign studying Comet 9P/Tempel 1 (T1) in support of NASA's Deep Impact (DI) mission. T1 was observed for similar to 295 ks between 30th June and 24th July 2005, and continuously for similar to 64 ks on July 4th during the impact ev

  13. An X-ray look at the Seyfert 1 Galaxy Mrk 590: XMM-Newton and Chandra reveal complexity in circumnuclear gas

    CERN Document Server

    Longinotti, A L; Santos-Lleó, M; Rodriguez-Pascual, P; Guainazzi, M; Cardaci, M; Pollock, A M T

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a partially simultaneous observation of the bright Seyfert 1 Galaxy Mrk590, performed by XMM-Newton and Chandra. The long exposure (~100 ks) allows to investigate with great detail the Fe K complex at 6-7 keV and the presence of soft X-ray spectral features. We have analysed XMM-Newton data from the European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) in the 0.5-12 keV band and from the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) in the 0.35-2.5 keV band, and data from the High Energy Transmission Gratings (HETGs) onboard Chandra. UV and optical data from the Optical Monitor (OM) onboard XMM-Newton are also included in the analysis. The broad band spectrum is well described by an unabsorbed power law and three unresolved Fe~K lines in the 6-7 keV range. The presence of a Compton reflection component and a narrow Fe K line at 6.4 keV is consistent with an origin via torus reflection. The ionised Fe lines at ~6.7 and 7 keV are instead most likely originated by scattering on a warm and ionised gas. The soft X-r...

  14. Suzaku Observations of the Soft X-ray Background

    CERN Document Server

    Henley, D B; Henley, David B.; Shelton, Robin L.

    2007-01-01

    We have analyzed a pair of Suzaku XIS1 spectra of the soft X-ray background, obtained by observing towards and to the side of a nearby (d = 230 pc) absorbing filament in the southern Galactic hemisphere. We fit multicomponent spectral models to the spectra in order to separate the foreground emission due to the Local Bubble (LB) from the background emission due to the Galactic halo and unresolved AGN. We obtain LB and halo parameters that are different from those obtained from our analysis of XMM-Newton spectra from these same directions. The LB temperature is lower (log T = 5.93 versus 6.06), and the flux due to the LB in the Suzaku band is an order of magnitude less than is expected from our XMM-Newton analysis. The halo components, meanwhile, are hotter than previously determined, implying our Suzaku spectra are harder than our XMM-Newton spectra.

  15. Global Properties of X-Ray Flashes and X-Ray-Rich Gamma-Ray Bursts Observed by Swift

    CERN Document Server

    Sakamoto, T; Sato, G; Yamazaki, R; Barbier, L; Barthelmy, S D; Cummings, J R; Fenimore, E E; Gehrels, N; Krimm, H A; Lamb, D Q; Markwardt, C B; Osborne, J P; Palmer, D M; Parsons, A M; Stamatikos, M; Tüller, J

    2008-01-01

    We describe and discuss the spectral and temporal characteristics of the prompt emission and X-ray afterglow emission of X-ray flashes (XRFs) and X-ray-rich gamma-ray bursts (XRRs) detected and observed by Swift between December 2004 and September 2006. We compare these characteristics to a sample of conventional classical gamma-ray bursts (C-GRBs) observed during the same period. We confirm the correlation between Epeak_obs and fluence noted by others and find further evidence that XRFs, XRRs and C-GRBs form a continuum. We also confirm that our known redshift sample is consistent with the correlation between the peak energy in the GRB rest frame (Epeak_src) and the isotropic radiated energy (Eiso), so called the Epeak_src-Eiso relation. The spectral properties of X-ray afterglows of XRFs and C-GRBs are similar, but the temporal properties of XRFs and C-GRBs are quite different. We found that the light curves of C-GRB afterglows show a break to steeper indices (shallow-to-steep break) at much earlier times t...

  16. Obscuring Supersoft X-ray Sources in Stellar Winds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikkel Thomas Bøje; Dominik, Carsten; Nelemans, Gijs

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of obscuring supersoft X-ray sources in the winds of companion stars. We derive limits on the amount of circumstellar material needed to fully obscure a 'canonical' supersoft X-ray source in the Large Magellanic Cloud, as observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory....

  17. Obscuring Supersoft X-ray Sources in Stellar Winds

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, M.B.T.; Dominik, C.; Nelemans, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of obscuring supersoft X-ray sources in the winds of companion stars. We derive limits on the amount of circumstellar material needed to fully obscure a ‘canonical’ supersoft X-ray source in the Large Magellanic Cloud, as observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory.

  18. Weak hard X-ray emission from two broad absorption line quasars observed with NuSTAR: Compton-thick absorption or intrinsic X-ray weakness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.;

    2013-01-01

    We present Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) hard X-ray observations of two X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, PG 1004+130 (radio loud) and PG 1700+518 (radio quiet). Many BAL quasars appear X-ray weak, probably due to absorption by the shielding gas between the nucleus...

  19. ACIS-I observations of NGC2264. Membership and X-ray properties of PMS stars

    CERN Document Server

    Flaccomio, E; Sciortino, S

    2006-01-01

    We analyze a deep, 100 ksec long, Chandra ACIS observation of NGC2264. We detect 420 sources, 85% of which are associated with known optical and NIR counterparts. More than 90% of these counterparts are NGC2264 members, thus significantly increasing the known low mass cluster population by about 100 objects. Among the sources without counterpart, ~50% are likely members, several of which we expect to be previously unknown protostellar objects. We confirm several previous findings on the X-ray activity of low mass PMS stars: X-ray luminosity is related to stellar mass, although with a large scatter; L_X/L_bol is close to but almost invariably below the saturation level, 1e-3. A comparison between CTTS and WTTS shows several differences: CTTS are on average less active than WTTS; their emission may also be more time variable and is on average slightly harder. However, we find evidence in some CTTS of extremely cool, ~0.1-0.2 keV, plasma which we speculate is heated by accretion shocks. We conclude that activity...

  20. X-RAY SPECTRAL COMPONENTS OBSERVED IN THE AFTERGLOW OF GRB 130925A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellm, Eric C.; Forster, Karl; Harrison, Fiona A.; Madsen, Kristin K.; Perley, Daniel A.; Rana, Vikram R. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Barrière, Nicolas M.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bhalerao, Varun [Inter-University Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Cenko, S. Bradley [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space—National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Fryer, Chris L. [CCS-2, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Horesh, Assaf; Ofek, Eran O. [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Kouveliotou, Chryssa [Astrophysics Office/ZP12, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Miller, Jon M. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Reynolds, Stephen P. [Physics Department, NC State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Stern, Daniel, E-mail: ebellm@caltech.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); and others

    2014-04-01

    We have identified spectral features in the late-time X-ray afterglow of the unusually long, slow-decaying GRB 130925A using NuSTAR, Swift/X-Ray Telescope, and Chandra. A spectral component in addition to an absorbed power law is required at >4σ significance, and its spectral shape varies between two observation epochs at 2 × 10{sup 5} and 10{sup 6} s after the burst. Several models can fit this additional component, each with very different physical implications. A broad, resolved Gaussian absorption feature of several keV width improves the fit, but it is poorly constrained in the second epoch. An additive blackbody or second power-law component provide better fits. Both are challenging to interpret: the blackbody radius is near the scale of a compact remnant (10{sup 8} cm), while the second power-law component requires an unobserved high-energy cutoff in order to be consistent with the non-detection by Fermi/Large Area Telescope.

  1. X-Ray Spectral Components Observed in the Afterglow of GRB 130925A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellm, Eric C.; Barriere, Nicolas M.; Bhalerao, Varun; Boggs, Steven E.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Forster, Karl; Fryer, Chris L.; Hailey, Charles J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Horesh, Assaf; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Madsen, Kristin K.; Miller, Jon M.; Ofek, Eran O.; Perley, Daniel A.; Rana, Vikram R.; Miller, Jon M.; Stern, Daniel; Tomsick, John A.; Zhang, William W.

    2014-01-01

    We have identified spectral features in the late-time X-ray afterglow of the unusually long, slow-decaying GRB 130925A using NuSTAR, Swift/X-Ray Telescope, and Chandra. A spectral component in addition to an absorbed power law is required at greater than 4 less than 1 significance, and its spectral shape varies between two observation epochs at 2 x 10 (sup 5) and 10 (sup 6) seconds after the burst. Several models can fit this additional component, each with very different physical implications. A broad, resolved Gaussian absorption feature of several kiloelectronvolts width improves the fit, but it is poorly constrained in the second epoch. An additive blackbody or second power-law component provide better fits. Both are challenging to interpret: the blackbody radius is near the scale of a compact remnant (10 (sup 8) centimeters), while the second power-law component requires an unobserved high-energy cutoff in order to be consistent with the non-detection by Fermi/Large Area Telescope.

  2. The Field X-ray AGN Fraction to z=0.7 from the Chandra Multiwavelength Project and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Haggard, Daryl; Anderson, Scott F; Constantin, Anca; Aldcroft, Tom L; Kim, Dong-Woo; Barkhouse, Wayne A

    2010-01-01

    We employ the Chandra Multiwavelength Project (ChaMP) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to study the fraction of X-ray-active galaxies in the field out to z = 0.7. We utilize spectroscopic redshifts from SDSS and ChaMP, as well as photometric redshifts from several SDSS catalogs, to compile a parent sample of more than 100,000 SDSS galaxies and nearly 1,600 Chandra X-ray detections. Detailed ChaMP volume completeness maps allow us to investigate the local fraction of active galactic nuclei (AGN), defined as those objects having broad-band X-ray luminosities L_X (0.5-8 keV) > 10^42 erg s^-1, as a function of absolute optical magnitude, X-ray luminosity, redshift, mass, and host color/morphological type. In five independent samples complete in redshift and i-band absolute magnitude, we determine the field AGN fraction to be between 0.16 +/- 0.06% (for z M_i > -20) and 3.80 +/- 0.92% (for z < 0.7 and M_i < -23). We find striking agreement between our ChaMP/SDSS field AGN fraction and the Chandra clu...

  3. NEAR-INFRARED COUNTERPARTS TO CHANDRA X-RAY SOURCES TOWARD THE GALACTIC CENTER. I. STATISTICS AND A CATALOG OF CANDIDATES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a catalog of 5184 candidate infrared counterparts to X-ray sources detected toward the Galactic center. The X-ray sample contains 9017 point sources detected in this region by the Chandra X-ray Observatory during the past decade, including data from a recent deep survey of the central 20 x 0.08 of the Galactic plane. A total of 6760 of these sources have hard X-ray colors, and the majority of them lie near the Galactic center, while most of the remaining 2257 soft X-ray sources lie in the foreground. We cross-correlated the X-ray source positions with the 2MASS and SIRIUS near-infrared catalogs, which collectively contain stars with a 10σ limiting flux of Ks ≤ 15.6 mag. In order to distinguish absorbed infrared sources near the Galactic center from those in the foreground, we defined red and blue sources as those which have H - Ks ≥ 0.9 and <0.9 mag, respectively. We find that 5.8% ± 1.5% (2σ) of the hard X-ray sources have real infrared counterparts, of which 228 ± 99 are red and 166 ± 27 are blue. The red counterparts are probably comprised of Wolf-Rayet and O stars, high-mass X-ray binaries, and symbiotic binaries located near the Galactic center. Foreground X-ray binaries suffering intrinsic X-ray absorption could be included in the sample of blue infrared counterparts to hard X-ray sources. We also find that 39.4% ± 1.0% of the soft X-ray sources have blue infrared counterparts; most of these are probably coronally active dwarfs in the foreground. There is a noteworthy collection of ∼20 red counterparts to hard X-ray sources near the Sagittarius B H II region, which are probably massive binaries that have formed within the last several Myr. For each of the infrared matches to X-ray sources in our catalog we derived the probability that the association is real, based on the source properties and the results of the cross-correlation analysis. These data are included in our catalog and will serve spectroscopic surveys to identify infrared

  4. Chandra Observations of the Components of Clusters, Groups, and Galaxies and their Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Forman, W; Markevitch, M L; Vikhlinin, A A; Churazov, E

    2001-01-01

    We discuss two themes from Chandra observations of galaxies, groups, and clusters. First, we review the merging process as seen through the high angular resolution of Chandra. We present examples of sharp, edge-like surface brightness structures ``cold fronts'', the boundaries of the remaining cores of merger components and the Chandra observations of CL0657, the first clear example of a strong cluster merger shock. In addition to reviewing already published work, we present observations of the cold front around the elliptical galaxy NGC1404 which is infalling into the Fornax cluster and we discuss multiple ``edges'' in ZW3146. Second, we review the effects of relativistic, radio-emitting plasmas or ``bubbles'', inflated by active galactic nuclei, on the hot X-ray emitting gaseous atmospheres in galaxies and clusters. We review published work and also discuss the unusual X-ray structures surrounding the galaxies NGC4636 and NGC507.

  5. Decoding X-ray observations from centres of galaxy clusters using MCMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhchaura, Kiran; Saini, Tarun Deep; Sharma, Prateek

    2016-08-01

    Traditionally the thermodynamic profiles (gas density, temperature, etc.) of galaxy clusters are obtained by assuming spherical symmetry and modelling projected X-ray spectra in each annulus. The outer annuli contribute to the inner ones and their contribution needs to be subtracted to obtain the temperature and density of spherical shells. The usual deprojection methods lead to propagation of errors from outside to in and typically do not model the covariance of parameters in different radial shells. In this paper we describe a method based on a free-form model of clusters with cluster parameters (density, temperature) given in spherical shells, which we jointly forward fit to the X-ray data by constructing a Bayesian posterior probability distribution that we sample using the MCMC technique. By systematically marginalizing over the nuisance outer shells, we estimate the inner entropy profiles of clusters and fit them to various models for a sample of Chandra X-ray observations of 17 clusters. We show that the entropy profiles in almost all of our clusters are best described as cored power laws. A small subsample is found to be either consistent with a power law, or alternatively their cores are not fully resolved (smaller than, or about few kpc). We find marginal evidence for bimodality in the central values of entropy (and cooling time) corresponding to cool-core and non cool-core clusters. The minimum value of the ratio of the cooling time and the free-fall time (min[tcool/tff]; correlation is much weaker with core entropy) is anti-correlated with H α and radio luminosity. H α emitting cold gas is absent in our clusters with min(tcool/tff) ≳ 10. Our lowest core entropies are systematically and substantially lower than the values quoted by the ACCEPT sample.

  6. A Chandra/ACIS Study of 30 Doradus II. X-ray Point Sources in the Massive Star Cluster R136 and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Townsley, L K; Feigelson, E D; Garmire, G P; Getman, K V

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the X-ray point source population of the 30 Doradus star-forming complex in the Large Magellanic Cloud using high-spatial-resolution X-ray images and spatially-resolved spectra obtained with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) aboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Here we describe the X-ray sources in a 17' x 17' field centered on R136, the massive star cluster at the center of the main 30 Dor nebula. We detect 20 of the 32 Wolf-Rayet stars in the ACIS field. R136 is resolved at the subarcsecond level into almost 100 X-ray sources, including many typical O3--O5 stars as well as a few bright X-ray sources previously reported. Over two orders of magnitude of scatter in L_X is seen among R136 O stars, suggesting that X-ray emission in the most massive stars depends critically on the details of wind properties and binarity of each system, rather than reflecting the widely-reported characteristic value L_X/L_bol ~ 10^{-7}. Such a canonical ratio may exist for single massive stars in R136, ...

  7. Ten years of Vela x-ray observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vela spacecraft, particularly Vela 5B, produced all-sky X-ray data of unprecedented length and completeness. The data led to the discovery of X-ray bursts and numerous transient outbursts. Recent re-analysis has put the data in the form of 10-day skymaps covering a 7-year period, which have led to the discovery or confirmation of a number of long-term periodicities, and have made possible a time-lapse movie of the X-ray sky

  8. Near-Infrared Counterparts to Chandra X-Ray Sources Toward the Galactic Center. I. Statistics and a Catalog of Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauerhan, J. C.; Muno, M. P.; Morris, M. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Nishiyama, S.; Nagata, T.

    2009-09-01

    We present a catalog of 5184 candidate infrared counterparts to X-ray sources detected toward the Galactic center. The X-ray sample contains 9017 point sources detected in this region by the Chandra X-ray Observatory during the past decade, including data from a recent deep survey of the central 2° × 0fdg8 of the Galactic plane. A total of 6760 of these sources have hard X-ray colors, and the majority of them lie near the Galactic center, while most of the remaining 2257 soft X-ray sources lie in the foreground. We cross-correlated the X-ray source positions with the 2MASS and SIRIUS near-infrared catalogs, which collectively contain stars with a 10σ limiting flux of Ks red and blue sources as those which have H - Ks >= 0.9 and red and 166 ± 27 are blue. The red counterparts are probably comprised of Wolf-Rayet and O stars, high-mass X-ray binaries, and symbiotic binaries located near the Galactic center. Foreground X-ray binaries suffering intrinsic X-ray absorption could be included in the sample of blue infrared counterparts to hard X-ray sources. We also find that 39.4% ± 1.0% of the soft X-ray sources have blue infrared counterparts; most of these are probably coronally active dwarfs in the foreground. There is a noteworthy collection of ≈20 red counterparts to hard X-ray sources near the Sagittarius B H II region, which are probably massive binaries that have formed within the last several Myr. For each of the infrared matches to X-ray sources in our catalog we derived the probability that the association is real, based on the source properties and the results of the cross-correlation analysis. These data are included in our catalog and will serve spectroscopic surveys to identify infrared counterparts to X-ray sources near the Galactic center.

  9. Chandra X-Ray Spectral Analysis of Cooling Flow Clusters, 2A 0335+096 and Abell 2199

    CERN Document Server

    Kawano, N; Fukazawa, Y; Kawano, Naomi; Ohto, Akimitsu; Fukazawa, Yasushi

    2003-01-01

    We report on a spatially resolved analysis of Chandra X-ray data on a nearby typical cooling flow cluster of galaxies 2A 0335+096, together with A 2199 for a comparison. As recently found in the cores of other clusters, the temperature around the central part of 2A 0335+096 is 1.3--1.5 keV, which is higher than that inferred from the cooling flow picture. Furthermore, the absorption column density is almost constant against the radius in 2A 0335+096; there is no evidence of excess absorption up to 200--250 kpc. This indicates that no significant amount of cold material, which has cooled down, is present. These properties are similar to those of A 2199. Since the cooling time in the central part is much shorter than the age of the clusters, a heating mechanism, which weakens the effect of radiative cooling, is expected to be present in the central part of both clusters of galaxies. Both 2A 0335+096 and A 2199 have radio jets associated with their cD galaxy. We discuss the possibility of heating processes cause...

  10. Monitoring the Health and Safety of the ACIS Instrument On-Board the Chandra X-ray Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Virani, S N; De Pasquale, J M; Plucinsky, P P; Virani, Shanil N.; Ford, Peter G.; Pasquale, Joseph M. De; Plucinsky, Paul P.

    2002-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO), NASA's latest ``Great Observatory'', was launched on July 23, 1999 and reached its final orbit on August 7, 1999. The CXO is in a highly elliptical orbit, approximately 140,000 km x 10,000 km, and has a period of approximately 63.5 hours (~2.65 days). Communication with the CXO nominally consists of 1-hour contacts spaced 8-hours apart. Thus, once a communication link has been established, it is very important that the health and safety status of the scientific instruments as well as the Observatory itself be determined as quickly as possible. In this paper, we focus exclusively on the automated health and safety monitoring scripts developed for the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) to use during those 1-hour contacts. ACIS is one of the two focal plane instruments on-board the CXO. We present an overview of the real-time ACIS Engineering Data Web Page and the alert schemes developed for monitoring the instrument status during each communication contact. A suite of ...

  11. The Swift XRT: Observations of Early X-ray Afterglows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the first year of operations of the Swift observatory, the X-ray Telescope has made a number of discoveries concerning the nature of X-ray afterglows of both long and short GRBs. We highlight the key findings, which include rapid declines at early times, a standard template of afterglow light curve shapes, common flaring, and the discovery of the first short GRB afterglow

  12. Swift/BAT Observations of X-Ray Flashes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Qing Lin

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of prompt gamma-rays of X-ray flashes (XRFs) observed with the Swift/BAT has been presented. Our sample includes 235 bursts. It is found that the BAT detection ratio of XRFs to typical Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is 42:193, for division at Γ=2 (roughly corresponding Ep~50 keV), Γ being the power law index of the BAT spectrum and Ep, the peak energy (Ep) of the νfν spectrum. This is consistent with the HETE-2 observations. For both XRFS and GRBs Γ are almost normally distributed in the range of 1 to 2.8, similar that observed with HETE-2. The distribution of Γ for the entire set of GRBs/XRFs is not available due to poor statistics on the peak at Γ>2.3. This result probably indicates that the BAT spectrum of a typical XRF could have a Γ of roughly 2.3, if they indeed are a distinct soft component of the GRB population. By comparing the fluence and the peak flux in different energy bands, it is found that the XRFs are ordinarily softer than the GRBs, but during the peak time the spectra of both GRBs and XRF are similar, showing that the dominant radiation mechanisms of both GRBs and XRFs are similar.

  13. Hard X-ray and radio observations of Abell 754

    CERN Document Server

    Fusco-Femiano, R; Grandi, S D; Molendi, S; Feretti, L; Giovannini, G; Bacchi, M; Govoni, F

    2003-01-01

    We present a long BeppoSAX observation of Abell 754 that reports a nonthermal excess with respect to the thermal emission at energies greater than ~45 keV. A VLA radio observation at 1.4 GHz definitely confirms the existence of diffuse radio emission in the central region of the cluster, previously suggested by images at 74 and 330 MHz (Kassim et al 2001), and reports additional features. Besides, our observation determines a steeper radio halo spectrum in the 330-1400 MHz frequency range with respect to the spectrum detected at lower frequencies, indicating the presence of a spectral cutoff. The presence of a radio halo in A754, considered the prototype of a merging cluster, reinforces the link between formation of Mpc-scale radio regions and very recent or current merger processes. The radio results combined with the hard X-ray excess detected by BeppoSAX give information on the origin of the electron population responsible for nonthermal phenomena in galaxy clusters. We discuss also the possibility that 26...

  14. Observations of Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients with LOFT

    CERN Document Server

    Bozzo, E; Ferrigno, C; Esposito, P; Mangano, V

    2012-01-01

    Supergiant Fast X-ray transients are a subclass of high mass X-ray binaries displaying a peculiar and still poorly understood extreme variability in the X-ray domain. These sources undergo short sporadic outbursts (LX ~ 10^36 - 10^37 erg/s), lasting few ks at the most, and spend a large fraction of their time in an intermediate luminosity state at about LX ~ 10^33 - 10^34 erg/s. The sporadic and hardly predictable outbursts of supergiant fast X-ray transients were so far best discovered by large field of view (FOV) coded-mask instruments; their lower luminosity states require, instead, higher sensitivity focusing instruments to be studied in sufficient details. In this contribution, we provide a summary of the current knowledge on Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients and explore the contribution that the new space mission concept LOFT, the Large Observatory For X-ray Timing, will be able to provide in the field of research of these objects.

  15. Prospects for X-ray observations of cosmological significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cosmic X-ray background (at least in the energy band approximately 2-10 keV) shares with the microwave background the property of originating at a high redshift. Thus, studies of the structure, spectrum and origin of the X-ray background are potentially important cosmologically. Existing measurements of the background isotropy and deductions made therefrom are reviewed and seen to provide interesting limits on the matter distribution on scales larger than that of super-clusters. Source counts from the Einstein Observatory and earlier sky survey experiments show a significant (and possibly dominant) component of the X-ray background to arise from a strongly evolving population of high redshift QSO's. However, the present X-ray data do not yield definitive cosmological data, and it is concluded that the realisation of this potential must await the deep all-sky survey of ROSAT (in about 1987) and, more particularly, the 1.2 metre AXAF X-ray telescope (about 1990) with its capability to study many types of X-ray source to redshifts z >approximately 1. (Auth.)

  16. Chandra Observation of Abell 2065: An Unequal Mass Merger?

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzikos, M; Sarazin, C L; Chatzikos, Marios; Sarazin, Craig L.

    2006-01-01

    We present an analysis of a 41 ks Chandra observation of the merging cluster Abell 2065 with the ACIS-I detector. Previous observations with ROSAT and ASCA provided evidence for an ongoing merger, but also suggested that there were two surviving cooling cores, which were associated with the two cD galaxies in the center of the cluster. The Chandra observation reveals only one X-ray surface brightness peak, which is associated with the more luminous, southern cD galaxy. The gas related with that peak is cool and displaced slightly from the position of the cD. The data suggest that this cool material has formed a cold front. On the other hand, in the higher spatial resolution Chandra image, the second feature to the north is not associated with the northern cD; rather, it appears to be a trail of gas behind the main cD. We argue that only one of the two cooling cores has survived the merger, although it is possible that the northern cD may not have possessed a cool core prior to the merger. We use the cool core...

  17. AEGIS: Chandra Observation of DEEP2 Galaxy Groups and Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, T; Davis, D; Newman, J; Davis, M; Nandra, K; Laird, E; Koo, D; Coil, A; Cooper, M; Croton, D; Yan, R

    2006-01-01

    We present a 200 ksec Chandra observation of seven spectroscopically selected, high redshift (0.75 < z < 1.03) galaxy groups and clusters discovered by the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey in the Extended Groth Strip (EGS). X-ray emission at the locations of these systems is consistent with background. The 3-sigma upper limits on the bolometric X-ray luminosities (L_X) of these systems put a strong constraint on the relation between L_X and the velocity dispersion of member galaxies sigma_gal at z~1; the DEEP2 systems have lower luminosity than would be predicted by the local relation. Our result is consistent with recent findings that at high redshift, optically selected clusters tend to be X-ray underluminous. A comparison with mock catalogs indicates that it is unlikely that this effect is entirely caused by a measurement bias between sigma_gal and the dark matter velocity dispersion. Physically, the DEEP2 systems may still be in the process of forming and hence not fully virialized, or they may be defic...

  18. X-ray Observations of Bow Shocks around Runaway O Stars. The case of $\\zeta$ Oph and BD+433654

    CERN Document Server

    Toalá, J A; González-Gaán, A; Guerrero, M A; Ignace, R; Pohl, M

    2016-01-01

    Non-thermal radiation has been predicted within bow shocks around runaway stars by recent theoretical works. We present X-ray observations towards the runaway stars $\\zeta$ Oph (Chandra and Suzaku) and BD+433654 (XMM-Newton) to search for the presence of non-thermal X-ray emission. We found no evidence of non-thermal emission spatially coincident with the bow shocks, nonetheless, diffuse emission is detected in the vicinity of $\\zeta$ Oph. After a careful analysis of its spectral characteristics we conclude that this emission has a thermal nature with a plasma temperature of $T \\approx 2 \\times10^{6}$ K. The cometary shape of this emission seems to be in line with recent predictions of radiation-hydrodynamic models of runaway stars. The case of BD+433654 is puzzling as non-thermal emission has been reported in a previous work for this source.

  19. Chandra observations of the H2O megamaser galaxy Mrk1210

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG JiangShui; FAN JunHui

    2009-01-01

    We present the first Chandra X-ray observations of the H2O megamaser galaxy Mrk1210 (UGC4203), a Seyfert 2 galaxy at an approximate distance of D~57.6 Mpc. The Chandra X-ray image, with by far the highest angular resolution (~1"), displays an unresolved compact core toward the nuclear region of Mrk1210. Comparisons with the previous X-ray observations in the nuclear emission and the spectral shape indicate a fairly stable phase between 2001 (BeppoSAX and XMM-Newton) and 2004 (Chandra) after a dramatic variation since 1995 (ASCA). The best-fit model of Chandra X-ray spectrum consists of two components. The soft scattered component can be best fitted by a moderately absorbed power-law model adding a spectral line at ~0.9 keV (possibly a Ne-Kα fluorescent line), while the hard nuclear component can be well reproduced by a heavily absorbed power-law model (NH~2×1023cm-2) with an additional line at~6.19 keV (close to the Fe-Kα fluorescent line). The derived absorption-corrected X-ray luminosity implies that the dramatic variation of spectral properties is caused by significant changes of the absorbing column density along the line-of-sight, while the intrinsic nuclear X-ray luminosity remains stable. In this case, the absorbers should be anisotropic and its size can be constrained to be less than 0.0013 pc. In addition, we also estimate the mass of central engine, the disk radius and the accretion rate of the accretion disk to be 107.12±0.31M⊙, ~1 pc and 0.006, respectively.

  20. Chandra observations of the H2O megamaser galaxy Mrk1210

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    We present the first Chandra X-ray observations of the H2O megamaser galaxy Mrk1210 (UGC4203), a Seyfert 2 galaxy at an approximate distance of D~57.6 Mpc. The Chandra X-ray image, with by far the highest angular resolution (~1"), displays an unresolved compact core toward the nuclear region of Mrk1210. Comparisons with the previous X-ray observations in the nuclear emission and the spectral shape indicate a fairly stable phase between 2001 (BeppoSAX and XMM-Newton) and 2004 (Chandra) after a dramatic variation since 1995 (ASCA). The best-fit model of Chandra X-ray spectrum consists of two components. The soft scattered component can be best fitted by a moderately absorbed power-law model adding a spectral line at ~0.9 keV (possibly a Ne-Kα fluorescent line), while the hard nuclear component can be well reproduced by a heavily absorbed power-law model (NH~2×1023 cm-2) with an additional line at ~6.19 keV (close to the Fe-Kα fluorescent line). The derived absorption-corrected X-ray luminosity implies that the dramatic variation of spectral properties is caused by significant changes of the absorbing column density along the line-of-sight, while the intrinsic nuclear X-ray lu-minosity remains stable. In this case, the absorbers should be anisotropic and its size can be constrained to be less than 0.0013 pc. In addition, we also estimate the mass of central engine, the disk radius and the accretion rate of the accretion disk to be 107.12±0.31M⊙, ~1 pc and 0.006, respectively.

  1. Chandra Observations of Dying Radio Sources in Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, M.; Markevitch, M.; Govoni, F.; Parma, P.; Fanti, R.; de Ruiter, H. R.; Mack, K.-H.

    2012-01-01

    Context. The dying radio sources represent a very interesting and largely unexplored stage of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) evolution. They are considered to be very rare, and almost all of the few known ones were found in galaxy clusters. However, considering the small number detected so far, it has not been possible to draw any firm conclusions about their X-ray environment. Aims. We present X-ray observations performed with the Chandra satellite of the three galaxy clusters Abell 2276, ZwCl 1829.3+6912, and RX J1852.1+5711, which harbor at their center a dying radio source with an ultra-steep spectrum that we recently discovered. Methods. We analyzed the physical properties of the X-ray emitting gas surrounding these elusive radio sources. We determined the global X-ray properties of the clusters, derived the azimuthally averaged profiles of metal abundance, gas temperature, density, and pressure. Furthermore, we estimated the total mass profiles. Results. The large-scale X-ray emission is regular and spherical, suggesting a relaxed state for these systems. Indeed, we found that the three clusters are also characterized by significant enhancements in the metal abundance and declining temperature profiles toward the central region. For all these reasons, we classified RX J1852.1+5711, Abell 2276, and ZwCl 1829.3+6912 as cool-core galaxy clusters. Conclusions. We calculated the non-thermal pressure of the radio lobes assuming that the radio sources are in the minimum energy condition. For all dying sources we found that this is on average about one to two orders of magnitude lower than that of the external gas, as found for many other radio sources at the center of galaxy groups and clusters. We found marginal evidence for the presence of X-ray surface brightness depressions coincident with the fossil radio lobes of the dying sources in A2276 and ZwCl 1829.3+691. We estimated the outburst age and energy output for these two dying sources. The energy power from

  2. An Extensive Census of Hubble Space Telescope Counterparts to Chandra X-Ray Sources in the Globular Cluster 47 Tucanae. II. Time Series and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Peter D.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Heinke, Craig O.; Grindlay, Jonathan E.

    2003-10-01

    We report time series and variability information for the optical identifications of X-ray sources in 47 Tucanae reported in Paper I (at least 22 cataclysmic variables [CVs] and 29 active binaries). The radial distribution of the CVs is indistinguishable from that of the millisecond pulsars (MSPs) detected by Freire et al. A study of the eight CVs with secure orbital periods (two obtained from the Chandra study of Grindlay et al.) shows that the 47 Tuc CVs have fainter accretion disks, in the V band, than field CVs with similar periods. These faint disks and the faint absolute magnitudes (MV) of the 47 Tuc CVs suggests they have low accretion rates. One possible explanation is that the 47 Tuc objects may be a more representative sample of CVs, down to our detection threshold, than the CVs found in the field (where many low accretion rate systems are believed to be undiscovered), showing the advantages of deep globular cluster observations. The median FX/Fopt value for the 47 Tuc CVs is higher than that of all known classes of field CV, partly because of the faint MV values and partly because of the relatively high X-ray luminosities (LX). The latter are only seen in DQ Her systems in the field, but the 47 Tuc CVs are much fainter optically than most field DQ Her's. Previous work by Edmonds et al. has shown that the four brightest CVs in NGC 6397 have optical spectra and broadband colors that are consistent with DQ Her's having lower than average accretion rates. Some combination of magnetic behavior and low accretion rates may be able to explain our observations, but the results at present are ambiguous, since no class of field CV has distributions of both LX and MV that are consistent with those of the 47 Tuc CVs. The radial distribution of the X-ray detected active binaries is indistinguishable from that of the much larger sample of optical variables (eclipsing and contact binaries and BY Dra variables) detected in previous Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2

  3. Searching for the pulsar in G18.95-1.1: Discovery of an X-ray point source and associated synchrotron nebula with Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Tuellmann, R; Gaetz, T J; Slane, P; Hughes, J P; Harrus, I; Pannuti, T G

    2010-01-01

    Using the Chandra X-ray Observatory, we have pinpointed the location of a faint X-ray point source (CXOUJ182913.1-125113) and an associated diffuse nebula in the composite supernova remnant G18.95-1.1. These objects appear to be the long-sought pulsar and its wind nebula. The X-ray spectrum of the point source is best described by an absorbed powerlaw model with Gamma=1.6 and an N_H of ~1x10^(22) cm^(-2). This model predicts a relatively low unabsorbed X-ray luminosity of about L_X (0.5-8.0keV) = 4.1x10^(31)D_2^2 erg s^(-1), where D_2 is the distance in units of 2kpc. The best-fitted model of the diffuse nebula is a combination of thermal (kT = 0.48keV) and non-thermal (1.4 < Gamma < 1.9) emission. The unabsorbed X-ray luminosity of L_X = 5.4x10^(33)D_2^2 erg s^(-1) in the 0.5-8keV energy band seems to be largely dominated by the thermal component from the SNR, providing 87% of L_X in this band. No radio or X-ray pulsations have been reported for CXOUJ182913.1-125113. If we assume an age of ~5300yr for ...

  4. A Chandra X-ray study of the young star cluster NGC 6231: low-mass population and initial mass function

    CERN Document Server

    Damiani, F; Sciortino, S

    2016-01-01

    NGC6231 is a massive young star cluster, near the center of the Sco OB1 association. While its OB members are well studied, its low-mass population has received little attention. We present high-spatial resolution Chandra ACIS-I X-ray data, where we detect 1613 point X-ray sources. Our main aim is to clarify global properties of NGC6231 down to low masses through a detailed membership assessment, and to study the cluster stars' spatial distribution, the origin of their X-ray emission, the cluster age and formation history, and initial mass function. We use X-ray data, complemented by optical/IR data, to establish cluster membership. The spatial distribution of different stellar subgroups also provides highly significant constraints on cluster membership, as does the distribution of X-ray hardness. We perform spectral modeling of group-stacked X-ray source spectra. We find a large cluster population down to ~0.3 Msun (complete to ~1 Msun), with minimal non-member contamination, with a definite age spread (1-8 ...

  5. The Tarantula -- Revealed by X-rays (T-ReX): A Definitive Chandra Investigation of 30 Doradus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsley, Leisa

    2013-09-01

    30 Doradus is the most important star-forming complex in the Local Group, offering a microscope on starburst astrophysics. At its heart is R136, the most massive resolved stellar cluster, containing the most massive stars known. Across 30 Dor's 250-pc extent, stellar winds and supernovae have carved its ISM into an amazing display of arcs, pillars, and bubbles. So far, Chandra has devoted only 114 ks to this iconic target, limiting our studies just to the most massive stars and large-scale diffuse phenomena. This deep observation will finally exploit Chandra's fine spatial resolution to study ISM interfaces on 1--10 pc scales, the full complement of massive stars, and the brightest pre-main sequence stars that trace 25 Myrs of star formation in this incomparable nearby starburst.

  6. High-Resolution {\\it Chandra} Spectroscopy of tau Scorpii A Narrow-Line X-ray Spectrum From a Hot Star

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, D H; MacFarlane, J J; Miller, N A; Cassinelli, J P; Owocki, S P; Liedahl, D A; Cohen, David H.; Messi\\`{e}res, Genevi\\`{e}ve E. de; Farlane, Joseph J. Mac; Miller, Nathan A.; Cassinelli, Joseph P.; Owocki, Stanley P.; Liedahl, Duane A.

    2003-01-01

    Long known to be an unusual early-type star by virtue of its hard and strong X-ray emission, tau Scorpii poses a severe challenge to the standard picture of O star wind-shock X-ray emission. The Chandra HETGS spectrum now provides significant direct evidence that this B0.2 star does not fit this standard wind-shock framework. The many emission lines detected with the Chandra gratings are significantly narrower than what would be expected from a star with the known wind properties of tau Sco, although they are broader than the corresponding lines seen in late-type coronal sources. While line ratios are consistent with the hot plasma on this star being within a few stellar radii of the photosphere, from at least one He-like complex there is evidence that the X-ray emitting plasma is located more than a stellar radius above the photosphere. The Chandra spectrum of tau Sco is harder and more variable than those of other hot stars, with the exception of the young magnetized O star theta Ori C. We discuss these new...

  7. Observational Aspects of Hard X-ray Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanmoy

    2016-04-01

    Sensitive polarization measurements in X-ray may address a wealth of astrophysical phenomena, which so far remain beyond our understanding through available X-ray spectroscopic, imaging, and timing studies. Though scientific potential of X-ray polarimetry was realized long ago, there has not been any significant advancement in this field for the last four decades since the birth of X-ray astronomy. The only successful polarization measurement in X-rays dates back to 1976, when a Bragg polarimeter onboard OSO-8 measured polarization of Crab nebula. Primary reason behind the lack in progress is its extreme photon hungry nature, which results in poor sensitivity of the polarimeters. Recently, in the last decade or so, with the advancement in detection technology, X-ray polarimetry may see a significant progress in near future, especially in soft X-rays with the invention of photoelectron tracking polarimeters. Though photoelectric polarimeters are expected to provide sensitive polarization measurements of celestial X-ray sources, they are sensitive only in soft X-rays, where the radiation from the sources is dominated by thermal radiation and therefore expected to be less polarized. On the other hand, in hard X-rays, sources are ex-pected to be highly polarized due to the dominance of nonthermal emission over its thermal counterpart. Moreover, polarization measurements in hard X-rays promises to address few interesting scientific issues regarding geometry of corona for black hole sources, emission mechanism responsible for the higher energy peak in the blazars, accretion geometry close to the magnetic poles in accreting neutron star systems and acceleration mechanism in solar flares. Compton polarimeters provide better sensitivity than photoelectric polarimeters in hard X-rays with a broad energy band of operation. Recently, with the development of hard X-ray focusing optics e.g. NuSTAR, Astro-H, it is now possible to conceive Compton polarimeters at the focal plane

  8. A CHANDRA OBSERVATION OF THE ECLIPSING WOLF-RAYET BINARY CQ Cep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Stephen L. [CASA, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0389 (United States); Zhekov, Svetozar A. [Space Research and Technology Institute, Akad. G. Bonchev Str., Sofia, 1113 (Bulgaria); Güdel, Manuel [Dept. of Astrophysics, Univ. of Vienna, Türkenschanzstr. 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Schmutz, Werner, E-mail: stephen.skinner@colorado.edu, E-mail: szhekov@space.bas.bg, E-mail: manuel.guedel@univie.ac.at, E-mail: werner.schmutz@pmodwrc.ch [Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos and World Radiation Center (PMOD/WRC), Dorfstrasse 33, CH-7260 Davos Dorf (Switzerland)

    2015-02-01

    The short-period (1.64 d) near-contact eclipsing WN6+O9 binary system CQ Cep provides an ideal laboratory for testing the predictions of X-ray colliding wind shock theory at close separation where the winds may not have reached terminal speeds before colliding. We present results of a Chandra X-ray observation of CQ Cep spanning ∼1 day during which a simultaneous Chandra optical light curve was acquired. Our primary objective was to compare the observed X-ray properties with colliding wind shock theory, which predicts that the hottest shock plasma (T ≳ 20 MK) will form on or near the line-of-centers between the stars. The X-ray spectrum is strikingly similar to apparently single WN6 stars such as WR 134 and spectral lines reveal plasma over a broad range of temperatures T ∼ 4-40 MK. A deep optical eclipse was seen as the O star passed in front of the Wolf-Rayet star and we determine an orbital period P {sub orb} = 1.6412400 d. Somewhat surprisingly, no significant X-ray variability was detected. This implies that the hottest X-ray plasma is not confined to the region between the stars, at odds with the colliding wind picture and suggesting that other X-ray production mechanisms may be at work. Hydrodynamic simulations that account for such effects as radiative cooling and orbital motion will be needed to determine if the new Chandra results can be reconciled with the colliding wind picture.

  9. X-Ray Observations of Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows

    OpenAIRE

    Frontera, Filippo

    2004-01-01

    The discovery by the BeppoSAX satellite of X-ray afterglow emission from the gamma-ray burst which occurred on 28 February 1997 produced a revolution in our knowledge of the gamma-ray burst phenomenon. Along with the discovery of X-ray afterglows, the optical afterglows of gamma-ray bursts were discovered and the distance issue was settled, at least for long $\\gamma$-ray bursts. The 30 year mystery of the gamma-ray burst phenomenon is now on the way to solution. Here I rewiew the observationa...

  10. Einstein X-ray observations of Herbig Ae/Be stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, F.; Micela, G.; Sciortino, S.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the X-ray emission from Herbig Ae/Be stars, using the full set of Einstein Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) observations. Of a total of 31 observed Herbig stars, 11 are confidently identified with X-ray sources, with four additonal dubious identifications. We have used maximum likelihood luminosity functions to study the distribution of X-ray luminosity, and we find that Be stars are significantly brighter in X-rays than Ae stars and that their X-ray luminosity is independent of projected rotational velocity v sin i. The X-ray emission is instead correlated with stellar bolometric luminosity and with effective temperature, and also with the kinetic luminosity of the stellar wind. These results seem to exclude a solar-like origin for the X-ray emission, a possibility suggested by the most recent models of Herbig stars' structure, and suggest an analogy with the X-ray emission of O (and early B) stars. We also observe correlations between X-ray luminosity and the emission at 2.2 microns (K band) and 25 microns, which strengthen the case for X-ray emission of Herbig stars originating in their circumstellar envelopes.

  11. CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF 3C RADIO SOURCES WITH z < 0.3. II. COMPLETING THE SNAPSHOT SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaro, F. [SLAC National Laboratory and Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Tremblay, G. R. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Harris, D. E.; O' Dea, C. P. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kharb, P.; Axon, D. [Department of Physics, Rochester Institute of Technology, Carlson Center for Imaging Science 76-3144, 84 Lomb Memorial Dr., Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Balmaverde, B.; Capetti, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Strada Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese (Italy); Baum, S. A. [Carlson Center for Imaging Science 76-3144, 84 Lomb Memorial Dr., Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Chiaberge, M.; Macchetto, F. D.; Sparks, W. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martine Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gilli, R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Giovannini, G. [INAF-Istituto di Radioastronomia di Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Grandi, P.; Torresi, E. [INAF-IASF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e fisica Cosmica di Bologna, Via P. Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Risaliti, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    We report on the second round of Chandra observations of the 3C snapshot survey developed to observe the complete sample of 3C radio sources with z < 0.3 for 8 ks each. In the first paper, we illustrated the basic data reduction and analysis procedures performed for the 30 sources of the 3C sample observed during Chandra Cycle 9, while here we present the data for the remaining 27 sources observed during Cycle 12. We measured the X-ray intensity of the nuclei and of any radio hot spots and jet features with associated X-ray emission. X-ray fluxes in three energy bands, i.e., soft, medium, and hard, for all the sources analyzed are also reported. For the stronger nuclei, we also applied the standard spectral analysis, which provides the best-fit values of the X-ray spectral index and absorbing column density. In addition, a detailed analysis of bright X-ray nuclei that could be affected by pile-up has been performed. X-ray emission was detected for all the nuclei of the radio sources in our sample except for 3C 319. Among the current sample, there are two compact steep spectrum radio sources, two broad-line radio galaxies, and one wide angle tail radio galaxy, 3C 89, hosted in a cluster of galaxies clearly visible in our Chandra snapshot observation. In addition, we also detected soft X-ray emission arising from the galaxy cluster surrounding 3C 196.1. Finally, X-ray emission from hot spots has been found in three FR II radio sources and, in the case of 3C 459, we also report the detection of X-ray emission associated with the eastern radio lobe as well as X-ray emission cospatial with radio jets in 3C 29 and 3C 402.

  12. Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer Observations of an Outburst of Recurrent X-Ray Nova GS 1354-644

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results of Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of GS 1354-644 during a modest outburst in 1997-1998. The source is one of a handful of black hole X-ray transients that are confirmed to be recurrent in X-rays. A 1987 outburst of the same source observed by Ginga was much brighter and showed a high/soft spectral state. In contrast, the 1997-1998 outburst showed a low/hard spectral state. Both states are typical of black hole binaries. The RXTE All-Sky Monitor observed an outburst duration of 150-200 days. PCA and HEXTE observations covered ∼70 days near the maximum of the light curve and during the flux decline. Throughout the observations, the spectrum can be approximated by Compton upscattering of soft photons by energetic electrons. The hot electron cloud has a temperature kT∼30 keV and optical depth τ∼4-5. To fit the data well, an additional iron fluorescent line and reflection component are required, which indicates the presence of optically thick cool material, most probably in the outer part of the accretion disk. Dramatic fast variability was observed and has been analyzed in the context of a shot noise model. The spectrum appeared to be softest at the peaks of the shot noise variability. The shape of the power spectrum was typical for black hole systems in a low/hard state. We note a qualitative difference in the shape of the dependence of fractional variability on energy when we compare systems with black holes and with neutron stars. Since it is difficult to discriminate these systems on spectral grounds, at least in their low/hard states, this new difference might be important. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society

  13. Hidden activity in high-redshift spheroidal galaxies from mid-infrared and X-ray observations in the GOODS-North field

    CERN Document Server

    Rodighiero, G; Civano, F; Comastri, A; Franceschini, A; Mignoli, M; Fritz, J; Vignali, C; Treu, T

    2007-01-01

    We exploit very deep mid-IR (MIR) and X-ray observations by Spitzer and Chandra in the GOODS North to identify signs of hidden (either starburst or AGN) activity in spheroidal galaxies between z~0.3 and 1. Our reference is a complete sample of 168 morphologically classified spheroidal galaxies with z[AB]<22.5 selected from GOODS ACS imaging. Nineteen of these have 24 micron detections in the GOODS catalogue, half of which have an X-ray counterpart in the 2 Ms Chandra catalogue, while about 25% have 1.4 GHz fluxes larger than 40 microJy. Traces of hidden activity in the spheroidal population are also searched for in the deep X-ray images and 14 additional galaxies are detected in X-rays only. The nature of the observed MIR emissions is investigated by modelling their SEDs based on the available multi-wavelength photometry, including X-ray, UV, optical, near-IR, MIR and radio fluxes, and optical spectroscopy. The amount of dust derived from the IR emission observed by Spitzer appears in excess of that expect...

  14. A Chandra X-ray study of the mixed-morphology supernova remnant 3C 400.2

    OpenAIRE

    Broersen, S.; Vink, J.

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of archival Chandra observations of the mixed-morphology remnant 3C400.2. We analysed spectra of different parts of the remnant to observe if the plasma properties provide hints on the origin of the mixed-morphology class. These remnants often show overionization, which is a sign of rapid cooling of the thermal plasma, and super-solar abundances of elements which is a sign of ejecta emission. Our analysis shows that the thermal emission of 3C400.2 can be well explained ...

  15. High-Energy Processes in Young Stars: Chandra X-ray Spectroscopy of HDE 283572, RY Tau, and LkCa 21

    CERN Document Server

    Audard, M; Smith, K W; Güdel, M; Pallavicini, R; Audard, Marc; Skinner, Stephen L.; Smith, Kester W.; Guedel, Manuel; Pallavicini, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    Weak-lined T Tauri stars (WTTS) represent the important stage of stellar evolution between the accretion phase and the zero-age main sequence. At this stage, the star decouples from its accretion disk, and spins up to a higher rotation rate than in the preceding classical T Tauri phase. Consequently, dynamo processes can be expected to become even stronger at this stage. High energy processes can have effects on the remaining circumstellar material, possibly including protoplanets and planetesimals, and these effects may account for certain observable properties of asteroids in the current solar system. Chandra observed for 100 ks the WTTS HDE 283572 which probes the PMS stage of massive A-type stars. We present first results of the analysis of its high-resolution X-ray spectrum obtained with the High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer. A wide range of Fe lines of high ionization states are observed, indicating a continuous emission measure distribution. No significant signal is detected longward of the...

  16. Pre-nova X-ray observations of V2491 Cyg (Nova Cyg 2008b)

    CERN Document Server

    Ibarra, A; Osborne, J P; Page, K; Ness, J U; Saxton, R D; Baumgartner, W; Beckmann, V; Bode, M F; Hernanz, M; Mukai, K; Orio, M; Sala, G; Starrfield, S; Wynn, G A

    2009-01-01

    Classical novae are phenomena caused by explosive hydrogen burning on an accreting white dwarf. So far, only one classical nova has been identified in X-rays before the actual optical outburst occurred (V2487 Oph). The recently discovered nova, V2491 Cyg, is one of the fastest (He/N) novae observed so far. Using archival ROSAT, XMM-Newton and Swift data, we show that V2491 Cyg was a persistent X-ray source during its quiescent time before the optical outburst. We present the X-ray spectral characteristics and derive X-ray fluxes. The pre-outburst X-ray emission is variable, and at least in one observation it shows a very soft X-ray source.

  17. Uhuru observations of 4U 1608-52 - The 'steady' X-ray source associated with the X-ray burst source in Norma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tananbaum, H.; Chaisson, L. J.; Forman, W.; Jones, C.; Matilsky, T. A.

    1976-01-01

    Data are presented for the X-ray source 4U 1608-52, summarizing its light curve, location, and spectral parameters. Evidence is presented showing that this source is the 'steady' X-ray counterpart of the X-ray burst source in Norma. The spectrum of the 'steady' source is compared with the spectrum observed during two bursts, and it is noted that there is substantially more low-energy absorption during the bursts. The 'steady' source spectral data are used to examine the optical data, and it is concluded that if the X-ray spectrum is thermal, then a globular-cluster counterpart probably would have been detected (whereas none has been). Further X-ray and optical observations are suggested for this source, since an optical identification may be central in determining whether all X-ray bursts have a common origin and if this origin requires a globular-cluster environment.

  18. Combined X-Ray and mm-Wave Observations of Radio Quiet Active Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, E.

    2016-06-01

    A connection between the X-ray and radio sources in radio quiet active galaxies (AGNs) will be demonstrated. High radio frequency, i.e., mm-wave observations are promising probes of the X-ray emitting inner regions of the accretion disks in radio quiet AGNs. An argument for simultaneous observations in X-rays and in mm waves will be made, in order to promote these as one of the future science goals of X-ray and AGN astronomy in the next decade. Preliminary results from an exploratory campaign with several space and ground based telescopes will be presented.

  19. Chandra and XMM Observations of the Composite Supernova Remnant G327.1-1.1

    CERN Document Server

    Temim, Tea; Gaensler, B M; Hughes, John P; van der Swaluw, Eric

    2008-01-01

    We present new X-ray imaging and spectroscopy of a composite supernova remnant G327.1-1.1 using the Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observatories. G327.1-1.1 has an unusual morphology consisting of a symmetric radio shell and an off center nonthermal component that indicates the presence of a pulsar wind nebula (PWN). Radio observations show a narrow finger of emission extending from the PWN structure towards the northwest. X-ray studies with ASCA, ROSAT, and BeppoSAX revealed elongated extended emission and a compact source at the tip of the finger that may be coincident with the actual pulsar. The high resolution Chandra observations provide new insight into the structure of the inner region of the remnant. The images show a compact source embedded in a cometary structure, from which a trail of X-ray emission extends in the southeast direction. The Chandra images also reveal two prong-like structures that appear to originate from the vicinity of the compact source and extend into a large bubble that is oriente...

  20. Chandra Observations of Comets C/2012 S1 (ISON) and C/2011 L4 (PanSTARRS)

    OpenAIRE

    Snios, Bradford; Kharchenko, Vasili; Lisse, Carey M.; Wolk, Scott J.; Dennerl, Konrad; Combi, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    We present our results on the Chandra X-ray Observatory Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) observations of the bright Oort Cloud comets C/2012 S1 (ISON) and C/2011 L4 (PanSTARRS). ISON was observed between 2013 October 31-November 06 during variable speed solar wind (SW), and PanSTARRS was observed between 2013 April 17-23 during fast SW. ISON produced an extended parabolic X-ray morphology consistent with a collisionally thick coma, while PanSTARRS demonstrated only a diffuse X-ray-emi...

  1. SWIFT J1749.4-2807 : X-ray decay, refined position and optical observation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Y.J.; Russell, D. M.; Wijnands, R.; van der Klis, M.; Altamirano, D.; Patruno, A.; Watts, A.; Armas Padilla, M.; Cavecchi, Y.; Degenaar, N.; Kalamkar, M.; Kaur, R.; Linares, M.; Casella, P.; Rea, N.; Soleri, P.; Lewis, F.; Kong, A. K. H.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed seven, target ID 31686, Swift follow-up observations of the neutron-star X-ray transient Swfit J1749.4-2807 (Wijnands et al. 2009) currently in outburst and which was found to be an accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar (ATel #2565). The observations span from April 11 to April 20.

  2. Chandra observations of the hyper-luminous infrared galaxy IRAS F15307+3252

    CERN Document Server

    Hlavacek-Larrondo, J; Hogan, M T; Gendron-Marsolais, M -L; Edge, A C; Fabian, A C; Russell, H R; Iwasawa, K; Mezcua, M

    2016-01-01

    Hyper-luminous infrared galaxies (HyLIRGs) lie at the extreme luminosity end of the IR galaxy population with L_IR>10^13L_sun. They are thought to be closer counterparts of the more distant sub-mm galaxies, and should therefore be optimal targets to study the most massive systems in formation. We present deep Chandra observations of IRAS F15307+3252 (100 ks), a classical HyLIRG located at z=0.93, hosting a radio-loud AGN (L_1.4GHz=3.5*10^25 W/Hz). The Chandra X-ray images reveal extended, asymmetric X-ray emission in the soft 0.3-2.0 keV band, extending to 160 kpc in the southern direction. VLA observations at 1.4 GHz and 8.4 GHz reveal no radio counterpart to this extended X-ray emission. The emission is therefore most likely of thermal origin originating from a hot intragroup or intracluster medium virializing in the potential. The temperature (2 keV) and bolometric X-ray luminosity (3*10^43 erg/s) of the gas follow the expected L_X-ray-T correlation for groups and clusters of galaxies. We also find that th...

  3. A broadband X-ray spectral study of the intermediate-mass black hole candidate M82 X-1 with NuSTAR, Chandra and Swift

    CERN Document Server

    Brightman, Murray; Barret, Didier; Davis, Shane W; Fürst, Felix; Madsen, Kristin K; Middleton, Matthew; Miller, Jon M; Stern, Daniel; Tao, Lian; Walton, Dominic J

    2016-01-01

    M82 X-1 is one of the brightest ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) known, which, assuming Eddington-limited accretion and other considerations, makes it one of the best intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) candidates. However, the ULX may still be explained by super-Eddington accretion onto a stellar-remnant black hole. We present simultaneous NuSTAR, Chandra and Swift/XRT observations during the peak of a flaring episode with the aim of modeling the emission of M82 X-1 and yielding insights into its nature. We find that thin-accretion disk models all require accretion rates at or above the Eddington limit in order to reproduce the spectral shape, given a range of black hole masses and spins. Since at these high Eddington ratios the thin-disk model breaks down due to radial advection in the disk, we discard the results of the thin-disk models as unphysical. We find that the temperature profile as a function of disk radius ($T(r)\\propto r^{-p}$) is significantly flatter ($p=0.55^{+ 0.07}_{- 0.04}$) than expecte...

  4. X-ray emission from the Wolf-Rayet bubble NGC 6888. II. XMM-Newton EPIC observations

    CERN Document Server

    Toalá, J A; Chu, Y -H; Arthur, S J; Tafoya, D; Gruendl, R A

    2015-01-01

    We present deep XMM-Newton EPIC observations of the Wolf-Rayet (WR) bubble NGC6888 around the star WR136. The complete X-ray mapping of the nebula confirms the distribution of the hot gas in three maxima spatially associated with the caps and northwest blowout hinted at by previous Chandra observations. The global X-ray emission is well described by a two-temperature optically thin plasma model $T_1$=1.4$\\times$10$^{6}$ K, $T_{2}$=8.2$\\times$10$^{6}$ K) with a luminosity of $L_{\\mathrm{X}}$=7.8$\\times$10$^{33}$ erg s$^{-1}$ in the 0.3--1.5 keV energy range. The rms electron density of the X-ray-emitting gas is estimated to be $n_\\mathrm{e}$=0.4 cm$^{-3}$. The high-quality observations presented here reveal spectral variations within different regions in NGC6888, which allowed us for the first time to detect temperature and/or nitrogen abundance inhomogeneities in the hot gas inside a WR nebula. One possible explanation for such spectral variations is that the mixing of material from the outer nebula into the ...

  5. The X-Ray Zurich Environmental Study (X-ZENS). II. X-ray Observations of the Diffuse Intragroup Medium in Galaxy Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Miniati, Francesco; Silverman, John D; Carollo, Marcella; Cibinel, Anna; Lilly, Simon J; Schawinski, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of a pilot XMM-$Newton$ and $Chandra$ program aimed at studying the diffuse intragroup medium (DIM) of optically-selected nearby groups from the Zurinch ENvironmental Study (ZENS) catalog. The groups are in a narrow mass range about $10^{13}M_\\odot$, a mass scale at which the interplay between the DIM and the group member galaxies is still largely unprobed. X-ray emission from the DIM is detected in the energy band 0.5--2 keV with flux $\\le 10^{-14}$ erg cm$^{-1}$ s$^{-1}$, which is one order of magnitude fainter than for typical ROSAT groups (RASS). For many groups we set upper limits to the X-ray luminosity, indicating that the detections are likely probing the upper envelope of the X-ray emitting groups. We find evidence for our optically selected groups to be under-luminous with respect to predictions from X-ray scaling relations. X-ray mass determinations are in best agreement with those based on the member galaxies bulge luminosity, followed by their total optical luminosity and v...

  6. The Lunar X-ray Observatory (LXO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, F. Scott

    2008-01-01

    X-ray emission from charge exchange recombination between the highly ionized solar wind and neutral material i n Earth's magnetosheath has complicated x-ray observations of celestial objects with x-ray observatories including ROSAT, Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku. However, the charge-exchange emission can also be used as an important diagnostic of the solar-wind interacting with the magnetosheath. Soft x-ray observations from low-earth orbit or even the highly eccentric orbits of Chandra and XMM-Newton are likely superpositions of the celestial object of interest, the true extra-solar soft x-ray background, geospheric charge exchange, and heliospheric charge exchange. We show that with a small x-ray telescope placed either on the moon, in a similar vein as the Apollo ALSOP instruments, or at a stable orbit near L1, we can begin t o disentangle the complicated emission structure in the soft x-ray band. Here we present initial results of a feasibility study recently funded by NASA t o place a small x-ray telescope on the lunar surface. The telescope operates during lunar night to observe charge exchange interactions between the solar wind and magnetospheric neutrals, between the solar wind and the lunar atmosphere, and an unobstructed view of the soft x-ray background without the geospheric component.

  7. Chandra Observations and Models of the Mixed Morphology Supernova Remnant W44: Global Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, R. L.; Kuntz, K. D.; Petre, R.

    2004-01-01

    We report on the Chandra observations of the archetypical mixed morphology (or thermal composite) supernova remnant, W44. As with other mixed morphology remnants, W44's projected center is bright in thermal X-rays. It has an obvious radio shell, but no discernable X-ray shell. In addition, X-ray bright knots dot W44's image. The spectral analysis of the Chandra data show that the remnant s hot, bright projected center is metal-rich and that the bright knots are regions of comparatively elevated elemental abundances. Neon is among the affected elements, suggesting that ejecta contributes to the abundance trends. Furthermore, some of the emitting iron atoms appear to be underionized with respect to the other ions, providing the first potential X-ray evidence for dust destruction in a supernova remnant. We use the Chandra data to test the following explanations for W44's X-ray bright center: 1.) entropy mixing due to bulk mixing or thermal conduction, 2.) evaporation of swept up clouds, and 3.) a metallicity gradient, possibly due to dust destruction and ejecta enrichment. In these tests, we assume that the remnant has evolved beyond the adiabatic evolutionary stage, which explains the X-ray dimness of the shell. The entropy mixed model spectrum was tested against the Chandra spectrum for the remnant's projected center and found to be a good match. The evaporating clouds model was constrained by the finding that the ionization parameters of the bright knots are similar to those of the surrounding regions. While both the entropy mixed and the evaporating clouds models are known to predict centrally bright X-ray morphologies, their predictions fall short of the observed brightness gradient. The resulting brightness gap can be largely filled in by emission from the extra metals in and near the remnant's projected center. The preponderance of evidence (including that drawn from other studies) suggests that W44's remarkable morphology can be attributed to dust destruction

  8. Two-phase X-ray burst from GX 3+1 observed by INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chenevez, Jérôme; Falanga, M.F.; Brandt, Søren;

    2006-01-01

    INTEGRAL detected on August 31, 2004, an unusual thermonuclear X-ray burst from the low-mass X-ray binary GX 3 3+1. Its duration was 30 min, which is between the normal burst durations for this source (less than or similar to 10 s) and the superburst observed in 1998 ( several hours). We see emis...

  9. Swift X-Ray Observations of Classical Novae. II. The Super Soft Source sample

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, Greg J; Osborne, J P; Page, K L; Evans, P A; Beardmore, A P; Walter, Frederick M; Helton, L Andrew; Woodward, Charles E; Bode, Mike; Starrfield, Sumner; Drake, Jeremy J

    2011-01-01

    The Swift GRB satellite is an excellent facility for studying novae. Its rapid response time and sensitive X-ray detector provides an unparalleled opportunity to investigate the previously poorly sampled evolution of novae in the X-ray regime. This paper presents Swift observations of 52 Galactic/Magellanic Cloud novae. We included the XRT (0.3-10 keV) X-ray instrument count rates and the UVOT (1700-8000 Angstroms) filter photometry. Also included in the analysis are the publicly available pointed observations of 10 additional novae the X-ray archives. This is the largest X-ray sample of Galactic/Magellanic Cloud novae yet assembled and consists of 26 novae with super soft X-ray emission, 19 from Swift observations. The data set shows that the faster novae have an early hard X-ray phase that is usually missing in slower novae. The Super Soft X-ray phase occurs earlier and does not last as long in fast novae compared to slower novae. All the Swift novae with sufficient observations show that novae are highly v...

  10. Broad Iron Emission from Gravitationally Lensed Quasars Observed by Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Walton, D J; Miller, J M; Reis, R C; Stern, D; Harrison, F A

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated the potential of gravitationally lensed quasars to extend measurements of black hole spin out to high-redshift with the current generation of X-ray observatories. Here we present an analysis of a large sample of 27 lensed quasars in the redshift range 1.0observed with Chandra, utilizing over 1.6 Ms of total observing time, focusing on the rest-frame iron K emission from these sources. Although the X-ray signal-to-noise (S/N) currently available does not permit the detection of iron emission from the inner accretion disk in individual cases in our sample, we find significant structure in the stacked residuals. In addition to the narrow core, seen almost ubiquitously in local AGN, we find evidence for an additional underlying broad component from the inner accretion disk, with a clear red wing to the emission profile. Based on simulations, we find the detection of this broader component to be significant at greater than the 3-sigma level. This implies that iron emission...

  11. ROSAT observations of the Eridanus soft X-ray enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, S. L.; Burrows, D. N.; Sanders, W. T.; Aschenbach, B.; Pfeffermann, E.

    1995-01-01

    We present maps of the Eridanus soft X-ray enhancement made from the ROSAT all-sky survey data. The maps are in two energy bands: 0.25 keV (0.12-0.284 keV at 10% response, the ROSAT R1 and R2 bands), and 0.75 keV (0.47-1.20 keV at 10% response, the ROSAT R4 and R5 bands). The entire enhancement spans a total of approximately 35 deg in Galactic latitude and approximately 20 deg in Galactic longitude, centered at l approximately 22 deg, b approximately -32 deg. While the higher spatial resolution of the ROSAT data reveals a pattern of detailed anticorrelations with 100 micrometers intensity that was not evident in the HEAO 1 or earlier data, the basic morphology found in previous maps of this enhancement is confirmed. The ROSAT data also clearly show that the X-ray enhancement continues up to the Orion region in the 0.75 keV band, confirming the structure suggested by the Wisconsin sky survey maps. The ROSAT data are consistent with the interpretation of Reynolds & Ogden and Burrows et al. that this enhancement, the higher temperature component of Burrows et al., is generated for the most part by several-million-degree gas filling a huge interstellar cavity. However, we interpret the low-temperature component discussed by Burrows et al. as part of a more distant large scale (greater than or equal to approximately 30 deg) diffuse background enhancement. The part of this softer X-ray enhancement examined here appears to be produced by million degree gas in the galactic halo, and is therfore unlikely to be an isolated bubble as suggested by Burrows et al. on the basis of lower resolution HEAO 1 data.

  12. Chandra-ASCA-RXTE observations of the micro-quasar GRS 1915+105

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, J C; Reynolds, C S; Fabian, A C; Blackman, E G

    2000-01-01

    A Chandra AO1 30ks HETGS observation of the X-ray transient micro-quasar GRS 1915+105 reveals absorption edges and faint line emission over the HETG energy range. We find from a preliminary analysis evidence for prominent neutral K edges associated with iron, silicon, magnesium, and tentatively sulphur. The column densities assuming solar abundances are consistent with ~ few x $10^{22} cm^{-2}$ in excess of the Galactic value, and may point to surrounding cold material associated with GRS 1915+105. Neutral Fe K$\\alpha$ emission, and ionized absorption from Fe XXV and Fe XXVI are resolved. We limit our discussion to the Chandra results.

  13. X-rays from High-Velocity Clouds: XMM-Newton Observations of MS30.7-81.4-118

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Robin

    Recently, XMM-Newton and Chandra observations have shown evidence of enhanced X- ray emission associated with compact high-velocity clouds (HVCs). While the Chandra detections are of low significance, XMM-Newton observed a 6.4sigma X-ray enhancement associated with the HVC MS30.7-81.4-118 (hereafter, MS30.7), which is part of the Magellanic Stream. As there is currently only one detection of X-rays from a compact HVC with any great significance, it is important to confirm that this enhancement is real, and not due to some transient event. If it is real, then X-ray enhancements associated with HVCs potentially provide a new way to study HVCs and their interaction with the Galaxy. Both the morphology and the spectrum of the emission provide clues to the mechanism that produces the hot X-ray-emitting gas, as different physical processes predict different morphologies and spectral properties. For example, shock-heating of the ambient gas leads to X-ray emission in front the HVC, while mixing of the cool cloud material with hot ambient material leads to enhanced emission behind the cloud. (Note that in the case of MS30.7, we know its likely direction of motion on the sky, as it is likely moving toward the Magellanic Clouds.) On the spectral side, different physical processes lead to different temperatures for the X-ray-emitting gas. Strong adiabatic shocks with speeds of 300-400 km/s (the speed of the Magellanic Stream) will yield temperatures of ~1e6-2e6 K. Slower and/or radiative shocks will yield lower temperatures, while magnetic reconnection is predicted to lead to temperatures of >~ 6e6 K. Furthermore, spectral models generated from hydrodynamical simulations, such as those carried out by our group, can be used to narrow down the region of parameter space relevant to the X-ray enhancement. In the most recent XMM-Newton proposal round (AO-10), we were awarded a second observation of MS30.7 (PI: Shelton), to the east of the existing observation. We are applying for

  14. High Resolution Spectroscopy of the X-ray Photoionized Wind in Cygnus X-3 with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Paerels, F B S; Sako, M; Liedahl, D A; Brinkman, A C; Van der Meer, R L J; Kaastra, J S; Predehl, P; Paerels, Frits; Cottam, Jean; Sako, Masao; Liedahl, Duane A.

    2000-01-01

    We present a preliminary analysis of the 1--10 keV spectrum of the massiveX-ray binary Cyg X-3, obtained with the High Energy Transmission GratingSpectrometer on the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The source reveals a richlydetailed discrete emission spectrum, with clear signatures ofphotoionization-driven excitation. Among the spectroscopic novelties in the data are the first astrophysicaldetections of a number of He-like 'triplets' (Si, S, Ar) with emission lineratios characteristic of photoionization equilibrium, fully resolved narrowradiative recombination continua of Mg, Si, and S, the presence of the H-likeFe Balmer series, and a clear detection of a ~ 800 km/s large scale velocityfield, as well as a ~1500 km/s FWHM Doppler broadening in the source. Webriefly touch on the implications of these findings for the structure of theWolf-Rayet wind.

  15. The Extended Chandra Deep Field-South Survey: Optical spectroscopy of faint X-ray sources with the VLT and Keck

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, J D; Salvato, M; Hasinger, G; Bergeron, J; Capak, P; Szokoly, G; Finoguenov, A; Gilli, R; Rosati, P; Tozzi, P; Vignali, C; Alexander, D M; Brandt, W N; Lehmer, B D; Luo, B; Rafferty, D; Xue, Y Q; Balestra, I; Bauer, F E; Brusa, M; Comastri, A; Kartaltepe, J; Koekemoer, A M; Miyaji, T; Schneider, D P; Treister, E; Wisotski, L; Schramm, M

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a program to acquire high-quality optical spectra of X-ray sources detected in the E-CDF-S and its central area. New spectroscopic redshifts are measured for 283 counterparts to Chandra sources with deep exposures (t~2-9 hr per pointing) using multi-slit facilities on both the VLT and Keck thus bringing the total number of spectroscopically-identified X-ray sources to over 500 in this survey field. We provide a comprehensive catalog of X-ray sources detected in the E-CDF-S including the optical and near-infrared counterparts, and redshifts (both spectroscopic and photometric) that incorporate published spectroscopic catalogs thus resulting in a final sample with a high fraction (80%) of X-ray sources having secure identifications. We demonstrate the remarkable coverage of the Lx-z plane now accessible from our data while emphasizing the detection of AGNs that contribute to the faint end of the luminosity function at 1.5

  16. CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF SGR 1627–41 NEAR QUIESCENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on an observation of SGR 1627–41 made with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory on 2011 June 16. Approximately three years after its outburst activity in 2008, the source's flux has been declining, as it approaches its quiescent state. For an assumed power-law spectrum, we find that the absorbed 2-10 keV flux for the source is 1.0+0.3–0.2 × 10–13 erg cm–2 s–1 with a photon index of 2.9 ± 0.8 (NH = 1.0 × 1023 cm–2). This flux is approximately consistent with that measured at the same time after the source's outburst in 1998. With measurements spanning three years after the 2008 outburst, we analyze the long-term flux and spectral evolution of the source. The flux evolution is well described by a double exponential with decay times of 0.5 ± 0.1 and 59 ± 6 days, and a thermal cooling model fit suggests that SGR 1627–41 may have a hot core (Tc ∼ 2 × 108 K). We find no clear correlation between flux and spectral hardness as found in other magnetars. We consider the quiescent X-ray luminosities of magnetars and the subset of rotation-powered pulsars with high magnetic fields (B ∼> 1013 G) in relation to their spin-inferred surface magnetic field strength and find a possible trend between the two quantities.

  17. SWIFT X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF CLASSICAL NOVAE. II. THE SUPER SOFT SOURCE SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Greg J. [American Astronomical Society, 2000 Florida Avenue, NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20009-1231 (United States); Ness, Jan-Uwe [XMM-Newton Science Operations Centre, ESAC, Apartado 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Osborne, J. P.; Page, K. L.; Evans, P. A.; Beardmore, A. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Walter, Frederick M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Andrew Helton, L. [SOFIA Science Center, USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, M.S. N211-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Woodward, Charles E. [Minnesota Institute of Astrophysics, 116 Church Street S.E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Bode, Mike [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom); Starrfield, Sumner [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Drake, Jeremy J., E-mail: Greg.Schwarz@aas.org [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, MS 3, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The Swift gamma-ray burst satellite is an excellent facility for studying novae. Its rapid response time and sensitive X-ray detector provides an unparalleled opportunity to investigate the previously poorly sampled evolution of novae in the X-ray regime. This paper presents Swift observations of 52 Galactic/Magellanic Cloud novae. We included the X-Ray Telescope (0.3-10 keV) instrument count rates and the UltraViolet and Optical Telescope (1700-8000 A) filter photometry. Also included in the analysis are the publicly available pointed observations of 10 additional novae the X-ray archives. This is the largest X-ray sample of Galactic/Magellanic Cloud novae yet assembled and consists of 26 novae with Super Soft X-ray emission, 19 from Swift observations. The data set shows that the faster novae have an early hard X-ray phase that is usually missing in slower novae. The Super Soft X-ray phase occurs earlier and does not last as long in fast novae compared to slower novae. All the Swift novae with sufficient observations show that novae are highly variable with rapid variability and different periodicities. In the majority of cases, nuclear burning ceases less than three years after the outburst begins. Previous relationships, such as the nuclear burning duration versus t{sub 2} or the expansion velocity of the eject and nuclear burning duration versus the orbital period, are shown to be poorly correlated with the full sample indicating that additional factors beyond the white dwarf mass and binary separation play important roles in the evolution of a nova outburst. Finally, we confirm two optical phenomena that are correlated with strong, soft X-ray emission which can be used to further increase the efficiency of X-ray campaigns.

  18. A deep Chandra observation of the interacting star-forming galaxy Arp 299

    CERN Document Server

    Anastasopoulou, K; Ballo, L; Della Ceca, R

    2016-01-01

    We present results from a 90 ks Chandra ACIS-S observation of the X-ray luminous interacting galaxy system Arp 299 (NGC 3690/IC 694). We detect 25 discrete X-ray sources with luminosities above 4.0x10^38 erg s^-1 covering the entire Ultra Luminous X-ray source (ULX) regime. Based on the hard X-ray spectra of the non-nuclear discrete sources identified in Arp 299, and their association with young, actively star-forming region of Arp 299 we identify them as HMXBs. We find in total 20 off-nuclear sources with luminosities above the ULX limit, 14 of which are point-like sources. Furthermore we observe a marginally significant deficit in the number of ULXs, with respect to the number expected from scaling relations of X-ray binaries with the star formation rate (SFR). Although the high metalicity of the galaxy could result in lower ULX numbers, the good agreement between the observed total X-ray luminosity of ULXs, and that expected from the relevant scaling relation indicates that this deficit could be the result...

  19. Interstellar X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Oxygen, Neon, and Iron with the Chandra LETGS Spectrum of X0614+091

    CERN Document Server

    Paerels, F B S; Van der Meer, R L J; Kaastra, J S; Kuulkers, E; Den Boggende, A J F; Predehl, P; Drake, J J; Kahn, S M; Savin, D W; McLaughlin, B M; Paerels, Frits; Drake, Jeremy J.; Kahn, Steven M.; Savin, Daniel W.; Laughlin, Brendan M. Mc

    2000-01-01

    We find resolved interstellar O K, Ne K, and Fe L absorption spectra in the Chandra Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer spectrum of the low mass X-ray binary X0614+091. We measure the column densities in O and Ne, and find direct spectroscopic constraints on the chemical state of the interstellar O. These measurements probably probe a low-density line of sight through the Galaxy and we discuss the results in the context of our knowledge of the properties of interstellar matter in regions between the spiral arms.

  20. SETI at X-ray Energies - Parasitic Searches from Astrophysical Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Corbet, Robin H D

    2016-01-01

    If a sufficiently advanced civilization can either modulate the emission from an X-ray binary, or make use of the natural high luminosity to power an artificial transmitter, these can serve as good beacons for interstellar communication without involving excessive energy costs to the broadcasting civilization. In addition, the small number of X-ray binaries in the Galaxy considerably reduces the number of targets that must be investigated compared to searches in other energy bands. Low mass X-ray binaries containing neutron stars in particular are considered as prime potential natural and artificial beacons and high time resolution (better than 1ms) observations are encouraged. All sky monitors provide the capability of detecting brief powerful artificial signals from isolated neutron stars. New capabilities of X-ray astronomy satellites developed for astrophysical purposes are enabling SETI in new parameter regimes. For example, the X-ray Timing Explorer satellite provides the capability of exploring the sub...

  1. Blepharopigmentation: histopathologic observations and X-ray microanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simons, K.B.; Payne, C.M.; Heyde, R.R. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (USA))

    1988-01-01

    Blepharopigmentation or permanent eyeliner is a popular cosmetic procedure currently performed by a variety of methods. All methods attempt to implant ferrous oxide pigment into the dermis. We performed histopathologic studies on a series of three eyelid specimens, including two by a previously undescribed multi-needle pigment delivery system. Light microscopy revealed the epidermis to be pigment-free and the dermis to contain pigment in clumps. Transmission electron microscopy (EM) demonstrated that the pigment was largely in macrophages. Energy-dispersive x-ray micro-analysis showed that in addition to iron and talc, titanium particles were also present. These findings suggest that the pigment is tolerated by the eyelid despite the fact that current pigments are contaminated.

  2. Dust-grain scattering of X-rays observed during the lunar occultation of a transient X-ray source near the Galactic center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extended X-ray emission surrounding point X-ray sources has been detected in the energy band 1-10 keV during lunar occultation observations of the Galactic center region. These extended X-rays are most likely due to X-ray scattering by interstellar dust grains. The spatial size and the intensity of the extended emission around the transient X-ray source GS 1741.2-2859/1741.6-2849 have been studied extensively. The spatial size is consistent with the typical grain size of about 0.06 micron. The intensity is used to obtain the energy dependence of the scattering optical depth to the source, which suggests the existence of iron in the grains. The ratio of the iron column density contained in the grains to the hydrogen column density of the neutral gas is roughly consistent with the cosmic abundance of iron. 30 refs

  3. Chandra observations of Cygnus OB2

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Nicholas J; Drew, Janet E; Vink, Jorick S

    2011-01-01

    Cygnus OB2 is the nearest example of a massive star forming region, containing over 50 O-type stars and hundreds of B-type stars. We have analyzed two Chandra pointings in Cyg OB2, detecting ~1700 X-ray sources, of which ~1450 are thought to be members of the association. Optical and near-IR photometry has been obtained for ~90% of these sources from recent deep Galactic plane surveys. We have performed isochrone fits to the near-IR color-magnitude diagram, deriving ages of 3.5(+0.75,-1.0) and 5.25(+1.5,-1.0) Myrs for sources in the two fields, both with considerable spreads around the pre-MS isochrones. The presence of a second population in the region, somewhat older than the present-day O-type stars, has been suggested by other authors and fits with the ages derived here. The fraction of sources with inner circumstellar disks (as traced by the K-band excess) is found to be very low, but appropriate for a population of age ~5 Myrs. We measure the stellar mass functions and find a power-law slope of Gamma = ...

  4. Computer solutions for studying correlations between solar magnetic fields and Skylab X-ray observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuber, D.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Hagyard, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described which correlates the NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Image Data Processing System (IDAPS) and MSFC magnetograph data to X-ray and H-alpha observations from the Skylab mission. Solutions of Laplace's equation in three dimensions, based on the magnetograph data, are convolved with observed X-ray and H-alpha regions. Matched filtering (template matching) provides a best fit of the observed X-ray regions to the computed total magnetic vector magnitude between 10,000 and 15,000 km above the photosphere.

  5. XMM-Newton Observations of the 2003 X-ray Minimum of Eta Carinae

    OpenAIRE

    Hamaguchi, K.; M. F. Corcoran; Gull, T.; White, N. E.; Damineli, A.; Davidson, K.

    2004-01-01

    The XMM-Newton X-ray observatory took part in the multi-wavelength observing campaign of the massive, evolved star Eta Carinae in 2003 during its recent X-ray minimum. This paper reports on the results of these observations, mainly from the aspect of spectral change. Hard X-ray emission from the point source of Eta Carinae was detected even during the minimum. During the minimum the observed flux above 3 keV was ~3e-12 ergs cm-2 s-1, which is about one percent of the flux before the minimum. ...

  6. X-ray Observations of Disrupted Recycled Pulsars: No Refuge for Orphaned Central Compact Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Gotthelf, E V; Allen, B; Knispel, B

    2013-01-01

    We present a Chandra X-ray survey of the disrupted recycled pulsars (DRPs), isolated radio pulsars with P > 20 ms and B_s 1E4 - 1E5 yr, roughly 10 times the ages of the approximately 10 known CCOs in a similar volume of the Galaxy. The order of a hundred CCO descendants that could be detected by this method are thus either intrinsically radio quiet, or occupy a different region of (P,B_s) parameter space from the DRPs. This motivates a new X-ray search for orphaned CCOs among radio pulsars with larger B-fields, which could verify the theory that their fields are buried by fall-back of supernova ejecta, but quickly regrow to join the normal pulsar population.

  7. SWIFT AND FERMI OBSERVATIONS OF X-RAY FLARES: THE CASE OF LATE INTERNAL SHOCK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troja, E. [Center for Research and Exploration in Space Science and Technology, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Piro, L. [INAF-IAPS, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Vasileiou, V. [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Universite Montpellier 2, and CNRS/IN2P3, Montpellier (France); Omodei, N. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Burgess, J. M.; Connaughton, V. [University of Alabama in Huntsville, NSSTC, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Cutini, S. [ASI Science Data Center, via Galileo Galilei, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); McEnery, J. E., E-mail: eleonora.troja@nasa.gov, E-mail: luigi.piro@iaps.inaf.it, E-mail: Vlasios.Vasileiou@lupm.in2p3.fr [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2015-04-10

    Simultaneous Swift and Fermi observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) offer a unique broadband view of their afterglow emission, spanning more than 10 decades in energy. We present the sample of X-ray flares observed by both Swift and Fermi during the first three years of Fermi operations. While bright in the X-ray band, X-ray flares are often undetected at lower (optical), and higher (MeV to GeV) energies. We show that this disfavors synchrotron self-Compton processes as the origin of the observed X-ray emission. We compare the broadband properties of X-ray flares with the standard late internal shock model, and find that in this scenario, X-ray flares can be produced by a late-time relativistic (Γ > 50) outflow at radii R ∼ 10{sup 13}-10{sup 14} cm. This conclusion holds only if the variability timescale is significantly shorter than the observed flare duration, and implies that X-ray flares can directly probe the activity of the GRB central engine.

  8. Chandra and Swift observations of the quasi-persistent neutron star transient EXO 0748−676 back to quiescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Degenaar; R. Wijnands; M.T. Wolff; P.S. Ray; K.S. Wood; J. Homan; W.H.G. Lewin; P.G. Jonker; E.M. Cackett; J.M. Miller; E.F. Brown

    2009-01-01

    The quasi-persistent neutron star X-ray transient and eclipsing binary EXO 0748-676 recently started the transition to quiescence following an accretion outburst that lasted more than 24 years. We report on two Chandra and 12 Swift observations performed within five months after the end of the outbu

  9. A deep XMM-Newton X-ray observation of the Chamaeleon I dark cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Robrade, J

    2006-01-01

    Methods. The northern-eastern fringe of the Chameleon I dark cloud was observed with XMM-Newton, revisiting a region observed with ROSAT 15 years ago. Centered on the extended X-ray source CHXR49 we are able to resolve it into three major contributing components and to analyse their spectral properties. Furthermore, the deep exposure allows not only the detection of numerous, previously unknown X-ray sources, but also the investigation of variability and the study of the X-ray properties for the brighter targets in the field. We use EPIC spectra, to determine X-ray brightness, coronal temperatures and emission measures for these sources, compare the properties of classical and weak-line T Tauri stars and make a comparison with results from the ROSAT observation. Results. X-ray properties of T Tauri stars in Cha I are presented. The XMM-Newton images resolve some previously blended X-ray sources, confirm several possible ones and detect many new X-ray targets, resulting in the most comprehensive list with 71 X...

  10. Suzaku observations of the hard X-ray spectrum of Vela Jr

    CERN Document Server

    Takeda, Sawako; Terada, Yukikatsu; Tashiro, Makoto S; Katsuda, Satoru; Yamazaki, Ryo; Ohira, Yutaka; Iwakiri, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of Suzaku observations of the young supernova remnant, Vela Jr.\\ (RX J0852.0$-$4622), which is known to emit synchrotron X-rays, as well as TeV gamma-rays. Utilizing 39 Suzaku mapping observation data from Vela Jr., a significant hard X-ray emission is detected with the hard X-ray detector (HXD) from the north-west TeV-emitting region. The X-ray spectrum is well reproduced by a single power-law model with the photon index of 3.15$^{+1.18}_{-1.14}$ in the 12--22 keV band. Compiling this with the soft X-ray spectrum simultaneously observed with the X-ray imaging spectrometer (XIS) onboard Suzaku, we find that the wide-band X-ray spectrum in the 2--22 keV band is reproduced with a single power-law or concave broken power-law model, which are statistically consistent with each other. Whichever the model of a single or broken power-law is appropriate, clearly the spectrum has no rolloff structure. Applying this result to the method introduced in \\citet{yama2014}, we find that one-zone synchro...

  11. Chandra and Very Large Array Observations of the Nearby Sd Galaxy NGC 45

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannuti, Thomas G.; Swartz, Douglas A.; Laine, Seppo; Schlegel, Eric M.; Lacey, Christina K.; Moffitt, William P.; Sharma, Biswas; Lackey-Stewart, Aaron M.; Kosakowski, Alekzander R.; Filipović, Miroslav D.; Payne, Jeffrey L.

    2015-09-01

    We present an analysis of high angular resolution observations made in the X-ray and the radio with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Karl Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), respectively, of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 45. This galaxy is the third that we have considered in a study of the supernova remnant (SNR) populations of nearby spiral galaxies and the present work represents the first detailed analysis of the discrete X-ray and radio source populations of this galaxy. We analyzed data sets from the three pointed observations made of this galaxy with Chandra along with a merged data set obtained from combining these data sets: the total effective exposure time of the merged data set is 63515 s. A total of 25 discrete X-ray sources are found in the entire field of view of the ACIS-S3 chip, with 16 sources found within the visual extent of the galaxy. We estimate that as many as half of the sources detected in the entire field of view of the ACIS-S3 chip and seven of the sources detected in the optical extent of NGC 45 may be background sources. We analyzed the spectral properties of the discrete X-ray sources within the galaxy and conclude that the majority of these sources are X-ray binaries. We have searched for counterparts at different wavelengths to the discrete X-ray sources and we find two associations: one with a star cluster and the other with a background galaxy. We have found one source that is clearly variable within one observation and seven that are seen to vary from one observation to another. We also conduct a photometric analysis to determine the near-infrared fluxes of the discrete X-ray sources in Spitzer Infrared Array Camera channels. We constructed a cumulative luminosity function of the discrete X-ray sources seen toward NGC 45: taking into account simultaneously the luminosity function of background sources, the fitted slope of the cumulative luminosity function Γ = -1.3{}-1.6+0.7 (all error bounds correspond to 90% confidence

  12. A deep Chandra observation of the interacting star-forming galaxy Arp 299

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasopoulou, K.; Zezas, A.; Ballo, L.; Della Ceca, R.

    2016-08-01

    We present results from a 90 ks Chandra ACIS-S observation of the X-ray luminous interacting galaxy system Arp 299 (NGC 3690/IC 694). We detect 25 discrete X-ray sources with luminosities above ˜4.0 × 1038 erg s-1 covering the entire Ultra Luminous X-ray source (ULX) regime. Based on the hard X-ray spectra of the non-nuclear discrete sources identified in Arp 299, and their association with young, actively star-forming region of Arp 299 we identify them as HMXBs. We find in total 20 off-nuclear sources with luminosities above the ULX limit, 14 of which are point-like sources. Furthermore we observe a marginally significant deficit in the number of ULXs, with respect to the number expected from scaling relations of X-ray binaries with the star formation rate (SFR). Although the high metallicity of the galaxy could result in lower ULX numbers, the good agreement between the observed total X-ray luminosity of ULXs, and that expected from the relevant scaling relation indicates that this deficit could be the result of confusion effects. The integrated spectrum of the galaxy shows the presence of a hot gaseous component with kT = 0.72 ± 0.03 keV, contributing ˜20 per cent of the soft (0.1-2.0 keV) unabsorbed luminosity of the galaxy. A plume of soft X-ray emission in the west of the galaxy indicates a large scale outflow. We find that the AGN in NGC 3690 contributes only 22 per cent of the observed broad-band X-ray luminosity of Arp 299.

  13. Exploratory Chandra observation of the ultraluminous quasar SDSS J010013.02+280225.8 at redshift 6.30

    CERN Document Server

    Ai, Yanli; Fan, Xiaohui; Wang, Feige; Wu, Xue-Bing; Bian, Fuyan

    2016-01-01

    We report exploratory \\chandra\\ observation of the ultraluminous quasar SDSS J010013.02+280225.8 at redshift 6.30. The quasar is clearly detected by \\chandra\\ with a possible component of extended emission. The rest-frame 2-10 keV luminosity is 9.0$^{+9.1}_{-4.5}$ $\\times$ 10$^{45}$ erg s$^{-1}$ with inferred photon index of $\\Gamma$ = 3.03$^{+0.78}_{-0.70}$. This quasar is X-ray bright, with inferred X-ray-to-optical flux ratio \\aox\\ $=-1.22^{+0.07}_{-0.05}$, higher than the values found in other quasars of comparable ultraviolet luminosity. The properties inferred from this exploratory observation indicate that this ultraluminous quasar might be growing with super-Eddington accretion and probably viewed with small inclination angle. Deep X-ray observation will help to probe the plausible extended emission and better constraint the spectral features for this ultraluminous quasar.

  14. X-ray Observations of the Supernova Remnant CTB 87 (G74.9+1.2): An Evolved Pulsar Wind Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Matheson, H; Kothes, R

    2013-01-01

    Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) studies with the Chandra X-ray Observatory have opened a new window to address the physics of pulsar winds, zoom on their interaction with their hosting supernova remnant (SNR) and interstellar medium, and identify their powering engines. We here present a new 70 ks, plus an archived 18 ks, Chandra ACIS observation of the SNR CTB 87 (G74.9+1.2), classified as a PWN with unusual radio properties and poorly studied in X-rays. We find that the peak of the X-ray emission is clearly offset from the peak of the radio emission by ~100" and located at the southeastern edge of the radio nebula. We detect a point source - the putative pulsar - at the peak of the X-ray emission and study its spectrum separately from the PWN. This new point source, CXOU J201609.2+371110, is surrounded by a compact nebula displaying a torus-like structure and possibly a jet. A more extended diffuse nebula is offset from the radio nebula, extending from the point source to the northwest for ~250" The spectra of t...

  15. Simultaneous X-ray/optical observations of GX 9+9 (4U 1728-16)

    CERN Document Server

    Kong, A K H; Homer, L; Kuulkers, E; O'Donoghue, D

    2006-01-01

    We report on the results of the first simultaneous X-ray (RXTE) and optical (SAAO) observations of the luminous low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) GX 9+9 in 1999 August. The high-speed optical photometry revealed an orbital period of 4.1958 hr and confirmed previous observations, but with greater precision. No X-ray modulation was found at the orbital period. On shorter timescales, a possible 1.4-hr variability was found in the optical light curves which might be related to the mHz quasi-periodic oscillations seen in other LMXBs. We do not find any significant X-ray/optical correlation in the light curves. In X-rays, the colour-colour diagram and hardness-intensity diagram indicate that the source shows characteristics of an atoll source in the upper banana state, with a correlation between intensity and spectral hardness. Time-resolved X-ray spectroscopy suggests that two-component spectral models give a reasonable fit to the X-ray emission. Such models consist of a blackbody component which can be interpreted as ...

  16. X-ray Observation of XTE J2012+381 during the 1998 Outburst

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. Naik; P. C. Agrawal; B. Paul; A. R. Rao; S. Seetha; Κ. Kasturirangan

    2000-06-01

    The outburst of X-ray transient source XTE J2012+381 was detected by the RXTE All-Sky Monitor on 1998 May 24th. Following the outburst, X-ray observations of the source were made in the 2-18keV energy band with the Pointed Proportional Counters of the Indian X-ray Astronomy Experiment (IXAE) on-board the Indian satellite IRS-P3 during 1998 June 2nd-10th. The X-ray flux of the source in the main outburst decreased exponentially during the period of observation. No large amplitude short-term variability in the intensity is detected from the source. The power density spectrum obtained from the timing analysis of the data shows no indication of any quasi-periodic oscillations in 0.002-0.5 Hz band. The hardness ratio i.e. the ratio of counts in 6-18 keV to 2-6 keV band, indicates that the X-ray spectrum is soft with spectral index > 2. From the similarities of the X-ray properties with those of other black hole transients, we conclude that the X-ray transient XTE J2012+381 is likely to be a black hole.

  17. Imaging observations of X-ray albedo in a compact disc flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Marina; Kontar, Eduard

    X-rays from solar flare sources are an important diagnostic tool for particle acceleration and transport in the solar atmosphere. However, the observed flux at Earth is composed of direct emission and photons which are Compton backscattered from the photosphere. This contribu-tion can account for up to 40 We present imaging observations of a compact flare on the solar disc. The source full-width-half maximum was determined at different energies using X-ray visibility forward fitting. The observed source size increases and decreases with energy with a maximum size at about 40 keV, contrary to observations made in limb events. The behavior is consistent with predictions from Monte Carlo simulations of X-ray photon transport in which X-ray visibilities were computed from simulated maps and fitted using visibility forward fit.

  18. X-ray observations of cluster outskirts: current status and future prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Ettori, S

    2010-01-01

    Past and current X-ray mission allow us to observe only a fraction of the volume occupied by the ICM. After reviewing the state of the art of cluster outskirts observations we discuss some important constraints that should be met when designing an experiment to measure X-ray emission out to the virial radius. From what we can surmise, WFXT is already designed to meet most of the requirements and should have no major difficulty in accommodating the remaining few.

  19. Upper limits from hard X-ray observations of five BL Lacertae objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezler, M.; Gruber, D. E.; Rothschild, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented from hard X-ray observations of the five brightest X-ray BL Lacertae objects: PKS 0548-322, Mrk 421 (=1101+384), 2A 1219+305, Mrk 501 (=1652+398), and PKS 2155-304. The observations covered the energy range 15-165 keV from August 1977 to December 1978. The results are compared with previous studies.

  20. A Redshift Determination for XRF 020903: First Spectroscopic Observations of an X-Ray Flash

    OpenAIRE

    Soderberg, A. M.; S. R. Kulkarni; Berger, E.; Fox, D.B.; Price, P. A.; Yost, S. A.; Hunt, M. P.; Frail, D. A.; Walker, R. C.; Hamuy, M.; Shectman, S. A.; Halpern, J. P.; Mirabal, N.

    2003-01-01

    We report the discovery of optical and radio afterglow emission from the extremely soft X-ray flash, XRF 020903. Our spectroscopic observations provide the first redshift for an X-ray flash, thereby setting the distance scale for these events. At $z=0.251$, XRF 020903 is one of the nearest cosmic explosions ever detected, second only to the recent GRB 030329 and the unusual GRB 980425/SN 1998bw. Moreover, XRF 020903 is the first X-ray flash for which we detect an optical afterglow. The lumino...

  1. Observation of the X-Ray Magneto-Optical Voigt Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertins, H.-Ch.; Oppeneer, P. M.; Kunes, J.; Gaupp, A.; Abramsohn, D.; Schaefers, F.

    2001-07-23

    The existence of the x-ray magneto-optical Voigt effect is demonstrated. By means of polarization analysis the Voigt rotation and ellipticity of linearly polarized synchrotron radiation are measured at the Co L{sub 3} edge upon transmission through an amorphous Co film. The observed x-ray Voigt rotation is about 7.5{sup o}/{mu}m . On the basis of ab initio calculations it is shown that the x-ray Voigt effect follows sensitively the amount of spin polarization of the 2p core states. Therefore it provides a unique measure of the spin splitting of the core states.

  2. Observation of the X-ray magneto-optical Voigt effect

    CERN Document Server

    Metins, H Ch; Gaupp, A; Abramsohn, D; Schäfers, F; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.87.047401

    2001-01-01

    The existence of the X-ray magneto-optical Voigt effect is demonstrated. By means of polarization analysis, the Voigt rotation and ellipticity of linearly polarized synchrotron radiation are measured at the Co L/sub 3/ edge upon transmission through an amorphous Co film. The observed X-ray Voigt rotation is about 7.5 degrees / mu m. On the basis of ab initio calculations it is shown that the X-ray Voigt effect follows sensitively the amount of spin polarization of the 2p core states. Therefore it provides a unique measure of the spin splitting of the core states. (27 refs).

  3. Observation of the x-ray magneto-optical Voigt effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertins, H C; Oppeneer, P M; Kunes, J; Gaupp, A; Abramsohn, D; Schäfers, F

    2001-07-23

    The existence of the x-ray magneto-optical Voigt effect is demonstrated. By means of polarization analysis the Voigt rotation and ellipticity of linearly polarized synchrotron radiation are measured at the Co L3 edge upon transmission through an amorphous Co film. The observed x-ray Voigt rotation is about 7.5 degrees /microm. On the basis of ab initio calculations it is shown that the x-ray Voigt effect follows sensitively the amount of spin polarization of the 2p core states. Therefore it provides a unique measure of the spin splitting of the core states. PMID:11461644

  4. Potential solar axion signatures in X-ray observations with the XMM-Newton observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Fraser, G. W.; Read, A. M.; Sembay, S.; Carter, J. A.; Schyns, E.

    2014-01-01

    The soft X-ray flux produced by solar axions in the Earth's magnetic field is evaluated in the context of ESA's XMM-Newton observatory. Recent calculations of the scattering of axion-conversion X-rays suggest that the sunward magnetosphere could be an observable source of 0.2-10 keV photons. For XMM-Newton, any conversion X-ray intensity will be seasonally modulated by virtue of the changing visibility of the sunward magnetic field region. A simple model of the geomagnetic field is combined w...

  5. The continuous spectrum of Markarian 421 during periods of X-ray satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufson, S. L.; Wood, K.; Mcnutt, D. P.; Yentis, D. J.; Meekins, J. F.; Byram, E. T.; Chubb, T. A.; Friedman, H.; Wisniewski, W. Z.

    1980-01-01

    New UBVRI photometry of Mrk 421 obtained during periods of X-ray satellite observations are presented. An X-ray light curve for 1977 November from the HEAO A-1 experiment is also given. The decomposition of the UBVR fluxes into a compact nonthermal component and an extended galactic component shows that there are coordinated variations in the optical nonthermal and X-ray emission. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that the mini-BL Lac object is emitting by the synchrontron-self-Compton process. The host galaxy of this composite source has properties like those of a giant elliptical.

  6. Observation of X-ray-induced phase transition phenomenon of cesium manganese hexacyanoferrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiji, K [Kyushu Synchrotron Light Research Center, 8-7 Yayoigaoka, Tosu, Saga 841-0005 (Japan); Deguchi, M; Nakajima, N [Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Matsuda, T; Tokoro, H; Ohkoshi, S [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Iwazumi, T, E-mail: ishiji@saga-ls.j [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2009-02-01

    Cesium manganese hexacyanoferrate is an interesting material which exhibits the phase transition with the magnetic susceptibility variation under the effect of external stimuli; such as temperature and visible light irradiation. This phase transition attributes the charge transfer between ions in the Fe-CN-Mn bond. Recently, we observed the phase transition by X-ray irradiation below 80 K. The X-ray absorption spectrum of the low-temperature (LT) phase approached toward that of the high-temperature (HT) phase. The spectrum variation by X-ray irradiation attributes the charge transfer from Fe{sup II} to Mn{sup III}.

  7. Effects of the variability of the nucleus of NGC1275 on X-ray observations of the surrounding intracluster medium

    CERN Document Server

    Fabian, A C; Pinto, C; Russell, H R; Edge, A C

    2015-01-01

    The active galaxy NGC1275 lies at the centre of the Perseus cluster of galaxies, which is the X-ray brightest cluster in the Sky. The nucleus shows large variability over the past few decades. We compile a lightcurve of its X-ray emission covering about 40 years and show that the bright phase around 1980 explains why the inner X-ray bubbles were not seen in the images taken with the Einstein Observatory. The flux had dropped considerably by 1992 when images with the ROSAT HRI led to their discovery. The nucleus is showing a slow X-ray rise since the first Chandra images in 2000. If it brightens back to the pre-1990 level, then X-ray absorption spectroscopy by ASTRO-H can reveal the velocity structure of the shocked gas surrounding the inner bubbles.

  8. Observations of Type i X-Ray Bursts from GS 1826-238 with RXTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Walter

    Type I X-ray bursts are the result of thermonuclear flashes on the surface of accreting neutron stars. The spectral lines which are expected in the X-ray spectra of the bursts will allow for a direct measurement of the gravitational redshift from the surface of the neutron stars (one of the holy grails in physics). XMM-Newton has the potential of detecting such lines. We have been awarded 200 ksec observations with XMM-Newton of the X-ray burster GS 1826-238. During this time we expect to observe ten X-ray bursts and to accumulate about 40,000 high-spectral resolution burst counts with the RGS, and roughly 2 Mcounts with EPIC-PN. We are requesting simultaneous observations with RXTE to obtain essential information about the underlying continuum spectrum.

  9. A remarkable recurrent nova in M31 - The X-ray observations

    CERN Document Server

    Henze, M; Darnley, M J; Bode, M F; Williams, S C; Shafter, A W; Kato, M; Hachisu, I

    2014-01-01

    Another outburst of the recurrent M31 nova M31N 2008-12a was announced in late November 2013. Optical data suggest an unprecedentedly short recurrence time of approximately one year. In this Letter we address the X-ray properties of M31N 2008-12a. We requested Swift monitoring observations shortly after the optical discovery. We estimated source count rates and extracted X-ray spectra from the resulting data. The corresponding ultraviolet (UV) data was also analysed. M31N 2008-12a was clearly detected as a bright supersoft X-ray source (SSS) only six days after the well-constrained optical discovery. It displayed a short SSS phase of two weeks duration and an exceptionally hot X-ray spectrum with an effective blackbody temperature of ~97 eV. During the SSS phase the X-ray light curve displayed significant variability that might have been accompanied by spectral variations. The very early X-ray variability was found to be anti-correlated with simultaneous variations in the UV flux. The X-ray properties of M31N...

  10. Weak Hard X-ray Emission from Two Broad Absorption Line Quasars Observed with NuSTAR: Compton-thick Absorption or Intrinsic X-ray Weakness?

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, B; Alexander, D M; Harrison, F A; Stern, D; Bauer, F E; Boggs, S E; Christensen, F E; Comastri, A; Craig, W W; Fabian, A C; Farrah, D; Fiore, F; Fuerst, F; Grefenstette, B W; Hailey, C J; Hickox, R; Madsen, K K; Matt, G; Ogle, P; Risaliti, G; Saez, C; Teng, S H; Walton, D J; Zhang, W W

    2013-01-01

    We present NuSTAR hard X-ray observations of two X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, PG 1004+130 (radio loud) and PG 1700+518 (radio quiet). Many BAL quasars appear X-ray weak, probably due to absorption by the shielding gas between the nucleus and the accretion-disk wind. The two targets are among the optically brightest BAL quasars, yet they are known to be significantly X-ray weak at rest-frame 2-10 keV (16-120 times fainter than typical quasars). We would expect to obtain ~400-600 hard X-ray (>10 keV) photons with NuSTAR, provided that these photons are not significantly absorbed (NH<1E24 cm^{-2}). However, both BAL quasars are only detected in the softer NuSTAR bands (e.g., 4-20 keV) but not in its harder bands (e.g., 20-30 keV), suggesting that either the shielding gas is highly Compton-thick or the two targets are intrinsically X-ray weak. We constrain the column densities for both to be NH~7E24 cm^{-2} if the weak hard X-ray emission is caused by obscuration from the shielding gas. We d...

  11. Chandra Observations of 3C Radio Sources with z<0.3 II: completing the snapshot survey

    CERN Document Server

    Massaro, F; Harris, D E; Kharb, P; Axon, D; Balmaverde, B; Baum, S A; Capetti, A; Chiaberge, M; Gilli, R; Giovannini, G; Grandi, P; Macchetto, F D; O'Dea, C P; Risaliti, G; Sparks, W; Torresi, E

    2012-01-01

    We report on the second round of Chandra observations of the 3C snapshot survey developed to observe the complete sample of 3C radio sources with z<0.3 for 8 ksec each. In the first paper, we illustrated the basic data reduction and analysis procedures performed for the 30 sources of the 3C sample observed during the Chandra Cycle 9, while here, we present the data for the remaining 27 sources observed during Cycle 12. We measured the X-ray intensity of the nuclei and of any radio hotspots and jet features with associated X-ray emission. X-ray fluxes in three energy bands: soft, medium and hard for all the sources analyzed are also reported. For the stronger nuclei, we also applied the standard spectral analysis which provides the best fit values of X-ray spectral index and absorbing column density. In addition, a detailed analysis of bright X-ray nuclei that could be affected by pileup has been performed. X-ray emission was detected for all the nuclei of the radio sources in our sample except for 3C 319. ...

  12. Cross-calibration of the X-ray Instruments onboard the Chandra, INTEGRAL, RXTE, Suzaku, Swift, and XMM-Newton Observatories using G21.5-0.9

    CERN Document Server

    Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Plucinsky, Paul P; Beardmore, Andrew P; Ishida, Manabu; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Posson-Brown, Jennifer L L; Read, Andrew M; Saxton, Richard D; Shaposhnikov, Nikolai V

    2010-01-01

    Context. The Crab nebula has been used as a celestial calibration source of the X-ray flux and spectral shape for many years by X-ray astronomy missions. However, the object is often too bright for current and future missions equipped with instruments with improved sensitivity. Aims. We use G21.5-0.9 as a viable, fainter substitute to the Crab, which is another pulsar-wind nebula with a time-constant powerlaw spectrum with a flux of a few milli Crab in the X-ray band. Using this source, we conduct a cross-calibration study of the instruments onboard currently active observatories: Chandra ACIS, Suzaku XIS, Swift XRT, XMM-Newton EPIC (MOS and pn) for the soft-band, and INTEGRAL IBIS-ISGRI, RXTE PCA, and Suzaku HXD-PIN for the hard band. Methods. We extract spectra from all the instruments and fit them under the same astrophysical assumptions. We compare the spectral parameters of the G21.5-0.9 model: power-law photon index, H-equivalent column density of the interstellar photoelectric absorption, flux in the s...

  13. Reconstruction of the history of the Galactic Center from X-ray and gamma-ray observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyakova, Maria

    2016-07-01

    In the centre of our Galaxy lies a super-massive black hole, identified with the radio source Sagittarius A. In this talk I will discuss imaging, spectral, and timing analysis of data from 74 months of observations of the Galactic centre by Fermi/LAT γ-ray telescope complemented by sub-MeV data from approximately ten years of INTEGRAL/PICsIT observations. I will show that the source spectrum is consistent with a model of inverse Compton scattering by high-energy electrons. In this a model, the GeV bump in the spectrum originates from an episode of injection of high-energy particles, which happened ~300 years ago. This injection episode coincides with the known activity episode of the Galactic centre region, previously identified using X-ray observations. This conclusion was derived from the detection of reflected X-ray emission from the giant molecular clouds in the Galactic centre region. However, the interpretation of the reflected emission spectra cannot be done correctly without detailed modelling of the reflection process. I will also discuss the Monte Carlo simulation code in we have developed to fully model the complex processes involved in the emerging reflection spectra. Application of our code to XMM-Newton, Chandra and INTERGRAL observations of Sgr B2, alow us to constrain the position and density of the cloud and the incident luminosity of the central source.

  14. Coordinated X-ray, Ultraviolet, Optical, and Radio Observations of the PSR J1023+0038 System in a Low-mass X-ray Binary State

    CERN Document Server

    Bogdanov, Slavko; Bassa, Cees; Deller, Adam; Halpern, Jules P; Heald, George; Hessels, Jason W T; Janssen, Gemma H; Lyne, Andrew G; Moldon, Javier; Paragi, Zsolt; Patruno, Alessandro; Perera, Benetge; Stappers, Ben W; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P; D'Angelo, Caroline R; Wijnands, Rudy

    2014-01-01

    The PSR J1023+0038 binary system hosts a neutron star and a low-mass, main-sequence-like star. It switches on year timescales between states as an eclipsing radio millisecond pulsar and a low-mass X-ray binary. We present a multi-wavelength observational campaign of PSR J1023+0038 in its most recent low-mass X-ray binary state. Two long XMM-Newton observations reveal that the system spends ~70% of the time in a ~$3\\times10^{33}$ erg/s X-ray luminosity mode, which, as shown in Archibald et al. (2014), exhibits coherent X-ray pulsations. This emission is interspersed with frequent lower flux mode intervals with ~$5\\times 10^{32}$ erg/s and sporadic flares reaching up to ~$10^{34}$ erg/s, with neither mode showing significant X-ray pulsations. The switches between the three flux modes occur on timescales of order 10 s. In the UV and optical, we observe occasional intense flares coincident with those observed in X-rays. Our radio timing observations reveal no pulsations at the pulsar period during any of the thre...

  15. Searching for Dark Matter with X-ray Observations of Local Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Jeltema, Tesla E

    2008-01-01

    A generic feature of weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter models is the emission of photons over a broad energy band resulting from the stable yields of dark matter pair annihilation. Inverse Compton scattering off cosmic microwave background photons of energetic electrons and positrons produced in dark matter annihilation is expected to produce significant diffuse X-ray emission. Dwarf galaxies are ideal targets for this type of dark matter search technique, being nearby, dark matter dominated systems free of any astrophysical diffuse X-ray background. In this paper, we present the first systematic study of X-ray observations of local dwarf galaxies aimed at the search for WIMP dark matter. We outline the optimal energy and angular ranges for current telescopes, and analyze the systematic uncertainties connected to electron/positron diffusion. We do not observe any significant X-ray excess, and translate this null result into limits on the mass and pair annihilation cross section for partic...

  16. Common observations of solar X-rays from SPHINX/CORONAS-PHOTON and XRS/MESSENGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepa, Anna; Sylwester, Janusz; Sylwester, Barbara; Siarkowski, Marek; Mrozek, Tomasz; Gryciuk, Magdalena; Phillips, Kenneth

    SphinX was a soft X-ray spectrophotometer constructed in the Space Research Centre of Polish Academy of Sciences. The instrument was launched on 30 January 2009 aboard CORONAS-PHOTON satellite as a part of TESIS instrument package. SphinX measured total solar X-ray flux in the energy range from 1 to 15 keV during the period of very low solar activity from 20 February to 29 November 2009. For these times the solar detector (X-ray Spectrometer - XRS) onboard MESSENGER also observed the solar X-rays from a different vantage point. XRS measured the radiation in similar energy range. We present results of the comparison of observations from both instruments and show the preliminary results of physical analysis of spectra for selected flares.

  17. Near-infrared observations of the Be/X-ray binary pulsar A0535+262

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sachindra Naik; Blesson Mathew; D. P. K. Banerjee; N. M. Ashok; Rajeev R. Jaiswal

    2012-01-01

    We present the results obtained from extensive near-infrared (IR) spectro-scopic and photometric observations of the Be/X-ray binary A0535+262/HDE 245770 at different phases of its ~ 111 d orbital period.This observation campaign is part of the monitoring program of selective Be/X-ray binary systems aimed at understanding X-ray and near-IR properties at different orbital phases,especially during the periastron passage of the neutron star.The near-IR observations presented here were carried out using the 1.2 m telescope at the Mt.Abu IR Observatory.Though the source was relatively faint for spectroscopic observations with the 1.2 m telescope,we monitored the source closely during the 2011 February-March giant X-ray outburst to primarily investigate whether any drastic changes in the near-IR JHK spectra took place at the periastron passage.Changes of such a striking nature were expected to be detectable in our spectra.Photometric observations of the Be star show a gradual and systematic fading in the JHK light curves since the onset of the X-ray outburst,which could suggest a mild evacuation/truncation of the circumstellar disk of the Be companion.Near-IR spectroscopy of the object shows that the JHK spectra are dominated by the emission lines of hydrogen Brackett and Paschen series and HeI lines at 1.0830,1.7002 and 2.0585 μm.The presence of all the hydrogen emission lines in the JHK spectra,along with the absence of any significant change in the continuum of the Be companion during X-ray quiescent and X-ray outburst phases,suggests that the near- IR line emitting regions of the disk are not significantly affected during the X-ray outburst.

  18. Observation of solar high energy gamma and X-ray emission and solar energetic particles

    CERN Document Server

    Struminsky, Alexei

    2015-01-01

    We considered 18 solar flares observed between June 2010 and July 2012, in which high energy >100 MeV {\\gamma}-emission was registered by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard FermiGRO. We examined for these {\\gamma}-events soft X-ray observations by GOES, hard X-ray observations by the Anti-Coincidence Shield of the SPectrometer aboard INTEGRAL (ACS SPI) and the Gamma-Ray burst Monitor (GBM) aboard FermiGRO. Hard X-ray and {\\pi}0-decay {\\gamma}-ray emissions are used as tracers of electron and proton acceleration, respectively. Bursts of hard X-ray were observed by ACS SPI during impulsive phase of 13 events. Bursts of hard X-ray >100 keV were not found during time intervals, when prolonged hard {\\gamma}-emission was registered by LAT/FermiGRO. Those events showing prolonged high-energy gamma-ray emission not accompanied by >100 keV hard X-ray emission are interpreted as an indication of either different acceleration processes for protons and electrons or as the presence of a proton population accelerated du...

  19. Chandra Measurements of a Complete Sample of X-ray Luminous Galaxy Clusters: The Luminosity-Mass Relation

    CERN Document Server

    Giles, P A; Dahle, H; Bonamente, M; Landry, D; Jones, C; Joy, M; Murray, S S; van der Pyl, N

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of work involving a statistically complete sample of 34 galaxy clusters, in the redshift range 0.15$\\le$z$\\le$0.3 observed with Chandra. We present the calibration of the Mass-Temperature (MT) relation using hydrostatic mass estimates for the most dynamically relaxed clusters, and use this relation as a mass proxy for the full cluster sample. We find that the slope of the MT relation follows the self-similar expectation, and is consistent with previously published relations. We investigate the luminosity-Mass (LM) relation for the cluster sample, utilising a method to fully account for selection biases. We find that the difference in normalisation of the LM relation with and without accounting for selection effects is $\\approx$2. For a cluster of luminosity 10$^{45}$ erg s$^{-1}$, we find that the mass estimated from the LM relation when we account for selection effects is $\\approx$40% higher compared to the sample LM relation (not accounting for selection effects).

  20. Observation of biological sell with ultra-short pulsed x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phase differential interference microscope has been developed and tested with x-ray lasers. The microscope is consisted with Schwarzschild type microscope as a condenser lens, a sample holder, and Fresnel zone plate as an objective lens. The demonstration is conducted with Ni-like Ag x-ray lasers (wavelength 13.9 nm) and observed human chromosomes. The spatial resolution of the microscope is measured with knife edge method and is 0.36 μm. (author)

  1. X-ray reflected spectra from accretion disk models.II. Diagnostic tools for X-ray observations

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, J; Mushotzky, R F

    2011-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the emission spectra from accreting sources. We use our new reflection code to compute the reflected spectra from an accretion disk illuminated by X-rays. This set of models covers different values of ionization parameter, solar iron abundance and photon index for the illuminating spectrum. These models also include the most complete and recent atomic data for the inner-shell of the iron and oxygen isonuclear sequences. We concentrate our analysis to the 2-10 keV energy region, and in particular to the iron K-shell emission lines. We show the dependency of the equivalent width (EW) of the Fe K$\\alpha$ with the ionization parameter. The maximum value of the EW is $\\sim 800$ eV for models with log $\\xi\\sim 1.5$, and decreases monotonically as $\\xi$ increases. For lower values of $\\xi$ the Fe K$\\alpha$ EW decreases to a minimum near log $\\xi\\sim 0.8$. We produce simulated CCD observations based on our reflection models. For low ionized, reflection dominated cases, the 2-10 keV...

  2. Cosmological evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers unveiled by hand X-ray observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review the current understanding of the cosmological evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers elucidated by X-ray surveys of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Hard X-ray observations at energies above 2 keV are the most efficient and complete tools to find “obscured” AGNs, which are dominant populations among all AGNs. Combinations of surveys with various flux limits and survey area have enabled us to determine the space number density and obscuration properties of AGNs as a function of luminosity and redshift. The results have essentially solved the origin of the X-ray background in the energy band below ∼10 keV. The downsizing (or anti-hierarchical) evolution that more luminous AGNs have the space-density peak at higher redshifts has been discovered, challenging theories of galaxy and black hole formation. Finally, we summarize unresolved issues on AGN evolution and prospects for future X-ray missions. (author)

  3. Cosmological evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers unveiled by hard X-ray observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    We review the current understanding of the cosmological evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers elucidated by X-ray surveys of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Hard X-ray observations at energies above 2 keV are the most efficient and complete tools to find "obscured" AGNs, which are dominant populations among all AGNs. Combinations of surveys with various flux limits and survey area have enabled us to determine the space number density and obscuration properties of AGNs as a function of luminosity and redshift. The results have essentially solved the origin of the X-ray background in the energy band below ∼10 keV. The downsizing (or anti-hierarchical) evolution that more luminous AGNs have the space-density peak at higher redshifts has been discovered, challenging theories of galaxy and black hole formation. Finally, we summarize unresolved issues on AGN evolution and prospects for future X-ray missions. PMID:25971656

  4. Ultrafast conversions between hydrogen bonded structures in liquid water observed by femtosecond x-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Haidan; Huse, Nils; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Lindenberg, Aaron M.

    2010-05-01

    We present the first femtosecond soft x-ray spectroscopy in liquids, enabling the observation of changes in hydrogen bond structures in water via core-hole excitation. The oxygen K-edge of vibrationally excited water is probed with femtosecond soft x-ray pulses, exploiting the relation between different water structures and distinct x-ray spectral features. After excitation of the intramolecular OH stretching vibration, characteristic x-ray absorption changes monitor the conversion of strongly hydrogen-bonded water structures to more disordered structures with weaker hydrogen-bonding described by a single subpicosecond time constant. The latter describes the thermalization time of vibrational excitations and defines the characteristic maximum rate with which nonequilibrium populations of more strongly hydrogen-bonded water structures convert to less-bonded ones. On short time scales, the relaxation of vibrational excitations leads to a transient high-pressure state and a transient absorption spectrum different from that of statically heated water.

  5. Observation of X-rays generated by relativistic electrons in waveguide target mounted inside a betatron

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplin, V V; Uglov, S R; Bulaev, O F; Voronin, A A; Piestrup, M; Gary, C

    2006-01-01

    In this work we have observed x-ray emission from x-ray waveguide radiator excited by relativistic electrons. The experiment carried out at Tomsk betatron B-35. Such new type stratified target was mounted on goniometer head inside the betatron toroid. The target is consisted of the W-C-W layers placed on Si substrate. The photographs of the angular distributions of the radiation generated in the target by 20-33 MeV electrons have shown the waveguide effect of the three-layer structure on x-rays generated in the target. The effect proved in an angular distribution of radiation as an additional narrow peak of guided x-rays intensity inside a wide cone of usual Bremsstrahlung.

  6. Cosmological evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers unveiled by hard X-ray observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    We review the current understanding of the cosmological evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers elucidated by X-ray surveys of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Hard X-ray observations at energies above 2 keV are the most efficient and complete tools to find "obscured" AGNs, which are dominant populations among all AGNs. Combinations of surveys with various flux limits and survey area have enabled us to determine the space number density and obscuration properties of AGNs as a function of luminosity and redshift. The results have essentially solved the origin of the X-ray background in the energy band below ∼10 keV. The downsizing (or anti-hierarchical) evolution that more luminous AGNs have the space-density peak at higher redshifts has been discovered, challenging theories of galaxy and black hole formation. Finally, we summarize unresolved issues on AGN evolution and prospects for future X-ray missions.

  7. Observation of X-ray shadings in synchrotron radiation-total reflection X-ray fluorescence using a color X-ray camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absorption effects and the impact of specimen shape on TXRF analysis has been discussed intensively. Model calculations indicated that ring shaped specimens should give better results in terms of higher counts per mass signals than filled rectangle or circle shaped specimens. One major reason for the difference in signal is shading effects. Full field micro-XRF with a color X-ray camera (CXC) was used to investigate shading, which occurs when working with small angles of excitation as in TXRF. The device allows monitoring the illuminated parts of the sample and the shaded parts at the same time. It is expected that sample material hit first by the primary beam shade material behind it. Using the CXC shading could be directly visualized for the high concentration specimens. In order to compare the experimental results with calculation of the shading effect the generation of controlled specimens is crucial. This was achieved by “drop on demand” technology. It allows generating uniform, microscopic deposits of elements. The experimentally measured shadings match well with those expected from calculation. - Highlights: • Use of a color X-ray camera and drop on demand printing to diagnose X-ray shading • Specimens were obtained uniform and well-defined in shape and concentration by printing. • Direct visualization and determination of shading in such specimens using the camera

  8. Observation of X-ray shadings in synchrotron radiation-total reflection X-ray fluorescence using a color X-ray camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fittschen, Ursula Elisabeth Adriane, E-mail: ursula.fittschen@chemie.uni-hamburg.de [Institut für Anorganische und Angewandte Chemie, Universität Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Menzel, Magnus [Institut für Anorganische und Angewandte Chemie, Universität Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Scharf, Oliver [IfG Institute for Scientific Instruments GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Radtke, Martin; Reinholz, Uwe; Buzanich, Günther [BAM Federal Institute of Materials Research and Testing, Berlin (Germany); Lopez, Velma M.; McIntosh, Kathryn [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Streli, Christina [Atominstitut, TU Wien, Vienna (Austria); Havrilla, George Joseph [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Absorption effects and the impact of specimen shape on TXRF analysis has been discussed intensively. Model calculations indicated that ring shaped specimens should give better results in terms of higher counts per mass signals than filled rectangle or circle shaped specimens. One major reason for the difference in signal is shading effects. Full field micro-XRF with a color X-ray camera (CXC) was used to investigate shading, which occurs when working with small angles of excitation as in TXRF. The device allows monitoring the illuminated parts of the sample and the shaded parts at the same time. It is expected that sample material hit first by the primary beam shade material behind it. Using the CXC shading could be directly visualized for the high concentration specimens. In order to compare the experimental results with calculation of the shading effect the generation of controlled specimens is crucial. This was achieved by “drop on demand” technology. It allows generating uniform, microscopic deposits of elements. The experimentally measured shadings match well with those expected from calculation. - Highlights: • Use of a color X-ray camera and drop on demand printing to diagnose X-ray shading • Specimens were obtained uniform and well-defined in shape and concentration by printing. • Direct visualization and determination of shading in such specimens using the camera.

  9. New X-ray observations of IQ Aurigae and α2 Canum Venaticorum. Probing the magnetically channeled wind shock model in A0p stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robrade, J.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2011-07-01

    Aims: We re-examine the scenario of X-ray emission from magnetically confined/channeled wind shocks (MCWS) for Ap/Bp stars, a model originally developed to explain the ROSAT detection of the A0p star IQ Aur. Methods: We present new X-ray observations of the A0p stars α2 CVn (Chandra) and IQ Aur (XMM-Newton) and discuss our findings in the context of X-ray generating mechanisms of magnetic, chemically peculiar intermediate mass stars. Results: The X-ray luminosities of IQ Aur with log LX = 29.6 erg s-1 and α2 CVn with log LX ≲ 26.0 erg s-1 differ by at least three orders of magnitude, although both are A0p stars. By studying a sample of comparison stars, we find that X-ray emission is preferably generated by more massive objects such as IQ Aur. Besides a strong, cool plasma component, significant amounts of hot (>10 MK) plasma are present during the quasi-quiescent phase of IQ Aur; moreover, diagnostics of the UV sensitive f/i line ratio in He-like O vii triplet point to X-ray emitting regions well above the stellar surface of IQ Aur. In addition we detect a large flare from IQ Aur with temperatures up to ~100 MK and a peak X-ray luminosity of log LX ≈ 31.5 erg s-1. The flare, showing a fast rise and e-folding decay time of less than half an hour, originates in a fairly compact structure and is accompanied by a significant metallicity increase. The X-ray properties of IQ Aur cannot be described by wind shocks only and require the presence of magnetic reconnection. This is most evident in the, to our knowledge, first X-ray flare reported from an A0p star. Conclusions: Our study indicates that the occurrence the of X-ray emission in A0p stars generated by magnetically channeled wind shocks depends on stellar properties such as luminosity, which promote a high mass loss rate, whereas magnetic field configuration and transient phenomena refine their appearance. While we cannot rule out unknown close companions, the X-ray emission from IQ Aur can be described

  10. Soft X-ray observations of the interacting galaxies NGC 1808 and NGC 1792

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlem, Michael; Hartner, Gisela D.; Junkes, Norbert

    1994-01-01

    The soft X-ray emission from both galaxies NGC 1808 and NGC 1792, which we investigated using the ROSAT HRI and Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC), comes most probably from X-ray binaries and/or from hot ionized gas in powerful supernovae and supernova remnants. The distribution of the soft X-ray emission in NGC 1808, which is very well correlated with the distribution of 'radio knots' in the central starburst, suggests that hot gas dominates the emission in the ROSAT band. This is consistent with the results of PSPC observations by Junkes et al. The total soft X-ray luminosity in the ROSAT band of NGC 1808 of 1.2 x 10(exp 41) ergs/s is relatively high compared with other nearby starburst galaxies. Soft X-ray emission of diffuse hot ionized gas that is associated with the outflow traced by the conspicuous dust filaments protruding from the plane has been detected. Its luminosity in the ROSAT band is greater than or equal to 3 x 10(exp 39) ergs/s, i.e., several percent of the total soft X-ray luminosity. Thus, NGC 1808 is another example for a 'superwind' galaxy. The soft X-ray radiation from NGC 1792 is more likely to be dominated by a population of high-mass X-ray binaries or young powerful supernovae which are associated with the high-level star formation going on in the very prominent H II regions along its spiral arms, with possibly an additional contribution of diffuse hot ionized gas. The soft X-ray luminosities of individual sources lie in the range of 5 x 10(exp 38) to 2.7 x 10(exp 39) ergs/s, thus exceeding by far the Eddington luminosity of an accreting neutron star. The peaks of some of these soft X-ray luminous sources are offset with respect to the H II regions by a few hundred parsecs. Accordingly, if the soft X-ray sources should originate from the H II regions, their relative velocities with respect to the ambient medium have to be as high as approximately 100 km/s.

  11. LOFAR, VLA, and Chandra observations of the Toothbrush galaxy cluster

    CERN Document Server

    van Weeren, R J; Brüggen, M; Andrade-Santos, F; Ogrean, G A; Williams, W L; Röttgering, H J A; Dawson, W A; Forman, W R; de Gasperin, F; Hardcastle, M J; Jones, C; Miley, G K; Rafferty, D A; Rudnick, L; Sabater, J; Sarazin, C L; Shimwell, T W; Bonafede, A; Best, P N; Bîrzan, L; Cassano, R; Chyży, K T; Croston, J H; Dijkema, T J; Ensslin, T; Ferrari, C; Heald, G; Hoeft, M; Horellou, C; Jarvis, M J; Kraft, R P; Mevius, M; Intema, H T; Murray, S S; Orrú, E; Pizzo, R; Sridhar, S S; Simionescu, A; Stroe, A; van der Tol, S; White, G J

    2016-01-01

    We present deep LOFAR observations between 120-181 MHz of the "Toothbrush" (RX J0603.3+4214), a cluster that contains one of the brightest radio relic sources known. Our LOFAR observations exploit a new and novel calibration scheme to probe 10 times deeper than any previous study in this relatively unexplored part of the spectrum. The LOFAR observations, when combined with VLA, GMRT, and Chandra X-ray data, provide new information about the nature of cluster merger shocks and their role in re-accelerating relativistic particles. We derive a spectral index of $\\alpha = -0.8 \\pm 0.1$ at the northern edge of the main radio relic, steepening towards the south to $\\alpha \\approx - 2$. The spectral index of the radio halo is remarkably uniform ($\\alpha = -1.16$, with an intrinsic scatter of $\\leq 0.04$). The observed radio relic spectral index gives a Mach number of $\\mathcal{M} = 2.8^{+0.5}_{-0.3}$, assuming diffusive shock acceleration (DSA). However, the gas density jump at the northern edge of the large radio r...

  12. Contemporaneous X-ray and VLBI radio observations of the quasar NRAO 140

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New observations and earlier ones are combined to present a time history of the X-ray emission and radio structure of the quasar NRAO 140 between 1978 and 1985. The compact radio structure reveals a jet composed of seven components, with two components closest to the 'core' separating superluminally from the core. The X-ray photoelectric absorption cutoff moved to significantly higher energy in 1980 compared to 1979 and 1985. This corresponds to an increase in the column density of cold gas along the line of sight in 1980. The X-ray absorption in 1979 and 1985 is consistent with that expected from H I and H2 in the Galaxy. The X-ray flux declined by about a factor of two between 1979 and 1985, while the flux density of the compact radio core declined by a similar factor between 1980 and 1984. This coincidence, combined with the statistical correlations between compact radio and X-ray fluxes of quasars, suggests that there is a direct causal connection between the compact radio core and the X-ray emitting region. 38 references

  13. A deep X-ray observation of NGC 4258 and its surrounding field

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, C S; Maloney, P R

    2000-01-01

    We present a deep X-ray observation of the low-luminosity active galactic nucleus in NGC4258 (M106) using ASCA. The soft X-ray spectrum <2keV is dominated by thermal emission from optically-thin plasma with kT~0.5keV. The hard X-ray emission is clearly due to a power-law component with photon index Gamma=1.8 absorbed by a column density of N_H=8x10^22/cm^2. The power-law is readily identified with primary X-ray emission from the AGN central engine. We also clearly detect a narrow iron K-alpha emission line at 6.4keV. No broad component is detected. We suggest that the bulk of this narrow line comes from the accretion disk and, furthermore, that the power-law X-ray source which excites this line emission (which is typically identified with a disk corona) must be at least 100GM/c^2 in extent. This is in stark contrast to many higher-luminosity Seyfert galaxies which display a broad iron line indicating a small 10 GM/c^2 X-ray emitting region. It must be stressed that this study constrains the size of the X-r...

  14. SALT observation of X-ray pulse reprocessing in 4U 1626-67★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Gayathri; Paul, Biswajit; Bhattacharya, Dipankar; Mohan, Vijay

    2016-05-01

    We investigate optical reprocessing of X-rays in the low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) pulsar 4U 1626-67 in its current spin-up phase using observations with Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), near-simultaneous observations with Swift-X-ray Telescope and non-simultaneous RXTE-Proportional Counter Array (PCA) observations and present the results of timing analysis. Using SALT observations carried out on 2014 March 5 and 6, we detect some interesting reprocessing signatures. We detect a weak optical quasiperiodic oscillation (QPO) in the power density spectrum on March 5 at 48 mHz with a fractional rms of 3.3 per cent in spite of the fact that source shows no corresponding X-ray QPO in the spin-up phase. In the light curve obtained on March 5, we detect a coherent pulsation at the spin period of ˜7.677 s. A previously known, slightly down-shifted side-band is also detected at 129.92 mHz. The frequency spacing between main pulse and this side-band is different from earlier observations, though the statistical significance of the difference is limited. The light curve of March 6 displays short time-scale variability in the form of flares on time-scales of a few minutes. Folded pulse profiles resulting from data of this night show an interesting trend of pulse peak drifting. This drift could be due to (i) rapid changes in the reprocessing agent, like orbital motion of an accretion disc warp around the neutron star, or (ii) intrinsic pulse phase changes in X-rays. We also examine some X-ray light curves obtained with RXTE-PCA during 2008-2010 for pulse shape changes in short time-scales during X-ray flares.

  15. Tracing the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium at Low Redshift X-ray Forest Observations Towards H1821+643

    CERN Document Server

    Mathur, S; Chen, X; Mathur, Smita; Weinberg, David

    2003-01-01

    We present a high resolution (R~500) X-ray spectrum of the bright quasar H1821+643 (z=0.297), obtained in a 470 ksec Chandra observation. We search for X-ray absorption by highly ionized metal species, OVII and OVIII in particular, at the redshifts of the six intervening OVI absorption systems known from UV studies. We detect features with >~2-sigma significance at the predicted OVII and OVIII wavelengths of one OVI system, at the OVII wavelength of a second, and at the NeIX wavelength of a third. We find two additional features of comparable strength (one OVII and one OVIII) within 1000 km/s of OVI redshifts. The 1-sigma constraints in the two detected OVI systems imply gas overdensities lower than the values delta>100 expected in virialized systems, suggesting that the absorption arises in lower density, filamentary structures. At the 2-sigma level, however, the physical constraints are weak. If we treat our 2-sigma detections of known OVI systems as real, but assume minimal OVII and OVIII in the other syst...

  16. Radio and X-ray Observations of the Type Ic SN 2007gr Reveal an Ordinary, Non-relativistic Explosion

    CERN Document Server

    Soderberg, Alicia M; Nakar, Ehud; Chevalier, Roger A

    2010-01-01

    We present extensive and unique radio and X-ray observations of the nearby Type Ic SN 2007gr in NGC 1058 obtained with the Very Large Array and the Chandra X-ray Observatory and spanning 5 to 150 days after explosion. Through our detailed modeling of these data, we estimate the properties of the blastwave and the circumstellar environment. We find evidence for a freely-expanding and non-relativistic explosion with an average blastwave velocity, v~0.2c, and a total internal energy for the radio emitting material of E ~ 2 x 10^46 erg assuming equipartition of energy between electrons and magnetic fields (epsilon_e=epsilon_B=0.1). The temporal and spectral evolution of the radio emission points to a stellar wind-blown environment shaped by a steady progenitor mass loss rate of Mdot ~ 6 x 10^-7 solar masses per year (wind velocity, v_w=10^3 km/s). These parameters are fully consistent with those inferred for other SNe Ibc and are in line with the expectations for an ordinary, homologous SN explosion. Our results ...

  17. A Massive Young Star-Forming Complex Study in Infrared and X-ray: Mid-Infrared Observations and Catalogs

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhn, Michael A; Luhman, Kevin L; Getman, Konstantin V; Busk, Heather S; Feigelson, Eric D

    2013-01-01

    Spitzer IRAC observations and stellar photometric catalogs are presented for the Massive Young Star-Forming Complex Study in the Infrared and X-ray (MYStIX). MYStIX is a multiwavelength census of young stellar members of twenty nearby (d < 4 kpc), Galactic, star-forming regions that contain at least one O star. All regions have data available from the Spitzer Space Telescope, consisting of GLIMPSE or other published catalogs for eleven regions and results of our own photometric analysis of archival data for the remaining nine regions. This paper seeks to construct deep and reliable catalogs of sources from the Spitzer images. Mid-infrared study of these regions faces challenges of crowding and high nebulosity. Our new catalogs typically contain fainter sources than existing Spitzer studies, which improves the match rate to Chandra X-ray sources that are likely to be young stars, but increases the possibility of spurious point-source detections, especially peaks in the nebulosity. IRAC color-color diagrams ...

  18. CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF SGR 1627-41 NEAR QUIESCENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Hongjun; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Cumming, Andrew [Department of Physics, McGill University, Rutherford Physics Building, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Tomsick, John A.; Bodaghee, Arash [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gotthelf, E. V. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Rahoui, Farid [Department of Astronomy and Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-09-20

    We report on an observation of SGR 1627-41 made with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory on 2011 June 16. Approximately three years after its outburst activity in 2008, the source's flux has been declining, as it approaches its quiescent state. For an assumed power-law spectrum, we find that the absorbed 2-10 keV flux for the source is 1.0{sup +0.3}{sub -0.2} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -13} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} with a photon index of 2.9 {+-} 0.8 (N{sub H} = 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 23} cm{sup -2}). This flux is approximately consistent with that measured at the same time after the source's outburst in 1998. With measurements spanning three years after the 2008 outburst, we analyze the long-term flux and spectral evolution of the source. The flux evolution is well described by a double exponential with decay times of 0.5 {+-} 0.1 and 59 {+-} 6 days, and a thermal cooling model fit suggests that SGR 1627-41 may have a hot core (T{sub c} {approx} 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} K). We find no clear correlation between flux and spectral hardness as found in other magnetars. We consider the quiescent X-ray luminosities of magnetars and the subset of rotation-powered pulsars with high magnetic fields (B {approx}> 10{sup 13} G) in relation to their spin-inferred surface magnetic field strength and find a possible trend between the two quantities.

  19. Denoising of X-ray pulsar observed profile in the undecimated wavelet domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Meng-fan; Li, Xiao-ping; Fu, Ling-zhong; Liu, Xiu-ping; Sun, Hai-feng; Shen, Li-rong

    2016-01-01

    The low intensity of the X-ray pulsar signal and the strong X-ray background radiation lead to low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the X-ray pulsar observed profile obtained through epoch folding, especially when the observation time is not long enough. This signifies the necessity of denoising of the observed profile. In this paper, the statistical characteristics of the X-ray pulsar signal are studied, and a signal-dependent noise model is established for the observed profile. Based on this, a profile noise reduction method by performing a local linear minimum mean square error filtering in the un-decimated wavelet domain is developed. The detail wavelet coefficients are rescaled by multiplying their amplitudes by a locally adaptive factor, which is the local variance ratio of the noiseless coefficients to the noisy ones. All the nonstationary statistics needed in the algorithm are calculated from the observed profile, without a priori information. The results of experim! ents, carried out on simulated data obtained by the ground-based simulation system and real data obtained by Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer satellite, indicate that the proposed method is excellent in both noise suppression and preservation of peak sharpness, and it also clearly outperforms four widely accepted and used wavelet denoising methods, in terms of SNR, Pearson correlation coefficient and root mean square error.

  20. HEXITEC: A Next Generation Hard X-ray Detector for Solar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Daniel; Christe, Steven; Shih, Albert; Inglis, Andrew R.; Gregory, Kyle; Baumgartner, Wayne H.; Gaskin, Jessica; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Seller, Paul; Wilson, Matthew; Veale, Matthew C.; Panessa, Marco

    2016-05-01

    There is an increasing demand in solar physics for high resolution X-ray spectroscopic imaging. Such observations would present ground-breaking opportunities to study the poorly understood high energy processes in the solar corona such as solar flares, coronal heating, etc. However, such observations require a new breed of solid-state detectors sensititve to high energy X-rays with fine independent pixels to subsample the point spread function (PSF) of the X-ray optics. They must also be capable of handling very high count rates as photon fluxes from solar flares often cause pileup in current detectors. The Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) has recently developed a new Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) detector system, dubbed HEXITEC (High Energy X-ray Imaging Technology). It is an 80x80 array of 250 micron independent pixels sensitive in the 4--80 keV band and capable of a high full frame readout rate of 10 kHz. HEXITEC provides the smallest independently read out pixels currently available, and are well matched to the few arcsecond PSF produced by the current and next generation hard X-ray focusing optics. NASA's Goddard and Marshall Space Flight Centers are collaborating with RAL to develop these detectors for use on future space-borne hard X-ray focusing telescopes. In this poster we show the latest results on HEXITEC's imaging capability, high read out rate, and energy sensitivity and reveal it to be ideal for such future instruments. The potential observations obtained by combining HEXITEC with the next generation of X-ray focusing optics could to revolutionize our understanding of high energy processes in the solar corona.

  1. Simultaneous Ultraviolet and X-ray Observations of the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 4151. II. Physical Conditions in the UV Absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Krämer, S B; Gabel, J R; Kriss, G A; Netzer, H; Peterson, B M; George, I M; Gull, T R; Hutchings, J B; Mushotzky, R F; Turner, T J

    2006-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the intrinsic absorption in the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151 using UV spectra from the HST/STIS and FUSE, obtained 2002 May as part of a set of contemporaneous observations that included Chandra/HETGS spectra. In our analysis of the Chandra spectra, we determined that the soft X-ray absorber was the source of the saturated UV lines of O VI, C IV, and N V associated with the absorption feature at a radial velocity of ~ -500 km/sec, which we referred to as component D+E. In the present work, we have derived tighter constrains on the the line-of-sight covering factors, densities, and radial distances of the absorbers. We find that the Equivalent Widths (EWs) of the low-ionization lines associated with D+E varied over the period from 1999 July to 2002 May. The drop in the EWs of these lines between 2001 April and 2002 May are suggestive of bulk motion of gas out of our line-of-sight. If these lines from these two epochs arose in the same sub-component, the transverse velocity of the...

  2. GRB 050117: Simultaneous Gamma-ray and X-ray Observations with the Swift Satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer performed its first autonomous, X-ray follow-up to a newly detected GRB on 2005 January 17, within 193 seconds of the burst trigger by the Swift Burst Alert Telescope. While the burst was still in progress, the X-ray Telescope obtained a position and an image for an un-catalogued X-ray source; simultaneous with the gamma-ray observation. The XRT observed flux during the prompt emission was 1.1 x 10-8 ergs cm-2 s-1 in the 0.5-10 keV energy band. The emission in the X-ray band decreased by three orders of magnitude within 700 seconds, following the prompt emission. This is found to be consistent with the gamma-ray decay when extrapolated into the XRT energy band. During the following 6.3 hours, the XRT observed the afterglow in an automated sequence for an additional 947 seconds, until the burst became fully obscured by the Earth limb. A faint, extremely slowly decaying afterglow, α=-0.21, was detected. Finally, a break in the lightcurve occurred and the flux decayed with α<-1.2. The X-ray position triggered many follow-up observations: no optical afterglow could be confirmed, although a candidate was identified 3 arcsecs from the XRT position

  3. Time-varying oscillations in the solar soft X-ray flux as observed from Skylab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuber, D. L.; Wilson, R. M.; Henze, W., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Observations obtained by the Skylab/Apollo telescope S-056 X-ray experiment were used to study the time-varying oscillations in the solar soft X-ray flux during a flare. The observations consisted of count rates measured every 2.5 s by sealed, gas-filled counters operating over the 2.5-7.25-A and 6.1-20.0-A wavelength ranges. The power spectra for two other intervals were computed to determine whether the observed oscillations were flare-associated or instrumental in origin. The data indicate that the oscillations in the flare-associated X-ray flux are caused by waves which are generated during the flare and which periodically increase the electron density. No oscillations were observed during quiet periods.

  4. A Chandra Observation of the Luminous Northeastern Rim of the Galactic Supernova Remnant W28 (G6.4-0.1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannuti, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    We present an analysis of a pointed observation made of the luminous northeastern rim of the Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) W28 (G6.4-0.1) with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. W28 is the archetype for the class of SNRs known as the mixed-morphology SNRs: sources in this class of objects feature a shell-like morphology with a contrasting center-filled X-ray morphology. Almost unique amongst mixed-morphology SNRs, W28 exhibits a luminous northeastern rim which is detected in the X-ray, optical and radio: this rim is also the site of a vigorous interaction between W28 and adjacent molecular clouds, as evidenced by the high concentration of hydroxyl (OH) masers seen at this rim. Our pointed Chandra observation of this rim is the highest angular X-ray observation made of this feature: initial analysis and results will be presented and discussed.

  5. CHANDRA HIGH-RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS OF CID-42, A CANDIDATE RECOILING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Civano, F.; Elvis, M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Aldcroft, T.; Trichas, M.; Fruscione, A. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bongiorno, A.; Brusa, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Blecha, L.; Loeb, A. [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Comastri, A.; Gilli, R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, Bologna 40127 (Italy); Salvato, M.; Komossa, S. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, Excellence Cluster, Boltzmannstrass 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Koekemoer, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Mainieri, V. [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Piconcelli, E. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, Monteporzio-Catone 00040 (Italy); Vignali, C. [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, Bologna 40127 (Italy)

    2012-06-10

    We present Chandra High Resolution Camera observations of CID-42, a candidate recoiling supermassive black hole (SMBH) at z = 0.359 in the COSMOS survey. CID-42 shows two optical compact sources resolved in the HST/ACS image embedded in the same galaxy structure and a velocity offset of {approx}1300 km s{sup -1} between the H{beta} broad and narrow emission line, as presented by Civano et al. Two scenarios have been proposed to explain the properties of CID-42: a gravitational wave (GW) recoiling SMBH and a double Type 1/Type 2 active galactic nucleus (AGN) system, where one of the two is recoiling because of slingshot effect. In both scenarios, one of the optical nuclei hosts an unobscured AGN, while the other one, either an obscured AGN or a star-forming compact region. The X-ray Chandra data allow us to unambiguously resolve the X-ray emission and unveil the nature of the two optical sources in CID-42. We find that only one of the optical nuclei is responsible for the whole X-ray unobscured emission observed and a 3{sigma} upper limit on the flux of the second optical nucleus is measured. The upper limit on the X-ray luminosity plus the analysis of the multiwavelength spectral energy distribution indicate the presence of a star-forming region in the second source rather than an obscured SMBH, thus favoring the GW recoil scenario. However, the presence of a very obscured SMBH cannot be fully ruled out. A new X-ray feature, in a SW direction with respect to the main source, is discovered and discussed.

  6. Simultaneous X-Ray and Radio Observations of the Unusual Binary LSI + 61 deg 303

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Fiona A.; Leahy, Denis A.; Waltman, Elizabeth

    1996-01-01

    We present simultaneous 0.5 - 10 keV X-ray and two-frequency radio observations at 2.25 and 8.3 GHz of the unusual binary system LSI + 61 deg. 303. This system was observed twice in a single binary orbit by the ASCA satellite, and monitored daily at two radio frequencies during the same orbital cycle with the Greenbank Interferometer. During the first ASCA observation the source was detected with a 1 - 10 keV luminosity 3.6 x 10(exp 33) (d/2.0 kpc)(exp 2) erg 1/s and during the second at a similar level with evidence for a decrease in average flux of 30%. During the first pointing the radio source was at a quiescent 8 GHz flux level of 30 mJy while during the second the radio flux was rising dramatically with an average value of 100 mJy. No variability is seen in the X-ray flux during the first pointing, but during the second the flux is variable by approx. 50% on timescales of approx. 30 minutes. No pulsations are seen in either X-ray observation with an upper limit on pulsed flux of 20%. The low X-ray luminosity and lack of observed pulsations indicate that accretion onto a neutron star surface is not the origin for the high-energy emission. Rather, the X-rays must result either from accreted matter which is stopped at the magnetosphere because the magnetospheric boundry is rotating at super-Keplerian rates or due to a shock formed in the interaction of the dense wind of the Be star companion and a moderately young pulsar. We derive a required pulsar spin down luminosity of approx. 10(exp 37) erg 1/s, and argue that the shock model more easily explains the observed X-ray radio observations.

  7. Shuttle and Transfer Orbit Thermal Analysis and Testing of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory Charge-Couple Device Imaging Spectrometer Radiator Shades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, John R.

    1999-01-01

    Thermal analyses of the Shuttle and Transfer Orbit of the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS), one of two science instruments on the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, revealed a low-earth orbit (LEO) overheating problem on the goldized Kapton faces of two radiator shades. The shades were coated with the goldized Kapton to provide a low hemispherical emittance to minimize direct and backloaded heating from the sun and the observatory and high specularity to optimize the coupling to space on two passive radiators which cool the focal plane to -120 C +/- 1 C during on-orbit operations. Since the observatory has a highly elliptical final orbit of 10,000 kilometers by 140,000 kilometers and the ACIS radiators and shades are oriented anti-sun, the high solar absorptance to emittance ratio of the goldized Kapton was not an issue. However, during Shuttle bay-to-earth operations, the short duration solar heating occurring near the eclipse entry and exit resulted in shade temperatures in excess of the cure temperature of the adhesive used to bond the goldized Kapton and honeycomb face-sheets. The detailed thermal analysis demonstrating the LEO overheating as well as the redesign options and thermal testing of a redesigned development unit shade are presented.

  8. X-Ray and Optical Observations of A 0535+26

    CERN Document Server

    Camero-Arranz, A; Wilson-Hodge, C A; Jenke, P; Steele, I; Coe, M J; Gutierrez-Soto, J; Kretschmar, P; Caballero, I; Case, G; Cherry, M L; Yan, J; Suso, J; Rodríguez, J; Guiriec, S; McBride, V A

    2011-01-01

    We present recent contemporaneous X-ray and optical observations of the Be/X-ray binary system A 0535+26 with the Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and several ground-based observatories. These new observations are put into the context of the rich historical data and discussed in terms of the neutron star Be-disk interaction. The Be circumstellar disk was exceptionally large just before the 2009 December giant outburst, which may explain the origin of the unusual recent X-ray activity of this source. We found a peculiar evolution of the pulse profile during this giant outburst, with the two main components evolving in opposite ways with energy. A hard 30-70 mHz X-ray QPO was detected with GBM during this 2009 December giant outburst. It becomes stronger with increasing energy and disappears at energies below 25 keV. In the long-term a strong optical/X-ray correlation was found for this system, however in the medium-term the H{\\alpha} EW and the V-band brightness showed an anti-correlation after \\sim2002 Aug...

  9. Deep Chandra Observations of HCG 16 - I. Active Nuclei, Star formation and Galactic Winds

    CERN Document Server

    O'Sullivan, E; Vrtilek, J M; Giacintucci, S; Trevisan, M; David, L P; Ponman, T J; Mamon, G A; Raychaudhury, S

    2014-01-01

    We present new, deep Chandra X-ray and Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope 610~MHz observations of the spiral-galaxy-rich compact group HCG 16, which we use to examine nuclear activity, star formation and the high luminosity X-ray binary populations in the major galaxies. We confirm the presence of obscured active nuclei in NGC 833 and NGC 835, and identify a previously unrecognized nuclear source in NGC 838. All three nuclei are variable on timescales of months to years, and for NGC 833 and NGC 835 this is most likely caused by changes in accretion rate. The deep Chandra observations allow us to detect for the first time an Fe-K$\\alpha$ emission line in the spectrum of the Seyfert 2 nucleus of NGC 835. We find that NGC 838 and NGC 839 are both starburst-dominated systems, with only weak nuclear activity, in agreement with previous optical studies. We estimate the star formation rates in the two galaxies from their X-ray and radio emission, and compare these results with estimates from the infra-red and ultra-vio...

  10. Chandra Observations of the Flat Spectrum Seyfert-2 Galaxies NGC 2110 and NGC 7582

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Dong; Sui-Jian Xue; Cheng Li; Fu-Zhen Cheng

    2004-01-01

    Chandra observations of the Seyfert-2 galaxies NGC 2110 and NGC 7582 are presented. With the superb spatial resolution of Chandra we found that in NGC 7582 the soft (≤2keV) and hard (2-10keV) X-rays are emitted in different regions, consistent with the report by Xue et al. By comparing the present X-ray data with the previous infrared data, we determined that the soft X-ray region is the site of starburst activities. We found no significant temporal variations during our observations. We confirm the previous finding that NGC 2110 and NGC 7582 are fiat-spectrum sources. We argue that the fiat spectra may result from a cold absorbing material such as envisaged in the "dual absorbed" model. Strong Fe Ks emission feature is detected in 6~7keV. Its equivalent width is so large that it cannot be reproduced by using the Galactic column density of ~ 1022 cm-2.

  11. Swift XRT Observations of X-ray Flares in GRB Afterglows

    OpenAIRE

    Burrows, David N.; Romano, P; Godet, O.; Falcone, A; Pagani, C.; Cusumano, G.; Campana, S.; Chincarini, G.; Hill, J E; Giommi, P.; Goad, M. R.; Kennea, J. A.; Kobayashi, S; Meszaros, P.; Nousek, J. A.

    2005-01-01

    The Swift XRT has been observing GRB afterglows since December 23, 2004. Three-quarters of these observations begin within 300 s of the burst onset, providing an unprecendented look at the behavior of X-ray emission from GRB afterglows in the first few hours after the burst. While most of the early afterglows have smoothly declining lightcurves, a substantial fraction has large X-ray flares on short time-scales. We suggest that these flares provide support for models with extended central eng...

  12. HETE-2 Observations of the X-Ray Flash XRF 040916

    CERN Document Server

    Arimoto, M; Yoshida, A; Tamagawa, T; Shirasaki, Y; Suzuki, M; Matsuoka, M; Kotoku, J; Sato, R; Shimokawabe, T; Pazmino, N V; Ishimura, T; Nakagawa, Y; Ishikawa, N; Kobayashi, A; Sugita, S; Takahashi, I; Kuwahara, M; Yamauchi, M; Takagishi, K; Hatsukade, I; Atteia, J L; Pelangeon, A; Vanderspek, R; Graziani, C; Prigozhin, G Y; Villasenor, J; Jernigan, J G; Crew, G B; Hurley, K; Sakamoto, T; Ricker, G R; Woosley, S E; Butler, N; Levine, A; Doty, J P; Donaghy, T Q; Lamb, D Q; Fenimore, E E; Galassi, M; Boër, M; Dezalay, J P; Olive, J F; Braga, J; Manchanda, R; Pizzichini, G; Arimoto, Makoto; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Tamagawa, Toru; Shirasaki, Yuji; Suzuki, Motoko; Matsuoka, Masaru; Kotoku, Jun'ichi; Sato, Rie; Shimokawabe, Takashi; Pazmino, Nicolas Vasquez; Ishimura, Takuto; Nakagawa, Yujin; Ishikawa, Nobuyuki; Kobayashi, Akina; Sugita, Satoshi; Takahashi, Ichiro; Kuwahara, Makoto; Yamauchi, Makoto; Takagishi, Kunio; Hatsukade, Isamu; Atteia, Jean-Luc; Pelangeon, Alexandre; Vanderspek, Roland; Graziani, Carlo; Prigozhin, Gregory; Villasenor, Joel; Crew, Geoffrey B.; Hurley, Kevin; Sakamoto, Takanori; Ricker, George R.; Woosley, Stanford E.; Butler, Nat; Levine, Al; Doty, John P.; Donaghy, Timothy Q.; Lamb, Donald Q.; Fenimore, Edward E.; Galassi, Mark; Boer, Michel; Dezalay, Jean-Pascal; Olive, Jean-Francios; Braga, Joao; Manchanda, Ravi; Pizzichini, Graziella

    2007-01-01

    A long X-ray flash was detected and localized by the instruments aboard the High Energy Transient Explorer II (HETE-2) at 00:03:30 UT on 2004 September 16. The position was reported to the GRB Coordinates Network (GCN) approximately 2 hours after the burst. This burst consists of two peaks separated by 200 s, with durations of 110 s and 60 s. We have analyzed the energy spectra of the 1st and 2nd peaks observed with the Wide Field X-Ray Monitor (WXM) and the French Gamma Telescope (FREGATE). We discuss the origin of the 2nd peak in terms of flux variabilities and timescales. We find that it is most likely part of the prompt emission, and is explained by the long-acting engine model. This feature is similar to some bright X-ray flares detected in the early afterglow phase of bursts observed by the Swift satellite.

  13. Observing the effects of strong gravity with future X-ray missions

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, C S

    2000-01-01

    Spectroscopy of the broad iron iron with ASCA and BeppoSAX has up opened the innermost regions of accreting black hole systems to detailed study. In this contribution, I discuss how observations with future X-ray missions will extend these studies and all us to observationally address issues which are currently only in the realm of the theorists. In particular, high-throughput spectroscopy with XMM and, eventually, Constellation-X will allow the full diagnostic power of iron line variability to be realized. Instabilities of the inner accretion flow, the geometry of the variable X-ray source, and the black hole mass and spin will all be open to study. Eventually, X-ray interferometry will allow direct imaging of the black hole region in nearby active galaxies, thereby providing the ultimate probe of black hole astrophysics.

  14. X-ray Energy Spectra of the Super-soft X-ray Sources CAL87 and RXJ0925.7-4758 Observed with ASCA

    OpenAIRE

    Ebisawa, K; Mukai, K.; Kotani, T.; Asai, K.; Dotani, T.; Nagase, F.; Hartmann, H. W.; Heise, J.; Kahabka, P.; Teeseling, A.

    2000-01-01

    We report observation results of the super-soft X-ray sources (SSS) CAL87 and RXJ0925.7-4758 with the X-ray CCD cameras (Solid-state Imaging Spectrometer; SIS) on-board the ASCA satellite. We have applied theoretical spectral models to CAL87, and constrained the white dwarf mass and intrinsic luminosity as 0.8 - 1.2 M_solar and 4 x 10^{37}- 1.2 x 10^{38} erg s^{-1}, respectively. However, we have found the observed luminosity is an order of magnitude smaller than the theoretical estimate, whi...

  15. Chandra observations of SGR 1627-41 near quiescence

    CERN Document Server

    An, Hongjun; Tomsick, John A; Cumming, Andrew; Bodaghee, Arash; Gotthelf, Eric; Rahoui, Farid

    2012-01-01

    We report on an observation of SGR 1627-41 made with the Chandra X-ray Observatory on 2011 June 16. Approximately three years after its outburst activity in 2008, the source's flux has been declining, as it approaches its quiescent state. For an assumed power-law spectrum, we find that the absorbed 2--10 keV flux for the source is $1.0^{+0.3}_{-0.2} \\times 10^{-13} erg cm^{-2} s^{-1}$ with a photon index of $2.9 \\pm 0.8$ ($N_H=1.0\\times10^{23}$ cm^{-2}). This flux is approximately consistent with that measured at the same time after the source's outburst in 1998. With measurements spanning 3 years after the 2008 outburst, we analyze the long-term flux and spectral evolution of the source. The flux evolution is well described by a double exponential with decay times of 0.5 $\\pm$ 0.1 and 59 $\\pm$ 6 days, and a thermal cooling model fit suggests that SGR 1627-41 may have a hot core ($T_c ~ 2\\times 10^8$ K). We find no clear correlation between flux and spectral hardness as found in other magnetars. We consider t...

  16. Chandra Observations of Outflows from PSR J1509-5850

    CERN Document Server

    Klingler, Noel; Rangelov, Blagoy; Pavlov, George G; Posselt, Bettina; Ng, C -Y

    2016-01-01

    PSR J1509-5850 is a middle-aged pulsar with the period P ~ 89 ms, spin-down power Edot = 5.1 x 10^35 erg/s, at a distance of about 3.8 kpc. We report on deep Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of this pulsar and its pulsar wind nebula (PWN). In addition to the previously detected tail extending up to 7' southwest from the pulsar (the southern outflow), the deep images reveal a similarly long, faint diffuse emission stretched toward the north (the northern outflow) and the fine structure of the compact nebula (CN) in the pulsar vicinity. The CN is resolved into two lateral tails and one axial tail pointing southwest (a morphology remarkably similar to that of the Geminga PWN), which supports the assumption that the pulsar moves towards the northeast. The luminosities of the southern and northern outflows are about 1 x 10^33 and 4 x 10^32 erg/s, respectively. The spectra extracted from four regions of the southern outflow do not show any softening with increasing distance from the pulsar. The lack of synchr...

  17. X-ray laser–induced electron dynamics observed by femtosecond diffraction from nanocrystals of Buckminsterfullerene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Brian; Dilanian, Ruben A.; Darmanin, Connie; Ryan, Rebecca A.; Putkunz, Corey T.; Martin, Andrew V.; Wood, David; Streltsov, Victor; Jones, Michael W. M.; Gaffney, Naylyn; Hofmann, Felix; Williams, Garth J.; Boutet, Sébastien; Messerschmidt, Marc; Seibert, M. Marvin; Williams, Sophie; Curwood, Evan; Balaur, Eugeniu; Peele, Andrew G.; Nugent, Keith A.; Quiney, Harry M.

    2016-01-01

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) deliver x-ray pulses with a coherent flux that is approximately eight orders of magnitude greater than that available from a modern third-generation synchrotron source. The power density of an XFEL pulse may be so high that it can modify the electronic properties of a sample on a femtosecond time scale. Exploration of the interaction of intense coherent x-ray pulses and matter is both of intrinsic scientific interest and of critical importance to the interpretation of experiments that probe the structures of materials using high-brightness femtosecond XFEL pulses. We report observations of the diffraction of extremely intense 32-fs nanofocused x-ray pulses by a powder sample of crystalline C60. We find that the diffraction pattern at the highest available incident power significantly differs from the one obtained using either third-generation synchrotron sources or XFEL sources operating at low output power and does not correspond to the diffraction pattern expected from any known phase of crystalline C60. We interpret these data as evidence of a long-range, coherent dynamic electronic distortion that is driven by the interaction of the periodic array of C60 molecular targets with intense x-ray pulses of femtosecond duration.

  18. Comprehensive study of the X-ray flares from gamma-ray bursts observed by Swift

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, Shuang-Xi; Yu, Hai; Wang, F Y; Mu, Hui-Jun; Lv, Lian-Zhong; Liang, En-Wei

    2016-01-01

    X-ray flares are generally supposed to be produced by the later central engine activities, and may share the similar physical origin with prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In this paper, we have analyzed all significant X-ray flares from the GRBs observed by {\\em Swift} from April 2005 to March 2015. The catalog contains 468 bright X-ray flares, including 200 flares with redshifts. We obtain the fitting results of X-ray flares, such as start time, peak time, duration, peak flux, fluence, peak luminosity, and mean luminosity. The peak luminosity decreases with peak time, following a power-law behavior $L_p \\propto T_{peak,z}^{-1.27}$. The flare duration increases with peak time. The 0.3-10 keV isotropic energy of X-ray flares distribution is a lognormal peaked at $10^{51.2}$ erg. We also study the frequency distributions of flare parameters, including energies, durations, peak fluxes, rise times, decay times and waiting times. Power-law distributions of energies, durations, peak fluxes, and waiting t...

  19. Development of precision Wolter mirrors for future solar x-ray observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakao, Taro; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Kime, Ayumi; Goto, Takumi; Nishihara, Akihiko; Nakamori, Hiroki; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Miyake, Akira; Hashizume, Hirokazu; Maezawa, Tadakazu; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Narukage, Noriyuki

    2015-09-01

    High resolution imagery of the solar X-ray corona provides a crucial key to understand dynamics and heating processes of plasma particles there. However, X-ray imagery of the Sun with sub-arcsecond resolution has yet to be conducted due to severe technical difficulty in fabricating precision Wolter mirrors. For future X-ray observations of the Sun's corona, we are attempting to realize precision Wolter mirrors with sub-arcsecond resolution by adopting advanced surface polish and metrology methods based on nano-technology to sector mirrors which consist of a portion of an entire annulus. Following fabrication of the first engineering mirror and subsequent evaluation on the X-ray focusing performance in 2013, the second engineering mirror was made with improvements in both precision polish and metrology introduced. Measurement of focusing performance on the second mirror at SPring-8 synchrotron facility with 8 keV X-rays has demonstrated that the FWHM size of the PSF core reached down to 0.2" while its HPD (Half Power Diameter) size remained at ~3" due to the presence of small-angle scatter just outside of the core. Also, there was notable difference in the focal length between sagittal and meridional focusing which could have been caused by an error in the sag in the meridional direction of mirror area. Further improvements to overcome these issues have been planned for the next engineering mirror.

  20. The flare position obtained from MHD simulation and comparison with X-ray observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorny, Alexander; Podgorny, Igor

    It was for the first time shown that the position of the current sheet, obtained by numerical MHD simulation, coincides with the position of the thermal X-ray source. In our 3D MHD simulation we do not use any hypotheses about the flare mechanism. Several mechanisms of solar flare production are considered by different authors. Usually the initial conditions at numerical simulation are artificially set such a way that it is required for development of the proposed mechanism. In this approach, the unstable configuration of the magnetic field is set as the initial conditions, and the possibility of forming such an unstable system at the real evolution of the active region before the flare is not considered. Here the flare mechanism is obtained from the numerical MHD simulations in which all the conditions are taken from observations in the active region. It is shown that flare energy accumulation occurs in the current sheet magnetic field created by disturbances focusing in the vicinity of an X-type singular line. According to the developed solar flare electrodynamical model the thermal X-ray emission source appears in a current sheet, where plasma is heated due to magnetic field dissipation. Using 3D MHD numerical simulation the position of source of thermal X-ray emission are found for the flare occurred May 27, 2003 at 02:53. To find positions of sources of thermal X-ray radiation in the corona from MHD simulation results the graphical system is developed. The comparison with RHESSI X-ray observations show the coincidence of current sheet and observed the thermal X-ray emission source.