WorldWideScience

Sample records for chandra cluster cosmology

  1. Chandra Cluster Cosmology Project III: Cosmological Parameter Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikhlinin, A.; Kravtsov, A. V.; Burenin, R. A.;

    2009-01-01

    function evolution to be used as a useful growth of a structure-based dark energy probe. In this paper, we present cosmological parameter constraints obtained from Chandra observations of 37 clusters with langzrang = 0.55 derived from 400 deg2 ROSAT serendipitous survey and 49 brightest z ≈ 0.05 clusters...... detected in the All-Sky Survey. Evolution of the mass function between these redshifts requires ΩΛ > 0 with a ~5σ significance, and constrains the dark energy equation-of-state parameter to w 0 = –1.14 ± 0.21, assuming a constant w and a flat universe. Cluster information also significantly improves...

  2. Cosmological constraints from Chandra observations of galaxy clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Steven W

    2002-09-15

    Chandra observations of rich, relaxed galaxy clusters allow the properties of the X-ray gas and the total gravitating mass to be determined precisely. Here, we present results for a sample of the most X-ray luminous, dynamically relaxed clusters known. We show that the Chandra data and independent gravitational lensing studies provide consistent answers on the mass distributions in the clusters. The mass profiles exhibit a form in good agreement with the predictions from numerical simulations. Combining Chandra results on the X-ray gas mass fractions in the clusters with independent measurements of the Hubble constant and the mean baryonic matter density in the Universe, we obtain a tight constraint on the mean total matter density of the Universe, Omega(m), and an interesting constraint on the cosmological constant, Omega(Lambda). We also describe the 'virial relations' linking the masses, X-ray temperatures and luminosities of galaxy clusters. These relations provide a key step in linking the observed number density and spatial distribution of clusters to the predictions from cosmological models. The Chandra data confirm the presence of a systematic offset of ca. 40% between the normalization of the observed mass-temperature relation and the predictions from standard simulations. This finding leads to a significant revision of the best-fit value of sigma(8) inferred from the observed temperature and luminosity functions of clusters.

  3. Chandra Cluster Cosmology Project. II. Samples and X-Ray Data Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikhlinin, A.; Burenin, R. A.; Ebeling, H.;

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the measurements of the galaxy cluster mass functions at z ≈ 0.05 and z ≈ 0.5 using high-quality Chandra observations of samples derived from the ROSAT PSPC All-Sky and 400 deg2 surveys. We provide a full reference for the data analysis procedures, present updated calibration of relati...

  4. Galaxy Clusters with Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Forman, W; Markevitch, M L; Vikhlinin, A A; Churazov, E

    2002-01-01

    We discuss Chandra results related to 1) cluster mergers and cold fronts and 2) interactions between relativistic plasma and hot cluster atmospheres. We describe the properties of cold fronts using NGC1404 in the Fornax cluster and A3667 as examples. We discuss multiple surface brightness discontinuities in the cooling flow cluster ZW3146. We review the supersonic merger underway in CL0657. Finally, we summarize the interaction between plasma bubbles produced by AGN and hot gas using M87 and NGC507 as examples.

  5. Cosmology and astrophysics from relaxed galaxy clusters - II. Cosmological constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantz, A. B.; Allen, S. W.; Morris, R. G.; Rapetti, D. A.; Applegate, D. E.; Kelly, P. L.; von der Linden, A.; Schmidt, R. W.

    2014-05-01

    This is the second in a series of papers studying the astrophysics and cosmology of massive, dynamically relaxed galaxy clusters. The data set employed here consists of Chandra observations of 40 such clusters, identified in a comprehensive search of the Chandra archive for hot (kT ≳ 5 keV), massive, morphologically relaxed systems, as well as high-quality weak gravitational lensing data for a subset of these clusters. Here we present cosmological constraints from measurements of the gas mass fraction, fgas, for this cluster sample. By incorporating a robust gravitational lensing calibration of the X-ray mass estimates, and restricting our measurements to the most self-similar and accurately measured regions of clusters, we significantly reduce systematic uncertainties compared to previous work. Our data for the first time constrain the intrinsic scatter in fgas, 7.4 ± 2.3 per cent in a spherical shell at radii 0.8-1.2 r2500 (˜1/4 of the virial radius), consistent with the expected level of variation in gas depletion and non-thermal pressure for relaxed clusters. From the lowest redshift data in our sample, five clusters at z 1, we obtain consistent results for Ωm and interesting constraints on dark energy: Ω _{{Λ }}=0.65^{+0.17}_{-0.22}> for non-flat ΛCDM (cosmological constant) models, and w = -0.98 ± 0.26 for flat models with a constant dark energy equation of state. Our results are both competitive and consistent with those from recent cosmic microwave background, Type Ia supernova and baryon acoustic oscillation data. We present constraints on more complex models of evolving dark energy from the combination of fgas data with these external data sets, and comment on the possibilities for improved fgas constraints using current and next-generation X-ray observatories and lensing data.

  6. Cosmology with Clusters of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgani, Stefano

    I reviewed in my talk recent results on the cosmological constraints that can be obtained by following the evolution of the population of galaxy clusters. Using extended samples of X-ray selected clusters, I have shown how they can be used to trace this evolution out to redshift z ~ 1. This evolution can be compared to model predictions and, therefore, to constrain cosmological parameters, such as the density parameter Omega_m and the shape and amplitude of the power spectrum of density perturbations. I have emphasized that the robustness of such constraints is quite sensitive to the relation between cluster collapsed mass and X-ray luminosity and temperature. This demonstrates that our ability to place significant constraints on cosmology using clusters of galaxies relies on our capability to understand the physical processes, which determine the properties of the intra-cluster medium (ICM). In this context, I have discussed how numerical simulations of cluster formation in cosmological context can play an important role in uderstanding the ICM physics. I have presented results from a very large cosmological simulation, which also includes the hydrodynamical description of the cosmic baryons, the processes of star formation and feedback from the stellar populations. The results from this simulation represent a unique baseline to describe the processes of formation and evolution of clusters of galaxies.

  7. Cosmology and Astrophysics from Relaxed Galaxy Clusters I: Sample Selection

    CERN Document Server

    Mantz, Adam B; Morris, R Glenn; Schmidt, Robert W; von der Linden, Anja; Urban, Ondrej

    2015-01-01

    This is the first in a series of papers studying the astrophysics and cosmology of massive, dynamically relaxed galaxy clusters. Here we present a new, automated method for identifying relaxed clusters based on their morphologies in X-ray imaging data. While broadly similar to others in the literature, the morphological quantities that we measure are specifically designed to provide a fair basis for comparison across a range of data quality and cluster redshifts, to be robust against missing data due to point-source masks and gaps between detectors, and to avoid strong assumptions about the cosmological background and cluster masses. Based on three morphological indicators - Symmetry, Peakiness and Alignment - we develop the SPA criterion for relaxation. This analysis was applied to a large sample of cluster observations from the Chandra and ROSAT archives. Of the 361 clusters which received the SPA treatment, 57 (16 per cent) were subsequently found to be relaxed according to our criterion. We compare our me...

  8. Cosmology with cluster surveys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subhabrata Majumdar

    2004-10-01

    Surveys of clusters of galaxies provide us with a powerful probe of the density and nature of the dark energy. The red-shift distribution of detected clusters is highly sensitive to the dark energy equation of state parameter . Upcoming Sunyaev–Zel'dovich (SZ) surveys would provide us large yields of clusters to very high red-shifts. Self-calibration of cluster scaling relations, possible for such a huge sample, would be able to constrain systematic biases on mass estimators. Combining cluster red-shift abundance with limited mass follow-up and cluster mass power spectrum can then give constraints on , as well as on 8 and to a few per cents.

  9. Resolving galaxy cluster gas properties at z ∼ 1 with XMM-Newton and Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartalucci, I.; Arnaud, M.; Pratt, G. W.; Démoclès, J.; van der Burg, R. F. J.; Mazzotta, P.

    2017-02-01

    Massive, high-redshift, galaxy clusters are useful laboratories to test cosmological models and to probe structure formation and evolution, but observations are challenging due to cosmological dimming and angular distance effects. Here we present a pilot X-ray study of the five most massive (M500 > 5 × 1014M⊙), distant (z 1), clusters detected via the Sunyaev-Zel'Dovich effect. We optimally combine XMM-Newton and Chandra X-ray observations by leveraging the throughput of XMM-Newton to obtain spatially-resolved spectroscopy, and the spatial resolution of Chandra to probe the bright inner parts and to detect embedded point sources. Capitalising on the excellent agreement in flux-related measurements, we present a new method to derive the density profiles, which are constrained in the centre by Chandra and in the outskirts by XMM-Newton. We show that the Chandra-XMM-Newton combination is fundamental for morphological analysis at these redshifts, the Chandra resolution being required to remove point source contamination, and the XMM-Newton sensitivity allowing higher significance detection of faint substructures. Measuring the morphology using images from both instruments, we found that the sample is dominated by dynamically disturbed objects. We use the combined Chandra-XMM-Newton density profiles and spatially-resolved temperature profiles to investigate thermodynamic quantities including entropy and pressure. From comparison of the scaled profiles with the local REXCESS sample, we find no significant departure from standard self-similar evolution, within the dispersion, at any radius, except for the entropy beyond 0.7 R500. The baryon mass fraction tends towards the cosmic value, with a weaker dependence on mass than that observed in the local Universe. We make a comparison with the predictions from numerical simulations. The present pilot study demonstrates the utility and feasibility of spatially-resolved analysis of individual objects at high-redshift through

  10. XMM-Newton and Chandra Cross Calibration Using HIFLUGCS Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Schellenberger, G; Lovisari, L; Nevalainen, J; David, L

    2014-01-01

    Cosmological constraints from clusters rely on accurate gravitational mass estimates, which strongly depend on cluster gas temperature measurements. Therefore, systematic calibration differences may result in biased, instrument-dependent cosmological constraints. This is of special interest in the light of the tension between the Planck results of the primary temperature anisotropies of the CMB and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich plus X-ray cluster counts analyses. We quantify in detail the systematics and uncertainties of the cross-calibration of the effective area between five X-ray instruments, EPIC-MOS1/MOS2/PN onboard XMM-Newton and ACIS-I/S onboard Chandra, and the influence on temperature measurements. Furthermore, we assess the impact of the cross calibration uncertainties on cosmology. Using the HIFLUGCS sample, consisting of the 64 X-ray brightest galaxy clusters, we constrain the ICM temperatures through spectral fitting in the same, mostly isothermal, regions and compare them. Our work is an extension to a pre...

  11. HIGH-Z X-RAY AGN CLUSTERING & COSMOLOGICAL INFERENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Plionis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the angular clustering of X-ray selected active galactic nuclei (AGN in di erent ux-limited sub- samples of the Chandra Deep Field North (CDF-N and South (CDF-S surveys. We nd a strong dependence of the clustering strength on the sub-sample ux-limit, a fact which explains most of the disparate clustering results of di erent XMM and Chandra surveys. At high ux-limits the clustering length increases considerably; for example, at fx;limit 1015 erg s-1 cm-2, we obtain r0 ' 17 5 and 18 3 h-1 Mpc, for the CDF-N and CDF-S, respectively. The ux-limit dependence translates into a luminosity dependent X-ray AGN clustering. Applying the standard formalism relating the theoretical CDM model clustering to the data in a at cosmology (for w =-1 and h = 0:72, we nd: m ' 0:28 0:03 and 8 ' 0:75 0:03; while utilizing also the SN Ia Hubble relation (for 8 = 0:75 and h = 0:72, we nd: m ' 0:26 0:04 and w = 0:9 0:1

  12. A Chandra Study of the Galactic Globular Cluster Omega Centauri

    CERN Document Server

    Haggard, Daryl; Davies, Melvyn B

    2009-01-01

    We analyze a ~70 ksec Chandra ACIS-I exposure of the globular cluster Omega Centauri (NGC 5139). The ~17 amin x 17 amin field of view fully encompasses three core radii and almost twice the half-mass radius. We detect 180 sources to a limiting flux of ~4.3x10^-16 erg/cm^2/s (Lx = 1.2x10^30 erg/s at 4.9 kpc). After accounting for the number of active galactic nuclei and possible foreground stars, we estimate that 45-70 of the sources are cluster members. Four of the X-ray sources have previously been identified as compact accreting binaries in the cluster--three cataclysmic variables (CVs) and one quiescent neutron star. Correlating the Chandra positions with known variable stars yields eight matches, of which five are probable cluster members that are likely to be binary stars with active coronae. Extrapolating these optical identifications to the remaining unidentified X-ray source population, we estimate that 20-35 of the sources are CVs and a similar number are active binaries. This likely represents most ...

  13. Cosmology and cluster halo scaling relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araya-Melo, Pablo A.; van de Weygaert, Rien; Jones, Bernard J. T.

    2009-01-01

    We explore the effects of dark matter and dark energy on the dynamical scaling properties of galaxy clusters. We investigate the cluster Faber-Jackson (FJ), Kormendy and Fundamental Plane (FP) relations between the mass, radius and velocity dispersion of cluster-sized haloes in cosmological N-body s

  14. Chandra Finds Surprising Black Hole Activity In Galaxy Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Scientists at the Carnegie Observatories in Pasadena, California, have uncovered six times the expected number of active, supermassive black holes in a single viewing of a cluster of galaxies, a finding that has profound implications for theories as to how old galaxies fuel the growth of their central black holes. The finding suggests that voracious, central black holes might be as common in old, red galaxies as they are in younger, blue galaxies, a surprise to many astronomers. The team made this discovery with NASA'S Chandra X-ray Observatory. They also used Carnegie's 6.5-meter Walter Baade Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile for follow-up optical observations. "This changes our view of galaxy clusters as the retirement homes for old and quiet black holes," said Dr. Paul Martini, lead author on a paper describing the results that appears in the September 10 issue of The Astrophysical Journal Letters. "The question now is, how do these black holes produce bright X-ray sources, similar to what we see from much younger galaxies?" Typical of the black hole phenomenon, the cores of these active galaxies are luminous in X-ray radiation. Yet, they are obscured, and thus essentially undetectable in the radio, infrared and optical wavebands. "X rays can penetrate obscuring gas and dust as easily as they penetrate the soft tissue of the human body to look for broken bones," said co-author Dr. Dan Kelson. "So, with Chandra, we can peer through the dust and we have found that even ancient galaxies with 10-billion-year-old stars can have central black holes still actively pulling in copious amounts of interstellar gas. This activity has simply been hidden from us all this time. This means these galaxies aren't over the hill after all and our theories need to be revised." Scientists say that supermassive black holes -- having the mass of millions to billions of suns squeezed into a region about the size of our Solar System -- are the engines in the cores of

  15. New Cosmology with Clusters of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Schücker, P

    2005-01-01

    The review summarizes present and future applications of galaxy clusters to cosmology with emphasis on nearby X-ray clusters. The discussion includes the density of dark matter, the normalization of the matter power spectrum, neutrino masses, and especially the equation of state of the dark energy, the interaction between dark energy and ordinary matter, gravitational holography, and the effects of extra-dimensions.

  16. Searching for bulk motions in the ICM of massive, merging clusters with Chandra CCD data

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ang; Tozzi, Paolo; Zhu, Zong-Hong

    2016-01-01

    We search for bulk motions in the Intra Cluster Medium (ICM) of massive clusters showing evidence of an ongoing or a recent major merger, with spatially resolved spectroscopy in {\\sl Chandra} CCD data. We identify a sample of 6 merging clusters with >150 ks {\\sl Chandra} exposure in the redshift range 0.1 1000$ km/s in the ICM of massive merging clusters at 0.1 < z < 0.3. Despite the CCD spectral resolution is not sufficient for a detailed analysis of the ICM dynamics, {\\sl Chandra} CCD data constitute a key diagnostic tool complementary to X-ray bolometers onboard future X-ray missions.

  17. Testing cosmology with galaxy clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapetti Serra, David Angelo

    2011-01-01

    PASCOS 2011 will be held in Cambridge UK. The conference will be hosted by the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology (DAMTP) at the Mathematical Sciences site in the University of Cambridge. The aim of the conference is to explore and develop synergies between particle physics, string theory and cosmo......) Andrei Linde (Stanford University) Avi Loeb (Harvard University) Dieter Luest (LMU/MPI, Munich) Juan Maldacena (IAS, Princeton) Liam McAllister (Cornell University) John McGreevy (Physics, MIT)...

  18. Cosmology with Galaxy Cluster Phase Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Stark, Alejo; Huterer, Dragan

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel approach to constrain accelerating cosmologies with galaxy cluster phase spaces. With the Fisher matrix formalism we forecast constraints on the cosmological parameters that describe the cosmological expansion history. We find that our probe has the potential of providing constraints comparable to, or even stronger than, those from other cosmological probes. More specifically, with 1000 (100) clusters uniformly distributed in redshift between $ 0 \\leq z \\leq 0.8$, after applying a conservative $40\\%$ mass scatter prior on each cluster and marginalizing over all other parameters, we forecast $1\\sigma$ constraints on the dark energy equation of state $w$ and matter density parameter $\\Omega_M$ of $\\sigma_w = 0.161 (0.508)$ and $\\sigma_{\\Omega_M} = 0.001 (0.005)$ in a flat universe. Assuming the same galaxy cluster parameter priors and adding a prior on the Hubble constant we can achieve tight constraints on the CPL parametrization of the dark energy equation of state parameters $w_0$ and $w_a...

  19. Statistical Issues in Galaxy Cluster Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantz, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The number and growth of massive galaxy clusters are sensitive probes of cosmological structure formation. Surveys at various wavelengths can detect clusters to high redshift, but the fact that cluster mass is not directly observable complicates matters, requiring us to simultaneously constrain scaling relations of observable signals with mass. The problem can be cast as one of regression, in which the data set is truncated, the (cosmology-dependent) underlying population must be modeled, and strong, complex correlations between measurements often exist. Simulations of cosmological structure formation provide a robust prediction for the number of clusters in the Universe as a function of mass and redshift (the mass function), but they cannot reliably predict the observables used to detect clusters in sky surveys (e.g. X-ray luminosity). Consequently, observers must constrain observable-mass scaling relations using additional data, and use the scaling relation model in conjunction with the mass function to predict the number of clusters as a function of redshift and luminosity.

  20. Chandra Observations of Dying Radio Sources in Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, M.; Markevitch, M.; Govoni, F.; Parma, P.; Fanti, R.; de Ruiter, H. R.; Mack, K.-H.

    2012-01-01

    Context. The dying radio sources represent a very interesting and largely unexplored stage of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) evolution. They are considered to be very rare, and almost all of the few known ones were found in galaxy clusters. However, considering the small number detected so far, it has not been possible to draw any firm conclusions about their X-ray environment. Aims. We present X-ray observations performed with the Chandra satellite of the three galaxy clusters Abell 2276, ZwCl 1829.3+6912, and RX J1852.1+5711, which harbor at their center a dying radio source with an ultra-steep spectrum that we recently discovered. Methods. We analyzed the physical properties of the X-ray emitting gas surrounding these elusive radio sources. We determined the global X-ray properties of the clusters, derived the azimuthally averaged profiles of metal abundance, gas temperature, density, and pressure. Furthermore, we estimated the total mass profiles. Results. The large-scale X-ray emission is regular and spherical, suggesting a relaxed state for these systems. Indeed, we found that the three clusters are also characterized by significant enhancements in the metal abundance and declining temperature profiles toward the central region. For all these reasons, we classified RX J1852.1+5711, Abell 2276, and ZwCl 1829.3+6912 as cool-core galaxy clusters. Conclusions. We calculated the non-thermal pressure of the radio lobes assuming that the radio sources are in the minimum energy condition. For all dying sources we found that this is on average about one to two orders of magnitude lower than that of the external gas, as found for many other radio sources at the center of galaxy groups and clusters. We found marginal evidence for the presence of X-ray surface brightness depressions coincident with the fossil radio lobes of the dying sources in A2276 and ZwCl 1829.3+691. We estimated the outburst age and energy output for these two dying sources. The energy power from

  1. LOFAR, VLA, and Chandra observations of the Toothbrush galaxy cluster

    CERN Document Server

    van Weeren, R J; Brüggen, M; Andrade-Santos, F; Ogrean, G A; Williams, W L; Röttgering, H J A; Dawson, W A; Forman, W R; de Gasperin, F; Hardcastle, M J; Jones, C; Miley, G K; Rafferty, D A; Rudnick, L; Sabater, J; Sarazin, C L; Shimwell, T W; Bonafede, A; Best, P N; Bîrzan, L; Cassano, R; Chyży, K T; Croston, J H; Dijkema, T J; Ensslin, T; Ferrari, C; Heald, G; Hoeft, M; Horellou, C; Jarvis, M J; Kraft, R P; Mevius, M; Intema, H T; Murray, S S; Orrú, E; Pizzo, R; Sridhar, S S; Simionescu, A; Stroe, A; van der Tol, S; White, G J

    2016-01-01

    We present deep LOFAR observations between 120-181 MHz of the "Toothbrush" (RX J0603.3+4214), a cluster that contains one of the brightest radio relic sources known. Our LOFAR observations exploit a new and novel calibration scheme to probe 10 times deeper than any previous study in this relatively unexplored part of the spectrum. The LOFAR observations, when combined with VLA, GMRT, and Chandra X-ray data, provide new information about the nature of cluster merger shocks and their role in re-accelerating relativistic particles. We derive a spectral index of $\\alpha = -0.8 \\pm 0.1$ at the northern edge of the main radio relic, steepening towards the south to $\\alpha \\approx - 2$. The spectral index of the radio halo is remarkably uniform ($\\alpha = -1.16$, with an intrinsic scatter of $\\leq 0.04$). The observed radio relic spectral index gives a Mach number of $\\mathcal{M} = 2.8^{+0.5}_{-0.3}$, assuming diffusive shock acceleration (DSA). However, the gas density jump at the northern edge of the large radio r...

  2. AEGIS: Chandra Observation of DEEP2 Galaxy Groups and Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, T; Davis, D; Newman, J; Davis, M; Nandra, K; Laird, E; Koo, D; Coil, A; Cooper, M; Croton, D; Yan, R

    2006-01-01

    We present a 200 ksec Chandra observation of seven spectroscopically selected, high redshift (0.75 < z < 1.03) galaxy groups and clusters discovered by the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey in the Extended Groth Strip (EGS). X-ray emission at the locations of these systems is consistent with background. The 3-sigma upper limits on the bolometric X-ray luminosities (L_X) of these systems put a strong constraint on the relation between L_X and the velocity dispersion of member galaxies sigma_gal at z~1; the DEEP2 systems have lower luminosity than would be predicted by the local relation. Our result is consistent with recent findings that at high redshift, optically selected clusters tend to be X-ray underluminous. A comparison with mock catalogs indicates that it is unlikely that this effect is entirely caused by a measurement bias between sigma_gal and the dark matter velocity dispersion. Physically, the DEEP2 systems may still be in the process of forming and hence not fully virialized, or they may be defic...

  3. LOFAR, VLA, and Chandra Observations of the Toothbrush Galaxy Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Weeren, R. J.; Brunetti, G.; Brüggen, M.; Andrade-Santos, F.; Ogrean, G. A.; Williams, W. L.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Dawson, W. A.; Forman, W. R.; de Gasperin, F.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Jones, C.; Miley, G. K.; Rafferty, D. A.; Rudnick, L.; Sabater, J.; Sarazin, C. L.; Shimwell, T. W.; Bonafede, A.; Best, P. N.; Bîrzan, L.; Cassano, R.; Chyży, K. T.; Croston, J. H.; Dijkema, T. J.; Enßlin, T.; Ferrari, C.; Heald, G.; Hoeft, M.; Horellou, C.; Jarvis, M. J.; Kraft, R. P.; Mevius, M.; Intema, H. T.; Murray, S. S.; Orrú, E.; Pizzo, R.; Sridhar, S. S.; Simionescu, A.; Stroe, A.; van der Tol, S.; White, G. J.

    2016-02-01

    We present deep LOFAR observations between 120 and 181 MHz of the “Toothbrush” (RX J0603.3+4214), a cluster that contains one of the brightest radio relic sources known. Our LOFAR observations exploit a new and novel calibration scheme to probe 10 times deeper than any previous study in this relatively unexplored part of the spectrum. The LOFAR observations, when combined with VLA, GMRT, and Chandra X-ray data, provide new information about the nature of cluster merger shocks and their role in re-accelerating relativistic particles. We derive a spectral index of α =-0.8+/- 0.1 at the northern edge of the main radio relic, steepening toward the south to α ≈ -2. The spectral index of the radio halo is remarkably uniform (α =-1.16, with an intrinsic scatter of ≤slant 0.04). The observed radio relic spectral index gives a Mach number of { M }={2.8}-0.3+0.5, assuming diffusive shock acceleration. However, the gas density jump at the northern edge of the large radio relic implies a much weaker shock ({ M }≈ 1.2, with an upper limit of { M }≈ 1.5). The discrepancy between the Mach numbers calculated from the radio and X-rays can be explained if either (i) the relic traces a complex shock surface along the line of sight, or (ii) if the radio relic emission is produced by a re-accelerated population of fossil particles from a radio galaxy. Our results highlight the need for additional theoretical work and numerical simulations of particle acceleration and re-acceleration at cluster merger shocks.

  4. Cosmological Constraints with Clustering-Based Redshifts

    CERN Document Server

    Kovetz, Ely D; Rahman, Mubdi

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that observations lacking reliable redshift information, such as photometric and radio continuum surveys, can produce robust measurements of cosmological parameters when empowered by clustering-based redshift estimation. This method infers the redshift distribution based on the spatial clustering of sources, using cross-correlation with a reference dataset with known redshifts. Applying this method to the existing SDSS photometric galaxies, and projecting to future radio continuum surveys, we show that sources can be efficiently divided into several redshift bins, increasing their ability to constrain cosmological parameters. We forecast constraints on the dark-energy equation-of-state and on local non-gaussianity parameters. We explore several pertinent issues, including the tradeoff between including more sources versus minimizing the overlap between bins, the shot-noise limitations on binning, and the predicted performance of the method at high redshifts. Remarkably, we find that, once this ...

  5. Cool Core Clusters from Cosmological Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Rasia, E; Murante, G; Planelles, S; Beck, A M; Biffi, V; Ragone-Figueroa, C; Granato, G L; Steinborn, L K; Dolag, K

    2015-01-01

    We present results obtained from a set of cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy clusters, aimed at comparing predictions with observational data on the diversity between cool-core and non-cool-core clusters. Our simulations include the effects of stellar and AGN feedback and are based on an improved version of the Smoothed-Particle-Hydrodynamics code GADGET-3, which ameliorates gas mixing and better captures gas-dynamical instabilities by including a suitable artificial thermal diffusion. In this Letter, we focus our analysis on the entropy profiles, our primary diagnostic to classify the degree of cool-coreness of clusters, and on the iron profiles. In keeping with observations, our simulated clusters display a variety of behaviors in entropy profiles: they range from steadily decreasing profiles at small radii, characteristic of cool-core systems, to nearly flat core isentropic profiles, characteristic of non cool-core systems. Using observational criteria to distinguish between the two classes of...

  6. Chandra Observations of the Components of Clusters, Groups, and Galaxies and their Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Forman, W; Markevitch, M L; Vikhlinin, A A; Churazov, E

    2001-01-01

    We discuss two themes from Chandra observations of galaxies, groups, and clusters. First, we review the merging process as seen through the high angular resolution of Chandra. We present examples of sharp, edge-like surface brightness structures ``cold fronts'', the boundaries of the remaining cores of merger components and the Chandra observations of CL0657, the first clear example of a strong cluster merger shock. In addition to reviewing already published work, we present observations of the cold front around the elliptical galaxy NGC1404 which is infalling into the Fornax cluster and we discuss multiple ``edges'' in ZW3146. Second, we review the effects of relativistic, radio-emitting plasmas or ``bubbles'', inflated by active galactic nuclei, on the hot X-ray emitting gaseous atmospheres in galaxies and clusters. We review published work and also discuss the unusual X-ray structures surrounding the galaxies NGC4636 and NGC507.

  7. Testing X-ray Measurements of Galaxy Cluster Outskirts with Cosmological Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Avestruz, Camille; Nagai, Daisuke; Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    The study of galaxy cluster outskirts has emerged as one of the new frontiers in extragalactic astrophysics and cosmology with the advent of new observations in X-ray and microwave. However, the thermodynamic properties and chemical enrichment of this diffuse and azimuthally asymmetric component of the intra-cluster medium are still not well understood. This work, for the first time, systematically explores potential observational biases in these regions. To assess X-ray measurements of galaxy cluster properties at large radii ($>{R}_{500c}$), we use mock Chandra analyses of cosmological galaxy cluster simulations. The pipeline is identical to that used for Chandra observations, but the biases discussed in this paper are relevant for all X-ray observations outside of ${R}_{500c}$. We find the following from our analysis: (1) filament regions can contribute as much as a factor of 3 to the emission measure, (2) X-ray temperatures and metal abundances from model fitted mock X-ray spectra respectively vary to the...

  8. Cosmological constraints on galaxy cluster structure

    CERN Document Server

    Holanda, R F L

    2014-01-01

    Observations of galaxy clusters (GC's) are a powerful tool to probe the evolution of the Universe at $z<2$. However, the determination of their real shape and structure is not completely understood and the assumption of asphericity is often used in several cosmological tests. In this work, we propose methods to infer the elongation of the gas distribution of GC's based on measurements of the cosmic expansion rate, luminosity distance to type Ia supernovae, X-Ray and Sunyaev-Zeldovich properties of GC's and on the validity of the so-called distance duality relation. For the sample considered, we find that the clusters look elongated preferentially aligned along the line of sight with the results of the different methods showing a good agreement with each other and with those predicted by the current cosmic concordance model.

  9. COOL CORE CLUSTERS FROM COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasia, E.; Borgani, S.; Murante, G.; Planelles, S.; Biffi, V.; Granato, G. L. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via Tiepolo 11, I-34131, Trieste (Italy); Beck, A. M.; Steinborn, L. K.; Dolag, K. [Universitäts-Sternwarte München, Scheinerstr.1, D-81679 München (Germany); Ragone-Figueroa, C., E-mail: rasia@oats.inaf.it [Instituto de Astronomá Teórica y Experimental (IATE), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientiíficas y Técnicas de la República Argentina (CONICET), Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Laprida 854, X5000BGR, Córdoba (Argentina)

    2015-11-01

    We present results obtained from a set of cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy clusters, aimed at comparing predictions with observational data on the diversity between cool-core (CC) and non-cool-core (NCC) clusters. Our simulations include the effects of stellar and active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback and are based on an improved version of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics code GADGET-3, which ameliorates gas mixing and better captures gas-dynamical instabilities by including a suitable artificial thermal diffusion. In this Letter, we focus our analysis on the entropy profiles, the primary diagnostic we used to classify the degree of cool-coreness of clusters, and the iron profiles. In keeping with observations, our simulated clusters display a variety of behaviors in entropy profiles: they range from steadily decreasing profiles at small radii, characteristic of CC systems, to nearly flat core isentropic profiles, characteristic of NCC systems. Using observational criteria to distinguish between the two classes of objects, we find that they occur in similar proportions in both simulations and observations. Furthermore, we also find that simulated CC clusters have profiles of iron abundance that are steeper than those of NCC clusters, which is also in agreement with observational results. We show that the capability of our simulations to generate a realistic CC structure in the cluster population is due to AGN feedback and artificial thermal diffusion: their combined action allows us to naturally distribute the energy extracted from super-massive black holes and to compensate for the radiative losses of low-entropy gas with short cooling time residing in the cluster core.

  10. Chandra Observation of Abell 1142: A Cool-Core Cluster Lacking a Central Brightest Cluster Galaxy?

    CERN Document Server

    Su, Yuanyuan; Gastaldello, Fabio; van Weeren, Reinout

    2016-01-01

    Abell~1142 is a low-mass galaxy cluster at low redshift containing two comparable Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCG) resembling a scaled-down version of the Coma Cluster. Our Chandra analysis reveals an X-ray emission peak, roughly 100 kpc away from either BCG, which we identify as the cluster center. The emission center manifests itself as a second beta-model surface brightness component distinct from that of the cluster on larger scales. The center is also substantially cooler and more metal rich than the surrounding intracluster medium (ICM), which makes Abell 1142 appear to be a cool core cluster. The redshift distribution of its member galaxies indicates that Abell 1142 may contain two subclusters with each containing one BCG. The BCGs are merging at a relative velocity of ~1200 km/s. This ongoing merger may have shock-heated the ICM from ~ 2 keV to above 3 keV, which would explain the anomalous L_X--T_X scaling relation for this system. This merger may have displaced the metal-enriched "cool core" of eith...

  11. CHANDRA OBSERVATION OF ABELL 1142: A COOL-CORE CLUSTER LACKING A CENTRAL BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXY?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Yuanyuan; Weeren, Reinout van [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Buote, David A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Gastaldello, Fabio, E-mail: yuanyuan.su@cfa.harvard.edu [INAF-IASF-Milano, Via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2016-04-10

    Abell 1142 is a low-mass galaxy cluster at low redshift containing two comparable brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) resembling a scaled-down version of the Coma Cluster. Our Chandra analysis reveals an X-ray emission peak, roughly 100 kpc away from either BCG, which we identify as the cluster center. The emission center manifests itself as a second beta-model surface brightness component distinct from that of the cluster on larger scales. The center is also substantially cooler and more metal-rich than the surrounding intracluster medium (ICM), which makes Abell 1142 appear to be a cool-core cluster. The redshift distribution of its member galaxies indicates that Abell 1142 may contain two subclusters, each of which contain one BCG. The BCGs are merging at a relative velocity of ≈1200 km s{sup −1}. This ongoing merger may have shock-heated the ICM from ≈2 keV to above 3 keV, which would explain the anomalous L{sub X}–T{sub X} scaling relation for this system. This merger may have displaced the metal-enriched “cool core” of either of the subclusters from the BCG. The southern BCG consists of three individual galaxies residing within a radius of 5 kpc in projection. These galaxies should rapidly sink into the subcluster center due to the dynamical friction of a cuspy cold dark matter halo.

  12. Cosmological Constraints from Galaxy Clusters in the 2500 square-degree SPT-SZ Survey

    CERN Document Server

    de Haan, T; Bleem, L E; Allen, S W; Applegate, D E; Ashby, M L N; Bautz, M; Bayliss, M; Bocquet, S; Brodwin, M; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Chiu, I; Cho, H-M; Clocchiatti, A; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; Desai, S; Dietrich, J P; Dobbs, M A; Doucouliagos, A N; Foley, R J; Forman, W R; Garmire, G P; George, E M; Gladders, M D; Gonzalez, A H; Gupta, N; Halverson, N W; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J; Hoekstra, H; Holder, G P; Holzapfel, W L; Hou, Z; Hrubes, J D; Huang, N; Jones, C; Keisler, R; Knox, L; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; von der Linden, A; Luong-Van, D; Mantz, A; Marrone, D P; McDonald, M; McMahon, J J; Meyer, S S; Mocanu, L M; Mohr, J J; Murray, S S; Padin, S; Pryke, C; Rapetti, D; Reichardt, C L; Rest, A; Ruel, J; Ruhl, J E; Saliwanchik, B R; Saro, A; Sayre, J T; Schaffer, K K; Schrabback, T; Shirokoff, E; Song, J; Spieler, H G; Stalder, B; Stanford, S A; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Story, K T; Stubbs, C W; Vanderlinde, K; Vieira, J D; Vikhlinin, A; Williamson, R; Zenteno, A

    2016-01-01

    (abridged) We present cosmological constraints obtained from galaxy clusters identified by their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect signature in the 2500 square degree South Pole Telescope Sunyaev Zel'dovich survey. We consider the 377 cluster candidates identified at z>0.25 with a detection significance greater than five, corresponding to the 95% purity threshold for the survey. We compute constraints on cosmological models using the measured cluster abundance as a function of mass and redshift. We include additional constraints from multi-wavelength observations, including Chandra X-ray data for 82 clusters and a weak lensing-based prior on the normalization of the mass-observable scaling relations. Assuming a LCDM cosmology, where the species-summed neutrino mass has the minimum allowed value (mnu = 0.06 eV) from neutrino oscillation experiments, we combine the cluster data with a prior on H0 and find sigma_8 = 0.797+-0.031 and Omega_m = 0.289+-0.042, with the parameter combination sigma_8(Omega_m/0.27)^0.3 = 0.784...

  13. Resolving galaxy cluster gas properties at z~1 with XMM-Newton and Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Bartalucci, I; Pratt, G W; Démoclès, J; van der Burg, R F J; Mazzotta, P

    2016-01-01

    We present a pilot X-ray study of the five most massive ($M_{500}>5 \\times 10^{14} M_{\\odot}$), distant (z~1), galaxy clusters detected via the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect. We optimally combine XMM-Newton and Chandra X-ray observations by leveraging the throughput of XMM to obtain spatially-resolved spectroscopy, and the spatial resolution of Chandra to probe the bright inner parts and to detect embedded point sources. Capitalising on the excellent agreement in flux-related measurements, we present a new method to derive the density profiles, constrained in the centre by Chandra and in the outskirts by XMM. We show that the Chandra-XMM combination is fundamental for morphological analysis at these redshifts, the Chandra resolution being required to remove point source contamination, and the XMM sensitivity allowing higher significance detection of faint substructures. The sample is dominated by dynamically disturbed objects. We use the combined Chandra-XMM density profiles and spatially-resolved temperature prof...

  14. SEARCHING FOR BULK MOTIONS IN THE INTRACLUSTER MEDIUM OF MASSIVE, MERGING CLUSTERS WITH CHANDRA CCD DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ang; Yu, Heng; Tozzi, Paolo; Zhu, Zong-Hong, E-mail: yuheng@bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: zhuzh@bnu.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875 (China)

    2016-04-10

    We search for bulk motions in the intracluster medium (ICM) of massive clusters showing evidence of an ongoing or recent major merger with spatially resolved spectroscopy in Chandra CCD data. We identify a sample of six merging clusters with >150 ks Chandra exposure in the redshift range 0.1 < z < 0.3. By performing X-ray spectral analysis of projected ICM regions selected according to their surface brightness, we obtain the projected redshift maps for all of these clusters. After performing a robust analysis of the statistical and systematic uncertainties in the measured X-ray redshift z{sub X}, we check whether or not the global z{sub X} distribution differs from that expected when the ICM is at rest. We find evidence of significant bulk motions at more than 3σ in A2142 and A115, and less than 2σ in A2034 and A520. Focusing on single regions, we identify significant localized velocity differences in all of the merger clusters. We also perform the same analysis on two relaxed clusters with no signatures of recent mergers, finding no signs of bulk motions, as expected. Our results indicate that deep Chandra CCD data enable us to identify the presence of bulk motions at the level of v{sub BM} > 1000 km s{sup −1} in the ICM of massive merging clusters at 0.1 < z < 0.3. Although the CCD spectral resolution is not sufficient for a detailed analysis of the ICM dynamics, Chandra CCD data constitute a key diagnostic tool complementing X-ray bolometers on board future X-ray missions.

  15. Chandra X-ray Observations of the 0.6 < z < 1.1 Red-Sequence Cluster Survey Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Hicks, Amalia K; Bautz, Mark; Cain, Benjamin; Gilbank, David; Gladders, M D; Hoekstra, Henk; Yee, Howard; Garmire, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of Chandra observations of 13 optically-selected clusters with 0.63; though 3 were not observed long enough to support detailed analysis. Surface brightness profiles are fit to beta-models. Integrated spectra are extracted within R(2500), and Tx and Lx information is obtained. We derive gas and total masses within R(2500) and R(500). Cosmologically corrected scaling relations are investigated, and we find the RCS clusters to be consistent with self-similar scaling expectations. However discrepancies exist between the RCS sample and lower-z X-ray selected samples for relationships involving Lx, with the higher-z RCS clusters having lower Lx for a given Tx. In addition, we find that gas mass fractions within R(2500) for the high-z RCS sample are lower than expected by a factor of ~2. This suggests that the central entropy of these high-z objects has been elevated by processes such as pre-heating, mergers, and/or AGN outbursts, that their gas is still infalling, or that they contain compar...

  16. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Cosmology from Galaxy Clusters Detected via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Sehgal, Neelima; Trac, Hy; Acquaviva, Viviana; Ade, Peter A. R.; Aguirre, Paula; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John W.; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Battistelli, Elia S.; Bond, J Richard; Brown, Ben; Burger, Bryce; Chervenak, Jay; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    We present constraints on cosmological parameters based on a sample of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich-selected galaxy clusters detected in a millimeter-wave survey by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope. The cluster sample used in this analysis consists of 9 optically-confirmed high-mass clusters comprising the high-significance end of the total cluster sample identified in 455 square degrees of sky surveyed during 2008 at 148 GHz. We focus on the most massive systems to reduce the degeneracy between unknown...

  17. Cosmological Constraints from Galaxy Clusters in the 2500 square-degree SPT-SZ Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Haan, T.; et al.

    2016-03-21

    (abridged) We present cosmological constraints obtained from galaxy clusters identified by their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect signature in the 2500 square degree South Pole Telescope Sunyaev Zel'dovich survey. We consider the 377 cluster candidates identified at z>0.25 with a detection significance greater than five, corresponding to the 95% purity threshold for the survey. We compute constraints on cosmological models using the measured cluster abundance as a function of mass and redshift. We include additional constraints from multi-wavelength observations, including Chandra X-ray data for 82 clusters and a weak lensing-based prior on the normalization of the mass-observable scaling relations. Assuming a LCDM cosmology, where the species-summed neutrino mass has the minimum allowed value (mnu = 0.06 eV) from neutrino oscillation experiments, we combine the cluster data with a prior on H0 and find sigma_8 = 0.797+-0.031 and Omega_m = 0.289+-0.042, with the parameter combination sigma_8(Omega_m/0.27)^0.3 = 0.784+-0.039. These results are in good agreement with constraints from the CMB from SPT, WMAP, and Planck, as well as with constraints from other cluster datasets. Adding mnu as a free parameter, we find mnu = 0.14+-0.08 eV when combining the SPT cluster data with Planck CMB data and BAO data, consistent with the minimum allowed value. Finally, we consider a cosmology where mnu and N_eff are fixed to the LCDM values, but the dark energy equation of state parameter w is free. Using the SPT cluster data in combination with an H0 prior, we measure w = -1.28+-0.31, a constraint consistent with the LCDM cosmological model and derived from the combination of growth of structure and geometry. When combined with primarily geometrical constraints from Planck CMB, H0, BAO and SNe, adding the SPT cluster data improves the w constraint from the geometrical data alone by 14%, to w = -1.023+-0.042.

  18. CHANDRA DEEP OBSERVATION OF XDCP J0044.0-2033, A MASSIVE GALAXY CLUSTER AT z > 1.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tozzi, P.; Santos, J. S.; Rosati, P. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Jee, M. J. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616-8677 (United States); Fassbender, R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma (OAR), via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Nastasi, A. [Istitut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS, Bat. 121, Université Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Forman, W.; Jones, C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Sartoris, B.; Borgani, S. [Università degli Studi di Trieste, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via A.Valerio, 2 I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Boehringer, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fr extraterrestrische Physik Giessenbachstr.1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Altieri, B. [European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), European Space Agency, Apartado de Correos 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Pratt, G. W. [CEA Saclay, Service d' Astrophysique, LOrme des Merisiers, Bat. 709, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Nonino, M. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy)

    2015-01-20

    We report the analysis of the Chandra observation of XDCP J0044.0-2033, a massive, distant (z = 1.579) galaxy cluster discovered in the XDCP survey. The total exposure time of 380 ks with Chandra ACIS-S provides the deepest X-ray observation currently achieved on a massive, high-redshift cluster. Extended emission from the intra cluster medium (ICM) is detected at a very high significance level (S/N ∼ 20) on a circular region with a 44'' radius, corresponding to R {sub ext} = 375 kpc at the cluster redshift. We perform an X-ray spectral fit of the ICM emission modeling the spectrum with a single-temperature thermal mekal model. Our analysis provides a global temperature kT=6.7{sub −0.9}{sup +1.3} keV, and a iron abundance Z{sub Fe}=0.41{sub −0.26}{sup +0.29}Z{sub Fe{sub ⊙}} (error bars correspond to 1σ). We fit the background-subtracted surface brightness profile with a single β-model out to 44'', finding a rather flat profile with no hints of a cool core. We derive the deprojected electron density profile and compute the ICM mass within the extraction radius R {sub ext} = 375 kpc to be M {sub ICM}(r < R {sub ext}) = (1.48 ± 0.20) × 10{sup 13} M {sub ☉}. Under the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium and assuming isothermality within R {sub ext}, the total mass is M{sub 2500}=1.23{sub −0.27}{sup +0.46}×10{sup 14} M{sub ⊙} for R{sub 2500}=240{sub −20}{sup +30} kpc. Extrapolating the profile at radii larger than the extraction radius R {sub ext} we find M{sub 500}=3.2{sub −0.6}{sup +0.9}×10{sup 14} M{sub ⊙} for R{sub 500}=562{sub −37}{sup +50} kpc. This analysis establishes the existence of virialized, massive galaxy clusters at redshift z ∼ 1.6, paving the way to the investigation of the progenitors of the most massive clusters today. Given its mass and the XDCP survey volume, XDCP J0044.0-2033 does not create significant tension with the WMAP-7 ΛCDM cosmology.

  19. The cluster gas mass fraction as a cosmological probe: a revised study

    CERN Document Server

    Ettori, S; Tozzi, P; Balestra, I; Borgani, S; Rosati, P; Lovisari, L; Terenziani, F

    2009-01-01

    (Abriged) We present the analysis of the baryonic content of 52 X-ray luminous galaxy clusters observed with Chandra in the redshift range 0.3-1.273. We use the deprojected X-ray surface brightness profiles and the measured values of the gas temperature to recover the gas and total mass profiles. By assuming that galaxy clusters are representative of the cosmic baryon budget, the distribution of the cluster baryon fraction in the hottest (T> 4 keV) systems as a function of redshift is used to constrain the cosmological parameters. We discuss how our constraints are affected by several systematics, namely the isothermality, the assumed baryon fraction in stars, the depletion parameter and the sample selection. By using only the cluster baryon fraction as a proxy for the cosmological parameters, we obtain that Omega is very well constrained at the value of 0.35 with a relative statistical uncertainty of 11% (1 sigma level; w=-1) and a further systematic error of about (-6,+7)%. On the other hand, constraints on...

  20. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Cosmology from Galaxy Clusters Detected via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Sehgal, Neelima; Acquaviva, Viviana; Ade, Peter A R; Aguirre, Paula; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John W; Barrientos, L Felipe; Battistelli, Elia S; Bond, J Richard; Brown, Ben; Burger, Bryce; Chervenak, Jay; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J; Dicker, Simon R; Doriese, W Bertrand; Dunkley, Joanna; Dünner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fisher, Ryan P; Fowler, Joseph W; Hajian, Amir; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hernández-Monteagudo, Carlos; Hilton, Gene C; Hilton, Matt; Hincks, Adam D; Hlozek, Renée; Holtz, David; Huffenberger, Kevin M; Hughes, David H; Hughes, John P; Infante, Leopoldo; Irwin, Kent D; Jones, Andrew; Juin, Jean Baptiste; Klein, Jeff; Kosowsky, Arthur; Lau, Judy M; Limon, Michele; Lin, Yen-Ting; Lupton, Robert H; Marriage, Tobias A; Marsden, Danica; Martocci, Krista; Mauskopf, Phil; Menanteau, Felipe; Moodley, Kavilan; Moseley, Harvey; Netterfield, Calvin B; Niemack, Michael D; Nolta, Michael R; Page, Lyman A; Parker, Lucas; Partridge, Bruce; Reid, Beth; Sherwin, Blake D; Sievers, Jon; Spergel, David N; Staggs, Suzanne T; Swetz, Daniel S; Switzer, Eric R; Thornton, Robert; Tucker, Carole; Warne, Ryan; Wollack, Ed; Zhao, Yue

    2010-01-01

    We present constraints on cosmological parameters based on a sample of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich-selected galaxy clusters detected in a millimeter-wave survey by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope. The cluster sample used in this analysis consists of 9 optically-confirmed high-mass clusters comprising the high-significance end of the total cluster sample identified in 455 square degrees of sky surveyed during 2008 at 148 GHz. We focus on the most massive systems to reduce the degeneracy between unknown cluster astrophysics and cosmology derived from SZ surveys. We describe the scaling relation between cluster mass and SZ signal with a 4-parameter fit. Marginalizing over the values of the parameters in this fit with conservative priors gives sigma_8 = 0.851 +/- 0.115 and w = -1.14 +/- 0.35 for a spatially-flat wCDM cosmological model with WMAP 7-year priors on cosmological parameters. This gives a modest improvement in statistical uncertainty over WMAP 7-year constraints alone. Fixing the scaling relation between cluste...

  1. Chandra Observation of the Globular Cluster NGC 6440 and a Comparison with Other Recent Results

    CERN Document Server

    Pooley, D; Verbunt, F; Homer, L; Margon, B; Gaensler, B M; Kaspi, V M; Miller, J M; Fox, D W; Van der Klis, M; Pooley, David; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Verbunt, Frank; Homer, Lee; Margon, Bruce; Gaensler, Bryan M.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Miller, Jon M.; Fox, Derek W.; Klis, Michiel van der

    2001-01-01

    As part of our campaign to determine the nature of the various source populations of the low-luminosity globular cluster X-ray sources, we have obtained a Chandra X-ray Observatory ACIS-S3 image of the globular cluster NGC 6440. We detect 24 sources to a limiting luminosity of ~2 times 10^31 erg/s (0.5-2.5keV) inside the cluster's half-mass radius, all of which lie within ~2 core radii of the cluster center. We also find excess emission in and around the core which could be due to unresolved point sources. Based upon X-ray luminosities and colors, we conclude that there are 4-5 likely quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries and that most of the other sources are cataclysmic variables. We compare these results to Chandra results from other globular clusters and find the X-ray luminosity functions differ among the clusters.

  2. A Chandra Study of Temperature Distributions of the Intracluster Medium in 50 Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhenghao; Xu, Haiguang; Wang, Jingying; Gu, Junhua; Li, Weitian; Hu, Dan; Zhang, Chenhao; Gu, Liyi; An, Tao; Liu, Chengze; Zhang, Zhongli; Zhu, Jie; Wu, Xiang-Ping

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the spatial distribution of the intracluster medium temperature in galaxy clusters in a quantitative way and probe the physics behind it, we analyze the X-ray spectra from a sample of 50 clusters that were observed with the Chandra ACIS instrument over the past 15 years and measure the radial temperature profiles out to 0.45r500. We construct a physical model that takes into consideration the effects of gravitational heating, thermal history (such as radiative cooling, active galactic nucleus feedback, and thermal conduction), and work done via gas compression, and use it to fit the observed temperature profiles by running Bayesian regressions. The results show that in all cases our model provides an acceptable fit at the 68% confidence level. For further validation, we select nine clusters that have been observed with both Chandra (out to ≳0.3r500) and Suzaku (out to ≳1.5r500) and fit their Chandra spectra with our model. We then compare the extrapolation of the best fits with the Suzaku measurements and find that the model profiles agree with the Suzaku results very well in seven clusters. In the remaining two clusters the difference between the model and the observation is possibly caused by local thermal substructures. Our study also implies that for most of the clusters the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium is safe out to at least 0.5r500 and the non-gravitational interactions between dark matter and its luminous counterparts is consistent with zero.

  3. A Chandra Study of Radial Temperature Profiles of the Intra-Cluster Medium in 50 Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Zhenghao; Wang, Jingying; Gu, Junhua; Li, Weitian; Hu, Dan; Zhang, Chenhao; Gu, Liyi; An, Tao; Liu, Chengze; Zhang, Zhongli; Zhu, Jie; Wu, Xiang-Ping

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the spatial distribution of the ICM temperature in galaxy clusters in a quantitative way and probe the physics behind, we analyze the X-ray spectra of a sample of 50 galaxy clusters, which were observed with the Chandra ACIS instrument in the past 15 years, and measure the radial temperature profiles out to $0.45r_{500}$. We construct a physical model that takes into account the effects of gravitational heating, thermal history (such as radiative cooling, AGN feedback, and thermal conduction) and work done via gas compression, and use it to fit the observed temperature profiles by running Bayesian regressions. The results show that in all cases our model provides an acceptable fit at the 68% confidence level. To further validate this model we select nine clusters that have been observed with both Chandra (out to $\\gtrsim 0.3r_{500}$) and Suzaku (out to $\\gtrsim 1.5r_{500}$), fit their Chandra spectra with our model, and compare the extrapolation of the best-fits with the Suzaku measure...

  4. Cosmological Simulations of Isotropic Conduction in Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Britton D; Voit, G Mark; Ventimiglia, David; Skillman, Samuel W

    2013-01-01

    Simulations of galaxy clusters have a difficult time reproducing the radial gas-property gradients and red central galaxies observed to exist in the cores of galaxy clusters. Thermal conduction has been suggested as a mechanism that can help bring simulations of cluster cores into better alignment with observations by stabilizing the feedback processes that regulate gas cooling, but this idea has not yet been well tested with cosmological numerical simulations. Here we present cosmological simulations of ten galaxy clusters performed with five different levels of isotropic Spitzer conduction, which alters both the cores and outskirts of clusters, but not dramatically. In the cores, conduction flattens central temperature gradients, making them nearly isothermal and slightly lowering the central density but failing to prevent a cooling catastrophe there. Conduction has little effect on temperature gradients outside of cluster cores because outward conductive heat flow tends to inflate the outer parts of the in...

  5. Cosmological Constraints from the SDSS maxBCG Cluster Catalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozo, Eduardo; /CCAPP; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Rykoff, Eli S.; /UC, Santa Barbara; Annis, James T.; /Fermilab; Becker, Matthew R.; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Evrard, August E.; /Michigan U. /Michigan U., MCTP; Frieman, Joshua A.; /Fermilab /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U.; Hansen, Sarah M.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Hao, Jia; /Michigan U.; Johnston, David E.; /Northwestern U.; Koester, Benjamin P.; /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U.; McKay, Timothy A.; /Michigan U. /Michigan U., MCTP; Sheldon, Erin S.; /Brookhaven; Weinberg, David H.; /CCAPP /Ohio State U.

    2009-08-03

    We use the abundance and weak lensing mass measurements of the SDSS maxBCG cluster catalog to simultaneously constrain cosmology and the richness-mass relation of the clusters. Assuming a flat {Lambda}CDM cosmology, we find {sigma}{sub 8}({Omega}{sub m}/0.25){sup 0.41} = 0.832 {+-} 0.033 after marginalization over all systematics. In common with previous studies, our error budget is dominated by systematic uncertainties, the primary two being the absolute mass scale of the weak lensing masses of the maxBCG clusters, and uncertainty in the scatter of the richness-mass relation. Our constraints are fully consistent with the WMAP five-year data, and in a joint analysis we find {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.807 {+-} 0.020 and {Omega}{sub m} = 0.265 {+-} 0.016, an improvement of nearly a factor of two relative to WMAP5 alone. Our results are also in excellent agreement with and comparable in precision to the latest cosmological constraints from X-ray cluster abundances. The remarkable consistency among these results demonstrates that cluster abundance constraints are not only tight but also robust, and highlight the power of optically-selected cluster samples to produce precision constraints on cosmological parameters.

  6. The Cluster Mass Function from Early SDSS Data: Cosmological Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Bahcall, Neta A.; Dong, Feng; Bode, Paul; Kim, Rita; Annis, James; Mckay, Timothy A.; Hansen, Sarah; Gunn, James; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Postman, Marc; Nichol, Robert C.; Goto, Tomotsugu; Brinkmann, Jon; Knapp, Gillian R.; Lamb, Don O.

    2002-01-01

    The mass function of clusters of galaxies is determined from 400 deg^2 of early commissioning imaging data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey; ~300 clusters in the redshift range z = 0.1 - 0.2 are used. Clusters are selected using two independent selection methods: a Matched Filter and a red-sequence color magnitude technique. The two methods yield consistent results. The cluster mass function is compared with large-scale cosmological simulations. We find a best-fit cluster normalization relatio...

  7. Chandra view of the dynamically young cluster of galaxies A1367 II. point sources

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, M

    2002-01-01

    A 40 ks \\emph{Chandra} ACIS-S observation of the dynamically young cluster A1367 yields new insights on X-ray emission from cluster member galaxies. We detect 59 point-like sources in the ACIS field, of which 8 are identified with known cluster member galaxies. Thus in total 10 member galaxies are detected in X-rays when three galaxies discussed in paper I (Sun & Murray 2002; NGC 3860 is discussed in both papers) are included. The superior spatial resolution and good spectroscopy capability of \\chandra allow us to constrain the emission nature of these galaxies. Central nuclei, thermal halos and stellar components are revealed in their spectra. Four new low luminosity nuclei (LLAGN) are found, including an absorbed one (NGC 3861). This discovery makes the LLAGN/AGN content in this part of A1367 very high ($\\sim$ 20%). Thermal halos with temperatures around 0.5 - 0.8 keV are revealed in the spectra of two elliptical galaxies NGC 3842 and NGC 3837, which suggests that galactic coronae can survive in cluster...

  8. The outer regions of galaxy clusters: Chandra constraints on the X-ray surface brightness

    CERN Document Server

    Ettori, S

    2008-01-01

    (Abridged version) We study the properties of the X-ray surface brightness profiles in a sample of galaxy clusters that are observed with Chandra and have emission detectable with a signal-to-noise ratio larger than 2 at a radius beyond R500 ~ 0.7 R200. Our study aims at measuring the slopes of the X-ray surface brightness and of the gas density profiles in the outskirts of massive clusters. These constraints are then compared to similar results obtained from observations and numerical simulations of the temperature and dark matter density profiles with the intention to present a consistent picture of the outer regions of galaxy clusters. We extract the surface brightness profiles S_b(r) from X-ray exposures obtained with Chandra of 52 X-ray luminous galaxy clusters at z>0.3. We estimate R200 both using a beta-model to reproduce the surface brightness profile and scaling relations from the literature, showing that the two methods converge to comparable values. We evaluate then the radius, R_S2N, at which the ...

  9. Statistical issues in galaxy cluster cosmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantz, Adam; Allen, Steven W.; Rapetti Serra, David Angelo

    2013-01-01

    to simultaneously constrain scaling relations of observable signals with mass. The problem can be cast in the form of a regression, in which the data set is truncated, the (cosmology-dependent) underlying population must be modeled, and strong, complex correlations between measurements often exist. © Springer...

  10. Effects of Cosmological Constant on Clustering of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hameeda, Mir; Faizal, Mir; Ali, Ahmed Farag

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the effect of the expansion of the universe on the clustering of galaxies. We evaluate the configurational integral for interacting system of galaxies in an expanding universe by including effects produced by the cosmological constant. The gravitational partition function is obtained using this configuration integral. Thermodynamic quantities, specifically, Helmholtz free energy, entropy, internal energy, pressure and chemical potential are also derived for this system. It is observed that they depend on the modified clustering parameter for this system of galaxies. It is also demonstrated that these thermodynamical quantities get corrected because of the cosmological constant.

  11. Applications for edge detection techniques using Chandra and XMM-Newton data: galaxy clusters and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, S. A.; Sanders, J. S.; Fabian, A. C.

    2016-09-01

    The unrivalled spatial resolution of the Chandra X-ray observatory has allowed many breakthroughs to be made in high-energy astrophysics. Here we explore applications of Gaussian gradient magnitude (GGM) filtering to X-ray data, which dramatically improves the clarity of surface brightness edges in X-ray observations, and maps gradients in X-ray surface brightness over a range of spatial scales. In galaxy clusters, we find that this method is able to reveal remarkable substructure behind the cold fronts in Abell 2142 and Abell 496, possibly the result of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. In Abell 2319 and Abell 3667, we demonstrate that the GGM filter can provide a straightforward way of mapping variations in the widths and jump ratios along the lengths of cold fronts. We present results from our ongoing programme of analysing the Chandra and XMM-Newton archives with the GGM filter. In the Perseus cluster, we identify a previously unseen edge around 850 kpc from the core to the east, lying outside a known large-scale cold front, which is possibly a bow shock. In MKW 3s we find an unusual `V' shape surface brightness enhancement starting at the cluster core, which may be linked to the AGN jet. In the Crab nebula a new, moving feature in the outer part of the torus is identified which moves across the plane of the sky at a speed of ˜0.1c, and lies much further from the central pulsar than the previous motions seen by Chandra.

  12. Cosmology and astrophysics from relaxed galaxy clusters - IV: Robustly calibrating hydrostatic masses with weak lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Applegate, D E; Allen, S W; von der Linden, A; Morris, R G; Hilbert, S; Kelly, P L; Burke, D L; Ebeling, H; Rapetti, D A; Schmidt, R W

    2015-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of papers studying the astrophysics and cosmology of massive, dynamically relaxed galaxy clusters. Here, we use measurements of weak gravitational lensing from the Weighing the Giants project to calibrate Chandra X-ray measurements of total mass that rely on the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium. This comparison of X-ray and lensing masses provides a measurement of the combined bias of X-ray hydrostatic masses due to both astrophysical and instrumental sources. Assuming a fixed cosmology, and within a characteristic radius (r_2500) determined from the X-ray data, we measure a lensing to X-ray mass ratio of 0.96 +/- 9% (stat) +/- 9% (sys). We find no significant trends of this ratio with mass, redshift or the morphological indicators used to select the sample. In accordance with predictions from hydro simulations for the most massive, relaxed clusters, our results disfavor strong, tens-of-percent departures from hydrostatic equilibrium at these radii. In addition, we find a m...

  13. New Constraints on Dark Energy from Chandra X-rayObservations of the Largest Relaxed Galaxy Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, S.W.; Rapetti, D.A.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Schmidt, R.W.; /Heidelberg, Astron. Rechen Inst.; Ebeling, H.; /Inst. Astron., Honolulu; Morris, G.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Fabian, A.C.; /Cambridge U., Inst. of Astron.

    2007-06-06

    We present constraints on the mean matter density, {Omega}{sub m}, dark energy density, {Omega}{sub DE}, and the dark energy equation of state parameter, w, using Chandra measurements of the X-ray gas mass fraction (fgas) in 42 hot (kT > 5keV), X-ray luminous, dynamically relaxed galaxy clusters spanning the redshift range 0.05 < z < 1.1. Using only the fgas data for the 6 lowest redshift clusters at z < 0.15, for which dark energy has a negligible effect on the measurements, we measure {Omega}{sub m}=0.28{+-}0.06 (68% confidence, using standard priors on the Hubble Constant, H{sub 0}, and mean baryon density, {Omega}{sub b}h{sup 2}). Analyzing the data for all 42 clusters, employing only weak priors on H{sub 0} and {Omega}{sub b}h{sup 2}, we obtain a similar result on {Omega}{sub m} and detect the effects of dark energy on the distances to the clusters at {approx}99.99% confidence, with {Omega}{sub DE}=0.86{+-}0.21 for a non-flat LCDM model. The detection of dark energy is comparable in significance to recent SNIa studies and represents strong, independent evidence for cosmic acceleration. Systematic scatter remains undetected in the f{sub gas} data, despite a weighted mean statistical scatter in the distance measurements of only {approx}5%. For a flat cosmology with constant w, we measure {Omega}{sub m}=0.28{+-}0.06 and w=-1.14{+-}0.31. Combining the fgas data with independent constraints from CMB and SNIa studies removes the need for priors on {Omega}{sub b}h{sup 2} and H{sub 0} and leads to tighter constraints: {Omega}{sub m}=0.253{+-}0.021 and w=-0.98{+-}0.07 for the same constant-w model. More general analyses in which we relax the assumption of flatness and/or allow evolution in w remain consistent with the cosmological constant paradigm. Our analysis includes conservative allowances for systematic uncertainties. The small systematic scatter and tight constraints bode well for future dark energy studies using the f{sub gas} method.

  14. Chandra and Hubble Space Telescope Study of the Globular Cluster NGC 288

    CERN Document Server

    Kong, A K H; Pooley, D; Lewin, W H G; Homer, L; Verbunt, F; Anderson, S F; Margon, B

    2006-01-01

    We report on the Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of the globular cluster NGC 288. We detect four X-ray sources within the core radius and seven additional sources within the half-mass radius down to a limiting luminosity of Lx=7e30 erg/s (assuming cluster membership) in the 0.3-7 keV band. We also observed the cluster with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys and identify optical counterparts to seven X-ray sources out of the nine sources within the HST field-of-view. Based on the X-ray and optical properties, we find 2-5 candidates of cataclysmic variables (CVs) or chromospherically active binaries, and 2-5 background galaxies inside the half-mass radius. Since the core density of NGC 288 is very low, the faint X-ray sources of NGC 288 found in the Chandra and HST observations is higher than the prediction on the basis of the collision frequency. We suggest that the CVs and chromospherically active binaries are primordial in origin, in agreement with theoretical expectation.

  15. Deep Chandra study of the truncated cool core of the Ophiuchus cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, N; Canning, R E A; Allen, S W; King, A L; Sanders, J S; Simionescu, A; Taylor, G B; Morris, R G; Fabian, A C

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a deep (280 ks) Chandra observation of the Ophiuchus cluster, the second-brightest galaxy cluster in the X-ray sky. The cluster hosts a truncated cool core, with a temperature increasing from kT~1 keV in the core to kT~9 keV at r~30 kpc. Beyond r~30 kpc the intra-cluster medium (ICM) appears remarkably isothermal. The core is dynamically disturbed with multiple sloshing induced cold fronts, with indications for both Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. The sloshing is the result of the strongly perturbed gravitational potential in the cluster core, with the central brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) being displaced southward from the global center of mass. The residual image reveals a likely subcluster south of the core at the projected distance of r~280 kpc. The cluster also harbors a likely radio phoenix, a source revived by adiabatic compression by gas motions in the ICM. Even though the Ophiuchus cluster is strongly dynamically active, the amplitude of density fluctuat...

  16. Evolution of star clusters in a cosmological tidal field

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    We present a method to couple N-body star cluster simulations to a cosmological tidal field, using the Astrophysical Multipurpose Software Environment. We apply this method to star clusters embedded in the CosmoGrid dark matter-only LambdaCDM simulation. Our star clusters are born at z = 10 (corresponding to an age of the Universe of about 500 Myr) by selecting a dark matter particle and initializing a star cluster with 32,000 stars on its location. We then follow the dynamical evolution of t...

  17. The cosmological analysis of X-ray cluster surveys; III. Bypassing cluster mass measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Pierre, M; Faccioli, L; Clerc, N; Gastaud, R; Koulouridis, E; Pacaud, F

    2016-01-01

    Despite strong theoretical arguments, the use of clusters as cosmological probes is, in practice, frequently questioned because of the many uncertainties impinging on cluster mass estimates. Our aim is to develop a fully self-consistent cosmological approach of X-ray cluster surveys, exclusively based on observable quantities, rather than masses. This procedure is justified given the possibility to directly derive the cluster properties via ab initio modelling, either analytically or by using hydrodynamical simulations. In this third paper, we evaluate the method on cluster toy-catalogues. We model the population of detected clusters in the count-rate -- hardness-ratio -- angular size -- redshift space and compare the corresponding 4-dimensional diagram with theoretical predictions. The best cosmology+physics parameter configuration is determined using a simple minimisation procedure; errors on the parameters are derived by scanning the likelihood hyper-surfaces with a wide range of starting values. The metho...

  18. Applications for edge detection techniques using Chandra and XMM-Newton data: galaxy clusters and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, S A; Fabian, A C

    2016-01-01

    The unrivalled spatial resolution of the Chandra X-ray observatory has allowed many breakthroughs to be made in high energy astrophysics. Here we explore applications of Gaussian Gradient Magnitude (GGM) filtering to X-ray data, which dramatically improves the clarity of surface brightness edges in X-ray observations, and maps gradients in X-ray surface brightness over a range of spatial scales. In galaxy clusters, we find that this method is able to reveal remarkable substructure behind the cold fronts in Abell 2142 and Abell 496, possibly the result of Kelvin Helmholtz instabilities. In Abell 2319 and Abell 3667, we demonstrate that the GGM filter can provide a straightforward way of mapping variations in the widths and jump ratios along the lengths of cold fronts. We present results from our ongoing programme of analysing the Chandra and XMM-Newton archives with the GGM filter. In the Perseus cluster we identify a previously unseen edge around 850 kpc from the core to the east, lying outside a known large ...

  19. 1WGAJ1226.9+3332 a high redshift cluster discovered by Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Cagnoni, I; Kim, D W; Mazzotta, P; Huang, J S; Celotti, A

    2001-01-01

    We report the detection of 1WGAJ1226.9+3332 as an arcminute scale extended X-ray source with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The Chandra observation and R and K band imaging strongly support the identification of 1WGAJ1226.9+3332 as a high redshift cluster of galaxies, most probably at z=0.85 +- 0.15, with an inferred temperature kT =10 (+4;-3) keV and an unabsorbed luminosity (in a r=120" aperture) of 1.3 (+0.16;-0.14) x 1e45 erg/s (0.5-10 keV). This indication of redshift is also supported by the K and R band imaging, and is in agreement with the spectroscopic redshift of 0.89 found by Ebeling et al. (2001). The surface brightness profile is consistent with a beta-model with beta=0.770 +- 0.025, rc=(18.1 +-0.9)" (corresponding to 101 +- 5 kpc at z=0.89), and S(0)=1.02 +- 0.08 counts/arcsec**2. 1WGAJ1226.9+3332 was selected as an extreme X-ray loud source with FX/FV>60; this selection method, thanks to the large area sampled, seems to be a highly efficient method for finding luminous high z clusters of galaxi...

  20. Frontier Fields Clusters: Deep Chandra Observations of the Complex Merger MACS J1149.6+2223

    CERN Document Server

    Ogrean, G A; Jones, C; Forman, W; Dawson, W A; Golovich, N; Andrade-Santos, F; Murray, S S; Nulsen, P; Roediger, E; Zitrin, A; Bulbul, E; Kraft, R; Goulding, A; Umetsu, K; Mroczkowski, T; Bonafede, A; Randall, S; Sayers, J; Churazov, E; David, L; Merten, J; Donahue, M; Mason, B; Rosati, P; Vikhlinin, A; Ebeling, H

    2016-01-01

    The HST Frontier Fields cluster MACS J1149.6+2223 is one of the most complex merging clusters, believed to consist of four dark matter halos. We present results from deep (365 ks) Chandra observations of the cluster, which reveal the most distant cold front (z=0.544) discovered to date. In the cluster outskirts, we also detect hints of a surface brightness edge that could be the bow shock preceding the cold front. The substructure analysis of the cluster identified several components with large relative radial velocities, thus indicating that at least some collisions occur almost along the line of sight. The inclination of the mergers with respect to the plane of the sky poses significant observational challenges at X-ray wavelengths. MACS J1149.6+2223 possibly hosts a steep-spectrum radio halo. If the steepness of the radio halo is confirmed, then the radio spectrum, combined with the relatively regular ICM morphology, could indicate that MACS J1149.6+2223 is an old merging cluster.

  1. Chandra observation of two shock fronts in the merging galaxy cluster Abell 2146

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, H R; Fabian, A C; Baum, S A; Donahue, M; Edge, A C; McNamara, B R; O'Dea, C P

    2010-01-01

    We present a new Chandra observation of the galaxy cluster Abell 2146 which has revealed a complex merging system with a gas structure that is remarkably similar to the Bullet cluster (eg. Markevitch et al. 2002). The X-ray image and temperature map show a cool 2-3 keV subcluster with a ram pressure stripped tail of gas just exiting the disrupted 6-7 keV primary cluster. From the sharp jump in the temperature and density of the gas, we determine that the subcluster is preceded by a bow shock with a Mach number M=2.2+/-0.8, corresponding to a velocity v=2200^{+1000}_{-900} km/s relative to the main cluster. We estimate that the subcluster passed through the primary core only 0.1-0.3 Gyr ago. In addition, we observe a slower upstream shock propagating through the outer region of the primary cluster and calculate a Mach number M=1.7+/-0.3. Based on the measured shock Mach numbers M~2 and the strength of the upstream shock, we argue that the mass ratio between the two merging clusters is between 3 and 4 to one. B...

  2. A wide Chandra view of the core of the Perseus cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Fabian, A C; Allen, S W; Canning, R E A; Churazov, E; Crawford, C S; Forman, W; GaBany, J; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J; Johnstone, R M; Russell, H R; Reynolds, C S; Salome, P; Taylor, G B; Young, A J

    2011-01-01

    We present new Chandra images of the X-ray emission from the core of the Perseus cluster of galaxies. The total observation time is now 1.4 Ms. New depressions in X-ray surface brightness are discovered to the north of NGC1275, which we interpret as old rising bubbles. They imply that bubbles are long-lived and do not readily breakup when rising in the hot cluster atmosphere. The existence of a 300 kpc long NNW-SSW bubble axis means there cannot be significant transverse large scale flows exceeding 100 km/s. Interesting spatial correlations are seen along that axis in early deep radio maps. A semi-circular cold front about 100 kpc west of the nucleus is seen. It separates an inner disturbed region dominated by the activity of the active nucleus of NGC1275 from the outer region where a subcluster merger dominates.

  3. Cosmological MHD simulations of cluster formation with anisotropic thermal conduction

    CERN Document Server

    Ruszkowski, M; Bruggen, M; Parrish, I; Oh, S Peng

    2010-01-01

    (abridged) The ICM has been suggested to be buoyantly unstable in the presence of magnetic field and anisotropic thermal conduction. We perform first cosmological simulations of galaxy cluster formation that simultaneously include magnetic fields, radiative cooling and anisotropic thermal conduction. In isolated and idealized cluster models, the magnetothermal instability (MTI) tends to reorient the magnetic fields radially. Using cosmological simulations of the Santa Barbara cluster we detect radial bias in the velocity and magnetic fields. Such radial bias is consistent with either the inhomogeneous radial gas flows due to substructures or residual MTI-driven field rearangements that are expected even in the presence of turbulence. Although disentangling the two scenarios is challenging, we do not detect excess bias in the runs that include anisotropic thermal conduction. The anisotropy effect is potentially detectable via radio polarization measurements with LOFAR and SKA and future X-ray spectroscopic stu...

  4. Cosmological Constraints from the Red-Sequence Cluster Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Gladders, M D; Hall, P B; Hoekstra, H; Infante, L; Majumdar, S; Yee, H K C; Gladders, Michael D.; Hall, Patrick B.; Hoekstra, Henk; Infante, Leopoldo; Majumdar, Subhabrata

    2006-01-01

    [abridged] We present a first cosmological analysis of a refined cluster catalog from the Red-Sequence Cluster Survey (RCS). The input cluster sample is derived from 72.07 square degrees of imaging data [...] The catalog contains 956 clusters over 0.35cluster richness and richness error. The calibration of the survey images has been extensively cross-checked against publicly available Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging [...] We analyze the cluster sample via a general self-calibration technique including scatter in the mass-richness relation [...]. We fit simultaneously for Omega_M and sigma_8, and four parameters describing the calibration of cluster richness to mass, its evolution with redshift, and scatter in the richness-mass relation. The principal goal of this general analysis is to establish the consistency (or lack thereof) between the fitted parameters (both cosmological and cluster mass observables) and available results on both from independent measures. From an unconstraine...

  5. Evolution of star clusters in a cosmological tidal field

    CERN Document Server

    Rieder, Steven; Langelaan, Paul; Makino, Junichiro; McMillan, Stephen L W; Zwart, Simon Portegies

    2013-01-01

    We present a method to couple N-body star cluster simulations to a cosmological tidal field, using the Astrophysical Multipurpose Software Environment. We apply this method to star clusters embedded in the CosmoGrid dark matter-only LambdaCDM simulation. Our star clusters are born at z = 10 (corresponding to an age of the Universe of about 500 Myr) by selecting a dark matter particle and initializing a star cluster with 32,000 stars on its location. We then follow the dynamical evolution of the star cluster within the cosmological environment. We compare the evolution of star clusters in two Milky-Way size haloes with a different accretion history. The mass loss of the star clusters is continuous irrespective of the tidal history of the host halo, but major merger events tend to increase the rate of mass loss. From the selected two dark matter haloes, the halo that experienced the larger number of mergers tends to drive a smaller mass loss rate from the embedded star clusters, even though the final masses of ...

  6. X-ray Clusters of Galaxies as Cosmological Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Gioia, Isabella Maria

    2009-01-01

    This paper was written as part of a book entitled: "Questions of Modern Cosmology - Galileo's Legacy" which is a celebrative book dedicated to Galileo Galilei. The book is published in 2009, the International Year of Astronomy, since it is intended to be a modern tribute to the astronomer who, 400 years ago, first pointed a telescope towards the night sky. The book is written in the form of interviews between the editors and many physicists, astrophysicists and cosmologists from all over the world. The editors engaged in several discussions on the formation and evolution of the Universe with the aim of summarizing the most important and significative advances made by cosmology over the past century and at the beginning of the new millennium. This paper deals with X-ray clusters of galaxies and how they can be used to constrain fundamental cosmological parameters.

  7. Clusters, Groups, and Filaments in the Chandra Deep Field-South up to Redshift 1

    CERN Document Server

    Dehghan, Siamak

    2013-01-01

    We present a comprehensive structure detection analysis of the 0.3 square degree area of the MUSYC-ACES field which covers the Chandra Deep Field-South (CDFS). Using a density-based clustering algorithm on the MUSYC and ACES photometric and spectroscopic catalogues we find 62 over-dense regions up to redshifts of 1, including, clusters, groups and filaments. All structures are confirmed using the DBSCAN method, including the detection of nine structures previously reported in the literature. We present a catalogue of all structures present including their central position, mean redshift, velocity dispersions, and classification based on their morphological and spectroscopic distributions. In particular we find 13 galaxy clusters and 6 large groups/small clusters. Comparison of these massive structures with published XMM-Newton imaging (where available) shows that $80\\%$ of these structures are associated with diffuse, soft-band (0.4 - 1 keV) X-ray emission including $90\\%$ of all objects classified as cluster...

  8. A Chandra and Spitzer census of the young star cluster in the reflection nebula NGC 7129

    CERN Document Server

    Stelzer, B

    2009-01-01

    The reflection nebula NGC 7129 has long been known to be a site of recent star formation as evidenced, e.g., by the presence of deeply embedded protostars and HH objects. However, studies of the stellar population produced in the star formation process have remained rudimentary. At a presumed age of ~3 Myr, NGC7129 is in the critical range where disks around young stars disappear. We make use of Chandra X-ray and Spitzer and 2MASS IR imaging observations to identify the pre-main sequence stars in NGC7129. We define a sample of Young Stellar Objects based on color-color diagrams composed from IR photometry between 1.6 and 8 mu, from 2MASS and Spitzer, and based on X-ray detected sources from a Chandra observation. This sample is composed of 26 Class II and 25 Class III candidates. The sample is estimated to be complete down to ~ 0.5 solar masses. The most restricted and least biased sub-sample of pre-main sequence stars is composed of lightly absorbed (A_V < 5 mag) stars in the cluster core. This sample com...

  9. Cataclysmic Variables and Other Compact Binaries in the Globular Cluster NGC 362: Candidates from Chandra and HST

    CERN Document Server

    Margon, Bruce; Homer, L; Pooley, D; Bassa, C G; Anderson, S F; Lewin, W H G; Verbunt, F; Kong, A K H; Plotkin, R M

    2010-01-01

    Highly sensitive and precise X-ray imaging from Chandra, combined with the superb spatial resolution of HST optical images, dramatically enhances our empirical understanding of compact binaries such as cataclysmic variables and low mass X-ray binaries, their progeny, and other stellar X-ray source populations deep into the cores of globular clusters. Our Chandra X-ray images of the globular cluster NGC 362 reveal 100 X-ray sources, the bulk of which are likely cluster members. Using HST color-magnitude and color-color diagrams, we quantitatively consider the optical content of the NGC 362 Chandra X-ray error circles, especially to assess and identify the compact binary population in this condensed-core globular cluster. Despite residual significant crowding in both X-rays and optical, we identify an excess population of H{\\alpha}-emitting objects that is statistically associated with the Chandra X-ray sources. The X-ray and optical characteristics suggest that these are mainly cataclysmic variables, but we al...

  10. MOG Weak Field Approximation: A Modified Gravity Compatible with Chandra X-ray Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Moffat, J W

    2013-01-01

    We use the covariant Scalar-Vector-Tensor theory of gravity (so-called MOG), in the weak field approximation limit to study the dynamics of clusters of galaxies. The ionized gas density and the temperature profile of the clusters are our observables, which have been measured by the Chandra telescope for the nearby clusters. The MOG effective gravitational potential in the weak field approximation is composed of attractive Newtonian and repulsive Yukawa terms. Two parameters $\\alpha$ and $\\mu$ in the effective potential determine the asymptotic gravitational constant and the mass of the vector field, respectively. These parameters have been fixed by fitting MOG dynamics to the rotation curves of galaxies. Our analysis shows that the internal dynamics of clusters can be well explained within $1\\sigma$ with a virial theorem in the framework of MOG, such that the best fit for the ratio of the dynamical mass to the baryonic mass is: $M_{\\rm dyn}/M_{\\rm b} = 0.98^{+0.02}_{-0.02}$. This result means that MOG is a th...

  11. A Chandra X-ray observation of the globular cluster Terzan 1

    CERN Document Server

    Cackett, E M; Heinke, C O; Pooley, D; Lewin, W H G; Grindlay, J E; Edmonds, P D; Jonker, P G; Miller, J M

    2005-01-01

    We present a 19 ks Chandra ACIS-S observation of the globular cluster Terzan 1. Fourteen sources are detected within 1.4 arcmin of the cluster center with 2 of these sources predicted to be not associated with the cluster (background AGN or foreground objects). The neutron star X-ray transient, X1732-304, has previously been observed in outburst within this globular cluster with the outburst seen to last for at least 12 years. Here we find 4 sources that are consistent with the ROSAT position for this transient, but none of the sources are fully consistent with the position of a radio source detected with the VLA that is likely associated with the transient. The most likely candidate for the quiescent counterpart of the transient has a relatively soft spectrum and an unabsorbed 0.5-10 keV luminosity of 2.6E32 ergs/s, quite typical of other quiescent neutron stars. Assuming standard core cooling, from the quiescent flux of this source we predict long (>400 yr) quiescent episodes to allow the neutron star to co...

  12. Deep Chandra Observations of the Cool Core Clusters A2052 and A262

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Elizabeth L.; Randall, S. W.; Douglass, E. M.; Clarke, T. E.; Anderson, L. A.; Sarazin, C. L.; McNamara, B. R.

    2008-03-01

    We present deep Chandra observations of the cool core clusters Abell 2052 and Abell 262. New features, including ghost bubbles, ripples, edges, and a tunnel are revealed. Correlations of features seen in the X-ray and radio give evidence for multiple outbursts of the AGN. Comparison of the radio source energy input rates with the ICM cooling rates shows that the radio source can easily offset the cooling in A2052 and is much closer to offsetting the cooling in A262 than was estimated previously. Maps of pressure and temperature will be presented, as well as correlations between surface brightness features and optical-line emission. We constrain the temperature of diffuse, hot gas that may be filling the bubbles and providing pressure support to uphold the cool, dense shells surrounding the bubbles.

  13. Cosmological simulations of isotropic conduction in galaxy clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Britton; O' Shea, Brian W.; Voit, G. Mark; Ventimiglia, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Skillman, Samuel W., E-mail: smit1685@msu.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Simulations of galaxy clusters have a difficult time reproducing the radial gas-property gradients and red central galaxies observed to exist in the cores of galaxy clusters. Thermal conduction has been suggested as a mechanism that can help bring simulations of cluster cores into better alignment with observations by stabilizing the feedback processes that regulate gas cooling, but this idea has not yet been well tested with cosmological numerical simulations. Here we present cosmological simulations of 10 galaxy clusters performed with five different levels of isotropic Spitzer conduction, which alters both the cores and outskirts of clusters, though not dramatically. In the cores, conduction flattens central temperature gradients, making them nearly isothermal and slightly lowering the central density, but failing to prevent a cooling catastrophe there. Conduction has little effect on temperature gradients outside of cluster cores because outward conductive heat flow tends to inflate the outer parts of the intracluster medium (ICM), instead of raising its temperature. In general, conduction tends reduce temperature inhomogeneity in the ICM, but our simulations indicate that those homogenizing effects would be extremely difficult to observe in ∼5 keV clusters. Outside the virial radius, our conduction implementation lowers the gas densities and temperatures because it reduces the Mach numbers of accretion shocks. We conclude that, despite the numerous small ways in which conduction alters the structure of galaxy clusters, none of these effects are significant enough to make the efficiency of conduction easily measurable, unless its effects are more pronounced in clusters hotter than those we have simulated.

  14. Adaptive Techniques for Clustered N-Body Cosmological Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Menon, Harshitha; Zheng, Gengbin; Jetley, Pritish; Kale, Laxmikant; Quinn, Thomas; Governato, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    ChaNGa is an N-body cosmology simulation application implemented using Charm++. In this paper, we present the parallel design of ChaNGa and address many challenges arising due to the high dynamic ranges of clustered datasets. We focus on optimizations based on adaptive techniques for scaling to more than 128K cores. We demonstrate strong scaling on up to 512K cores of Blue Waters evolving 12 and 24 billion particles. We also show strong scaling of highly clustered datasets on up to 128K cores.

  15. Galaxy clusters as probes for cosmology and dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Battistelli, Elia S; de Bernardis, Paolo; Kirillov, Alexander A; Neto, Gastao B Lima; Masi, Silvia; Norgaard-Nielsen, Hans U; Ostermann, Peter; Roman, Matthieu; Rosati, Piero; Rossetti, Mariachiara

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, significant progress has been made in building new galaxy clusters samples, at low and high redshifts, from wide-area surveys, particularly exploiting the Sunyaev--Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. A large effort is underway to identify and characterize these new systems with optical/NIR and X-ray facilities, thus opening new avenues to constraint cosmological models using structure growth and geometrical tests. A census of galaxy clusters sets constraints on reionization mechanisms and epochs, which need to be reconciled with recent limits on the reionization optical depth from cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments. Future advances in SZ effect measurements will include the possibility to (unambiguously) measure directly the kinematic SZ effect, to build an even larger catalogue of galaxy clusters able to study the high redshift universe, and to make (spatially-)resolved galaxy cluster maps with even spectral capability to (spectrally-)resolve the relativistic corrections of the SZ effect.

  16. Viscosity in cosmological simulations of clusters of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Br"uggen, M

    2005-01-01

    The physics of the intracluster medium, in particular the values for the thermal conductivity and the viscosity are largely unknown and subject to an ongoing debate. Here, we study the effect of viscosity on the thermal state of the intracluster medium using three-dimensional cosmological simulations of structure formation. It is shown that viscosity, provided it is not too far off from the unmagnetised Spitzer value, has a significant effect on cluster profiles. In particular, it aids in heating the cool cores of clusters. The central cooling time of the most massive clusters in our simulation is increased by more than an order of magnitude. In large clusters, viscous heating may help to establish an entropy floor and to prevent a cooling catastrophe.

  17. Deep Chandra study of the truncated cool core of the Ophiuchus cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, N.; Zhuravleva, I.; Canning, R. E. A.; Allen, S. W.; King, A. L.; Sanders, J. S.; Simionescu, A.; Taylor, G. B.; Morris, R. G.; Fabian, A. C.

    2016-08-01

    We present the results of a deep Chandra observation of the Ophiuchus cluster, the second brightest galaxy cluster in the X-ray sky. The cluster hosts a truncated cool core, with a temperature increasing from kT ˜ 1 keV in the core to kT ˜ 9 keV at r ˜ 30 kpc. Beyond r ˜ 30 kpc, the intracluster medium (ICM) appears remarkably isothermal. The core is dynamically disturbed with multiple sloshing-induced cold fronts, with indications for both Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. The residual image reveals a likely subcluster south of the core at the projected distance of r ˜ 280 kpc. The cluster also harbours a likely radio phoenix, a source revived by adiabatic compression by gas motions in the ICM. Even though the Ophiuchus cluster is strongly dynamically active, the amplitude of density fluctuations outside of the cooling core is low, indicating velocities smaller than ˜100 km s-1. The density fluctuations might be damped by thermal conduction in the hot and remarkably isothermal ICM, resulting in our underestimate of gas velocities. We find a surprising, sharp surface brightness discontinuity, that is curved away from the core, at r ˜ 120 kpc to the south-east of the cluster centre. We conclude that this feature is most likely due to gas dynamics associated with a merger. The cooling core lacks any observable X-ray cavities and the active galactic nucleus (AGN) only displays weak, point-like radio emission, lacking lobes or jets. The lack of strong AGN activity may be due to the bulk of the cooling taking place offset from the central supermassive black hole.

  18. The Chandra Deep Group Survey -- cool core evolution in groups and clusters of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Pascut, Aurelia

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of a study which assembles deep observations with the ACIS-I instrument on the Chandra Observatory to study the evolution in the core properties of a sample of galaxy groups and clusters out to redshifts $z\\approx 1.3$. A search for extended objects within these fields yields a total of 62 systems for which redshifts are available, and we added a further 24 non-X-ray-selected clusters, to investigate the impact of selection effects and improve our statistics at high redshift. Six different estimators of cool core strength are applied to these data: the entropy (K) and cooling time ($t_{cool}$) within the cluster core, the cooling time as a fraction of the age of the Universe ($t_{cool}/t_{Uni}$), and three estimators based on the cuspiness of the X-ray surface brightness profile. A variety of statistical tests are used to quantify evolutionary trends in these cool core indicators. In agreement with some previous studies, we find that there is significant evolution in $t_{cool}/t_{Uni}$, ...

  19. A very deep Chandra view of metals, sloshing and feedback in the Centaurus cluster of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, J S; Taylor, G B; Russell, H R; Blundell, K M; Canning, R E A; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J; Walker, S A; Grimes, C K

    2016-01-01

    We examine deep Chandra X-ray observations of the Centaurus cluster of galaxies, Abell 3526. Applying a gradient magnitude filter reveals a wealth of structure, from filamentary soft emission on 100pc (0.5 arcsec) scales close to the nucleus to features 10s of kpc in size at larger radii. The cluster contains multiple high-metallicity regions with sharp edges. Relative to an azimuthal average, the deviations of metallicity and surface brightness are correlated, and the temperature is inversely correlated, as expected if the larger scale asymmetries in the cluster are dominated by sloshing motions. Around the western cold front are a series of ~7 kpc 'notches', suggestive of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. The cold front width varies from 4 kpc down to close to the electron mean free path. Inside the front are multiple metallicity blobs on scales of 5-10 kpc, which could have been uplifted by AGN activity, also explaining the central metallicity drop and flat inner metallicity profile. Close to the nucleus are...

  20. Astrophysics and cosmology with galaxy clusters: the WFXT perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Borgani, S; Sartoris, B; Tozzi, P; Giacconi, R

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the central role played by the X-ray study of hot baryons within galaxy clusters to reconstruct the assembly of cosmic structures and to trace the past history of star formation and accretion onto supermassive Black Holes (BHs). We shortly review the progress in this field contributed by the current generation of X-ray telescopes. Then, we focus on the outstanding scientific questions that have been opened by observations carried out in the last years and that represent the legacy of Chandra and XMM: (a) When and how is entropy injected into the inter-galactic medium (IGM)? (b) What is the history of metal enrichment of the IGM? (c) What physical mechanisms determine the presence of cool cores in galaxy clusters? (d) How is the appearance of proto-clusters at z~2 related to the peak of star formation activity and BH accretion? (e) What do galaxy clusters tell us about the nature of primordial density perturbations and on the history of their growth? We show that the most efficient observational str...

  1. Thermodynamic perturbations in the X-ray halo of 33 clusters of galaxies observed with Chandra ACIS

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, F; Nandra, K; Clerc, N; Gaspari, M

    2016-01-01

    In high-resolution X-ray observations of the hot plasma in clusters of galaxies significant structures caused by AGN feedback, mergers, and turbulence can be detected. Many clusters have been observed by Chandra in great depth and at high resolution. Using archival data taken with the Chandra ACIS instrument the aim was to study thermodynamic perturbations of the X-ray emitting plasma and to apply this to better understand the thermodynamic and dynamic state of the intra cluster medium (ICM). We analysed deep observations for a sample of 33 clusters with more than 100 ks of Chandra exposure each at distances between redshift 0.025 and 0.45. The combined exposure of the sample is 8 Ms. Fitting emission models to different regions of the extended X-ray emission we searched for perturbations in density, temperature, pressure, and entropy of the hot plasma. For individual clusters we mapped the thermodynamic properties of the ICM and measured their spread in circular concentric annuli. Comparing the spread of dif...

  2. Weak Lensing by Galaxy Clusters: from Pixels to Cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruen, Daniel [Ludwig Maximilian Univ., Munich (Germany)

    2015-03-11

    The story of the origin and evolution of our Universe is told, equivalently, by space-time itself and by the structures that grow inside of it. Clusters of galaxies are the frontier of bottom-up structure formation. They are the most massive objects to have collapsed at the present epoch. By that virtue, their abundance and structural parameters are highly sensitive to the composition and evolution of the Universe. The most common probe of cluster cosmology, abundance, uses samples of clusters selected by some observable. Applying a mass-observable relation (MOR), cosmological parameters can be constrained by comparing the sample to predicted cluster abundances as a function of observable and redshift. Arguably, however, cluster probes have not yet entered the era of per cent level precision cosmology. The primary reason for this is our imperfect understanding of the MORs. The overall normalization, the slope of mass vs. observable, the redshift evolution, and the degree and correlation of intrinsic scatters of observables at fixed mass have to be constrained for interpreting abundances correctly. Mass measurement of clusters by means of the differential deflection of light from background sources in their gravitational field, i.e. weak lensing, is a powerful approach for achieving this. This thesis presents new methods for and scientific results of weak lensing measurements of clusters of galaxies. The former include, on the data reduction side, (i) the correction of CCD images for non-linear effects due to the electric fields of accumulated charges and (ii) a method for masking artifact features in sets of overlapping images of the sky by comparison to the median image. Also, (iii) I develop a method for the selection of background galaxy samples based on their color and apparent magnitude that includes a new correction for contamination with cluster member galaxies. The main scientific results are the following. (i) For the Hubble Frontier Field cluster RXC J

  3. Deep Chandra observation and numerical studies of the nearest cluster cold front in the sky

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, N; Zhuravleva, I; Ichinohe, Y; Simionescu, A; Allen, S W; Markevitch, M; Fabian, A C; Keshet, U; Roediger, E; Ruszkowski, M; Sanders, J S

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of a very deep (500 ks) Chandra observation, along with tailored numerical simulations, of the nearest, best resolved cluster cold front in the sky, which lies 90 kpc (19 arcmin) to the northwest of M 87. The northern part of the front appears the sharpest, with a width smaller than 2.5 kpc (1.5 Coulomb mean free paths; at 99 per cent confidence). Everywhere along the front, the temperature discontinuity is narrower than 4-8 kpc and the metallicity gradient is narrower than 6 kpc, indicating that diffusion, conduction and mixing are suppressed across the interface. Such transport processes can be naturally suppressed by magnetic fields aligned with the cold front. However, the northwestern part of the cold front is observed to have a nonzero width. The broadening is consistent with the presence of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities (KHI) on length scales of a few kpc. Based on comparison with simulations, the presence of KHI would imply that the effective viscosity of the intra-cluster medi...

  4. Chandra X-ray Observations of 12 Millisecond Pulsars in the Globular Cluster M28

    CERN Document Server

    Bogdanov, Slavko; Servillat, Mathieu; Heinke, Craig O; Grindlay, Jonathan E; Stairs, Ingrid H; Ransom, Scott M; Freire, Paulo C C; Bégin, Steve; Becker, Werner

    2011-01-01

    We present a Chandra X-ray Observatory investigation of the millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in the globular cluster M28 (NGC 6626). In what is one of the deepest X-ray observations of a globular cluster, we firmly detect seven and possibly detect two of the twelve known M28 pulsars. With the exception of PSRs B1821-24 and J1824-2452H, the detected pulsars have relatively soft spectra, with X-ray luminosities 10^30-31 ergs s^-1 (0.3-8 keV),similar to most "recycled" pulsars in 47 Tucanae and the field of the Galaxy, implying thermal emission from the pulsar magnetic polar caps. We present the most detailed X-ray spectrum to date of the energetic PSR B1821-24. It is well described by a purely non-thermal spectrum with spectral photon index 1.23 and luminosity 1.4x10^33Theta(D/5.5 kpc)^2 ergs s^-1 (0.3-8 keV), where Theta is the fraction of the sky covered by the X-ray emission beam(s). We find no evidence for the previously reported line emission feature around 3.3 keV, most likely as a consequence of improvements i...

  5. FRONTIER FIELDS CLUSTERS: CHANDRA AND JVLA VIEW OF THE PRE-MERGING CLUSTER MACS J0416.1-2403

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogrean, G. A.; Weeren, R. J. van; Jones, C.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Forman, W.; Murray, S. S.; Randall, S.; Kraft, R.; David, L.; Andrade-Santos, F.; Goulding, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Clarke, T. E.; Mroczkowski, T. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Sayers, J.; Zitrin, A. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Pandey-Pommier, M. [Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon, Observatoire de Lyon, 9 av Charles André, F-69561 Saint Genis Laval Cedex (France); Churazov, E. [Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741, Garching (Germany); Bonafede, A. [Hamburger Sternwarte, Universität Hamburg, Gojenbergsweg 112 21029 Hamburg (Germany); Merten, J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Umetsu, K., E-mail: gogrean@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); and others

    2015-10-20

    Merging galaxy clusters leave long-lasting signatures on the baryonic and non-baryonic cluster constituents, including shock fronts, cold fronts, X-ray substructure, radio halos, and offsets between the dark matter (DM) and the gas components. Using observations from Chandra, the Jansky Very Large Array, the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope, and the Hubble Space Telescope, we present a multiwavelength analysis of the merging Frontier Fields cluster MACS J0416.1-2403 (z = 0.396), which consists of NE and SW subclusters whose cores are separated on the sky by ∼250 kpc. We find that the NE subcluster has a compact core and hosts an X-ray cavity, yet it is not a cool core. Approximately 450 kpc south–southwest of the SW subcluster, we detect a density discontinuity that corresponds to a compression factor of ∼1.5. The discontinuity was most likely caused by the interaction of the SW subcluster with a less massive structure detected in the lensing maps SW of the subcluster's center. For both the NE and the SW subclusters, the DM and the gas components are well-aligned, suggesting that MACS J0416.1-2403 is a pre-merging system. The cluster also hosts a radio halo, which is unusual for a pre-merging system. The halo has a 1.4 GHz power of (1.3 ± 0.3) × 10{sup 24} W Hz{sup −1}, which is somewhat lower than expected based on the X-ray luminosity of the cluster if the spectrum of the halo is not ultra-steep. We suggest that we are either witnessing the birth of a radio halo, or have discovered a rare ultra-steep spectrum halo.

  6. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Cosmology from Galaxy Clusters Detected via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, Neelima; Trac, Hy; Acquaviva, Viviana; Ade, Peter A.R.; Aguirre, Paula; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John W.; Barrientos, L.Felipe; Battistelli, Elia S.; Bond, J.Richard; Brown, Ben; Burger, Bryce; Chervenak, Jay; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Doriese, W.Bertrand; Dunkley, Joanna; Dunner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fisher, Ryan P.

    2011-08-18

    We present constraints on cosmological parameters based on a sample of Sunyaev-Zeldovich-selected galaxy clusters detected in a millimeter-wave survey by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope. The cluster sample used in this analysis consists of 9 optically-confirmed high-mass clusters comprising the high-significance end of the total cluster sample identified in 455 square degrees of sky surveyed during 2008 at 148GHz. We focus on the most massive systems to reduce the degeneracy between unknown cluster astrophysics and cosmology derived from SZ surveys. We describe the scaling relation between cluster mass and SZ signal with a 4-parameter fit. Marginalizing over the values of the parameters in this fit with conservative priors gives {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.851 {+-} 0.115 and w = -1.14 {+-} 0.35 for a spatially-flat wCDM cosmological model with WMAP 7-year priors on cosmological parameters. This gives a modest improvement in statistical uncertainty over WMAP 7-year constraints alone. Fixing the scaling relation between cluster mass and SZ signal to a fiducial relation obtained from numerical simulations and calibrated by X-ray observations, we find {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.821 {+-} 0.044 and w = -1.05 {+-} 0.20. These results are consistent with constraints from WMAP 7 plus baryon acoustic oscillations plus type Ia supernoava which give {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.802 {+-} 0.038 and w = -0.98 {+-} 0.053. A stacking analysis of the clusters in this sample compared to clusters simulated assuming the fiducial model also shows good agreement. These results suggest that, given the sample of clusters used here, both the astrophysics of massive clusters and the cosmological parameters derived from them are broadly consistent with current models.

  7. Optically-Selected Cluster Catalogs As a Precision Cosmology Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozo, Eduardo; /Ohio State U. /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KICP, Chicago /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Koester, Benjamin P.; /Michigan U. /Chicago U., Astron.; Evrard, August E.; McKay, Timothy A.; /Michigan U.

    2007-03-26

    We introduce a framework for describing the halo selection function of optical cluster finders. We treat the problem as being separable into a term that describes the intrinsic galaxy content of a halo (the Halo Occupation Distribution, or HOD) and a term that captures the effects of projection and selection by the particular cluster finding algorithm. Using mock galaxy catalogs tuned to reproduce the luminosity dependent correlation function and the empirical color-density relation measured in the SDSS, we characterize the maxBCG algorithm applied by Koester et al. to the SDSS galaxy catalog. We define and calibrate measures of completeness and purity for this algorithm, and demonstrate successful recovery of the underlying cosmology and HOD when applied to the mock catalogs. We identify principal components--combinations of cosmology and HOD parameters--that are recovered by survey counts as a function of richness, and demonstrate that percent-level accuracies are possible in the first two components, if the selection function can be understood to {approx} 15% accuracy.

  8. Chandra X-Ray Observations of Young Clusters. III. NGC 2264 and the Orion Flanking Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Rebull, L M; Micela, G; Ramírez, S V; Sciortino, S; Stauffer, J R; Strom, S E; Wolff, S C

    2006-01-01

    Chandra observations of solar-like pre-main sequence (PMS) stars in the Orion Flanking Fields (age ~1 Myr) and NGC 2264 (~3 Myr) are compared with the results of the COUP survey of similar objects in the ONC (~0.5 Myr). The correlations between log Lx and mass found for PMS stars on convective tracks in these clusters are consistent with the relationships found for the ONC, indicating little change in the median values of either log Lx or log Lx/Lbol during the first ~3-5 Myr of evolution down convective tracks. The fraction of stars with extreme values of Lx, more than 10 times higher than the average for a given Lbol or with log Lx/Lbol greater than the canonical saturation value of -2.9, is however larger by a factor of two in the younger ONC when compared with the Orion FF and NGC 2264. PMS stars in NGC 2264 on radiative tracks have Lx/Lbol values that are systematically lower by a factor of ~10 times than those found for stars of similar mass on convective tracks. The dramatic decrease in flux from conve...

  9. Chandra X-Ray Observations of Nineteen Millisecond Pulsars in the Globular Cluster 47 Tucanae

    CERN Document Server

    Bogdanov, S; Heinke, C O; Camilo, F; Freire, P C C; Becker, W; Bogdanov, Slavko; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Heinke, Craig O.; Camilo, Fernando; Freire, Paulo C. C.; Becker, Werner

    2006-01-01

    We present spectral and long-timescale variability analyses of \\textit{Chandra} ACIS-S observations of the 19 millisecond pulsars (MSPs) with precisely known positions in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae. The X-ray emission of the majority of these MSPs is well described by a thermal (blackbody or neutron star hydrogen atmosphere) spectrum with a temperature $T_{\\rm eff}\\sim(1-3)\\times10^6$ K, emission radius $R_{\\rm eff}\\sim0.1-3$ km, and luminosity $L_{X}\\sim10^{30-31}$ ergs s$^{-1}$. For several MSPs, there is indication that a second thermal component is required, similar to what is seen in some nearby field MSPs. The radio-eclipsing binary MSPs 47 Tuc J, O, and W show a significant non-thermal component, with photon index $\\Gamma\\sim 1-1.5$, which may originate in an shock formed due to interaction between the relativistic pulsar wind and matter from the stellar companion. We re-examine the X-ray--spindown luminosity relation ($L_{X}-\\dot{E}$) and find that due to the large uncertainties in both parameter...

  10. A Chandra HETG Observation of the Quasar H 1821+643 and Its Surrounding Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, T; Lee, J C; Marshall, H L; Bryan, G L; Canizares, C R

    2001-01-01

    We present the high-resolution X-ray spectrum of the low-redshift quasar H 1821+643 and its surrounding hot cluster observed with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS). An iron emission line attributed to the quasar at ~6.43 keV (rest frame) is clearly resolved, with an equivalent width of ~100 eV. Although we cannot rule out contributions to the line from a putative torus, the diskline model provides an acceptable fit to this iron line. We also detect a weak emission feature at ~6.9 keV (rest frame). We suggest that both lines could originate in an accretion disk comprised of a highly ionized optically thin atmosphere sitting atop a mostly neutral disk. We search for absorption features from a warm/hot component of the intergalactic medium along the ~1.5Gpc/h line of sight to the quasar. No absorption features are detected at or above the 3 sigma level while a total of six OVI intervening absorption systems have been detected with HST and FUSE. Based on the lack of OVII and OVIII ...

  11. CHANDRA DETECTION OF X-RAY EMISSION FROM ULTRACOMPACT DWARF GALAXIES AND EXTENDED STAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Meicun; Li, Zhiyuan, E-mail: lizy@nju.edu.cn [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2016-03-10

    We have conducted a systematic study of X-ray emission from ultracompact dwarf (UCD) galaxies and extended star clusters (ESCs), based on archival Chandra observations. Among a sample of 511 UCDs and ESCs complied from the literature, 17 X-ray counterparts with 0.5–8 keV luminosities above ∼5 × 10{sup 36} erg s{sup −1} are identified, which are distributed in eight early-type host galaxies. To facilitate comparison, we also identify X-ray counterparts of 360 globular clusters (GCs) distributed in four of the eight galaxies. The X-ray properties of the UCDs and ESCs are found to be broadly similar to those of the GCs. The incidence rate of X-ray-detected UCDs and ESCs, 3.3% ± 0.8%, while lower than that of the X-ray-detected GCs (7.0% ± 0.4%), is substantially higher than expected from the field populations of external galaxies. A stacking analysis of the individually undetected UCDs/ESCs further reveals significant X-ray signals, which corresponds to an equivalent 0.5–8 keV luminosity of ∼4 × 10{sup 35} erg s{sup −1} per source. Taken together, these provide strong evidence that the X-ray emission from UCDs and ESCs is dominated by low-mass X-ray binaries having formed from stellar dynamical interactions, consistent with the stellar populations in these dense systems being predominantly old. For the most massive UCDs, there remains the possibility that a putative central massive black hole gives rise to the observed X-ray emission.

  12. Cosmological Constraints From SDSS MaxBCG Cluster Abundances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozo, Eduardo; /Ohio State U. /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KICP, Chicago /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Koester, Benjamin P.; /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; McKay, Timothy A.; Evrard, August E.; /Michigan U.; Johnston, David; /Caltech, JPL; Sheldon, Erin S.; /CCPP, New York; Annis, James; /Fermilab; Frieman, Joshua A.; /KICP,

    2007-03-26

    We perform a maximum likelihood analysis of the cluster abundance measured in the SDSS using the maxBCG cluster finding algorithm. Our analysis is aimed at constraining the power spectrum normalization {sigma}{sub 8}, and assumes flat cosmologies with a scale invariant spectrum, massless neutrinos, and CMB and supernova priors {Omega}{sub m}h{sup 2} = 0.128 {+-} 0.01 and h = 0.72 {+-} 0.05 respectively. Following the method described in the companion paper Rozo et al. (2007), we derive {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.92 {+-} 0.10 (1{sigma}) after marginalizing over all major systematic uncertainties. We place strong lower limits on the normalization, {sigma}{sub 8} > 0.76 (95% CL) (> 0.68 at 99% CL). We also find that our analysis favors relatively low values for the slope of the Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD), {alpha} = 0.83 {+-} 0.06. The uncertainties of these determinations will substantially improve upon completion of an ongoing campaign to estimate dynamical, weak lensing, and X-ray cluster masses in the SDSS maxBCG cluster sample.

  13. Chandra measurements of non-thermal X-ray emission from massive, merging, radio-halo clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Million, E T

    2008-01-01

    We report the discovery of spatially-extended, non-thermal or hot, quasi-thermal emission components in Chandra X-ray spectra for five of a sample of seven massive, merging galaxy clusters with powerful radio halos: Abell 665, 2163, 2255, 2319, and 1E0657-56. The emission components can be fitted by power-law models with mean photon indices in the range 1.4 20 keV. A control sample of regular, dynamically relaxed clusters without radio halos but with comparable thermal temperatures and luminosities shows no evidence for similar components in their Chandra spectra. Detailed X-ray spectral mapping reveals the complex thermodynamic states of the radio halo clusters. We report the discovery of a clear, large-scale shock front in Abell 2219. Our deepest observations, of the Bullet Cluster 1E0657-56, demonstrate a spatial correlation between the strongest power law X-ray emission, highest thermal pressure, and brightest 1.34GHz radio halo emission in this cluster. The integrated flux and mean spectral index of the...

  14. X-ray calibration of SZ scaling relations with the ACCEPT catalogue of galaxy clusters observed by Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Comis, B; Conte, A; Lamagna, L; De Gregori, S

    2011-01-01

    We explore the scaling relation between the flux of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect and the total mass of galaxy clusters using already reduced Chandra X-ray data present in the ACCEPT (Archive of Chandra Cluster Entropy Profile Tables) catalogue. The analysis is conducted over a sample of 226 objects, examining the relatively small scale corresponding to a cluster overdensity equal to 2500 times the critical density of the background universe, at which the total masses have been calculated exploiting the hydrostatic equilibrium hypothesis. Core entropy (K0) is strongly correlated with the central cooling time, and is therefore used to identify cooling-core (CC) objects in our sample. Our results confirm the self-similarity of the scaling relation between the integrated Comptonization parameter (Y) and the cluster mass, for both CC and NCC (non-cooling-core) clusters. The consistency of our calibration with recent ones has been checked, with further support for Y as a good mass proxy. We also investigate t...

  15. A Chandra Study of the Image Power Spectra of 41 Cool Core and Non-Cool Core Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Chenhao; Zhu, Zhenghao; Li, Weitian; Hu, Dan; Wang, Jingying; Gu, Junhua; Gu, Liyi; Zhang, Zhongli; Liu, Chengze; Zhu, Jie; Wu, Xiang-Ping

    2016-01-01

    In this work we propose a new diagnostic to segregate cool core (CC) clusters from non-cool core (NCC) clusters by studying the two-dimensional power spectra of the X-ray images observed with the Chandra X-ray observatory. Our sample contains 41 members ($z=0.01\\sim 0.54$), which are selected from the Chandra archive when a high photon count, an adequate angular resolution, a relatively complete detector coverage, and coincident CC-NCC classifications derived with three traditional diagnostics are simultaneously guaranteed. We find that in the log-log space the derived image power spectra can be well represented by a constant model component at large wavenumbers, while at small wavenumbers a power excess beyond the constant component appears in all clusters, with a clear tendency that the excess is stronger in CC clusters. By introducing a new CC diagnostic parameter, i.e., the power excess index (PEI), we classify the clusters in our sample and compare the results with those obtained with three traditional C...

  16. Measuring redshift through X-ray spectroscopy of galaxy clusters: results from Chandra data and future prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Heng; Borgani, Stefano; Rosati, Piero; Zhu, Zong-Hong

    2011-01-01

    The ubiquitous presence of the Fe line complex in the X-ray spectra of galaxy clusters offers the possibility of measuring their redshift without resorting to spectroscopic follow-up observations. In this paper we assess the accuracy with which the redshift of galaxy clusters can be recovered from X-ray spectral analysis of Chandra archival data. This study indicates a strategy to build large surveys of clusters whose identification and redshift measurement are both based on X-ray data alone. We apply a blind search for K--shell and L--shell Fe line complex in X-ray cluster spectra using Chandra archival observations of galaxy clusters. The presence of the Fe line in the ICM spectra can be detected by simply analyzing the C-statistics variation $\\Delta C_{stat}$ as a function of the redshift parameter. We repeat the measurement under different conditions, and compare the X-ray derived redshift $z_X$ with the one obtained through optical spectroscopy $z_o$. We explore also how a number of priors on metallicity...

  17. The adhesion model as a field theory for cosmological clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigopoulos, Gerasimos, E-mail: rigopoulos@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 12, Heidelberg, 69120 Germany (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    The adhesion model has been proposed in the past as an improvement of the Zel'dovich approximation, providing a good description of the formation of the cosmic web. We recast the model as a field theory for cosmological large scale structure, adding a stochastic force to account for power generated from very short, highly non-linear scales that is uncorrelated with the initial power spectrum. The dynamics of this Stochastic Adhesion Model (SAM) is reminiscent of the well known Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation with the difference that the viscosity and the noise spectrum are time dependent. Choosing the viscosity proportional to the growth factor D restricts the form of noise spectrum through a 1-loop renormalization argument. For this choice, the SAM field theory is renormalizable to one loop. We comment on the suitability of this model for describing the non-linear regime of the CDM power spectrum and its utility as a relatively simple approach to cosmological clustering.

  18. Primordial Globular Clusters, X-Ray Binaries & Cosmological Reionisation

    CERN Document Server

    Power, C; Combet, C; Wilkinson, M I

    2009-01-01

    Globular clusters are dense stellar systems that have typical ages of ~13 billion years, implying that they formed at redshifts of z>~6. Massive stars in newly formed or primordial globular clusters could have played an important role during the epoch of cosmological reionisation (z>~6) as sources of energetic, neutral hydrogen ionising UV photons. We investigate whether or not these stars could have been as important in death as sources of energetic X-ray photons as they were during their main sequence lives. Most massive stars are expected to form in binaries, and an appreciable fraction of these (as much as ~30%) will evolve into X-ray luminous (L_X~10^38 erg/s) high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs). These sources would have made a contribution to the X-ray background at z>~6. Using Monte Carlo models of a globular cluster, we estimate the total X-ray luminosity of a population of HMXBs. We compare and contrast this with the total UV luminosity of the massive stars during their main sequence lives. For reasonab...

  19. Formation of Compact Clusters from High Resolution Hybrid Cosmological Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Mark L A; Gray, William J

    2013-01-01

    The early Universe hosted a large population of small dark matter `minihalos' that were too small to cool and form stars on their own. These existed as static objects around larger galaxies until acted upon by some outside influence. Outflows, which have been observed around a variety of galaxies, can provide this influence in such a way as to collapse, rather than disperse the minihalo gas. Gray & Scannapieco performed an investigation in which idealized spherically-symmetric minihalos were struck by enriched outflows. Here we perform high-resolution cosmological simulations that form realistic minihalos, which we then extract to perform a large suite of simulations of outflow-minihalo interactions including non-equilibrium chemical reactions. In all models, the shocked minihalo forms molecules through non-equilibrium reactions, and then cools to form dense chemically homogenous clumps of star-forming gas. The formation of these high-redshift clusters will be observable with the next generation of telesc...

  20. Clustered nested sampling: efficient Bayesian inference for cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, R; Hobson, M P

    2007-01-01

    Bayesian model selection provides the cosmologist with an exacting tool to distinguish between competing models based purely on the data, via the Bayesian evidence. Previous methods to calculate this quantity either lacked general applicability or were computationally demanding. However, nested sampling (Skilling 2004), which was recently applied successfully to cosmology by Muhkerjee et al. 2006, overcomes both of these impediments. Their implementation restricts the parameter space sampled, and thus improves the efficiency, using a decreasing ellipsoidal bound in the $n$-dimensional parameter space centred on the maximum likelihood point. However, if the likelihood function contains any multi-modality, then the ellipse is prevented from constraining the sampling region efficiently. In this paper we introduce a method of clustered ellipsoidal nested sampling which can form multiple ellipses around each individual peak in the likelihood. In addition we have implemented a method for determining the expectation...

  1. Deep Chandra Observation and Numerical Studies of the Nearest Cluster Cold Front in the Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, N.; ZuHone, J. A.; Zhuravleva, I.; Ichinohe, Y.; Simionescu, A.; Allen, S. W.; Markevitch, M.; Fabian, A. C.; Keshet, U.; Roediger, E.; Ruszkowski, M.; Sanders, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of a very deep (500 ks) Chandra observation, along with tailored numerical simulations, of the nearest, best resolved cluster cold front in the sky, which lies 90 kpc (19 arcmin) to the north-west of M87. The northern part of the front appears the sharpest, with a width smaller than 2.5 kpc (1.5 Coulomb mean free paths; at 99 per cent confidence). Everywhere along the front, the temperature discontinuity is narrower than 4-8 kpc and the metallicity gradient is narrower than 6 kpc, indicating that diffusion, conduction and mixing are suppressed across the interface. Such transport processes can be naturally suppressed by magnetic fields aligned with the cold front. Interestingly, comparison to magnetohydrodynamic simulations indicates that in order to maintain the observed sharp density and temperature discontinuities, conduction must also be suppressed along the magnetic field lines. However, the northwestern part of the cold front is observed to have a non-zero width. While other explanations are possible, the broadening is consistent with the presence of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities (KHI) on length-scales of a few kpc. Based on comparison with simulations, the presence of KHI would imply that the effective viscosity of the intracluster medium is suppressed by more than an order of magnitude with respect to the isotropic Spitzer-like temperature dependent viscosity. Underneath the cold front, we observe quasi-linear features that are approximately 10 per cent brighter than the surrounding gas and are separated by approximately 15 kpc from each other in projection. Comparison to tailored numerical simulations suggests that the observed phenomena may be due to the amplification of magnetic fields by gas sloshing in wide layers below the cold front, where the magnetic pressure reaches approximately 5-10 per cent of the thermal pressure, reducing the gas density between the bright features.

  2. Chandra deep observation of XDCP J0044.0-2033, a massive galaxy cluster at z>1.5

    CERN Document Server

    Tozzi, P; Jee, M J; Fassbender, R; Rosati, P; Nastasi, A; Forman, W; Sartoris, B; Borgani, S; Boehringer, H; Altieri, B; Pratt, G W; Nonino, M; Jones, C

    2014-01-01

    We report the analysis of the Chandra observation of XDCP J0044.0-2033, a massive, distant (z=1.579) galaxy cluster discovered in the XDCP survey. The total exposure time of 380 ks with Chandra ACIS-S provides the deepest X-ray observation currently achieved on a massive, high redshift cluster. Extended emission from the Intra Cluster Medium (ICM) is detected at a very high significance level (S/N~20) on a circular region with a 44" radius, corresponding to $R_{ext}=375$ kpc at the cluster redshift. We perform an X-ray spectral fit of the ICM emission modeling the spectrum with a single-temperature thermal mekal model. Our analysis provides a global temperature $kT=6.7^{+1.3}_{-0.9}$ keV, and a iron abundance $Z_{Fe} = 0.41_{-0.26}^{+0.29}Z_{Fe_\\odot}$ (error bars correspond to 1 $\\sigma$). We fit the background-subtracted surface brightness profile with a single $\\beta$-model out to 44", finding a rather flat profile with no hints of a cool core. We derive the deprojected electron density profile and compute...

  3. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: ACT-CL J0102-4215 "El Gordo," a Massive Merging Cluster at Redshift 0.87

    CERN Document Server

    Menanteau, Felipe; Sifon, Cristobal; Hilton, Matt; Gonzalez, Jorge; Infante, Leopoldo; Barrientos, L Felipe; Baker, Andrew J; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J; Dunkley, Joanna; Hincks, Adam D; Kosowsky, Arthur; Mardsen, Danica; Marriage, Tobias A; Moodley, Kavilan; Niemack, Michael D; Page, Lyman A; Reese, Erik D; Sehgal, Neelima; Sievers, Jon; Spergel, David N; Staggs, Suzanne T; Wollack, Edward

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis from new multi-wavelength observations of the exceptional galaxy cluster ACT-CL J0102-4915, likely the most massive, hottest, most X-ray luminous and brightest Sunyaev-Zel'dovich(SZ) effect cluster known at redshifts greater than 0.6. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope collaboration discovered it as the most significant SZ decrement in a sky survey area of 755 square degrees. Our VLT/FORS2 spectra of 89 member galaxies yield a cluster redshift, z=0.870, and velocity dispersion, sigma=1321+/-106 km/s. Our Chandra observations reveal a hot and X-ray luminous system with an integrated temperature of Tx=14.5+/-0.1 keV and 0.5-2.0 keV band luminosity of Lx=(2.19+/-0.11) x 10^45 h_70^-2 erg/s. We obtain several statistically consistent cluster mass estimates; using empirical mass scaling relations with velocity dispersion, X-ray Yx, and integrated SZ distortion, we estimate a cluster mass of M_200=(2.16+/-0.32)x10^15 M_sun/h_70. The Chandra and VLT/FORS2 optical data also reveal that ACT...

  4. Clustering tomography: measuring cosmological distances through angular clustering in thin redshift shells

    CERN Document Server

    Salazar-Albornoz, Salvador; Padilla, Nelson D; Baugh, Carlton M

    2014-01-01

    We test the cosmological implications of studying galaxy clustering using a tomographic approach, by computing the galaxy two-point angular correlation function $\\omega(\\theta)$ in thin redshift shells using a spectroscopic-redshift galaxy survey. The advantages of this procedure are that it is not necessary to assume a fiducial cosmology in order to convert measured angular positions and redshifts into distances, and that it gives several (less accurate) measurements of the angular diameter distance $D_\\rm{A}(z)$ instead of only one (more precise) measurement of the effective average distance $D_\\rm{V}(z)$, which results in better constraints on the expansion history of the Universe. We test our model for $\\omega(\\theta)$ and its covariance matrix against a set of mock galaxy catalogues and show that this technique is able to extract unbiased cosmological constraints. Also, assuming the best-fit $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology from the cosmic microwave background measurements from the Planck satellite, we forecast th...

  5. Cosmological tests using redshift space clustering in BOSS DR11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yong-Seon; Oh, Minji; Linder, Eric V. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Sabiu, Cristiano G. [Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Okumura, Teppei, E-mail: ysong@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: csabiu@gmail.com, E-mail: teppei.okumura@ipmu.jp, E-mail: minjioh@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: evlinder@lbl.gov [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU, WPI), The University of Tokyo, Chiba, 277-8582 Japan (Japan)

    2014-12-01

    We analyze the clustering of large scale structure in the Universe in a model independent method, accounting for anisotropic effects along and transverse to the line of sight. A large sample of 690,000 galaxies from The Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopy Survey Data Release 11 are used to determine the Hubble expansion H, angular distance D{sub A}, and growth rate G{sub Θ} at an effective redshift of z=0.57. After careful bias and convergence studies of the effects from small scale clustering, we find that cutting transverse separations below 40 Mpc/h delivers robust results while smaller scale data leads to a bias due to unmodelled nonlinear and velocity effects. The converged results are in agreement with concordance ΛCDM cosmology, general relativity, and minimal neutrino mass, all within the 68% confidence level. We also present results separately for the northern and southern hemisphere sky, finding a slight tension in the growth rate --- potentially a signature of anisotropic stress, or just covariance with small scale velocities --- but within 68% CL.

  6. Age Estimates of Universe: from Globular Clusters to Cosmological Models and Probes

    CERN Document Server

    Fatima, Hira; Rahman, Syed Faisal Ur

    2016-01-01

    We performed the photometric analysis of M2 and M92 globular clusters in g and r bands of SLOAN photometric system. We transformed these g and r bands into BV bands of Johnson-Cousins photometric system and built the color magnitude diagram (CMD). We estimated the age, and metallicity of both the clusters, by fitting Padova isochrones of different age and metallicities onto the CMD. We studied Einstein and de Sitter model, bench mark model, the cosmological parameters by WMAP and Planck surveys. Finally, we compared estimated age of globular clusters to the ages from the cosmological models and cosmological parameters values of WMAP and Planck surveys.

  7. X-Ray Localization of the Intermediate-Mass Black Hole in the Globular Cluster G1 with Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Kong, A K H; Di Stefano, R; Barmby, P; Lewin, W H G; Primini, F A

    2009-01-01

    We report the most accurate X-ray position of the giant globular cluster G1 in M31 by using the Chandra X-ray Observatory, Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). G1 is clearly detected with Chandra and by cross-registering with HST and CFHT images, we derive a 1sigma error radius of 0.15", significantly smaller than the previous measurement by XMM-Newton. We conclude that the X-ray emission of G1 comes from within the core radius of the cluster. There are two possibilities for the origin of the X-ray emission: it could be due to either accretion of a central intermediate-mass black hole, or ordinary low-mass X-ray binaries. Based on the ratio of X-ray to the Eddington luminosity, an intermediate-mass black hole accreting from the cluster gas seems unlikely and we suggest that the X-rays are due to accretion from a companion. We also find that the X-ray emission may be offset from the radio emission. Future high-resolution and high-sensitivity radio imaging observations will r...

  8. Deep Chandra Observations of NGC 1404: Cluster Plasma Physics Revealed by an Infalling Early-type Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yuanyuan; Kraft, Ralph P.; Roediger, Elke; Nulsen, Paul; Forman, William R.; Churazov, Eugene; Randall, Scott W.; Jones, Christine; Machacek, Marie E.

    2017-01-01

    The intracluster medium (ICM), as a magnetized and highly ionized fluid, provides an ideal laboratory to study plasma physics under extreme conditions that cannot be achieved on Earth. NGC 1404 is a bright elliptical galaxy that is being gas stripped as it falls through the ICM of the Fornax Cluster. We use the new Chandra X-ray observations of NGC 1404 to study ICM microphysics. The interstellar medium of NGC 1404 is characterized by a sharp leading edge, 8 kpc from the Galaxy center, and a short downstream gaseous tail. Contact discontinuities are resolved on unprecedented spatial scales (0.″5 = 45 pc) due to the combination of the proximity of NGC 1404, the superb spatial resolution of Chandra, and the very deep (670 ks) exposure. At the leading edge, we observe sub-kiloparsec-scale eddies generated by Kelvin–Helmholtz instability (KHI) and put an upper limit of 5% Spitzer on the isotropic viscosity of the hot cluster plasma. We also observe mixing between the hot cluster gas and the cooler galaxy gas in the downstream stripped tail, which provides further evidence of a low viscosity plasma. The assumed ordered magnetic fields in the ICM ought to be smaller than 5 μG to allow KHI to develop. The lack of an evident magnetic draping layer just outside the contact edge is consistent with such an upper limit.

  9. Precision cosmology with a combination of wide and deep Sunyaev-Zeldovich cluster surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Khedekar, Satej; Das, Sudeep

    2010-01-01

    We show the advantages of a wedding cake design for Sunyaev-Zel'dovich cluster surveys. We show that by dividing up a cluster survey into a wide and a deep survey, one can essentially recover the cosmological information that would be diluted in a single survey of the same duration due to the uncertainties in our understanding of cluster physics. The parameter degeneracy directions of the deep and wide surveys are slightly different, and combining them breaks these degeneracies effectively. A variable depth survey with a few thousand clusters is as effective at constraining cosmological parameters as a single depth survey with a much larger cluster sample.

  10. Star Cluster Formation in Cosmological Simulations. I. Properties of Young Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Gnedin, Oleg Y.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Meng, Xi; Semenov, Vadim A.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2017-01-01

    We present a new implementation of star formation in cosmological simulations by considering star clusters as a unit of star formation. Cluster particles grow in mass over several million years at the rate determined by local gas properties, with high time resolution. The particle growth is terminated by its own energy and momentum feedback on the interstellar medium. We test this implementation for Milky Way-sized galaxies at high redshift by comparing the properties of model clusters with observations of young star clusters. We find that the cluster initial mass function is best described by a Schechter function rather than a single power law. In agreement with observations, at low masses the logarithmic slope is α ≈ 1.8{--}2, while the cutoff at high mass scales with the star formation rate (SFR). A related trend is a positive correlation between the surface density of the SFR and fraction of stars contained in massive clusters. Both trends indicate that the formation of massive star clusters is preferred during bursts of star formation. These bursts are often associated with major-merger events. We also find that the median timescale for cluster formation ranges from 0.5 to 4 Myr and decreases systematically with increasing star formation efficiency. Local variations in the gas density and cluster accretion rate naturally lead to the scatter of the overall formation efficiency by an order of magnitude, even when the instantaneous efficiency is kept constant. Comparison of the formation timescale with the observed age spread of young star clusters provides an additional important constraint on the modeling of star formation and feedback schemes.

  11. Star cluster formation in cosmological simulations. I. properties of young clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hui; Gnedin, Nickolay Y; Meng, Xi; Semenov, Vadim A; Kravtsov, Andrey V

    2016-01-01

    We present a new implementation of star formation in cosmological simulations, by considering star clusters as a unit of star formation. Cluster particles grow in mass over several million years at the rate determined by local gas properties, with high time resolution. The particle growth is terminated by its own energy and momentum feedback on the interstellar medium. We test this implementation for Milky Way-sized galaxies at high redshift, by comparing the properties of model clusters with observations of young star clusters. We find that the cluster initial mass function is best described by a Schechter function rather than a single power law. In agreement with observations, at low masses the logarithmic slope is $\\alpha\\approx 1.8-2$, while the cutoff at high mass scales with the star formation rate. A related trend is a positive correlation between the surface density of star formation rate and fraction of stars contained in massive clusters. Both trends indicate that the formation of massive star clust...

  12. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: ACT-CL J0102-4215 "El Gordo," a Massive Merging Cluster at Redshift 0.87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menanteau, Felipe; Hughes, John Pl; Baker, Andrew J.; Sifon, Cristobal; Gonzalez, Jorge; Infante, Leopoldo; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Hilton, Matt; Das, Sudeep; Spergel, David N.; Hincks, Adam D.; Page, Lyman A.; Staggs, Suzanne T.; Mardsen, Danica; Reese, Erik D.; Dunkley, Joanna; Kosowsky, Arthur; Marriage, Tobias A.; Moodley, Kavilan; Niemack, Michael D.; Sehgal, Neelima; Sievers, Jon

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis from new multi-wavelength observations of the exceptional galaxy cluster ACT-CL J0102-4915, likely the most massive, hottest, most X-ray luminous and brightest Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect cluster known at redshifts greater than 0.6. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) collaboration discovered ACT-CL J0102-4915 as the most significant Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) decrement in a sky survey area of 755 square degrees. Our VLT/FORS2 spectra of 89 member galaxies yield a cluster redshift, z = 0.870, and velocity dispersion, sigma(gal) +/- 1321 106 km s-1. Our Chandra observations reveal a hot and X-ray luminous system with an integrated temperature of T(X) = 14:5 +/- 0:1 keV and 0.5 2.0 keV band luminosity of L(X) = (2:19 0:11) 1045 h(exp -2)70erg s-1. We obtain several statistically consistent cluster mass estimates; using empirical mass scaling relations with velocity dispersion, X-ray Y(X) , and integrated SZ distortion, we estimate a cluster mass of M(200) = (2:16 +/- 0:32) 10(exp 15) h(exp-1) 70M compared to the Sun. We constrain the stellar content of the cluster to be less than 1% of the total mass, using Spitzer IRAC and optical imaging. The Chandra and VLT/FORS2 optical data also reveal that ACT-CL J0102-4915 is undergoing a major merger between components with a mass ratio of approximately 2 to 1. The X-ray data show significant temperature variations from a low of 6:6 +/- 0:7 keV at the merging low-entropy, high-metallicity, cool core to a high of 22 +/- 6 keV. We also see a wake in the X-ray surface brightness and deprojected gas density caused by the passage of one cluster through the other from which we estimate a merger speed of around 1300 km s(exp -1) for an assumed merger timescale of 1 Gyr. ACTCL J0102-4915 is possibly a high-redshift analog of the famous Bullet Cluster. Such a massive cluster at this redshift is rare, although consistent with the standard CDM cosmology in the lower part of its allowed mass range. Massive

  13. Multiwavelength Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plionis, M.

    2004-07-01

    The recent scientific efforts in Astrophysics & Cosmology have brought a revolution to our understanding of the Cosmos. Amazing results is the outcome of amazing experiments! The huge scientific, technological & financial effort that has gone into building the 10-m class telescopes as well as many space and balloon observatories, essential to observe the multitude of cosmic phenomena in their manifestations at different wavelengths, from gamma-rays to the millimetre and the radio, has given and is still giving its fruits of knowledge. These recent scientific achievements in Observational and Theoretical Cosmology were presented in the "Multiwavelength Cosmology" conference that took place on beautiful Mykonos island in the Aegean between 17 and 20 June 2003. More than 180 Cosmologists from all over the world gathered for a four-day intense meeting in which recent results from large ground based surveys (AAT/2-df, SLOAN) and space missions (WMAP, Chandra, XMM, ISO, HST) were presented and debated, providing a huge impetus to our knowledge of the Cosmos. The future of the subject (experiments, and directions of research) was also discussed. The conference was devoted mostly on the constraints on Cosmological models and galaxy formation theories that arise from the study of the high redshift Universe, from clusters of galaxies, and their evolution, from the cosmic microwave background, the large-scale structure and star-formation history. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1971-8

  14. Chandra Observations of the Lensing Cluster EMSS 1358+6245: Implications for Self-interacting Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabadjis, J. S.; Bautz, M. W.; Garmire, G. P.

    2002-06-01

    We present Chandra observations of EMSS 1358+6245, a relaxed cooling flow cluster of galaxies at z=0.328. We employ a new deprojection technique to construct temperature, gas, and dark matter profiles. We confirm the presence of cool gas in the cluster core, and our deprojected temperature profile for the hot component is isothermal over 30kpcconfidence limit) on the size of any constant-density core. We compare this result to recent simulations and place a conservative upper limit on the dark matter particle-scattering cross section of 0.1 cm2 g-1. This limit implies that the cross section must be velocity-dependent if the relatively shallow core mass profiles of dwarf galaxies are a direct result of dark matter self-interaction.

  15. The relation between gas density and velocity power spectra in galaxy clusters: qualitative treatment and cosmological simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuravleva, I; Schekochihin, A A; Lau, E T; Nagai, D; Gaspari, M; Allen, S W; Nelson, K; Parrish, I J

    2014-01-01

    We address the problem of evaluating the power spectrum of the velocity field of the ICM using only information on the plasma density fluctuations, which can be measured today by Chandra and XMM-Newton observatories. We argue that for relaxed clusters there is a linear relation between the rms density and velocity fluctuations across a range of scales, from the largest ones, where motions are dominated by buoyancy, down to small, turbulent scales: $(\\delta\\rho_k/\\rho)^2 = \\eta_1^2 (V_{1,k}/c_s)^2$, where $\\delta\\rho_k/\\rho$ is the spectral amplitude of the density perturbations at wave number $k$, $V_{1,k}^2=V_k^2/3$ is the mean square component of the velocity field, $c_s$ is the sound speed, and $\\eta_1$ is a dimensionless constant of order unity. Using cosmological simulations of relaxed galaxy clusters, we calibrate this relation and find $\\eta_1\\approx 1 \\pm 0.3$. We argue that this value is set at large scales by buoyancy physics, while at small scales the density and velocity power spectra are proporti...

  16. THE ATACAMA COSMOLOGY TELESCOPE: HIGH-RESOLUTION SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH ARRAY OBSERVATIONS OF ACT SZE-SELECTED CLUSTERS FROM THE EQUATORIAL STRIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, Erik D.; Mroczkowski, Tony; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Menanteau, Felipe; Baker, Andrew J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States); Hilton, Matt [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Sievers, Jonathan; Bond, J. Richard; Hajian, Amir [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Aguirre, Paula; Duenner, Rolando [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Appel, John William; Das, Sudeep; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Hincks, Adam D. [Joseph Henry Laboratories of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Fowler, Joseph W.; Hill, J. Colin [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); and others

    2012-05-20

    We present follow-up observations with the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Array (SZA) of optically confirmed galaxy clusters found in the equatorial survey region of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT): ACT-CL J0022-0036, ACT-CL J2051+0057, and ACT-CL J2337+0016. ACT-CL J0022-0036 is a newly discovered, massive ({approx_equal} 10{sup 15} M{sub Sun }), high-redshift (z = 0.81) cluster revealed by ACT through the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE). Deep, targeted observations with the SZA allow us to probe a broader range of cluster spatial scales, better disentangle cluster decrements from radio point-source emission, and derive more robust integrated SZE flux and mass estimates than we can with ACT data alone. For the two clusters we detect with the SZA we compute integrated SZE signal and derive masses from the SZA data only. ACT-CL J2337+0016, also known as A2631, has archival Chandra data that allow an additional X-ray-based mass estimate. Optical richness is also used to estimate cluster masses and shows good agreement with the SZE and X-ray-based estimates. Based on the point sources detected by the SZA in these three cluster fields and an extrapolation to ACT's frequency, we estimate that point sources could be contaminating the SZE decrement at the {approx}< 20% level for some fraction of clusters.

  17. The Outer Limits of Galaxy Clusters: Observations to the Virial Radius with Suzaku, XMM,and Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric D.; Bautz, Marshall; George, Jithin; Mushotzky, Richard; Davis, David; Henry, J. Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The outskirts of galaxy clusters, near the virial radius, remain relatively unexplored territory and yet are vital to our understanding of cluster growth, structure, and mass. In this presentation, we show the first results from a program to constrain the sate of the outer intra-cluster medium (ICM) in a large sample of galaxy clusters, exploiting the strengths of three complementary X-ray observatories: Suzaku (low, stable background), XMM-Newton (high sensitivity),and Chandra (good spatial resolution). By carefully combining observations from the cluster core to beyond r200, we are able to identify and reduce systematic uncertainties that would impede our spatial and spectral analysis using a single telescope. Our sample comprises nine clusters at z is approximately 0.1-0.2 fully covered in azimuth to beyond r200, and our analysis indicates that the ICM is not in hydrostatic equilibrium in the cluster outskirts, where we see clear azimuthal variations in temperature and surface brightness. In one of the clusters, we are able to measure the diffuse X-ray emission well beyond r200, and we find that the entropy profile and the gas fraction are consistent with expectations from theory and numerical simulations. These results stand in contrast to recent studies which point to gas clumping in the outskirts; the extent to which differences of cluster environment or instrumental effects factor in this difference remains unclear. From a broader perspective, this project will produce a sizeable fiducial data set for detailed comparison with high-resolution numerical simulations.

  18. Chandra measurements of a complete sample of X-ray luminous galaxy clusters: the luminosity-mass relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, P. A.; Maughan, B. J.; Dahle, H.; Bonamente, M.; Landry, D.; Jones, C.; Joy, M.; Murray, S. S.; van der Pyl, N.

    2017-02-01

    We present the results of work involving a statistically complete sample of 34 galaxy clusters, in the redshift range 0.15 ≤ z ≤ 0.3 observed with Chandra. We investigate the luminosity-mass (LM) relation for the cluster sample, with the masses obtained via a full hydrostatic mass analysis. We utilize a method to fully account for selection biases when modelling the LM relation, and find that the LM relation is significantly different from the relation modelled when not account for selection effects. We find that the luminosity of our clusters is 2.2 ± 0.4 times higher (when accounting for selection effects) than the average for a given mass and its mass is 30 per cent lower than the population average for a given luminosity. Equivalently, using the LM relation measured from this sample without correcting for selection biases would lead to the underestimation by 40 per cent of the average mass of a cluster with a given luminosity. Comparing the hydrostatic masses to mass estimates determined from the YX parameter, we find that they are entirely consistent, irrespective of the dynamical state of the cluster.

  19. Suzaku and Chandra observations of CIZA J1700.8-3144, a cluster of galaxies in the Zone of Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hideyuki; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Tawara, Yuzuru

    2017-02-01

    We present the Chandra and Suzaku observations of 1RXS J170047.8-314442, located towards the Galactic bulge, to reveal a wide-band (0.3-10 keV) X-ray morphology and spectrum of this source. With the Chandra observation, no point source was found at the position of 1RXS J170047.8-314442. Instead, we revealed the presence of diffuse X-ray emission, via the wide-band X-ray image obtained from the Suzaku XIS. Although the X-ray emission had a nearly circular shape with a spatial extent of ˜3{^'.}5, the surface brightness profile was not axisymmetric; a bright spot-like emission was found at ˜ 1' away in the northwestern direction from the center. The radial profile of the surface brightness, except for this spot-like emission, was reproduced with a single β-model; β and the core radius were found to be 1.02 and 1{^'.}51, respectively. The X-ray spectrum of the diffuse emission showed an emission line at ˜6 keV, indicating an origin of a thermal plasma. The spectrum was well explained with an absorbed, optically-thin thermal plasma model with a temperature of 6.2 keV and a redshift parameter of z = 0.14 ± 0.01. Hence, the X-ray emission was considered to arise from the hot gas associated with a cluster of galaxies. Our spectroscopic result confirmed the optical identification of 1RXS J170047.8-314442 by Kocevski et al. (2007, ApJ, 662, 224): CIZA J1700.8-3144, a member of the cluster catalogue in the Zone of Avoidance. The estimated bolometric X-ray luminosity of 5.9 × 1044 erg s-1 was among the lowest with this temperature, suggesting that this cluster is far from relaxed.

  20. LoCuSS: Hydrostatic Mass Measurements of the High-$L_X$ Cluster Sample -- Cross-calibration of Chandra and XMM-Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Martino, Rossella; Bourdin, Hervé; Smith, Graham P; Bartalucci, Iacopo; Marrone, Daniel P; Finoguenov, Alexis; Okabe, Nobuhiro

    2014-01-01

    We present a consistent analysis of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of an approximately mass-selected sample of 50 galaxy clusters at $0.15Chandra and XMM-Newton backgrounds to $<2\\%$ and $<5\\%$ precision respectively. To verify the cross-calibration of Chandra and XMM-Newton-based cluster mass measurements, we derive the mass profiles of the 21 clusters that have been observed with both satellites, extracting surface brightness and temperature profiles from identical regions of the respective datasets. We obtain consistent results for the gas and total hydrostatic cluster masses: the average ratio of Chandra- to XMM-Newton-based measurements of $M_{\\rm gas}$ and $M_X$ at $r_{500}$ are $0.99\\pm0.02$ and $1.02\\pm0.05$, respectively with an intrinsic scatter of $\\sim3\\%$ for gas masses and $\\sim8...

  1. THE ATACAMA COSMOLOGY TELESCOPE: PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH EFFECT CLUSTERS ON THE CELESTIAL EQUATOR {sup ,}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menanteau, Felipe; Hughes, John P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Sifon, Cristobal; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Duenner, Rolando; Infante, Leopoldo [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Battaglia, Nicholas [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Bond, J. Richard; Hajian, Amir; Hincks, Adam D. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Crichton, Devin; Gralla, Megan; Marriage, Tobias A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Das, Sudeep [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Hasselfield, Matthew [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Hilton, Matt [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban (South Africa); Kosowsky, Arthur [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Pittsburgh, 100 Allen Hall, 3941 O' Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Marsden, Danica [Department of Physics, University of California Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); and others

    2013-03-01

    We present the optical and X-ray properties of 68 galaxy clusters selected via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect at 148 GHz by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). Our sample, from an area of 504 deg{sup 2} centered on the celestial equator, is divided into two regions. The main region uses 270 deg{sup 2} of the ACT survey that overlaps with the co-added ugriz imaging from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) over Stripe 82 plus additional near-infrared pointed observations with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m telescope. We confirm a total of 49 clusters to z Almost-Equal-To 1.3, of which 22 (all at z > 0.55) are new discoveries. For the second region, the regular-depth SDSS imaging allows us to confirm 19 more clusters up to z Almost-Equal-To 0.7, of which 10 systems are new. We present the optical richness, photometric redshifts, and separation between the SZ position and the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG). We find no significant offset between the cluster SZ centroid and BCG location and a weak correlation between optical richness and SZ-derived mass. We also present X-ray fluxes and luminosities from the ROSAT All Sky Survey which confirm that this is a massive sample. One of the newly discovered clusters, ACT-CL J0044.4+0113 at z = 1.1 (photometric), has an integrated XMM-Newton X-ray temperature of kT{sub X} = 7.9 {+-} 1.0 keV and combined mass of M {sub 200a} = 8.2{sup +3.3} {sub -2.5} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} h {sup -1} {sub 70} M {sub Sun }, placing it among the most massive and X-ray-hot clusters known at redshifts beyond z = 1. We also highlight the optically rich cluster ACT-CL J2327.4-0204 (RCS2 2327) at z = 0.705 (spectroscopic) as the most significant detection of the whole equatorial sample with a Chandra-derived mass of M {sub 200a} = 1.9{sup +0.6} {sub -0.4} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} h {sup -1} {sub 70} M {sub Sun }, placing it in the ranks of the most massive known clusters like El Gordo and the Bullet Cluster.

  2. Chandra X-ray Observations of the Young Stellar Cluster NGC 6193 in the Ara OB1 Association

    CERN Document Server

    Skinner, S L; Palla, F; Barbosa, C L D R

    2005-01-01

    A 90 ks Chandra HETG observation of the young stellar cluster NGC 6193 in the southern Ara OB1 association detected 43 X-ray sources in a 2' x 2' core region centered on the young O stars HD 150135 (O6.5V) and HD 150136 (O3+O6V). The cluster is dominated by exceptionally bright X-ray emission from the two O stars, which are separated by only 10 arcsecs. The X-ray luminosity of HD 150136 is log Lx = 33.39 (ergs/s), making it one of the most luminous O-star X-ray sources known. All of the fainter X-ray sources in the core region have near-IR counterparts, but JHK photometry provides little evidence for near-IR excesses. These core sources have typical mean photon energies of 2 keV and about one-third are variable. It is likely that some are young low-mass stars in the cluster, but cluster membership remains to be determined. Grating spectra show that the X-ray properties of HD 150135 and HD 150136 are similar, but not identical. Both have moderately broadened unshifted emission lines and their emission is domin...

  3. Cosmology with velocity dispersion counts: an alternative to measuring cluster halo masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, C. E.; McCarthy, I. G.; Baldry, I. K.; Collins, C. A.; Schaye, J.; Bird, S.

    2016-11-01

    The evolution of galaxy cluster counts is a powerful probe of several fundamental cosmological parameters. A number of recent studies using this probe have claimed tension with the cosmology preferred by the analysis of the Planck primary cosmic microwave background (CMB) data, in the sense that there are fewer clusters observed than predicted based on the primary CMB cosmology. One possible resolution to this problem is systematic errors in the absolute halo mass calibration in cluster studies, which is required to convert the standard theoretical prediction (the halo mass function) into counts as a function of the observable (e.g. X-ray luminosity, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich flux, and optical richness). Here we propose an alternative strategy, which is to directly compare predicted and observed cluster counts as a function of the one-dimensional velocity dispersion of the cluster galaxies. We argue that the velocity dispersion of groups/clusters can be theoretically predicted as robustly as mass but, unlike mass, it can also be directly observed, thus circumventing the main systematic bias in traditional cluster counts studies. With the aid of the BAHAMAS suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, we demonstrate the potential of the velocity dispersion counts for discriminating even similar Λ cold dark matter models. These predictions can be compared with the results from existing redshift surveys such as the highly complete Galaxy And Mass Assembly survey, and upcoming wide-field spectroscopic surveys such as the Wide Area Vista Extragalactic Survey and the Dark Energy Survey Instrument.

  4. Testing Einstein's Equivalence Principle with Cosmological Fast Radio Bursts behind Clusters of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Recently, cosmological fast radio bursts (FRBs) have been used to provide the most stringent limit up to date on Einstein's Equivalence Principle (EEP). We study how to further test EEP with FRBs. Methods: Future systematic radio surveys will certainly find abundant FRBs at cosmological distances and some of them will inevitably be located behind clusters of galaxies. Here we suggest to use those FRBs to further test EEP. Results: We find that the robustness and accuracy of testing EEP can be improved further by orders of magnitude with these FRBs. The same methodology can also be applied to any other types of fast and bright transients at cosmological distances.

  5. Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Rubakov, V A

    2014-01-01

    In these lectures we first concentrate on the cosmological problems which, hopefully, have to do with the new physics to be probed at the LHC: the nature and origin of dark matter and generation of matter-antimatter asymmetry. We give several examples showing the LHC cosmological potential. These are WIMPs as cold dark matter, gravitinos as warm dark matter, and electroweak baryogenesis as a mechanism for generating matter-antimatter asymmetry. In the remaining part of the lectures we discuss the cosmological perturbations as a tool for studying the epoch preceeding the conventional hot stage of the cosmological evolution.

  6. The Effects of Relativistic Corrections on Cosmological Parameter Estimations from SZE Cluster Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Z H

    2003-01-01

    Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect (SZE) cluster surveys are anticipated to yield tight constraints on cosmological parameters such as the equation of state of dark energy. In this paper, we study the impact of relativistic corrections of the thermal SZE on the cluster number counts expected from a cosmological model and thus, assuming that other cosmological parameters are known to high accuracies, on the determination of the $w$ parameter and $\\sigma_8$ from a SZE cluster survey, where $w=p/\\rho$ with $p$ the pressure and $\\rho$ the density of dark energy, and $\\sigma_8$ is the rms of the extrapolated linear density fluctuation smoothed over $8\\hbox{Mpc}h^{-1}$. For the purpose of illustrating the effects of relativistic corrections, our analyses mainly focus on $\

  7. Simultaneous Constraints on Cosmology and Photometric Redshift Bias from Weak Lensing and Galaxy Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Samuroff, S; Bridle, SL; Zuntz, J; MacCrann, N; Krause, E; Eifler, T; Kirk, D

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the expected cosmological constraints from a combination of weak lensing and large-scale galaxy clustering using realistic redshift distributions. Introducing a systematic bias in the weak lensing redshift distributions (of 0.05 in redshift) produces a $>2\\sigma$ bias in the recovered matter power spectrum amplitude and dark energy equation of state, for preliminary Stage III surveys. We demonstrate that these cosmological errors can be largely removed by marginalising over unknown biases in the assumed weak lensing redshift distributions, if we assume high quality redshift information for the galaxy clustering sample. Furthermore the cosmological constraining power is mostly retained despite removing much of the information on the weak lensing redshift distribution biases. We show that this comes from complementary degeneracy directions between cosmic shear and the combination of galaxy clustering with cross-correlation between shear and galaxy number density. Finally we examine how the self-c...

  8. Planck 2015 results. XXIV. Cosmology from Sunyaev-Zeldovich cluster counts

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Battye, R; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Comis, B; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Désert, F -X; Diego, J M; Dolag, K; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Fergusson, J; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Melin, J -B; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Popa, L; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Roman, M; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Türler, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Weller, J; White, S D M; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2015-01-01

    We present cluster counts and corresponding cosmological constraints from the Planck full mission data set. Our catalogue consists of 439 clusters detected via their Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) signal down to a signal-to-noise of six, and is more than a factor of two larger than the 2013 Planck cluster cosmology sample. The counts are consistent with those from 2013 and yield compatible constraints under the same modelling assumptions. Taking advantage of the larger catalogue, we extend our analysis to the two-dimensional distribution in redshift and signal-to-noise. We use mass estimates from two recent studies of gravitational lensing of background galaxies by Planck clusters to provide priors on the hydrostatic bias parameter, $1-b$. In addition, we use lensing of cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature fluctuations by Planck clusters as a third independent constraint on this parameter. These various calibrations imply constraints on the present-day amplitude of matter fluctuations in varying degrees of t...

  9. Chandra Observations of the Lensing Cluster EMSS 1358+6245 Implications for Self-Interacting Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Arabadjis, J S; Garmire, G P

    2001-01-01

    We present Chandra observations of EMSS 1358+6245, a relaxed cooling flow cluster of galaxies at z = 0.328. We employ a new deprojection technique to construct temperature, gas, and dark matter profiles. We confirm the presence of cool gas in the cluster core, and our deprojected temperature profile for the hot component is isothermal over 30 kpc < r < 0.8 Mpc. Fitting the mass profile to an NFW model yields r_s = 153 [+161,-83] kpc and c = 8.4 [+3.4,-2.3]. We find good agreement between our dark matter profile and weak gravitational lensing measurements. We place an upper limit of 42 kpc (90% confidence limit) on the size of any constant density core. We compare this result to recent simulations and place a conservative upper limit on the dark matter particle scattering cross section of 0.1 cm^2/g. This limit implies that the cross-section must be velocity dependent if the relatively shallow core mass profiles of dwarf galaxies are a direct result of dark matter self-interaction.

  10. A method to search for bulk motions in the ICM with {\\sl Chandra} CCD spectra: application to the Bullet cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ang; Tozzi, Paolo; Zhu, Zong-Hong

    2015-01-01

    We propose a strategy to search for bulk motions in the intracluster medium (ICM) of merging clusters based on {\\sl Chandra} CCD data. Our goal is to derive robust measurements of the average redshift of projected ICM regions obtained from the centroid of the $K_\\alpha$ line emission. We thoroughly explore the effect of the unknown temperature structure along the line of sight to accurately evaluate the systematic uncertainties on the ICM redshift. We apply our method to the "Bullet cluster" (1E~0657-56). We directly identify 23 independent regions on the basis of the surface brightness contours, and measure the redshift of the ICM averaged along the line of sight in each. We find that the redshift distribution across these regions is marginally inconsistent with the null hypothesis of a constant redshift or no bulk motion in the ICM, at a confidence level of about $2\\, \\sigma$. We tentatively identify the regions most likely affected by bulk motions and find a maximum velocity gradient of about $(46\\pm 13)$ ...

  11. Probing cosmology with weak lensing selected clusters II: Dark energy and f(R) gravity models

    CERN Document Server

    Shirasaki, Masato; Yoshida, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing and future wide-field galaxy surveys can be used to locate a number of clusters of galaxies with cosmic shear measurement alone. We study constraints on cosmological models using statistics of weak lensing selected galaxy clusters. We extend our previous theoretical framework to model the statistical properties of clusters in variants of cosmological models as well as in the standard LCDM model. Weak lensing selection of clusters does not rely on the conventional assumption such as the relation between luminosity and mass and/or hydrostatic equilibrium, but a number of observational effects compromise robust identification. We use a large set of realistic mock weak-lensing catalogs as well as analytic models to perform a Fisher analysis and make forecast for constraining two competing cosmological models, wCDM model and f(R) model proposed by Hu & Sawicki, with our lensing statistics. We show that weak lensing selected clusters are excellent probe of cosmology when combined with cosmic shear power...

  12. Ten Years of Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2009-01-01

    We celebrated the 10-th anniversary of the Launch of the Chandra X-ray Observatory on July 13, 2009. During these 10 years data from this Great Observatory have had a profound impact on 21st century astrophysics. With its unrivaled capability to produce sub-arcsecond images, the Observatory has enabled astronomers to make new discoveries in topics as diverse as comets and cosmology. We shall review some of the highlights, discuss the current status, and future plans.

  13. The Velocity Distribution Function of Galaxy Clusters as a Cosmological Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntampaka, M.; Trac, H.; Cisewski, J.; Price, L. C.

    2017-01-01

    We present a new approach for quantifying the abundance of galaxy clusters and constraining cosmological parameters using dynamical measurements. In the standard method, galaxy line-of-sight velocities, v, or velocity dispersions are used to infer cluster masses, M, to quantify the halo mass function (HMF), {dn}(M)/d{log}(M), which is strongly affected by mass measurement errors. In our new method, the probability distributions of velocities for each cluster in the sample are summed to create a new statistic called the velocity distribution function (VDF), {dn}(v)/{dv}. The VDF can be measured more directly and precisely than the HMF and can be robustly predicted with cosmological simulations that capture the dynamics of subhalos or galaxies. We apply these two methods to realistic (ideal) mock cluster catalogs with (without) interlopers and forecast the bias and constraints on the matter density parameter Ωm and the amplitude of matter fluctuations σ8 in flat ΛCDM cosmologies. For an example observation of 200 massive clusters, the VDF with (without) interloping galaxies constrains the parameter combination {σ }8 {{{Ω }}}m0.29(0.29)=0.589+/- 0.014 (0.584+/- 0.011) and shows only minor bias. However, the HMF with interlopers is biased to low Ωm and high σ8 and the fiducial model lies well outside of the forecast constraints, prior to accounting for Eddington bias. When the VDF is combined with constraints from the cosmic microwave background, the degeneracy between cosmological parameters can be significantly reduced. Upcoming spectroscopic surveys that probe larger volumes and fainter magnitudes will provide clusters for applying the VDF as a cosmological probe.

  14. Cosmological parameter estimation from CMB and X-ray clusters after Planck

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Jian-Wei; Guo, Zong-Kuan; Hu, Bin

    2014-01-01

    We update the cosmological parameter estimation for three non-vanilla models by a joint analysis of \\CCCP\\ X-ray cluster, the newly released \\Planck\\ CMB data as well as some external data sets, such as baryon acoustic oscillation measurements from the 6dFGS, SDSS DR7 and BOSS DR9 surveys, and Hubble Space Telescope $H_0$ measurement. First of all, we find that X-ray cluster data sets strongly favor a non-zero summed neutrino mass at more than 3$\\sigma$ confidence level in these non-vanilla models. And then, we reveal some tensions between X-ray cluster and {\\it Planck} data in some cosmological parameters. For the matter power spectrum amplitude $\\sigma_8$, X-ray cluster data favor a lower value compared with {\\it Planck}. Because of the strong $\\sigma_8-\\sum m_{\

  15. Cosmology with velocity dispersion counts: an alternative to measuring cluster halo masses

    CERN Document Server

    Caldwell, C E; Baldry, I K; Collins, C A; Schaye, J; Bird, S

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of galaxy cluster counts is a powerful probe of several fundamental cosmological parameters. A number of recent studies using this probe have claimed tension with the cosmology preferred by the analysis of the Planck primary CMB data, in the sense that there are fewer clusters observed than predicted based on the primary CMB cosmology. One possible resolution to this problem is systematic errors in the absolute halo mass calibration in cluster studies, which is required to convert the standard theoretical prediction (the halo mass function) into counts as a function of the observable (e.g., X-ray luminosity, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich flux, optical richness). Here we propose an alternative strategy, which is to directly compare predicted and observed cluster counts as a function of the one-dimensional velocity dispersion of the cluster galaxies. We argue that the velocity dispersion of groups/clusters can be theoretically predicted as robustly as mass but, unlike mass, it can also be directly observed, ...

  16. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Physical Properties and Purity of a Galaxy Cluster Sample Selected via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Menanteau, Felipe; Juin, Jean-Baptiste; Marriage, Tobias A; Reese, Erik; Acquaviva, Viviana; Aguirre, Paula; Appel, John William; Baker, Andrew J; Barrientos, L Felipe; Battistelli, Elia S; Bond, J Richard; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J; Dicker, Simon; Deshpande, Amruta J; Dunkley, Joanna; Dunner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fowler, Joseph W; Hajian, Amir; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hernandez-Monteagudo, Carlos; Hilton, Matt; Hincks, Adam D; Hlozek, Renee; Hughes, John P; Huffenberger, Kevin M; Infante, Leopoldo; Irwin, Kent D; Klein, Jeff; Kosowsky, Arthur; Lin, Yen-Ting; Marsden, Danica; Moodley, Kavilan; Niemack, Michael D; Nolta, Michael R; Page, Lyman A; Parker, Lucas; Partridge, Bruce; Sievers, Jon; Sehgal, Neelima; Spergel, David N; Staggs, Suzanne T; Swetz, Daniel; Switzer, Eric; Thornton, Robert; Trac, Hy; Warne, Ryan; Wollack, Ed

    2010-01-01

    We present optical and X-ray properties for the first confirmed galaxy cluster sample selected by the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect from 148 GHz maps over 455 square degrees of sky made with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope. These maps, coupled with multi-band imaging on 4-meter-class optical telescopes, have yielded a sample of 23 galaxy clusters with redshifts between 0.118 and 1.066. Of these 23 clusters, 10 are newly discovered. The selection of this sample is approximately mass limited and essentially independent of redshift. We provide optical positions, images, redshifts and X-ray fluxes and luminosities for the full sample, and X-ray temperatures of an important subset. The mass limit of the full sample is around 8e14 Msun, with a number distribution that peaks around a redshift of 0.4. For the 10 highest significance SZE-selected cluster candidates, all of which are optically confirmed, the mass threshold is 1e15 Msun and the redshift range is 0.167 to 1.066. Archival observations from Chandra, XMM-Newton...

  17. Chandra Observation of a 300 kpc Hydrodynamic Instability in the Intergalactic Medium of the Merging Cluster of Galaxies A3667

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzotta, P; Vikhlinin, A A; Mazzotta, Pasquale; Fusco-Femiano, Roberto; Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2002-01-01

    We present results from the combination of two Chandra pointings of the central region of the cluster of galaxies A3667. From the data analysis of the first pointing Vikhlinin et al. (2001a,b) reported the discovery of a prominent cold front which is interpreted as the boundary of a cool gas cloud moving through the hotter ambient gas. Vikhlinin et al. (2001b) discussed the role of the magnetic fields in maintaining the apparent dynamical stability of the cold front over a wide sector at the forward edge of the moving cloud and suppressing transport processes across the front. In this Letter, we identify two new features in the X-ray image of A3667: i) a 300 kpc arc-like filamentary X-ray excess extending from the cold gas cloud border into the hotter ambient gas; ii) a similar arc-like filamentary X-ray depression that develops inside the gas cloud. Both features are located beyond the sector identified by the cold front and are oriented in a direction perpendicular to the direction of motion. The temperatur...

  18. Galaxy Cluster Scaling Relations between Bolocam Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect and Chandra X-ray Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Czakon, N G; Mantz, A; Golwala, S R; Downes, T P; Koch, P M; Lin, K -Y; Molnar, S M; Moustakas, L A; Mroczkowski, T; Pierpaoli, E; Shitanishi, J A; Siegel, S; Umetsu, K

    2014-01-01

    We present scaling relations between the integrated Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect (SZE) signal, $Y_{\\rm SZ}$, its X-ray analogue, $Y_{\\rm X}$$\\equiv$$M_{\\rm gas}$$T_{\\rm X}$, and total mass, $M_{\\rm tot}$, for the 45 galaxy clusters in the Bolocam X-ray-SZ (BOXSZ) sample. All parameters are integrated within $r_{2500}$. $Y_{2500}$ values are measured using SZE data collected with Bolocam, operating at 140 GHz at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). The temperature, $T_{\\rm X}$, and mass, $M_{\\rm gas,2500}$, of the intracluster medium are determined using X-ray data collected with \\emph{Chandra}, and $M_{\\rm tot}$ is derived from $M_{\\rm gas}$ using a constant gas mass fraction. Our analysis accounts for several potential sources of bias, including: selection effects, contamination from radio point sources, and the loss of SZE signal due to noise filtering and beam-smoothing effects. We measure the $Y_{2500}$-$Y_{\\rm X}$ scaling to have a logarithmic slope of $0.84\\pm0.07$, and a fractional intrinsic scatt...

  19. Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Vittorio, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Modern cosmology has changed significantly over the years, from the discovery to the precision measurement era. The data now available provide a wealth of information, mostly consistent with a model where dark matter and dark energy are in a rough proportion of 3:7. The time is right for a fresh new textbook which captures the state-of-the art in cosmology. Written by one of the world's leading cosmologists, this brand new, thoroughly class-tested textbook provides graduate and undergraduate students with coverage of the very latest developments and experimental results in the field. Prof. Nicola Vittorio shows what is meant by precision cosmology, from both theoretical and observational perspectives.

  20. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: ACT-CL J0102-4915 'EL GORDO', A Massive Merging Cluster at Redshift 0.87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menanteau, Felipe; Hughes, John P.; Sifon, Cristobal; Hilton, Matt; Gonzalez, Jorge; Infante, Leopoldo; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Baker, Andrew J.; Bond, John R.; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J.; Dunkley, Joanna; Hajian, Amir; Hincks, Adam D.; Kosowsky, Arthur; Marsden, Danica; Marriage, Tobias A.; Moodley, Kavilan; Niemack, Michael D.; Nolta, Michael R.; Page, Lyman A.; Reese, Erik D.; Sehgal, Neelima; Seivers, Jon; Spergel, David N.; Staggs, Suzanne T.; Wollack, Edward

    2012-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis from new multi-wavelength observations of the exceptional galaxy cluster ACT-CL J0102-4915, likely the most massive, hottest, most X-ray luminous and brightest Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect cluster known at redshifts greater than 0.6. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) collaboration discovered ACT-CL J0102-4915 as the most significant Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) decrement in a sky survey area of 755 square degrees. Our VLT/FORS2 spectra of 89 member galaxies yield a cluster redshift, z = 0.870, and velocity dispersion, sigma(sub gal) = 1321+/-106 km s-1. Our Chandra observations reveal a hot and X-ray luminous system with an integrated temperature of T(sub X) = 14.5+/-1.0 keV and 0.5-2.0 keV band luminosity of L(sub X) = (2.19+/-0.11)×10(sup 45) h(sup -2)(sub 70) erg s-1. We obtain several statistically consistent cluster mass estimates; using empirical mass scaling relations with velocity dispersion, X-ray Y(sub X), and integrated SZ distortion, we estimate a cluster mass of M(sub 200a) = (2.16+/-0.32)×1015 h(sup -1)(sub 70) solar mass. We constrain the stellar content of the cluster to be less than 1% of the total mass, using Spitzer IRAC and optical imaging. The Chandra and VLT/FORS2 optical data also reveal that ACT-CL J0102-4915 is undergoing a major merger between components with a mass ratio of approximately 2 to 1. The X-ray data show significant temperature variations from a low of 6.6+/-0.7 keV at the merging low-entropy, high-metallicity, cool core to a high of 22+/-6 keV. We also see a wake in the X-ray surface brightness and deprojected gas density caused by the passage of one cluster through the other. Archival radio data at 843 MHz reveal diffuse radio emission that, if associated with the cluster, indicates the presence of an intense double radio relic, hosted by the highest redshift cluster yet. ACT-CL J0102-4915 is possibly a high-redshift analog of the famous Bullet Cluster. Such a massive cluster at this redshift

  1. THE ATACAMA COSMOLOGY TELESCOPE: ACT-CL J0102-4915 'EL GORDO', A MASSIVE MERGING CLUSTER AT REDSHIFT 0.87

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menanteau, Felipe; Hughes, John P.; Baker, Andrew J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Sifon, Cristobal; Gonzalez, Jorge; Infante, Leopoldo; Felipe Barrientos, L. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Hilton, Matt [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Bond, John R.; Hajian, Amir; Nolta, Michael R. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Das, Sudeep [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, LBL and Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Devlin, Mark J.; Marsden, Danica [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Dunkley, Joanna [Department of Astrophysics, Oxford University, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Hincks, Adam D. [Joseph Henry Laboratories of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Kosowsky, Arthur [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Pittsburgh, 100 Allen Hall, 3941 O' Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Marriage, Tobias A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Moodley, Kavilan [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Niemack, Michael D. [NIST Quantum Devices Group, 325 Broadway Mailcode 817.03, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); and others

    2012-03-20

    We present a detailed analysis from new multi-wavelength observations of the exceptional galaxy cluster ACT-CL J0102-4915, likely the most massive, hottest, most X-ray luminous and brightest Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect cluster known at redshifts greater than 0.6. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) collaboration discovered ACT-CL J0102-4915 as the most significant SZ decrement in a sky survey area of 755 deg{sup 2}. Our Very Large Telescope (VLT)/FORS2 spectra of 89 member galaxies yield a cluster redshift, z = 0.870, and velocity dispersion, {sigma}{sub gal} = 1321 {+-} 106 km s{sup -1}. Our Chandra observations reveal a hot and X-ray luminous system with an integrated temperature of T{sub X} = 14.5 {+-} 0.1 keV and 0.5-2.0 keV band luminosity of L{sub X} = (2.19 {+-} 0.11) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 45} h{sup -2}{sub 70} erg s{sup -1}. We obtain several statistically consistent cluster mass estimates; using empirical mass scaling relations with velocity dispersion, X-ray Y{sub X}, and integrated SZ distortion, we estimate a cluster mass of M{sub 200a} = (2.16 {+-} 0.32) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} h{sup -1}{sub 70} M{sub Sun }. We constrain the stellar content of the cluster to be less than 1% of the total mass, using Spitzer IRAC and optical imaging. The Chandra and VLT/FORS2 optical data also reveal that ACT-CL J0102-4915 is undergoing a major merger between components with a mass ratio of approximately 2 to 1. The X-ray data show significant temperature variations from a low of 6.6 {+-} 0.7 keV at the merging low-entropy, high-metallicity, cool core to a high of 22 {+-} 6 keV. We also see a wake in the X-ray surface brightness and deprojected gas density caused by the passage of one cluster through the other. Archival radio data at 843 MHz reveal diffuse radio emission that, if associated with the cluster, indicates the presence of an intense double radio relic, hosted by the highest redshift cluster yet. ACT-CL J0102-4915 is possibly a high

  2. Cosmological constraints from Sunyaev-Zeldovich cluster counts: An approach to account for missing redshifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonaldi, A.; Battye, R. A.; Brown, M. L., E-mail: anna.bonaldi@manchester.ac.uk [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-10

    The accumulation of redshifts provides a significant observational bottleneck when using galaxy cluster surveys to constrain cosmological parameters. We propose a simple method to allow the use of samples where there is a fraction of the redshifts that are not known. The simplest assumption is that the missing redshifts are randomly extracted from the catalog, but the method also allows one to take into account known selection effects in the accumulation of redshifts. We quantify the reduction in statistical precision of cosmological parameter constraints as a function of the fraction of missing redshifts for simulated surveys, and also investigate the impact of making an incorrect assumption for the distribution of missing redshifts.

  3. Cosmological constraints from Sunyaev-Zeldovich cluster counts: an approach to account for missing redshifts

    CERN Document Server

    Bonaldi, A; Brown, M L

    2014-01-01

    The accumulation of redshifts provides a significant observational bottleneck when using galaxy cluster surveys to constrain cosmological parameters. We propose a simple method to allow the use of samples where there is a fraction of the redshifts that are not known. The simplest assumption is that the missing redshifts are randomly extracted from the catalogue, but the method also allows one to take into account known selection effects in the accumulation of redshifts. We quantify the reduction in statistical precision of cosmological parameter constraints as a function of the fraction of missing redshifts for simulated surveys, and also investigate the impact of making an incorrect assumption for the distribution of missing redshifts.

  4. Cosmological constraints from Subaru weak lensing cluster counts

    CERN Document Server

    Hamana, Takashi; Koike, Michitaro; Miller, Lance

    2015-01-01

    We present results of weak lensing cluster counts obtained from 11 sq.deg SuprimeCam data. Although the area is much smaller than previous work dealing with weak lensing peak statistics, the number density of galaxies usable for weak lensing analysis is about twice as large as those. The higher galaxy number density reduces the noise in the weak lensing mass maps, and thus increases the signal-to-noise ratio of peaks of the lensing signal due to massive clusters. This enables us to construct a weak lensing selected cluster sample by adopting a high threshold S/N, such that the contamination rate due to false signals is small. We find 6 peaks with S/N>5. For all the peaks, previously identified clusters of galaxies are matched within a separation of 1 arcmin, demonstrating good correspondence between the peaks and clusters of galaxies. We evaluate the statistical error using mock weak lensing data, and find Npeak=6+/-3.1 in an effective area of 9.0 sq.deg. We compare the measured weak lensing cluster counts wi...

  5. Chandra and optical/IR observations of CXOJ1415.2+3610, a massive, newly discovered galaxy cluster at z~1.5

    CERN Document Server

    Tozzi, P; Nonino, M; Rosati, P; Borgani, S; Sartoris, B; Altieri, B; Sanchez-Portal, M

    2012-01-01

    (Abridged) We report the discovery of CXO J1415.2+3610, a distant (z~1.5) galaxy cluster serendipitously detected in a deep, high-resolution Chandra observation targeted to study the cluster WARP J1415.1+3612 at z=1.03. This is the highest-z cluster discovered with Chandra so far. Moreover, the total exposure time of 280 ks with ACIS-S provides the deepest X-ray observation currently achieved on a cluster at z>1.5. We perform an X-ray spectral fit of the extended emission of the Intra Cluster Medium (ICM) with XSPEC, and we detect at a 99.5% confidence level the rest frame 6.7-6.9 keV Iron K_\\alpha line complex, from which we obtain z_X=1.46\\pm0.025. The analysis of the z-3.6\\mu m color-magnitude diagram shows a well defined sequence of red galaxies within 1' from the cluster X-ray emission peak with a color range [5 < z-3.6 \\mu m < 6]. The photometric redshift obtained by SED fitting is z_phot=1.47\\pm 0.25. After fixing the redshift to z=1.46, we perform the final spectral analysis and measure the aver...

  6. JOINT ANALYSIS OF CLUSTER OBSERVATIONS. II. CHANDRA/XMM-NEWTON X-RAY AND WEAK LENSING SCALING RELATIONS FOR A SAMPLE OF 50 RICH CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdavi, Andisheh [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA 94131 (United States); Hoekstra, Henk [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Babul, Arif; Bildfell, Chris [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Jeltema, Tesla [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, UC Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Henry, J. Patrick [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2013-04-20

    We present a study of multiwavelength X-ray and weak lensing scaling relations for a sample of 50 clusters of galaxies. Our analysis combines Chandra and XMM-Newton data using an energy-dependent cross-calibration. After considering a number of scaling relations, we find that gas mass is the most robust estimator of weak lensing mass, yielding 15% {+-} 6% intrinsic scatter at r{sub 500}{sup WL} (the pseudo-pressure Y{sub X} yields a consistent scatter of 22% {+-} 5%). The scatter does not change when measured within a fixed physical radius of 1 Mpc. Clusters with small brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) to X-ray peak offsets constitute a very regular population whose members have the same gas mass fractions and whose even smaller (<10%) deviations from regularity can be ascribed to line of sight geometrical effects alone. Cool-core clusters, while a somewhat different population, also show the same (<10%) scatter in the gas mass-lensing mass relation. There is a good correlation and a hint of bimodality in the plane defined by BCG offset and central entropy (or central cooling time). The pseudo-pressure Y{sub X} does not discriminate between the more relaxed and less relaxed populations, making it perhaps the more even-handed mass proxy for surveys. Overall, hydrostatic masses underestimate weak lensing masses by 10% on the average at r{sub 500}{sup WL}; but cool-core clusters are consistent with no bias, while non-cool-core clusters have a large and constant 15%-20% bias between r{sub 2500}{sup WL} and r{sub 500}{sup WL}, in agreement with N-body simulations incorporating unthermalized gas. For non-cool-core clusters, the bias correlates well with BCG ellipticity. We also examine centroid shift variance and power ratios to quantify substructure; these quantities do not correlate with residuals in the scaling relations. Individual clusters have for the most part forgotten the source of their departures from self-similarity.

  7. A CHANDRA-VLA INVESTIGATION OF THE X-RAY CAVITY SYSTEM AND RADIO MINI-HALO IN THE GALAXY CLUSTER RBS 797

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doria, Alberto [Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Gitti, Myriam; Brighenti, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, Bologna 40127 (Italy); Ettori, Stefano [Astronomical Observatory of Bologna-INAF, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Nulsen, Paul E. J.; McNamara, Brian R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    We present a study of the cavity system in the galaxy cluster RBS 797 based on Chandra and Very Large Array (VLA) data. RBS 797 (z = 0.35) is one of the most distant galaxy clusters in which two pronounced X-ray cavities have been discovered. The Chandra data confirm the presence of a cool core and indicate a higher metallicity along the cavity directions. This is likely due to the active galactic nucleus outburst, which lifts cool metal-rich gas from the center along the cavities, as seen in other systems. We find indications that the cavities are hotter than the surrounding gas. Moreover, the new Chandra images show bright rims contrasting with the deep, X-ray deficient cavities. The likely cause is that the expanding 1.4 GHz radio lobes have displaced the gas, compressing it into a shell that appears as bright cool arms. Finally, we show that the large-scale radio emission detected with our VLA observations may be classified as a radio mini-halo, powered by the cooling flow, as it nicely follows the trend P{sub radio} versus P{sub CF} predicted by the reacceleration model.

  8. A Chandra - VLA Investigation of the X-ray Cavity System and Radio Mini-Halo in the Galaxy Cluster RBS 797

    CERN Document Server

    Doria, Alberto; Ettori, Stefano; Brighenti, Fabrizio; Nulsen, Paul E J; McNamara, Brian R

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of the cavity system in the galaxy cluster RBS 797 based on Chandra and VLA data. RBS 797 (z = 0.35), is one of the most distant galaxy clusters in which two pronounced X-ray cavities have been discovered. The Chandra data confirm the presence of a cool core and indicate an higher metallicity along the cavity directions. This is likely due to the AGN outburst, which lifts cool metal-rich gas from the center along the cavities, as seen in other systems. We find indications that the cavities are hotter than the surrounding gas. Moreover, the new Chandra images show bright rims contrasting with the deep, X-ray deficient cavities. The likely cause is that the expanding 1.4 GHz radio lobes have displaced the gas, compressing it into a shell that appears as bright cool arms. Finally we show that the large-scale radio emission detected with our VLA observations may be classified as a radio mini-halo, powered by the cooling flow (CF), as it nicely follows the trend P_radio vs. P_CF predicted by the...

  9. The Velocity Distribution Function of Galaxy Clusters as a Cosmological Probe

    CERN Document Server

    Ntampaka, M; Cisewski, J; Price, L C

    2016-01-01

    We present a new approach for quantifying the abundance of galaxy clusters and constraining cosmological parameters using dynamical measurements. In the standard method, galaxy line-of-sight (LOS) velocities, $v$, or velocity dispersions are used to infer cluster masses, $M$, in order to quantify the halo mass function (HMF), $dn(M)/d\\log(M)$, which is strongly affected by mass measurement errors. In our new method, the probability distribution of velocities for each cluster in the sample are summed to create a new statistic called the velocity distribution function (VDF), $dn(v)/dv$. The VDF can be measured more directly and precisely than the HMF and it can also be robustly predicted with cosmological simulations which capture the dynamics of subhalos or galaxies. We apply these two methods to mock cluster catalogs and forecast the bias and constraints on the matter density parameter $\\Omega_m$ and the amplitude of matter fluctuations $\\sigma_8$ in flat $\\Lambda$CDM cosmologies. For an example observation o...

  10. 7.1 keV sterile neutrino constraints from X-ray observations of 33 clusters of galaxies with Chandra ACIS

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, F; Nandra, K; Clerc, N; Gaspari, M

    2016-01-01

    Recently an unidentified emission line at 3.55 keV has been detected in X-ray spectra of clusters of galaxies. The line has been discussed as a possible decay signature of 7.1 keV sterile neutrinos, which have been proposed as a dark matter candidate. We aim at putting constraints on the proposed line emission in a large sample of Chandra-observed clusters and obtain limits on the mixing-angle in a 7.1 keV sterile neutrino dark matter scenario. For a sample of 33 high-mass clusters of galaxies we merge all observations from the Chandra data archive. Each cluster has more than 100 ks of combined exposure. The resulting high signal-to-noise spectra are used to constrain the flux of an unidentified line emission at 3.55 keV in the individual spectra and a merged spectrum of all clusters. We obtained very detailed spectra around the 3.55 keV range and limits on an unidentified emission line. Assuming all dark matter were made of 7.1 keV sterile neutrinos the upper limits on the mixing angle are $\\rm{sin^2(2\\Theta...

  11. Galaxy clusters as probes for cosmology and dark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battistelli, Elia S.; Burigana, Carlo; De Bernardis, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, significant progress has been made in building new galaxy clusters samples, at low and high redshifts, from wide-area surveys, particularly exploiting the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. A large effort is underway to identify and characterize these new systems with optical/NIR an...

  12. The Weak Lensing Signal and the Clustering of BOSS Galaxies: Cosmological Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    More, Surhud; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Takada, Masahiro; Spergel, David; Brownstein, Joel; Schneider, Donald P

    2014-01-01

    We perform a joint analysis of the abundance, the clustering and the galaxy-galaxy lensing signal of galaxies from Data Release 11 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We fit halo occupation parameters and cosmological parameters ($\\Omega_m$ and $\\sigma_8$) to both of these observables simultaneously, and thus break the degeneracy between galaxy bias and cosmology. The cosmological analysis is the first of its kind to be performed at a redshift as high as 0.53. We present measurements of the clustering signal of galaxies by utilizing various stellar mass threshold samples. The galaxy-galaxy weak lensing signal is obtained by using the shape catalog of background galaxies from the Canada France Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, which was made publicly available by the CFHTLenS collaboration, with an area overlap of about 100 deg$^2$. We analyze these measurements in the framework of the halo model. Adopting a flat {\\Lambda}CDM cosmology with priors on $\\Omega_bh^2$, $n_s$ ...

  13. Cosmology with Galaxy Clusters through the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect

    CERN Document Server

    Diego-Rodriguez, J M

    2002-01-01

    Future Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) surveys will detect thousands of clusters, many of them at high redshift. We show how the SZE number counts as a function of flux can be used as a useful way of constraining the cosmological model. The constraints can be dramatically improved if redshift information is provided for a small subsample of the observed clusters. In this work we present the constraints in Omega_m and Sigma_8 expected for a combined mm-optical survey. The mm survey (Planck) providing the cluster number counts as a function of flux and the optical survey (GTC) the redshift estimation of a small subsample of the cluster catalogue. We also show how it is possible to get an accurate estimate of the cluster flux using a non-parametric component separation algorithm and how using morphological redshifts it is possible to make a high-z preselection of the small subsample to be observed in the optical.

  14. A halo model for cosmological neutral hydrogen : abundances and clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Padmanabhan, Hamsa; Amara, Adam

    2016-01-01

    We extend the results of previous analyses towards constraining the abundance and clustering of post-reionization ($z \\sim 0-5$) neutral hydrogen (HI) systems using a halo model framework. We work with a comprehensive HI dataset including the small-scale clustering, column density and mass function of HI galaxies at low redshifts, intensity mapping measurements at intermediate redshifts and the UV/optical observations of Damped Lyman Alpha (DLA) systems at higher redshifts. We use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach to constrain the parameters of the best-fitting models, both for the HI-halo mass relation and the HI radial density profile. We find that a radial exponential profile results in a good fit to the low-redshift HI observations, including the clustering and the column density distribution. The form of the profile is also found to match the high-redshift DLA observations, when used in combination with a three-parameter HI-halo mass relation and a redshift evolution in the HI concentration. The...

  15. Simultaneous constraints on cosmology and photometric redshift bias from weak lensing and galaxy clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuroff, S.; Troxel, M. A.; Bridle, S. L.; Zuntz, J.; MacCrann, N.; Krause, E.; Eifler, T.; Kirk, D.

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the expected cosmological constraints from a combination of cosmic shear and large-scale galaxy clustering using realistic photometric redshift distributions. Introducing a systematic bias in the lensing distributions (of 0.05 in redshift) produces a >2σ bias in the recovered matter power spectrum amplitude and dark energy equation of state for preliminary Stage III surveys. We demonstrate that cosmological error can be largely removed by marginalizing over biases in the assumed weak-lensing redshift distributions. Furthermore, the cosmological constraining power is retained despite removing much of the information on the lensing redshift biases. This finding relies upon high-quality redshift estimates for the clustering sample, but does not require spectroscopy. All galaxies in this analysis can thus be assumed to come from a single photometric survey. We show that this internal constraint on redshift biases arises from complementary degeneracy directions between cosmic shear and the combination of galaxy clustering and shear-density cross-correlations. Finally we examine a case where the assumed redshift distributions differ from the truth by more than a simple uniform bias. We find that the effectiveness of this self-calibration method will depend on the survey details and the nature of the uncertainties on the estimated redshift distributions.

  16. Formation of stars and clusters over cosmological time

    CERN Document Server

    Elmegreen, Bruce G

    2014-01-01

    The concept that stars form in the modern era began some 60 years ago with the key observation of expanding OB associations. Now we see that these associations are an intermediate scale in a cascade of hierarchical structures that begins on the ambient Jeans length close to a kiloparsec in size and continues down to the interiors of clusters, perhaps even to binary and multiple stellar systems. The origin of this structure lies with the dynamical nature of cloud and star formation, driven by supersonic turbulence and interstellar gravity. Dynamical star formation is relatively fast compared to the timescale for cosmic accretion, and then the star formation rate keeps up with the accretion rate, leading to a sequence of near-equilibrium states during galaxy formation and evolution. Dynamical star formation also helps to explain the formation of bound clusters, which require a local efficiency that exceeds the average by more than an order of magnitude. Efficiency increases with density in a hierarchically stru...

  17. Planck 2013 results. XX. Cosmology from Sunyaev-Zeldovich cluster counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.;

    2013-01-01

    We present constraints on cosmological parameters using number counts as a function of redshift for a sub-sample of 189 galaxy clusters from the Planck SZ (PSZ) catalogue. The PSZ is selected through the signature of the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect, and the sub-sample used here has a signal...... spectrum amplitude σ8 and matter density parameter Ωm in a flat ΛCDM model. We test the robustness of our estimates and find that possible biases in the Y–M relation and the halo mass function are larger than the statistical uncertainties from the cluster sample. Assuming the X-ray determined mass...

  18. The evolution of clusters in the CLEF cosmological simulation: X-ray structural and scaling properties

    CERN Document Server

    Kay, S T; Aghanim, N; Blanchard, A; Liddle, A R; Puget, J L; Sadat, R; Thomas, P A; Kay, Scott T.; Silva, Antonio C. da; Aghanim, Nabila; Blanchard, Alain; Liddle, Andrew R.; Puget, Jean-Loup; Sadat, Rachida; Thomas, Peter A.

    2006-01-01

    We present results from a study of the X-ray cluster population that forms within the CLEF cosmological hydrodynamics simulation, a large N-body/SPH simulation of the Lambda CDM cosmology with radiative cooling, star formation and feedback. The scaled projected temperature and entropy profiles at z=0 are in good agreement with recent high-quality observations of cool core clusters, suggesting that the simulation grossly follows the processes that structure the intracluster medium (ICM) in these objects. Cool cores are a ubiquitous phenomenon in the simulation at low and high redshift, regardless of a cluster's dynamical state. This is at odds with the observations and so suggests there is still a heating mechanism missing from the simulation. Using a simple, observable measure of the concentration of the ICM, which correlates with the apparent mass deposition rate in the cluster core, we find a large dispersion within regular clusters at low redshift, but this diminishes at higher redshift, where strong "cool...

  19. Cosmology and Astrophysics from Relaxed Galaxy Clusters V: Consistency with Cold Dark Matter Structure Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Mantz, Adam B; Morris, R Glenn

    2016-01-01

    This is the fifth in a series of papers studying the astrophysics and cosmology of massive, dynamically relaxed galaxy clusters. Our sample comprises 40 clusters identified as being dynamically relaxed and hot in Papers I and II of this series. Here we use constraints on cluster mass profiles from X-ray data to test some of the basic predictions of cosmological structure formation in the Cold Dark Matter (CDM) paradigm. We present constraints on the concentration--mass relation for massive clusters, finding a power-law mass dependence with a slope of $\\kappa_m=-0.16\\pm0.07$, in agreement with CDM predictions. For this relaxed sample, the relation is consistent with a constant as a function of redshift (power-law slope with $1+z$ of $\\kappa_\\zeta=-0.17\\pm0.26$), with an intrinsic scatter of $\\sigma_{\\ln c}=0.16\\pm0.03$. We investigate the shape of cluster mass profiles over the radial range probed by the data (typically $\\sim50$kpc--1Mpc), and test for departures from the simple Navarro, Frenk & White (NFW...

  20. Testing Gravity on Cosmological Scales with the Observed Abundance of Galaxy Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapetti Serra, David Angelo

    2011-01-01

    supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, and cosmic microwave background data we find a tight correlation between the growth index and the normalization of the matter power spectrum. Allowing the growth index and the dark energy equation of state parameter to take any constant values, we find no evidence......Using observations of the abundance of massive, X-ray flux-selected galaxy clusters, we obtain tight constraints on both the growth and expansion histories of the Universe. Our data set consists of 238 clusters detected by the ROSAT All-Sky Survey, and incorporates follow-up observations of 94......, and obtain improved constraints on departures from General Relativity (GR) on cosmological scales. We parameterize the linear growth rate of cosmic structure with a power law of the mean matter density to the growth index. Combining the X-ray cluster growth data with cluster gas-mass fraction, type Ia...

  1. Cosmological MHD Simulations of Galaxy Cluster Radio Relics: Insights and Warnings for Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Skillman, Samuel W; Hallman, Eric J; O'Shea, Brian W; Burns, Jack O; Li, Hui; Collins, David C; Norman, Michael L

    2012-01-01

    Non-thermal radio emission from cosmic ray electrons in the vicinity of merging galaxy clusters is an important tracer of cluster merger activity, and is the result of complex physical processes that involve magnetic fields, particle acceleration, gas dynamics, and radiation. In particular, objects known as radio relics are thought to be the result of shock-accelerated electrons that, when embedded in a magnetic field, emit synchrotron radiation in the radio wavelengths. In order to properly model this emission, we utilize the adaptive mesh refinement simulation of the magnetohydrodynamic evolution of a galaxy cluster from cosmological initial conditions. We locate shock fronts and apply models of cosmic ray electron acceleration that are then input into radio emission models. We have determined the thermodynamic properties of this radio-emitting plasma and constructed synthetic radio observations to compare to observed galaxy clusters. We find a significant dependence of the observed morphology and radio rel...

  2. Cosmology and Astrophysics from Relaxed Galaxy Clusters III: Thermodynamic Profiles and Scaling Relations

    CERN Document Server

    Mantz, Adam B; Morris, R Glenn; Schmidt, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    This is the third in a series of papers studying the astrophysics and cosmology of massive, dynamically relaxed galaxy clusters. Our sample comprises 40 clusters identified as being dynamically relaxed and hot (i.e., massive) in Papers I and II of this series. Here we consider the thermodynamics of the intracluster medium, in particular the profiles of density, temperature and related quantities, as well as integrated measurements of gas mass, average temperature, total luminosity and center-excluded luminosity. We fit power-law scaling relations of each of these quantities as a function of redshift and cluster mass, which can be measured precisely and with minimal bias for these relaxed clusters. For the thermodynamic profiles, we jointly model the density and temperature and their intrinsic scatter as a function of radius, thus also capturing the behavior of the gas pressure and entropy. For the integrated quantities, we also jointly fit a multidimensional intrinsic covariance, providing the first observati...

  3. Effects of Mergers and Dynamical State on Galaxy Clusters in Cosmological Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Katherine L.; Nagai, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    Cosmological constraints from X-ray and microwave observations of galaxy clusters are subjected to systematic uncertainties. Non-thermal pressure support due to internal gas motions in galaxy clusters is one of the major sources of astrophysical uncertainties, which result in large bias and scatter in the hydrostatic mass estimate. In this work, we analyze a sample of massive galaxy clusters from the Omega500 high-resolution hydrodynamic cosmological simulation to examine the effects of dynamical state on non-thermal pressure. We use the Adaptive Refinement Tree (ART) code, an Eulerian grid-based adaptive refinement mesh code, which is well suited for modeling shock heating of gas and generation of bulk and turbulent motions from cosmic accretion. We examine the effects of cluster mergers on the hydrostatic mass bias and the evolution of non-thermal pressure. We find that during a major merger about a third of the total pressure support in the system is in non-thermal pressure from random gas motions, which leads to a ~30% bias in the hydrostatic mass estimate. Even after the clusters relax, we find a residual 10% bias due to the residual non-thermal pressure sustained by continuous gas accretion and minor mergers in cluster outskirts. However, when the non-thermal pressure support is accounted for in the mass estimates of relaxed clusters, we are able to recover the true mass to within a few percent. Moreover, by accounting for the additional pressure contribution from gas accelerations, we find that the bias in the HSE can be reduced by about half for our whole cluster sample. We also characterize the non-thermal pressure fraction profile and study its dependence on redshift, mass, and mass accretion rate. We find a universal, redshift-independent fitting formula for describing the fractional pressure support due to bulk motions. Within the relation, we find that the mass accretion rate has a systematic effect on the amount of non-thermal pressure in clusters

  4. The discovery of lensed radio and X-ray sources behind the Frontier Fields cluster MACS J0717.5+3745 with the JVLA and Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    van Weeren, R J; Jones, C; Forman, W R; Andrade-Santos, F; Bonafede, A; Brüggen, M; Bulbul, E; Clarke, T E; Churazov, E; David, L; Dawson, W A; Donahue, M; Goulding, A; Kraft, R P; Mason, B; Merten, J; Mroczkowski, T; Murray, S S; Nulsen, P E J; Rosati, P; Roediger, E; Randall, S W; Sayers, J; Umetsu, K; Vikhlinin, A; Zitrin, A

    2015-01-01

    We report on high-resolution JVLA and Chandra observations of the HST Frontier Cluster MACS J0717.5+3745. MACS J0717.5+3745 offers the largest contiguous magnified area of any known cluster, making it a promising target to search for lensed radio and X-ray sources. With the high-resolution 1.0-6.5 GHz JVLA imaging in A and B configuration, we detect a total of 51 compact radio sources within the area covered by the HST imaging. Within this sample we find 7 lensed sources with amplification factors larger than $2$. None of these sources are identified as multiply-lensed. Based on the radio luminosities, the majority of these sources are likely star forming galaxies with star formation rates of 10-50 M$_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$ located at $1 \\lesssim z \\lesssim 2$. Two of the lensed radio sources are also detected in the Chandra image of the cluster. These two sources are likely AGN, given their $2-10$ keV X-ray luminosities of $\\sim 10^{43-44}$ erg s$^{-1}$. From the derived radio luminosity function, we find evidence...

  5. Cosmological Tests Using the Angular Size of Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Melia, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    We use measurements of the galaxy-cluster angular size versus redshift to test and compare the standard model (LCDM) and the R_h=ct Universe. We show that the latter fits the data with a reduced chi^2_dof=0.786 for a Hubble constant H_0= 72.6 (-3.4+3.8) km/s/Mpc, and H_0 is the sole parameter in this model. By comparison, the optimal flat LCDM model, with two free parameters (including Omega_m=0.50 and H_0=73.9 (-9.5+10.6) km/s/Mpc), fits the angular-size data with a reduced chi^2_dof=0.806. On the basis of their chi^2_dof values alone, both models appear to account for the data very well in spite of the fact that the R_h=ct Universe expands at a constant rate, while LCDM does not. However, because of the different number of free parameters in these models, selection tools, such as the Bayes Information Criterion, favour R_h=ct over LCDM with a likelihood of ~86% versus ~14%. These results impact the question of galaxy growth at large redshifts. Previous work suggested an inconsistency with the underlying cos...

  6. Exponents of non-linear clustering in scale-free one dimensional cosmological simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Benhaiem, David; Sicard, François

    2012-01-01

    One dimensional versions of cosmological N-body simulations have been shown to share many qualitative behaviours of the three dimensional problem. They can resolve a large range of time and length scales, and admit exact numerical integration. We use such models to study how non-linear clustering depends on initial conditions and cosmology. More specifically, we consider a family of models which, like the 3D EdS model, lead for power-law initial conditions to self-similar clustering characterized in the strongly non-linear regime by power-law behaviour of the two point correlation function. We study how the corresponding exponent \\gamma depends on the initial conditions, characterized by the exponent n of the power spectrum of initial fluctuations, and on a single parameter \\kappa controlling the rate of expansion. The space of initial conditions/cosmology divides very clearly into two parts: (1) a region in which \\gamma depends strongly on both n and \\kappa and where it agrees very well with a simple general...

  7. Planck 2015 results. XXIV. Cosmology from Sunyaev-Zeldovich cluster counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Battye, R.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Comis, B.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roman, M.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Weller, J.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-09-01

    We present cluster counts and corresponding cosmological constraints from the Planck full mission data set. Our catalogue consists of 439 clusters detected via their Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) signal down to a signal-to-noise ratio of 6, and is more than a factor of 2 larger than the 2013 Planck cluster cosmology sample. The counts are consistent with those from 2013 and yield compatible constraints under the same modelling assumptions. Taking advantage of the larger catalogue, we extend our analysis to the two-dimensional distribution in redshift and signal-to-noise. We use mass estimates from two recent studies of gravitational lensing of background galaxies by Planck clusters to provide priors on the hydrostatic bias parameter, (1-b). In addition, we use lensing of cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature fluctuations by Planck clusters as an independent constraint on this parameter. These various calibrations imply constraints on the present-day amplitude of matter fluctuations in varying degrees of tension with those from the Planck analysis of primary fluctuations in the CMB; for the lowest estimated values of (1-b) the tension is mild, only a little over one standard deviation, while it remains substantial (3.7σ) for the largest estimated value. We also examine constraints on extensions to the base flat ΛCDM model by combining the cluster and CMB constraints. The combination appears to favour non-minimal neutrino masses, but this possibility does little to relieve the overall tension because it simultaneously lowers the implied value of the Hubble parameter, thereby exacerbating the discrepancy with most current astrophysical estimates. Improving the precision of cluster mass calibrations from the current 10%-level to 1% would significantly strengthen these combined analyses and provide a stringent test of the base ΛCDM model.

  8. Cosmology and astrophysics from relaxed galaxy clusters - V. Consistency with cold dark matter structure formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantz, A. B.; Allen, S. W.; Morris, R. G.

    2016-10-01

    This is the fifth in a series of papers studying the astrophysics and cosmology of massive, dynamically relaxed galaxy clusters. Our sample comprises 40 clusters identified as being dynamically relaxed and hot in Papers I and II of this series. Here we use constraints on cluster mass profiles from X-ray data to test some of the basic predictions of cosmological structure formation in the cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm. We present constraints on the concentration-mass relation for massive clusters, finding a power-law mass dependence with a slope of κm = -0.16 ± 0.07, in agreement with CDM predictions. For this relaxed sample, the relation is consistent with a constant as a function of redshift (power-law slope with 1 + z of κζ = -0.17 ± 0.26), with an intrinsic scatter of σln c = 0.16 ± 0.03. We investigate the shape of cluster mass profiles over the radial range probed by the data (typically ˜50 kpc-1 Mpc), and test for departures from the simple Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) form, for which the logarithmic slope of the density profile tends to -1 at small radii. Specifically, we consider as alternatives the generalized NFW (GNFW) and Einasto parametrizations. For the GNFW model, we find an average value of (minus) the logarithmic inner slope of β = 1.02 ± 0.08, with an intrinsic scatter of σβ = 0.22 ± 0.07, while in the Einasto case we constrain the average shape parameter to be α = 0.29 ± 0.04 with an intrinsic scatter of σα = 0.12 ± 0.04. Our results are thus consistent with the simple NFW model on average, but we clearly detect the presence of intrinsic, cluster-to-cluster scatter about the average.

  9. Cosmology and astrophysics from relaxed galaxy clusters – V. Consistency with cold dark matter structure formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantz, A.B.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Allen, S.W.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC; Morris, R.Glenn; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2016-07-15

    This is the fifth in a series of papers studying the astrophysics and cosmology of massive, dynamically relaxed galaxy clusters. Our sample comprises 40 clusters identified as being dynamically relaxed and hot in Papers I and II of this series. Here we use constraints on cluster mass profiles from X-ray data to test some of the basic predictions of cosmological structure formation in the cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm. We present constraints on the concentration–mass relation for massive clusters, finding a power-law mass dependence with a slope of κm = -0.16 ± 0.07, in agreement with CDM predictions. For this relaxed sample, the relation is consistent with a constant as a function of redshift (power-law slope with 1 + z of κζ = -0.17 ± 0.26), with an intrinsic scatter of σln c = 0.16 ± 0.03. We investigate the shape of cluster mass profiles over the radial range probed by the data (typically ~50 kpc–1 Mpc), and test for departures from the simple Navarro–Frenk–White (NFW) form, for which the logarithmic slope of the density profile tends to -1 at small radii. Specifically, we consider as alternatives the generalized NFW (GNFW) and Einasto parametrizations. For the GNFW model, we find an average value of (minus) the logarithmic inner slope of β = 1.02 ± 0.08, with an intrinsic scatter of σβ = 0.22 ± 0.07, while in the Einasto case we constrain the average shape parameter to be α = 0.29 ± 0.04 with an intrinsic scatter of σα = 0.12 ± 0.04. Our results are thus consistent with the simple NFW model on average, but we clearly detect the presence of intrinsic, cluster-to-cluster scatter about the average.

  10. Cosmological Constraints from a Combination of Galaxy Clustering and Lensing -- III. Application to SDSS Data

    CERN Document Server

    Cacciato, Marcello; More, Surhud; Mo, Houjun; Yang, Xiaohu

    2012-01-01

    We simultaneously constrain cosmology and galaxy bias using measurements of galaxy abundances, galaxy clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We use the conditional luminosity function (which describes the halo occupation statistics as function of galaxy luminosity) combined with the halo model (which describes the non-linear matter field in terms of its halo building blocks) to describe the galaxy-dark matter connection. We explicitly account for residual redshift space distortions in the projected galaxy-galaxy correlation functions, and marginalize over uncertainties in the scale dependence of the halo bias and the detailed structure of dark matter haloes. Under the assumption of a spatially flat, vanilla {\\Lambda}CDM cosmology, we focus on constraining the matter density, {\\Omega}m, and the normalization of the matter power spectrum, {\\sigma}8, and we adopt WMAP7 priors for the spectral index, the Hubble parameter, and the baryon density. We obtain that \\Omegam = 0.27...

  11. On finding galaxy clusters with PLANCK and the spherical collapse model in different dark energy cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waizmann, Jean-Claude

    2010-11-24

    One of the main objectives of the PLANCK mission is to perform a full-sky cluster survey based on the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect, which leads to the question of how such a survey would be affected by cosmological models with a different history of structure formation than LCDM. To answer this question, I developed a fast semi-analytic approach for simulating full-sky maps of the Compton-y parameter, ready to be fed into a realistic simulation pipeline. I also implemented a filter and detection pipeline based on spherical multi-frequency matched filters, that was used to study the expected SZ cluster sample of PLANCK. It turned out that realistic samples will comprise 1000 clusters at low rate of contamination, significantly lower than originally anticipated. Driven by wrong estimates of the impact of early dark energy models on structure formation, we studied the spherical collapse model in dark energy model, finding that models with varying equation-of-state have a negligible impact on the structure formation. Yet, the different expansion history for the different models can be detected via volume effects, when counting objects in a known volume. Furthermore, it turned out that the different expansion history strongly affects the angular SZ power spectra for the various models, making them an interesting tool to distinguish and constrain alternative cosmologies. (orig.)

  12. A Chandra X-ray study of the young star cluster NGC 6231: low-mass population and initial mass function

    CERN Document Server

    Damiani, F; Sciortino, S

    2016-01-01

    NGC6231 is a massive young star cluster, near the center of the Sco OB1 association. While its OB members are well studied, its low-mass population has received little attention. We present high-spatial resolution Chandra ACIS-I X-ray data, where we detect 1613 point X-ray sources. Our main aim is to clarify global properties of NGC6231 down to low masses through a detailed membership assessment, and to study the cluster stars' spatial distribution, the origin of their X-ray emission, the cluster age and formation history, and initial mass function. We use X-ray data, complemented by optical/IR data, to establish cluster membership. The spatial distribution of different stellar subgroups also provides highly significant constraints on cluster membership, as does the distribution of X-ray hardness. We perform spectral modeling of group-stacked X-ray source spectra. We find a large cluster population down to ~0.3 Msun (complete to ~1 Msun), with minimal non-member contamination, with a definite age spread (1-8 ...

  13. Cluster Structure in Cosmological Simulations I: Correlation to Observables, Mass Estimates, and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Jeltema, Tesla E; Burns, Jack O; Motl, Patrick M

    2007-01-01

    We use Enzo, a hybrid Eulerian AMR/N-body code including non-gravitational heating and cooling, to explore the morphology of the X-ray gas in clusters of galaxies and its evolution in current generation cosmological simulations. We employ and compare two observationally motivated structure measures: power ratios and centroid shift. Overall, the structure of our simulated clusters compares remarkably well to low-redshift observations, although some differences remain that may point to incomplete gas physics. We find no dependence on cluster structure in the mass-observable scaling relations, T_X-M and Y_X-M, when using the true cluster masses. However, estimates of the total mass based on the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium, as assumed in observational studies, are systematically low. We show that the hydrostatic mass bias strongly correlates with cluster structure and, more weakly, with cluster mass. When the hydrostatic masses are used, the mass-observable scaling relations and gas mass fractions depen...

  14. The Red Sequence of High-Redshift Clusters: A Comparison with Cosmological Galaxy Formation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menci, N.

    2008-10-01

    We compare the results from a state-of-the-art semi-analytic model of galaxy formation with spectroscopic observations of the distant galaxy clusters observed in the range 1≲ z≲ 1.5. In our model we find that i) a well-defined, narrow red sequence (RS) is obtained already by z≈ 1.2; this is more populated than the field RS analogously to what observed and predicted at z=0; ii) the predicted RS colors and width have average values of 1 and 0.15, respectively, with a cluster-to-cluster variance. The width of the RS of cluster galaxy is 5-10 times lower than the corresponding field value; iii) The predicted distribution of stellar ages of RS galaxies at z=1.2 are peaked at the value τ=3.7 Gyr for both cluster and field; however, for the latter the distribution is significantly skewed toward lower ages. When compared with observations, the above findings show an overall consistency, although the average value ≈ 0.07 of the observed cluster RS width at z≈1.2 is smaller than the corresponding model central value. We discuss the physical origin and the significance of the above results in the framework of cosmological galaxy formation.

  15. On the dynamical state of galaxy clusters: insights from cosmological simulations II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Weiguang; Power, Chris; Borgani, Stefano; Knebe, Alexander; Lewis, Geraint F.; Murante, Giuseppe; Poole, Gregory B.

    2016-10-01

    Using a suite of cosmology simulations of a sample of >120 galaxy clusters with log (MDM, vir) ≤ 14.5. We compare clusters that form in purely dark matter run and their counterparts in hydro runs and investigate 4 independent parameters, that are normally used to classify dynamical state. We find that the virial ratio η in hydro-dynamical runs is ˜10 per cent lower than in the DM run, and there is no clear separation between the relaxed and unrelaxed clusters for any parameter. Further, using the velocity dispersion deviation parameter ζ, which is defined as the ratio between cluster velocity dispersion σ and the theoretical prediction σ _t = √{G M_{total}/R}, we find that there is a linear correlation between the virial ratio η and this ζ parameter. We propose to use this ζ parameter, which can be easily derived from observed galaxy clusters, as a substitute of the η parameter to quantify the cluster dynamical state.

  16. Cosmological Studies with Galaxy Clusters, Active Galactic Nuclei, and Strongly Lensed Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbaugh, Nicholas Andrew

    The large-scale structure (LSS) of the universe provides scientists with one of the best laboratories for studying Lambda Cold Dark Matter (LambdaCDM) cosmology. Especially at high redshift, we see increased rates of galaxy cluster and galaxy merging in LSS relative to the field, which is useful for studying the hierarchical merging predicted by LambdaCDM. The largest identified bound structures, superclusters, have not yet virialized. Despite the wide range of dynamical states of their constituent galaxies, groups, and clusters, they are all still actively evolving, providing an ideal laboratory in which to study cluster and galaxy evolution. In this dissertation, I present original research on several aspects of LSS and LambdaCDM cosmology. Three separate studies are included, each one focusing on a different aspect. In the first study, we use X-ray and optical observations from nine galaxy clusters at high redshift, some embedded in larger structures and some isolated, to study their evolutionary states. We extract X-ray gas temperatures and luminosities as well as optical velocity dispersions. These cluster properties are compared using low-redshift scaling relations. In addition, we employ several tests of substructure, using velocity histograms, Dressler-Shectman tests, and centroiding offsets. We conclude that two clusters out of our sample are most likely unrelaxed, and find support for deviations from self-similarity in the redshift evolution of the Lx-T relation. Our numerous complementary tests of the evolutionary state of clusters suggest potential under-estimations of systematic error in studies employing only a single such test. In the second study, we use multi-band imaging and spectroscopy to study active galactic nuclei (AGN) in high-redshift LSS. The AGN were identified using X-ray imaging and matched to optical catalogs that contained spectroscopic redshifts to identify members of the structures. AGN host galaxies tended to be associated with the

  17. Cosmological constraints from the evolution of the cluster baryon mass function at z similar to 0.5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikhlinin, A.; Voevodkin, A.; Mullis, C.R.

    2003-01-01

    We present a new method for deriving cosmological constraints based on the evolution of the baryon mass function of galaxy clusters and implement it using 17 distant clusters from our 160 deg(2) ROSAT survey. The method uses the cluster baryon mass as a proxy for the total mass, thereby avoiding...... the cosmic microwave background and Type Ia supernovae near Omega(m) = 0.3 and Lambda = 0.7....

  18. A Chandra Study of the Rosette Star-Forming Complex. III. The NGC 2237 Cluster and the Region's Star Formation History

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Junfeng; Townsley, Leisa K; Broos, Patrick S; Román-Zúñiga, Carlos G; Lada, Elizabeth; Garmire, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    We present Chandra X-ray images of the NGC 2237 young star cluster on the periphery of the Rosette Nebula. We detect 168 X-ray sources, 80% of which have counterparts in USNO, 2MASS, and deep FLAMINGOS images. These constitute the first census of the cluster members with 0.2<~M<~2 Msun. Star locations in near-infrared color-magnitude diagrams indicate a cluster age around 2 Myr with a visual extinction of 1cluster NGC 2244. We derive the K-band luminosity function and the X-ray luminosity function of the cluster, which indicate a population ~400-600 stars. The X-ray-selected sample shows a K-excess disk frequency of 13%. The young Class II counterparts are aligned in an arc ~3 pc long suggestive of a triggered formation process induced by the O stars in NGC 2244. The diskless Class III sources are more dispersed. Several X-ray emitting stars are located inside the molecular cloud and around gaseous pillars projecting from the cloud. These...

  19. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Equatorial Galaxy Cluster Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menanteau, Felipe; Cosmology Telescope, Atacama

    2012-05-01

    We have reached the era where microwave surveys such as the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT), the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Planck are reporting the first samples of massive galaxy clusters through the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. Here I will introduce a new mass-selected and redshift-independent sample of optically-confirmed galaxy clusters detected by ACT over approximately 300 square-degrees along the celestial equator overlapping the deep optical u,g,r,i and z imaging from SDSS Stripe 82. This work was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation through awards AST- 0408698 for the ACT project and PHY-0355328, AST-0707731, and PIRE-0507768 (award number OISE-0530095).

  20. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT): Beam Profiles and First SZ Cluster Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Hincks, A D; Ade, P; Aguirre, P; Amiri, M; Appel, J W; Barrientos, L F; Battistelli, E S; Bond, J R; Brown, B; Burger, B; Chervenak, J; Das, S; Devlin, M J; Dicker, S; Doriese, W B; Dunkley, J; Dünner, R; Essinger-Hileman, T; Fisher, R P; Fowler, J W; Hajian, A; Halpern, M; Hasselfield, M; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Hilton, G C; Hilton, M; Hlozek, R; Huffenberger, K; Hughes, D; Hughes, J P; Infante, L; Irwin, K D; Jiménez, R; Juin, J B; Kaul, M; Klein, J; Kosowsky, A; Lau, J M; Limon, M; Lin, Y -T; Lupton, R H; Marriage, T; Marsden, D; Martocci, K; Mauskopf, P; Menanteau, F; Moodley, K; Moseley, H; Netterfield, C B; Niemack, M D; Nolta, M R; Page, L A; Parker, L; Partridge, B; Quintana, H; Reid, B; Sehgal, N; Sievers, J; Spergel, D N; Staggs, S T; Stryzak, O; Swetz, D; Switzer, E; Thornton, R; Trac, H; Tucker, C; Verde, L; Warne, R; Wilson, G; Wollack, E; Zhao, Y

    2009-01-01

    The Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) is currently observing the cosmic microwave background with arcminute resolution at 148 GHz, 218 GHz, and 277 GHz. In this paper, we present ACT's first results. Data have been analyzed using a maximum-likelihood map-making method which uses B-splines to model and remove the atmospheric signal. It has been used to make high-precision beam maps from which we determine the experiment's window functions. This beam information directly impacts all subsequent analyses of the data. We also used the method to map a sample of galaxy clusters via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect, and show eight clusters previously detected in the X-ray or SZ and two new cluster candidates. We provide integrated Compton-y measurements for each cluster. Of particular interest is our detection of the z = 0.44 component of Abell 3128 and our current non-detection of the low-redshift part, providing strong evidence that the further cluster is more massive as suggested by X-ray measurements. This is a...

  1. The Chandra COSMOS Legacy Survey: Clustering of X-ray selected AGN at 2.9

    CERN Document Server

    Allevato, V; Finoguenov, A; Marchesi, S; Zamorani, G; Hasinger, G; Salvato, M; Miyaji, T; Gilli, R; Cappelluti, N; Brusa, M; Suh, H; Lanzuisi, G; Trakhtenbrot, B; Griffiths, R; Vignali, C; Schawinski, K; Karim, A

    2016-01-01

    We present the measurement of the projected and redshift space 2-point correlation function (2pcf) of the new catalog of Chandra COSMOS-Legacy AGN at 2.9$\\leq$z$\\leq$5.5 ($\\langle L_{bol} \\rangle \\sim$10$^{46}$ erg/s) using the generalized clustering estimator based on phot-z probability distribution functions (Pdfs) in addition to any available spec-z. We model the projected 2pcf estimated using $\\pi_{max}$ = 200 h$^{-1}$ Mpc with the 2-halo term and we derive a bias at z$\\sim$3.4 equal to b = 6.6$^{+0.60}_{-0.55}$, which corresponds to a typical mass of the hosting halos of log M$_h$ = 12.83$^{+0.12}_{-0.11}$ h$^{-1}$ M$_{\\odot}$. A similar bias is derived using the redshift-space 2pcf, modelled including the typical phot-z error $\\sigma_z$ = 0.052 of our sample at z$\\geq$2.9. Once we integrate the projected 2pcf up to $\\pi_{max}$ = 200 h$^{-1}$ Mpc, the bias of XMM and \\textit{Chandra} COSMOS at z=2.8 used in Allevato et al. (2014) is consistent with our results at higher redshift. The results suggest only...

  2. CLUSTERING OF SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY III PHOTOMETRIC LUMINOUS GALAXIES: THE MEASUREMENT, SYSTEMATICS, AND COSMOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Shirley; White, Martin; Schlegel, David J.; Seljak, Uros; Reid, Beth [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd, MS 50R-5045, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cuesta, Antonio; Padmanabhan, Nikhil [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Seo, Hee-Jong [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, LBL and Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); De Putter, Roland [ICC, University of Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ross, Ashley J.; Percival, Will J. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Saito, Shun [Department of Astronomy, University of California Berkeley, CA (United States); Schlafly, Eddie [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, 60 Garden St. MS 20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hernandez-Monteagudo, Carlos [Centro de Estudios de Fisica del Cosmos de Aragon (CEFCA), Plaza de San Juan 1, planta 2, E-44001 Teruel (Spain); Sanchez, Ariel G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Blanton, Michael [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Skibba, Ramin [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Schneider, Don [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Mena, Olga [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC (Spain); Viel, Matteo, E-mail: cwho@lbl.gov [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste (Italy); and others

    2012-12-10

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) surveyed 14,555 deg{sup 2}, and delivered over a trillion pixels of imaging data. We present a study of galaxy clustering using 900,000 luminous galaxies with photometric redshifts, spanning between z = 0.45 and z = 0.65, constructed from the SDSS using methods described in Ross et al. This data set spans 11,000 deg{sup 2} and probes a volume of 3 h {sup -3} Gpc{sup 3}, making it the largest volume ever used for galaxy clustering measurements. We describe in detail the construction of the survey window function and various systematics affecting our measurement. With such a large volume, high-precision cosmological constraints can be obtained given careful control and understanding of the observational systematics. We present a novel treatment of the observational systematics and its applications to the clustering signals from the data set. In this paper, we measure the angular clustering using an optimal quadratic estimator at four redshift slices with an accuracy of {approx}15%, with a bin size of {delta}{sub l} = 10 on scales of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs; at l {approx} 40-400). We also apply corrections to the power spectra due to systematics and derive cosmological constraints using the full shape of the power spectra. For a flat {Lambda}CDM model, when combined with cosmic microwave background Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 7 (WMAP7) and H{sub 0} constraints from using 600 Cepheids observed by Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3; HST), we find {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} = 0.73 {+-} 0.019 and H{sub 0} to be 70.5 {+-} 1.6 s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1} km. For an open {Lambda}CDM model, when combined with WMAP7 + HST, we find {Omega}{sub K} = 0.0035 {+-} 0.0054, improved over WMAP7+HST alone by 40%. For a wCDM model, when combined with WMAP7+HST+SN, we find w = -1.071 {+-} 0.078, and H{sub 0} to be 71.3 {+-} 1.7 s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1} km, which is competitive with the latest large-scale structure constraints from large spectroscopic

  3. Clustering of Sloan Digital Sky Survey III Photometric Luminous Galaxies: The Measurement, Systematics and Cosmological Implications

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Shirley; Seo, Hee-Jong; de Putter, Roland; Ross, Ashley J; White, Martin; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Saito, Shun; Schlegel, David J; Schlafly, Eddie; Seljak, Uros; Hernandez-Monteagudo, Carlos; Sanchez, Ariel G; Percival, Will J; Blanton, Michael; Skibba, Ramin; Schneider, Don; Reid, Beth; Mena, Olga; Viel, Matteo; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Prada, Francisco; Weaver, Benjamin; Bahcall, Neta; Bizyaev, Dimitry; Brewinton, Howard; Brinkman, Jon; da Costa, Luiz Nicolaci; Gott, John R; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Nichol, Bob; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Ross, Nicholas P; Simmons, Audrey; de Simoni, Fernando; Snedden, Stephanie; Yeche, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) surveyed 14,555 square degrees, and delivered over a trillion pixels of imaging data. We present a study of galaxy clustering using 900,000 luminous galaxies with photometric redshifts, spanning between $z=0.45$ and $z=0.65$, constructed from the SDSS using methods described in Ross et al. (2011). This data-set spans 11,000 square degrees and probes a volume of $3h^{-3} \\rm{Gpc}^3$, making it the largest volume ever used for galaxy clustering measurements. We present a novel treatment of the observational systematics and its applications to the clustering signals from the data set. In this paper, we measure the angular clustering using an optimal quadratic estimator at 4 redshift slices with an accuracy of ~15% with bin size of delta_l = 10 on scales of the Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) (at l~40-400). We derive cosmological constraints using the full-shape of the power-spectra. For a flat Lambda CDM model, when combined with Cosmic Microwave Background Wilkinson Microw...

  4. Cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters with feedback from active galactic nuclei: profiles and scaling relations

    CERN Document Server

    Pike, Simon R; Newton, Richard D A; Thomas, Peter A; Jenkins, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    We present results from a new set of 30 cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters, including the effects of radiative cooling, star formation, supernova feedback, black hole growth and AGN feedback. We first demonstrate that our AGN model is capable of reproducing the observed cluster pressure profile at redshift, z~0, once the AGN heating temperature of the targeted particles is made to scale with the final virial temperature of the halo. This allows the ejected gas to reach larger radii in higher-mass clusters than would be possible had a fixed heating temperature been used. Such a model also successfully reduces the star formation rate in brightest cluster galaxies and broadly reproduces a number of other observational properties at low redshift, including baryon, gas and star fractions; entropy profiles outside the core; and the X-ray luminosity-mass relation. Our results are consistent with the notion that the excess entropy is generated via selective removal of the densest material through radiative c...

  5. Suzaku and Chandra Observations of CIZA J1700.8$-$3144, a Cluster of Galaxies in the Zone of Avoidance

    CERN Document Server

    Mori, Hideyuki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Tawara, Yuzuru

    2016-01-01

    We present the Chandra and Suzaku observations of 1RXS J170047.8$-$314442, located towards the Galactic bulge, to reveal a wide-band ($0.3$-$10$ keV) X-ray morphology and spectrum of this source. With the Chandra observation, no point source was found at the position of 1RXS J170047.8$-$314442. Alternatively, we revealed the presence of diffuse X-ray emission by the wide-band X-ray image obtained from the Suzaku XIS. Although the X-ray emission had a nearly circular shape with a spatial extent of $\\sim 3.5'$, the surface brightness profile was not axisymmetric; a bright spot-like emission was found at $\\sim 1'$ away in the north-western direction from the center. The radial profile of the surface brightness, except for this spot-like emission, was reproduced with a single $\\beta$-model; $\\beta$ and the core radius were found to be $1.02$ and $1.51'$, respectively. The X-ray spectrum of the diffuse emission showed an emission line at $\\sim 6$ keV, indicating an origin of a thermal plasma. The spectrum was well...

  6. Chandra Opens New Line of Investigation on Dark Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    Astronomers have detected and probed dark energy by applying a powerful, new method that uses images of galaxy clusters made by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. The results trace the transition of the expansion of the Universe from a decelerating to an accelerating phase several billion years ago, and give intriguing clues about the nature of dark energy and the fate of the Universe. "Dark energy is perhaps the biggest mystery in physics," said Steve Allen of the Institute of Astronomy (IoA) at the University of Cambridge in England, and leader of the study. "As such, it is extremely important to make an independent test of its existence and properties." Abell 2029 Chandra X-ray Image of Abell 2029 Allen and his colleagues used Chandra to study 26 clusters of galaxies at distances corresponding to light travel times of between one and eight billion years. These data span the time when the Universe slowed from its original expansion, before speeding up again because of the repulsive effect of dark energy. "We're directly seeing that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating by measuring the distances to these galaxy clusters," said Andy Fabian also of the IoA, a co-author on the study. The new Chandra results suggest that the dark energy density does not change quickly with time and may even be constant, consistent with the "cosmological constant" concept first introduced by Albert Einstein. If so, the Universe is expected to continue expanding forever, so that in many billions of years only a tiny fraction of the known galaxies will be observable. More Animations Animation of the "Big Rip" If the dark energy density is constant, more dramatic fates for the Universe would be avoided. These include the "Big Rip," where dark energy increases until galaxies, stars, planets and eventually atoms are eventually torn apart. The "Big Crunch," where the Universe eventually collapses on itself, would also be ruled out. Chandra's probe of dark energy relies on the unique

  7. COSMOLOGICAL MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF GALAXY CLUSTER RADIO RELICS: INSIGHTS AND WARNINGS FOR OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skillman, Samuel W.; Hallman, Eric J.; Burns, Jack O. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Xu, Hao; Li, Hui; Collins, David C. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); O' Shea, Brian W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Norman, Michael L., E-mail: samuel.skillman@colorado.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Non-thermal radio emission from cosmic-ray electrons in the vicinity of merging galaxy clusters is an important tracer of cluster merger activity, and is the result of complex physical processes that involve magnetic fields, particle acceleration, gas dynamics, and radiation. In particular, objects known as radio relics are thought to be the result of shock-accelerated electrons that, when embedded in a magnetic field, emit synchrotron radiation in the radio wavelengths. In order to properly model this emission, we utilize the adaptive mesh refinement simulation of the magnetohydrodynamic evolution of a galaxy cluster from cosmological initial conditions. We locate shock fronts and apply models of cosmic-ray electron acceleration that are then input into radio emission models. We have determined the thermodynamic properties of this radio-emitting plasma and constructed synthetic radio observations to compare observed galaxy clusters. We find a significant dependence of the observed morphology and radio relic properties on the viewing angle of the cluster, raising concerns regarding the interpretation of observed radio features in clusters. We also find that a given shock should not be characterized by a single Mach number. We find that the bulk of the radio emission comes from gas with T > 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} K, {rho} {approx} 10{sup -28}-10{sup -27} g cm{sup -3}, with magnetic field strengths of 0.1-1.0 {mu}G, and shock Mach numbers of M {approx} 3-6. We present an analysis of the radio spectral index which suggests that the spatial variation of the spectral index can mimic synchrotron aging. Finally, we examine the polarization fraction and position angle of the simulated radio features, and compare to observations.

  8. New Results from Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Forman, W; Jones, C; Vikhlinin, A A; Churazov, E

    2001-01-01

    We discuss two themes from Chandra observations of galaxies and clusters. First, we describe the effects of radio-emitting plasmas or ``bubbles'', inflated by active galactic nuclei, on the hot X-ray emitting gaseous atmospheres in galaxies and clusters. We describe the interaction of the ``bubbles'' and the X-ray emitting gas as the buoyant bubbles rise through the hot gas. Second, we describe sharp, edge-like surface brightness structures in clusters. Chandra observations show that these features are not shock fronts as was originally thought, but ``cold fronts'', most likely the boundaries of the remaining cores of merger components. Finally, we present recent observations of M86 and NGC507 which show similar sharp features around galaxies. For M86, the sharp edge is the boundary between the galaxy's X-ray corona and the Virgo cluster gas. The structures around NGC507, the central galaxy in a group, could be relics of galaxy formation or may reflect the motion of NGC507 in the larger potential of the group...

  9. The clustering of galaxies in the completed SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: Angular clustering tomography and its cosmological implications

    CERN Document Server

    Salazar-Albornoz, Salvador; Grieb, Jan Niklas; Crocce, Martin; Scoccimarro, Roman; Alam, Shadab; Beutler, Florian; Brownstein, Joel R; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Olmstead, Matthew D; Percival, Will J; Prada, Francisco; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio; Samushia, Lado; Tinker, Jeremy; Thomas, Daniel; Tojeiro, Rita; Wang, Yuting; Zhao, Gong-bo

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the cosmological implications of studying galaxy clustering using a tomographic approach applied to the final BOSS DR12 galaxy sample, including both auto- and cross-correlation functions between redshift shells. We model the signal of the full shape of the angular correlation function, $\\omega(\\theta)$, in redshift bins using state-of-the-art modelling of non-linearities, bias and redshift-space distortions. We present results on the redshift evolution of the linear bias of BOSS galaxies, which cannot be obtained with traditional methods for galaxy-clustering analysis. We also obtain constraints on cosmological parameters, combining this tomographic analysis with measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and type Ia supernova (SNIa). We explore a number of cosmological models, including the standard $\\Lambda$CDM model and its most interesting extensions, such as deviations from $w_\\rm{DE} = -1$, non-minimal neutrino masses, spatial curvature and deviations from general relativity u...

  10. Cosmological parameters from combining the Lyman-alpha forest with CMB, galaxy clustering and SN constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Seljak, U; McDonald, P; Seljak, Uros; Slosar, Anze; Donald, Patrick Mc

    2006-01-01

    We combine the Ly-alpha forest power spectrum (LYA) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and high resolution spectra with the cosmic microwave background (CMB) including 3-year WMAP, supernovae (SN) and galaxy clustering constraints to derive new constraints on cosmological parameters. The existing LYA power spectrum analysis is supplemented by constraints on the mean flux decrement derived using a principal component analysis for quasar continua, which improves the LYA constraints on the linear power. The joint analysis reduces the errors on all parameters and prefers the simplest 6 parameter cosmological model. We find some tension between the WMAP3 and LYA power spectrum amplitudes, at the ~2 sigma level, which is partially alleviated by the inclusion of other observations: we find sigma_8=0.85+-0.02 compared to sigma_8=0.80+-0.03 without LYA. For the slope we find n_s=0.965+-0.012. We find no evidence for running of the spectral index, dn/dln k=-0.020+-0.012, in agreement with inflation. The limits on...

  11. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: The LABOCA/ACT Survey of Clusters at All Redshifts

    CERN Document Server

    Lindner, Robert R; Baker, Andrew J; Bond, J Richard; Crichton, Devin; Devlin, Mark J; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Hilton, Matt; Hincks, Adam D; Huffenberger, Kevin M; Hughes, John P; Infante, Leopoldo; Lima, Marcos; Marriage, Tobias A; Menanteau, Felipe; Niemack, Michael D; Page, Lyman A; Schmitt, Benjamin L; Sehgal, Neelima; Sievers, J L; Sifón, Cristóbal; Staggs, Suzanne T; Swetz, Daniel; Weiß, Axel; Wollack, Edward J

    2014-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of eleven Sunyaev Zel'dovich effect (SZE)-selected galaxy clusters (ten with new data) from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) southern survey. We have obtained new imaging from the Large APEX Bolometer Camera (345GHz; LABOCA) on the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) telescope, the Australia Telescope Compact Array (2.1GHz; ATCA), and the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (250, 350, and $500\\,\\rm\\mu m$; SPIRE) on the Herschel Space Observatory. Spatially-resolved 345GHz SZE increments with integrated S/N > 5 are found in six clusters. We compute 2.1GHz number counts as a function of cluster-centric radius and find significant enhancements in the counts of bright sources at projected radii $\\theta < \\theta_{2500}$. By extrapolating in frequency, we predict that the combined signals from 2.1GHz-selected radio sources and 345GHz-selected SMGs contaminate the 148GHz SZE decrement signal by ~5% and the 345GHz SZE increment by ~18%. After removing radio source...

  12. The SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey: the clustering of submillimetre galaxies in the UKIDSS UDS field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Aaron; Almaini, Omar; Chen, Chian-Chou; Smail, Ian; Arumugam, Vinodiran; Blain, Andrew; Chapin, Edward L.; Chapman, Scott C.; Conselice, Christopher J.; Cowley, William I.; Dunlop, James S.; Farrah, Duncan; Geach, James; Hartley, William G.; Ivison, Rob J.; Maltby, David T.; Michałowski, Michał J.; Mortlock, Alice; Scott, Douglas; Simpson, Chris; Simpson, James M.; van der Werf, Paul; Wild, Vivienne

    2017-01-01

    Submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) are among the most luminous dusty galaxies in the Universe, but their true nature remains unclear; are SMGs the progenitors of the massive elliptical galaxies we see in the local Universe, or are they just a short-lived phase among more typical star-forming galaxies? To explore this problem further, we investigate the clustering of SMGs identified in the SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey. We use a catalogue of submillimetre (850 μm) source identifications derived using a combination of radio counterparts and colour/infrared selection to analyse a sample of 610 SMG counterparts in the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) Infrared Deep Survey (UKIDSS) Ultra Deep Survey (UDS), making this the largest high-redshift sample of these galaxies to date. Using angular cross-correlation techniques, we estimate the halo masses for this large sample of SMGs and compare them with passive and star-forming galaxies selected in the same field. We find that SMGs, on average, occupy high-mass dark matter haloes (Mhalo > 1013 M⊙) at redshifts z > 2.5, consistent with being the progenitors of massive quiescent galaxies in present-day galaxy clusters. We also find evidence of downsizing, in which SMG activity shifts to lower mass haloes at lower redshifts. In terms of their clustering and halo masses, SMGs appear to be consistent with other star-forming galaxies at a given redshift.

  13. Cosmological parameter estimation from CMB and X-ray cluster after Planck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jian-Wei; Cai, Rong-Gen; Guo, Zong-Kuan [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2735, Beijing 100190 (China); Hu, Bin, E-mail: jwhu@itp.ac.cn, E-mail: cairg@itp.ac.cn, E-mail: guozk@itp.ac.cn, E-mail: hu@lorentz.leidenuniv.nl [Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Universiteit Leiden, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-05-01

    We investigate constraints on cosmological parameters in three 8-parameter models with the summed neutrino mass as a free parameter, by a joint analysis of CCCP X-ray cluster data, the newly released Planck CMB data as well as some external data sets including baryon acoustic oscillation measurements from the 6dFGS, SDSS DR7 and BOSS DR9 surveys, and Hubble Space Telescope H{sub 0} measurement. We find that the combined data strongly favor a non-zero neutrino masses at more than 3σ confidence level in these non-vanilla models. Allowing the CMB lensing amplitude A{sub L} to vary, we find A{sub L} > 1 at 3σ confidence level. For dark energy with a constant equation of state w, we obtain w < −1 at 3σ confidence level. The estimate of the matter power spectrum amplitude σ{sub 8} is discrepant with the Planck value at 2σ confidence level, which reflects some tension between X-ray cluster data and Planck data in these non-vanilla models. The tension can be alleviated by adding a 9% systematic shift in the cluster mass function.

  14. Cosmological parameter constraints from galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering with the SDSS DR7

    CERN Document Server

    Mandelbaum, Rachel; Baldauf, Tobias; Seljak, Uros; Hirata, Christopher M; Nakajima, Reiko; Reyes, Reinabelle; Smith, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the cross-correlation coefficient between galaxies and dark matter is very close to unity on scales outside a few virial radii of galaxy halos, independent of the details of how galaxies populate dark matter halos. This finding makes it possible to determine the dark matter clustering from measurements of galaxy-galaxy weak lensing and galaxy clustering. We present new cosmological parameter constraints based on large-scale measurements of spectroscopic galaxy samples from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 (DR7). We generalise the approach of Baldauf et al. (2010) to remove small scale information (below 2 and 4 Mpc/h for lensing and clustering measurements, respectively), where the cross-correlation coefficient differs from unity. We derive constraints for three galaxy samples covering 7131 sq. deg., containing 69150, 62150, and 35088 galaxies with mean redshifts of 0.11, 0.28, and 0.40. We clearly detect scale-dependent galaxy bias for the more luminous galaxy...

  15. Planck 2013 results. XX. Cosmology from Sunyaev-Zeldovich cluster counts

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Barrena, R.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Battye, R.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bikmaev, I.; Blanchard, A.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bohringer, H.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bourdin, H.; Bridges, M.; Brown, M.L.; Bucher, M.; Burenin, R.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Carvalho, P.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Chon, G.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Da Silva, A.; Dahle, H.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Democles, J.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Fromenteau, S.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Genova-Santos, R.T.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Khamitov, I.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liddle, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roman, M.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Weller, J.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present constraints on cosmological parameters using number counts as a function of redshift for a sub-sample of 189 galaxy clusters from the Planck SZ (PSZ) catalogue. The PSZ is selected through the signature of the Sunyaev--Zeldovich (SZ) effect, and the sub-sample used here has a signal-to-noise threshold of seven, with each object confirmed as a cluster and all but one with a redshift estimate. We discuss the completeness of the sample and our construction of a likelihood analysis. Using a relation between mass $M$ and SZ signal $Y$ calibrated to X-ray measurements, we derive constraints on the power spectrum amplitude $\\sigma_8$ and matter density parameter $\\Omega_{\\mathrm{m}}$ in a flat $\\Lambda$CDM model. We test the robustness of our estimates and find that possible biases in the $Y$--$M$ relation and the halo mass function are larger than the statistical uncertainties from the cluster sample. Assuming the X-ray determined mass to be biased low relative to the true mass by between zero and 30%, m...

  16. The formation of the brightest cluster galaxies in cosmological simulations: the case for AGN feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Martizzi, Davide; Moore, Ben

    2011-01-01

    We use 500 pc resolution cosmological simulations of a Virgo-like galaxy cluster to study the properties of the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) that forms at the center of the halo. We compared two simulations; one incorporating only supernovae feedback and a second that also includes prescriptions for black hole growth and the resulting AGN feedback from gas accretion. As previous work has shown, with supernovae feedback alone we are unable to reproduce any of the observed properties of massive cluster ellipticals. The resulting BCG is rotating quickly, has a high Sersic index, a strong mass excess in the center and a total central density profile falling more steeply than isothermal. Furthermore, it is far too efficient at converting most of the available baryons into stars which is strongly constrained by abundance matching. With a treatment of black hole dynamics and AGN feedback the BCG properties are in good agreement with data: they rotate slowly, have a cored surface density profile, a flat or rising v...

  17. Stable clustering and the resolution of dissipationless cosmological N-body simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Benhaiem, David; Labini, Francesco Sylos

    2016-01-01

    The determination of the resolution of cosmological N-body simulations, i.e., the range of scales in which quantities measured in them represent accurately the continuum limit, is an important open question. We address it here using scale-free models, for which self-similarity provides a powerful tool to control resolution. Such models also provide a robust testing ground for the so-called stable clustering approximation, which gives simple predictions for them. Studying large N-body simulations of such models with different force smoothing, we find that these two issues are in fact very closely related: our conclusion is that resolution in the non-linear regime extends, in practice, down to the scale at which stable clustering breaks down. Physically the association of the two scales is in fact simple to understand: stable clustering fails to be a good approximation when there are strong interactions of structures (in particular merging) and it is precisely such non-linear processes which are sensitive to fl...

  18. The Santa Barbara Cluster Comparison Project: A Comparison of Cosmological Hydrodynamics Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenk, C. S.; White, S. D. M.; Bode, P.; Bond, J. R.; Bryan, G. L.; Cen, R.; Couchman, H. M. P.; Evrard, A. E.; Gnedin, N.; Jenkins, A. (and others)

    1999-11-10

    We have simulated the formation of an X-ray cluster in a cold dark matter universe using 12 different codes. The codes span the range of numerical techniques and implementations currently in use, including smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and grid methods with fixed, deformable, or multilevel meshes. The goal of this comparison is to assess the reliability of cosmological gasdynamical simulations of clusters in the simplest astrophysically relevant case, that in which the gas is assumed to be nonradiative. We compare images of the cluster at different epochs, global properties such as mass, temperature and X-ray luminosity, and radial profiles of various dynamical and thermodynamical quantities. On the whole, the agreement among the various simulations is gratifying, although a number of discrepancies exist. Agreement is best for properties of the dark matter and worst for the total X-ray luminosity. Even in this case, simulations that adequately resolve the core radius of the gas distribution predict total X-ray luminosities that agree to within a factor of 2. Other quantities are reproduced to much higher accuracy. For example, the temperature and gas mass fraction within the virial radius agree to within about 10%, and the ratio of specific dark matter kinetic to gas thermal energies agree to within about 5%. Various factors, including differences in the internal timing of the simulations, contribute to the spread in calculated cluster properties. Based on the overall consistency of results, we discuss a number of general properties of the cluster we have modeled. (c) 1999 The American Astronomical Society.

  19. Photometric and clustering properties of hydrodynamical galaxies in a cosmological volume: results at z = 0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuza, Sebastián E.; Dolag, Klaus; Saro, Alexandro

    2010-09-01

    In this work, we present results for the photometric and clustering properties of galaxies that arise in a Λ cold dark matter hydrodynamical simulation of the local Universe. The present-day distribution of matter was constructed to match the observed large-scale pattern of the IRAS 1.2-Jy galaxy survey. Our simulation follows the formation and evolution of galaxies in a cosmological sphere with a volume of ~1303h-3Mpc3 including supernova feedback, galactic winds, photoheating due to a uniform meta-galactic background and chemical enrichment of the gas and stellar populations. However, we do not consider active galactic nuclei. In the simulation, a total of ~20000 galaxies are formed above the resolution limit, and around 60 haloes are more massive than ~1014Msolar. Luminosities of the galaxies are calculated based on a stellar population synthesis model including the attenuation by dust, which is calculated from the cold gas left within the simulated galaxies. Environmental effects such as colour bimodality and differential clustering power of the hydrodynamical galaxies are qualitatively similar to observed trends. Nevertheless, the overcooling present in the simulations leads to too blue and overluminous brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs). To overcome this, we mimic the late-time suppression of star formation in massive haloes by ignoring recently formed stars with the aid of a simple post-processing recipe. In this way we find luminosity functions, both for field and for group/cluster galaxies, in better agreement with observations. Specifically, the BCGs then follow the observed luminosity-halo mass relation. However, in such a case, the colour bimodality is basically lost, pointing towards a more complex interplay of late suppression of star formation than what is given by the simple scheme adopted.

  20. Cosmology from large-scale galaxy clustering and galaxy–galaxy lensing with Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, J.; Sánchez, C.; Clampitt, J.; Blazek, J.; Crocce, M.; Jain, B.; Zuntz, J.; Amara, A.; Becker, M. R.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bonnett, C.; DeRose, J.; Dodelson, S.; Eifler, T. F.; Gaztanaga, E.; Giannantonio, T.; Gruen, D.; Hartley, W. G.; Kacprzak, T.; Kirk, D.; Krause, E.; MacCrann, N.; Miquel, R.; Park, Y.; Ross, A. J.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sheldon, E.; Troxel, M. A.; Wechsler, R. H.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Carrasco Kind, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D' Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Evrard, A. E.; Fernandez, E.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Kuehn, K.; Lahav, O.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Mohr, J. J.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.

    2016-10-05

    We present cosmological constraints from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) using a combined analysis of angular clustering of red galaxies and their cross-correlation with weak gravitational lensing of background galaxies. We use a 139 square degree contiguous patch of DES data from the Science Verification (SV) period of observations. Using large scale measurements, we constrain the matter density of the Universe as $\\Omega_m = 0.31 \\pm 0.09$ and the clustering amplitude of the matter power spectrum as $\\sigma_8 = 0.74 +\\pm 0.13$ after marginalizing over seven nuisance parameters and three additional cosmological parameters. This translates into $S_8$ = $\\sigma_8(\\Omega_m/0.3)^{0.16} = 0.74 \\pm 0.12$ for our fiducial lens redshift bin at 0.35 < z < 0.5, while $S_8 = 0.78 \\pm 0.09$ using two bins over the range 0.2 < z < 0.5. We study the robustness of the results under changes in the data vectors, modelling and systematics treatment, including photometric redshift and shear calibration uncertainties, and find consistency in the derived cosmological parameters. We show that our results are consistent with previous cosmological analyses from DES and other data sets and conclude with a joint analysis of DES angular clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing with Planck CMB data, Baryon Accoustic Oscillations and Supernova type Ia measurements.

  1. Cosmology from Large Scale Galaxy Clustering and Galaxy-Galaxy Lensing with Dark Energy Survey Science Verification Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, J.; et al.

    2016-04-26

    We present cosmological constraints from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) using a combined analysis of angular clustering of red galaxies and their cross-correlation with weak gravitational lensing of background galaxies. We use a 139 square degree contiguous patch of DES data from the Science Verification (SV) period of observations. Using large scale measurements, we constrain the matter density of the Universe as $\\Omega_m = 0.31 \\pm 0.09$ and the clustering amplitude of the matter power spectrum as $\\sigma_8 = 0.74 +\\pm 0.13$ after marginalizing over seven nuisance parameters and three additional cosmological parameters. This translates into $S_8$ = $\\sigma_8(\\Omega_m/0.3)^{0.16} = 0.74 \\pm 0.12$ for our fiducial lens redshift bin at 0.35 < z < 0.5, while $S_8 = 0.78 \\pm 0.09$ using two bins over the range 0.2 < z < 0.5. We study the robustness of the results under changes in the data vectors, modelling and systematics treatment, including photometric redshift and shear calibration uncertainties, and find consistency in the derived cosmological parameters. We show that our results are consistent with previous cosmological analyses from DES and other data sets and conclude with a joint analysis of DES angular clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing with Planck CMB data, Baryon Accoustic Oscillations and Supernova type Ia measurements.

  2. Cosmology from large-scale galaxy clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing with Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, J.; Sánchez, C.; Clampitt, J.; Blazek, J.; Crocce, M.; Jain, B.; Zuntz, J.; Amara, A.; Becker, M. R.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bonnett, C.; DeRose, J.; Dodelson, S.; Eifler, T. F.; Gaztanaga, E.; Giannantonio, T.; Gruen, D.; Hartley, W. G.; Kacprzak, T.; Kirk, D.; Krause, E.; MacCrann, N.; Miquel, R.; Park, Y.; Ross, A. J.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sheldon, E.; Troxel, M. A.; Wechsler, R. H.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Carrasco Kind, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Evrard, A. E.; Fernandez, E.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Kuehn, K.; Lahav, O.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Mohr, J. J.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; DES Collaboration

    2017-02-01

    We present cosmological constraints from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) using a combined analysis of angular clustering of red galaxies and their cross-correlation with weak gravitational lensing of background galaxies. We use a 139 deg2 contiguous patch of DES data from the Science Verification (SV) period of observations. Using large-scale measurements, we constrain the matter density of the Universe as Ωm = 0.31 ± 0.09 and the clustering amplitude of the matter power spectrum as σ8 = 0.74 ± 0.13 after marginalizing over seven nuisance parameters and three additional cosmological parameters. This translates into S8 ≡ σ8(Ωm/0.3)0.16 = 0.74 ± 0.12 for our fiducial lens redshift bin at 0.35 < z < 0.5, while S8 = 0.78 ± 0.09 using two bins over the range 0.2 < z < 0.5. We study the robustness of the results under changes in the data vectors, modelling and systematics treatment, including photometric redshift and shear calibration uncertainties, and find consistency in the derived cosmological parameters. We show that our results are consistent with previous cosmological analyses from DES and other data sets and conclude with a joint analysis of DES angular clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing with Planck Cosmic Microwave Background data, baryon accoustic oscillations and Supernova Type Ia measurements.

  3. Southern Cosmology Survey I: Optical Cluster Detections and Predictions for the Southern Common-Area Millimeter-Wave Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Menanteau, Felipe; Jimenez, Raul; Hernandez-Monteagudo, Carlos; Verde, Licia; Kosowsky, Arthur; Moodley, Kavilan; Roche, Nathan

    2008-01-01

    We present first results from the Southern Cosmology Survey, a new multiwavelength survey of the southern sky coordinated with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT), a recently commissioned ground-based mm-band Cosmic Microwave Background experiment. This article presents a full analysis of archival optical multi-band imaging data covering an 8 square degree region near right ascension 23 hours and declination -55 degrees, obtained by the Blanco 4-m telescope and Mosaic-II camera in late 2005. We describe the pipeline we have developed to process this large data volume, obtain accurate photometric redshifts, and detect optical clusters. Our cluster finding process uses the combination of a matched spatial filter, photometric redshift probability distributions and richness estimation. We present photometric redshifts, richness estimates, luminosities, and masses for 8 new optically-selected clusters with mass greater than $3\\times10^{14}M_{\\sun}$ at redshifts out to 0.7. We also present estimates for the expec...

  4. A new (2+1)D cluster finding algorithm based on photometric redshifts: large scale structure in the Chandra Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Trevese, D; Fontana, A; Giallongo, E; Trevese, Dario; Castellano, Marco; Fontana, Adriano; Giallongo, Emanuele

    2006-01-01

    Aims: We study galaxy clustering and explore the dependence of galaxy properties on the the environment up to a redshift z~1, on the basis of a deep multi-band survey in the Chandra Deep Field South. Methods: We have developed a new method which combines galaxy angular positions and photometric redshifts to estimate the local galaxy number-density. This allows both the detection of overdensities in the galaxy distribution and the study of the properties of the galaxy population as a function of the environmental density. Results: We detect two moderate overdensities at z~0.7 and z~1 previously identified spectroscopically. We find that the fraction of red galaxies within each structure increases with volume density, extending to z~1 previous results. We measure ``red sequence'' slopes consistent with the values found in X-ray selected clusters, supporting the notion that the mass-metallicity relation hold constant up to z~1. Conclusions: Our method based on photometric redshifts allows to extend structure det...

  5. Validity of Hydrostatic Equilibrium in Galaxy Clusters from Cosmological Hydrodynamical Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Suto, Daichi; Kitayama, Tetsu; Sasaki, Shin; Suto, Yasushi; Cen, Renyue

    2013-01-01

    We examine the validity of the hydrostatic equilibrium (HSE) assumption for galaxy clusters using one of the highest-resolution cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. We define and evaluate several effective mass terms corresponding to the Euler equations of the gas dynamics, and quantify the degree of the validity of HSE in terms of the mass estimate. We find that the mass estimated under the HSE assumption (the HSE mass) deviates from the true mass by up to ~ 30 %. This level of departure from HSE is consistent with the previous claims, but our physical interpretation is rather different. We demonstrate that the inertial term in the Euler equations makes a negligible contribution to the total mass, and the overall gravity of the cluster is balanced by the thermal gas pressure gradient and the gas acceleration term. Indeed the deviation from the HSE mass is well explained by the acceleration term at almost all radii. We also clarify the confusion of previous work due to the inappropriate application of the...

  6. Clustering, Cosmology and a New Era of Black Hole Demographics: The Conditional Luminosity Function of AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, David R.

    2017-01-01

    Deep X-ray surveys have provided a comprehensive and largely unbiased view of active galactic nuclei (AGN) evolution stretching back to z~5. However, it has been challenging to use the survey results to connect this evolution to the cosmological environment that AGNs inhabit. Exploring this connection will be crucial to understanding the triggering mechanisms of AGNs and how these processes manifest in observations at all wavelengths. In anticipation of upcoming wide-field X-ray surveys that will allow quantitative analysis of AGN environments, we present a method to observationally constrain the Conditional Luminosity Function (CLF) of AGNs at a specific z. Once measured, the CLF allows the calculation of the AGN bias, mean dark matter halo mass, AGN lifetime, halo occupation number, and AGN correlation function -- all as a function of luminosity. The CLF can be constrained using a measurement of the X-ray luminosity function and the correlation length at different luminosities. The method is illustrated at z≈0 and 0.9 using the limited data that is currently available, and a clear luminosity dependence in the AGN bias and mean halo mass is predicted at both, supporting the idea that there are at least two different modes of AGN triggering. In addition, the CLF predicts that z≈0.9 quasars may be commonly hosted by haloes with Mh ~ 1014 M⊙. These `young cluster' environments may provide the necessary interactions between gas-rich galaxies to fuel luminous accretion. The results derived from this method will be useful to populate AGNs of different luminosities in cosmological simulations.

  7. A Chandra X-ray analysis of Abell 1664: cooling, feedback, and star formation in the central cluster galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirkpatrick, C.C.; McNamara, B.R.; Rafferty, D.A.; Nulsen, P.E.J.; Bîrzan, L.; Kazemzadeh, F.; Wise, M.W.; Gitti, M.; Cavagnolo, K.W.

    2009-01-01

    The brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) in the Abell 1664 cluster is unusually blue and is forming stars at a rate of similar to 23 M-circle dot yr(-1). The BCG is located within 5 kpc of the X-ray peak, where the cooling time of 3.5 x 10(8) yr and entropy of 10.4 keV cm(2) are consistent with other star

  8. The extended ROSAT-ESO Flux-Limited X-ray Galaxy Cluster Survey (REFLEX II) VI. Effect of massive neutrinos on the cosmological constraints from clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Boehringer, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Clusters of galaxies are important probes for the large-scale structure that allow us to test cosmological models. With the REFLEX II galaxy cluster survey we previously derived tight constraints on the cosmological parameters for the matter density, Omega_m, and the amplitude parameter of the matter density fluctuations, sigma_8. Whereas in these previous studies no effect of massive neutrinos was taken into account, we explore these effects in the present publication. We derive cosmological constraints for the sum of the neutrino masses of the conventional three neutrino families in the range 0 to 0.6 eV. The influence on the constraints of Omega_m and sigma_8 for the expected mass range is weak. Interesting constraints on the neutrino properties can be derived by comparing the cluster data with those from the Planck cosmic microwave background observations. The current tension between the Planck results and clusters can formally be resolved with neutrino masses of about M_nu = 0.45 (+- 0.28, 1-sigma) eV. W...

  9. Cosmology from large scale galaxy clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing with Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, J.; Sánchez, C.; Clampitt, J.; Blazek, J.; Crocce, M.; Jain, B.; Zuntz, J.; Amara, A.; Becker, M. R.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bonnett, C.; DeRose, J.; Dodelson, S.; Eifler, T. F.; Gaztanaga, E.; Giannantonio, T.; Gruen, D.; Hartley, W. G.; Kacprzak, T.; Kirk, D.; Krause, E.; MacCrann, N.; Miquel, R.; Park, Y.; Ross, A. J.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sheldon, E.; Troxel, M. A.; Wechsler, R. H.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Carrasco Kind, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Evrard, A. E.; Fernandez, E.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Kuehn, K.; Lahav, O.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Mohr, J. J.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.

    2016-10-01

    We present cosmological constraints from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) using a combined analysis of angular clustering of red galaxies and their cross-correlation with weak gravitational lensing of background galaxies. We use a 139 square degree contiguous patch of DES data from the Science Verification (SV) period of observations. Using large scale measurements, we constrain the matter density of the Universe as Ωm = 0.31 ± 0.09 and the clustering amplitude of the matter power spectrum as σ8 = 0.74 ± 0.13 after marginalizing over seven nuisance parameters and three additional cosmological parameters. This translates into S8 ≡ σ8(Ωm/0.3)0.16 = 0.74 ± 0.12 for our fiducial lens redshift bin at 0.35 CMB data, Baryon Accoustic Oscillations and Supernova type Ia measurements.

  10. Identification of Faint Chandra X-ray Sources in the Core-Collapsed Globular Cluster NGC 6397: Evidence for a Bimodal Cataclysmic Variable Population

    CERN Document Server

    Cohn, Haldan N; Couch, Sean M; Anderson, Jay; Cool, Adrienne M; Berg, Maureen van den; Bogdanov, Slavko; Heinke, Craig O; Grindlay, Jonathan E; 10.1088/0004-637X/722/1/20

    2011-01-01

    We have searched for optical identifications for 79 Chandra X-ray sources that lie within the half-mass radius of the nearby, core-collapsed globular cluster NGC 6397, using deep Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys Wide Field Channel imaging in H-alpha, R, and B. Photometry of these images allows us to classify candidate counterparts based on color-magnitude diagram location. In addition to recovering nine previously detected cataclysmic variables (CVs), we have identified six additional faint CV candidates, a total of 42 active binaries (ABs), two millisecond pulsars (MSPs), one candidate active galactic nucleus, and one candidate interacting galaxy pair. Of the 79 sources, 69 have a plausible optical counterpart. The 15 likely and possible CVs in NGC 6397 mostly fall into two groups: a brighter group of six for which the optical emission is dominated by contributions from the secondary and accretion disk, and a fainter group of seven for which the white dwarf dominates the optical emission. T...

  11. XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of the M31 globular cluster black hole candidate XB135: a heavyweight contender cut down to size

    CERN Document Server

    Barnard, R; Garcia, M R; Kolb, U C; Murray, S S

    2015-01-01

    CXOM31 J004252.030+413107.87 is one of the brightest X-ray sources within the D_25 region of M31, and associated with a globular cluster (GC) known as B135; we therefore call this X-ray source XB135. XB135 is a low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) that apparently exhibited hard state characteristics at 0.3--10 keV luminosities 4--6 E+38 erg/s, and the hard state is only observed below ~10% Eddington. If true, the accretor would be a high mass black hole (BH) (> ~50 M_Sun); such a BH may be formed from direct collapse of a metal-poor, high mass star, and the very low metalicity of B135 (0.015 Z_Sun) makes such a scenario plausible. We have obtained new XMM-Newton and Chandra HRC observations to shed light on the nature of this object. We find from the HRC observation that XB135 is a single point source located close to the center of B135. The new XMM-Newton spectrum is consistent with a rapidly spinning ~10--20 M_Sun BH in the steep power law or thermal dominant state, but inconsistent with the hard state that we prev...

  12. A Chandra/ACIS Study of 30 Doradus II. X-ray Point Sources in the Massive Star Cluster R136 and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Townsley, L K; Feigelson, E D; Garmire, G P; Getman, K V

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the X-ray point source population of the 30 Doradus star-forming complex in the Large Magellanic Cloud using high-spatial-resolution X-ray images and spatially-resolved spectra obtained with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) aboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Here we describe the X-ray sources in a 17' x 17' field centered on R136, the massive star cluster at the center of the main 30 Dor nebula. We detect 20 of the 32 Wolf-Rayet stars in the ACIS field. R136 is resolved at the subarcsecond level into almost 100 X-ray sources, including many typical O3--O5 stars as well as a few bright X-ray sources previously reported. Over two orders of magnitude of scatter in L_X is seen among R136 O stars, suggesting that X-ray emission in the most massive stars depends critically on the details of wind properties and binarity of each system, rather than reflecting the widely-reported characteristic value L_X/L_bol ~ 10^{-7}. Such a canonical ratio may exist for single massive stars in R136, ...

  13. The SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey: The clustering of submillimetre galaxies in the UKIDSS UDS field

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkinson, Aaron; Chen, Chian-Chou; Smail, Ian; Arumugam, Vinodiran; Blain, Andrew; Chapin, Edward L; Chapman, Scott C; Conselice, Christopher J; Cowley, William I; Dunlop, James S; Farrah, Duncan; Geach, James; Hartley, William G; Ivison, Rob J; Maltby, David T; Michałowski, Michał J; Mortlock, Alice; Scott, Douglas; Simpson, Chris; Simpson, James M; van der Werf, Paul; Wild, Vivienne

    2016-01-01

    Submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) are among the most luminous dusty galaxies in the Universe, but their true nature remains unclear; are SMGs the progenitors of the massive elliptical galaxies we see in the local Universe, or are they just a short-lived phase among more typical star-forming galaxies? To explore this problem further, we investigate the clustering of SMGs identified in the SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey. We use a catalogue of submillimetre ($850\\mu$m) source identifications derived using a combination of radio counterparts and colour/IR selection to analyse a sample of 914 SMGs in the UKIDSS Ultra Deep Survey (UDS), making this the largest high redshift sample of these galaxies to date. Using angular cross-correlation techniques, we estimate the halo masses for this large sample of SMGs and compare them with passive and star-forming galaxies selected in the same field. We find that SMGs, on average, occupy high-mass dark matter halos (M$_{\\text{halo}} >10^{13}$M$_{\\odot}$) at redshifts $z > 2.5$, ...

  14. Photometric and clustering properties of hydrodynamical galaxies in a cosmological volume: results at z=0

    CERN Document Server

    Nuza, S E; Saro, A

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we present results for the photometric and clustering properties of galaxies that arise in a LambdaCDM hydrodynamical simulation of the local Universe. The present-day distribution of matter was constructed to match the observed large scale pattern of the IRAS 1.2-Jy galaxy survey. Our simulation follows the formation and evolution of galaxies in a cosmological sphere with a volume of ~130^3 (Mpc/h)^3 including supernova feedback, galactic winds, photoheating due to an uniform meta-galactic background and chemical enrichment of the gas and stellar populations. However, we do not consider AGNs. In the simulation, a total of ~20000 galaxies are formed above the resolution limit, and around 60 haloes are more massive than ~10^14 M_sun. Luminosities of the galaxies are calculated based on a stellar population synthesis model including the attenuation by dust, which is calculated from the cold gas left within the simulated galaxies. Environmental effects like colour bi-modality and differential clust...

  15. A Chandra X-ray Analysis of Abell 1664: Cooling, Feedback and Star Formation in the Central Cluster Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkpatrick, C C; Rafferty, D A; Nulsen, P E J; Birzan, L; Kazemzadeh, F; Wise, M W; Gitti, M; Cavagnolo, K W

    2009-01-01

    The brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) in the Abell 1664 cluster is unusually blue and is forming stars at a rate of ~ 23 M_{\\sun} yr^{-1}. The BCG is located within 5 kpc of the X-ray peak, where the cooling time of 3.5x10^8 yr and entropy of 10.4 keV cm^2 are consistent with other star-forming BCGs in cooling flow clusters. The center of A1664 has an elongated, "bar-like" X-ray structure whose mass is comparable to the mass of molecular hydrogen, ~ 10^{10} M_{\\sun} in the BCG. We show that this gas is unlikely to have been stripped from interloping galaxies. The cooling rate in this region is roughly consistent with the star formation rate, suggesting that the hot gas is condensing onto the BCG. We use the scaling relations of Birzan et al. 2008 to show that the AGN is underpowered compared to the central X-ray cooling luminosity by roughly a factor of three. We suggest that A1664 is experiencing rapid cooling and star formation during a low-state of an AGN feedback cycle that regulates the rates of cooling and...

  16. The clustering of galaxies in the completed SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: Cosmological implications of the Fourier space wedges of the final sample

    CERN Document Server

    Grieb, Jan Niklas; Salazar-Albornoz, Salvador; Scoccimarro, Román; Crocce, Martín; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla; Montesano, Francesco; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Ross, Ashley J; Beutler, Florian; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Prada, Francisco; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Cuesta, Antonio J; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Percival, Will J; Vargas-Magana, Mariana; Tinker, Jeremy L; Tojeiro, Rita; Brownstein, Joel R; Maraston, Claudia; Nichol, Robert C; Olmstead, Matthew D; Samushia, Lado; Seo, Hee-Jong; Streblyanska, Alina; Zhao, Gong-bo

    2016-01-01

    We extract cosmological information from the anisotropic power spectrum measurements from the recently completed Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), extending the concept of clustering wedges to Fourier space. Making use of new FFT-based estimators, we measure the power spectrum clustering wedges of the BOSS sample by filtering out the information of Legendre multipoles l > 4. Our modelling of these measurements is based on novel approaches to describe non-linear evolution, bias, and redshift-space distortions, which we test using synthetic catalogues based on large-volume N-body simulations. We are able to include smaller scales than in previous analyses, resulting in tighter cosmological constraints. Using three overlapping redshift bins, we measure the angular diameter distance, the Hubble parameter, and the cosmic growth rate, and explore the cosmological implications of our full shape clustering measurements in combination with CMB and SN Ia data. Assuming a {\\Lambda}CDM cosmology, we constra...

  17. DEEP CHANDRA MONITORING OBSERVATIONS OF NGC 4649. II. WIDE-FIELD HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING OF THE GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strader, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, MI 48824 (United States); Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Luo, Bin; Kim, Dong-Woo; Fragos, Tassos [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Brodie, Jean P. [UCO/Lick Observatory, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Gallagher, John S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706-1582 (United States); Kalogera, Vassiliki [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); King, Andrew [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Zezas, Andreas, E-mail: strader@pa.msu.edu [Physics Department, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR-710 03, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2012-11-20

    We present g and z photometry and size estimates for globular clusters (GCs) in the massive Virgo elliptical NGC 4649 (M60) using a five-pointing Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys mosaic. The metal-poor GCs show a monotonic negative metallicity gradient of -0.43 {+-} 0.10 dex per dex in radius over the full radial range of the data, out to {approx}24 kpc. There is evidence for substantial color substructure among the metal-rich GCs. The metal-poor GCs have typical sizes {approx}0.4 pc larger than the metal-rich GCs out to large galactocentric distances ({approx}> 20 kpc), favoring an intrinsic explanation for the size difference rather than projection effects. There is no clear relation between half-light radius and galactocentric distance beyond {approx}15 kpc, suggesting that the sizes of GCs are not generically set by tidal limitation. Finally, we identify {approx}20 candidate ultracompact dwarfs that extend down to surprisingly faint absolute magnitudes (M{sub z} {approx} -8.5), and may bridge the gap between this class and 'extended clusters' in the Local Group. Three of the brighter candidates have published radial velocities and can be confirmed as bona fide ultracompact dwarfs; follow-up spectroscopy will determine the nature of the remainder of the candidates.

  18. The clustering of galaxies in the completed SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: cosmological implications of the configuration-space clustering wedges

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, Ariel G; Crocce, Martin; Grieb, Jan Niklas; Salazar-Albornoz, Salvador; DallaVecchia, Claudio; Lippich, Martha; Beutler, Florian; Brownstein, Joel R; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Olmstead, Matthew D; Percival, Will J; Prada, Francisco; Rodriguez-Torres, Sergio; Ross, Ashley J; Samushia, Lado; Seo, Hee-Jong; Tinker, Jeremy; Tojeiro, Rita; Vargas-Magana, Mariana; Wang, Yuting; Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2016-01-01

    We explore the cosmological implications of anisotropic clustering measurements in configuration space of the final galaxy samples from Data Release 12 of the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We implement a new detailed modelling of the effects of non-linearities, galaxy bias and redshift-space distortions that can be used to extract unbiased cosmological information from our measurements for scales $s \\gtrsim 20\\,h^{-1}{\\rm Mpc}$. We combined the galaxy clustering information from BOSS with the latest cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations and Type Ia supernovae samples and found no significant evidence for a deviation from the $\\Lambda$CDM cosmological model. In particular, these data sets can constrain the dark energy equation of state parameter to $w_{\\rm DE}=-0.996\\pm0.042$ when assumed time-independent, the curvature of the Universe to $\\Omega_{k}=-0.0007\\pm 0.0030$ and the sum of the neutrino masses to $\\sum m_{\

  19. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Sunyaev-Zel'dovich selected galaxy clusters at 148 GHz from three seasons of data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasselfield, Matthew; Hlozek, Renée [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Hilton, Matt [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 4041 (South Africa); Marriage, Tobias A.; Crichton, Devin; Gralla, Megan B. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Addison, Graeme E.; Halpern, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Barrientos, L. Felipe; Dünner, Rolando [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificía Universidad Católica, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Battaglia, Nicholas [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Battistelli, Elia S. [Department of Physics, University of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Bond, J. Richard; Hajian, Amir; Hincks, Adam D. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H8 (Canada); Das, Sudeep [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Dunkley, Joanna [Department of Astrophysics, Oxford University, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Fowler, Joseph W., E-mail: mhasse@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: hiltonm@ukzn.ac.za, E-mail: marriage@pha.jhu.edu [NIST Quantum Devices Group, 325 Broadway Mailcode 817.03, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); and others

    2013-07-01

    We present a catalog of 68 galaxy clusters, of which 19 are new discoveries, detected via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZ) at 148 GHz in the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) survey on the celestial equator. With this addition, the ACT collaboration has reported a total of 91 optically confirmed, SZ detected clusters. The 504 square degree survey region includes 270 square degrees of overlap with SDSS Stripe 82, permitting the confirmation of SZ cluster candidates in deep archival optical data. The subsample of 48 clusters within Stripe 82 is estimated to be 90% complete for M{sub 500c} > 4.5 × 10{sup 14}M{sub s}un and redshifts 0.15 < z < 0.8. While a full suite of matched filters is used to detect the clusters, the sample is studied further through a ''Profile Based Amplitude Analysis'' using a statistic derived from a single filter at a fixed θ{sub 500} = 5.'9 angular scale. This new approach incorporates the cluster redshift along with prior information on the cluster pressure profile to fix the relationship between the cluster characteristic size (R{sub 500}) and the integrated Compton parameter (Y{sub 500}). We adopt a one-parameter family of ''Universal Pressure Profiles'' (UPP) with associated scaling laws, derived from X-ray measurements of nearby clusters, as a baseline model. Three additional models of cluster physics are used to investigate a range of scaling relations beyond the UPP prescription. Assuming a concordance cosmology, the UPP scalings are found to be nearly identical to an adiabatic model, while a model incorporating non-thermal pressure better matches dynamical mass measurements and masses from the South Pole Telescope. A high signal to noise ratio subsample of 15 ACT clusters with complete optical follow-up is used to obtain cosmological constraints. We demonstrate, using fixed scaling relations, how the constraints depend on the assumed gas model if only SZ measurements are used, and

  20. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Sunyaev Zel'dovich Selected Galaxy Clusters at 148 GHz in the 2008 Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Marriage, T A; Ade, P A R; Aguirre, P; Amiri, M; Appel, J W; Barrientos, L F; Battistelli, E S; Bond, J R; Brown, B; Burger, B; Chervenak, J; Das, S; Devlin, M J; Dicker, S R; Doriese, W B; Dunkley, J; Dunner, R; Essinger-Hileman, T; Fisher, R P; Fowler, J W; Hajian, A; Halpern, M; Hasselfield, M; Hern'andez-Monteagudo, C; Hilton, G C; Hilton, M; Hincks, A D; Hlozek, R; Huffenberger, K M; Hughes, D H; Hughes, J P; Infante, L; Irwin, K D; Juin, J B; Kaul, M; Klein, J; Kosowsky, A; Lau, J M; Limon, M; Lin, Y -T; Lupton, R H; Marsden, D; Martocci, K; Mauskopf, P; Menanteau, F; Moodley, K; Moseley, H; Netterfield, C B; Niemack, M D; Nolta, M R; Page, L A; Parker, L; Partridge, B; Quintana, H; Reese, E D; Reid, B; Sehgal, N; Sherwin, B D; Sievers, J; Spergel, D N; Staggs, S T; Swetz, D S; Switzer, E R; Thornton, R; Trac, H; Tucker, C; Warne, R; Wilson, G; Wollack, E; Zhao, Y

    2010-01-01

    We report on twenty-three clusters detected blindly as Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) decrements in a 148 GHz, 455 square-degree map of the southern sky made with data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope 2008 observing season. All SZ detections have confirmed optical counterparts. Ten of the clusters are new discoveries. One newly discovered cluster, ACT-CL J0102-4915, with a redshift of 0.75 (photometric), has an SZ decrement comparable to the most massive systems at lower redshifts. Simulations of the cluster recovery method reproduce the sample purity measured by optical follow-up. In particular, for clusters detected with a signal-to-noise ratio greater than six, simulations are consistent with optical follow-up that demonstrated this subsample is 100% pure. The simulations further imply that the total sample is 80% complete for clusters with mass in excess of 6x10^14 solar masses referenced to the cluster volume characterized by five hundred times the critical density. The Compton y -- X-ray luminosity mass co...

  1. Southern Cosmology Survey II: Massive Optically-Selected Clusters from 70 square degrees of the SZE Common Survey Area

    CERN Document Server

    Menanteau, Felipe; Barrientos, L Felipe; Deshpande, Amruta J; Hilton, Matt; Infante, Leopoldo; Jimenez, Raul; Kosowsky, Arthur; Moodley, Kavilan; Spergel, David; Verde, Licia

    2010-01-01

    We present a catalog of 105 rich and massive ($M>3\\times10^{14}M_{\\sun}$) optically-selected clusters of galaxies extracted from 70 square-degrees of public archival griz imaging from the Blanco 4-m telescope acquired over 45 nights between 2005 and 2007. We use the clusters' optically-derived properties to estimate photometric redshifts, optical luminosities, richness, and masses. We complement the optical measurements with archival XMM-Newton and ROSAT X-ray data which provide additional luminosity and mass constraints on a modest fraction of the cluster sample. Two of our clusters show clear evidence for central lensing arcs; one of these has a spectacular large-diameter, nearly-complete Einstein Ring surrounding the brightest cluster galaxy. A strong motivation for this study is to identify the massive clusters that are expected to display prominent signals from the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect (SZE) and therefore be detected in the wide-area mm-band surveys being conducted by both the Atacama Cosmology Teles...

  2. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Detection or Sunyaev-Zel'Dovich Decrement in Groups and Clusters Associated with Luminous Red Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Nick; Appel, John William; Battaglia, Nick; Bond, J. Richard; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J.; Dunkley, Joanna; Dunner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fowler, Joseph W.; Hajian, Amir; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hilton, Matt; Hincks, Adam D.; Hlozek, Renee; Hughes, John P.; Irwin, Kent D.; Klein, Jeff; Kosowsky, Arthur; Lin, Yen-Ting; Marriage, Tobias A.; Marsden, Danica; McLaren, Mike; Wollack, Ed

    2010-01-01

    We present a detection of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) decrement associated with the Luminous Red Galaxy (LRG) sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The SZ data come from 148 GHz maps of the equatorial region made by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). The LRG sample is divided by luminosity into four bins, and estimates for the central Sunyaev-Zel'dovich temperature decrement are calculated through a stacking process. We detect and account for a bias of the SZ signal due to weak radio sources. We use numerical simulations to relate the observed decrement to Y(sub 200) and clustering properties to relate the galaxy luminosity bins to mass. We also use a relation between BCG luminosity and cluster mass based on stacked gravitational lensing measurements to estimate the characteristic halo masses. The masses are found to be in the range approx.10(exp 13) - 10(exp 14)/h Stellar Mass, a lower range than has been previously probed.

  3. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Physical Properties of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect Clusters on the Celestial Equator

    CERN Document Server

    Menanteau, Felipe; Barrientos, L Felipe; Battaglia, Nicholas; Bond, J Richard; Crichton, Devin; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J; Dünner, Rolando; Gralla, Megan; Hajian, Amir; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hilton, Matt; Hincks, Adam D; Hughes, John P; Infante, Leopoldo; Kosowsky, Arthur; Marriage, Tobias A; Marsden, Danica; Moodley, Kavilan; Niemack, Michael D; Nolta, Michael R; Page, Lyman A; Partridge, Bruce; Reese, Erik D; Schmitt, Benjamin L; Sievers, Jon; Spergel, David N; Staggs, Suzanne T; Switzer, Eric; Wollack, Edward J

    2012-01-01

    We present the optical and X-ray properties of 68 galaxy clusters selected via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect at 148 GHz by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). Our sample, from an area of 504 square degrees centered on the celestial equator, is divided into two regions. The main region uses 270 square degrees of the ACT survey that overlaps with the co-added ugriz imaging from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) over Stripe 82 plus additional near-infrared pointed observations with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5-meter telescope. We confirm a total of 49 clusters to z~1.3, of which 22 (all at z>0.55) are new discoveries. For the second region the regular-depth SDSS imaging allows us to confirm 19 more clusters up to z~0.7, of which 10 systems are new. We present the optical richness, photometric redshifts, and separation between the SZ position and the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG). We find no significant offset between the cluster SZ centroid and BCG location and a weak correlation between optical richne...

  4. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: the stellar content of galaxy clusters selected using the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect

    CERN Document Server

    Hilton, Matt; Sifón, Cristóbal; Baker, Andrew J; Barrientos, L Felipe; Battaglia, Nicholas; Bond, J Richard; Crichton, Devin; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J; Gralla, Megan; Hajian, Amir; Hincks, Adam D; Hughes, John P; Infante, Leopoldo; Irwin, Kent D; Kosowsky, Arthur; Lin, Yen-Ting; Marriage, Tobias A; Marsden, Danica; Menanteau, Felipe; Moodley, Kavilan; Niemack, Michael D; Nolta, Mike R; Page, Lyman A; Reese, Erik D; Sievers, Jon; Spergel, David N; Wollack, Edward J

    2013-01-01

    We present a first measurement of the stellar mass component of galaxy clusters selected via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect, using 3.6 um and 4.5 um photometry from the Spitzer Space Telescope. Our sample consists of 14 clusters detected by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT), which span the redshift range 0.27 < z < 1.07 (median z = 0.50), and have dynamical mass measurements, accurate to about 30 per cent, with median M500 = 6.9 x 10^{14} MSun. We measure the 3.6 um and 4.5 um galaxy luminosity functions, finding the characteristic magnitude (m*) and faint-end slope (alpha) to be similar to those for IR-selected cluster samples. We perform the first measurements of the scaling of SZ-observables (Y500 and y0) with both brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) stellar mass and total cluster stellar mass (M500star). We find a significant correlation between BCG stellar mass and Y500 (E(z)^{-2/3} DA^2 Y500 ~ M*^{1.2 +/- 0.6}), although we are not able to obtain a strong constraint on the slope of the relation...

  5. The clustering of galaxies in the completed SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: Cosmological implications of the configuration-space clustering wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Ariel G.; Scoccimarro, Román; Crocce, Martín; Grieb, Jan Niklas; Salazar-Albornoz, Salvador; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; Lippich, Martha; Beutler, Florian; Brownstein, Joel R.; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Percival, Will J.; Prada, Francisco; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio; Ross, Ashley J.; Samushia, Lado; Seo, Hee-Jong; Tinker, Jeremy; Tojeiro, Rita; Vargas-Magaña, Mariana; Wang, Yuting; Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2017-01-01

    We explore the cosmological implications of anisotropic clustering measurements in configuration space of the final galaxy samples from Data Release 12 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We implement a new detailed modelling of the effects of non-linearities, bias and redshift-space distortions that can be used to extract unbiased cosmological information from our measurements for scales s ≳ 20 h-1 Mpc. We combined the information from Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) with the latest cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations and Type Ia supernovae samples and found no significant evidence for a deviation from the Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmological model. In particular, these data sets can constrain the dark energy equation-of-state parameter to wDE = -0.996 ± 0.042 when to be assumed time independent, the curvature of the Universe to Ωk = -0.0007 ± 0.0030 and the sum of the neutrino masses to ∑mν < 0.25 eV at 95 per cent confidence levels. We explore the constraints on the growth rate of cosmic structures assuming f(z) = Ωm(z)γ and obtain γ = 0.609 ± 0.079, in good agreement with the predictions of general relativity of γ = 0.55. We compress the information of our clustering measurements into constraints on the parameter combinations DV(z)/rd, FAP(z) and fσ8(z) at zeff = 0.38, 0.51 and 0.61 with their respective covariance matrices and find good agreement with the predictions for these parameters obtained from the best-fitting ΛCDM model to the CMB data from the Planck satellite. This paper is part of a set that analyses the final galaxy clustering data set from BOSS. The measurements and likelihoods presented here are combined with others by Alam et al. to produce the final cosmological constraints from BOSS.

  6. Cosmology from large scale galaxy clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing with Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data

    CERN Document Server

    Kwan, Juliana; Clampitt, Joseph; Blazek, Jonathan; Crocce, Martin; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Zuntz, Joe; Amara, Adam; Becker, Matthew; Bernstein, Gary; Bonnett, Christopher; DeRose, Joseph; Dodelson, Scott; Eifler, Tim; Gaztanaga, Enrique; Giannantonio, Tommaso; Gruen, Daniel; Hartley, Will; Kacprzak, Tomasz; Kirk, Donnacha; Krause, Elisabeth; MacCrann, Niall; Miquel, Ramon; Park, Youngsoo; Ross, Ashley; Rozo, Eduardo; Rykoff, Eli; Sheldon, Erin; Troxel, Michael A; Wechsler, Risa; Abbott, Tim; Abdalla, Filipe; Allam, Sahar; Benoit-Lévy, Aurélien; Brooks, David; Burke, David; Rosell, Aurelio Carnero; Kind, Matias Carrasco; Cunha, Carlos; D'Andrea, Chris; da Costa, Luiz; Desai, Shantanu; Diehl, H Thomas; Dietrich, Jörg; Doel, Peter; Evrard, August; Fernandez, Enrique; Finley, David; Flaugher, Brenna; Fosalba, Pablo; Frieman, Josh; Gerdes, David; Gruendl, Robert; Gutierrez, Gaston; Honscheid, Klaus; James, David; Jarvis, Mike; Kuehn, Kyler; Lahav, Ofer; Lima, Marcos; Maia, Marcio; Marshall, Jennifer; Martini, Paul; Melchior, Peter; Mohr, Joe; Nichol, Robert; Nord, Brian; Plazas, Andres; Reil, Kevin; Romer, Kathy; Roodman, Aaron; Sanchez, Eusebio; Scarpine, Vic; Sevilla, Ignacio; Smith, R Chris; Soares-Santos, Marcelle; Sobreira, Flavia; Suchyta, Eric; Swanson, Molly; Tarle, Gregory; Thomas, Daniel; Vikram, Vinu; Walker, Alistair

    2016-01-01

    We present cosmological constraints from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) using a combined analysis of angular clustering of red galaxies and their cross-correlation with weak gravitational lensing of background galaxies. We use a 139 square degree contiguous patch of DES data from the Science Verification (SV) period of observations. Using large scale measurements, we constrain the matter density of the Universe as Omega_m = 0.31 +/- 0.09 and the clustering amplitude of the matter power spectrum as sigma_8 = 0.74 +/- 0.13 after marginalizing over seven nuisance parameters and three additional cosmological parameters. This translates into S_8 = sigma_8(Omega_m/0.3)^{0.16} = 0.74 +/- 0.12 for our fiducial lens redshift bin at 0.35

  7. The First Chandra Field

    OpenAIRE

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Cameron, Robert A.; Gandhi, Poshak; Foellmi, Cédric; Elsner, Ronald F.; Patel, Sandeep K.; Wu, Kinwah; O'Dell, Stephen L.

    2005-01-01

    Before the official first-light images, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory obtained an X-ray image of the field to which its focal plane was first exposed. We describe this historic observation and report our study of the first Chandra field. Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) detected 15 X-ray sources, the brightest being dubbed ``Leon X-1'' to honor the Chandra Telescope Scientist, Leon Van Speybroeck. Based upon our analysis of the X-ray data and spectroscopy at the European Sou...

  8. Chandra Independently Determines Hubble Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    A critically important number that specifies the expansion rate of the Universe, the so-called Hubble constant, has been independently determined using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This new value matches recent measurements using other methods and extends their validity to greater distances, thus allowing astronomers to probe earlier epochs in the evolution of the Universe. "The reason this result is so significant is that we need the Hubble constant to tell us the size of the Universe, its age, and how much matter it contains," said Max Bonamente from the University of Alabama in Huntsville and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Ala., lead author on the paper describing the results. "Astronomers absolutely need to trust this number because we use it for countless calculations." Illustration of Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect Illustration of Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect The Hubble constant is calculated by measuring the speed at which objects are moving away from us and dividing by their distance. Most of the previous attempts to determine the Hubble constant have involved using a multi-step, or distance ladder, approach in which the distance to nearby galaxies is used as the basis for determining greater distances. The most common approach has been to use a well-studied type of pulsating star known as a Cepheid variable, in conjunction with more distant supernovae to trace distances across the Universe. Scientists using this method and observations from the Hubble Space Telescope were able to measure the Hubble constant to within 10%. However, only independent checks would give them the confidence they desired, considering that much of our understanding of the Universe hangs in the balance. Chandra X-ray Image of MACS J1149.5+223 Chandra X-ray Image of MACS J1149.5+223 By combining X-ray data from Chandra with radio observations of galaxy clusters, the team determined the distances to 38 galaxy clusters ranging from 1.4 billion to 9.3 billion

  9. Beyond Chandra - the X-ray Surveyor

    CERN Document Server

    Weisskopf, Martin C; Tananbaum, Harvey; Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 16 years, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has provided an unparalleled means for exploring the universe with its half-arcsecond angular resolution. Chandra studies have deepened our understanding of galaxy clusters, active galactic nuclei, galaxies, supernova remnants, planets, and solar system objects addressing almost all areas of current interest in astronomy and astrophysics. As we look beyond Chandra, it is clear that comparable or even better angular resolution with greatly increased photon throughput is essential to address even more demanding science questions, such as the formation and subsequent growth of black hole seeds at very high redshift; the emergence of the first galaxy groups; and details of feedback over a large range of scales from galaxies to galaxy clusters. Recently, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, together with the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, has initiated a concept study for such a mission named the X-ray Surveyor. This study starts with a baseline payloa...

  10. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Dynamical masses for 44 SZ-selected galaxy clusters over 755 square degrees

    CERN Document Server

    Sifón, Cristóbal; Menanteau, Felipe; Hasselfield, Matthew; Barrientos, L Felipe; Bond, J Richard; Crichton, Devin; Devlin, Mark J; Dünner, Rolando; Hilton, Matt; Hincks, Adam D; Hlozek, Renée; Huffenberger, Kevin M; Hughes, John P; Infante, Leopoldo; Kosowsky, Arthur; Marsden, Danica; Marriage, Tobias A; Moodley, Kavilan; Niemack, Michael D; Page, Lyman A; Spergel, David N; Staggs, Suzanne T; Trac, Hy; Wollack, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    We present galaxy velocity dispersions and dynamical mass estimates for 44 galaxy clusters selected via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope. Dynamical masses for 18 clusters are reported here for the first time. Using N-body simulations, we model the different observing strategies used to measure the velocity dispersions and account for systematic effects resulting from these strategies. We find that the galaxy velocity distributions may be treated as isotropic, and that an aperture correction of up to 7 per cent in the velocity dispersion is required if the spectroscopic galaxy sample is sufficiently concentrated towards the cluster centre. Accounting for the radial profile of the velocity dispersion in simulations enables consistent dynamical mass estimates regardless of the observing strategy. Cluster masses $M_{200}$ are in the range $(1-15)\\times10^{14}M_\\odot$. Comparing with masses estimated from the SZ distortion assuming a gas pressure profile derived from X-ray obse...

  11. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Selected Galaxy Clusters at 148 GHz from Three Seasons of Data

    CERN Document Server

    Hasselfield, Matthew; Marriage, Tobias A; Addison, Graeme E; Barrientos, L Felipe; Battaglia, Nick; Battistelli, Elia S; Bond, J Richard; Crichton, Devin; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J; Dicker, Simon R; Dunkley, Joanna; Dunner, Rolando; Fowler, Joseph W; Gralla, Megan B; Hajian, Amir; Halpern, Mark; Hincks, Adam D; Hlozek, Renée; Hughes, John P; Infante, Leopoldo; Irwin, Kent D; Kosowsky, Arthur; Marsden, Danica; Menanteau, Felipe; Moodley, Kavilan; Niemack, Michael D; Nolta, Michael R; Page, Lyman A; Partridge, Bruce; Reese, Erik D; Schmitt, Benjamin L; Sehgal, Neelima; Sherwin, Blake D; Sievers, Jon; Sifón, Cristóbal; Spergel, David N; Staggs, Suzanne T; Swetz, Daniel S; Switzer, Eric R; Thornton, Robert; Trac, Hy; Wollack, Edward J

    2013-01-01

    [Abridged] We present a catalog of 68 galaxy clusters, of which 19 are new discoveries, detected via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZ) at 148 GHz in the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) survey of 504 square degrees on the celestial equator. A subsample of 48 clusters within the 270 square degree region overlapping SDSS Stripe 82 is estimated to be 90% complete for M_500c > 4.5e14 Msun and 0.15 < z < 0.8. While matched filters are used to detect the clusters, the sample is studied further through a "Profile Based Amplitude Analysis" using a single filter at a fixed \\theta_500 = 5.9' angular scale. This new approach takes advantage of the "Universal Pressure Profile" (UPP) to break the degeneracy between the cluster extent (R_500) and the integrated Compton parameter (Y_500). The UPP scalings are found to be nearly identical to an adiabatic model, while a model incorporating non-thermal pressure better matches dynamical mass measurements and masses from the South Pole Telescope. A complete, high signal ...

  12. Galaxy Cluster Astrophysics and Cosmology: Questions and Opportunities for the Coming Decade

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, S T; Aguirre, J; Bond, J R; Burns, J O; Clarke, T; Devlin, M; Evrard, A; Golwala, S; Habib, S; Heitmann, K; Holzapfel, W L; Kassim, N E; Kravtsov, A; Lee, A T; Markevich, M; Marrone, D; Nagai, D; Page, L; Pierpaoli, E; Rudnick, L; Sievers, J; Taylor, G; Voit, Mark

    2009-01-01

    We are learning much about how structure forms, in particular how clusters as nodes in the cosmic web evolve and accrete matter, and about the physical processes within these objects. In the next decade, the study of clusters will enable us to tackle important questions regarding the nature of Dark Matter and Dark Energy, how clusters co-evolve with super-massive black holes at their centers, and to advance our knowledge about fundamental plasma astrophysics. This science white paper outlines the key questions and research opportunities in cluster astrophysics that are emerging in the coming decade and beyond, and serves as an overview to other cluster related white papers.

  13. Chandra Catches Early Phase of Cosmic Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    A NASA Chandra X-ray Observatory image has revealed a complex of several intergalactic hot gas clouds in the process of merging. The superb Chandra spatial resolution made it possible to distinguish individual galaxies from the massive clouds of hot gas. One of the clouds, which that envelops hundreds of galaxies, has an extraordinarily low concentration of iron atoms, indicating that it is in the very early stages of cluster evolution. "We may be seeing hot intergalactic gas in a relatively pristine state before it has been polluted by gas from galaxies," said Q. Daniel Wang of the University of Massachusetts in Amherst, and lead author on an upcoming Astrophysical Journal article describing the study. "This discovery should provide valuable insight into how the most massive structures in the universe are assembled." 3-Panel Image of Abell 2125, Its Core & Galaxy C153 3-Panel Image of Abell 2125, Its Core & Galaxy C153 The complex, known as Abell 2125,is about 3 billion light years from Earth, and is seen at a time about 11 billion years after the Big Bang, when many galaxy clusters are believed to have formed. The Chandra Abell 2125 image shows several huge elongated clouds of multimillion degree gas coming together from different directions. These hot gas clouds, each of which contains hundreds of galaxies, appear to be in the process of merging to form a single massive galaxy cluster. Chandra, Hubble Space Telescope, and Very Large Array radio telescope data show that several galaxies in the Abell 2125 core cluster are being stripped of their gas as they fall through surrounding high-pressure hot gas. This stripping process has enriched the core cluster's gas in heavy elements such as iron. Abell 2125's Core & Galaxy C153 Abell 2125's Core & Galaxy C153 The gas in the pristine cloud, which is still several million light years away from the core cluster, is conspicuous for its lack of iron atoms. This anemic cloud must be in a very early evolutionary stage. The

  14. The era of synoptic galactic archeology: using HST and Chandra observations to constrain the evolution of elliptical galaxies through the spatial distribution of globular clusters and X-ray binaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Abrusco, Raffaele; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Zezas, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Most of the stellar mass observed today in early-type galaxies is thought to be due to merging and accretion of smaller companions, but the details of these processes are still poorly constrained. Globular clusters, visible from the center to the halo of galaxies, reflect the evolution of their host galaxy in their kinematic, photometric and spatial distributions. By characterizing the spatial distribution of the population of globular clusters extracted from archival HST data of some of the most massive elliptical galaxies in the local Universe with a novel statistical approach, we recently discovered that two-dimensional spatial structures at small radii are common (D’Abrusco et al. 2014a; 2014b; 2015). Such structures, not detectable from ground-based data, can be linked to events in the evolution of the host galaxy. Moreover, we devised an interpretative framework that, based on the form, area and number of globular clusters of such structures, infers the frequency of major mergers and the mass spectrum of the accreted companions.For some of the galaxies investigated, X-ray data from Chandra joint observing programs were also available. Our method, applied to the distribution of X-ray binaries, has revealed, at least in the case of two galaxies (D’Abrusco et al. 2014a; D’Abrusco et al.23014c) the existence of overdensities that are not associated to globular cluster structures. These findings provide complementary hints about the evolution of the stellar component of these galaxies that can be used to further refine the sequence of events that determined their growth.In this contribution, we will summarize our main results and highlight the novelty of our approach. Furthermore, we will advocate the fundamental importance of joint observations of galaxies by HST and Chandra as a way to provide unique, complementary views of such systems and unlock the mysteries of their evolution.

  15. An Extensive Census of Hubble Space Telescope Counterparts to Chandra X-Ray Sources in the Globular Cluster 47 Tucanae. II. Time Series and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Peter D.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Heinke, Craig O.; Grindlay, Jonathan E.

    2003-10-01

    We report time series and variability information for the optical identifications of X-ray sources in 47 Tucanae reported in Paper I (at least 22 cataclysmic variables [CVs] and 29 active binaries). The radial distribution of the CVs is indistinguishable from that of the millisecond pulsars (MSPs) detected by Freire et al. A study of the eight CVs with secure orbital periods (two obtained from the Chandra study of Grindlay et al.) shows that the 47 Tuc CVs have fainter accretion disks, in the V band, than field CVs with similar periods. These faint disks and the faint absolute magnitudes (MV) of the 47 Tuc CVs suggests they have low accretion rates. One possible explanation is that the 47 Tuc objects may be a more representative sample of CVs, down to our detection threshold, than the CVs found in the field (where many low accretion rate systems are believed to be undiscovered), showing the advantages of deep globular cluster observations. The median FX/Fopt value for the 47 Tuc CVs is higher than that of all known classes of field CV, partly because of the faint MV values and partly because of the relatively high X-ray luminosities (LX). The latter are only seen in DQ Her systems in the field, but the 47 Tuc CVs are much fainter optically than most field DQ Her's. Previous work by Edmonds et al. has shown that the four brightest CVs in NGC 6397 have optical spectra and broadband colors that are consistent with DQ Her's having lower than average accretion rates. Some combination of magnetic behavior and low accretion rates may be able to explain our observations, but the results at present are ambiguous, since no class of field CV has distributions of both LX and MV that are consistent with those of the 47 Tuc CVs. The radial distribution of the X-ray detected active binaries is indistinguishable from that of the much larger sample of optical variables (eclipsing and contact binaries and BY Dra variables) detected in previous Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2

  16. The dynamical state of the galaxy cluster: Theoretical insights from cosmological simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Weiguang; Borgani, Stefano; Knebe, Alexander; Lewis, Geraint F; Murante, Giuseppe; Poole, Greg B

    2016-01-01

    Following the work of Cui et al. (2016b, hereafter Paper I), we investigate the dynamical state of the galaxy clusters from the theoretical point of view. After extending to vrial radius $R_{vir}$, we reselect out 123 clusters with $\\log(M_{DM, vir}) \\le 14.5$ from the galaxy cluster samples in Paper I, here DM indicate the dark-matter-only run. These clusters from the two hydro-dynamical runs are matched to the dark-matter-only run using the unique dark matter particle ID. We investigate 4 independent parameters, which are normally used to classify the cluster dynamical state. We find that the virial ratio $\\eta$ from both hydro-dynamical runs is $\\sim$ 10 per cent lower than from the dark-matter-only run; there is no clear bimodal distribution between the relaxed and un-relaxed clusters for all investigated parameters. Further, using the velocity dispersion deviation parameter $\\zeta$ , which is defined as the ratio between cluster velocity dispersion $\\sigma$ and the theoretical prediction $\\sigma_t = \\sqr...

  17. Planck 2015 results: XXIV. Cosmology from Sunyaev-Zeldovich cluster counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.;

    2016-01-01

    because it simultaneously lowers the implied value of the Hubble parameter, thereby exacerbating the discrepancy with most current astrophysical estimates. Improving the precision of cluster mass calibrations from the current 10%-level to 1% would significantly strengthen these combined analyses...

  18. The Red Sequence of High-Redshift Clusters: a Comparison with Cosmological Galaxy Formation Models

    CERN Document Server

    Menci, N; Gobat, R; Strazzullo, V; Rettura, A; Mei, S; Demarco, R

    2008-01-01

    We compare the results from a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation with spectro-photometric observations of distant galaxy clusters observed in the range 0.8< z< 1.3. We investigate the properties of their red sequence (RS) galaxies and compare them with those of the field at the same redshift. In our model we find that i) a well-defined, narrow RS is obtained already by z= 1.2; this is found to be more populated than the field RS, analogously to what observed and predicted at z=0; ii) the predicted U-V rest-frame colors and scatter of the cluster RS at z=1.2 have average values of 1 and 0.15 respectively, with a cluster-to-cluster variance of 0.2 and 0.06, respectively. The scatter of the RS of cluster galaxies is around 5 times smaller than the corresponding field value; iii) when the RS galaxies are considered, the mass growth histories of field and cluster galaxies at z=1.2 are similar, with 90 % of the stellar mass of RS galaxies at z=1.2 already formed at cosmic times t=2.5 Gyr, and 50 % at t=1...

  19. The cluster-galaxy cross-spectrum: an additional probe of cosmological and halo parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Huetsi, Gert

    2008-01-01

    There are several wide field galaxy and cluster surveys planned for the nearest future, e.g. BOSS, WFMOS, ADEPT, Hetdex, SPT, eROSITA. In the simplest approach one would analyze these independently, thus neglecting the extra information provided by the cluster-galaxy cross-pairs. In this paper we have focused on the possible synergy between these surveys by investigating the amount of information encoded in the cross-pairs. We present a model for the cluster-galaxy cross-spectrum within the Halo Model framework. To assess the gain in performance due to inclusion of the cluster-galaxy cross-pairs we carry out a Fisher matrix analysis for a BOSS-like galaxy redshift survey targeting luminous red galaxies and a hypothetical mass-limited cluster redshift survey with a lower mass threshold of 1.7x10^14 M_sun/h over the same volume. On small scales cluster-galaxy cross-spectrum probes directly density profile of the halos, instead of the density profile convolved with itself, as is the case for the galaxy power spe...

  20. NASA's Chandra Finds Black Holes Are "Green"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    Black holes are the most fuel efficient engines in the Universe, according to a new study using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. By making the first direct estimate of how efficient or "green" black holes are, this work gives insight into how black holes generate energy and affect their environment. The new Chandra finding shows that most of the energy released by matter falling toward a supermassive black hole is in the form of high-energy jets traveling at near the speed of light away from the black hole. This is an important step in understanding how such jets can be launched from magnetized disks of gas near the event horizon of a black hole. Illustration of Fuel for a Black Hole Engine Illustration of Fuel for a Black Hole Engine "Just as with cars, it's critical to know the fuel efficiency of black holes," said lead author Steve Allen of the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology at Stanford University, and the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. "Without this information, we cannot figure out what is going on under the hood, so to speak, or what the engine can do." Allen and his team used Chandra to study nine supermassive black holes at the centers of elliptical galaxies. These black holes are relatively old and generate much less radiation than quasars, rapidly growing supermassive black holes seen in the early Universe. The surprise came when the Chandra results showed that these "quiet" black holes are all producing much more energy in jets of high-energy particles than in visible light or X-rays. These jets create huge bubbles, or cavities, in the hot gas in the galaxies. Animation of Black Hole in Elliptical Galaxy Animation of Black Hole in Elliptical Galaxy The efficiency of the black hole energy-production was calculated in two steps: first Chandra images of the inner regions of the galaxies were used to estimate how much fuel is available for the black hole; then Chandra images were used to estimate the power required to produce

  1. The clustering of galaxies in the completed SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: Cosmological implications of the Fourier space wedges of the final sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieb, Jan Niklas; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Salazar-Albornoz, Salvador; Scoccimarro, Román; Crocce, Martín; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; Montesano, Francesco; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Ross, Ashley J.; Beutler, Florian; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Prada, Francisco; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Percival, Will J.; Vargas-Magaña, Mariana; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Tojeiro, Rita; Brownstein, Joel R.; Maraston, Claudia; Nichol, Robert C.; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Samushia, Lado; Seo, Hee-Jong; Streblyanska, Alina; Zhao, Gong-bo

    2017-01-01

    We extract cosmological information from the anisotropic power spectrum measurements from the recently completed Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), extending the concept of clustering wedges to Fourier space. Making use of new FFT-based estimators, we measure the power spectrum clustering wedges of the BOSS sample by filtering out the information of Legendre multipoles ℓ > 4. Our modelling of these measurements is based on novel approaches to describe non-linear evolution, bias, and redshift-space distortions, which we test using synthetic catalogues based on large-volume N-body simulations. We are able to include smaller scales than in previous analyses, resulting in tighter cosmological constraints. Using three overlapping redshift bins, we measure the angular diameter distance, the Hubble parameter, and the cosmic growth rate, and explore the cosmological implications of our full shape clustering measurements in combination with CMB and SN Ia data. Assuming a ΛCDM cosmology, we constrain the matter density to Ω M= 0.311_{-0.010}^{+0.009} and the Hubble parameter to H_0 = 67.6_{-0.6}^{+0.7} km s^{-1} Mpc^{-1}, at a confidence level (CL) of 68 per cent. We also allow for non-standard dark energy models and modifications of the growth rate, finding good agreement with the ΛCDM paradigm. For example, we constrain the equation-of-state parameter to w = -1.019_{-0.039}^{+0.048}. This paper is part of a set that analyses the final galaxy clustering dataset from BOSS. The measurements and likelihoods presented here are combined with others in Alam et al. (2016) to produce the final cosmological constraints from BOSS.

  2. Galaxy formation in the Planck cosmology - IV. Mass and environmental quenching, conformity and clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Henriques, Bruno M B; Thomas, Peter A; Angulo, Raul E; Guo, Qi; Lemson, Gerard; Wang, Wenting

    2016-01-01

    We study the quenching of star formation as a function of redshift, environment and stellar mass in the galaxy formation simulations of Henriques et al. (2015), which implement an updated version of the Munich semi-analytic model (L-GALAXIES) on the two Millennium Simulations after scaling to a Planck cosmology. In this model massive galaxies are quenched by AGN feedback depending on both black hole and hot gas mass, and hence indirectly on stellar mass. In addition, satellite galaxies of any mass can be quenched by ram-pressure or tidal stripping of gas and through the suppression of gaseous infall. This combination of processes produces quenching efficiencies which depend on stellar mass, host halo mass, environment density, distance to group centre and group central galaxy properties in ways which agree qualitatively with observation. Some discrepancies remain in dense regions and close to group centres, where quenching still seems too efficient. In addition, although the mean stellar age of massive galaxi...

  3. Cluster Radio Halos at the crossroads between astrophysics and cosmology in the SKA era

    CERN Document Server

    Cassano, R; Brunetti, G; Brüggen, M; Clarke, T; Dallacasa, D; Dolag, K; Ettori, S; Giacintucci, S; Giocoli, C; Gitti, M; Johnston-Hollitt, M; Kale, R; Markevitch, M; Norris, R; Pandey-Pommier, M; Pratt, G W; Röttgering, H; Venturi, T

    2014-01-01

    Giant Radio Halos (RH) are diffuse, Mpc-sized, synchrotron radio sources observed in a fraction of merging galaxy clusters. The current scenario for the origin of RHs assumes that turbulence generated during cluster mergers re-accelerates pre-existing fossil and/or secondary electrons in the intra-cluster-medium (ICM) to the energies necessary to produce the observed radio emission. Moreover, more relaxed clusters could host diffuse "off state" halos produced by secondary electrons. In this Chapter we use Monte Carlo simulations, that combine turbulent-acceleration physics and the generation of secondaries in the ICM, to calculate the occurrence of RHs in the Universe, their spectral properties and connection with properties of the hosting clusters. Predictions for SKA1 surveys are presented at low (100-300 MHz) and mid (1-2 GHz) frequencies assuming the expected sensitivities and spatial resolutions of SKA1. SKA1 will step into an unexplored territory allowing us to study the formation and evolution of RHs i...

  4. Clustering, cosmology and a new era of black hole demographics- I. The conditional luminosity function of active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, D. R.

    2017-01-01

    Deep X-ray surveys have provided a comprehensive and largely unbiased view of active galactic nuclei (AGN) evolution stretching back to z ˜ 5. However, it has been challenging to use the survey results to connect this evolution to the cosmological environment that AGN inhabit. Exploring this connection will be crucial to understanding the triggering mechanisms of AGN and how these processes manifest in observations at all wavelengths. In anticipation of upcoming wide-field X-ray surveys that will allow quantitative analysis of AGN environments, this paper presents a method to observationally constrain the conditional luminosity function (CLF) of AGN at a specific z. Once measured, the CLF allows the calculation of the AGN bias, mean dark matter halo mass, AGN lifetime, halo occupation number, and AGN correlation function- all as a function of luminosity. The CLF can be constrained using a measurement of the X-ray luminosity function and the correlation length at different luminosities. The method is illustrated at z ≈ 0 and 0.9 using the limited data that are currently available, and a clear luminosity dependence in the AGN bias and mean halo mass is predicted at both z, supporting the idea that there are at least two different modes of AGN triggering. In addition, the CLF predicts that z ≈ 0.9 quasars may be commonly hosted by haloes with Mh ˜ 1014 M⊙. These `young cluster' environments may provide the necessary interactions between gas-rich galaxies to fuel luminous accretion. The results derived from this method will be useful to populate AGN of different luminosities in cosmological simulations.

  5. Clustering, Cosmology and a New Era of Black Hole Demographics - I. The Conditional Luminosity Function of Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, D. R.

    2016-09-01

    Deep X-ray surveys have provided a comprehensive and largely unbiased view of active galactic nuclei (AGN) evolution stretching back to z ˜ 5. However, it has been challenging to use the survey results to connect this evolution to the cosmological environment that AGNs inhabit. Exploring this connection will be crucial to understanding the triggering mechanisms of AGNs and how these processes manifest in observations at all wavelengths. In anticipation of upcoming wide-field X-ray surveys that will allow quantitative analysis of AGN environments, this paper presents a method to observationally constrain the Conditional Luminosity Function (CLF) of AGNs at a specific z. Once measured, the CLF allows the calculation of the AGN bias, mean dark matter halo mass, AGN lifetime, halo occupation number, and AGN correlation function - all as a function of luminosity. The CLF can be constrained using a measurement of the X-ray luminosity function and the correlation length at different luminosities. The method is illustrated at z ≈ 0 and 0.9 using the limited data that is currently available, and a clear luminosity dependence in the AGN bias and mean halo mass is predicted at both z, supporting the idea that there are at least two different modes of AGN triggering. In addition, the CLF predicts that z ≈ 0.9 quasars may be commonly hosted by haloes with Mh ˜ 1014 M⊙. These `young cluster' environments may provide the necessary interactions between gas-rich galaxies to fuel luminous accretion. The results derived from this method will be useful to populate AGNs of different luminosities in cosmological simulations.

  6. The extended ROSAT-ESO Flux Limited X-ray Galaxy Cluster Survey (REFLEX II) IV. X-ray Luminosity Function and First Constraints on Cosmological Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Böhringer, H; Collins, C A

    2014-01-01

    The X-ray luminosity function is an important statistic of the census of galaxy clusters and an important means to probe the cosmological model of our Universe. Based on our recently completed REFLEX II cluster sample we construct the X-ray luminosity function of galaxy clusters for several redshift slices from $z = 0$ to $z = 0.4$ and discuss its implications. We find no significant signature of redshift evolution of the luminosity function in the redshift interval. We provide the results of fits of a parameterized Schechter function and extensions of it which provide a reasonable characterization of the data. Using a model for structure formation and galaxy cluster evolution we compare the observed X-ray luminosity function with predictions for different cosmological models. For the most interesting constraints for the cosmological parameters $\\Omega_m$ and $\\sigma_8$ we obatain $\\Omega_m \\sim 0.27 \\pm 0.03$ and $\\sigma_8 \\sim 0.80 \\pm 0.03$ based on the statistical uncertainty alone. Marginalizing over the...

  7. Probing cosmology with weak lensing selected clusters I: Halo approach and all-sky simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Shirasaki, Masato; Yoshida, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Weak gravitational lensing enables us to search clusters without the conventional assumption on the relation between visible and dark matter. We explore a variety of statistics of clusters selected with cosmic shear measurement by utilizing both analytic models and large numerical simulations. We first develop a halo model to predict the abundance and the clustering of weak lensing selected clusters. Observational effects such as galaxy shape noise are included in our model. We then generate realistic mock weak lensing catalogs to test the accuracy of our analytic model. To this end, we perform full-sky ray-tracing simulations that allow us to have multiple realizations of a large continuous area. We model the masked regions on the sky using the actual positions of bright stars, and generate 200 mock weak lensing catalogs with sky coverage of $\\sim$1000 squared degrees. We utilize the large set of mock catalogs to evaluate the covariance matrices between the local and non-local statistics. We show that our th...

  8. Cosmological Simulations of the Preheating Scenario for Galaxy Cluster Formation: Comparison to Analytic Models and Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Younger, Joshua D

    2007-01-01

    We perform a set of non--radiative cosmological simulations of a preheated intracluster medium in which the entropy of the gas was uniformly boosted at high redshift. The results of these simulations are used first to test the current analytic techniques of preheating via entropy input in the smooth accretion limit. When the unmodified profile is taken directly from simulations, we find that this model is in excellent agreement with the results of our simulations. This suggests that preheated efficiently smoothes the accreted gas, and therefore a shift in the unmodified profile is a good approximation even with a realistic accretion history. When we examine the simulation results in detail, we do not find strong evidence for entropy amplification, at least for the high-redshift preheating model adopted here. In the second section of the paper, we compare the results of the preheating simulations to recent observations. We show -- in agreement with previous work -- that for a reasonable amount of preheating, a...

  9. Mass Calibration and Cosmological Analysis of the SPT-SZ Galaxy Cluster Sample Using Velocity Dispersion $\\sigma_v$ and X-ray $Y_\\textrm{X}$ Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Bocquet, S; Mohr, J J; Aird, K A; Ashby, M L N; Bautz, M; Bayliss, M; Bazin, G; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Brodwin, M; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Chiu, I; Cho, H M; Clocchiatti, A; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; Desai, S; de Haan, T; Dietrich, J P; Dobbs, M A; Foley, R J; Forman, W R; Gangkofner, D; George, E M; Gladders, M D; Gonzalez, A H; Halverson, N W; Hennig, C; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J; Holder, G P; Holzapfel, W L; Hrubes, J D; Jones, C; Keisler, R; Knox, L; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Liu, J; Lueker, M; Luong-Van, D; Marrone, D P; McDonald, M; McMahon, J J; Meyer, S S; Mocanu, L; Murray, S S; Padin, S; Pryke, C; Reichardt, C L; Rest, A; Ruel, J; Ruhl, J E; Saliwanchik, B R; Sayre, J T; Schaffer, K K; Shirokoff, E; Spieler, H G; Stalder, B; Stanford, S A; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Story, K; Stubbs, C W; Vanderlinde, K; Vieira, J D; Vikhlinin, A; Williamson, R; Zahn, O; Zenteno, A

    2014-01-01

    We present a velocity dispersion-based mass calibration of the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect survey (SPT-SZ) galaxy cluster sample. Using a homogeneously selected sample of 100 cluster candidates from 720 deg2 of the survey along with 63 velocity dispersion ($\\sigma_v$) and 16 X-ray Yx measurements of sample clusters, we simultaneously calibrate the mass-observable relation and constrain cosmological parameters. The calibrations using $\\sigma_v$ and Yx are consistent at the $0.6\\sigma$ level, with the $\\sigma_v$ calibration preferring ~16% higher masses. We use the full cluster dataset to measure $\\sigma_8(\\Omega_ m/0.27)^{0.3}=0.809\\pm0.036$. The SPT cluster abundance is lower than preferred by either the WMAP9 or Planck+WMAP9 polarization (WP) data, but assuming the sum of the neutrino masses is $\\sum m_\

  10. The effects of assembly bias on cosmological inference from galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    McEwen, Joseph E

    2016-01-01

    The combination of galaxy-galaxy lensing (GGL) and galaxy clustering is a promising route to measuring the amplitude of matter clustering and testing modified gravity theories of cosmic acceleration. Halo occupation distribution (HOD) modeling can extend the approach down to nonlinear scales, but galaxy assembly bias could introduce systematic errors by causing the HOD to vary with large scale environment at fixed halo mass. We investigate this problem using the mock galaxy catalogs created by Hearin & Watson (2013, HW13), which exhibit significant assembly bias because galaxy luminosity is tied to halo peak circular velocity and galaxy colour is tied to halo formation time. The preferential placement of galaxies (especially red galaxies) in older halos affects the cutoff of the mean occupation function $\\langle N_\\text{cen}(M_\\text{min}) \\rangle$ for central galaxies, with halos in overdense regions more likely to host galaxies. The effect of assembly bias on the satellite galaxy HOD is minimal. We intro...

  11. Weak-lensing mass calibration of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope equatorial Sunyaev-Zeldovich cluster sample with the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope stripe 82 survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, N.; Leauthaud, A.; Miyatake, H.; Hasselfield, M.; Gralla, M. B.; Allison, R.; Bond, J. R.; Calabrese, E.; Crichton, D.; Devlin, M. J.; Dunkley, J.; Dünner, R.; Erben, T.; Ferrara, S.; Halpern, M.; Hilton, M.; Hill, J. C.; Hincks, A. D.; Hložek, R.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hughes, J. P.; Kneib, J. P.; Kosowsky, A.; Makler, M.; Marriage, T. A.; Menanteau, F.; Miller, L.; Moodley, K.; Moraes, B.; Niemack, M. D.; Page, L.; Shan, H.; Sehgal, N.; Sherwin, B. D.; Sievers, J. L.; Sifón, C.; Spergel, D. N.; Staggs, S. T.; Taylor, J. E.; Thornton, R.; van Waerbeke, L.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-08-01

    Mass calibration uncertainty is the largest systematic effect for using clusters of galaxies to constrain cosmological parameters. We present weak lensing mass measurements from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Stripe 82 Survey for galaxy clusters selected through their high signal-to-noise thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) signal measured with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). For a sample of 9 ACT clusters with a tSZ signal-to-noise greater than five the average weak lensing mass is (4.8±0.8) ×1014 Msolar, consistent with the tSZ mass estimate of (4.70±1.0) ×1014 Msolar which assumes a universal pressure profile for the cluster gas. Our results are consistent with previous weak-lensing measurements of tSZ-detected clusters from the Planck satellite. When comparing our results, we estimate the Eddington bias correction for the sample intersection of Planck and weak-lensing clusters which was previously excluded.

  12. Simulating the Anisotropic Clustering of Luminous Red Galaxies with Subhalos: A Direct Confrontation with Observation and Cosmological Implications

    CERN Document Server

    Nishimichi, Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    We examine how well we can explain the large-scale anisotropic clustering of Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with mock galaxies assigned to subhalos identified in a large suite of high-resolution cosmological simulations. Instead of relying on an analytical model, we vary the parameters that characterize the condition of subhalos to host LRGs and search for the best-fit parameters to the observed multipole moments of the power spectrum using the Markov-chain Monte Carlo method. After demonstrating that we cannot find a reasonable fit to the observation when we assign mock LRGs only to the central population of subhalos sitting at the center of their host halos, we show that simple models using both centrals and satellites can simultaneously fit the multipole moments up to hexadecapole at large scale ($k\\lesssim0.3\\,h\\mathrm{Mpc}^{-1}$). The multiplicity function measured from the best-fit mock catalogs shows good agreement with the observation, when the mean spacial number density...

  13. nIFTy cosmology: Galaxy/halo mock catalogue comparison project on clustering statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Zhao, Cheng; Prada, Francisco; Munari, Emiliano; Avila, Santiago; Izard, Albert; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Manera, Marc; Monaco, Pierluigi; Murray, Steven; Knebe, Alexander; Scóccola, Claudia G.; Yepes, Gustavo; Garcia-Bellido, Juan; Marín, Felipe A.; Müller, Volker; Skibba, Ramin; Crocce, Martin; Fosalba, Pablo; Gottlöber, Stefan; Klypin, Anatoly A.; Power, Chris; Tao, Charling; Turchaninov, Victor

    2015-09-01

    We present a comparison of major methodologies of fast generating mock halo or galaxy catalogues. The comparison is done for two-point (power spectrum and two-point correlation function in real and redshift space), and the three-point clustering statistics (bispectrum and three-point correlation function). The reference catalogues are drawn from the BigMultiDark N-body simulation. Both friend-of-friends (including distinct haloes only) and spherical overdensity (including distinct haloes and subhalos) catalogues have been used with the typical number density of a large volume galaxy surveys. We demonstrate that a proper biasing model is essential for reproducing the power spectrum at quasi-linear and even smaller scales. With respect to various clustering statistics, a methodology based on perturbation theory and a realistic biasing model leads to very good agreement with N-body simulations. However, for the quadrupole of the correlation function or the power spectrum, only the method based on semi-N-body simulation could reach high accuracy (1 per cent level) at small scales, i.e. r 0.15 h Mpc-1. Full N-body solutions will remain indispensable to produce reference catalogues. Nevertheless, we have demonstrated that the more efficient approximate solvers can reach a few per cent accuracy in terms of clustering statistics at the scales interesting for the large-scale structure analysis. This makes them useful for massive production aimed at covariance studies, to scan large parameter spaces, and to estimate uncertainties in data analysis techniques, such as baryon acoustic oscillation reconstruction, redshift distortion measurements, etc.

  14. The Red Sequence of High-Redshift Clusters: a Comparison with Cosmological Galaxy Formation Models

    OpenAIRE

    Menci, N.; Rosati, P.; Gobat, R.; Strazzullo, V.; Rettura, A.; S. Mei; Demarco, R.

    2008-01-01

    We compare the results from a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation with spectro-photometric observations of distant galaxy clusters observed in the range 0.8< z< 1.3. We investigate the properties of their red sequence (RS) galaxies and compare them with those of the field at the same redshift. In our model we find that i) a well-defined, narrow RS is obtained already by z= 1.2; this is found to be more populated than the field RS, analogously to what observed and predicted at z=0; ii) the...

  15. Iterative Maps with Hierarchical Clustering for the Observed Scales of Astrophysical and Cosmological Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Capozziello, S; De Siena, S; Guerra, F; Illuminati, F

    2000-01-01

    We derive, in order of magnitude, the observed astrophysical and cosmologicalscales in the Universe, from neutron stars to superclusters of galaxies, up to,asymptotically, the observed radius of the Universe. This result is obtained byintroducing a recursive scheme of alternating hierachical mechanisms ofthree-dimensional and two-dimensional close packings of gravitationallyinteracting objects. The iterative scheme yields a rapidly converging geometricsequence, which can be described as a hierarchical clustering of aggregates,having the observed radius of the Universe as its fixed point.

  16. nIFTy Cosmology: Galaxy/halo mock catalogue comparison project on clustering statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Prada, Francisco; Munari, Emiliano; Avila, Santiago; Izard, Albert; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Manera, Marc; Monaco, Pierluigi; Murray, Steven; Knebe, Alexander; Scoccola, Claudia G; Yepes, Gustavo; Garcia-Bellido, Juan; Marin, Felipe A; Muller, Volker; Skibba, Ramin; Crocce, Martin; Fosalba, Pablo; Gottlober, Stefan; Klypin, Anatoly A; Power, Chris; Tao, Charling; Turchaninov, Victor

    2014-01-01

    We present a comparison of major methodologies of fast generating mock halo or galaxy catalogues. The comparison is done for two-point and the three-point clustering statistics. The reference catalogues are drawn from the BigMultiDark N-body simulation. Both friend-of-friends (including distinct halos only) and spherical overdensity (including distinct halos and subhalos) catalogs have been used with the typical number density of a large-volume galaxy surveys. We demonstrate that a proper biasing model is essential for reproducing the power spectrum at quasilinear and even smaller scales. With respect to various clustering statistics a methodology based on perturbation theory and a realistic biasing model leads to very good agreement with N-body simulations. However, for the quadrupole of the correlation function or the power spectrum, only the method based on semi-N-body simulation could reach high accuracy (1% level) at small scales, i.e., r0.15 h/Mpc. For those methods that only produce distinct haloes, a ...

  17. Weak-Lensing Mass Calibration of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope Equatorial Sunyaev-Zeldovich Cluster Sample with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Stripe 82 Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Battaglia, N; Miyatake, H; Hasselfield, M; Gralla, M B; Allison, R; Bond, J R; Calabrese, E; Crichton, D; Devlin, M J; Dunkley, J; Dünner, R; Erben, T; Ferrara, S; Halpern, M; Hilton, M; Hill, J C; Hincks, A D; Hložek, R; Huffenberger, K M; Hughes, J P; Kneib, J P; Kosowsky, A; Makler, M; Marriage, T A; Menanteau, F; Miller, L; Moodley, K; Moraes, B; Niemack, M D; Page, L; Shan, H; Sehgal, N; Sherwin, B D; Sievers, J L; Sifón, C; Spergel, D N; Staggs, S T; Taylor, J; Thornton, R; van Waerbeke, L; Wollack, E J

    2015-01-01

    Mass calibration uncertainty is the largest systematic effect for using clusters of galaxies to constrain cosmological parameters. We present weak lensing mass measurements from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Stripe 82 Survey for galaxy clusters selected through their high signal-to-noise thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) signal measured with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). The average weak lensing mass is $\\left(4.8\\pm0.8\\right)\\,\\times10^{14}\\,\\mathrm{M}_\\odot$, consistent with the tSZ mass estimate of $\\left(4.70\\pm1.0\\right)\\,\\times10^{14}\\,\\mathrm{M}_\\odot$ which assumes a universal pressure profile for the cluster gas. Our results are consistent with previous weak-lensing measurements of tSZ-detected clusters from the Planck satellite. When comparing our results, we estimate the Eddington bias correction for the sample intersection of Planck and weak-lensing clusters which was previously neglected.

  18. Analytical relations concerning the collapse time in hierarchically clustered cosmological models

    CERN Document Server

    Gambera, M

    1997-01-01

    By means of numerical methods, we solve the equations of motion for the collapse of a shell of baryonic matter, made of galaxies and substructure falling into the central regions of a cluster of galaxies, taking into account the effect of the dynamical friction. The parameters on which the dynamical friction mainly depends are: the peaks' height, the number of peaks inside a protocluster multiplied by the correlation function evaluated at the origin, the filtering radius and the nucleus radius of the protocluster of galaxies. We show how the collapse time (Tau) of the shell depends on these parameters. We give a formula that links the dynamical friction coefficient (Eta) o the parameters mentioned above and an analytic relation between the collapse time and (Eta). Finally, we obtain an analytical relation between (Tau) and the mean overdensity (mean Delta) within the shell. All the analytical relations that we find are in excellent agreement with the numerical integration.

  19. The Chandra Source Catalog: Processing and Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Janet; Evans, Ian N.; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Hain, Roger; Hall, Diane M.; Miller, Joseph B.; Plummer, David A.; Zografou, Panagoula; Primini, Francis A.; Anderson, Craig S.; Bonaventura, Nina R.; Chen, Judy C.; Davis, John E.; Doe, Stephen M.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G., II; Grier, John D.; Harbo, Peter N.; He, Xiang Qun (Helen); Houck, John C.; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael L.; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Mitschang, Arik W.; Morgan, Douglas L.; Mossman, Amy E.; Nichols, Joy S.; Nowak, Michael A.; Refsdal, Brian L.; Rots, Arnold H.; Siemiginowska, Aneta L.; Sundheim, Beth A.; Tibbetts, Michael S.; van Stone, David W.; Winkelman, Sherry L.

    2009-09-01

    Chandra Source Catalog processing recalibrates each observation using the latest available calibration data, and employs a wavelet-based source detection algorithm to identify all the X-ray sources in the field of view. Source properties are then extracted from each detected source that is a candidate for inclusion in the catalog. Catalog processing is completed by matching sources across multiple observations, merging common detections, and applying quality assurance checks. The Chandra Source Catalog processing system shares a common processing infrastructure and utilizes much of the functionality that is built into the Standard Data Processing (SDP) pipeline system that provides calibrated Chandra data to end-users. Other key components of the catalog processing system have been assembled from the portable CIAO data analysis package. Minimal new software tool development has been required to support the science algorithms needed for catalog production. Since processing pipelines must be instantiated for each detected source, the number of pipelines that are run during catalog construction is a factor of order 100 times larger than for SDP. The increased computational load, and inherent parallel nature of the processing, is handled by distributing the workload across a multi-node Beowulf cluster. Modifications to the SDP automated processing application to support catalog processing, and extensions to Chandra Data Archive software to ingest and retrieve catalog products, complete the upgrades to the infrastructure to support catalog processing.

  20. Chandra Observations of the Sextuply Imaged Quasar SDSS J2222+2745

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooley, David A.; Rappaport, Saul A.

    2017-01-01

    While there are ˜100 examples of background quasars strongly lensed by galaxies, there are only a few examples of background quasars strongly lensed by clusters. These systems are both rare and important because they can provide unique constraints on the internal structure of clusters through measurements of the frequency of occurrence and modeling the mass distributions. These constraints, along with statistics of image multiplicity can provide a strong test of the ΛCDM paradigm.SDSS J2222+2745 was discovered by Dahle et al. (2013), and three images (A-C) of the quasar are immediately obvious in the SDSS image, with a fourth image (D) also evident. Through follow-up imaging and spectroscopy, Dahle et al. found evidence for two additional images (E and F), which are not evident in the SDSS image since they are overwhelmed by the light from the red elliptical galaxies in the center of the system. While there are no direct predictions of the occurrence of six-imaged cluster-lensed quasars in the literature, the predicted occurrence of any type of cluster-lensed quasar is very rare and depends sensitively on cosmological parameters such as the matter density ΩM and the matter power spectrum σ8. We report on our Chandra observation of SDSS J2222+2745, which clearly shows all six images of the quasar. We present the lensing model based on our Chandra observation and discuss the effects of stellar microlensing on the observed flux ratios in the X-ray and optical bands.

  1. A cosmological view of extreme mass-ratio inspirals in nuclear star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Mapelli, M; Vecchio, A; Graham, Alister W; Gualandris, A

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that many galaxies host both a nuclear star cluster (NC) and a super-massive black hole (SMBH). Their coexistence is particularly prevalent in spheroids with stellar mass 10^8-10^10 solar masses. We study the possibility that a stellar-mass black hole (BH) hosted by a NC inspirals and merges with the central SMBH. Due to the high stellar density in NCs, extreme mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs) of BHs onto SMBHs in NCs may be important sources of gravitational waves (GWs). We consider sensitivity curves for three different space-based GW laser interferometric mission concepts: the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), the New Gravitational wave Observatory (NGO) and the DECi-hertz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (DECIGO). We predict that, under the most optimistic assumptions, LISA and DECIGO will detect up to thousands of EMRIs in NCs per year, while NGO will observe up to tens of EMRIs per year. We explore how a number of factors may affect the predicted rates. In ...

  2. Impact of thermal diffusion and other abundance anomalies on cosmological uses of galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Medvedev, P; Sazonov, S; Shtykovskiy, P

    2013-01-01

    Depending on the topology of the magnetic field and characteristics of turbulent motions, diffusion can significantly affect the distribution of elements, in particular helium, in the intracluster medium (ICM). As has been noted previously, an incorrect assumption about the helium abundance will lead to an error in the iron abundance determined from X-ray spectroscopy. The corresponding effect on the temperature measurement is negligibly small. An incorrectly assumed helium abundance will also lead to a systematic error in angular distance measurements based on X-ray and Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) observations of clusters of galaxies. Its magnitude is further amplified by the associated error in the metal abundance determination, the impact being larger at lower ICM temperatures. Overall, a factor of 2-5 error in the helium abundance will lead to an ~ 10-25 % error in the angular distance. We solve the full set of Burgers equations for a multi-component intracluster plasma to determine the maximal effect of diffu...

  3. Cosmological Effects of Powerful AGN Outbursts in Galaxy Clusters: Insights from an XMM-Newton Observation of MS 0735+7421

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitti, M.; McNamara, B. R.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Wise, M. W.

    2007-01-01

    We report on the results of an analysis o f XMM-Newton observations o f MS 0735+7421, the galaxy cluster that hosts the most energetic AGN outburst currently known. .The previous chandra image shows twin giant x-ray cavities (approx.200 kpc diameter) filled with radio emission and surrounded by a weak shock front. XMM data are consistent with these findings. The total energy in cavities and shock (1E62 erg(approx.100 kpc), to heat the gas within 1 Mpc by approx.1/4 kev per particle. The cluster exhibits an upward departure (factor approx.2) from the mean L-T relation. The boost in emissivity produced by the ICM compression in the bright shells due to the cavity expansion may contribute to explain the high luminosity and high central gas mass fraction that we measure. The scaled temperature and metallicity profiles are in general agreement with those observed in re1axed clusters. Also, the quantities we measure are consistent with the observed M-T relation. We conclude that violent outbursts such as the one in MS 0735+7421 do not cause dramatic scaling relations (other than the L-T relation). However, if they are relatively common they may play a role in creating the global cluster properties.

  4. THE COSMOLOGICAL IMPACT OF LUMINOUS TeV BLAZARS. III. IMPLICATIONS FOR GALAXY CLUSTERS AND THE FORMATION OF DWARF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfrommer, Christoph [Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, D-69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Chang, Philip; Broderick, Avery E., E-mail: christoph.pfrommer@h-its.org, E-mail: aeb@cita.utoronto.ca, E-mail: pchang@cita.utoronto.ca [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2012-06-10

    A subset of blazars are powerful TeV emitters, dominating the extragalactic component of the very high energy gamma-ray universe (E {approx}> 100 GeV). These TeV gamma rays generate ultrarelativistic electron-positron pairs via pair production with the extragalactic background light. While it has generally been assumed that the kinetic energy of these pairs cascades to GeV gamma rays via inverse Compton scattering, we have argued in Broderick et al. (Paper I in this series) that plasma beam instabilities are capable of dissipating the pairs' energy locally on timescales short in comparison to the inverse Compton cooling time, heating the intergalactic medium (IGM) with a rate that is independent of density. This dramatically increases the entropy of the IGM after redshift z {approx} 2, with a number of important implications for structure formation: (1) this suggests a scenario for the origin of the cool core (CC)/non-cool core (NCC) bimodality in galaxy clusters and groups. Early-forming galaxy groups are unaffected because they can efficiently radiate the additional entropy, developing a CC. However, late-forming groups do not have sufficient time to cool before the entropy is gravitationally reprocessed through successive mergers-counteracting cooling and potentially raising the core entropy further. This may result in a population of X-ray dim groups/clusters, consistent with X-ray stacking analyses of optically selected samples. Hence, blazar heating works differently than feedback by active galactic nuclei, which we show can balance radiative cooling but is unable to transform CC into NCC clusters on the buoyancy timescale due to the weak coupling between the mechanical energy to the cluster gas. (2) We predict a suppression of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) power spectrum template on angular scales smaller than 5' due to the globally reduced central pressure of groups and clusters forming after z {approx} 1. This allows for a larger rms amplitude

  5. On the Cluster Physics of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich and X-ray Surveys III: Measurement Biases and Cosmological Evolution of Gas and Stellar Mass Fractions

    CERN Document Server

    Battaglia, N; Pfrommer, C; Sievers, J L

    2012-01-01

    Gas masses tightly correlate with the virial masses of galaxy clusters, allowing for a precise determination of cosmological parameters by means of large-scale X-ray surveys. However, according to recent Suzaku X-ray measurements, gas mass fractions, f_gas, appear to be considerably larger than the cosmic mean at the virial radius, R_200, questioning the accuracy of the cosmological parameter estimations. Here, we use a large suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to study measurement biases of f_gas. We employ different variants of simulated physics, including radiative gas physics, star formation, and thermal feedback by active galactic nuclei. Computing the mass profiles in 48 angular cones, whose footprints partition the sphere, we find anisotropic gas and total mass distributions that imply an angular variance of f_gas at the level of 30%. This anisotropic distribution originates from the recent formation epoch of clusters and from the strong internal baryon-to-dark-matter density bias. In the ...

  6. Spatial Correlation Function of the Chandra Selected Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Barger, A. J.; Cowie, L. L.

    2006-01-01

    We present the spatial correlation function analysis of non-stellar X-ray point sources in the Chandra Large Area Synoptic X-ray Survey of Lockman Hole Northwest (CLASXS). Our 9 ACIS-I fields cover a contiguous solid angle of 0.4 deg(exp 2) and reach a depth of 3 x 10(exp -15) erg/square cm/s in the 2-8 keV band. We supplement our analysis with data from the Chandra Deep Field North (CDFN). The addition of this field allows better probe of the correlation function at small scales. A total of 233 and 252 sources with spectroscopic information are used in the study of the CLASXS and CDFN fields respectively. We calculate both redshift-space and projected correlation functions in co-moving coordinates, averaged over the redshift range of 0.1 tau(sub 0 = 8.1(sup +1.2 sub -2.2) Mpc, and gamma = 2.1 +/- 0.5 for the CLASXS field, and tau(sub 0) = 5.8(sup +.1.0 sub -1.5) Mpc, gamma = 1.38(sup +0.12 sub -0.14 for the CDFN field. By comparing the real- and redshift-space correlation functions in the combined CLASXS and CDFN samples, we are able to estimate the redshift distortion parameter Beta = 0.4 +/- 0.2 at an effective redshift z = 0.94. We compare the correlation functions for hard and soft spectra sources in the CLASXS field and find no significant difference between the two groups. We have also found that the correlation between X-ray luminosity and clustering amplitude is weak, which, however, is fully consistent with the expectation using the simplest relations between X-ray luminosity, black hole mass, and dark halo mass. We study the evolution of the AGN clustering by dividing the samples into 4 redshift bins over 0.1 Mpcestimate the evolution of the bias, and find that the bias increases rapidly with redshift (b(z = 0.45) = 0.95 +/- 0.15 and b(z = 2.07) = 3.03 +/- 0.83): The typical mass of the dark matter halo derived from the bias estimates show little change with redshift. The average halo mass is found to be log (M(sub halo)/M(sun))approximates 12.1. Subject

  7. Chandra Publication Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rots, Arnold H; Becker, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    In this study we develop and propose publication metrics, based on an analysis of data from the Chandra bibliographic database, that are more meaningful and less sensitive to observatory-specific characteristics than the traditional metrics. They fall in three main categories: speed of publication; fraction of observing time published; and archival usage. Citation of results is a fourth category, but lends itself less well to definite statements. For Chandra, the median time from observation to publication is 2.36 years; after about 7 years 90% of the observing time is published; and the total annual publication output of the mission is 60-70% of the cumulative observing time available, assuming a two year lag between data retrieval and publication.

  8. Cosmological ``Truths''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothun, Greg

    2011-10-01

    Ever since Aristotle placed us, with certainty, in the Center of the Cosmos, Cosmological models have more or less operated from a position of known truths for some time. As early as 1963, for instance, it was ``known'' that the Universe had to be 15-17 billion years old due to the suspected ages of globular clusters. For many years, attempts to determine the expansion age of the Universe (the inverse of the Hubble constant) were done against this preconceived and biased notion. Not surprisingly when more precise observations indicated a Hubble expansion age of 11-13 billion years, stellar models suddenly changed to produce a new age for globular cluster stars, consistent with 11-13 billion years. Then in 1980, to solve a variety of standard big bang problems, inflation was introduced in a fairly ad hoc manner. Inflation makes the simple prediction that the net curvature of spacetime is zero (i.e. spacetime is flat). The consequence of introducing inflation is now the necessary existence of a dark matter dominated Universe since the known baryonic material could comprise no more than 1% of the necessary energy density to make spacetime flat. As a result of this new cosmological ``truth'' a significant world wide effort was launched to detect the dark matter (which obviously also has particle physics implications). To date, no such cosmological component has been detected. Moreover, all available dynamical inferences of the mass density of the Universe showed in to be about 20% of that required for closure. This again was inconsistent with the truth that the real density of the Universe was the closure density (e.g. Omega = 1), that the observations were biased, and that 99% of the mass density had to be in the form of dark matter. That is, we know the universe is two component -- baryons and dark matter. Another prevailing cosmological truth during this time was that all the baryonic matter was known to be in galaxies that populated our galaxy catalogs. Subsequent

  9. The Chandra Bibliography Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rots, A. H.; Winkelman, S. L.; Paltani, S.; Blecksmith, S. E.; Bright, J. D.

    2004-07-01

    Early in the mission, the Chandra Data Archive started the development of a bibliography database, tracking publications in refereed journals and on-line conference proceedings that are based on Chandra observations, allowing our users to link directly to articles in the ADS from our archive, and to link to the relevant data in the archive from the ADS entries. Subsequently, we have been working closely with the ADS and other data centers, in the context of the ADEC-ITWG, on standardizing the literature-data linking. We have also extended our bibliography database to include all Chandra-related articles and we are also keeping track of the number of citations of each paper. Obviously, in addition to providing valuable services to our users, this database allows us to extract a wide variety of statistical information. The project comprises five components: the bibliography database-proper, a maintenance database, an interactive maintenance tool, a user browsing interface, and a web services component for exchanging information with the ADS. All of these elements are nearly mission-independent and we intend make the package as a whole available for use by other data centers. The capabilities thus provided represent support for an essential component of the Virtual Observatory.

  10. Chandra hardware and systems: keeping things running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, Lisa

    2006-06-01

    System management for any organization can be a challenge, but satellite projects present their own issues. I will be presenting the network and system architecture chosen to support the scientists in the Chandra X-ray Center. My group provides the infrastructure for science data processing, mission planning, user support, archive support and software development. Our challenge is to create a stable environment with enough flexibility to roll with the changes during the mission. I'll discuss system and network choices, web service, backups, security and systems monitoring. Also, how to build infrastructure that's flexible, how to support a large group of scientists with a relatively small staff, what challenges we faced (anticipated and unanticipated) and what lessons we learned over the past 6 years since the launch of Chandra. Finally I'll outline our plans for the future including beowulf cluster support, an improved helpdesk system, methods for dealing with the explosive amount of data that needs to be managed.

  11. Chandra Catches Cannibal Galaxy in the Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory image of Perseus A provides new insight into how this supergiant galaxy has grown by cannibalizing other galaxies and gas in the vicinity. For the first time astronomers see an X-ray shadow cast by a smaller galaxy as its gas is being stripped away by the enormous galaxy. The research was reported by Professor Andrew Fabian of the Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge, England on June 7 at the 196th National Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, in Rochester, NY. Other members of the research team are Jeremy Sanders, Stefano Ettori, Steve Allen, Carolin Crawford, Kazushi Iwasawa, and Roderick Johnstone of the Institute of Astronomy, Gregory Taylor on the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM, and Patrick Ogle of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA. Perseus A, or NGC 1275, is in the center of a large galaxy cluster 320 million light years from Earth. The cluster, which contains thousands of galaxies and enough gas to make thousands more, is one of the largest gravitationally bound objects in the universe. Over the eons, Perseus A has accumulated hundreds of billions of stars to become one of the most massive known galaxies as gas and galaxies have been pulled inward by gravity. The Chandra observation shows a region of hot gas that extends over several hundred thousand light years. The gas in the outer portion of the cluster has a temperature of 70 million degrees. The cluster gas cools gradually and settles toward the center of the cluster. A galaxy with "only" about 20 billion stars is falling into Perseus A (located at two o'clock from the center of the image) and appears as a small dark patch due to absorption of X rays by cool gas in the infalling galaxy. Another larger hole seen further out is thought to be due to a bubble of high-energy particles ejected in an explosion from Perseus A hundreds of millions of years ago. These outbursts are presumably fueled by matter releasing tremendous

  12. A Deep Chandra Observation of A2052

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, E. L.; Douglass, E. M.; Sarazin, C. L.; Clarke, T. E.; McNamara, B. R.

    We present initial results from a long (125 ksec) Chandra observation of Abell 2052. A2052 is a bright, nearby, cooling core cluster at a redshift of z=0.0348. It was previously observed for 36 ksec with Chandra [3,4]. The longer observation reveals ripples in the surface brightness, similar to what has been seen in e.g., the Perseus cluster [5] and M87/Virgo [6]. The southern cavity now appears to be split into two cavities with the southernmost cavity likely representing a ghost bubble from earlier radio activity. There also appears to be a ghost bubble present to the NW of the cluster center. Bright emission in the X-ray corresponds very well with optical line emission, and the correlated X-ray emission is seen to continue from the N bubble edge closer to the AGN in this longer exposure, tracking the H-α emission. The energy deposited by the radio source, as determined by measuring the pressure in the bright, X-ray shells, averaged over the repetition rate of the radio source (determined from either the ripple separation or the ghost cavity distances) can easily offset the cooling in the core of the cluster.

  13. The BMW-Chandra Serendipitous Source Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, P.; Campana, S.; Mignani, R. P.; Moretti, A.; Mottini, M.; Panzera, M. R.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2004-08-01

    We present the BMW-Chandra source catalog drawn from all Chandra ACIS-I pointed observations with an exposure time in excess of 10 ks public as of March 2003 (136 observations). Using the wavelet detection algorithm developed by Lazzati et al. (1999) and Campana et al. (1999), which can characterize point-like as well as extended sources, we identified 21325 sources. Among them, 16758 are serendipitous, i.e. not associated with the targets of the pointings, and do not require a non-automated analysis. This makes our catalog the largest compilation of Chandra sources to date. The 0.5--10 keV absorption corrected fluxes of these sources range from ˜ 3× 10-16 to 9×10-12 erg cm-2 s-1 with a median of 7× 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1. The catalog consists of count rates and relative errors in three energy bands (total, 0.5--7 keV; soft, 0.5--2 keV; and hard band, 2--7 keV), and source positions relative to the highest signal-to-noise detection among the three bands. The wavelet algorithm also provides an estimate of the extension of the source which we refined with a σ -clipping method. We report on the main properties of the sources in our catalog, such as sky coverage ( ˜ 8 deg2 at a limiting flux of ˜ 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1) and cosmological log N--log S for a subset at high Galactic latitude (∣ b ∣ > 20o) for a flux as low as ˜ 1.5 × 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1. Support for this work was provided by the Italian MIUR.

  14. Lunar Prospecting With Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Observations of the bright side of the Moon with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have detected oxygen, magnesium, aluminum and silicon over a large area of the lunar surface. The abundance and distribution of those elements will help to determine how the Moon was formed. "We see X-rays from these elements directly, independent of assumptions about the mineralogy and other complications," said Jeremy Drake of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., at a press conference at the "Four Years with Chandra" symposium in Huntsville, Alabama. "We have Moon samples from the six widely-space Apollo landing sites, but remote sensing with Chandra can cover a much wider area," continued Drake. "It's the next best thing to being there, and it's very fast and cost-effective." The lunar X-rays are caused by fluorescence, a process similar to the way that light is produced in fluorescent lamps. Solar X-rays bombard the surface of the Moon, knock electrons out of the inner parts of the atoms, putting them in a highly unstable state. Almost immediately, other electrons rush to fill the gaps, and in the process convert their energy into the fluorescent X-rays seen by Chandra. According to the currently popular "giant impact" theory for the formation of the Moon, a body about the size of Mars collided with the Earth about 4.5 billion years ago. This impact flung molten debris from the mantle of both the Earth and the impactor into orbit around the Earth. Over the course of tens of millions of years, the debris stuck together to form the Moon. By measuring the amounts of aluminum and other elements over a wide area of the Moon and comparing them to the Earth's mantle, Drake and his colleagues plan to help test the giant impact hypothesis. "One early result," quipped Drake, "is that there is no evidence for large amounts of calcium, so cheese is not a major constituent of the Moon." Illustration of Earth's Geocorona Illustration of Earth's Geocorona The same

  15. Chandra Discovers Cosmic Cannonball

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    One of the fastest moving stars ever seen has been discovered with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This cosmic cannonball is challenging theories to explain its blistering speed. Astronomers used Chandra to observe a neutron star, known as RX J0822-4300, over a period of about five years. During that span, three Chandra observations clearly show the neutron star moving away from the center of the Puppis A supernova remnant. This remnant is the stellar debris field created during the same explosion in which the neutron star was created about 3700 years ago. Chandra X-ray Image of RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A Chandra X-ray Image of RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A By combining how far it has moved across the sky with its distance from Earth, astronomers determined the neutron star is moving at over 3 million miles per hour. At this rate, RX J0822-4300 is destined to escape from the Milky Way after millions of years, even though it has only traveled about 20 light years so far. "This star is moving at 3 million miles an hour, but it's so far away that the apparent motion we see in five years is less than the height of the numerals in the date on a penny, seen from the length of a football field," said Frank Winkler of Middlebury College in Vermont. "It's remarkable, and a real testament to the power of Chandra, that such a tiny motion can be measured." Labeled Image of RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A Labeled Image of RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A "Just after it was born, this neutron star got a one-way ticket out of the Galaxy," said co-author Robert Petre of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. "Astronomers have seen other stars being flung out of the Milky Way, but few as fast as this." So-called hypervelocity stars have been previously discovered shooting out of the Milky Way with speeds around one million miles per hour. One key difference between RX J0822-4300 and these other reported galactic escapees is the source of their speed. The hypervelocity stars are

  16. Probing dark energy via galaxy cluster outskirts

    CERN Document Server

    Morandi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We present a Bayesian approach to combine $Planck$ data and the X-ray physical properties of the intracluster medium in the virialization region of a sample of 320 galaxy clusters ($0.056 3$ keV) observed with $Chandra$. We exploited the high-level of similarity of the emission measure in the cluster outskirts as cosmology proxy. The cosmological parameters are thus constrained assuming that the emission measure profiles at different redshift are weakly self-similar, that is their shape is universal, explicitly allowing for temperature and redshift dependency of the gas fraction. This cosmological test, in combination with $Planck$+SNIa data, allows us to put a tight constraint on the dark energy models. For a constant-$w$ model, we have $w=-1.010\\pm0.030$ and $\\Omega_m=0.311\\pm0.014$, while for a time-evolving equation of state of dark energy $w(z)$ we have $\\Omega_m=0.308\\pm 0.017$, $w_0=-0.993\\pm0.046$ and $w_a=-0.123\\pm0.400$. Constraints on the cosmology are further improved by adding priors on the gas f...

  17. X-raying Galaxies: A Chandra Legacy

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Q Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This presentation reviews Chandra's major contribution to the understanding of nearby galaxies. After a brief summary on significant advances in characterizing various types of discrete X-ray sources, the presentation focuses on the global hot gas in and around galaxies, especially normal ones like our own. The hot gas is a product of stellar and AGN feedback -- the least understood part in theories of galaxy formation and evolution. Chandra observations have led to the first characterization of the spatial, thermal, chemical, and kinetic properties of the gas in our Galaxy. The gas is concentrated around the Galactic bulge and disk on scales of a few kpc. The column density of chemically-enriched hot gas on larger scales is at least an order magnitude smaller, indicating that it may not account for the bulk of the missing baryon matter predicted for the Galactic halo according to the standard cosmology. Similar results have also been obtained for other nearby galaxies. The X-ray emission from hot gas is well...

  18. Current Issues in Cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbour, J B [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester (United States)

    2007-02-07

    These colloquium proceedings will be valuable, the blurb says, for graduate students and researchers in cosmology and theoretical astrophysics. Specifically, the book 'looks at both the strengths and weaknesses of the current big bang model in explaining certain puzzling data' and gives a 'comprehensive coverage of the expanding field of cosmology'. The reality is rather different. Conference proceedings rarely compare in value with a solid monograph or good review articles, and Current Issues in Cosmology is no exception. The colloquium was convened by the two editors, who have both long harboured doubts about the big bang, and was held in Paris in June 2004. The proceedings contain 19 presented papers and relatively brief summary comments by four panel speakers. The questions and answers at the end of each talk and a general discussion at the end were recorded and transcribed but contain little of interest. The nature of the colloquium is indicated by panellist Francesco Bertola's comment: 'While in the 1950s it was possible to speak of rival theories in cosmology, now the big-bang picture has no strong rivals. This is confirmed by the fact that out of 1500 members of the IAU Division VIII (Galaxies and the Universe) only a dozen, although bright people, devote their time to the heterodox views.' This was largely a platform for them to give their views. At least half of the dozen, all the 'usual suspects', were present: Geoffery and Margaret Burbidge, Jayant Narlikar, Halton Arp, Chandra Wickramasinghe and, in spirit only but playing a role somewhat like the ghost of Hamlet's father, the late Fred Hoyle. Doubters presented 12 of the 19 papers. Orthodoxy should certainly be challenged and the sociology of science questioned, but I found two main problems with this book. The papers putting the orthodox view are too short, even perfunctory. The most that a serious graduate student would get out of them is a reference

  19. The Chandra Source Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Ian N; Glotfelty, Kenny J; Anderson, Craig S; Bonaventura, Nina R; Chen, Judy C; Davis, John E; Doe, Stephen M; Evans, Janet D; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C; Gibbs, Danny G; Grier, John D; Hain, Roger M; Hall, Diane M; Harbo, Peter N; Xiangqun,; He,; Houck, John C; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael L; McDowell, Jonathan C; Miller, Joseph B; Mitschang, Arik W; Morgan, Douglas L; Mossman, Amy E; Nichols, Joy S; Nowak, Michael A; Plummer, David A; Refsdal, Brian L; Rots, Arnold H; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Sundheim, Beth A; Tibbetts, Michael S; Van Stone, David W; Winkelman, Sherry L; Zografou, Panagoula

    2010-01-01

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is a general purpose virtual X-ray astrophysics facility that provides access to a carefully selected set of generally useful quantities for individual X-ray sources, and is designed to satisfy the needs of a broad-based group of scientists, including those who may be less familiar with astronomical data analysis in the X-ray regime. The first release of the CSC includes information about 94,676 distinct X-ray sources detected in a subset of public ACIS imaging observations from roughly the first eight years of the Chandra mission. This release of the catalog includes point and compact sources with observed spatial extents <~ 30''. The catalog (1) provides access to the best estimates of the X-ray source properties for detected sources, with good scientific fidelity, and directly supports scientific analysis using the individual source data; (2) facilitates analysis of a wide range of statistical properties for classes of X-ray sources; and (3) provides efficient access to ...

  20. Dark Energy, Black Holes and Exploding Stars: NASA's Chandra Observatory Marks Five Years of Scientific Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    detected by Chandra, may be the long-sought X-ray emission from a known supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy. (January 14, 2000) * Chandra finds the most distant X-ray cluster. Using the Chandra Observatory, astronomers find the most distant X-ray cluster of galaxies yet. Approximately 10 billion light-years from Earth, the cluster 3C294 is 40 percent farther than the next most distant X-ray galaxy cluster. (Feb. 20, 2001) * Chandra discovers X-rays from Jupiter. Using Chandra, astronomers discover a pulsating hot spot of X-rays in the polar regions of the planet's upper atmosphere and uncover evidence the X-ray source is not arising from the region of Jupiter where previously believed. (Aug. 29, 2002) * Chandra makes first I.D. of a binary black hole. By revealing two active black holes in the nucleus of the extraordinarily bright galaxy NGC 6240, a Chandra image proves for the first time that two supermassive black holes can co-exist in the same galaxy. (Nov. 11, 2002) * Chandra makes deepest X-ray exposure. A Chandra image, Deep Field North, captures for 23 days an area of the sky one-fifth the size of the full moon. Even though the faintest sources detected produced only one X-ray photon every four days, Chandra finds more than 600 X-ray sources, most of them supermassive black holes in galaxy centers. (June 19, 2003) * Chandra sheds new light on the Vela Pulsar. Chandra offers new insight into pulsars, small and extremely dense stars. Created from a series of Chandra observations, an X-ray movie of the Vela pulsar reveals a spectacularly erratic jet that varies in a way never before seen, whipping about like an untended fire hose at about half the speed of light. (June 30, 2003) * Chandra 'hears' a black hole. Using the Chandra Observatory, astronomers for the first time detect sound waves from a supermassive black hole. Coming from a black hole 250 million light years from Earth, the "note" is the deepest ever detected from an object in the Universe

  1. Deep Chandra, HST-COS, and Megacam Observations of the Phoenix Cluster: Extreme Star Formation and AGN Feedback on Hundred Kiloparsec Scales

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, M; van Weeren, R J; Applegate, D E; Bayliss, M; Bautz, M W; Benson, B A; Carlstrom, J E; Bleem, L E; Chatzikos, M; Edge, A C; Fabian, A C; Garmire, G P; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J; Jones-Forman, C; Mantz, A B; Miller, E D; Stalder, B; Veilleux, S; Zuhone, J A

    2015-01-01

    We present new ultraviolet, optical, and X-ray data on the Phoenix galaxy cluster (SPT-CLJ2344-4243). Deep optical imaging reveals previously-undetected filaments of star formation, extending to radii of ~50-100 kpc in multiple directions. Combined UV-optical spectroscopy of the central galaxy reveals a massive (2x10^9 Msun)), young (~4.5 Myr) population of stars, consistent with a time-averaged star formation rate of 610 +/- 50 Msun/yr. We report a strong detection of OVI(1032,1038) which appears to originate primarily in shock-heated gas, but may contain a substantial contribution (>1000 Msun/yr) from the cooling intracluster medium. We confirm the presence of deep X-ray cavities in the inner ~10 kpc, which are amongst the most extreme examples of radio-mode feedback detected to date, implying jet powers of 2-7 x10^45 erg/s. We provide evidence that the AGN inflating these cavities may have only recently transitioned from "quasar-mode" to "radio-mode", and may currently be insufficient to completely offset ...

  2. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Dynamical Masses and Scaling Relations for a Sample of Massive Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect Selected Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Sifon, Cristobal; Hasselfield, Matthew; Marriage, Tobias A; Hughes, John P; Barrientos, L Felipe; Gonzalez, Jorge; Infante, Leopoldo; Addison, Graeme E; Baker, Andrew J; Battaglia, Nick; Bond, J Richard; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J; Dunkley, Joanna; Dunner, Rolando; Gralla, Megan B; Hajian, Amir; Hilton, Matt; Hincks, Adam D; Kosowsky, Arthur B; Marsden, Danica; Moodley, Kavilan; Niemack, Michael D; Nolta, Michael R; Page, Lyman A; Partridge, Bruce; Reese, Erik D; Sehgal, Neelima; Sievers, Jon; Spergel, David N; Staggs, Suzanne T; Thornton, Robert J; Trac, Hy; Wollack, Edward

    2012-01-01

    We present the first dynamical mass estimates and scaling relations for a sample of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) selected galaxy clusters. The sample consists of 16 massive clusters detected with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) over a 455 sq deg. area of the southern sky. Deep multi-object spectroscopic observations were taken to secure intermediate-resolution (R~700-800) spectra and redshifts for ~60 member galaxies on average per cluster. The dynamical masses M_200c of the clusters have been calculated using simulation-based scaling relations between velocity dispersion and mass. The sample has a median redshift z=0.50 and a median mass M_200c=11x10^14 Msun/h_70 with a lower limit M_200c ~ 5x10^14 Msun/h_70, consistent with the expectations for the ACT southern sky survey. These masses are compared to the ACT SZE properties of the sample, specifically, the central SZE amplitude y0, the Compton signal within a 0.5' pixel y_0.5', and the integrated Compton signal Y_200c, which we use to derive SZE-Ma...

  3. Deep Chandra, HST-COS, and Megacam Observations of the Phoenix Cluster: Extreme Star Formation and AGN Feedback on Hundred Kiloparsec Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Michael; McNamara, Brian R.; van Weeren, Reinout J.; Applegate, Douglas E.; Bayliss, Matthew; Bautz, Marshall W.; Benson, Bradford A.; Carlstrom, John E.; Bleem, Lindsey E.; Chatzikos, Marios; Edge, Alastair C.; Fabian, Andrew C.; Garmire, Gordon P.; Hlavacek-Larrondo, Julie; Jones-Forman, Christine; Mantz, Adam B.; Miller, Eric D.; Stalder, Brian; Veilleux, Sylvain; ZuHone, John A.

    2015-10-01

    We present new ultraviolet, optical, and X-ray data on the Phoenix galaxy cluster (SPT-CLJ2344-4243). Deep optical imaging reveals previously undetected filaments of star formation, extending to radii of ˜50-100 kpc in multiple directions. Combined UV-optical spectroscopy of the central galaxy reveals a massive (2 × 109 M⊙), young (˜4.5 Myr) population of stars, consistent with a time-averaged star formation rate of 610 ± 50 M⊙ yr-1. We report a strong detection of O vi λλ1032,1038, which appears to originate primarily in shock-heated gas, but may contain a substantial contribution (>1000 M⊙ yr-1) from the cooling intracluster medium (ICM). We confirm the presence of deep X-ray cavities in the inner ˜10 kpc, which are among the most extreme examples of radio-mode feedback detected to date, implying jet powers of 2-7 × 1045 erg s-1. We provide evidence that the active galactic nucleus inflating these cavities may have only recently transitioned from “quasar-mode” to “radio-mode,” and may currently be insufficient to completely offset cooling. A model-subtracted residual X-ray image reveals evidence for prior episodes of strong radio-mode feedback at radii of ˜100 kpc, with extended “ghost” cavities indicating a prior epoch of feedback roughly 100 Myr ago. This residual image also exhibits significant asymmetry in the inner ˜200 kpc (0.15R500), reminiscent of infalling cool clouds, either due to minor mergers or fragmentation of the cooling ICM. Taken together, these data reveal a rapidly evolving cool core which is rich with structure (both spatially and in temperature), is subject to a variety of highly energetic processes, and yet is cooling rapidly and forming stars along thin, narrow filaments.

  4. THE ATACAMA COSMOLOGY TELESCOPE: DYNAMICAL MASSES AND SCALING RELATIONS FOR A SAMPLE OF MASSIVE SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH EFFECT SELECTED GALAXY CLUSTERS {sup ,}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sifon, Cristobal; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Gonzalez, Jorge; Infante, Leopoldo; Duenner, Rolando [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Menanteau, Felipe; Hughes, John P.; Baker, Andrew J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Hasselfield, Matthew [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Marriage, Tobias A.; Crichton, Devin; Gralla, Megan B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Addison, Graeme E.; Dunkley, Joanna [Sub-department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Battaglia, Nick; Bond, J. Richard; Hajian, Amir [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Das, Sudeep [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, LBL and Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Devlin, Mark J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Hilton, Matt [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-07-20

    We present the first dynamical mass estimates and scaling relations for a sample of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) selected galaxy clusters. The sample consists of 16 massive clusters detected with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) over a 455 deg{sup 2} area of the southern sky. Deep multi-object spectroscopic observations were taken to secure intermediate-resolution (R {approx} 700-800) spectra and redshifts for Almost-Equal-To 60 member galaxies on average per cluster. The dynamical masses M{sub 200c} of the clusters have been calculated using simulation-based scaling relations between velocity dispersion and mass. The sample has a median redshift z = 0.50 and a median mass M{sub 200c}{approx_equal}12 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} h{sub 70}{sup -1} M{sub sun} with a lower limit M{sub 200c}{approx_equal}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} h{sub 70}{sup -1} M{sub sun}, consistent with the expectations for the ACT southern sky survey. These masses are compared to the ACT SZE properties of the sample, specifically, the match-filtered central SZE amplitude y{sub 0}-tilde, the central Compton parameter y{sub 0}, and the integrated Compton signal Y{sub 200c}, which we use to derive SZE-mass scaling relations. All SZE estimators correlate with dynamical mass with low intrinsic scatter ({approx}< 20%), in agreement with numerical simulations. We explore the effects of various systematic effects on these scaling relations, including the correlation between observables and the influence of dynamically disturbed clusters. Using the three-dimensional information available, we divide the sample into relaxed and disturbed clusters and find that {approx}50% of the clusters are disturbed. There are hints that disturbed systems might bias the scaling relations, but given the current sample sizes, these differences are not significant; further studies including more clusters are required to assess the impact of these clusters on the scaling relations.

  5. The Chandra HelpDesk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, Elizabeth C.

    2008-03-01

    The Chandra X-ray Center (CXC) HelpDesk has answered hundreds of user questions over the course of the Chandra mission, ranging from basic syntax errors to advanced analysis questions. This talk gives an introduction to the HelpDesk system and staff, presents a sample of recent HelpDesk requests, and discusses how user-submitted questions improve the software and documentation.

  6. Cosmological Perturbation Theory to second order for curvature, density, and gravity waves on FRW background; and the WMAP results of inhomogeneity and clustering in the early universe

    CERN Document Server

    Patwardhan, Ajay; Kumar, M S R

    2008-01-01

    The second order perturbation calculations for gravity wave and Einstein equation for space time and matter are presented for the FRW metric cosmological model. While exact equations are found, suitable approximations are made to obtain definite results. In the gravity wave case the small wavelength case allows nearly locally flat background for obtaining a fit to the WMAP data. In the density and curvature case the FRW background is retained for the length scale of WMAP. Clustering and inhomogeneity are understood. The gravity wave ripples from Big Bang couple nonlinearly and redistribute the modes to higher values of 'l' giving consistency with the WMAP results. The order by order consistency of Einstein equations relate the second order perturbations in the curvature and density and the wrinkles in spacetime caused by the gravity wave modes reorganize these distributions. The radiation data of WMAP gives the picture of a FRW spacetime deformed and wrinkled consistent with matter distribution to one hundred...

  7. Discrete Newtonian Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Gibbons, Gary W

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we lay down the foundations for a purely Newtonian theory of cosmology, valid at scales small compared with the Hubble radius, using only Newtonian point particles acted on by gravity and a possible cosmological term. We describe the cosmological background which is given by an exact solution of the equations of motion in which the particles expand homothetically with their comoving positions constituting a central configuration. We point out, using previous work, that an important class of central configurations are homogeneous and isotropic, thus justifying the usual assumptions of elementary treatments. The scale factor is shown to satisfy the standard Raychaudhuri and Friedmann equations without making any fluid dynamic or continuum approximations. Since we make no commitment as to the identity of the point particles, our results are valid for cold dark matter, galaxies, or clusters of galaxies. In future publications we plan to discuss perturbations of our cosmological background from the p...

  8. Thermal and Shock Histories of Gas in Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Sarah; Nagai, D.; Wetzel, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    Galaxy clusters are the most recently formed cosmological objects in the universe, making them ideal for studying the interplay between cosmology and baryonic physics in structure formation. Understanding their formation and growth requires not only an understanding of the baryonic physics, but also the detailed dynamics of how gas accretes from cosmic filaments onto a cluster throughout its lifetime. One of the outstanding questions concerning galaxy clusters currently is the baryon deficit in their interior as well as non-equilibrium phenomena (such as turbulence and gas clumping) in the virialization regions. Recent X-ray and microwave observations have revealed detailed thermodynamic structure of the cluster hot gas from the core to their virial radii, making comparisons of gas accretion in simulations to observations a strong cosmological probe. In this work, we focus on quantifying gas accretion in non-radiative cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters, where the only significant changes in entropy will be due to shock heating. In order to track each gas element, we implemented a tracer particle module in the Adaptive Refinement Tree cosmological simulation code. By following the thermal histories of each tracer particle, we measure the Mach number of every shock the particle experienced and identify periods of significant shock-heating. Combining this with measurements of how the temperature distribution of regions of the halo change over time, we then investigate whether gas had significantly different histories based on whether they accrete straight from the cosmic background or by first accreting onto a subhalo, the change in accretion due to the mass of the final main halo, and the disruptive effect mergers have on the smooth accretion process. We discuss implications of our results for understanding recent deep Chandra X-ray observations of Abell 133 which revealed several unexpected structural features connected to its gas accretion, including a

  9. MASS CALIBRATION AND COSMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE SPT-SZ GALAXY CLUSTER SAMPLE USING VELOCITY DISPERSION σ {sub v} AND X-RAY Y {sub X} MEASUREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocquet, S.; Saro, A.; Mohr, J. J.; Bazin, G.; Chiu, I.; Desai, S. [Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 München (Germany); Aird, K. A. [University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Ashby, M. L. N.; Bayliss, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bautz, M. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Benson, B. A. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510-0500 (United States); Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Cho, H. M. [NIST Quantum Devices Group, 325 Broadway Mailcode 817.03, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Clocchiatti, A. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrosifica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica (Chile); De Haan, T., E-mail: bocquet@usm.lmu.de [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); and others

    2015-02-01

    We present a velocity-dispersion-based mass calibration of the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect survey (SPT-SZ) galaxy cluster sample. Using a homogeneously selected sample of 100 cluster candidates from 720 deg{sup 2} of the survey along with 63 velocity dispersion (σ {sub v}) and 16 X-ray Y {sub X} measurements of sample clusters, we simultaneously calibrate the mass-observable relation and constrain cosmological parameters. Our method accounts for cluster selection, cosmological sensitivity, and uncertainties in the mass calibrators. The calibrations using σ {sub v} and Y {sub X} are consistent at the 0.6σ level, with the σ {sub v} calibration preferring ∼16% higher masses. We use the full SPT{sub CL} data set (SZ clusters+σ {sub v}+Y {sub X}) to measure σ{sub 8}(Ω{sub m}/0.27){sup 0.3} = 0.809 ± 0.036 within a flat ΛCDM model. The SPT cluster abundance is lower than preferred by either the WMAP9 or Planck+WMAP9 polarization (WP) data, but assuming that the sum of the neutrino masses is ∑m {sub ν} = 0.06 eV, we find the data sets to be consistent at the 1.0σ level for WMAP9 and 1.5σ for Planck+WP. Allowing for larger ∑m {sub ν} further reconciles the results. When we combine the SPT{sub CL} and Planck+WP data sets with information from baryon acoustic oscillations and Type Ia supernovae, the preferred cluster masses are 1.9σ higher than the Y {sub X} calibration and 0.8σ higher than the σ {sub v} calibration. Given the scale of these shifts (∼44% and ∼23% in mass, respectively), we execute a goodness-of-fit test; it reveals no tension, indicating that the best-fit model provides an adequate description of the data. Using the multi-probe data set, we measure Ω{sub m} = 0.299 ± 0.009 and σ{sub 8} = 0.829 ± 0.011. Within a νCDM model we find ∑m {sub ν} = 0.148 ± 0.081 eV. We present a consistency test of the cosmic growth rate using SPT clusters. Allowing both the growth index γ and the dark energy equation

  10. Cluster-cluster clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J.; Dekel, A.; Efstathiou, G.; Frenk, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    The cluster correlation function xi sub c(r) is compared with the particle correlation function, xi(r) in cosmological N-body simulations with a wide range of initial conditions. The experiments include scale-free initial conditions, pancake models with a coherence length in the initial density field, and hybrid models. Three N-body techniques and two cluster-finding algorithms are used. In scale-free models with white noise initial conditions, xi sub c and xi are essentially identical. In scale-free models with more power on large scales, it is found that the amplitude of xi sub c increases with cluster richness; in this case the clusters give a biased estimate of the particle correlations. In the pancake and hybrid models (with n = 0 or 1), xi sub c is steeper than xi, but the cluster correlation length exceeds that of the points by less than a factor of 2, independent of cluster richness. Thus the high amplitude of xi sub c found in studies of rich clusters of galaxies is inconsistent with white noise and pancake models and may indicate a primordial fluctuation spectrum with substantial power on large scales.

  11. Cluster-cluster clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, J.; Dekel, A.; Efstathiou, G.; Frenk, C.S.

    1985-08-01

    The cluster correlation function xi sub c(r) is compared with the particle correlation function, xi(r) in cosmological N-body simulations with a wide range of initial conditions. The experiments include scale-free initial conditions, pancake models with a coherence length in the initial density field, and hybrid models. Three N-body techniques and two cluster-finding algorithms are used. In scale-free models with white noise initial conditions, xi sub c and xi are essentially identical. In scale-free models with more power on large scales, it is found that the amplitude of xi sub c increases with cluster richness; in this case the clusters give a biased estimate of the particle correlations. In the pancake and hybrid models (with n = 0 or 1), xi sub c is steeper than xi, but the cluster correlation length exceeds that of the points by less than a factor of 2, independent of cluster richness. Thus the high amplitude of xi sub c found in studies of rich clusters of galaxies is inconsistent with white noise and pancake models and may indicate a primordial fluctuation spectrum with substantial power on large scales. 30 references.

  12. Clustering, Cosmology and a New Era of Black Hole Demographics -- I. The Conditional Luminosity Function of Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Ballantyne, D R

    2016-01-01

    Deep X-ray surveys have provided a comprehensive and largely unbiased view of active galactic nuclei (AGN) evolution stretching back to $z \\sim 5$. However, it has been challenging to use the survey results to connect this evolution to the cosmological environment that AGNs inhabit. Exploring this connection will be crucial to understanding the triggering mechanisms of AGNs and how these processes manifest in observations at all wavelengths. In anticipation of upcoming wide-field X-ray surveys that will allow quantitative analysis of AGN environments, this paper presents a method to observationally constrain the Conditional Luminosity Function (CLF) of AGNs at a specific $z$. Once measured, the CLF allows the calculation of the AGN bias, mean dark matter halo mass, AGN lifetime, halo occupation number, and AGN correlation function -- all as a function of luminosity. The CLF can be constrained using a measurement of the X-ray luminosity function and the correlation length at different luminosities. The method ...

  13. The clustering of galaxies in the completed SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: cosmological analysis of the DR12 galaxy sample

    CERN Document Server

    Alam, Shadab; Bailey, Stephen; Beutler, Florian; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blazek, Jonathan A; Bolton, Adam S; Brownstein, Joel R; Burden, Angela; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Comparat, Johan; Cuesta, Antonio J; Dawson, Kyle S; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Escoffier, Stephanie; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Grieb, Jan Niklas; Hand, Nick; Ho, Shirley; Kinemuchi, Karen; Kirkby, David; Kitaura, Francisco; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Maraston, Claudia; McBride, Cameron K; Nichol, Robert C; Olmstead, Matthew D; Oravetz, Daniel; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Pan, Kaike; Pellejero-Ibanez, Marcos; Percival, Will J; Petitjean, Patrick; Prada, Francisco; Price-Whelan, Adrian M; Reid, Beth A; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio A; Roe, Natalie A; Ross, Ashley J; Ross, Nicholas P; Rossi, Graziano; Rubiño-Martín, Jose Alberto; Sánchez, Ariel G; Saito, Shun; Salazar-Albornoz, Salvador; Samushia, Lado; Satpathy, Siddharth; Scóccola, Claudia G; Schlegel, David J; Schneider, Donald P; Seo, Hee-Jong; Simmons, Audrey; Slosar, Anže; Strauss, Michael A; Swanson, Molly E C; Thomas, Daniel; Tinker, Jeremy L; Tojeiro, Rita; Magaña, Mariana Vargas; Vazquez, Jose Alberto; Verde, Licia; Wake, David A; Wang, Yuting; Weinberg, David H; White, Martin; Wood-Vasey, W Michael; Yèche, Christophe; Zehavi, Idit; Zhai, Zhongxu; Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2016-01-01

    We present cosmological results from the final galaxy clustering data set of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III. Our combined galaxy sample comprises 1.2 million massive galaxies over an effective area of 9329 deg^2 and volume of 18.7 Gpc^3, divided into three partially overlapping redshift slices centred at effective redshifts 0.38, 0.51, and 0.61. We measure the angular diameter distance DM and Hubble parameter H from the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) method after applying reconstruction to reduce non-linear effects on the BAO feature. Using the anisotropic clustering of the pre-reconstruction density field, we measure the product DM*H from the Alcock-Paczynski (AP) effect and the growth of structure, quantified by f{\\sigma}8(z), from redshift-space distortions (RSD). We combine measurements presented in seven companion papers into a set of consensus values and likelihoods, obtaining constraints that are tighter and more robust than those from any one m...

  14. CLASH-X: A Comparison of Lensing and X-ray Techniques for Measuring the Mass Profiles of Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Donahue, Megan; Mahdavi, Andisheh; Umetsu, Keiichi; Ettori, Stefano; Merten, Julian; Postman, Marc; Hoffer, Aaron; Baldi, Alessandro; Coe, Dan; Czakon, Nicole; Bartelmann, Mattias; Benitez, Narciso; Bouwens, Rychard; Bradley, Larry; Broadhurst, Tom; Ford, Holland; Gastaldello, Fabio; Grillo, Claudio; Infante, Leopoldo; Jouvel, Stephanie; Koekemoer, Anton; Kelson, Daniel; Lahav, Ofer; Lemze, Doron; Medezinski, Elinor; Melchior, Peter; Meneghetti, Massimo; Molino, Alberto; Moustakas, John; Moustakas, Leonidas A; Nonino, Mario; Rosati, Piero; Sayers, Jack; Seitz, Stella; Van der Wel, Arjen; Zheng, Wei; Zitrin, Adi

    2014-01-01

    We present profiles of temperature, gas mass, and hydrostatic mass estimated from X-ray observations of CLASH clusters. We compare measurements from XMM and Chandra and compare both sets to CLASH gravitational lensing mass profiles. We find that Chandra and XMM measurements of electron density and enclosed gas mass as functions of radius are nearly identical, indicating that any differences in hydrostatic masses inferred from X-ray observations arise from differences in gas-temperature estimates. Encouragingly, gas temperatures measured in clusters by XMM and Chandra are consistent with one another at ~100 kpc radii but XMM temperatures systematically decline relative to Chandra temperatures as the radius of the temperature measurement increases. One plausible reason for this trend is large-angle scattering of soft X-ray photons in excess of that amount expected from the standard XMM PSF correction. We present the CLASH-X mass-profile comparisons in the form of cosmology-independent and redshift-independent c...

  15. Observations of Distant Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Megan

    2004-01-01

    The is the proceedings and papers supported by the LTSA grant: Homer, D. J.\\& Donahue, M. 2003, in "The Emergence of Cosmic Structure": 13'h Astrophysics Conference Proceedings, Vol. 666,3 1 1-3 14, (AIP). Baumgartner, W. H., Loewenstein, M., Horner, D. J., Mushotzky, R. F. 2003, HEAD- AAS, 35.3503. Homer, D. J. , Donahue, M., Voit G. M. 2003, HEAD-AAS, 35.1309. Nowak, M. A., Smith, B., Donahue, M., Stocke, J. 2003, HEAD-AAS, 35.1316. Scott, D., Borys, C., Chapman, S. C., Donahue, M., Fahlman, G. G., Halpem, M. Newbury, P. 2002, AAS, 128.01. Jones, L. R. et al. 2002, A new era in cosmology, ASP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 283, p. 223 Donahue, M., Daly, R. A., Homer, D. J. 2003, ApJ, 584, 643, Constraints on the Cluster Environments and Hotspot magnetic field strengths for radio sources 3280 and 3254. Donahue, M., et al. 2003, ApJ, 598, 190. The mass, baryonic fraction, and x-ray temperature of the luminous, high-redshift cluster of galaxies MS045 1.6-0305 Perlman, E. S. et al. 2002, ApJS, 140, 256. Smith, B. J., Nowak, M., Donahue, M., Stocke, J. 2003, AJ, 126, 1763. Chandra Observations of the Interacting NGC44 10 Group of Galaxies. Postman, M., Lauer, T. R., Oegerle, W., Donahue, M. 2002, ApJ, 579, 93. The KPNO/deep-range cluster survey I. The catalog and space density of intermediate-redshift clusters. Molnar, S. M., Hughes, J. P., Donahue, M., Joy, M. 2002, ApJ, 573, L91, Chandra Observations of Unresolved X-Ray Sources around Two Clusters of Galaxies. Donahue, M., Mack, J., 2002 NewAR, 46, 155, HST NIcmos and WFPC2 observations of molecular hydrogen and dust around cooling flows. Koekemoer, A. M. et al. 2002 NewAR, 46, 149, Interactions between the A2597 central radio source and dense gas host galaxy. Donahue, M. et al. 2002 ApJ, 569,689, Distant cluster hunting II.

  16. The Cosmological Impact of Luminous TeV Blazars III: Implications for Galaxy Clusters and the Formation of Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2011-01-01

    A subset of blazars emit TeV gamma rays which annihilate and pair produce on the extragalactic background light. We have argued in Broderick et al. (2011, Paper I) that plasma beam instabilities can dissipate the pairs' energy locally. This heats the intergalactic medium and dramatically increases its entropy after redshift z~2, with important implications for structure formation: (1) This suggests a scenario for the origin of the cool core (CC)/non-cool core (NCC) bimodality in galaxy clusters and groups. Early forming galaxy groups are unaffected because they can efficiently radiate the additional entropy, developing a CC. However, late forming groups do not have sufficient time to cool before the entropy is gravitationally reprocessed through successive mergers - counteracting cooling and raising the core entropy further. Hence blazar heating works different than feedback by active galactic nuclei, which balances radiative cooling but is unable to transform CC into NCC clusters due to the weak coupling to ...

  17. Connecting magnetic fields from sub-galactic scale to clusters of galaxies and beyond with cosmological MHD simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolag, Klaus; Beck, Alexander M.; Arth, Alexander

    Using the MHD version of Gadget3 (Stasyszyn, Dolag & Beck 2013) and a model for the seeding of magnetic fields by supernovae (SN), we performed simulations of the evolution of the magnetic fields in galaxy clusters and study their effects on the heat transport within the intra cluster medium (ICM). This mechanism - where SN explosions during the assembly of galaxies provide magnetic seed fields - has been shown to reproduce the magnetic field in Milky Way-like galactic halos (Beck et al. 2013). The build up of the magnetic field at redshifts before z = 5 and the accordingly predicted rotation measure evolution are also in good agreement with current observations. Such magnetic fields present at high redshift are then transported out of the forming protogalaxies into the large-scale structure and pollute the ICM (in a similar fashion to metals transport). Here, complex velocity patterns, driven by the formation process of cosmic structures are further amplifying and distributing the magnetic fields. In galaxy clusters, the magnetic fields therefore get amplified to the observed μG level and produce the observed amplitude of rotation measures of several hundreds of rad/m2. We also demonstrate that heat conduction in such turbulent fields on average is equivalent to a suppression factor around 1/20th of the classical Spitzer value and in contrast to classical, isotropic heat transport leads to temperature structures within the ICM compatible with observations (Arth et al. 2014).

  18. The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hynes, Robert I.; Jonker, P.G.; Bassa, C. G.; Dieball, A.; Greiss, S.; Maccarone, T. J.; Nelemans, G.; Steeghs, D.; Torres, M. A. P.; Britt, C. T.; Clem, J. L.; Gossen, L.; Grindlay, J. E.; Groot, P.J.; Kuiper, L.; Kuulkers, E.; Mendez, M.; Mikles, V. J.; Ratti, E. M.; Rea, N.; van Haaften, L.; Wijnands, R.; in't Zand, J. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey (CGBS) is a shallow but wide survey of two approximately 6x1 degree strips of the Galactic Bulge about a degree above and below the plane. The survey by design targets regions where extinction and crowding are manageable and optical counterparts are accessible to de

  19. The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hynes, Robert I.; Jonker, P. G.; Bassa, C. G.; Nelemans, G.; Steeghs, D.; Torres, M. A. P.; Maccarone, T. J.; Greiss, S.; Clem, J.; Dieball, A.; Mikles, V. J.; Britt, C. T.; Gossen, L.; Collazzi, A. C.; Wijnands, R.; In't Zand, J. J. M.; Mendez, M.; Rea, N.; Kuulkers, E.; Ratti, E. M.; van Haaften, L. M.; Heinke, C.; Ozel, F.; Groot, P. J.; Verbunt, F.

    2012-01-01

    The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS) is a shallow but wide survey of two approximately 6x1 degree strips of the Galactic Bulge about a degree above and below the plane. The survey by design targets regions where extinction and crowding are manageable and optical counterparts are accessible to det

  20. Highlights and discoveries from the Chandra X-ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tananbaum, H.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Tucker, W.; Wilkes, B.; Edmonds, P.

    2014-06-01

    Within 40 years of the detection of the first extra-solar x-ray source in 1962, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has achieved an increase in sensitivity of 10 orders of magnitude, comparable to the gain in going from naked-eye observations to the most powerful optical telescopes over the past 400 years. Chandra is unique in its capabilities for producing sub-arcsecond x-ray images with 100-200 eV energy resolution for energies in the range 0.08 cosmic phenomena. The extended Chandra mission provides a long observing baseline with stable and well-calibrated instruments, enabling temporal studies over timescales from milliseconds to years. In this report we present a selection of highlights that illustrate how observations using Chandra, sometimes alone, but often in conjunction with other telescopes, have deepened, and in some instances revolutionized, our understanding of topics as diverse as protoplanetary nebulae; massive stars; supernova explosions; pulsar wind nebulae; the superfluid interior of neutron stars; accretion flows around black holes; the growth of supermassive black holes and their role in the regulation of star formation and growth of galaxies; impacts of collisions, mergers, and feedback on growth and evolution of groups and clusters of galaxies; and properties of dark matter and dark energy.

  1. SACS: Spitzer Archival Cluster Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Daniel

    by the MIR color selection targets a key epoch in cluster development, when star formation is shutting down and the galaxies are becoming passive. Massive clusters also distort space-time around them, creating powerful gravitational telescopes that lens the distant universe. This both allows detailed studies of the lensed objects with otherwise unachievable sensitivity, as well as provides a unique probe of the mass distribution in the lensing cluster. In terms of cosmology, clusters are the most massive structures in the universe, and their space density is sensitive to basic cosmological parameters. Clusters identified by this program will become a lasting legacy of Spitzer, providing exciting targets for Chandra, Hubble, James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), Astro-H, Athena, as well as future 30-m class ground-based telescopes (e.g., GMT, ELT, TMT). The upcoming large-scale, space-based surveys of eROSITA, Euclid, and WFIRST all have distant cluster studies as key scientific goals. Our proposed survey will provide new high redshift targets for those satellites, enabling unique, exciting multi-wavelength studies of the Spitzer-selected sample, as well as a training set to identify additional high-redshift clusters outside of the Spitzer footprint.

  2. The Chandra Deep Field-North Survey and the Cosmic X-ray Background

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, W N; Bauer, F E; Hornschemeier, A E

    2002-01-01

    Chandra has performed a 1.4 Ms survey centred on the Hubble Deep Field-North (HDF-N), probing the X-ray Universe 55-550 times deeper than was possible with pre-Chandra missions. We describe the detected point and extended X-ray sources and discuss their overall multiwavelength (optical, infrared, submillimeter, and radio) properties. Special attention is paid to the HDF-N X-ray sources, luminous infrared starburst galaxies, optically faint X-ray sources, and high-to-extreme redshift AGN. We also describe how stacking analyses have been used to probe the average X-ray emission properties of normal and starburst galaxies at cosmologically interesting distances. Finally, we discuss plans to extend the survey and argue that a 5-10 Ms Chandra survey would lay key groundwork for future missions such as XEUS and Generation-X.

  3. Improvements in the X-ray luminosity function and constraints on the Cosmological parameters from X-ray luminous clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Del Popolo, A; Lanzafame, G

    2010-01-01

    We show how to improve constraints on \\Omega_m, \\sigma_8, and the dark-energy equation-of-state parameter, w, obtained by Mantz et al. (2008) from measurements of the X-ray luminosity function of galaxy clusters, namely MACS, the local BCS and the REFLEX galaxy cluster samples with luminosities L> 3 \\times 10^{44} erg/s in the 0.1--2.4 keV band. To this aim, we use Tinker et al. (2008) mass function instead of Jenkins et al. (2001) and the M-L relationship obtained from Del Popolo (2002) and Del Popolo et al. (2005). Using the same methods and priors of Mantz et al. (2008), we find, for a \\Lambda$CDM universe, \\Omega_m=0.28^{+0.05}_{-0.04} and \\sigma_8=0.78^{+0.04}_{-0.05}$ while the result of Mantz et al. (2008) gives less tight constraints $\\Omega_m=0.28^{+0.11}_{-0.07}$ and \\sigma_8=0.78^{+0.11}_{-0.13}. In the case of a wCDM model, we find \\Omega_m=0.27^{+0.07}_{-0.06}, $\\sigma_8=0.81^{+0.05}_{-0.06}$ and $w=-1.3^{+0.3}_{-0.4}$, while in Mantz et al. (2008) they are again less tight \\Omega_m=0.24^{+0.15}_...

  4. Observational cosmology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, RH; Papantonopoulos, E

    2005-01-01

    I discuss the classical cosmological tests, i.e., angular size-redshift, flux-redshift, and galaxy number counts, in the light of the cosmology prescribed by the interpretation of the CMB anisotropies. The discussion is somewhat of a primer for physicists, with emphasis upon the possible systematic

  5. Imaginative Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Brandenberger, R H; Brandenberger, Robert H.; Magueijo, Joao

    1999-01-01

    We review a few off-the-beaten-track ideas in cosmology. They solve a variety of fundamental problems; also they are fun. We start with a description of non-singular dilaton cosmology. In these scenarios gravity is modified so that the Universe does not have a singular birth. We then present a variety of ideas mixing string theory and cosmology. These solve the cosmological problems usually solved by inflation, and furthermore shed light upon the issue of the number of dimensions of our Universe. We finally review several aspects of the varying speed of light theory. We show how the horizon, flatness, and cosmological constant problems may be solved in this scenario. We finally present a possible experimental test for a realization of this theory: a test in which the Supernovae results are to be combined with recent evidence for redshift dependence in the fine structure constant.

  6. CIAO: Chandra's data analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruscione, Antonella; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Allen, Glenn E.; Brickhouse, Nancy S.; Burke, Douglas J.; Davis, John E.; Durham, Nick; Elvis, Martin; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Harris, Daniel E.; Huenemoerder, David P.; Houck, John C.; Ishibashi, Bish; Karovska, Margarita; Nicastro, Fabrizio; Noble, Michael S.; Nowak, Michael A.; Primini, Frank A.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Smith, Randall K.; Wise, Michael

    2006-06-01

    The CIAO (Chandra Interactive Analysis of Observations) software package was first released in 1999 following the launch of the Chandra X-ray Observatory and is used by astronomers across the world to analyze Chandra data as well as data from other telescopes. From the earliest design discussions, CIAO was planned as a general-purpose scientific data analysis system optimized for X-ray astronomy, and consists mainly of command line tools (allowing easy pipelining and scripting) with a parameter-based interface layered on a flexible data manipulation I/O library. The same code is used for the standard Chandra archive pipeline, allowing users to recalibrate their data in a consistent way. We will discuss the lessons learned from the first six years of the software's evolution. Our initial approach to documentation evolved to concentrate on recipe-based "threads" which have proved very successful. A multi-dimensional abstract approach to data analysis has allowed new capabilities to be added while retaining existing interfaces. A key requirement for our community was interoperability with other data analysis systems, leading us to adopt standard file formats and an architecture which was as robust as possible to the input of foreign data files, as well as re-using a number of external libraries. We support users who are comfortable with coding themselves via a flexible user scripting paradigm, while the availability of tightly constrained pipeline programs are of benefit to less computationally-advanced users. As with other analysis systems, we have found that infrastructure maintenance and re-engineering is a necessary and significant ongoing effort and needs to be planned in to any long-lived astronomy software.

  7. Highlights and discoveries from the Chandra X-ray Observatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tananbaum, H; Weisskopf, M C; Tucker, W; Wilkes, B; Edmonds, P

    2014-06-01

    Within 40 years of the detection of the first extra-solar x-ray source in 1962, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has achieved an increase in sensitivity of 10 orders of magnitude, comparable to the gain in going from naked-eye observations to the most powerful optical telescopes over the past 400 years. Chandra is unique in its capabilities for producing sub-arcsecond x-ray images with 100-200 eV energy resolution for energies in the range 0.08 black holes; the growth of supermassive black holes and their role in the regulation of star formation and growth of galaxies; impacts of collisions, mergers, and feedback on growth and evolution of groups and clusters of galaxies; and properties of dark matter and dark energy.

  8. Investigating the velocity structure and X-ray observable properties of simulated galaxy clusters with PHOX

    CERN Document Server

    Biffi, Veronica; Boehringer, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Non-thermal motions in the intra-cluster medium (ICM) are believed to play a non-negligible role in the pressure support to the total gravitating mass of galaxy clusters. Future X-ray missions, such as ASTRO-H and ATHENA, will eventually allow us to directly detect the signature of these motions from high-resolution spectra of the ICM. In this paper, we present a study on a set of clusters extracted from a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation, devoted to explore the role of non-thermal velocity amplitude in characterising the cluster state and the relation between observed X-ray properties. In order to reach this goal, we apply the X-ray virtual telescope PHOX to generate synthetic observations of the simulated clusters with both Chandra and ATHENA, the latter used as an example for the performance of very high-resolution X-ray telescopes. From Chandra spectra we extract global properties, e.g. luminosity and temperature, and from ATHENA spectra we estimate the gas velocity dispersion along the line of sigh...

  9. Hamiltonian cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, M.

    1972-01-01

    The study of cosmological models by means of equations of motion in Hamiltonian form is considered. Hamiltonian methods applied to gravity seem to go back to Rosenfeld (1930), who constructed a quantum-mechanical Hamiltonian for linearized general relativity theory. The first to notice that cosmologies provided a simple model in which to demonstrate features of Hamiltonian formulation was DeWitt (1967). Applications of the ADM formalism to homogeneous cosmologies are discussed together with applications of the Hamiltonian formulation, giving attention also to Bianchi-type universes. Problems involving the concept of superspace and techniques of quantization are investigated.

  10. Clustering, cosmology and a new era of black hole demographics- II. The conditional luminosity functions of Type 2 and Type 1 active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, D. R.

    2017-01-01

    The orientation-based unification model of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) posits that the principle difference between obscured (Type 2) and unobscured (Type 1) AGNs is the line of sight into the central engine. If this model is correct then there should be no difference in many of the properties of AGN host galaxies (e.g. the mass of the surrounding dark matter haloes). However, recent clustering analyses of Type 1 and Type 2 AGNs have provided some evidence for a difference in the halo mass, in conflict with the orientation-based unified model. In this work, a method to compute the conditional luminosity function (CLF) of Type 2 and Type 1 AGNs is presented. The CLF allows many fundamental halo properties to be computed as a function of AGN luminosity, which we apply to the question of the host halo masses of Type 1 and 2 AGNs. By making use of the total AGN CLF, the Type 1 X-ray luminosity function, and the luminosity-dependent Type 2 AGN fraction, the CLFs of Type 1 and 2 AGNs are calculated at z ≈ 0 and 0.9. At both z, there is no statistically significant difference in the mean halo mass of Type 2 and 1 AGNs at any luminosity. There is marginal evidence that Type 1 AGNs may have larger halo masses than Type 2s, which would be consistent with an evolutionary picture where quasars are initially obscured and then subsequently reveal themselves as Type 1s. As the Type 1 lifetime is longer, the host halo will increase somewhat in mass during the Type 1 phase. The CLF technique will be a powerful way to study the properties of many AGNs subsets (e.g. radio-loud, Compton-thick) as future wide-area X-ray and optical surveys substantially increase our ability to place AGNs in their cosmological context.

  11. Clustering, Cosmology and a New Era of Black Hole Demographics - II. The Conditional Luminosity Functions of Type 2 and Type 1 Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, D. R.

    2016-09-01

    The orientation-based unification model of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) posits that the principle difference between obscured (Type 2) and unobscured (Type 1) AGNs is the line-of-sight into the central engine. If this model is correct than there should be no difference in many of the properties of AGN host galaxies (e.g., the mass of the surrounding dark matter haloes). However, recent clustering analyses of Type 1 and Type 2 AGNs have provided some evidence for a difference in the halo mass, in conflict with the orientation-based unified model. In this work, a method to compute the Conditional Luminosity Function (CLF) of Type 2 and Type 1 AGNs is presented. The CLF allows many fundamental halo properties to be computed as a function of AGN luminosity, which we apply to the question of the host halo masses of Type 1 and 2 AGNs. By making use of the total AGN CLF, the Type 1 X-ray luminosity function, and the luminosity-dependent Type 2 AGN fraction, the CLFs of Type 1 and 2 AGNs are calculated at z ≈ 0 and 0.9. At both z, there is no statistically significant difference in the mean halo mass of Type 2 and 1 AGNs at any luminosity. There is marginal evidence that Type 1 AGNs may have larger halo masses than Type 2s, which would be consistent with an evolutionary picture where quasars are initially obscured and then subsequently reveal themselves as Type 1s. As the Type 1 lifetime is longer, the host halo will increase somewhat in mass during the Type 1 phase. The CLF technique will be a powerful way to study the properties of many AGNs subsets (e.g., radio-loud, Compton-thick) as future wide-area X-ray and optical surveys substantially increase our ability to place AGNs in their cosmological context.

  12. Cosmological singularity

    CERN Document Server

    Belinski, V

    2009-01-01

    The talk at international conference in honor of Ya. B. Zeldovich 95th Anniversary, Minsk, Belarus, April 2009. The talk represents a review of the old results and contemporary development on the problem of cosmological singularity.

  13. Chandra Reviews Black Hole Musical: Epic But Off-Key

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    A gigantic sonic boom generated by a supermassive black hole has been found with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, along with evidence for a cacophony of deep sound. This discovery was made by using data from the longest X-ray observation ever of M87, a nearby giant elliptical galaxy. M87 is centrally located in the Virgo cluster of galaxies and is known to harbor one of the Universe's most massive black holes. Scientists detected loops and rings in the hot, X-ray emitting gas that permeates the cluster and surrounds the galaxy. These loops provide evidence for periodic eruptions that occurred near the supermassive black hole, and that generate changes in pressure, or pressure waves, in the cluster gas that manifested themselves as sound. Chandra Low Energy X-ray Images of M87 Chandra Low Energy X-ray Images of M87 "We can tell that many deep and different sounds have been rumbling through this cluster for most of the lifetime of the Universe," said William Forman of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). The outbursts in M87, which happen every few million years, prevent the huge reservoir of gas in the cluster from cooling and forming many new stars. Without these outbursts and resultant heating, M87 would not be the elliptical galaxy it is today. "If this black hole wasn't making all of this noise, M87 could have been a completely different type of galaxy," said team member Paul Nulsen, also of the CfA, "possibly a huge spiral galaxy about 30 times brighter than the Milky Way." Chandra High Energy X-ray Image of M87 Chandra High Energy X-ray Image of M87 The outbursts result when material falls toward the black hole. While most of the matter is swallowed, some of it was violently ejected in jets. These jets are launched from regions close to the black hole (neither light nor sound can escape from the black hole itself) and push into the cluster's gas, generating cavities and sound which then propagate outwards. Chandra's M87 observations also

  14. CosmicPy: Interactive cosmology computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanusse, Francois; Rassat, Anais; Starck, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    CosmicPy performs simple and interactive cosmology computations for forecasting cosmological parameters constraints; it computes tomographic and 3D Spherical Fourier-Bessel power spectra as well as Fisher matrices for galaxy clustering. Written in Python, it relies on a fast C++ implementation of Fourier-Bessel related computations, and requires NumPy, SciPy, and Matplotlib.

  15. Studying the Evolving Universe with XMM-Newton and Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Hasinger, G

    2003-01-01

    First indications of the warm/hot intergalactic medium, tracing out the large scale structure of the universe, have been obtained in sensitive Chandra and XMM-Newton high resolution absorption line spectroscopy of bright blazars. High resolution X-ray spectroscopy and imaging also provides important new constraints on the physical condition of the cooling matter in the centers of clusters, requiring major modifications to the standard cooling flow models. XMM-Newton and Chandra low resolution spectroscopy detected significant Fe K_alpha absorption features in the spectrum of the ultraluminous, high redshift lensed broad absorption line QSO APM 08279+5255, yielding new insights in the outflow geometry indicating a supersolar Fe/O ratio. Chandra high resolution imaging spectroscopy of the nearby ULIRG/obscured QSO NGC 6240 for the first time gave evidence of two active supermassive black holes in the same galaxy, likely bound to coalesce in the course of the ongoing major merger in this galaxy. Deep X-ray surve...

  16. Maximising the mileage from the Chandra podcasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcand, K. K.; Watzke, M.

    2008-06-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory captures X-ray images and measures spectra of many highenergy cosmic phenomena. There is a constant challenge to devise new and appropriate means to bring these potentially esoteric science results and concepts in a digestible way to the public. One of the ideas to address this challenge became the Chandra podcast.

  17. Cosmological principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesson, P.S.

    1979-10-01

    The Cosmological Principle states: the universe looks the same to all observers regardless of where they are located. To most astronomers today the Cosmological Principle means the universe looks the same to all observers because density of the galaxies is the same in all places. A new Cosmological Principle is proposed. It is called the Dimensional Cosmological Principle. It uses the properties of matter in the universe: density (rho), pressure (p), and mass (m) within some region of space of length (l). The laws of physics require incorporation of constants for gravity (G) and the speed of light (C). After combining the six parameters into dimensionless numbers, the best choices are: 8..pi..Gl/sup 2/ rho/c/sup 2/, 8..pi..Gl/sup 2/ rho/c/sup 4/, and 2 Gm/c/sup 2/l (the Schwarzchild factor). The Dimensional Cosmological Principal came about because old ideas conflicted with the rapidly-growing body of observational evidence indicating that galaxies in the universe have a clumpy rather than uniform distribution. (SC)

  18. Cosmological simulations using GCMHD+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, David J.; Kawata, Daisuke; Wu, Kinwah

    2012-03-01

    Radio observations of galaxy clusters show that the intracluster medium is permeated by ? magnetic fields. The origin and evolution of these cosmological magnetic fields is currently not well understood, and so their impact on the dynamics of structure formation is not known. Numerical simulations are required to gain a greater understanding and produce predictions for the next generation of radio telescopes. We present the galactic chemodynamics smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics (SPMHD) code (GCMHD+), which is an MHD implementation for the cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics code GCD+. The results of 1D, 2D and 3D tests are presented and the performance of the code is shown relative to the ATHENA grid code. GCMHD+ shows good agreement with the reference solutions produced by ATHENA. The code is then used to simulate the formation of a galaxy cluster with a simple primordial magnetic field embedded in the gas. A homogeneous seed field of 3.5 × 10-11 G is amplified by a factor of 103 during the formation of the cluster. The results show good agreement with the profiles found in other magnetic cluster simulations of similar resolution.

  19. Chandra Observations of Starburst Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestwich, Andrea; Lavoie, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We present early X-ray results from Chandra for two starburst galaxies, M82 and NGC3256, obtained using AXAF CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS-I) and the HRC. For M82 the arcsecond spatial resolution enables us to separate the point source component from the extended emission for the first time. Astrometry reveals that most of the X-ray sources are not coincident with the family of compact radio sources believed to be Super Nova Remnants (SNRs). In addition, based on three epoch Chandra observations, several of the X-ray sources are clearly variable indicating that they are binaries. When we deconvolve the extended and point source components detected in the hard X-ray band, we find that 50 percent arises from the extended component. This fact, together with its morphology, constrains the various models proposed to explain the hard X-ray emission. For NGC3256 we resolve two closely separated nuclei. These new data support a pure starburst origin for the total X-ray emission rather than a composite AGN/starburst, thereby making NGC3256 one of the most X-ray luminous starburst galaxies known.

  20. MPS/CAS Partner Group on Cosmology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Yipeng; Gerhard B(o)rner

    2004-01-01

    @@ The Partner Group does research in cosmology, focussing on the quantitative modeling of the structure and evolution of galaxies and galaxy clusters, the pattern of galaxies and of larger structures.

  1. Dimensionless cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Narimani, Ali; Scott, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Although it is possible that some fundamental physical constants could vary in time, it is important to only consider dimensionless combinations, such as the fine structure constant or the equivalent coupling constant for gravity. Once all such dimensionless numbers have been given, then we can be sure that our cosmological picture is governed by the same physical laws as that of another civilization with an entirely different set of units. An additional feature of the standard model of cosmology raises an extra complication, namely that the epoch at which we live is a crucial part of the model. This can be defined by giving the value of any one of the evolving cosmological parameters. It takes some care to avoid inconsistent results for constraints on variable constants, which could be caused by effectively fixing more than one parameter today. We show examples of this effect by considering in some detail the physics of Big Bang nucleosynthesis, recombination and microwave background anisotropies, being care...

  2. Deconstructing cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    The advent of sensitive high-resolution observations of the cosmic microwave background radiation and their successful interpretation in terms of the standard cosmological model has led to great confidence in this model's reality. The prevailing attitude is that we now understand the Universe and need only work out the details. In this book, Sanders traces the development and successes of Lambda-CDM, and argues that this triumphalism may be premature. The model's two major components, dark energy and dark matter, have the character of the pre-twentieth-century luminiferous aether. While there is astronomical evidence for these hypothetical fluids, their enigmatic properties call into question our assumptions of the universality of locally determined physical law. Sanders explains how modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) is a significant challenge for cold dark matter. Overall, the message is hopeful: the field of cosmology has not become frozen, and there is much fundamental work ahead for tomorrow's cosmologis...

  3. Cosmological bootstrap

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, V V

    2012-01-01

    A huge value of cosmological constant characteristic for the particle physics and the inflation of early Universe are inherently related to each other: one can construct a fine-tuned superpotential, which produces a flat potential of inflaton with a constant density of energy V=\\Lambda^4 after taking into account for leading effects due to the supergravity, so that an introduction of small quantum loop-corrections to parameters of this superpotential naturally results in the dynamical instability relaxing the primary cosmological constant by means of inflationary regime. The model phenomenologically agrees with observational data on the large scale structure of Universe at \\Lambda~10^{16} GeV.

  4. Dark Matter and Baryons in the Most X-ray Luminous and Merging Galaxy Cluster RX J1347.5-1145

    CERN Document Server

    Bradac, Marusa; Erben, Thomas; McCourt, Michael; Million, Evan; Mantz, Adam; Allen, Steve; Blandford, Roger; Halkola, Aleksi; Hildebrand, Hendrik; Lombardi, Marco; Marshall, Phil; Schneider, Peter; Treu, Tommaso; Kneib, Jean-Paul

    2007-01-01

    The galaxy cluster RX J1347-1145 is one of the most X-ray luminous and most massive clusters known. Its extreme mass makes it a prime target for studying issues addressing cluster formation and cosmology. In this paper we present new high-resolution HST/ACS and Chandra X-ray data. The high resolution and sensitivity of ACS enabled us to detect and quantify several new multiply imaged sources, we now use a total of eight for the strong lensing analysis. Combining this information with shape measurements of weak lensing sources in the central regions of the cluster, we derive a high-resolution, absolutely-calibrated mass map. This map provides the best available quantification of the total mass of the central part of the cluster to date. We compare the reconstructed mass with that inferred from the new Chandra X-ray data, and conclude that both mass estimates agree extremely well in the observed region, namely within 400 / h_70 kpc of the cluster center. In addition we study the major baryonic components (gas a...

  5. Axion Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, David J E

    2015-01-01

    Axions comprise a broad class of particles that can play a major role in explaining the unknown aspects of cosmology. They are also extraordinarily well-motivated within high energy physics, and so axion cosmology offers us a unique view onto these theories. I present a comprehensive and pedagogical view on the cosmology and astrophysics of axion-like particles, starting from inflation and progressing via the CMB and structure formation up to the present-day Universe. I briefly review the motivation and models for axions in particle physics and string theory. The primary focus is on the population of ultralight axions created via vacuum realignment, and its role as a dark matter (DM) candidate with distinctive phenomenology. Cosmological observations place robust constraints on the axion mass and relic density in this scenario, and I review where such constraints come from. I next cover aspects of galaxy formation with axion DM, and ways this can be used to further search for evidence of axions. An absolute l...

  6. The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, C. T.; Hynes, R. I.; Jonker, P. G.; Maccarone, T.; Torres, M. A. P.; Steeghs, D.; Nelemans, G.; Johnson, C.; Greiss, S.

    2015-05-01

    The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS) is a multi-wavelength survey of two 6×1 degree strips above and below the Galactic plane, including deep r' and i' imaging and time domain photometry from CTIO and shallow, wide-field X-ray imaging with Chandra. Targeting fields above |b|=1 avoids most of the copious extinction along the Galactic plane while maintaining high source density. This results in targets that are accessible to follow up in optical and NIR wavelengths. The X-ray observations are shallow to maximize the number of quiescent Low Mass X-ray Binaries (LMXBs) relative to Cataclysmic Variables (CVs). The goals of the GBS are to conduct a census of Low Mass X-ray Binaries in the Milky Way in order to constrain models of binary evolution, the common envelope phase in particular, and to expand the number of known LMXBs for optical follow up. Mass measurements in particular will help constrain the black hole (BH) mass distribution and the equation of state for neutron stars (NS). Constraining the BH mass distribution will constrain models of their formation in supernovae. The current population of Galactic BHs suffers from selection effects, which the GBS avoids by finding new objects while still in quiescence. We expect to find qLMXBs, magnetic CVs, RS CVn stars, and smaller numbers of other types of sources. After removing duplicates, there are 1640 unique X-ray sources in the 12 square degree survey area, which closely matches the predicted number of 1648. We are currently matching X-ray sources to counterparts in other wavelengths using new photometric and spectroscopic observations as well as in archival data where it exists, and searching for variability and periodicity in the counterparts in photometric data. So far, we have spectroscopically identified 27 interacting binaries including promising candidates for quiescent black holes.

  7. Cosmological Simulations using GCMHD+

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, David J; Wu, Kinwah

    2011-01-01

    Radio observations of galaxy clusters show that the intra cluster medium is permeated by \\mu G magnetic fields. The origin and evolution of these cosmological magnetic fields is currently not well understood and so their impact on the dynamics of structure formation is not known. Numerical simulations are required to gain a greater understanding and produce predictions for the next generation of radio telescopes. We present the galactic chemodynamics smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamic (SPMHD) code (GCMHD+), which is an MHD implementation for the cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamic code GCD+. The results of 1, 2 and 3 dimensional tests are presented and the performance of the code is shown relative to the ATHENA grid code. GCMHD+ shows good agreement with the reference solutions produced by ATHENA. The code is then used to simulate the formation of a galaxy cluster with a simple primordial magnetic field embedded in the gas. A homogeneous seed field of 10^-11 G is amplified by a factor of 10^3 durin...

  8. Weak lensing study of 16 DAFT/FADA clusters: Substructures and filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinet, Nicolas; Clowe, Douglas; Durret, Florence; Adami, Christophe; Acebrón, Ana; Hernandez-García, Lorena; Márquez, Isabel; Guennou, Loic; Sarron, Florian; Ulmer, Mel

    2016-05-01

    While our current cosmological model places galaxy clusters at the nodes of a filament network (the cosmic web), we still struggle to detect these filaments at high redshifts. We perform a weak lensing study for a sample of 16 massive, medium-high redshift (0.4 detection with noise resampling techniques. Taking advantage of the large field of view of our data, we study cluster environment, adding information from galaxy density maps at the cluster redshift and from X-ray images when available. We find that clusters show a large variety of weak lensing maps at large scales and that they may all be embedded in filamentary structures at megaparsec scale. We classify these clusters in three categories according to the smoothness of their weak lensing contours and to the amount of substructures: relaxed (~7%), past mergers (~21.5%), and recent or present mergers (~71.5%). The fraction of clusters undergoing merging events observationally supports the hierarchical scenario of cluster growth, and implies that massive clusters are strongly evolving at the studied redshifts. Finally, we report the detection of unusually elongated structures in CLJ0152, MACSJ0454, MACSJ0717, A851, BMW1226, MACSJ1621, and MS1621. This study is based on observations obtained with MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/IRFU, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. The study is also based on archive data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. This research made use of data obtained from the Chandra Data Archive provided by the Chandra X-ray Center (CXC) and data obtained from the XMM-Newton Data Archive provided by the XMM-Newton Science Archive (XSA).

  9. Axion cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, David J. E.

    2016-07-01

    Axions comprise a broad class of particles that can play a major role in explaining the unknown aspects of cosmology. They are also well-motivated within high energy physics, appearing in theories related to CP-violation in the standard model, supersymmetric theories, and theories with extra-dimensions, including string theory, and so axion cosmology offers us a unique view onto these theories. I review the motivation and models for axions in particle physics and string theory. I then present a comprehensive and pedagogical view on the cosmology and astrophysics of axion-like particles, starting from inflation and progressing via BBN, the CMB, reionization and structure formation, up to the present-day Universe. Topics covered include: axion dark matter (DM); direct and indirect detection of axions, reviewing existing and future experiments; axions as dark radiation; axions and the cosmological constant problem; decays of heavy axions; axions and stellar astrophysics; black hole superradiance; axions and astrophysical magnetic fields; axion inflation, and axion DM as an indirect probe of inflation. A major focus is on the population of ultralight axions created via vacuum realignment, and its role as a DM candidate with distinctive phenomenology. Cosmological observations place robust constraints on the axion mass and relic density in this scenario, and I review where such constraints come from. I next cover aspects of galaxy formation with axion DM, and ways this can be used to further search for evidence of axions. An absolute lower bound on DM particle mass is established. It is ma > 10-24eV from linear observables, extending to ma ≳ 10-22eV from non-linear observables, and has the potential to reach ma ≳ 10-18eV in the future. These bounds are weaker if the axion is not all of the DM, giving rise to limits on the relic density at low mass. This leads to the exciting possibility that the effects of axion DM on structure formation could one day be detected

  10. Superstring cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Enrique

    1985-01-01

    Some cosmological consequences of the assumption that superstrings are more fundamental objects than ordinary local quantum fields are examined. We study, in particular, the dependence of both the string tension and the temperature of the primordial string soup on cosmic time. A particular scenario is proposed in which the universe undergoes a contracting ``string phase'' before the ordinary ``big bang,'' which according to this picture is nothing but the outcome of the transition from nonlocal to local fundamental physics.

  11. Dionysian cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Neves, J C S

    2015-01-01

    In the Nietzschean philosophy, the concept of force from physics is important to build one of its main concepts: the will to power. The concept of force, which Nietzsche found out in the Classical Mechanics, almost disappears in the physics of the XX century with the Quantum Field Theory and General Relativity. Is the Nietzschean world as contending forces, a Dionysian cosmology, possible in the current science?

  12. CLASH-X: A comparison of lensing and X-ray techniques for measuring the mass profiles of galaxy clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donahue, Megan; Voit, G. Mark; Hoffer, Aaron; Baldi, Alessandro [Physics and Astronomy Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Mahdavi, Andisheh [San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Umetsu, Keiichi; Czakon, Nicole [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Ettori, Stefano [INFN, Sezione di Bologna, viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Merten, Julian [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Postman, Marc; Coe, Dan; Bradley, Larry [STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bartelmann, Mattias [Universität Heidelberg, Zentrum für Astronomie, Philosophenweg 12, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Benitez, Narciso [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), C/Camino Bajo de Huétor 24, Granada E-18008 (Spain); Bouwens, Rychard [Leiden Observatories, Niels Bohrweb 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Broadhurst, Tom [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of the Basque Country, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Ford, Holland [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gastaldello, Fabio [INAF-IASF, via Bassini 15, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Grillo, Claudio [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Infante, Leopoldo, E-mail: donahue@pa.msu.edu [Dept Astronomía-Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, 22 Santiago (Chile); and others

    2014-10-20

    We present profiles of temperature, gas mass, and hydrostatic mass estimated from new and archival X-ray observations of CLASH clusters. We compare measurements derived from XMM and Chandra observations with one another and compare both to gravitational lensing mass profiles derived with CLASH Hubble Space Telescope and Subaru Telescope lensing data. Radial profiles of Chandra and XMM measurements of electron density and enclosed gas mass are nearly identical, indicating that differences in hydrostatic masses inferred from X-ray observations arise from differences in gas-temperature measurements. Encouragingly, gas temperatures measured in clusters by XMM and Chandra are consistent with one another at ∼100-200 kpc radii, but XMM temperatures systematically decline relative to Chandra temperatures at larger radii. The angular dependence of the discrepancy suggests that additional investigation on systematics such as the XMM point-spread function correction, vignetting, and off-axis responses is yet required. We present the CLASH-X mass-profile comparisons in the form of cosmology-independent and redshift-independent circular-velocity profiles. We argue that comparisons of circular-velocity profiles are the most robust way to assess mass bias. Ratios of Chandra hydrostatic equilibrium (HSE) mass profiles to CLASH lensing profiles show no obvious radial dependence in the 0.3-0.8 Mpc range. However, the mean mass biases inferred from the weak-lensing (WL) and SaWLens data are different. As an example, the weighted-mean value at 0.5 Mpc is (b) = 0.12 for the WL comparison and (b) = –0.11 for the SaWLens comparison. The ratios of XMM HSE mass profiles to CLASH lensing profiles show a pronounced radial dependence in the 0.3-1.0 Mpc range, with a weighted mean mass bias value rising to (b) ≳ 0.3 at ∼1 Mpc for the WL comparison and (b) ≈ 0.25 for the SaWLens comparison. The enclosed gas mass profiles from both Chandra and XMM rise to a value ≈1/8 times the total

  13. Goldstone Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Brax, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    We investigate scalar-tensor theories where matter couples to the scalar field via a kinetically dependent conformal coupling. These models can be seen as the low-energy description of invariant field theories under a global Abelian symmetry. The scalar field is then identified with the Goldstone mode of the broken symmetry. It turns out that the properties of these models are very similar to the ones of ultralocal theories where the scalar-field value is directly determined by the local matter density. This leads to a complete screening of the fifth force in the Solar System and between compact objects, through the ultralocal screening mechanism. On the other hand, the fifth force can have large effects in extended structures with large-scale density gradients, such as galactic halos. Interestingly, it can either amplify or damp Newtonian gravity, depending on the model parameters. We also study the background cosmology and the linear cosmological perturbations. The background cosmology is hardly different f...

  14. Simulating HST observations of strong lensing clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghetti, Massimo

    2014-10-01

    The Frontier Fields {FF} are using galaxy cluster gravitational lensing to boost the powers of Hubble and Spitzer to reveal the faintest galaxies yet observed. Accurate gravitational lensing models with uncertainty estimates are required to study some of the physical parameters of the lensed galaxies. Simulated HST observations of lensing clusters with known mass distributions are ideal to determine the accuracies of these modeling methods. Our team has begun performing these tests, demonstrating that integrated quantities such as lensed number counts are accurately recovered, enabling luminosity functions to be constrained. We have also begun to quantify magnification uncertainties for individual galaxies, but additional tests are needed. Here we propose to create a set of simulated osbervations of clusters selected to be analogs of the CLASH and FF clusters. They will include lensing effects and they will be delivered to the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes as a legacy product for others to analyze. They will be usable to extend our tests for robustly determine the accuracies in model magnification and mass measurements. Mass uncertainties will be a key ingredient in efforts to use galaxy clusters to constrain cosmology and theories of structure formation. Results from this program will also be useful to improve lens modeling methods toward more optimal use of the large numbers of lensing constraints available in deep FF imaging. This program will help astronomers realize the full potential of the large investments of Hubble, Spitzer, Chandra, and ground-based observing time in the FF, CLASH, and other past and future cluster lensing observations.

  15. Religion, theology and cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T. Fitzgerald

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cosmology is one of the predominant research areas of the contemporary world. Advances in modern cosmology have prompted renewed interest in the intersections between religion, theology and cosmology. This article, which is intended as a brief introduction to the series of studies on theological cosmology in this journal, identifies three general areas of theological interest stemming from the modern scientific study of cosmology: contemporary theology and ethics; cosmology and world religions; and ancient cosmologies. These intersections raise important questions about the relationship of religion and cosmology, which has recently been addressed by William Scott Green and is the focus of the final portion of the article.

  16. Quantum Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Bojowald, Martin

    1999-01-01

    A complete model of the universe needs at least three parts: (1) a complete set of physical variables and dynamical laws for them, (2) the correct solution of the dynamical laws, and (3) the connection with conscious experience. In quantum cosmology, item (2) is the quantum state of the cosmos. Hartle and Hawking have made the `no-boundary' proposal, that the wavefunction of the universe is given by a path integral over all compact Euclidean 4-dimensional geometries and matter fields that hav...

  17. Chemical cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Boeyens, Jan CA

    2010-01-01

    The composition of the most remote objects brought into view by the Hubble telescope can no longer be reconciled with the nucleogenesis of standard cosmology and the alternative explanation, in terms of the LAMBDA-Cold-Dark-Matter model, has no recognizable chemical basis. A more rational scheme, based on the chemistry and periodicity of atomic matter, opens up an exciting new interpretation of the cosmos in terms of projective geometry and general relativity. The response of atomic structure to environmental pressure predicts non-Doppler cosmical redshifts and equilibrium nucleogenesis by alp

  18. Rastall cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Fabris, J C; Rodrigues, D C; Batista, C E M; Daouda, M H

    2012-01-01

    We review the difficulties of the generalized Chaplygin gas model to fit observational data, due to the tension between background and perturbative tests. We argue that such issues may be circumvented by means of a self-interacting scalar field representation of the model. However, this proposal seems to be successful only if the self-interacting scalar field has a non-canonical form. The latter can be implemented in Rastall's theory of gravity, which is based on a modification of the usual matter conservation law. We show that, besides its application to the generalized Chaplygin gas model, other cosmological models based on Rastall's theory have many interesting and unexpected new features.

  19. Cosmological tests of modified gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Kazuya

    2016-04-01

    We review recent progress in the construction of modified gravity models as alternatives to dark energy as well as the development of cosmological tests of gravity. Einstein’s theory of general relativity (GR) has been tested accurately within the local universe i.e. the Solar System, but this leaves the possibility open that it is not a good description of gravity at the largest scales in the Universe. This being said, the standard model of cosmology assumes GR on all scales. In 1998, astronomers made the surprising discovery that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, not slowing down. This late-time acceleration of the Universe has become the most challenging problem in theoretical physics. Within the framework of GR, the acceleration would originate from an unknown dark energy. Alternatively, it could be that there is no dark energy and GR itself is in error on cosmological scales. In this review, we first give an overview of recent developments in modified gravity theories including f(R) gravity, braneworld gravity, Horndeski theory and massive/bigravity theory. We then focus on common properties these models share, such as screening mechanisms they use to evade the stringent Solar System tests. Once armed with a theoretical knowledge of modified gravity models, we move on to discuss how we can test modifications of gravity on cosmological scales. We present tests of gravity using linear cosmological perturbations and review the latest constraints on deviations from the standard Λ CDM model. Since screening mechanisms leave distinct signatures in the non-linear structure formation, we also review novel astrophysical tests of gravity using clusters, dwarf galaxies and stars. The last decade has seen a number of new constraints placed on gravity from astrophysical to cosmological scales. Thanks to on-going and future surveys, cosmological tests of gravity will enjoy another, possibly even more, exciting ten years.

  20. Biased total mass of cool core galaxy clusters by Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Conte, A; Comis, B; Lamagna, L; De Gregori, S

    2010-01-01

    The Sunyaev Zel'dovich (SZ) effect is one of the most powerful cosmological tools to investigate the large-scale Universe, in which clusters of galaxies are the most interesting target. The great advantage of the SZ effect of being redshift independent, in contrast with visible and X-ray observations, allows to directly estimate cluster total mass from the integrated comptonization parameter Y, even for faraway clusters. However, the lack of a complete knowledge of the Intra-Cluster gas (ICg) physics can affect the results. Taking into account self-similar temperature and density profiles of the ICg, we study how different ICg morphologies can affect the cluster total mass estimation. Due to the large percentage of cool core (CC) clusters, we analyze this class starting with a limited sample of eight objects, observed by Chandra. We simulate SZ observations of these clusters through X-ray derived information, and re-analyze the mock SZ data with the simplistic assumption for the ICg of an isothermal beta mode...

  1. Coasting cosmologies with time dependent cosmological constant

    CERN Document Server

    Pimentel, L O; Pimentel, Luis O.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of a time dependent cosmological constant is considered in a family of scalar tensor theories. Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological models for vacumm and perfect fluid matter are found. They have a linear expansion factor, the so called coasting cosmology, the gravitational "constant" decreace inversely with time; this model satisfy the Dirac hipotesis. The cosmological "constant" decreace inversely with the square of time, therefore we can have a very small value for it at present time.

  2. Fermionic cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chimento, L P; Forte, M [Physics Department, UBA, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Devecchi, F P; Kremer, G M; Ribas, M O; Samojeden, L L, E-mail: kremer@fisica.ufpr.br, E-mail: devecchi@fisica.ufpr.br, E-mail: chimento@df.uba.ar [Physics Department, UFPR, 81531-990 Curitiba (Brazil)

    2011-07-08

    In this work we review if fermionic sources could be responsible for accelerated periods during the evolution of a FRW universe. In a first attempt, besides the fermionic source, a matter constituent would answer for the decelerated periods. The coupled differential equations that emerge from the field equations are integrated numerically. The self-interaction potential of the fermionic field is considered as a function of the scalar and pseudo-scalar invariants. It is shown that the fermionic field could behave like an inflaton field in the early universe, giving place to a transition to a matter dominated (decelerated) period. In a second formulation we turn our attention to analytical results, specifically using the idea of form-invariance transformations. These transformations can be used for obtaining accelerated cosmologies starting with conventional cosmological models. Here we reconsider the scalar field case and extend the discussion to fermionic fields. Finally we investigate the role of a Dirac field in a Brans-Dicke (BD) context. The results show that this source, in combination with the BD scalar, promote a final eternal accelerated era, after a matter dominated period.

  3. Symmetron Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Hinterbichler, Kurt; Levy, Aaron; Matas, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The symmetron is a scalar field associated with the dark sector whose coupling to matter depends on the ambient matter density. The symmetron is decoupled and screened in regions of high density, thereby satisfying local constraints from tests of gravity, but couples with gravitational strength in regions of low density, such as the cosmos. In this paper we derive the cosmological expansion history in the presence of a symmetron field, tracking the evolution through the inflationary, radiation- and matter-dominated epochs, using a combination of analytical approximations and numerical integration. For a broad range of initial conditions at the onset of inflation, the scalar field reaches its symmetry-breaking vacuum by the present epoch, as assumed in the local analysis of spherically-symmetric solutions and tests of gravity. For the simplest form of the potential, the energy scale is too small for the symmetron to act as dark energy, hence we must add a cosmological constant to drive late-time cosmic acceler...

  4. Cascading Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Nishant; Khoury, Justin; Trodden, Mark

    2009-01-01

    We develop a fully covariant, well-posed 5D effective action for the 6D cascading gravity brane-world model, and use this to study cosmological solutions. We obtain this effective action through the 6D decoupling limit, in which an additional scalar degree mode, \\pi, called the brane-bending mode, determines the bulk-brane gravitational interaction. The 5D action obtained this way inherits from the sixth dimension an extra \\pi self-interaction kinetic term. We compute appropriate boundary terms, to supplement the 5D action, and hence derive fully covariant junction conditions and the 5D Einstein field equations. Using these, we derive the cosmological evolution induced on a 3-brane moving in a static bulk. We study the strong- and weak-coupling regimes analytically in this static ansatz, and perform a complete numerical analysis of our solution. Although the cascading model can generate an accelerating solution in which the \\pi field comes to dominate at late times, the presence of a critical singularity prev...

  5. Newtonian cosmology - Problems of cosmological didactics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skarzynski, E.

    1983-03-01

    The article presents different methods of model construction in Newtonian cosmology. Newtonian cosmology is very convenient for discussion of local problems, so the problems presented are of great didactic importance. The constant k receives a new interpretation in relativistic cosmology as the curvature of the space in consequence of the greater informational capacity of Riemann space in comparison to Euclidean space. 11 references.

  6. Formation and Assembly of Massive Star Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Stephen

    The formation of stars and star clusters is a major unresolved problem in astrophysics. It is central to modeling stellar populations and understanding galaxy luminosity distributions in cosmological models. Young massive clusters are major components of starburst galaxies, while globular clusters are cornerstones of the cosmic distance scale and represent vital laboratories for studies of stellar dynamics and stellar evolution. Yet how these clusters form and how rapidly and efficiently they expel their natal gas remain unclear, as do the consequences of this gas expulsion for cluster structure and survival. Also unclear is how the properties of low-mass clusters, which form from small-scale instabilities in galactic disks and inform much of our understanding of cluster formation and star-formation efficiency, differ from those of more massive clusters, which probably formed in starburst events driven by fast accretion at high redshift, or colliding gas flows in merging galaxies. Modeling cluster formation requires simulating many simultaneous physical processes, placing stringent demands on both software and hardware. Simulations of galaxies evolving in cosmological contexts usually lack the numerical resolution to simulate star formation in detail. They do not include detailed treatments of important physical effects such as magnetic fields, radiation pressure, ionization, and supernova feedback. Simulations of smaller clusters include these effects, but fall far short of the mass of even single young globular clusters. With major advances in computing power and software, we can now directly address this problem. We propose to model the formation of massive star clusters by integrating the FLASH adaptive mesh refinement magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code into the Astrophysical Multi-purpose Software Environment (AMUSE) framework, to work with existing stellar-dynamical and stellar evolution modules in AMUSE. All software will be freely distributed on-line, allowing

  7. How Much Can We Learn From A Merging Cold Front Cluster? : Insights From X-ray Temperature and Radio Maps of Abell 3667

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, Abhirup; Burns, Jack O; Skillman, Samuel W; Hallman, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    The galaxy cluster Abell 3667 is an ideal laboratory to study the plasma processes in the intracluster medium (ICM). High resolution Chandra X-ray observations show a cold front in Abell 3667. At radio wavelengths, Abell 3667 reveals a double radio-relic feature in the outskirts of the cluster. These suggest multiple merger events in this cluster. In this paper, we analyze the substantial archival X-ray observations of Abell 3667 from ChandraX-ray Observatory and compare these with existing radio observations as well as state-of-the-art AMR (Adaptive Mesh Refinement) MHD cosmological simulations using Enzo. We have used two temperature map making techniques, Weighted Voronoi Tessellation and Adaptive Circular Binning, to produce the high resolution and largest field-of-view temperature maps of Abell 3667. These high fidelity temperature maps allow us to study the X-ray shocks in the cluster using a new 2-dimensional shock-finding algorithm. We have also estimated the Mach numbers from the shocks inferred from...

  8. A natural cosmological constant from chameleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nastase, Horatiu, E-mail: nastase@ift.unesp.br [Instituto de Física Teórica, UNESP-Universidade Estadual Paulista, R. Dr. Bento T. Ferraz 271, Bl. II, Sao Paulo 01140-070, SP (Brazil); Weltman, Amanda, E-mail: amanda.weltman@uct.ac.za [Astrophysics, Cosmology & Gravity Center, Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7700 (South Africa)

    2015-07-30

    We present a simple model where the effective cosmological constant appears from chameleon scalar fields. For a Kachru–Kallosh–Linde–Trivedi (KKLT)-inspired form of the potential and a particular chameleon coupling to the local density, patches of approximately constant scalar field potential cluster around regions of matter with density above a certain value, generating the effect of a cosmological constant on large scales. This construction addresses both the cosmological constant problem (why Λ is so small, yet nonzero) and the coincidence problem (why Λ is comparable to the matter density now)

  9. A natural cosmological constant from chameleons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horatiu Nastase

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple model where the effective cosmological constant appears from chameleon scalar fields. For a Kachru–Kallosh–Linde–Trivedi (KKLT-inspired form of the potential and a particular chameleon coupling to the local density, patches of approximately constant scalar field potential cluster around regions of matter with density above a certain value, generating the effect of a cosmological constant on large scales. This construction addresses both the cosmological constant problem (why Λ is so small, yet nonzero and the coincidence problem (why Λ is comparable to the matter density now.

  10. How much can we learn from a merging cold front cluster? Insights from X-ray temperature and radio maps of A3667

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, Abhirup; Schenck, David E.; Burns, Jack O.; Skillman, Samuel W.; Hallman, Eric J., E-mail: Abhirup.Datta@colorado.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, C0 80309 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The galaxy cluster A3667 is an ideal laboratory to study the plasma processes in the intracluster medium. High-resolution Chandra X-ray observations show a cold front in A3667. At radio wavelengths, A3667 reveals a double radio-relic feature in the outskirts of the cluster. These suggest multiple merger events in this cluster. In this paper, we analyze the substantial archival X-ray observations of A3667 from the Chandra X-ray Observatory and compare these with existing radio observations as well as state-of-the-art adaptive mesh refinement MHD cosmological simulations using Enzo. We have used two temperature map making techniques, weighted Voronoi tessellation and adaptive circular binning, to produce the high-resolution and largest field-of-view temperature maps of A3667. These high-fidelity temperature maps allow us to study the X-ray shocks in the cluster using a new two-dimensional shock-finding algorithm. We have also estimated the Mach numbers from the shocks inferred from previous ATCA radio observations. The combined shock statistics from the X-ray and radio data are in agreement with the shock statistics in a simulated MHD cluster. We have also studied the profiles of the thermodynamic properties across the cold front using ∼447 ks from the combined Chandra observations on A3667. Our results show that the stability of the cold front in A3667 can be attributed to the suppression of the thermal conduction across the cold front by a factor of ∼100-700 compared to the classical Spitzer value.

  11. 15 Years of Chandra Observations of Capella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Vinay

    2014-11-01

    Capella is the strongest coronal line source accessible to Chandra. It has been cumulatively observed with gratings for over 1.2 Ms. The accumulated spectrum represents astrophysical ground truth for atomic physics calculations that is unprecedented in quality. We analyze co-added spectra to generate a comprehensive list of detectable lines and their locations, spanning two orders of magnitude in photon energy. We compare the locations of identifiable lines with locations from atomic databases ATOMDB and Chianti and characterize the uncertainties in the databases. The full line lists and comparisons will be made available at the Dataverse at http://dx.doi.org/10.7910/DVN/27084 This work is supported by Chandra grant AR0-11001X and NASA Contract NAS8-03060 to the Chandra X-Ray Center.

  12. Space-Based UV/Optical Wide-Field Imaging and Spectroscopy: Near-Field Cosmology and Galaxy Evolution Using Globular Clusters in Nearby Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Goudfrooij, Paul; Chandar, Rupali; Gnedin, Oleg; Rhode, Katherine; Schweizer, Francois; Strader, Jay; Vesperini, Enrico; Whitmore, Bradley; Zepf, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Star formation plays a central role in the evolution of galaxies and of the Universe as a whole. Studies of star-forming regions in the local universe have shown that star formation typically occurs in a clustered fashion. Building a coherent picture of how star clusters form and evolve is therefore critical to our overall understanding of the star formation process. Most clusters disrupt after they form, thus contributing to the field star population. However, the most massive and dense clusters remain bound and survive for a Hubble time. These globular clusters provide unique observational probes of the formation history of their host galaxies. In particular, the age and metallicity can be determined for each globular cluster individually, allowing the distribution of ages and metallicities within host galaxies to be constrained. We show how space-based UV-to-near-IR imaging covering a wide field of view (>= 20 arcmin per axis) and deep UV/Optical multi-object spectroscopy of globular cluster systems in nea...

  13. Cluster Lenses

    CERN Document Server

    Kneib, Jean-Paul; 10.1007/s00159-011-0047-3

    2012-01-01

    Clusters of galaxies are the most recently assembled, massive, bound structures in the Universe. As predicted by General Relativity, given their masses, clusters strongly deform space-time in their vicinity. Clusters act as some of the most powerful gravitational lenses in the Universe. Light rays traversing through clusters from distant sources are hence deflected, and the resulting images of these distant objects therefore appear distorted and magnified. Lensing by clusters occurs in two regimes, each with unique observational signatures. The strong lensing regime is characterized by effects readily seen by eye, namely, the production of giant arcs, multiple-images, and arclets. The weak lensing regime is characterized by small deformations in the shapes of background galaxies only detectable statistically. Cluster lenses have been exploited successfully to address several important current questions in cosmology: (i) the study of the lens(es) - understanding cluster mass distributions and issues pertaining...

  14. Cosmological networks

    CERN Document Server

    Boguna, Marian; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2013-01-01

    Networks often represent systems that do not have a long history of studies in traditional fields of physics, albeit there are some notable exceptions such as energy landscapes and quantum gravity. Here we consider networks that naturally arise in cosmology. Nodes in these networks are stationary observers uniformly distributed in an expanding open FLRW universe with any scale factor, and two observers are connected if one can causally influence the other. We show that these networks are growing Lorentz-invariant graphs with power-law distributions of node degrees. New links in these networks not only connect new nodes to existing ones, but also appear at a certain rate between existing nodes, as they do in many complex networks.

  15. Negative Energy Cosmology and the Cosmological Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Prokopec, Tomislav

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that string theories naturally compactify on anti-de Sitter spaces, and yet cosmological observations show no evidence of a negative cosmological constant in the early Universe's evolution. In this letter we present two simple nonlocal modifications of the standard Friedmann cosmology that can lead to observationally viable cosmologies with an initial (negative) cosmological constant. The nonlocal operators we include are toy models for the quantum cosmological backreaction. In Model I an initial quasiperiodic oscillatory epoch is followed by inflation and a late time matter era, representing a dark matter candidate. The backreaction in Model II quickly compensates the negative cosmological term such that the Ricci curvature scalar rapidly approaches zero, and the Universe ends up in a late time radiation era.

  16. On an Alternative Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Vankov, A

    1998-01-01

    The suggested alternative cosmology is based on the idea of barion symmetric universe, in which our home universe is a representative of multitude of typical matter and antimatter universes. This alternative concept gives a physically reasonable explanation of all major problems of the Standard Cosmological Model. Classification Code MSC: Cosmology 524.8 Key words: standard cosmological model, alternative cosmology, barionic symmetry, typical universe, quasars, cosmic rays.

  17. Chandra Looks Back At The Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    In an unusual observation, a team of scientists has scanned the northern polar region of Earth with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. The results show that the aurora borealis, or "northern lights," also dance in X-ray light, creating changing bright arcs of X-ray energy above the Earth's surface. While other satellite observations had previously detected high-energy X-rays from the Earth auroras, the latest Chandra observations reveal low-energy X-rays generated during auroral activity for the first time. The researchers, led by Dr. Ron Elsner of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., used Chandra to observe the Earth 10 times over a four-month period in 2004. The images were created from approximately 20-minute scans during which Chandra was aimed at a fixed point in the sky and the Earth's motion carried the auroral regions through Chandra's field of view. From the ground, the aurora are well known to change dramatically over time and this is the case in X-ray light as well. The X-rays in this sample of the Chandra observations, which have been superimposed on a simulated image of the Earth, are seen here at four different epochs. Illlustration of Earth's Magnetosphere and Auroras Illlustration of Earth's Magnetosphere and Auroras Auroras are produced by solar storms that eject clouds of energetic charged particles. These particles are deflected when they encounter the Earth�s magnetic field, but in the process large electric voltages are created. Electrons trapped in the Earth�s magnetic field are accelerated by these voltages and spiral along the magnetic field into the polar regions. There they collide with atoms high in the atmosphere and emit X-rays. Chandra has also observed dramatic auroral activity on Jupiter. Dr. Anil Bhardwaj of Vikram Sarabhai Space Center in Trivandrum, India, is the lead author on a paper describing these results in the Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics. Dr. Bhardwaj was a co

  18. Inhomogeneous Cosmology Redux

    CERN Document Server

    Moffat, J W

    2016-01-01

    An alternative to the postulate of dark energy required to explain the accelerated expansion of the universe is to adopt an inhomogeneous cosmological model to explain the supernovae data without dark energy. We adopt a void cosmology model, based on the inhomogeneous Lema\\^{i}tre-Tolman-Bondi solution of Einstein's field equations. The model can resolve observational anomalies in the $\\Lambda CDM$ model, such as the discrepancy between the locally measured value of the Hubble constant, $H_0=73.24\\pm 1.74\\,{\\rm km}\\,{\\rm s}^{-1}\\,{\\rm Mpc}^{-1}$, and the $H_0=66.93\\pm 0.62\\,{\\rm km}\\,{\\rm s}^{-1}\\,{\\rm Mpc}^{-1}$ determined by the Planck satellite data and the $\\Lambda CDM$ model, and the lithium $^{7}{\\rm Li}$ problem, which is a $5\\sigma$ mismatch between the theoretical prediction for the $^{7}{\\rm Li}$ from big bang nucleosynthesis and the value that we observe locally today at $z=0$. The void model can also resolve the tension between the number of massive clusters derived from the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich eff...

  19. The Chandra Survey of Extragalactic Sources in the 3CR Catalog: X-ray Emission from Nuclei, Jets, and Hotspots in the Chandra Archival Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Massaro, F; Liuzzo, E; Orienti, M; Paladino, R; Paggi, A; Tremblay, G R; Wilkes, B J; Kuraszkiewicz, J; Baum, S A; O'Dea, C P

    2016-01-01

    As part of our program to build a complete radio and X-ray database of all the 3CR extragalactic radio sources, we present an analysis of 93 sources for which Chandra archival data are available. Most of these sources have been already published. Here we provide a uniform re-analysis and present nuclear X-ray fluxes and X-ray emission associated with radio jet knots and hotspots using both publicly available radio images and new radio images that have been constructed from data available in the VLA archive. For about 1/3 of the sources in the selected sample a comparison between the Chandra and the radio observations was not reported in the literature: we find X-ray detections of 2 new radio jet knots and 17 hotspots. We also report the X-ray detection of extended emission from the intergalactic medium of 15 galaxy clusters, two of which were most likely unknown previously.

  20. THE CHEMICAL SIGNATURE OF A RELIC STAR CLUSTER IN THE SEXTANS DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY-IMPLICATIONS FOR NEAR-FIELD COSMOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Torgny [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Bland-Hawthorn, Joss [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Freeman, Ken C. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston ACT 2611 (Australia); Silk, Joe, E-mail: torgny.karlsson@physics.uu.se [Physics Department, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-10

    We present tentative evidence for the existence of a dissolved star cluster at [Fe/H] = -2.7 in the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy. We use the technique of chemical tagging to identify stars that are highly clustered in a multi-dimensional chemical abundance space (C-space). In a sample of six stars, three, possibly four, stars are identified as potential cluster stars. The initial stellar mass of the parent cluster is estimated from two independent observations to be M{sub *,init}=1.9{sup +1.5}{sub -0.9}(1.6{sup +1.2}{sub -0.8}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub sun}, assuming a Salpeter (Kroupa) initial mass function. If corroborated by follow-up spectroscopy, this star cluster is the most metal-poor system identified to date. Chemical signatures of remnant clusters in dwarf galaxies like Sextans provide us with a very powerful probe to the high-redshift universe. From available observational data, we argue that the average star cluster mass in the majority of the newly discovered ultra-faint dwarf galaxies was notably lower than it is in the Galaxy today and possibly lower than in the more luminous, classical dwarf spheroidal galaxies. Furthermore, the mean cumulative metallicity function of the dwarf spheroidals falls below that of the ultra-faints, which increases with increasing metallicity as predicted from our stochastic chemical evolution model. These two findings, together with a possible difference in the ([Mg/Fe]) ratio suggest that the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy population, or a significant fraction thereof, and the dwarf spheroidal population were formed in different environments and would thus be distinct in origin.

  1. Cosmological Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kunze, Kerstin E

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic fields are observed on nearly all scales in the universe, from stars and galaxies upto galaxy clusters and even beyond. The origin of cosmic magnetic fields is still an open question, however a large class of models puts its origin in the very early universe. A magnetic dynamo amplifying an initial seed magnetic field could explain the present day strength of the galactic magnetic field. However, it is still an open problem how and when this initial magnetic field was created. Observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) provide a window to the early universe and might therefore be able to tell us whether cosmic magnetic fields are of primordial, cosmological origin and at the same time constrain its parameters. We will give an overview of the observational evidence of large scale magnetic fields, describe generation mechanisms of primordial magnetic fields and possible imprints in the CMB.

  2. Real-time Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Quercellini, Claudia; Balbi, Amedeo; Cabella, Paolo; Quartin, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    In recent years the possibility of measuring the temporal change of radial and transverse position of sources in the sky in real time have become conceivable thanks to the thoroughly improved technique applied to new astrometric and spectroscopic experiments, leading to the research domain we call Real-time cosmology. We review for the first time great part of the work done in this field, analysing both the theoretical framework and some endeavor to foresee the observational strategies and their capability to constrain models. We firstly focus on real time measurements of the overall redshift drift and angular separation shift in distant source, able to trace background cosmic expansion and large scale anisotropy, respectively. We then examine the possibility of employing the same kind of observations to probe peculiar and proper acceleration in clustered systems and therefore the gravitational potential. The last two sections are devoted to the short time future change of the cosmic microwave background, as ...

  3. Chandra Imaging of Gamma-Ray Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Kargaltsev, Oleg; Hare, Jeremy; Pavlov, George G

    2013-01-01

    We review the multiwavelength properties of the few known gamma-ray binaries, focusing on extended emission recently resolved with Chandra. We discuss the implications of these findings for the nature of compact objects and for physical processes operating in these systems.

  4. Spectral analysis of the Chandra comet survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodewits, D.; Christian, D. J.; Torney, M.; Dryer, M.; Lisse, C. M.; Dennerl, K.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Wolk, S. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Hoekstra, R.

    2007-01-01

    Aims. We present results of the analysis of cometary X-ray spectra with an extended version of our charge exchange emission model (Bodewits et al. 2006). We have applied this model to the sample of 8 comets thus far observed with the Chandra X-ray observatory and acis spectrometer in the 300 - 1000

  5. Chandra Examines a Quadrillion-Volt Pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    The high-voltage environment of one of the most energetic and strongly magnetized pulsars known has been surveyed by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. A team of astronomers found a powerful jet of high-energy particles extending over a distance of 20 light years and bright arcs believed to be due to particles of matter and anti-matter generated by the pulsar. The team of US, Canadian, and Japanese scientists pointed Chandra at the rapidly spinning neutron star B1509-58, located 19,000 light years away in the constellation of Circinus, for over five hours. These results were announced at the "Two Years of Science with Chandra" symposium in Washington, DC. "Jets and arcs on this vast scale have never been seen in any other pulsar," said Bryan Gaensler of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. "The spectacular images we have obtained of this source are letting us test theories as to how pulsars unleash so much energy." The features seen with Chandra give the scientists insight into the process by which voltages of more than 7000 trillion volts are created around rotating neutron stars (the dense remnants of supernova explosions) and how these extreme voltages affect their environment. B1509-58 is of particular interest because it has a much stronger magnetic field than the Crab Nebula pulsar, which exhibits similar features on a much smaller scale. The general picture emerging from these results is that high-energy particles of matter and antimatter are streaming away from the neutron star along its poles and near its equator. The particles leaving the poles produce the jets; astronomers speculate that only one side of the jet is apparent in B1509-58, indicating that this one side is beamed in our direction, while the other is rushing away. "Until this observation, no one knew for sure whether such tremendous voltages and energy outputs were a trademark of all pulsars, or if the Crab was an oddball," said Vicky Kaspi of McGill University in Montreal. "Now thanks

  6. Chandra X-ray Observatory Optical Axis and Aimpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Chandra X-ray Observatory revolutionized the X-ray astronomy as being the first, and so far the only, X-ray telescope achieving sub-arcsecond resolution. Chandra comprises of three principal elements: the High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA), Pointing Control and Aspect Determination (PCAD) system, and the Science Instrument Module (SIM). To achieve and retain the unprecedented imaging quality, it is critical that these three principal elements stay rigid and stable for the entire life time of the Chandra operation. Tracking the Chandra optical axis and aimpoint with respect to detector positions is the most relevant measurement for understanding telescope stability. The study shows that both the optical axis and the aimpoint has been drifting since Chandra launch. I will discuss the telescope focal-point, optical axis, aimpoint, their positiondrifts during the mission, the impact to Chandra operations, and the permanent default aimpoint, to be implemented in Chandra cycle 18.

  7. Chandra's Find of Lonely Halo Raises Questions About Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-01

    Dark matter continues to confound astronomers, as NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory demonstrated with the detection of an extensive envelope of dark matter around an isolated elliptical galaxy. This discovery conflicts with optical data that suggest a dearth of dark matter around similar galaxies, and raises questions about how galaxies acquire and keep such dark matter halos. The observed galaxy, known as NGC 4555, is unusual in that it is a fairly large, elliptical galaxy that is not part of a group or cluster of galaxies. In a paper to be published in the November 1, 2004 issue of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Ewan O'Sullivan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA and Trevor Ponman of the University of Birmingham, United Kingdom, use the Chandra data to show that the galaxy is embedded in a cloud of 10-million-degree-Celsius gas. X-ray/Optical Composite of NGC 4555 X-ray/Optical Composite of NGC 4555 This hot gas cloud has a diameter of about 400,000 light years, about twice that of the visible galaxy. An enormous envelope, or halo, of dark matter is needed to confine the hot cloud to the galaxy. The total mass of the dark matter halo is about ten times the combined mass of the stars in the galaxy, and 300 times the mass of the hot gas cloud. A growing body of evidence indicates that dark matter - which interacts with itself and "normal" matter only through gravity - is the dominant form of matter in the universe. According to the popular "cold dark matter" theory, dark matter consists of mysterious particles left over from the dense early universe that were moving slowly when galaxies and galaxy clusters began to form. "The observed properties of NGC 4555 confirm that elliptical galaxies can posses dark matter halos of their own, regardless of their environment," said O'Sullivan. "This raises an important question: what determines whether elliptical galaxies have dark matter halos?" DSS Optical Image of NGC

  8. Big Bangs in Galaxy Clusters: Using X-ray Temperature Maps to Trace Merger Histories in Clusters with Radio Halos/Relics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jack O.; Datta, Abhirup; Hallman, Eric J.

    2016-06-01

    Galaxy clusters are assembled through large and small mergers which are the most energetic events ("bangs") since the Big Bang. Cluster mergers "stir" the intracluster medium (ICM) creating shocks and turbulence which are illuminated by ~Mpc-sized radio features called relics and halos. These shocks heat the ICM and are detected in x-rays via thermal emission. Disturbed morphologies in x-ray surface brightness and temperatures are direct evidence for cluster mergers. In the radio, relics (in the outskirts of the clusters) and halos (located near the cluster core) are also clear signposts of recent mergers. Our recent ENZO cosmological simulations suggest that around a merger event, radio emission peaks very sharply (and briefly) while the x-ray emission rises and decays slowly. Hence, a sample of galaxy clusters that shows both luminous x-ray emission and radio relics/halos are good candidates for very recent mergers. We are in the early stages of analyzing a unique sample of 48 galaxy clusters with (i) known radio relics and/or halos and (ii) significant archival x-ray observations (>50 ksec) from Chandra and/or XMM. We have developed a new x-ray data analysis pipeline, implemented on parallel processor supercomputers, to create x-ray surface brightness, high fidelity temperature, and pressure maps of these clusters in order to study merging activity. The temperature maps are made using three different map-making techniques: Weighted Voronoi Tessellation, Adaptive Circular Binning, and Contour Binning. In this talk, we will show preliminary results for several clusters, including Abell 2744 and the Bullet cluster. This work is supported by NASA ADAP grant NNX15AE17G.

  9. A NEW METHOD TO QUANTIFY X-RAY SUBSTRUCTURES IN CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade-Santos, Felipe; Lima Neto, Gastao B.; Lagana, Tatiana F. [Departamento de Astronomia, Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Rua do Matao 1226, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-090 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-02-20

    We present a new method to quantify substructures in clusters of galaxies, based on the analysis of the intensity of structures. This analysis is done in a residual image that is the result of the subtraction of a surface brightness model, obtained by fitting a two-dimensional analytical model ({beta}-model or Sersic profile) with elliptical symmetry, from the X-ray image. Our method is applied to 34 clusters observed by the Chandra Space Telescope that are in the redshift range z in [0.02, 0.2] and have a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) greater than 100. We present the calibration of the method and the relations between the substructure level with physical quantities, such as the mass, X-ray luminosity, temperature, and cluster redshift. We use our method to separate the clusters in two sub-samples of high- and low-substructure levels. We conclude, using Monte Carlo simulations, that the method recuperates very well the true amount of substructure for small angular core radii clusters (with respect to the whole image size) and good S/N observations. We find no evidence of correlation between the substructure level and physical properties of the clusters such as gas temperature, X-ray luminosity, and redshift; however, analysis suggest a trend between the substructure level and cluster mass. The scaling relations for the two sub-samples (high- and low-substructure level clusters) are different (they present an offset, i.e., given a fixed mass or temperature, low-substructure clusters tend to be more X-ray luminous), which is an important result for cosmological tests using the mass-luminosity relation to obtain the cluster mass function, since they rely on the assumption that clusters do not present different scaling relations according to their dynamical state.

  10. Newtonian cosmology revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipler, Frank J.

    1996-09-01

    I show that if Newtonian gravity is formulated in geometrical language, then Newtonian cosmology is as rigorous as relativistic cosmology. In homogeneous and isotropic universes, the geodesic deviation equation in Newtonian cosmology is proven to be exactly the same as the geodesic deviation equation in relativistic Friedmann cosmologies. This equation can be integrated to yield a constraint equation formally identical to the Friedmann equation. However, Newtonian cosmology is more general than Friedmann cosmology: by generalizing the flat-space Newtonian gravity force law to Riemannian metrics, I show that ever-expanding and recollapsing universes are allowed in any homogeneous and isotropic spatial geometry.

  11. Questions of Modern Cosmology Galileo's Legacy

    CERN Document Server

    D'Onofrio, Mauro

    2009-01-01

    Are we living in the "golden age" of cosmology? Are we close to understanding the nature of the unknown ingredients of the currently most accepted cosmological model and the physics of the early Universe? Or are we instead approaching a paradigm shift? What is dark matter and does it exist? How is it distributed around galaxies and clusters? Is the scientific community open to alternative ideas that may prompt a new scientific revolution - as the Copernican revolution did in Galileo's time? Do other types of supernovae exist that can be of interest for cosmology? Why have quasars never been effectively used as standard candles? Can you tell us about the scientific adventure of COBE? How does the extraction of the Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropy depend on the subtraction of the various astrophysical foregrounds? These, among many others, are the astrophysical, philosophical and sociological questions surrounding modern cosmology and the scientific community that Mauro D'Onofrio and Carlo Burigana pose t...

  12. Cosmological Measurements with General Relativistic Galaxy Correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Raccanelli, Alvise; Bertacca, Daniele; Doré, Olivier; Durrer, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the cosmological dependence and the constraining power of large-scale galaxy correlations, including all redshift-distortions, wide-angle, lensing and gravitational potential effects on linear scales. We analyze the cosmological information present in the lensing convergence and in the gravitational potential terms describing the so-called "relativistic effects," and we find that, while smaller than the information contained in intrinsic galaxy clustering, it is not negligible. We investigate how neglecting them does bias cosmological measurements performed by future spectroscopic and photometric large-scale surveys such as SKA and Euclid. We perform a Fisher analysis using the CLASS code, modified to include scale-dependent galaxy bias and redshift-dependent magnification and evolution bias. Our results show that neglecting relativistic terms introduces an error in the forecasted precision in measuring cosmological parameters of the order of a few tens of percent, in particular when measuring ...

  13. Chandra Resolves Cosmic X-ray Glow and Finds Mysterious New Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    science theme. "Since it was first observedthirty-seven years ago, understanding the source of the X-ray background has been the Holy Grail of X-ray astronomy. Now, it is within reach." Drs. Cowie and Barger are searching for the optical counterparts to the newly discovered X-ray sources with the powerful Keck telescope atop Mauna Kea in hopes of determining their distance. However, these sources are very faint optically: They show up as a dim blue smudge or not at all. Further observations with the Hubble Space Telescope or Keck will be extremely difficult, and the power of the Next Generation Space Telescope and Constellation-X may be required to fully understand these sources. Resolution of the X-ray background relied on a 27.7-hour Chandra observation using the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) in early December 1999, and also utilized data from the Japan-U.S. Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA). The Chandra team has also reproduced the ROSAT lower-energy X-ray background observation with a factor of 2-5 times the resolution and sensitivity. For images connected to this release, and to follow Chandra's progress, visit the Chandra site at: http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2000/bg/index.html AND http://chandra.nasa.gov The ACIS instrument was built for NASA by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, and Pennsylvania State University, University Park. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program. TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, Calif., is the prime contractor for the spacecraft. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Center controls science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass.

  14. The convergence fluctuation of light by clusters of galaxies - a cosmological test using the second acoustic peak of the microwave background

    CERN Document Server

    Lieu, R

    2004-01-01

    The weak lensing magnification of distant light by clusters of galaxies, assumed to be virialized systems with an NFW density profile, was calculated analytically as a statistical average over a random non-evolving distribution within $z=1$. The effect is exactly cancelled by the Dyer-Roeder beam in between clusters - this conclusion is valid also for an ensemble of spherical clumps of arbitrary density profile. An analytical expression for the variance in the mean magnification is provided, using the general formula from our previous work. The all sky fluctuation in the angular size of the microwave background second acoustic peak, due to the random placement of cluster lenses in the intervening space, is then derived to be $\\approx$ 33 %. Moreover, this standard deviation corresponds to that of a highly skewed magnification distribution, with a long tail extending towards the side of positive magnification, since any negative excursion from the mean cannot cross the hard limit imposed by the Dyer-Roeder emp...

  15. Unimodular-Mimetic Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Nojiri, S; Oikonomou, V K

    2016-01-01

    We combine the unimodular gravity and mimetic gravity theories into a unified theoretical framework, which is proposed to solve the cosmological constant problem and the dark matter issue. After providing the formulation of the unimodular mimetic gravity and investigating all the new features that the vacuum unimodular gravity implies, by using the underlying reconstruction method, we realize some well known cosmological evolutions, with some of these being exotic for the ordinary Einstein-Hilbert gravity. Specifically we provide the vacuum unimodular mimetic gravity description of the de Sitter cosmology, of the perfect fluid with constant equation of state cosmology, of the Type IV singular cosmology and of the $R^2$ inflation cosmology. Moreover, we investigate how cosmologically viable cosmologies, which are compatible with the recent observational data, can be realized by the vacuum unimodular mimetic gravity. Since in some cases, the graceful exit from inflation problem might exist, we provide a qualita...

  16. An introduction to cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Kunze, Kerstin E

    2016-01-01

    Cosmology is becoming an important tool to test particle physics models. We provide an overview of the standard model of cosmology with an emphasis on the observations relevant for testing fundamental physics.

  17. Hot plasma in clusters of galaxies, the largest objects in the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Sarazin, C L

    2003-01-01

    Clusters of galaxies are the largest organized structures in the Universe. They are important cosmological probes, since they are large enough to contain a fair sample of the materials in the Universe, but small enough to have achieved dynamical equilibrium. Clusters were first discovered as concentrations of hundreds of bright galaxies in a region about 3 megaparsecs (10 million light years) across. However, the dominant observed form of matter in clusters is hot, diffuse intergalactic gas. This intracluster plasma has typical temperatures of T ~ 7e7 K, and typical electron densities of n_e ~ 10^{-3} cm^{-3}. This intracluster plasma mainly emits X-rays, and typical cluster X-ray luminosities are L_X ~ 10^{43} - 10^{45} erg/s. The basic properties of and physical processes in the intracluster plasma will be reviewed. Important observational constraints on plasma processes in these systems will be discussed. Recent X-ray observations of clusters of galaxies with the orbiting Chandra X-ray Observatory will be ...

  18. SLAM High Resolution Numerical Simulations of the SZ Signatures of Cluster Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarazin, Craig L.; Chatzikos, M.; O'Shea, B. W.

    2012-05-01

    I present the results of high resolution simulations of the effects of cluster mergers on SZ observations. Most of the simulations are from the SLAM (Simulation Library of Astrophysical galaxy cluster Mergers) library of 156 binary cluster mergers. These simulations include cluster masses ranging from 1e13 to 2e15 Msun, and mass ratios for the mergers of 1:1 to 10:1. They include four values of the dimensionless angular momentum of the merger (lambda = 0.0, 0.025, 0.05, and 0.075), ranging from head-on mergers to high impact parameter collisions. Many of the SZ features correspond to shocks and/or adiabatic compression events. The effect of these transient SZ features on the use of clusters to measure cosmological parameters in surveys is assessed. Support for this work was provided by Chandra grants TM7-8010X, GO9-0135X, GO9-0148X, GO1-12159A, and GO1-12169X, through NASA Suzaku grants NNX09AH25G and NNX09AH74G, through NASA ADAP grant NNX11AD15G, through NASA ATFP grant #08-ATFP08-0028, through NSF AST grant #0908819, and Michigan State University’s Institute for Cyber-Enabled Research. Computer time was provided by NSF TeraGrid grants TG-AST080001N and TG-AST090040.

  19. Introduction to cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Roos, Matts

    2015-01-01

    The Fourth Edition of Introduction to Cosmology provides a concise, authoritative study of cosmology at an introductory level. Starting from elementary principles and the early history of cosmology, the text carefully guides the student on to curved spacetimes, special and general relativity, gravitational lensing, the thermal history of the Universe, and cosmological models, including extended gravity models, black holes and Hawking's recent conjectures on the not-so-black holes.

  20. Dark matter and cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1992-03-01

    The cosmological dark matter problem is reviewed. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints on the baryon density are compared with the densities implied by visible matter, dark halos, dynamics of clusters, gravitational lenses, large-scale velocity flows, and the {Omega} = 1 flatness/inflation argument. It is shown that (1) the majority of baryons are dark; and (2) non-baryonic dark matter is probably required on large scales. It is also noted that halo dark matter could be either baryonic or non-baryonic. Descrimination between ``cold`` and ``hot`` non-baryonic candidates is shown to depend on the assumed ``seeds`` that stimulate structure formation. Gaussian density fluctuations, such as those induced by quantum fluctuations, favor cold dark matter, whereas topological defects such as strings, textures or domain walls may work equally or better with hot dark matter. A possible connection between cold dark matter, globular cluster ages and the Hubble constant is mentioned. Recent large-scale structure measurements, coupled with microwave anisotropy limits, are shown to raise some questions for the previously favored density fluctuation picture. Accelerator and underground limits on dark matter candidates are also reviewed.

  1. Dark matter and cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1992-03-01

    The cosmological dark matter problem is reviewed. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints on the baryon density are compared with the densities implied by visible matter, dark halos, dynamics of clusters, gravitational lenses, large-scale velocity flows, and the {Omega} = 1 flatness/inflation argument. It is shown that (1) the majority of baryons are dark; and (2) non-baryonic dark matter is probably required on large scales. It is also noted that halo dark matter could be either baryonic or non-baryonic. Descrimination between cold'' and hot'' non-baryonic candidates is shown to depend on the assumed seeds'' that stimulate structure formation. Gaussian density fluctuations, such as those induced by quantum fluctuations, favor cold dark matter, whereas topological defects such as strings, textures or domain walls may work equally or better with hot dark matter. A possible connection between cold dark matter, globular cluster ages and the Hubble constant is mentioned. Recent large-scale structure measurements, coupled with microwave anisotropy limits, are shown to raise some questions for the previously favored density fluctuation picture. Accelerator and underground limits on dark matter candidates are also reviewed.

  2. Gauge Invariant Cosmological Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Durrer, R

    1993-01-01

    After an introduction to the problem of cosmological structure formation, we develop gauge invariant cosmological perturbation theory. We derive the first order perturbation equations of Einstein's equations and energy momentum ``conservation''. Furthermore, the perturbations of Liouville's equation for collisionless particles and Boltzmann's equation for Compton scattering are worked out. We fully discuss the propagation of photons in a perturbed Friedmann universe, calculating the Sachs--Wolfe effect and light deflection. The perturbation equations are extended to accommodate also perturbations induced by seeds. With these general results we discuss some of the main aspects of the texture model for the formation of large scale structure in the Universe (galaxies, clusters, sheets, voids). In this model, perturbations in the dark matter are induced by texture seeds. The gravitational effects of a spherically symmetric collapsing texture on dark matter, baryonic matter and photons are calculated in first orde...

  3. Cosmological magnetic fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Roy Maartens

    2000-10-01

    Magnetic fields are observed not only in stars, but in galaxies, clusters, and even high redshift Lyman- systems. In principle, these fields could play an important role in structure formation and also affect the anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB). The study of cosmological magnetic fields aims not only to quantify these effects on large-scale structure and the CMB, but also to answer one of the outstanding puzzles of modern cosmology: when and how do magnetic fields originate? They are either primordial, i.e. created before the onset of structure formation, or they are generated during the process of structure formation itself.

  4. Chandra Finds Well-Established Black Holes In Distant Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    University of Arizona and her colleagues disagree. In addition to the three distant Sloan quasars, they observed 14 other quasars with distances between 12 and 12.5 billion light years. Bechtold's group looked at their larger sample to determine that the younger, more distant quasars were radiating a lower percentage of their energy in X-rays. "The X-ray data are consistent with predictions of some theories that a hot gas atmosphere is associated with the accretion disk swirling around a central supermassive black hole," said Bechtold, provided the distant quasars have more massive black holes than nearby ones. "These theories predict that large supermassive black holes should be relatively weaker X-ray emittters than smaller ones, which is what we observed with Chandra." All groups agreed that the masses of the black holes producing the X-rays are huge, given their relative youth. By various estimates, the three quasars each weighed in at between one and 10 billion times the mass of the Sun. By comparison, the black hole at the center of the Milky Way is believed to contain the mass equivalent to only about 3 million Suns. Daniel Schwartz of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics took a different approach to the same data. In addition to looking at the quasars themselves, he examined the space around them. His search paid off with the discovery of a new X-ray source, which may be only about half a million light years away from the quasar SDSS 1306+0356 "It's not clear what the source is," said Schwartz. "One plausible explanation is that it is due to a high-energy jet of material ejected by the quasar over at least several hundred thousand years." Chandra has detected a number of such jets, which could be generated by the extraction of energy from the rotation of a supermassive black hole. In addition to SDSS 1306+0356, which has a cosmological redshift z = 5.99, the other distant Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars observed in this study are SDSS 0836+0054 (redshift

  5. The Case Against Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Disney, M J

    2000-01-01

    It is argued that some of the recent claims for cosmology are grossly overblown. Cosmology rests on a very small database: it suffers from many fundamental difficulties as a science (if it is a science at all) whilst observations of distant phenomena are difficult to make and harder to interpret. It is suggested that cosmological inferences should be tentatively made and sceptically received.

  6. Summary of cosmology workshop

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tarun Sandeep

    2004-10-01

    Cosmology is passing through a golden phase of rapid advance. The cosmology workshop at ICGC-2004 attracted a large number of research contributions to diverse topics of cosmology. I attempt to classify and summarize the research work and results of the oral and poster presentations made at the meeting.

  7. X-ray Mass Profiles from Chandra Galaxy Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paggi, Alessandro; Kim, Dong-Woo; Anderson, Craig; Burke, Douglas J.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Fruscione, Antonella; Lauer, Jennifer L.; McCollough, Michael L.; Morgan, Douglas; Mossman, Amy; O'Sullivan, Ewan; Trinchieri, Ginevra

    2016-04-01

    We present preliminary results of a Chandra/XMM-Newton joint analysis on a sample of three Early Type Galaxies (ETGs, namely NGC4649, NGC4636 and NGC5846). X-ray observations of the hot ISM is used to measure the total enclosed mass assuming hydrostatic equilibrium, and compasion with mass distributions obtained through optical kinematics data of globular clusters and planetary nebulae yields informations about disturbances in the ISM distribution due to nuclear activity, merging history, etc. Our analysis makes use of the Chandra Galaxy Atlas (CGA) data products - exploiting the unmatched spatial resolution of the ACIS detectors to reveal fine ISM features and disturbances in the inner galactic regions - and XMM-Newton data - relying on the large field of view of EPIC detector to extend the mass profiles to larger radii. We then measured the mass profiles in various pie sectors to separate different gas features (e.g., discontinuity and extended tail) and compared them with GCs/PNe based mass profiles. The X-ray mass profiles of NGC4649 show a generally relaxed morphology and, in agreement with previous analysis, the comparison with the optical mass profiles shows a significant deviations on parsec scale likely due to non-thermal pressure linked to nuclear activity. In significantly disturbed cases (NGC4648 and NGC5846) where we found discontinuities and extended tails, we found that the mass profiles are over-estimated toward the compressed discontinuity and under-estimated toward the extended tails, similar to inflow and outflow cases. These preliminary results are promising toward an extended analysis of the whole CGA sample in order to study the distribution of gas temperature and metal abundances in the ISM, and to investigate scaling relations between ETG global quantities like ISM temperature, luminosity and total mass.

  8. Quantum Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojowald, Martin

    The universe, ultimately, is to be described by quantum theory. Quantum aspects of all there is, including space and time, may not be significant for many purposes, but are crucial for some. And so a quantum description of cosmology is required for a complete and consistent worldview. At any rate, even if we were not directly interested in regimes where quantum cosmology plays a role, a complete physical description could not stop at a stage before the whole universe is reached. Quantum theory is essential in the microphysics of particles, atoms, molecules, solids, white dwarfs and neutron stars. Why should one expect this ladder of scales to end at a certain size? If regimes are sufficiently violent and energetic, quantum effects are non-negligible even on scales of the whole cosmos; this is realized at least once in the history of the universe: at the big bang where the classical theory of general relativity would make energy densities diverge. 1.Lachieze-Rey, M., Luminet, J.P.: Phys. Rept. 254,135 (1995), gr-qc/9605010 2.BSDeWitt1967Phys. Rev.160511131967PhRv..160.1113D0158.4650410.1103/PhysRev.160.1113DeWitt, B.S.: Phys. Rev. 160(5), 1113 (1967) 3.Wiltshire, D.L.: In: Robson B., Visvanathan N., Woolcock W.S. (eds.) Cosmology: The Physics of the Universe, pp. 473-531. World Scientific, Singapore (1996). gr-qc/0101003 4.Isham C.J.: In: DeWitt, B.S., Stora, R. (eds.) Relativity, Groups and Topology II. Lectures Given at the 1983 Les Houches Summer School on Relativity, Groups and Topology, Elsevier Science Publishing Company (1986) 5.Klauder, J.: Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 12, 1769 (2003), gr-qc/0305067 6.Klauder, J.: Int. J. Geom. Meth. Mod. Phys. 3, 81 (2006), gr-qc/0507113 7.DGiulini1995Phys. Rev. D5110563013381161995PhRvD..51.5630G10.1103/PhysRevD.51.5630Giulini, D.: Phys. Rev. D 51(10), 5630 (1995) 8.Kiefer, C., Zeh, H.D.: Phys. Rev. D 51, 4145 (1995), gr-qc/9402036 9.WFBlythCJIsham1975Phys. Rev. D117684086991975PhRvD..11..768B10.1103/PhysRevD.11.768Blyth, W

  9. Statistical Characterization of the Chandra Source Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Primini, Francis A; Davis, John E; Nowak, Michael A; Evans, Ian N; Glotfelty, Kenny J; Anderson, Craig S; Bonaventura, Nina R; Chen, Judy C; Doe, Stephen M; Evans, Janet D; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C; Gibbs, Danny G; Grier, John D; Hain, Roger M; Hall, Diane M; Harbo, Peter N; Xiangqun,; He,; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael L; McDowell, Jonathan C; Miller, Joseph B; Mitschang, Arik W; Morgan, Douglas L; Mossman, Amy E; Nichols, Joy S; Plummer, David A; Refsdal, Brian L; Rots, Arnold H; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Sundheim, Beth A; Tibbetts, Michael S; Van Stone, David W; Winkelman, Sherry L; Zografou, Panagoula

    2011-01-01

    The first release of the Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) contains ~95,000 X-ray sources in a total area of ~0.75% of the entire sky, using data from ~3,900 separate ACIS observations of a multitude of different types of X-ray sources. In order to maximize the scientific benefit of such a large, heterogeneous data-set, careful characterization of the statistical properties of the catalog, i.e., completeness, sensitivity, false source rate, and accuracy of source properties, is required. Characterization efforts of other, large Chandra catalogs, such as the ChaMP Point Source Catalog (Kim et al. 2007) or the 2 Mega-second Deep Field Surveys (Alexander et al. 2003), while informative, cannot serve this purpose, since the CSC analysis procedures are significantly different and the range of allowable data is much less restrictive. We describe here the characterization process for the CSC. This process includes both a comparison of real CSC results with those of other, deeper Chandra catalogs of the same targets and e...

  10. Efficient exploration of cosmology dependence in the EFT of LSS

    CERN Document Server

    Cataneo, Matteo; Senatore, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    The most effective use of data from current and upcoming large scale structure~(LSS) and CMB observations requires the ability to predict the clustering of LSS with very high precision. The Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structure (EFTofLSS) provides an instrument for performing analytical computations of LSS observables with the required precision in the mildly nonlinear regime. In this paper, we develop efficient implementations of these computations that allow for an exploration of their dependence on cosmological parameters. They are based on two ideas. First, once an observable has been computed with high precision for a reference cosmology, for a new cosmology the same can be easily obtained with comparable precision just by adding the difference in that observable, evaluated with much less precision. Second, most cosmologies of interest are sufficiently close to the Planck best-fit cosmology that observables can be obtained from a Taylor expansion around the reference cosmology. These ideas are ...

  11. Chandra Detects Halo Of Hot Gas Around Milky Way-Like Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    the galaxy's disk. These data clearly show the hot gas is heated by clusters of massive stars and is now expanding into the halo of the galaxy. NGC 4631 X-ray: NASA/CXC/UMass/D.Wang et al. UV: NASA/GSFC/UIT "What we see in NGC 4631 can be thought of as the bursting flames of a gigantic cosmic camp fire," said Wang. "Using Chandra and Hubble together, we really get a complete story of what is happening in this galaxy." NGC 4631 is a galaxy that has high amounts of star formation, possibly triggered by interaction with neighboring galaxies. Such star formation might have created the conditions necessary to heat the gas seen by Chandra, as vast amounts of energy are released from supernovas and massive stars in star-forming regions - enough to lift the gas out of the plane of the galaxy. These new results provide important clues about the cycling of energy and mass in a galaxy like our own Milky Way and about the evolutionary history of galaxies, which are thought to be more active in star formation in the past than at the present. Other members of the research team include: Stefan Immler, University of Massachusetts; Rene Walterbos, New Mexico State University; James Lauroesch, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, and Dieter Breitschwerdt, Max Plank Institute, Germany. Chandra observed NGC 4631 with its Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) instrument, which was developed for NASA by Pennsylvania State University, University Park, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL, manages the Chandra program, and TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, CA, is the prime contractor for the spacecraft. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Center controls science and flight operations from Cambridge, MA.

  12. Investigating the cores of fossil systems with Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Bharadwaj, V; Sanders, J S; Schellenberger, G

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the cores of fossil galaxy groups and clusters (`fossil systems') using archival Chandra data for a sample of 17 fossil systems. We determined the cool-core fraction for fossils via three observable diagnostics, the central cooling time, cuspiness, and concentration parameter. We quantified the dynamical state of the fossils by the X-ray peak/brightest cluster galaxy (BCG), and the X-ray peak/emission weighted centre separations. We studied the X-ray emission coincident with the BCG to detect the presence of potential thermal coronae. A deprojection analysis was performed for z < 0.05 fossils to obtain cooling time and entropy profiles, and to resolve subtle temperature structures. We investigated the Lx-T relation for fossils from the 400d catalogue to see if the scaling relation deviates from that of other groups. Most fossils are identified as cool-core objects via at least two cool-core diagnostics. All fossils have their dominant elliptical galaxy within 50 kpc of the X-ray peak, and mo...

  13. Rigorous Newtonian cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipler, Frank J.

    1996-10-01

    It is generally believed that it is not possible to rigorously analyze a homogeneous and isotropic cosmological model in Newtonian mechanics. I show on the contrary that if Newtonian gravity theory is rewritten in geometrical language in the manner outlined in 1923-1924 by Élie Cartan [Ann. Ecole Norm. Sup. 40, 325-412 (1923); 41, 1-25 (1924)], then Newtonian cosmology is as rigorous as Friedmann cosmology. In particular, I show that the equation of geodesic deviation in Newtonian cosmology is exactly the same as equation of geodesic deviation in the Friedmann universe, and that this equation can be integrated to yield a constraint equation formally identical to the Friedmann equation. However, Newtonian cosmology is more general than Friedmann cosmology: Ever-expanding and recollapsing universes are allowed in any noncompact homogeneous and isotropic spatial topology. I shall give a brief history of attempts to do cosmology in the framework of Newtonian mechanics.

  14. Radio Relics in Cosmological Simulations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Hoeft; S. E. Nuza; S. Gottlöber; R. J. van Weeren; H. J. A. Röttgering; M. Brüggen

    2011-12-01

    Radio relics have been discovered in many galaxy clusters. They are believed to trace shock fronts induced by cluster mergers. Cosmological simulations allow us to study merger shocks in detail since the intra-cluster medium is heated by shock dissipation. Using high resolution cosmological simulations, identifying shock fronts and applying a parametric model for the radio emission allows us to simulate the formation of radio relics. We analyze a simulated shock front in detail. We find a rather broad Mach number distribution. The Mach number affects strongly the number density of relativistic electrons in the downstream area, hence, the radio luminosity varies significantly across the shock surface. The abundance of radio relics can be modeled with the help of the radio power probability distribution which aims at predicting radio relic number counts. Since the actual electron acceleration efficiency is not known, predictions for the number counts need to be normalized by the observed number of radio relics. For the characteristics of upcoming low frequency surveys we find that about thousand relics are awaiting discovery.

  15. A Very Deep Chandra Observation of Abell 2052: Bubbles, Shocks, and Sloshing

    CERN Document Server

    Blanton, E L; Clarke, T E; Sarazin, C L; McNamara, B R; Douglass, E M; McDonald, M

    2011-01-01

    We present first results from a very deep (~650 ksec) Chandra X-ray observation of Abell 2052, as well as archival VLA radio observations. The data reveal detailed structure in the inner parts of the cluster, including bubbles evacuated by the AGN's radio lobes, compressed bubble rims, filaments, and loops. Two concentric shocks are seen, and a temperature rise is measured for the innermost one. On larger scales, we report the first detection of an excess surface brightness spiral feature. The spiral has cooler temperatures, lower entropies, and higher abundances than its surroundings, and is likely the result of sloshing gas initiated by a previous cluster-cluster or sub-cluster merger. Initial evidence for previously unseen bubbles at larger radii related to earlier outbursts from the AGN is presented.

  16. ASA's Chandra Neon Discovery Solves Solar Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory survey of nearby sun-like stars suggests there is nearly three times more neon in the sun and local universe than previously believed. If true, this would solve a critical problem with understanding how the sun works. "We use the sun to test how well we understand stars and, to some extent, the rest of the universe," said Jeremy Drake of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass. "But in order to understand the sun, we need to know exactly what it is made of," he added. It is not well known how much neon the sun contains. This is critical information for creating theoretical models of the sun. Neon atoms, along with carbon, oxygen and nitrogen, play an important role in how quickly energy flows from nuclear reactions in the sun's core to its edge, where it then radiates into space. Chandra X-ray Spectrum of II Pegasi Chandra X-ray Spectrum of II Pegasi The rate of this energy flow determines the location and size of a crucial stellar region called the convection zone. The zone extends from near the sun's surface inward approximately 125,000 miles. The zone is where the gas undergoes a rolling, convective motion much like the unstable air in a thunderstorm. "This turbulent gas has an extremely important job, because nearly all of the energy emitted at the surface of the sun is transported there by convection," Drake said. The accepted amount of neon in the sun has led to a paradox. The predicted location and size of the solar convection zone disagree with those deduced from solar oscillations. Solar oscillations is a technique astronomers previously relied on to probe the sun's interior. Several scientists have noted the problem could be fixed if the abundance of neon is in fact about three times larger than currently accepted. Attempts to measure the precise amount of neon in the Sun have been frustrated by a quirk of nature; neon atoms in the Sun give off no signatures in visible light. However, in a gas

  17. A Chandra Observation of Abell 13: Investigating the Origin of the Radio Relic

    CERN Document Server

    Juett, Adrienne M; Clarke, Tracy E; Andernach, Heinz; Ehle, Matthias; Fujita, Yutaka; Kempner, Joshua C; Roy, Alan L; Rudnick, Lawrence; Slee, O Bruce

    2007-01-01

    We present results from the Chandra X-ray observation of Abell 13, a galaxy cluster that contains an unusual noncentral radio source, also known as a radio relic. This is the first pointed X-ray observation of Abell 13, providing a more sensitive study of the properties of the X-ray gas. The X-ray emission from Abell 13 is extended to the northwest of the X-ray peak and shows substructure indicative of a recent merger event. The cluster X-ray emission is centered on the bright galaxy H of Slee et al. 2001. We find no evidence for a cooling flow in the cluster. A knot of excess X-ray emission is coincident with the other bright elliptical galaxy F. This knot of emission has properties similar to the enhanced emission associated with the large galaxies in the Coma cluster. With these Chandra data we are able to compare the properties of the hot X-ray gas with those of the radio relic from VLA data, to study the interaction of the X-ray gas with the radio emitting electrons. Our results suggest that the radio re...

  18. A scientific case for future X-ray Astronomy: Galaxy Clusters at high redshifts

    CERN Document Server

    Tozzi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Clusters of galaxies at high redshift (z>1) are vitally important to understand the evolution of the large scale structure of the Universe, the processes shaping galaxy populations and the cycle of the cosmic baryons, and to constrain cosmological parameters. After 13 years of operation of the Chandra and XMM-Newton satellites, the discovery and characterization of distant X-ray clusters is proceeding at a slow pace, due to the low solid angle covered so far, and the time-expensive observations needed to physically characterize their intracluster medium (ICM). At present, we know that at z>1 many massive clusters are fully virialized, their ICM is already enriched with metals, strong cool cores are already in place, and significant star formation is ongoing in their most massive galaxies, at least at z>1.4. Clearly, the assembly of a large and well characterized sample of high-z X-ray clusters is a major goal for the future. We argue that the only means to achieve this is a survey-optimized X-ray mission capa...

  19. Inflation and cosmological parameter estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamann, J.

    2007-05-15

    In this work, we focus on two aspects of cosmological data analysis: inference of parameter values and the search for new effects in the inflationary sector. Constraints on cosmological parameters are commonly derived under the assumption of a minimal model. We point out that this procedure systematically underestimates errors and possibly biases estimates, due to overly restrictive assumptions. In a more conservative approach, we analyse cosmological data using a more general eleven-parameter model. We find that regions of the parameter space that were previously thought ruled out are still compatible with the data; the bounds on individual parameters are relaxed by up to a factor of two, compared to the results for the minimal six-parameter model. Moreover, we analyse a class of inflation models, in which the slow roll conditions are briefly violated, due to a step in the potential. We show that the presence of a step generically leads to an oscillating spectrum and perform a fit to CMB and galaxy clustering data. We do not find conclusive evidence for a step in the potential and derive strong bounds on quantities that parameterise the step. (orig.)

  20. Cosmology with photometric redshift surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Blake, C; Blake, Chris; Bridle, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    We explore the utility of future photometric redshift imaging surveys for delineating the large-scale structure of the Universe, and assess the resulting constraints on the cosmological model. We perform two complementary types of analysis: (1) We quantify the statistical confidence and accuracy with which such surveys will be able to detect and measure characteristic features in the clustering power spectrum such as the acoustic oscillations and the turnover, in a model-independent fashion. For example, we show that a 10000 sq deg imaging survey with depth r = 22.5 and photometric redshift accuracy dz/(1+z) = 0.03 will detect the acoustic oscillations with 99.9% confidence, measuring the associated cosmological scale with 2% precision. Such a survey will also detect the turnover with 95% confidence, determining the corresponding scale with 20% accuracy. (2) By assuming a Lambda-CDM cosmology we calculate the confidence with which a non-zero baryon fraction can be deduced from such future surveys. After margi...

  1. Clustering, Cosmology and a New Era of Black Hole Demographics -- II. The Conditional Luminosity Functions of Type 2 and Type 1 Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Ballantyne, D R

    2016-01-01

    The orientation-based unification model of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) posits that the principle difference between obscured (Type 2) and unobscured (Type 1) AGNs is the line-of-sight into the central engine. If this model is correct than there should be no difference in many of the properties of AGN host galaxies (e.g., the mass of the surrounding dark matter haloes). However, recent clustering analyses of Type 1 and Type 2 AGNs have provided some evidence for a difference in the halo mass, in conflict with the orientation-based unified model. In this work, a method to compute the Conditional Luminosity Function (CLF) of Type 2 and Type 1 AGNs is presented. The CLF allows many fundamental halo properties to be computed as a function of AGN luminosity, which we apply to the question of the host halo masses of Type 1 and 2 AGNs. By making use of the total AGN CLF, the Type 1 X-ray luminosity function, and the luminosity-dependent Type 2 AGN fraction, the CLFs of Type 1 and 2 AGNs are calculated at $z\\approx ...

  2. Chandra Associates Pulsar and Historic Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    SAN DIEGO -- Scientists using NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory have found new evidence that a pulsar in the constellation of Sagittarius was created when a massive star exploded, witnessed by Chinese astronomers in the year 386 AD. If confirmed, this will be only the second pulsar to be clearly associated with a historic event. These results were presented today by Victoria Kaspi and Mallory Roberts of McGill University at the American Astronomical Society meeting. Also participating in the research were Gautum Vasisht from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Eric Gotthelf from Columbia University, Michael Pivovaroff from Therma-Wave, Inc., and Nobuyuki Kawai from the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Japan. The scientists used Chandra to locate the pulsar exactly at the geometric center of the supernova remnant known as G11.2-0.3. This location provides very strong evidence that the pulsar, a neutron star that is rotating 14 times a second, was formed in the supernova of 386 AD, and therefore has an age of 1615 years. "Determining the true ages of astronomical objects is notoriously difficult, and for this reason, historical records of supernovas are of great importance,"said Kaspi."In roughly the past 2,000 years, fewer than 10 reports of probable supernovae have been archived mostly by Asian astronomers. Of those handful, the remnant of 1054 AD, the Crab Nebula, was until now the only pulsar whose birth could be associated with a historic event - and, hence, the only neutron star that has a firm age." Between mid-April and mid-May in the year 386 AD, a young "guest star", presumably a supernova, was recorded by Chinese observers in the direction of the sky now known as the constellation of Sagittarius. In the 1970s, radio astronomers discovered an expanding nebula of gas and high-energy particles, called G11.2-0.3, that is believed to be the remnant of that explosion. In 1997, a team of X-ray astronomers used Japan’s ASCA satellite to discover a pulsar

  3. Chandra Observations of Embedded Young Stellar Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Koyama, K

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews the Chandra deep exposure observations of star forming regions, rho-Ophiuchi, Orion Molecular Clouds 2 and 3, Sagittarius B2 and Monoceros R2. The results are; (1) class I protostars are found to exhibit higher temperature plasma than those of T Tauri stars, (2) heavily absorbed X-rays are discovered from the candidates of class 0 protostars, (3) hard and highly variable X-rays are observed from high-mass young stars, and (4) young brown dwarfs emit X-rays similar to those of low-mass young stars.

  4. Probing The New Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Zentner, A R

    2003-01-01

    Improvements in observational techniques have transformed cosmology into a field inundated with ever-expanding, high-quality data sets and driven cosmology toward a standard model where the classic cosmological parameters are accurately measured. I briefly discuss some of the methods used to determine cosmological parameters, particularly primordial nucleosynthesis, the magnitude- redshift relation of supernovae, and cosmic microwave background anisotropy. I demonstrate how cosmological data can be used to complement particle physics and constrain extensions to the Standard Model. Specifically, I present bounds on light particle species and the properties of unstable, weakly-interacting, massive particles. Despite the myriad successes of the emerging standard cosmological model, unanswered questions linger. Numerical simulations of structure formation predict galactic central densities that are considerably higher than observed. They also reveal hundreds of satellites orbiting Milky Way-like galaxies while th...

  5. Cosmology and time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balbi Amedeo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Time has always played a crucial role in cosmology. I review some of the aspects of the present cosmological model which are more directly related to time, such as: the definition of a cosmic time; the existence of typical timescales and epochs in an expanding universe; the problem of the initial singularity and the origin of time; the cosmological arrow of time.

  6. An X-ray Tour of Massive Star-forming Regions with Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Townsley, L K

    2006-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory is providing fascinating new views of massive star-forming regions, revealing all stages in the life cycles of massive stars and their effects on their surroundings. I present a Chandra tour of some of the most famous of these regions: M17, NGC 3576, W3, Tr14 in Carina, and 30 Doradus. Chandra highlights the physical processes that characterize the lives of these clusters, from the ionizing sources of ultracompact HII regions (W3) to superbubbles so large that they shape our views of galaxies (30 Dor). X-ray observations usually reveal hundreds of pre-main sequence (lower-mass) stars accompanying the OB stars that power these great HII region complexes, although in one case (W3 North) this population is mysteriously absent. The most massive stars themselves are often anomalously hard X-ray emitters; this may be a new indicator of close binarity. These complexes are sometimes suffused by soft diffuse X-rays (M17, NGC 3576), signatures of multi-million-degree plasmas created by fas...

  7. Sociology of Modern Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Corredoira, M.

    2009-08-01

    Certain results of observational cosmology cast critical doubt on the foundations of standard cosmology but leave most cosmologists untroubled. Alternative cosmological models that differ from the Big Bang have been published and defended by heterodox scientists; however, most cosmologists do not heed these. This may be because standard theory is correct and all other ideas and criticisms are incorrect, but it is also to a great extent due to sociological phenomena such as the ``snowball effect'' or ``groupthink''. We might wonder whether cosmology, the study of the Universe as a whole, is a science like other branches of physics or just a dominant ideology.

  8. Inhomogeneous Big Bang Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Wagh, S M

    2002-01-01

    In this letter, we outline an inhomogeneous model of the Big Bang cosmology. For the inhomogeneous spacetime used here, the universe originates in the infinite past as the one dominated by vacuum energy and ends in the infinite future as the one consisting of "hot and relativistic" matter. The spatial distribution of matter in the considered inhomogeneous spacetime is {\\em arbitrary}. Hence, observed structures can arise in this cosmology from suitable "initial" density contrast. Different problems of the standard model of Big Bang cosmology are also resolved in the present inhomogeneous model. This inhomogeneous model of the Big Bang Cosmology predicts "hot death" for the universe.

  9. Chandra Observations of SNR RCW 103

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Kari A; Park, Sangwook

    2015-01-01

    We analyze three Chandra observations, with a combined exposure time of 99 ks, of the Galactic supernova remnant RCW 103, a young supernova remnant, previously with no clear detection of metal-rich ejecta. Based on our imaging and spectral analyses of these deep Chandra data, we find evidence for metal-rich ejecta emission scattered throughout the remnant. X-ray emission from the shocked ejecta is generally weak, and the shocked circumstellar medium (CSM) is a largely dominant component across the entire remnant. The CSM component shows abundances of ~0.5 solar, while Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe abundances of the ejecta are up to a few times solar. Comparison of these ejecta abundances with yields from supernova nucleosynthesis models suggests, together with the existence of a central neutron star, a progenitor mass of ~18-20 M$_\\odot$, though the Fe/Si ratios are larger than predicted. The shocked CSM emission suggests a progenitor with high mass-loss rate and subsolar metallicity.

  10. Stellar Forensics with Striking Image from Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    A spectacular new image shows how complex a star's afterlife can be. By studying the details of this image made from a long observation by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, astronomers can better understand how some stars die and disperse elements like oxygen into the next generation of stars and planets. At a distance of about 20,000 light years, G292.0+1.8 is one of only three supernova remnants in the Milky Way known to contain large amounts of oxygen. The image shows a rapidly expanding, intricately structured, debris field that contains, along with oxygen, other elements such as neon and silicon that were forged in the star before it exploded. Hard X-ray Image of G292.0+1.8 Hard X-ray Image of G292.0+1.8 "We are finding that, just like snowflakes, each supernova remnant is complicated and beautiful in its own way," said Sangwook Park of Penn State who led the work, released in conjunction with the "8 Years of Chandra" symposium in Huntsville, Ala. The new, deep Chandra image - equaling nearly 6 days worth of observing time - shows an incredibly complex structure. Understanding the details of G292.0+1.8 is especially important because astronomers have considered it to be a "textbook" case of a supernova created by the death of a massive star. Chandra X-ray Image of G292.0+1.8 Chandra X-ray Image of G292.0+1.8 By mapping the distribution of X-rays in different energy bands, the Chandra image traces the distribution of chemical elements ejected in the supernova. The results imply that the explosion was not symmetrical. For example, blue (silicon and sulfur) and green (magnesium) are seen strongly in the upper right, while yellow and orange (oxygen) dominate the lower left. These elements light up at different temperatures, indicating that the temperature is higher in the upper right portion of G292.0+1.8. Slightly below and to the left of the center of G292.0+1.8 is a pulsar, a dense, rapidly rotating neutron star that remained behind after the original star

  11. Cosmological Parameters from Redshift-Space Correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Matsubara, T; Matsubara, Takahiko; Szalay, Alexander S.

    2002-01-01

    We estimate how clustering in large-scale redshift surveys can constrain various cosmological parameters. Depth and sky coverage of modern redshift surveys are greater than ever, opening new possibilities for statistical analysis. We have constructed a novel maximum likelihood technique applicable to deep redshift surveys of wide sky coverage by taking into account the effects of both curvature and linear velocity distortions. The Fisher information matrix is evaluated numerically to show the bounds derived from a given redshift sample. We find that intermediate-redshift galaxies, such as the Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, can constrain cosmological parameters, including the cosmological constant, unexpectedly well. The importance of the dense as well as deep sampling in designing redshift surveys is emphasized.

  12. String Cosmology: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAllister, Liam P.; Silverstein, Eva

    2007-10-22

    We give an overview of the status of string cosmology. We explain the motivation for the subject, outline the main problems, and assess some of the proposed solutions. Our focus is on those aspects of cosmology that benefit from the structure of an ultraviolet-complete theory.

  13. Dwarf-Galaxy Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Schulte-Ladbeck, Regina; Brinks, Elias; Kravtsov, Andrey

    2010-01-01

    Dwarf galaxies provide opportunities for drawing inferences about the processes in the early universe by observing our "cosmological backyard"-the Local Group and its vicinity. This special issue of the open-access journal Advances in Astronomy is a snapshot of the current state of the art of dwarf-galaxy cosmology.

  14. Phantom cosmologies and fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Chimento, Luis P; Forte, Monica; Kremer, Gilberto M

    2007-01-01

    Form invariance transformations can be used for constructing phantom cosmologies starting with conventional cosmological models. In this work we reconsider the scalar field case and extend the discussion to fermionic fields, where the "phantomization" process exhibits a new class of possible accelerated regimes.

  15. Perspectives in cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilenkin, Alexander, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.ed [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The 'new standard cosmology', based on the theory of inflation, has very impressive observational support. I review some outstanding problems of the new cosmology and the global view of the universe - the multiverse - that it suggests. I focus in particular on prospects for further observational tests of inflation and of the multiverse.

  16. Introduction to cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Ryden, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    Introduction to Cosmology provides a rare combination of a solid foundation of the core physical concepts of cosmology and the most recent astronomical observations. The book is designed for advanced undergraduates or beginning graduate students and assumes no prior knowledge of general relativity. An emphasis is placed on developing the readers' physical insight rather than losing them with complex math. An approachable writing style and wealth of fresh and imaginative analogies from "everyday" physics are used to make the concepts of cosmology more accessible. The book is unique in that it not only includes recent major developments in cosmology, like the cosmological constant and accelerating universe, but also anticipates key developments expected in the next few years, such as detailed results on the cosmic microwave background.

  17. BMS in Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Kehagias, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Symmetries play an interesting role in cosmology. They are useful in characterizing the cosmological perturbations generated during inflation and lead to consistency relations involving the soft limit of the statistical correlators of large-scale structure dark matter and galaxies overdensities. On the other hand, in observational cosmology the carriers of the information about these large-scale statistical distributions are light rays traveling on null geodesics. Motivated by this simple consideration, we study the structure of null infinity and the associated BMS symmetry in a cosmological setting. For decelerating Friedmann-Robertson-Walker backgrounds, for which future null infinity exists, we find that the BMS transformations which leaves the asymptotic metric invariant to leading order. Contrary to the asymptotic flat case, the BMS transformations in cosmology generate Goldstone modes corresponding to both scalar and tensor degrees of freedom which may exist at null infinity and perturb the asymptotic d...

  18. Preferred axis in cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Wen

    2016-01-01

    The foundation of modern cosmology relies on the so-called cosmological principle which states an homogeneous and isotropic distribution of matter in the universe on large scales. However, recent observations, such as the temperature anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, the motion of galaxies in the universe, the polarization of quasars and the acceleration of the cosmic expansion, indicate preferred directions in the sky. If these directions have a cosmological origin, the cosmological principle would be violated, and modern cosmology should be reconsidered. In this paper, by considering the preferred axis in the CMB parity violation, we find that it coincides with the preferred axes in CMB quadrupole and CMB octopole, and they all align with the direction of the CMB kinematic dipole. In addition, the preferred directions in the velocity flows, quasar alignment, anisotropy of the cosmic acceleration, the handedness of spiral galaxies, and the angular distribution of the fine-structu...

  19. Classical and quantum cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Calcagni, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    This comprehensive textbook is devoted to classical and quantum cosmology, with particular emphasis on modern approaches to quantum gravity and string theory and on their observational imprint. It covers major challenges in theoretical physics such as the big bang and the cosmological constant problem. An extensive review of standard cosmology, the cosmic microwave background, inflation and dark energy sets the scene for the phenomenological application of all the main quantum-gravity and string-theory models of cosmology. Born of the author's teaching experience and commitment to bridging the gap between cosmologists and theoreticians working beyond the established laws of particle physics and general relativity, this is a unique text where quantum-gravity approaches and string theory are treated on an equal footing. As well as introducing cosmology to undergraduate and graduate students with its pedagogical presentation and the help of 45 solved exercises, this book, which includes an ambitious bibliography...

  20. Cosmology and particle physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Michael S.

    1988-01-01

    The interplay between cosmology and elementary particle physics is discussed. The standard cosmology is reviewed, concentrating on primordial nucleosynthesis and discussing how the standard cosmology has been used to place constraints on the properties of various particles. Baryogenesis is discussed, showing how a scenario in which the B-, C-, and CP-violating interactions in GUTs provide a dynamical explanation for the predominance of matter over antimatter and for the present baryon-to-photon ratio. It is shown how the very early dynamical evolution of a very weakly coupled scalar field which is initially displaced from the minimum of its potential may explain a handful of very fundamental cosmological facts which are not explained by the standard cosmology.

  1. A Taste of Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Verde, L

    2013-01-01

    This is the summary of two lectures that aim to give an overview of cosmology. I will not try to be too rigorous in derivations, nor to give a full historical overview. The idea is to provide a "taste" of cosmology and some of the interesting topics it covers. The standard cosmological model is presented and I highlight the successes of cosmology over the past decade or so. Keys to the development of the standard cosmological model are observations of the cosmic microwave background and of large-scale structure, which are introduced. Inflation and dark energy and the outlook for the future are also discussed. Slides from the lectures are available from the school website: physicschool.web.cern.ch/PhysicSchool/CLASHEP/CLASHEP2011/.

  2. The relation between mass and concentration in X-ray galaxy clusters at high redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Amodeo, Stefania; Capasso, Raffaella; Sereno, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy clusters are the most recent, gravitationally-bound products of the hierarchical mass accretion over cosmological scales. How the mass is concentrated is predicted to correlate with the total mass in the cluster's halo, with systems at higher mass being less concentrated at given redshift and for any given mass, systems with lower concentration are found at higher redshifts. Through a spatial and spectral X-ray analysis, we reconstruct the total mass profile of 47 galaxy clusters observed with Chandra in the redshift range $0.40.4$, and is well suited to provide the first constraint on the concentration--mass relation at $z>0.7$ from X-ray analysis. Under the assumptions that the distribution of the X-ray emitting gas is spherically symmetric and in hydrostatic equilibrium, we combine the deprojected gas density and spectral temperature profiles through the hydrostatic equilibrium equation to recover the parameters that describe a NFW total mass distribution. The comparison with results from weak lensi...

  3. The ICM power spectrum: probing the gas physics of galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspari, M.; Churazov, E.; Zhuravleva, I.; Lau, E.; Nagai, D.

    2014-07-01

    Exploring the power spectrum of fluctuations in the intracluster medium can deeply improve our knowledge of galaxy cluster physics, in analogy to what the cosmology field has experienced with CMB studies during the last decade. The normalization of the ICM spectrum (related to density, entropy, or pressure fluctuations) is linearly linked to the level of large-scale motions, which excite gravity and sound waves. The slope of the spectrum reflects instead the competition between the turbulence cascade and diffusive processes, which act to damp fluctuations and smooth the X-ray surface brightness images. Using high-resolution 3D plasma simulations in realistic galaxy clusters, we probe the behavior of the ICM power spectrum under different physics, such as turbulence and thermal conduction. We test our spectral modeling on deep X-ray observations of Coma cluster, retrieving mild subsonic turbulence and strongly suppressed conduction. Being able to probe the (astro)physics of the diffuse medium or, for instance, to easily retrieve the gas motions from the thermodynamic fluctuations, is a powerful tool with profound implications for the evolution of baryons in the universe, which can be exploited by the current (XMM-Newton, Chandra) and future (e.g. Astro-H, Athena+) generation of X-ray telescopes.

  4. Chandra's View of Tycho's Supernova Remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This Chandra image reveals, in detail, the turbulent debris created by a supernova explosion that was observed by the Danish Astronomer Tycho Brahe in the year 1572. The colors show different x-ray energies, with red, green, and blue representing low, medium, and high energies, respectively. Most likely caused by the destruction of a white dwarf star, a shock wave produced by the expanding debris is outlined by the sharp blue circular arcs of 20 million degree Celsius gas seen on the outer rim. The stellar debris, visible only by x-ray, has a temperature of about 10 million degrees, and shows up as mottled yellow, green, and red fingers of gas.

  5. Chandra data archive operations: lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollough, Michael L.; Rots, Arnold H.; Winkelman, Sherry L.

    2006-06-01

    We present a discussion of the lessons learned from establishing and operating the Chandra Data Archive (CDA). We offer an overview of the archive, what preparations were done before launch, the transition to operations, actual operations, and some of the unexpected developments that had to be addressed in running the archive. From this experience we highlight some of the important issues that need to be addressed in the creation and running of an archive for a major project. Among these are the importance of data format standards; the integration of the archive with the rest of the mission; requirements throughout all phases of the mission; operational requirements; what to expect at launch; the user interfaces; how to anticipate new tasks; and overall importance of team management and organization.

  6. A Multiwavelength Analysis of the Strong Lensing Cluster RCS 022434-0002.5 at z=0.778

    CERN Document Server

    Hicks, Amalia K; Hoekstra, Henk; Gladders, Mike; Yee, Howard; Bautz, Mark; Gilbank, David; Webb, Tracy; Ivison, Rob

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of two (101 ks total) Chandra observations of the z=0.778 optically selected lensing cluster RCS022434-0002.5, along with weak lensing and dynamical analyses of this object. An X-ray spectrum extracted within R(2500) (362 h(70)^(-1) kpc) results in an integrated cluster temperature of 5.1 (+0.9,-0.5) keV. The surface brightness profile of RCS022434-0002.5 indicates the presence of a slight excess of emission in the core. A hardness ratio image of this object reveals that this central emission is primarily produced by soft X-rays. Further investigation yields a cluster cooling time of 3.3 times 10^9 years, which is less than half of the age of the universe at this redshift given the current LCDM cosmology. A weak lensing analysis is performed using HST images, and our weak lensing mass estimate is found to be in good agreement with the X-ray determined mass of the cluster. Spectroscopic analysis reveals that RCS022434-0002.5 has a velocity dispersion of 900 +/- 180 km/s, consistent with ...

  7. The BMW-Chandra Serendipitous Source Catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, P.; Campana, S.; Mignani, R. P.; Moretti, A.; Panzera, M. R.; Tagliaferri, G.

    We present the BMW-Chandra Source Catalogue drawn from all Chandra ACIS-I pointed observations with an exposure time in excess of 10 ks public as of March 2003 (136 observations). Using the wavelet detection algorithm developed by \\citep{Lazzatiea99} and \\citep{Campanaea99}, which can characterize point-like as well as extended sources, we identified 21325 sources which were visually inspected and verified. Among them, 16758 are not associated with the targets of the pointings and are considered certain; they have a 0.5-10 keV absorption corrected flux distribution median of ˜ 7 × 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1. The catalogue consists of source positions, count rates, extensions and relative errors in three energy bands (total, 0.5-7 keV; soft, 0.5-2 keV; and hard band, 2-7 keV), as well as the additional information drawn from the headers of the original files. We also extracted source counts in four additional energy bands, (0.5-1.0 keV, 1.0-2.0 keV, 2.0-4.0 keV and 4.0-7.0 keV). We compute the sky coverage in the soft and hard bands. The complete catalogue provides a sky coverage in the soft band (0.5-2 keV, S/N =3) of ˜ 8 deg2 at a limiting flux of ˜ 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1, and ˜ 2 deg2 at a limiting flux of ˜ 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1. http://www.merate.mi.astro.it/~xanadu/BMC/bmc_home.html

  8. Chandra Survey of Nearby Galaxies: The Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Rui; Ho, Luis C.; Feng, Hua

    2017-02-01

    We searched the public archive of the Chandra X-ray Observatory as of 2016 March and assembled a sample of 719 galaxies within 50 Mpc with available Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer observations. By cross-correlation with the optical or near-infrared nuclei of these galaxies, 314 of them are identified to have an X-ray active galactic nucleus (AGN). The majority of them are low-luminosity AGNs and are unlikely X-ray binaries based upon their spatial distribution and luminosity functions. The AGN fraction is around 60% for elliptical galaxies and early-type spirals, but drops to roughly 20% for Sc and later types, consistent with previous findings in the optical. However, the X-ray survey is more powerful in finding weak AGNs, especially from regions with active star formation that may mask the optical AGN signature. For example, 31% of the H ii nuclei are found to harbor an X-ray AGN. For most objects, a single power-law model subject to interstellar absorption is adequate to fit the spectrum, and the typical photon index is found to be around 1.8. For galaxies with a non-detection, their stacked Chandra image shows an X-ray excess with a luminosity of a few times 1037 erg s‑1 on average around the nuclear region, possibly composed of faint X-ray binaries. This paper reports on the technique and results of the survey; in-depth analysis and discussion of the results will be reported in forthcoming papers.

  9. The Young Stellar Population in M17 Revealed by Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broos, Patrick S.; Feigelson, Eric D.; Townsley, Leisa K.; Getman, Konstantin V.; Wang, Junfeng; Garmire, Gordon P.; Jiang, Zhibo; Tsuboi, Yohko

    2007-04-01

    We report here results from a Chandra ACIS observation of the stellar populations in and around the M17 H II region. The field reveals 886 sources with observed X-ray luminosities (uncorrected for absorption) between ˜29.3 ergs s-1tables of X-ray source properties, several results are presented: 1. The X-ray luminosity function is calibrated to that of the Orion Nebula Cluster population to infer a total population of roughly 8000-10,000 stars in M17, one-third lying in the central NGC 6618 cluster. 2. About 40% of the ACIS sources are heavily obscured with AV>10 mag. Some are concentrated around well-studied star-forming regions -- IRS 5/UC1, the Kleinmann-Wright Object, and M17-North -- but most are distributed across the field. As previously shown, star formation appears to be widely distributed in the molecular clouds. X-ray emission is detected from 64 of the hundreds of Class I protostar candidates that can be identified by near- and mid-infrared colors. These constitute the most likely protostar candidates known in M17. 3. The spatial distribution of X-ray stars is complex: in addition to the central NGC 6618 cluster and well-known embedded groups, we find a new embedded cluster (designated M17-X), a 2 pc long arc of young stars along the southwest edge of the M17 H II region, and 0.1 pc substructure within various populations. These structures may indicate that the populations are dynamically young. 4. All (14/14) of the known O stars but only about half (19/34) of the known B0-B3 stars in the M17 field are detected. These stars exhibit the long-reported correlation between X-ray and bolometric luminosities of LX˜10-7Lbol. While many O and early-B stars show the soft X-ray emission expected from microshocks in their winds or moderately hard emission that could be caused by magnetically channeled wind shocks, six of these stars exhibit very hard thermal plasma components (kT>4 keV) that may be due to colliding wind binaries. More than 100 candidate new OB

  10. Cluster Mass Calibration at High Redshift: HST Weak Lensing Analysis of 13 Distant Galaxy Clusters from the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrabback, T.; et al.

    2016-11-11

    We present an HST/ACS weak gravitational lensing analysis of 13 massive high-redshift (z_median=0.88) galaxy clusters discovered in the South Pole Telescope (SPT) Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Survey. This study is part of a larger campaign that aims to robustly calibrate mass-observable scaling relations over a wide range in redshift to enable improved cosmological constraints from the SPT cluster sample. We introduce new strategies to ensure that systematics in the lensing analysis do not degrade constraints on cluster scaling relations significantly. First, we efficiently remove cluster members from the source sample by selecting very blue galaxies in V-I colour. Our estimate of the source redshift distribution is based on CANDELS data, where we carefully mimic the source selection criteria of the cluster fields. We apply a statistical correction for systematic photometric redshift errors as derived from Hubble Ultra Deep Field data and verified through spatial cross-correlations. We account for the impact of lensing magnification on the source redshift distribution, finding that this is particularly relevant for shallower surveys. Finally, we account for biases in the mass modelling caused by miscentring and uncertainties in the mass-concentration relation using simulations. In combination with temperature estimates from Chandra we constrain the normalisation of the mass-temperature scaling relation ln(E(z) M_500c/10^14 M_sun)=A+1.5 ln(kT/7.2keV) to A=1.81^{+0.24}_{-0.14}(stat.) +/- 0.09(sys.), consistent with self-similar redshift evolution when compared to lower redshift samples. Additionally, the lensing data constrain the average concentration of the clusters to c_200c=5.6^{+3.7}_{-1.8}.

  11. Deep Chandra Observations of the Extended Gas Sloshing Spiral in A2029

    CERN Document Server

    Paterno-Mahler, Rachel; Randall, Scott W; Clarke, Tracy E

    2013-01-01

    Recent X-ray observations of galaxy clusters have shown that there is substructure present in the intracluster medium (ICM), even in clusters that are seemingly relaxed. This substructure is sometimes a result of sloshing of the ICM, which occurs in cool core clusters that have been disturbed by an off-axis merger with a sub-cluster or group. We present deep Chandra observations of the cool core cluster Abell 2029, which has a sloshing spiral extending radially outward from the center of the cluster to approximately 400 kpc at its fullest extent---the largest continuous spiral observed to date. We find a surface brightness excess, a temperature decrement, a density enhancement, an elemental abundance enhancement, and a smooth pressure profile in the area of the spiral. The sloshing gas seems to be interacting with the southern lobe of the central radio galaxy, causing it to bend and giving the radio source a wide-angle tail (WAT) morphology. This shows that WATs can be produced in clusters that are relatively...

  12. BMS in cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehagias, A.; Riotto, A.

    2016-05-01

    Symmetries play an interesting role in cosmology. They are useful in characterizing the cosmological perturbations generated during inflation and lead to consistency relations involving the soft limit of the statistical correlators of large-scale structure dark matter and galaxies overdensities. On the other hand, in observational cosmology the carriers of the information about these large-scale statistical distributions are light rays traveling on null geodesics. Motivated by this simple consideration, we study the structure of null infinity and the associated BMS symmetry in a cosmological setting. For decelerating Friedmann-Robertson-Walker backgrounds, for which future null infinity exists, we find that the BMS transformations which leaves the asymptotic metric invariant to leading order. Contrary to the asymptotic flat case, the BMS transformations in cosmology generate Goldstone modes corresponding to scalar, vector and tensor degrees of freedom which may exist at null infinity and perturb the asymptotic data. Therefore, BMS transformations generate physically inequivalent vacua as they populate the universe at null infinity with these physical degrees of freedom. We also discuss the gravitational memory effect when cosmological expansion is taken into account. In this case, there are extra contribution to the gravitational memory due to the tail of the retarded Green functions which are supported not only on the light-cone, but also in its interior. The gravitational memory effect can be understood also from an asymptotic point of view as a transition among cosmological BMS-related vacua.

  13. BMS in cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehagias, A. [Physics Division, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Zografou Campus, Athens (Greece); Riotto, A. [Department of Theoretical Physics,24 quai E. Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Center for Astroparticle Physics (CAP),24 quai E. Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)

    2016-05-25

    Symmetries play an interesting role in cosmology. They are useful in characterizing the cosmological perturbations generated during inflation and lead to consistency relations involving the soft limit of the statistical correlators of large-scale structure dark matter and galaxies overdensities. On the other hand, in observational cosmology the carriers of the information about these large-scale statistical distributions are light rays traveling on null geodesics. Motivated by this simple consideration, we study the structure of null infinity and the associated BMS symmetry in a cosmological setting. For decelerating Friedmann-Robertson-Walker backgrounds, for which future null infinity exists, we find that the BMS transformations which leaves the asymptotic metric invariant to leading order. Contrary to the asymptotic flat case, the BMS transformations in cosmology generate Goldstone modes corresponding to scalar, vector and tensor degrees of freedom which may exist at null infinity and perturb the asymptotic data. Therefore, BMS transformations generate physically inequivalent vacua as they populate the universe at null infinity with these physical degrees of freedom. We also discuss the gravitational memory effect when cosmological expansion is taken into account. In this case, there are extra contribution to the gravitational memory due to the tail of the retarded Green functions which are supported not only on the light-cone, but also in its interior. The gravitational memory effect can be understood also from an asymptotic point of view as a transition among cosmological BMS-related vacua.

  14. Unimodular-mimetic cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojiri, S.; Odintsov, S. D.; Oikonomou, V. K.

    2016-06-01

    We combine the unimodular gravity and mimetic gravity theories into a unified theoretical framework, which is proposed to provide a suggestive proposal for a framework that may assist in the discussion and search for a solution to the cosmological constant problem and the dark matter issue. After providing the formulation of the unimodular mimetic gravity and investigating all the new features that the vacuum unimodular gravity implies, by using the underlying reconstruction method, we realize some well known cosmological evolutions, with some of these being exotic for the ordinary Einstein-Hilbert gravity. Specifically we provide the vacuum unimodular mimetic gravity description of the de Sitter cosmology and of the perfect fluid with constant equation of state cosmology. As we demonstrate, these cosmologies can be realized by vacuum mimetic unimodular gravity, without the existence of any matter fluid source. Moreover, we investigate how cosmologically viable cosmologies, which are compatible with the recent observational data, can be realized by the vacuum unimodular mimetic gravity. Since in some cases, a graceful exit from inflation problem might exist, we provide a qualitative description of the mechanism that can potentially generate the graceful exit from inflation in these theories, by searching for the unstable de Sitter solutions in the context of unimodular mimetic theories of gravity.

  15. Magnetogenesis in bouncing cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Peng; Cai, Yi-Fu; Easson, Damien A.; Guo, Zong-Kuan

    2016-10-01

    We consider the process of magnetogenesis in the context of nonsingular bounce cosmology. We show that large primordial magnetic fields can be generated during contraction without encountering strong coupling and backreaction issues. The fields may seed large-scale magnetic fields with observationally interesting strengths. This result leads to a theoretical constraint on the relation of the energy scale of the bounce cosmology to the number of effective e -foldings of the contracting phase in the case of scale invariance for the power spectrum of primordial magnetic fields. We show that this constraint can be satisfied in a sizable region of the parameter space for the nonsingular bounce cosmology.

  16. Magnetogenesis in bouncing cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, Peng; Easson, Damien A; Guo, Zong-Kuan

    2016-01-01

    We consider the process of magnetogenesis in the context of nonsingular bounce cosmology. We show that large primordial magnetic fields can be generated during contraction without encountering strong coupling and backreaction issues. The fields may seed large-scale magnetic fields with observationally interesting strengths. This result leads to a theoretical constraint on the relation of the energy scale of the bounce cosmology to the number of effective e-folding of the contracting phase in the case of scale invariance for the power spectrum of primordial magnetic fields. We show that this constraint can be satisfied in a sizable region of the parameter space for the nonsingular bounce cosmology.

  17. Cosmology, Epistemology and Chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Wasaburo

    1992-03-01

    We may consider the following three fundamental epistemological questions concerning cosmology. Can cosmology at last understand the origin of the universe? Can computers at last create? Can life be formed at last synthetically? These questions are in some sense related to the liar paradox containing the self-reference and, therefore, may not be answered by recursive processes in finite time. There are, however, various implications such that the chaos may break the trap of the self- reference paradox. In other words, Goedel's incompleteness theorem would not apply to chaos, even if the chaos can be generated by recursive processes. Internal relations among cosmology, epistemology and chaos must be investigated in greater detail

  18. Cosmology Theory and Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Dolgov, A D

    1998-01-01

    The comparison of the Standard Cosmological Model (SCM) with astronomical observations, i.e. theory versus experiment, and with the Minimal Standard Model (MSM) in particle physics, i.e. theory versus theory, is discussed. The main issue of this talk is whether cosmology indicates new physics beyond the standard $SU(3)\\times SU(2)\\times U(1)$ model with minimal particle content. The answer to this question is strongly and definitely "YES". New, yet unknown, physics exists and cosmology presents very weighty arguments in its favor.

  19. Neutrino properties from cosmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannestad, S.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years precision cosmology has become an increasingly powerful probe of particle physics. Perhaps the prime example of this is the very stringent cosmological upper bound on the neutrino mass. However, other aspects of neutrino physics, such as their decoupling history and possible non......-standard interactions, can also be probed using observations of cosmic structure. Here, I review the current status of cosmological bounds on neutrino properties and discuss the potential of future observations, for example by the recently approved EUCLID mission, to precisely measure neutrino properties....

  20. Cosmological Ontology and Epistemology

    CERN Document Server

    Page, Don N

    2014-01-01

    In cosmology, we would like to explain our observations and predict future observations from theories of the entire universe. Such cosmological theories make ontological assumptions of what entities exist and what their properties and relationships are. One must also make epistemological assumptions or metatheories of how one can test cosmological theories. Here I shall propose a Bayesian analysis in which the likelihood of a complete theory is given by the normalized measure it assigns to the observation used to test the theory. In this context, a discussion is given of the trade-off between prior probabilities and likelihoods, of the measure problem of cosmology, of the death of Born's rule, of the Boltzmann brain problem, of whether there is a better principle for prior probabilities than mathematical simplicity, and of an Optimal Argument for the Existence of God.

  1. Introduction to cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Ryden, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This second edition of Introduction to Cosmology is an exciting update of an award-winning textbook. It is aimed primarily at advanced undergraduate students in physics and astronomy, but is also useful as a supplementary text at higher levels. It explains modern cosmological concepts, such as dark energy, in the context of the Big Bang theory. Its clear, lucid writing style, with a wealth of useful everyday analogies, makes it exceptionally engaging. Emphasis is placed on the links between theoretical concepts of cosmology and the observable properties of the universe, building deeper physical insights in the reader. The second edition includes recent observational results, fuller descriptions of special and general relativity, expanded discussions of dark energy, and a new chapter on baryonic matter that makes up stars and galaxies. It is an ideal textbook for the era of precision cosmology in the accelerating universe.

  2. Tensors, relativity, and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Dalarsson, Mirjana

    2015-01-01

    Tensors, Relativity, and Cosmology, Second Edition, combines relativity, astrophysics, and cosmology in a single volume, providing a simplified introduction to each subject that is followed by detailed mathematical derivations. The book includes a section on general relativity that gives the case for a curved space-time, presents the mathematical background (tensor calculus, Riemannian geometry), discusses the Einstein equation and its solutions (including black holes and Penrose processes), and considers the energy-momentum tensor for various solutions. In addition, a section on relativistic astrophysics discusses stellar contraction and collapse, neutron stars and their equations of state, black holes, and accretion onto collapsed objects, with a final section on cosmology discussing cosmological models, observational tests, and scenarios for the early universe. This fully revised and updated second edition includes new material on relativistic effects, such as the behavior of clocks and measuring rods in m...

  3. Testing Fractional Action Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Shchigolev, V K

    2015-01-01

    The present work deals with a combined test of the so-called Fractional Action Cosmology (FAC) on the example of a specific model obtained by the author earlier. In this model, the effective cosmological term is proportional to the Hubble parameter squared through the so-called kinematic induction. The reason of studying this cosmological model could be explained by its ability to describe two periods of accelerated expansion, that is in agreement with the recent observations and the cosmological inflation paradigm. First of all, we put our model through the theoretical tests that gives a general conception of the influence of the model parameters on its behavior. Then, we obtain some restrictions on the principal parameters of the model, including the fractional index, by means of the observational data. Finally, the cosmography parameters and the observational data compared to the theoretical predictions are presented both analytically and graphically.

  4. Testing fractional action cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchigolev, V. K.

    2016-08-01

    The present work deals with a combined test of the so-called Fractional Action Cosmology (FAC) on the example of a specific model obtained by the author earlier. In this model, the effective cosmological term is proportional to the Hubble parameter squared through the so-called kinematic induction. The reason of studying this cosmological model could be explained by its ability to describe two periods of accelerated expansion, that is in agreement with the recent observations and the cosmological inflation paradigm. First of all, we put our model through the theoretical tests, which gives a general conception of the influence of the model parameters on its behavior. Then, we obtain some restrictions on the principal parameters of the model, including the fractional index, by means of the observational data. Finally, the cosmography parameters and the observational data compared to the theoretical predictions are presented both analytically and graphically.

  5. Cosmological diagrammatic rules

    CERN Document Server

    Giddings, Steven B

    2010-01-01

    A simple set of diagrammatic rules is formulated for perturbative evaluation of ``in-in" correlators, as is needed in cosmology and other nonequilibrium problems. These rules are both intuitive, and efficient for calculational purposes.

  6. Cosmological diagrammatic rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giddings, Steven B. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Sloth, Martin S., E-mail: giddings@physics.ucsb.edu, E-mail: sloth@cern.ch [CERN, Physics Department, Theory Unit, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    A simple set of diagrammatic rules is formulated for perturbative evaluation of ''in-in'' correlators, as is needed in cosmology and other nonequilibrium problems. These rules are both intuitive, and efficient for calculational purposes.

  7. Cosmological Probes for Supersymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Khlopov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The multi-parameter character of supersymmetric dark-matter models implies the combination of their experimental studies with astrophysical and cosmological probes. The physics of the early Universe provides nontrivial effects of non-equilibrium particles and primordial cosmological structures. Primordial black holes (PBHs are a profound signature of such structures that may arise as a cosmological consequence of supersymmetric (SUSY models. SUSY-based mechanisms of baryosynthesis can lead to the possibility of antimatter domains in a baryon asymmetric Universe. In the context of cosmoparticle physics, which studies the fundamental relationship of the micro- and macro-worlds, the development of SUSY illustrates the main principles of this approach, as the physical basis of the modern cosmology provides cross-disciplinary tests in physical and astronomical studies.

  8. Cosmology as geodesic motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, Paul K [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Wohlfarth, Mattias N R [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2004-12-07

    For gravity coupled to N scalar fields, with arbitrary potential V, it is shown that all flat (homogeneous and isotropic) cosmologies correspond to geodesics in an (N + 1)-dimensional 'augmented' target space of Lorentzian signature (1, N), timelike if V > 0, null if V = 0 and spacelike if V < 0. Accelerating cosmologies correspond to timelike geodesics that lie within an 'acceleration subcone' of the 'lightcone'. Non-flat (k = {+-}1) cosmologies are shown to evolve as projections of geodesic motion in a space of dimension N + 2, of signature (1, N + 1) for k = -1 and signature (2, N) for k = +1. This formalism is illustrated by cosmological solutions of models with an exponential potential, which are comprehensively analysed; the late-time behaviour for other potentials of current interest is deduced by comparison.

  9. Cosmology: macro and micro

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    A new approach to cosmology and space-time is developed, which emphasizes the description of the matter degrees of freedom of Einstein's theory of gravity by a family of K\\"ahler-Einstein Fano manifolds.

  10. Cosmological Probes for Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Khlopov, Maxim

    2015-01-01

    The multi-parameter character of supersymmetric dark-matter models implies the combination of their experimental studies with astrophysical and cosmological probes. The physics of the early Universe provides nontrivial effects of non-equilibrium particles and primordial cosmological structures. Primordial black holes (PBHs) are a profound signature of such structures that may arise as a cosmological consequence of supersymmetric (SUSY) models. SUSY-based mechanisms of baryosynthesis can lead to the possibility of antimatter domains in a baryon asymmetric Universe. In the context of cosmoparticle physics, which studies the fundamental relationship of the micro- and macro-worlds, the development of SUSY illustrates the main principles of this approach, as the physical basis of the modern cosmology provides cross-disciplinary tests in physical and astronomical studies.

  11. Cosmology Beyond Einstein

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Adam R

    2015-01-01

    The accelerating expansion of the Universe poses a major challenge to our understanding of fundamental physics. One promising avenue is to modify general relativity and obtain a new description of the gravitational force. Because gravitation dominates the other forces mostly on large scales, cosmological probes provide an ideal testing ground for theories of gravity. In this thesis, we describe two complementary approaches to the problem of testing gravity using cosmology. In the first part, we discuss the cosmological solutions of massive gravity and its generalisation to a bimetric theory. These theories describe a graviton with a small mass, and can potentially explain the late-time acceleration in a technically-natural way. We describe these self-accelerating solutions and investigate the cosmological perturbations in depth, beginning with an investigation of their linear stability, followed by the construction of a method for solving these perturbations in the quasistatic limit. This allows the predictio...

  12. Building Cosmological Frozen Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kastor, David

    2016-01-01

    Janis-Newman-Winicour (JNW) spacetimes generalize the Schwarzschild solution to include a massless scalar field. Although suffering from naked singularities, they share the `frozen star' features of Schwarzschild black holes. Cosmological versions of the JNW spacetimes were discovered some time ago by Husain, Martinez and Nunez and by Fonarev. Unlike Schwarzschild-deSitter black holes, these solutions are dynamical, and the scarcity of exact solutions for dynamical black holes in cosmological backgrounds motivates their further study. Here we show how the cosmological JNW spacetimes can be built, starting from simpler, static, higher dimensional, vacuum `JNW brane' solutions via two different generalized dimensional reduction schemes that together cover the full range of JNW parameter space. Cosmological versions of a BPS limit of charged dilaton black holes are also known. JNW spacetimes represent a different limiting case of the charged, dilaton black hole family. We expect that understanding this second da...

  13. Cosmological acceleration. Dark energy or modified gravity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bludman, S.

    2006-05-15

    We review the evidence for recently accelerating cosmological expansion or ''dark energy'', either a negative pressure constituent in General Relativity (Dark Energy) or modified gravity (Dark Gravity), without any constituent Dark Energy. If constituent Dark Energy does not exist, so that our universe is now dominated by pressure-free matter, Einstein gravity must be modified at low curvature. The vacuum symmetry of any Robertson-Walker universe then characterizes Dark Gravity as low- or high-curvature modifications of Einstein gravity. The dynamics of either kind of ''dark energy'' cannot be derived from the homogeneous expansion history alone, but requires also observing the growth of inhomogeneities. Present and projected observations are all consistent with a small fine tuned cosmological constant, but also allow nearly static Dark Energy or gravity modified at cosmological scales. The growth of cosmological fluctuations will potentially distinguish between static and ''dynamic'' ''dark energy''. But, cosmologically distinguishing the Concordance Model {lambda}CDM from modified gravity will require a weak lensing shear survey more ambitious than any now projected. Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati low-curvature modifications of Einstein gravity may also be detected in refined observations in the solar system (Lue and Starkman) or at the intermediate Vainstein scale (Iorio) in isolated galaxy clusters. Dark Energy's epicyclic character, failure to explain the original Cosmic Coincidence (''Why so small now?'') without fine tuning, inaccessibility to laboratory or solar system tests, along with braneworld theories, now motivate future precision solar system, Vainstein-scale and cosmological-scale studies of Dark Gravity. (Orig.)

  14. In Brief: Chandra Observatory marks 10 years in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-08-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, originally envisioned as a 5-year mission, was deployed into an elliptical orbit around Earth 10 years ago, on 23 July 1999. The most powerful X-ray telescope yet, Chandra has provided a peak into the high-energy universe and has independently confirmed the existence of dark energy. Martin Weisskopf, Chandra project scientist at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., said discoveries made possible by the observatory “have made dramatic changes to our understanding of the universe and its constituents.” “The Great Observatories program—of which Chandra is a major part—shows how astronomers need as many tools as possible to tackle the big questions out there,” said Ed Weiler, associate administrator of NASA's Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters in Washington. The Hubble Space Telescope, Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, and Spitzer Space Telescope are NASA's other Great Observatories. For more information, visit http://chandra.harvard.edu/ten/ and http://chandra.nasa.gov.

  15. Accelerating Cosmologies from Compactification

    CERN Document Server

    Townsend, P K; Townsend, Paul K.; Wohlfarth, Mattias N.R.

    2003-01-01

    A solution of the (4+n)-dimensional vacuum Einstein equations is found for which spacetime is compactified on a compact hyperbolic manifold of time-varying volume to a flat four-dimensional FLRW cosmology undergoing accelerated expansion in Einstein conformal frame. This shows that the `no-go' theorem forbidding acceleration in `standard' (time-independent) compactifications of string/M-theory does not apply to `cosmological' (time-dependent) hyperbolic compactifications.

  16. Classification of cosmological milestones

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández-Jambrina, L

    2006-01-01

    In this paper causal geodesic completeness of FLRW cosmological models is analysed in terms of generalised power expansions of the scale factor in coordinate time. The strength of the found singularities is discussed following the usual definitions due to Tipler and Krolak. It is shown that while classical cosmological models are both timelike and lightlike geodesically incomplete, certain observationally alllowed models which have been proposed recently are lightlike geodesically complete.

  17. A Planck Vacuum Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daywitt W. C.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Both the big-bang and the quasi-steady-state cosmologies originate in some type of Planck state. This paper presents a new cosmological theory based on the Planck- vacuum negative-energy state, a state consisting of a degenerate collection of negative- energy Planck particles. A heuristic look at the Einstein field equation provides a con- vincing argument that such a vacuum state could provide a theoretical explanation for the visible universe.

  18. Relativistic cosmological hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, J

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the relativistic cosmological hydrodynamic perturbations. We present the general large scale solutions of the perturbation variables valid for the general sign of three space curvature, the cosmological constant, and generally evolving background equation of state. The large scale evolution is characterized by a conserved gauge invariant quantity which is the same as a perturbed potential (or three-space curvature) in the comoving gauge.

  19. Virial mass in DGP cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Shahidi, Shahab

    2012-01-01

    In this proposal we study the problem of the virial mass discrepancy in the context of DGP brane gravity. DGP model is a kind of brane-world model such that the corrections to the usual gravity occurred in the large distance limit relative to the distance scale of the model defined as a ratio of the brane Planck scale to the bulk Planck scale. The extra dimension of this model is noncompact. This model is composed with an Einstein-Hilbert action in 5 dimensions plus an induced 4D action guarantees the existence of gravity on the brane. The importance of this model is that it can explain the self-acceleration of our universe without use of any type of dark energy. The virial mass discrepancy is an important problem in cosmology and it can be explained by dark matter. This is due to our various ways in measurement of the mass of the galaxy clusters. One of the ways we can measure the mass of a cluster of galaxies is to measure the galaxy masses and then add them up to obtain the cluster mass. Another way is to ...

  20. Dark matter and cosmological nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, D. N.

    1986-01-01

    Existing dark matter problems, i.e., dynamics, galaxy formation and inflation, are considered, along with a model which proposes dark baryons as the bulk of missing matter in a fractal universe. It is shown that no combination of dark, nonbaryonic matter can either provide a cosmological density parameter value near unity or, as in the case of high energy neutrinos, allow formation of condensed matter at epochs when quasars already existed. The possibility that correlations among galactic clusters are scale-free is discussed. Such a distribution of matter would yield a fractal of 1.2, close to a one-dimensional universe. Biasing, cosmic superstrings, and percolated explosions and hot dark matter are theoretical approaches that would satisfy the D = 1.2 fractal model of the large-scale structure of the universe and which would also allow sufficient dark matter in halos to close the universe.

  1. Chandra Studies of the X-ray gas properties of fossil systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhen-Zhen

    2016-03-01

    We study ten galaxy groups and clusters suggested in the literature to be “fossil systems (FSs)” based on Chandra observations. According to the M500 - T and LX - T relations, the gas properties of FSs are not physically distinct from ordinary galaxy groups or clusters. We also first study the fgas, 2500 - T relation and find that the FSs exhibit the same trend as ordinary systems. The gas densities of FSs within 0.1r200 are ˜ 10-3 cm-3, which is the same order of magnitude as galaxy clusters. The entropies within 01r200 (S0.1r200) of FSs are systematically lower than those inordinary galaxy groups, which is consistent with previous reports, but we find their S0.1r200 - T relation is more similar to galaxy clusters. The derived mass profiles of FSs are consistent with the Navarro, Frenk and White model in (0.1 - 1)r200, and the relation between scale radius rs and characteristic mass density δc indicates self-similarity of dark matter halos of FSs. The ranges of rs and δc for FSs are also close to those of galaxy clusters. Therefore, FSs share more common characteristics with galaxy clusters. The special birth place of the FS makes it a distinct type of galaxy system.

  2. Building cosmological frozen stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastor, David; Traschen, Jennie

    2017-02-01

    Janis–Newman–Winicour (JNW) solutions generalize Schwarzschild to include a massless scalar field. While they share the familiar infinite redshift feature of Schwarzschild, they suffer from the presence of naked singularities. Cosmological versions of JNW spacetimes were discovered some years ago, in the most general case, by Fonarev. Fonarev solutions are also plagued by naked singularities, but have the virtue, unlike e.g. Schwarzschild–deSitter, of being dynamical. Given that exact dynamical cosmological black hole solutions are scarce, Fonarev solutions merit further study. We show how Fonarev solutions can be obtained via generalized dimensional reduction from simpler static vacuum solutions. These results may lead towards constructions of actual dynamical cosmological black holes. In particular, we note that cosmological versions of extremal charged dilaton black holes are known. JNW spacetimes represent a different limiting case of the family of charged dilaton black holes, which have been important in the context of string theory, and better understanding their cosmological versions of JNW spacetimes thus provides a second data point towards finding cosmological versions of the entire family.

  3. Markov Chain Monte Carlo Joint Analysis of Chandra X-Ray Imaging Spectroscopy and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamente, Massimillano; Joy, Marshall K.; Carlstrom, John E.; Reese, Erik D.; LaRoque, Samuel J.

    2004-01-01

    X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect data can be combined to determine the distance to galaxy clusters. High-resolution X-ray data are now available from Chandra, which provides both spatial and spectral information, and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect data were obtained from the BIMA and Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) arrays. We introduce a Markov Chain Monte Carlo procedure for the joint analysis of X-ray and Sunyaev- Zel'dovich effect data. The advantages of this method are the high computational efficiency and the ability to measure simultaneously the probability distribution of all parameters of interest, such as the spatial and spectral properties of the cluster gas and also for derivative quantities such as the distance to the cluster. We demonstrate this technique by applying it to the Chandra X-ray data and the OVRO radio data for the galaxy cluster A611. Comparisons with traditional likelihood ratio methods reveal the robustness of the method. This method will be used in follow-up paper to determine the distances to a large sample of galaxy cluster.

  4. Cosmological perturbations in teleparallel Loop Quantum Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Haro, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Cosmological perturbations in Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC) could be studied from two totally different ways. The first one, called holonomy corrected LQC, is performed in the Hamiltonian framework, where the Asthekar connection is replaced by a suitable sinus function (holonomy correction), in order to have a well-defined quantum analogue. The alternative approach is based in the fact that isotropic LQC could be also obtained as a particular case of teleparallel $F(T)$ gravity (teleparallel LQC). Then, working in the Lagrangian framework and using the well-know perturbation equations in $F(T)$ gravity, we have obtained, in teleparallel LQC, the equations for scalar and tensor perturbations, and the corresponding Mukhanov-Sasaki equations. For scalar perturbations, our equation only differs from the one obtained by holonomy corrections in the velocity of sound, leading both formulations, essentially to the same scale invariant power spectrum when a matter-dominated universe is considered. However for tensor pe...

  5. String cosmology versus standard and inflationary cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Gasperini, M

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the basic, model-independent differences between the pre-big bang scenario, arising naturally in a string cosmology context, and the standard inflationary scenario. We use an unconventional approach in which the introduction of technical details is avoided as much as possible, trying to focus the reader's attention on the main conceptual aspects of both scenarios. The aim of the paper is not to conclude in favour either of one or of the other scenario, but to raise questions that are left to the reader's meditation. Warnings: the paper does not contain equations, and is not intended as a complete review of all aspects of string cosmology.

  6. Characterizing the Properties of Clusters of Galaxies As a Function of Luminosity and Redshift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K.; /MIT /Stockholm U. /SLAC; Peterson, J.R.; /Purdue U.; Madejski, G.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Goobar, A.; /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC

    2009-02-24

    We report the application of the new Monte Carlo method, Smoothed Particle Inference (SPI, described in a pair of companion papers), towards analysis and interpretation of X-ray observations of clusters of galaxies with the XMM-Newton satellite. Our sample consists of publicly available well-exposed observations of clusters at redshifts z > 0.069, totaling 101 objects. We determine the luminosity and temperature structure of the X-ray emitting gas, with the goal to quantify the scatter and the evolution of the L{sub X} - T relation, as well as to investigate the dependence on cluster substructure with redshift. This work is important for the establishment of the potential robustness of mass estimates from X-ray data which in turn is essential towards the use of clusters for measurements of cosmological parameters. We use the luminosity and temperature maps derived via the SPI technique to determine the presence of cooling cores, via measurements of luminosity and temperature contrast. The L{sub X}-T relation is investigated, and we confirm that L{sub X} {proportional_to} T{sup 3}. We find a weak redshift dependence ({proportional_to} (1 + z){sup {beta}{sub LT}}, {beta}{sub LT} = 0.50 {+-} 0.34), in contrast to some Chandra results. The level of dynamical activity is established using the 'power ratios' method, and we compare our results to previous application of this method to Chandra data for clusters. We find signs of evolution in the P{sub 3}/P{sub 0} power ratio. A new method, the 'temperature two-point correlation function', is proposed. This method is used to determine the 'power spectrum' of temperature fluctuations in the X-ray emitting gas as a function of spatial scale. We show how this method can be fruitfully used to identify cooling core clusters as well as those with disturbed structures, presumably due to on-going or recent merger activity.

  7. BOOK REVIEW: Observational Cosmology Observational Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Dale Andrew

    2013-04-01

    Observational Cosmology by Stephen Serjeant fills a niche that was underserved in the textbook market: an up-to-date, thorough cosmology textbook focused on observations, aimed at advanced undergraduates. Not everything about the book is perfect - some subjects get short shrift, in some cases jargon dominates, and there are too few exercises. Still, on the whole, the book is a welcome addition. For decades, the classic textbooks of cosmology have focused on theory. But for every Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect there is a Butcher-Oemler effect; there are as many cosmological phenomena established by observations, and only explained later by theory, as there were predicted by theory and confirmed by observations. In fact, in the last decade, there has been an explosion of new cosmological findings driven by observations. Some are so new that you won't find them mentioned in books just a few years old. So it is not just refreshing to see a book that reflects the new realities of cosmology, it is vital, if students are to truly stay up on a field that has widened in scope considerably. Observational Cosmology is filled with full-color images, and graphs from the latest experiments. How exciting it is that we live in an era where satellites and large experiments have gathered so much data to reveal astounding details about the origin of the universe and its evolution. To have all the latest data gathered together and explained in one book will be a revelation to students. In fact, at times it was to me. I've picked up modern cosmological knowledge through a patchwork of reading papers, going to colloquia, and serving on grant and telescope allocation panels. To go back and see them explained from square one, and summarized succinctly, filled in quite a few gaps in my own knowledge and corrected a few misconceptions I'd acquired along the way. To make room for all these graphs and observational details, a few things had to be left out. For one, there are few derivations

  8. Exploring Bouncing Cosmologies with Cosmological Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Yi-Fu

    2014-01-01

    In light of the recent observational data coming from the sky we have two significant directions in the field of theoretical cosmology recently. First, we are now able to make use of present observations, such as the Planck and BICEP2 data, to examine theoretical predictions from the standard inflationary $\\Lambda$CDM which were made decades of years ago. Second, we can search for new cosmological signatures as a way to explore physics beyond the standard cosmic paradigm. In particular, a subset of early universe models admit a nonsingular bouncing solution that attempts to address the issue of the big bang singularity. These models have achieved a series of considerable developments in recent years, in particular in their perturbative frameworks, which made brand-new predictions of cosmological signatures that could be visible in current and forthcoming observations. In this article we present two representative paradigms of very early universe physics. The first is the so-called new matter (or matter-ekpyro...

  9. Deep Chandra observations of Pictor A

    CERN Document Server

    Hardcastle, M J; Birkinshaw, M; Croston, J H; Goodger, J L; Marshall, H L; Perlman, E S; Siemiginowska, A; Stawarz, L; Worrall, D M

    2015-01-01

    We report on deep Chandra observations of the nearby broad-line radio galaxy Pictor A, which we combine with new Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) observations. The new X-ray data have a factor 4 more exposure than observations previously presented and span a 15-year time baseline, allowing a detailed study of the spatial, temporal and spectral properties of the AGN, jet, hotspot and lobes. We present evidence for further time variation of the jet, though the flare that we reported in previous work remains the most significantly detected time-varying feature. We also confirm previous tentative evidence for a faint counterjet. Based on the radio through X-ray spectrum of the jet and its detailed spatial structure, and on the properties of the counterjet, we argue that inverse-Compton models can be conclusively rejected, and propose that the X-ray emission from the jet is synchrotron emission from particles accelerated in the boundary layer of a relativistic jet. For the first time, we find evidence that...

  10. Chandra observations of Cygnus OB2

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Nicholas J; Drew, Janet E; Vink, Jorick S

    2011-01-01

    Cygnus OB2 is the nearest example of a massive star forming region, containing over 50 O-type stars and hundreds of B-type stars. We have analyzed two Chandra pointings in Cyg OB2, detecting ~1700 X-ray sources, of which ~1450 are thought to be members of the association. Optical and near-IR photometry has been obtained for ~90% of these sources from recent deep Galactic plane surveys. We have performed isochrone fits to the near-IR color-magnitude diagram, deriving ages of 3.5(+0.75,-1.0) and 5.25(+1.5,-1.0) Myrs for sources in the two fields, both with considerable spreads around the pre-MS isochrones. The presence of a second population in the region, somewhat older than the present-day O-type stars, has been suggested by other authors and fits with the ages derived here. The fraction of sources with inner circumstellar disks (as traced by the K-band excess) is found to be very low, but appropriate for a population of age ~5 Myrs. We measure the stellar mass functions and find a power-law slope of Gamma = ...

  11. The Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect and the MITO experiment, a project for cosmological parameters determination

    CERN Document Server

    D'Alba, L; De Petris, M; Orlando, A E; Lamagna, L; Rephaeli, Y; Colafrancesco, Sergio; Signore, M; Kreysa, E; Alba, Livia D'; Melchiorri, Francesco; Petris, Marco De; Orlando, Angiola; Lamagna, Luca; Rephaeli, Yoel; Colafrancesco, Sergio; Signore, Monique; Kreysa, Ernst

    2000-01-01

    Compton scattering of the cosmic microwave background radiation by electrons in the hot gas in clusters of galaxies - the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect - has long been recognized as a uniquely important feature, rich in cosmological and astrophysical information. Here, we briefly report a theoretical description of this effect. Moreover we discuss the importance to have high-quality clusters X-maps in order to yield an accurate value of the Hubble constant and of other cosmological parameters, strongly preferring nearby clusters observations. Finally we present the MITO experiment, devoted to the observation of the richest nearby cluster, the Coma cluster (A1656).

  12. Modern Cosmology: Assumptions and Limits

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Jai-chan

    2012-01-01

    Physical cosmology tries to understand the Universe at large with its origin and evolution. Observational and experimental situations in cosmology do not allow us to proceed purely based on the empirical means. We examine in which sense our cosmological assumptions in fact have shaped our current cosmological worldview with consequent inevitable limits. Cosmology, as other branches of science and knowledge, is a construct of human imagination reflecting the popular belief system of the era. The question at issue deserves further philosophic discussions. In Whitehead's words, "philosophy, in one of its functions, is the critic of cosmologies". (Whitehead 1925)

  13. Modern Cosmology: Assumptions and Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jai-Chan

    2012-06-01

    Physical cosmology tries to understand the Universe at large with its origin and evolution. Observational and experimental situations in cosmology do not allow us to proceed purely based on the empirical means. We examine in which sense our cosmological assumptions in fact have shaped our current cosmological worldview with consequent inevitable limits. Cosmology, as other branches of science and knowledge, is a construct of human imagination reflecting the popular belief system of the era. The question at issue deserves further philosophic discussions. In Whitehead's words, ``philosophy, in one of its functions, is the critic of cosmologies.'' (Whitehead 1925).

  14. A Full Year's Chandra Exposure on SDSS Quasars from the Chandra Multiwavelength Project

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Paul J; Richards, G T; Barkhouse, W A; Constantin, A; Haggard, D; Karovska, M; Kim, D -W; Kim, M; Vikhlinin, A; Mossman, A; Silverman, J D; Anderson, S F; Kashyap, V; Wilkes, B J; Tananbaum, H

    2008-01-01

    We study the spectral energy distributions and evolution of a large sample of optically selected quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) that were observed in 323 Chandra images analyzed by the Chandra Multiwavelength Project (ChaMP). Our highest-confidence matched sample includes 1135 X-ray detected quasars in the redshift range 0.23 QSOs detected, we find no evidence for evolution out to z~5 for either the X-ray photon index Gamma or for the ratio of optical/UV to X-ray flux alpha_ox. About 10% of detected QSOs are obscured (Nh>1E22), but the fraction might reach ~1/3 if most non-detections are absorbed. We confirm a significant correlation between alpha_ox and optical luminosity, but it flattens or disappears for fainter AGN alone. Gamma hardens significantly both towards higher X-ray luminosity, and for relatively X-ray loud quasars. These trends may represent a relative increase in non-thermal X-ray emission, and our findings thereby strengthen analogies between Galactic black hole binaries and ...

  15. A giant Ly$\\alpha$ nebula in the core of an X-ray cluster at $z=1.99$: implications for early energy injection

    CERN Document Server

    Valentino, F; Finoguenov, A; Strazzullo, V; Brun, A M C Le; Vignali, C; Bournaud, F; Dickinson, M; Renzini, A; Béthermin, M; Zanella, A; Gobat, R; Cimatti, A; Elbaz, D; Onodera, M; Pannella, M; Sargent, M T; Arimoto, N; Carollo, M; Starck, J-L

    2016-01-01

    We present the discovery of a giant $\\gtrsim$100 kpc Ly$\\alpha$ nebula detected in the core of the X-ray emitting cluster CL J1449+0856 at $z=1.99$ through Keck/LRIS narrow-band imaging. This detection extends the known relation between Ly$\\alpha$ nebulae and overdense regions of the Universe to the dense core of a $5-7\\times10^{13}$ M$_{\\odot}$ cluster. The most plausible candidates to power the nebula are two Chandra-detected AGN host cluster members. Given the physical conditions of the Ly$\\alpha$-emitting gas and the possible interplay with the X-ray phase, we argue that the Ly$\\alpha$ nebula would be short-lived ($\\lesssim10$ Myr) if not continuously replenished with cold gas at a rate of $\\gtrsim1000$ Myr. Cooling from the X-ray phase is disfavored as the replenishing mechanism, primarily because of the high Ly$\\alpha$ to X-ray luminosity ratio ($L_{\\mathrm{Ly\\alpha}}/L_{\\mathrm{X}} \\approx0.3$), $\\gtrsim10-1000\\times$ higher than in local cool-core clusters. Cosmological cold flows are disfavored by cu...

  16. BOOK REVIEW: Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joseph

    2008-11-01

    The field of cosmology has been transformed since the glorious decades of the 1920's and 1930's when theory and observation converged to develop the current model of the expanding universe. It was a triumph of the theory of general relativity and astronomy. The first revolution came when the nuclear physicists entered the fray. This marked the debut of the hot big bang, in which the light elements were synthesized in the first three minutes. It was soon realised that elements like carbon and iron were synthesized in exploding stars. However helium, as well as deuterium and lithium, remain as George Gamow envisaged, the detritus of the big bang. The climax arrived with one of the most remarkable discoveries of the twentieth century, the cosmic microwave background radiation, in 1964. The fossil glow turned out to have the spectrum of an ideal black body. One could not imagine a stronger confirmation of the hot and dense origin of the universe. This discovery set the scene for the next major advance. It was now the turn of the particle physicists, who realized that the energies attained near the beginning of the universe, and unachievable in any conceivable terrestrial accelerator, provided a unique testing ground for theories of grand unification of the fundamental forces. This led Alan Guth and Andrei Linde in 1980 to propose the theory of inflation, which solved outstanding puzzles of the big bang. One could now understand why the universe is so large and homogeneous, and the origin of the seed fluctuations that gave rise to large-scale structure. A key prediction was that the universe should have Euclidean geometry, now verified to a precision of a few percent. Modern cosmology is firmly embedded in particle physics. It merits a text written by a particle physicist who can however appreciate the contributions of astronomy that provide the foundation and infrastructure for the theory of the expanding universe. There are now several such texts available. The most

  17. Inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleban, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo

    2016-10-01

    In homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, the topology of the universe determines its ultimate fate. If the Weak Energy Condition is satisfied, open and flat universes must expand forever, while closed cosmologies can recollapse to a Big Crunch. A similar statement holds for homogeneous but anisotropic (Bianchi) universes. Here, we prove that arbitrarily inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies with ``flat'' (including toroidal) and ``open'' (including compact hyperbolic) spatial topology that are initially expanding must continue to expand forever at least in some region at a rate bounded from below by a positive number, despite the presence of arbitrarily large density fluctuations and/or the formation of black holes. Because the set of 3-manifold topologies is countable, a single integer determines the ultimate fate of the universe, and, in a specific sense, most 3-manifolds are ``flat'' or ``open''. Our result has important implications for inflation: if there is a positive cosmological constant (or suitable inflationary potential) and initial conditions for the inflaton, cosmologies with ``flat'' or ``open'' topology must expand forever in some region at least as fast as de Sitter space, and are therefore very likely to begin inflationary expansion eventually, regardless of the scale of the inflationary energy or the spectrum and amplitude of initial inhomogeneities and gravitational waves. Our result is also significant for numerical general relativity, which often makes use of periodic (toroidal) boundary conditions.

  18. Conceptual Problems in Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Vieira, F J Amaral

    2011-01-01

    In this essay a critical review of present conceptual problems in current cosmology is provided from a more philosophical point of view. In essence, a digression on how could philosophy help cosmologists in what is strictly their fundamental endeavor is presented. We start by recalling some examples of enduring confrontations among philosophers and physicists on what could be contributed by the formers to the day-time striving of the second ones. Then, a short review of the standard model Friedmann-Lema\\^itre-Robertson-Walter (FLRW) of cosmology is given. It seems apparent that cosmology is living a golden age with the advent of observations of high precision. Nonetheless, a critical revisiting of the direction in which it should go on appears also needed, for misconcepts like "quantum backgrounds for cosmological classical settings" and "quantum gravity unification" have not been properly constructed up-to-date. Thus, knowledge-building in cosmology, more than in any other field, should begin with visions of...

  19. Thermal Tachyacoustic Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Abhineet

    2014-01-01

    An intriguing possibility that can address pathologies in both early universe cosmology (i.e. the horizon problem) and quantum gravity (i.e. non-renormalizability), is that particles at very high energies and/or temperatures could propagate arbitrarily fast. A concrete realization of this possibility for the early universe is the Tachyacoustic (or Speedy Sound) cosmology, which could also produce a scale-invariant spectrum for scalar cosmological perturbations. Here, we study Thermal Tachyacoustic Cosmology (TTC), i.e. this scenario with thermal initial conditions. We find that a phase transition in the early universe, around the scale of Grand Unified Theories (GUT scale; $T\\sim 10^{15}$ GeV), during which the speed of sound drops by $25$ orders of magnitude within a Hubble time, can fit current CMB observations. We further discuss how production of primordial black holes constrains the cosmological acoustic history, while coupling TTC to Horava-Lifshitz gravity leads to a lower limit on the amplitude of ten...

  20. Thermal tachyacoustic cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Abhineet; Afshordi, Niayesh

    2014-08-01

    An intriguing possibility that can address pathologies in both early Universe cosmology (i.e. the horizon problem) and quantum gravity (i.e. nonrenormalizability), is that particles at very high energies and/or temperatures could propagate arbitrarily fast. A concrete realization of this possibility for the early Universe is the tachyacoustic (or speedy sound) cosmology, which could also produce a scale-invariant spectrum for scalar cosmological perturbations. Here, we study thermal tachyacoustic cosmology (TTC), i.e. this scenario with thermal initial conditions. We find that a phase transition in the early Universe, around the scale of the grand unified theory (GUT scale; T ˜1015 GeV), during which the speed of sound drops by 25 orders of magnitude within a Hubble time, can fit current CMB observations. We further discuss how production of primordial black holes constrains the cosmological acoustic history, while coupling TTC to Horava-Lifshitz gravity leads to a lower limit on the amplitude of tensor modes (r≳10-3), that are detectable by CMBpol (and might have already been seen by the BICEP-Keck Collaboration).

  1. Inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleban, Matthew [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University,4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Senatore, Leonardo [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University,382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94306 (United States); Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University and SLAC,2575 Sand Hill Road, M/S 29, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2016-10-12

    In homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, the topology of the universe determines its ultimate fate. If the Weak Energy Condition is satisfied, open and flat universes must expand forever, while closed cosmologies can recollapse to a Big Crunch. A similar statement holds for homogeneous but anisotropic (Bianchi) universes. Here, we prove that arbitrarily inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies with “flat” (including toroidal) and “open” (including compact hyperbolic) spatial topology that are initially expanding must continue to expand forever at least in some region at a rate bounded from below by a positive number, despite the presence of arbitrarily large density fluctuations and/or the formation of black holes. Because the set of 3-manifold topologies is countable, a single integer determines the ultimate fate of the universe, and, in a specific sense, most 3-manifolds are “flat” or “open”. Our result has important implications for inflation: if there is a positive cosmological constant (or suitable inflationary potential) and initial conditions for the inflaton, cosmologies with “flat” or “open” topology must expand forever in some region at least as fast as de Sitter space, and are therefore very likely to begin inflationary expansion eventually, regardless of the scale of the inflationary energy or the spectrum and amplitude of initial inhomogeneities and gravitational waves. Our result is also significant for numerical general relativity, which often makes use of periodic (toroidal) boundary conditions.

  2. A Deep Chandra X-ray Limit on the Putative IMBH in Omega Centauri

    CERN Document Server

    Haggard, Daryl; Heinke, Craig O; van der Marel, Roeland; Cohn, Haldan N; Lugger, Phyllis M; Anderson, Jay

    2013-01-01

    We report a sensitive X-ray search for the proposed intermediate mass black hole (IMBH) in the massive Galactic cluster, Omega Centauri (NGC 5139). Combining Chandra X-ray Observatory data from Cycles 1 and 13, we obtain a deep (~291 ks) exposure of the central regions of the cluster. We find no evidence for an X-ray point source near any of the cluster's proposed dynamical centers, and place an upper limit on the X-ray flux from a central source of f_X(0.5-7.0 keV) <= 5.0x10^-16 erg cm^-2 s^-1, after correcting for absorption. This corresponds to an unabsorbed X-ray luminosity of L_X(0.5-7.0 keV) <= 1.6x10^30 erg s^-1, for a cluster distance of 5.2 kpc, Galactic column density N_H = 1.2x10^21 cm^-2, and powerlaw spectrum with Gamma = 2.3. If a ~10^4 M_sun IMBH resides in the cluster's core, as suggested by some stellar dynamical studies, its Eddington luminosity would be L_Edd ~10^42 erg s^-1. The new X-ray limit would then establish an Eddington ratio of L_X/L_Edd <~ 10^-12, a factor of ~10 lower t...

  3. Axions : Theory and Cosmological Role

    OpenAIRE

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Nakayama, Kazunori

    2013-01-01

    We review recent developments on axion cosmology. Topics include : axion cold dark matter, axions from topological defects, axion isocurvature perturbation and its non-Gaussianity and axino/saxion cosmology in supersymmetric axion model.

  4. Cosmological Perturbations in Antigravity

    CERN Document Server

    Oltean, Marius

    2014-01-01

    We compute the evolution of cosmological perturbations in a recently proposed Weyl-symmetric theory of two scalar fields with oppositely-signed conformal couplings to Einstein gravity. It is motivated from the minimal conformal extension of the Standard Model, such that one of these scalar fields is the Higgs while the other is a new particle, the dilaton, introduced to make the Higgs mass conformally symmetric. At the background level, the theory admits novel geodesically-complete cyclic cosmological solutions characterized by a brief period of repulsive gravity, or "antigravity", during each successive transition from a Big Crunch to a Big Bang. We show that despite the necessarily wrong-signed kinetic term of the dilaton in the full action, its cosmological solutions are stable at the perturbative level.

  5. General relativity and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Bucher, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This year marks the hundredth anniversary of Einstein's 1915 landmark paper "Die Feldgleichungen der Gravitation" in which the field equations of general relativity were correctly formulated for the first time, thus rendering general relativity a complete theory. Over the subsequent hundred years physicists and astronomers have struggled with uncovering the consequences and applications of these equations. This contribution, which was written as an introduction to six chapters dealing with the connection between general relativity and cosmology that will appear in the two-volume book "One Hundred Years of General Relativity: From Genesis and Empirical Foundations to Gravitational Waves, Cosmology and Quantum Gravity," endeavors to provide a historical overview of the connection between general relativity and cosmology, two areas whose development has been closely intertwined.

  6. Time in quantum cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Bojowald, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A cosmological model with two global internal times shows that time reparameterization invariance, and therefore covariance, is not guaranteed by deparameterization. In particular, it is impossible to derive proper-time effective equations from a single deparameterized model if quantum corrections from fluctuations and higher moments are included. The framework of effective constraints shows how proper-time evolution can consistently be defined in quantum cosmological systems, such that it is time reparameterization invariant when compared with other choices of coordinate time. At the same time, it allows transformations of moment corrections in different deparameterizations of the same model, indicating partial time reparameterization of internal-time evolution. However, in addition to corrections from moments such as quantum fluctuations, also factor ordering corrections may appear. The latter generically break covariance in internal-time formulations. Fluctuation effects in quantum cosmology are therefore ...

  7. Cosmological Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Stornaiolo, C

    2002-01-01

    In this letter we propose the existence of low density black holes and discuss its compatibility with the cosmological observations. The origin of these black holes can be traced back to the collapse of long wavelength cosmological perturbations during the matter dominated era, when the densities are low enough to neglect any internal and thermal pressure. By introducing a threshold density $\\hat{\\rho}$ above which pressure and non-gravitational interactions become effective, we find the highest wavelength for the perturbations that can reach an equilibrium state instead of collapsing to a black hole. The low density black holes introduced here, if they exist, can be observed through weak and strong gravitational lensing effects. Finally we observe that we obtained here a cosmological model which is capable to explain in a qualitative way the void formation together with the value $\\Omega=1$. But we remark that it needs to be improved by considering non spherical symmetric black holes.

  8. Cosmology as Geodesic Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Townsend, P K; Townsend, Paul K.; Wohlfarth, Mattias N.R.

    2004-01-01

    For gravity coupled to N scalar fields with arbitrary potential V, it is shown that all flat (homogeneous and isotropic) cosmologies correspond to geodesics in an (N+1)-dimensional `extended target space' of Lorentzian signature (1,N), timelike if V>0 and spacelike if V<0. Accelerating cosmologies correspond to timelike geodesics that lie within an `acceleration subcone' of the `lightcone'. Non-flat (k=-1,+1) cosmologies are shown to evolve as projections of geodesic motion in a space of dimension N+2, of signature (1,N+1) for k=-1 and signature (2,N) for k=+1. We illustrate these results for various potentials of current interest, including exponential and inverse power potentials.

  9. Strongly Coupled Cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Bonometto, S A; Musco, I; Mainini, R; Maccio', A V

    2014-01-01

    Models including an energy transfer from CDM to DE are widely considered in the literature, namely to allow DE a significant high-z density. Strongly Coupled cosmologies assume a much larger coupling between DE and CDM, together with the presence of an uncoupled warm DM component, as the role of CDM is mostly restricted to radiative eras. This allows us to preserve small scale fluctuations even if the warm particle, possibly a sterile neutrino, is quite light, O(100 eV). Linear theory and numerical simulations show that these cosmologies agree with LCDM on supergalactic scales; e.g., CMB spectra are substantially identical. Simultaneously, simulations show that they significantly ease problems related to the properties of MW satellites and cores in dwarfs. SC cosmologies also open new perspectives on early black hole formation, and possibly lead towards unificating DE and inflationary scalar fields.

  10. The strained state cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Tartaglia, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Starting from some relevant facts concerning the behaviour of the universe over large scale and time span, the analogy between the geometric approach of General Relativ- ity and the classical description of an elastic strained material continuum is discussed. Extending the elastic deformation approach to four dimensions it is shown that the accelerated expansion of the universe is recovered. The strain field of space-time repro- duces properties similar to the ones ascribed to the dark energy currently called in to explain the accelerated expansion. The strain field in the primordial universe behaves as radiation, but asymptotically it reproduces the cosmological constant. Subjecting the theory to a number of cosmological tests confirms the soundness of the approach and gives an optimal value for the one parameter of the model, i.e. the bulk modulus of the space-time continuum. Finally various aspects of the Strained State Cosmology (SSC) are discussed and contrasted with some non-linear massive gravity theor...

  11. Cosmological Reflection of Particle Symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Maxim Khlopov

    2016-01-01

    The standard model involves particle symmetry and the mechanism of its breaking. Modern cosmology is based on inflationary models with baryosynthesis and dark matter/energy, which involves physics beyond the standard model. Studies of the physical basis of modern cosmology combine direct searches for new physics at accelerators with its indirect non-accelerator probes, in which cosmological consequences of particle models play an important role. The cosmological reflection of particle symmetr...

  12. Brane cosmology in teleparallel gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Atazadeh, K

    2014-01-01

    We consider cosmology of brane-world scenario in the frame work of teleparallel gravity in that way matter is localized on the brane. We show that the cosmology of such branes is different from the standard cosmology in teleparallelism. In particular, we obtain a class of new solutions with a constant five-dimensional radius and cosmologically evolving brane in the context of constant torsion $f(T)$ gravity.

  13. THE SZ EFFECT IN THE PLANCK ERA: ASTROPHYSICAL AND COSMOLOGICAL IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Colafrancesco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sunyaev–Zel’dovich effect (SZE is a relevant probe for cosmology and particle astrophysics. The Planck Era marks a definite step forward in the use of this probe for astrophysics and cosmology. Astrophysical applications to galaxy clusters, galaxies, radiogalaxies and large-scale structures are discussed. Cosmological relevance for the Dark Energy equation of state, modified Gravity scenarios, Dark Matter search, cosmic magnetism and other cosmological applications is also reviewed. Future directions for the study of the SZE and its polarization are finally outlined.

  14. Cosmology and the origin of structure

    CERN Document Server

    Kolb, Edward W; CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    2002-01-01

    There is now strong evidence that the rich and varied structure we see in the universe today in the form of stars, galaxies, galaxy clusters, and even larger structures, grew from small primordial 'seeds' that were planted in the first second in the history of the universe. The last decade has seen remarkable advances in observational cosmology, highlighted by the observations of galaxies in the deep universe and the observation of primordial fluctuations in the microwave background. With the increasing accuracy and sophistication of astronomical observations, the details of our theory for the growth of structure will be tested. These lectures will serve as an introduction to the generation and growth of structure in the universe. The series of four lectures will follow the program: Lecture 1: The observed universe Lecture 2: The growth of cosmological structure Lecture 3: Inflation and the origin of perturbations Lecture 4: Dark matter and dark energy

  15. Some Dynamical Effects of the Cosmological Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axenides, M.; Floratos, E. G.; Perivolaropoulos, L.

    Newton's law gets modified in the presence of a cosmological constant by a small repulsive term (antigravity) that is proportional to the distance. Assuming a value of the cosmological constant consistent with the recent SnIa data (Λ~=10-52 m-2), we investigate the significance of this term on various astrophysical scales. We find that on galactic scales or smaller (less than a few tens of kpc), the dynamical effects of the vacuum energy are negligible by several orders of magnitude. On scales of 1 Mpc or larger however we find that the vacuum energy can significantly affect the dynamics. For example we show that the velocity data in the local group of galaxies correspond to galactic masses increased by 35% in the presence of vacuum energy. The effect is even more important on larger low density systems like clusters of galaxies or superclusters.

  16. Fractal Cosmology in an Open Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Joyce, M; Montuori, M; Pietronero, L; Sylos-Labini, F

    2000-01-01

    The clustering of galaxies is well characterized by fractal properties, withthe presence of an eventual cross-over to homogeneity still a matter ofconsiderable debate. In this letter we discuss the cosmological implications ofa fractal distribution of matter, with a possible cross-over to homogeneity atan undetermined scale R_{homo}. Contrary to what is generally assumed, we showthat, even when R_{homo} -> \\infty, this possibility can be treatedconsistently within the framework of the expanding universe solutions ofFriedmann. The fractal is a perturbation to an open cosmology in which theleading homogeneous component is the cosmic background radiation (CBR). Thiscosmology, inspired by the observed galaxy distributions, provides a simpleexplanation for the recent data which indicate the absence of deceleration inthe expansion (q_o \\approx 0). Correspondingly the `age problem' is alsoresolved. Further we show that the model can be extended back from thecurvature dominated arbitrarily deep into the radiation dom...

  17. Cosmology with the WFIRST High Latitude Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Olivier

    Cosmic acceleration is the most surprising cosmological discovery in many decades. Testing and distinguishing among possible explanations requires cosmological measurements of extremely high precision that probe the full history of cosmic expansion and structure growth. The WFIRST-AFTA mission, as described in the Science Definition Team (SDT) reports (Spergel 2013, 2015), has the ability to improve these measurements by 1-2 orders of magnitude compared to the current state of the art, while simultaneously extending their redshift grasp, greatly improving control of systematic effects, and taking a unified approach to multiple probes that provide complementary physical information and cross-checks of cosmological results. We have assembled a team with the expertise and commitment needed to address the stringent challenges of the WFIRST dark energy program through the Project's formulation phase. After careful consideration, we have elected to address investigations A (Galaxy Redshift Survey) and C (Weak Lensing and Cluster Growth) of the WFIRST SIT NRA with a unified team, because the two investigations are tightly linked at both the technical level and the theoretical modeling level. The imaging and spectroscopic elements of the High Latitude Survey (HLS) will be realized as an integrated observing program, and they jointly impose requirements on instrument and telescope performance, operations, and data transfer. The methods for simulating and interpreting weak lensing and galaxy clustering observations largely overlap, and many members of our team have expertise in both areas. The team PI, Olivier Dore, is a cosmologist with a broad expertise in cosmic microwave background and large scale structures. Yun Wang and Chris Hirata will serve as Lead Co-Investigators for topics A and C, respectively. Many members of our team have been involved with the design and requirements of a dark energy space mission for a decade or more, including the Co-Chair and three

  18. Holographic Theory of Gravity and Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Y Jack

    2016-01-01

    According to the holographic principle, the maximum amount of information stored in a region of space scales as the area of its two-dimensional surface, like a hologram. We show that the holographic principle can be understood heuristically as originated from quantum fluctuations of spacetime. Applied to cosmology, this consideration leads to a dynamical cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ of the observed magnitude, in agreement with the result obtained for the present and recent cosmic eras, by using unimodular gravity and causal-set theory. By generalizing the concept of entropic gravity, we find a critical acceleration parameter related to $\\Lambda$ in galactic dynamics, and we construct a phenomenological model of dark matter which we call "modified dark matter" (MDM). We provide successful observational tests of MDM at both the galactic and cluster scales. We also discuss the possibility that the quanta of both dark energy and dark matter obey the quantum Boltzmann statistics or infinite statistics as descri...

  19. Fluids in cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L

    2014-01-01

    We review the role of fluids in cosmology by first introducing them in General Relativity and then applied to a FRW Universe's model. We describe how relativistic and non-relativistic components evolve in the background dynamics. We also introduce scalar fields to show that they are able to yield an inflationary dynamics at very early times (inflation) and late times (quintessence). Then, we proceed to study the thermodynamical properties of the fluids and, lastly, its perturbed kinematics. We make emphasis in the constrictions of parameters by recent cosmological probes.

  20. The Cosmological Mass Function

    CERN Document Server

    Monaco, P

    1997-01-01

    This thesis aims to review the cosmological mass function problem, both from the theoretical and the observational point of view, and to present a new mass function theory, based on realistic approximations for the dynamics of gravitational collapse. Chapter 1 gives a general introduction on gravitational dynamics in cosmological models. Chapter 2 gives a complete review of the mass function theory. Chapters 3 and 4 present the ``dynamical'' mass function theory, based on truncated Lagrangian dynamics and on the excursion set approach. Chapter 5 reviews the observational state-of-the-art and the main applications of the mass function theories described before. Finally, Chapter 6 gives conclusions and future prospects.