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Sample records for chandra acis survey

  1. A Deep Chandra ACIS Survey of M51

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, K. D.; Long, Knox S.; Kilgard, Roy E.

    2016-08-01

    We have obtained a deep X-ray image of the nearby galaxy M51 using Chandra. Here we present the catalog of X-ray sources detected in these observations and provide an overview of the properties of the point-source population. We find 298 sources within the D 25 radii of NGC 5194/5, of which 20% are variable, a dozen are classical transients, and another half dozen are transient-like sources. The typical number of active ultraluminous X-ray sources in any given observation is ˜5, and only two of those sources persist in an ultraluminous state over the 12 yr of observations. Given reasonable assumptions about the supernova remnant population, the luminosity function is well described by a power law with an index between 1.55 and 1.7, only slightly shallower than that found for populations dominated by high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs), which suggests that the binary population in NGC 5194 is also dominated by HMXBs. The luminosity function of NGC 5195 is more consistent with a low-mass X-ray binary dominated population. Based on observations made with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, which is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory under contract #NAS83060, and the data were obtained through program GO1-12115.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: A deep Chandra ACIS survey of M51 (Kuntz+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, K. D.; Long, K. S.; Kilgard, R. E.

    2016-11-01

    This deep study of M51 is composed of 107ks of archival Chandra observations, to which we have added another 745ks of observations. All of the observations were made with the ACIS-S array. M51 has been observed extensively with HST. In particular, essentially all of M51 and its companion NGC 5195 was imaged with Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) in V, R, and I (F435W, F555W, F814W) and Hα (F658N) as a Hubble Legacy Project (Proposal ID 10452, PI: S. Beckwith). (4 data files).

  3. Chandra ACIS Survey of M33 (ChASeM33): A First Look

    CERN Document Server

    Plucinsky, Paul P; Long, Knox S; Gaetz, Terrance J; Sasaki, Manami; Pietsch, Wolfgang; Tuellmann, Ralph; Smith, Randall K; Blair, William P; Helfand, David; Hughes, John P; Winkler, P Frank; de Avillez, Miguel; Bianchi, Luciana; Breitschwerdt, Dieter; Edgar, Richard J; Ghavamian, Parviz; Grindlay, Jonathan; Haberl, Frank; Kirshner, Robert; Kuntz, Kip; Mazeh, Tsevi; Pannuti, Thomas G; Shporer, Avi; Thilker, David A

    2007-01-01

    We present an overview of the Chandra ACIS Survey of M33 (ChASeM33): A Deep Survey of the Nearest Face-on Spiral Galaxy. The 1.4 Ms survey covers the galaxy out to $R \\approx 18\\arcmin (\\approx 4$ kpc). These data provide the most intensive, high spatial resolution assessment of the X-ray source populations available for the confused inner regions of M33. Mosaic images of the ChASeM33 observations show several hundred individual X-ray sources as well as soft diffuse emission from the hot interstellar medium. Bright, extended emission surrounds the nucleus and is also seen from the giant \\hii regions NGC 604 and IC 131. Fainter extended emission and numerous individual sources appear to trace the inner spiral structure. The initial source catalog, arising from $\\sim$~2/3 of the expected survey data, includes 394 sources significant at the $3\\sigma$ confidence level or greater, down to a limiting luminosity (absorbed) of $\\sim$1.6\\ergs{35} (0.35 -- 8.0 keV). The hardness ratios of the sources separate those wit...

  4. Chandra ACIS Survey of X-ray Point Sources: The Source Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Song; Qiu, Yanli; Bai, Yu; Yang, Huiqin; Guo, Jincheng; Zhang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    The $Chandra$ archival data is a valuable resource for various studies on different topics of X-ray astronomy. In this paper, we utilize this wealth and present a uniformly processed data set, which can be used to address a wide range of scientific questions. The data analysis procedures are applied to 10,029 ACIS observations, which produces 363,530 source detections, belonging to 217,828 distinct X-ray sources. This number is twice the size of the $Chandra$ Source Catalog (Version 1.1). The catalogs in this paper provide abundant estimates of the detected X-ray source properties, including source positions, counts, colors, fluxes, luminosities, variability statistics, etc. Cross-correlation of these objects with galaxies shows 17,828 sources are located within the $D_{25}$ isophotes of 1110 galaxies, and 7504 sources are located between the $D_{25}$ and 2$D_{25}$ isophotes of 910 galaxies. Contamination analysis with the log$N$--log$S$ relation indicates that 51.3\\% of objects within 2$D_{25}$ isophotes are...

  5. The Chandra ACIS Timing Survey Project: glimpsing a sample of faint X-ray pulsators

    CERN Document Server

    Israel, Gian Luca; Castillo, Guillermo Andres Rodriguez; Sidoli, Lara

    2016-01-01

    We report on the discovery of 41 new pulsating sources in the data of the Chandra Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer, which is sensitive to X-ray photons in the 0.3-10 keV band. The archival data of the first 15 years of Chandra observations were retrieved and analysed by means of fast Fourier transforms, employing a peak-detection algorithm able to screen candidate signals in an automatic fashion. We carried out the search for new X-ray pulsators in light curves with more than 50 photons, for a total of about 190,000 lightcurves out of about 430,000 extracted. With these numbers, the ChAndra Timing Survey at Brera And Roma astronomical observatories (CATS@BAR) - as we called the project - represents the largest ever systematic search for coherent signals in the classic X-ray band. More than 50 per cent of the signals were confirmed by further Chandra (for those sources with two or more pointings), XMM-Newton or ROSAT data. The period distribution of the new X-ray pulsators above about 2,000s resembles that of...

  6. The Chandra ACIS Timing Survey Project: glimpsing a sample of faint X-ray pulsators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, G. L.; Esposito, P.; Rodríguez Castillo, G. A.; Sidoli, L.

    2016-11-01

    We report on the discovery of 41 new pulsating sources in the data of the Chandra Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer, which is sensitive to X-ray photons in the 0.3-10 keV band. The archival data of the first 15 yr of Chandra observations were retrieved and analysed by means of fast Fourier transforms, employing a peak-detection algorithm able to screen candidate signals in an automatic fashion. We carried out the search for new X-ray pulsators in light curves with more than 50 photons, for a total of about 190 000 light curves out of about 430 000 extracted. With these numbers, the ChAndra Timing Survey at Brera And Roma astronomical observatories (CATS @ BAR) - as we called the project - represents the largest ever systematic search for coherent signals in the classic X-ray band. More than 50 per cent of the signals were confirmed by further Chandra (for those sources with two or more pointings), XMM-Newton or ROSAT data. The period distribution of the new X-ray pulsators above ˜2000 s resembles that of cataclysmic variables, while there is a paucity of sources with shorter period and low fluxes. Since there is not an obvious bias against these detections, a possible interpretation is in terms of a magnetic gating mechanism in accreting neutron stars. Finally, we note that CATS @ BAR is a living project and the detection algorithm will continue to be routinely applied to the new Chandra data as they become public. Based on the results obtained so far, we expect to discover about three new pulsators every year.

  7. CHANDRA ACIS Survey of X-Ray Point Sources: The Source Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Song; Liu, Jifeng; Qiu, Yanli; Bai, Yu; Yang, Huiqin; Guo, Jincheng; Zhang, Peng

    2016-06-01

    The Chandra archival data is a valuable resource for various studies on different X-ray astronomy topics. In this paper, we utilize this wealth of information and present a uniformly processed data set, which can be used to address a wide range of scientific questions. The data analysis procedures are applied to 10,029 Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer observations, which produces 363,530 source detections belonging to 217,828 distinct X-ray sources. This number is twice the size of the Chandra Source Catalog (Version 1.1). The catalogs in this paper provide abundant estimates of the detected X-ray source properties, including source positions, counts, colors, fluxes, luminosities, variability statistics, etc. Cross-correlation of these objects with galaxies shows that 17,828 sources are located within the D 25 isophotes of 1110 galaxies, and 7504 sources are located between the D 25 and 2D 25 isophotes of 910 galaxies. Contamination analysis with the log N-log S relation indicates that 51.3% of objects within 2D 25 isophotes are truly relevant to galaxies, and the “net” source fraction increases to 58.9%, 67.3%, and 69.1% for sources with luminosities above 1037, 1038, and 1039 erg s-1, respectively. Among the possible scientific uses of this catalog, we discuss the possibility of studying intra-observation variability, inter-observation variability, and supersoft sources (SSSs). About 17,092 detected sources above 10 counts are classified as variable in individual observation with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) criterion (P K-S < 0.01). There are 99,647 sources observed more than once and 11,843 sources observed 10 times or more, offering us a wealth of data with which to explore the long-term variability. There are 1638 individual objects (˜2350 detections) classified as SSSs. As a quite interesting subclass, detailed studies on X-ray spectra and optical spectroscopic follow-up are needed to categorize these SSSs and pinpoint their properties. In addition

  8. Chandra ACIS Survey of X-ray Point Sources in Nearby Galaxies. II. X-ray Luminosity Functions and Ultraluminous X-ray Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Song; Liu, Jifeng; Bregman, Joel N

    2016-01-01

    Based on the recently completed {\\it Chandra}/ACIS survey of X-ray point sources in nearby galaxies, we study the X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) for X-ray point sources in different types of galaxies and the statistical properties of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). Uniform procedures are developed to compute the detection threshold, to estimate the foreground/background contamination, and to calculate the XLFs for individual galaxies and groups of galaxies, resulting in an XLF library for 343 galaxies of different types. With the large number of surveyed galaxies, we have studied the XLFs and ULX properties across different host galaxy types, and confirm with good statistics that the XLF slope flattens from lenticular ($\\alpha\\sim1.50\\pm0.07$) to elliptical ($\\sim1.21\\pm0.02$), to spirals ($\\sim0.80\\pm0.02$), to peculiars ($\\sim0.55\\pm0.30$), and to irregulars ($\\sim0.26\\pm0.10$). The XLF break dividing the neutron star and black hole binaries is also confirmed, albeit at quite different break luminosi...

  9. Chandra ACIS Observations of the Nearby Spiral Galaxy NGC 300

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobar, Dale; Turner, Kevin; Schlegel, Eric M.

    2017-01-01

    The ACIS detector (Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer) onboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory has imaged the nearby spiral NGC 300 over three epochs for a total exposure of 1.885x102 ksec. We describe each observation as well as the merged data set. Each exposure contains 132 individual sources. We focus on the time variability and luminosity distributions of the sources. Initial results show no diffuse emissions in the galaxy. Finally, we compare the merged data set and the detected sources with other wavebands.

  10. Using ACIS on the Chandra X-ray Observatory as a particle radiation monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, C E; Bautz, M W; O'Dell, S L

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) is one of two focal-plane instruments on the Chandra X-ray Observatory. During initial radiation-belt passes, the exposed ACIS suffered significant radiation damage from trapped soft protons scattering off the x-ray telescope's mirrors. The primary effect of this damage was to increase the charge-transfer inefficiency (CTI) of the ACIS 8 front-illuminated CCDs. Subsequently, the Chandra team implemented procedures to remove the ACIS from the telescope's focus during high-radiation events: planned protection during radiation-belt transits; autonomous protection triggered by an on-board radiation monitor; and manual intervention based upon assessment of space-weather conditions. However, as Chandra's multilayer insulation ages, elevated temperatures have reduced the effectiveness of the on-board radiation monitor for autonomous protection. Here we investigate using the ACIS CCDs themselves as a radiation monitor. We explore the 10-year database to evaluate the CCDs' ...

  11. Evolution of temperature-dependent charge transfer inefficiency correction for ACIS on the Chandra X-ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Catherine E.; Bautz, Marshall W.; Durham, R. Nick; Plucinsky, Paul P.

    2016-07-01

    As ACIS on the Chandra X-ray Observatory enters its seventeenth year of operation, it continues to perform well and produce spectacular scientific results. The response of ACIS has evolved over the lifetime of the observatory due to radiation damage and aging of the spacecraft. The ACIS instrument team developed a software tool which applies a correction to each X-ray event and mitigates charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) and spectral resolution degradation. The behavior of the charge traps that cause CTI are temperature dependent, however, and warmer temperatures reduce the effectiveness of the correction algorithm. As the radiator surfaces on Chandra age, ACIS cooling has become less efficient and temperatures can increase by a few degrees. A temperature-dependent component was added to the CTI correction algorithm in 2010. We present an evaluation of the effectiveness of this algorithm as the radiation damage and thermal environment continue to evolve and suggest updates to improve the calibration fidelity.

  12. The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hynes, Robert I.; Jonker, P.G.; Bassa, C. G.; Dieball, A.; Greiss, S.; Maccarone, T. J.; Nelemans, G.; Steeghs, D.; Torres, M. A. P.; Britt, C. T.; Clem, J. L.; Gossen, L.; Grindlay, J. E.; Groot, P.J.; Kuiper, L.; Kuulkers, E.; Mendez, M.; Mikles, V. J.; Ratti, E. M.; Rea, N.; van Haaften, L.; Wijnands, R.; in't Zand, J. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey (CGBS) is a shallow but wide survey of two approximately 6x1 degree strips of the Galactic Bulge about a degree above and below the plane. The survey by design targets regions where extinction and crowding are manageable and optical counterparts are accessible to de

  13. The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hynes, Robert I.; Jonker, P. G.; Bassa, C. G.; Nelemans, G.; Steeghs, D.; Torres, M. A. P.; Maccarone, T. J.; Greiss, S.; Clem, J.; Dieball, A.; Mikles, V. J.; Britt, C. T.; Gossen, L.; Collazzi, A. C.; Wijnands, R.; In't Zand, J. J. M.; Mendez, M.; Rea, N.; Kuulkers, E.; Ratti, E. M.; van Haaften, L. M.; Heinke, C.; Ozel, F.; Groot, P. J.; Verbunt, F.

    2012-01-01

    The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS) is a shallow but wide survey of two approximately 6x1 degree strips of the Galactic Bulge about a degree above and below the plane. The survey by design targets regions where extinction and crowding are manageable and optical counterparts are accessible to det

  14. Spectral analysis of the Chandra comet survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodewits, D.; Christian, D. J.; Torney, M.; Dryer, M.; Lisse, C. M.; Dennerl, K.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Wolk, S. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Hoekstra, R.

    2007-01-01

    Aims. We present results of the analysis of cometary X-ray spectra with an extended version of our charge exchange emission model (Bodewits et al. 2006). We have applied this model to the sample of 8 comets thus far observed with the Chandra X-ray observatory and acis spectrometer in the 300 - 1000

  15. CHANDRA ACIS Spectroscopy of N157B -- A Young Composite Supernova Remnant in a Superbubble

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Y; Gotthelf, E V; Jiang, B; Chu, Y H; Gruendl, R A; Chen, Yang; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Jiang, Bing; Chu, You-Hua; Gruendl, Robert

    2006-01-01

    We present Chandra ACIS observations of N157B, a young supernova remnant located in the 30 Doradus star-formation region of the LMC. This remnant contains the most energetic pulsar known (PSR J0537-6910), which is surrounded by a bright nonthermal nebula that likely represents a toroidal pulsar wind terminal shock observed edge-on. We confirm the non-thermal nature of the comet-shaped X-ray emission feature and show that the spectral steepening of this feature away from the pulsar is quantitatively consistent with synchrotron cooling of shocked pulsar wind particles flowing downstream at a bulk velocity close to the speed of light. Around the cometary nebula we unambiguously detect a thermal component, which accounts for about 1/3 of the total 0.5 - 10 keV flux from the remnant. This thermal component is distributed among various clumps of metal-enriched plasma embedded in the low surface brightness X-ray-emitting diffuse gas. The relative metal enrichment pattern suggests that the mass of the supernova proge...

  16. The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, C. T.; Hynes, R. I.; Jonker, P. G.; Maccarone, T.; Torres, M. A. P.; Steeghs, D.; Nelemans, G.; Johnson, C.; Greiss, S.

    2015-05-01

    The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS) is a multi-wavelength survey of two 6×1 degree strips above and below the Galactic plane, including deep r' and i' imaging and time domain photometry from CTIO and shallow, wide-field X-ray imaging with Chandra. Targeting fields above |b|=1 avoids most of the copious extinction along the Galactic plane while maintaining high source density. This results in targets that are accessible to follow up in optical and NIR wavelengths. The X-ray observations are shallow to maximize the number of quiescent Low Mass X-ray Binaries (LMXBs) relative to Cataclysmic Variables (CVs). The goals of the GBS are to conduct a census of Low Mass X-ray Binaries in the Milky Way in order to constrain models of binary evolution, the common envelope phase in particular, and to expand the number of known LMXBs for optical follow up. Mass measurements in particular will help constrain the black hole (BH) mass distribution and the equation of state for neutron stars (NS). Constraining the BH mass distribution will constrain models of their formation in supernovae. The current population of Galactic BHs suffers from selection effects, which the GBS avoids by finding new objects while still in quiescence. We expect to find qLMXBs, magnetic CVs, RS CVn stars, and smaller numbers of other types of sources. After removing duplicates, there are 1640 unique X-ray sources in the 12 square degree survey area, which closely matches the predicted number of 1648. We are currently matching X-ray sources to counterparts in other wavelengths using new photometric and spectroscopic observations as well as in archival data where it exists, and searching for variability and periodicity in the counterparts in photometric data. So far, we have spectroscopically identified 27 interacting binaries including promising candidates for quiescent black holes.

  17. Monitoring the Health and Safety of the ACIS Instrument On-Board the Chandra X-ray Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Virani, S N; De Pasquale, J M; Plucinsky, P P; Virani, Shanil N.; Ford, Peter G.; Pasquale, Joseph M. De; Plucinsky, Paul P.

    2002-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO), NASA's latest ``Great Observatory'', was launched on July 23, 1999 and reached its final orbit on August 7, 1999. The CXO is in a highly elliptical orbit, approximately 140,000 km x 10,000 km, and has a period of approximately 63.5 hours (~2.65 days). Communication with the CXO nominally consists of 1-hour contacts spaced 8-hours apart. Thus, once a communication link has been established, it is very important that the health and safety status of the scientific instruments as well as the Observatory itself be determined as quickly as possible. In this paper, we focus exclusively on the automated health and safety monitoring scripts developed for the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) to use during those 1-hour contacts. ACIS is one of the two focal plane instruments on-board the CXO. We present an overview of the real-time ACIS Engineering Data Web Page and the alert schemes developed for monitoring the instrument status during each communication contact. A suite of ...

  18. Thermodynamic perturbations in the X-ray halo of 33 clusters of galaxies observed with Chandra ACIS

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, F; Nandra, K; Clerc, N; Gaspari, M

    2016-01-01

    In high-resolution X-ray observations of the hot plasma in clusters of galaxies significant structures caused by AGN feedback, mergers, and turbulence can be detected. Many clusters have been observed by Chandra in great depth and at high resolution. Using archival data taken with the Chandra ACIS instrument the aim was to study thermodynamic perturbations of the X-ray emitting plasma and to apply this to better understand the thermodynamic and dynamic state of the intra cluster medium (ICM). We analysed deep observations for a sample of 33 clusters with more than 100 ks of Chandra exposure each at distances between redshift 0.025 and 0.45. The combined exposure of the sample is 8 Ms. Fitting emission models to different regions of the extended X-ray emission we searched for perturbations in density, temperature, pressure, and entropy of the hot plasma. For individual clusters we mapped the thermodynamic properties of the ICM and measured their spread in circular concentric annuli. Comparing the spread of dif...

  19. A Chandra/ACIS Study of 30 Doradus I. Superbubbles and Supernova Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Townsley, L K; Broos, P S; Chu, Y H; Feigelson, E D; Garmire, G P; Pavlov, G G

    2006-01-01

    We present an X-ray tour of diffuse emission in the 30 Doradus star-forming complex in the Large Magellanic Cloud using high-spatial-resolution X-ray images and spatially-resolved spectra obtained with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer aboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The dominant X-ray feature of the 30 Doradus nebula is the intricate network of diffuse emission generated by interacting stellar winds and supernovae working together to create vast superbubbles filled with hot plasma. We construct maps of the region showing variations in plasma temperature (T = 3--9 million degrees), absorption (N_H = 1--6 x 10^{21} cm^{-2}), and absorption-corrected X-ray surface brightness (S_X = 3--126 x 10^{31} ergs s^{-1} pc^{-2}). Enhanced images reveal the pulsar wind nebula in the composite supernova remnant N157B and the Chandra data show spectral evolution from non-thermal synchrotron emission in the N157B core to a thermal plasma in its outer regions. In a companion paper we show that R136, the central mass...

  20. Chandra/ACIS-I study of the X-ray properties of the NGC 6611 and M16 stellar population

    CERN Document Server

    Guarcello, M G; Micela, G; Sciortino, S; Drake, J J; Prisinzano, L

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms regulating the origin of X-rays in YSOs and the correlation with their evolutionary stage are under debate. Studies of the X-ray properties in young clusters allow to understand these mechanisms. One ideal target for this analysis is the Eagle Nebula (M16), with its central cluster NGC6611. At 1750 pc from the Sun, it harbors 93 OB stars, together with a population of low-mass stars from embedded protostars to disk-less Class III objects, with age <= 3Myrs. We study an archival 78 ksec Chandra/ACIS-I observation of NGC6611, and two new 80ksec observations of the outer region of M16, one centered on the Column V, and one on a region of the molecular cloud with ongoing star-formation. We detect 1755 point sources, with 1183 candidate cluster members (219 disk-bearing and 964 disk-less). We study the global X-ray properties of M16 and compare them with those of the Orion Nebula Cluster. We also compare the level of X-ray emission of Class II and Class III stars, and analyze the X-ray spectral prope...

  1. Sharp Chandra View of ROSAT All-Sky Survey Bright Sources: I. Improvement of Positional Accuracy

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Shuang; Liu, Jifeng

    2016-01-01

    The ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) represents one of the most complete and sensitive soft X-ray all-sky surveys to date. However, the deficient positional accuracy of the RASS Bright Source Catalog (BSC) and subsequent lack of firm optical identifications affect the multi-wavelength studies of X-ray sources. The widely used positional errors $\\sigma_{pos}$ based on the Tycho Stars Catalog (Tycho-1) have previously been applied for identifying objects in the optical band. The considerably sharper Chandra view covers a fraction of RASS sources, whose $\\sigma_{pos}$ could be improved by utilizing the sub-arcsec positional accuracy of Chandra observations. We cross-match X-ray objects between the BSC and \\emph{Chandra} sources extracted from the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) archival observations. A combined counterparts list (BSCxACIS) with \\emph{Chandra} spatial positions weighted by the X-ray flux of multi-counterparts is employed to evaluate and improve the former identifications of BSC with the other...

  2. A dedicated Chandra ACIS observation of the central compact object in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlov, G G

    2009-01-01

    We present results of a recent Chandra X-ray Observatory observation of the central compact object (CCO) in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A. This observation was obtained in an instrumental configuration that combines a high spatial resolution with a minimum spectral distortion, and it allowed us to search for pulsations with periods longer than 0.68 s. We found no evidence of extended emission associated with the CCO, nor statistically significant pulsations (an upper limit on pulsed fraction is about 10%). The fits of the CCO spectrum with the power-law model yield a large photon index, Gamma\\approx 5, and a hydrogen column density larger than that obtained from the SNR spectra. The fits with the blackbody model are statistically unacceptable. Better fits are provided by hydrogen or helium neutron star atmosphere models, with the best-fit effective temperature kT_{eff}^\\infty \\approx 0.2 keV, but they require a small star's radius, R = 4 - 5.5 km, and a low mass, M < 0.8 M_sol. A neutron star cannot h...

  3. CHANDRA/ACIS-I STUDY OF THE X-RAY PROPERTIES OF THE NGC 6611 AND M16 STELLAR POPULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guarcello, M. G.; Drake, J. J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, MS-67, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Caramazza, M.; Micela, G.; Sciortino, S.; Prisinzano, L. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, 90134 Palermo (Italy)

    2012-07-10

    Mechanisms regulating the origin of X-rays in young stellar objects and the correlation with their evolutionary stage are under debate. Studies of the X-ray properties in young clusters allow us to understand these mechanisms. One ideal target for this analysis is the Eagle Nebula (M16), with its central cluster NGC 6611. At 1750 pc from the Sun, it harbors 93 OB stars, together with a population of low-mass stars from embedded protostars to disk-less Class III objects, with age {<=}3 Myr. We study an archival 78 ks Chandra/ACIS-I observation of NGC 6611 and two new 80 ks observations of the outer region of M16, one centered on the Column V and the other on a region of the molecular cloud with ongoing star formation. We detect 1755 point sources with 1183 candidate cluster members (219 disk-bearing and 964 disk-less). We study the global X-ray properties of M16 and compare them with those of the Orion Nebula Cluster. We also compare the level of X-ray emission of Class II and Class III stars and analyze the X-ray spectral properties of OB stars. Our study supports the lower level of X-ray activity for the disk-bearing stars with respect to the disk-less members. The X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of M16 is similar to that of Orion, supporting the universality of the XLF in young clusters. Eighty-five percent of the O stars of NGC 6611 have been detected in X-rays. With only one possible exception, they show soft spectra with no hard components, indicating that mechanisms for the production of hard X-ray emission in O stars are not operating in NGC 6611.

  4. The statistical uncertainties on X-ray flux and spectral parameters from Chandra ACIS-I observations of faint sources: Application to the Cygnus OB2 Association

    CERN Document Server

    Albacete-Colombo, J F; Drake, J J; Wright, N J; Guarcello, M; Kashyap, V

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the uncertainties of fitted X-ray model parameters and fluxes for relatively faint Chandra ACIS-I source spectra. Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations are employed to construct a large set of 150,000 fake X-ray spectra in the low photon count statistics regime (from 20 to 350 net counts) using the XSPEC spectral model fitting package. The simulations employed both absorbed thermal (APEC) and non-thermal (power-law) models, in concert with the Chandra ACIS-I instrument response and interstellar absorption. Simulated X-ray spectra were fit assuming a wide set of different input parameters and C-statistic minimization criteria to avoid numerical artifacts in the accepted solutions. Results provide an error estimate for each parameter (absorption, NH, plasma temperature, kT, or power-law slope, Gamma, and flux, and for different background contamination levels. The distributions of these errors are studied as a function of the 1 sigma quantiles and we show how these correlate with different model parameter...

  5. Chandra Survey of Nearby Galaxies: The Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Rui; Ho, Luis C.; Feng, Hua

    2017-02-01

    We searched the public archive of the Chandra X-ray Observatory as of 2016 March and assembled a sample of 719 galaxies within 50 Mpc with available Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer observations. By cross-correlation with the optical or near-infrared nuclei of these galaxies, 314 of them are identified to have an X-ray active galactic nucleus (AGN). The majority of them are low-luminosity AGNs and are unlikely X-ray binaries based upon their spatial distribution and luminosity functions. The AGN fraction is around 60% for elliptical galaxies and early-type spirals, but drops to roughly 20% for Sc and later types, consistent with previous findings in the optical. However, the X-ray survey is more powerful in finding weak AGNs, especially from regions with active star formation that may mask the optical AGN signature. For example, 31% of the H ii nuclei are found to harbor an X-ray AGN. For most objects, a single power-law model subject to interstellar absorption is adequate to fit the spectrum, and the typical photon index is found to be around 1.8. For galaxies with a non-detection, their stacked Chandra image shows an X-ray excess with a luminosity of a few times 1037 erg s‑1 on average around the nuclear region, possibly composed of faint X-ray binaries. This paper reports on the technique and results of the survey; in-depth analysis and discussion of the results will be reported in forthcoming papers.

  6. A Chandra/ACIS Study of 30 Doradus II. X-ray Point Sources in the Massive Star Cluster R136 and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Townsley, L K; Feigelson, E D; Garmire, G P; Getman, K V

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the X-ray point source population of the 30 Doradus star-forming complex in the Large Magellanic Cloud using high-spatial-resolution X-ray images and spatially-resolved spectra obtained with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) aboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Here we describe the X-ray sources in a 17' x 17' field centered on R136, the massive star cluster at the center of the main 30 Dor nebula. We detect 20 of the 32 Wolf-Rayet stars in the ACIS field. R136 is resolved at the subarcsecond level into almost 100 X-ray sources, including many typical O3--O5 stars as well as a few bright X-ray sources previously reported. Over two orders of magnitude of scatter in L_X is seen among R136 O stars, suggesting that X-ray emission in the most massive stars depends critically on the details of wind properties and binarity of each system, rather than reflecting the widely-reported characteristic value L_X/L_bol ~ 10^{-7}. Such a canonical ratio may exist for single massive stars in R136, ...

  7. The Chandra Local Volume Survey: The X-ray Point Source Catalog of NGC 300

    CERN Document Server

    Binder, Breanna; Eracleous, Michael; Gaetz, Terrance J; Plucinsky, Paul P; Skillman, Evan D; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Anderson, Scott F; Weisz, Daniel R; Kong, Albert K H

    2012-01-01

    We present the source catalog of a new Chandra ACIS-I observation of NGC 300 obtained as part of the Chandra Local Volume Survey. Our 63 ks exposure covers ~88% of the D25 isophote (R~6.3 kpc) and yields a catalog of 95 X-ray point sources detected at high significance to a limiting unabsorbed 0.35-8 keV luminosity of ~10^36 erg s^-1. Sources were cross-correlated with a previous XMM-Newton catalog, and we find 75 "X-ray transient candidate" sources that were detected by one observatory, but not the other. We derive an X-ray scale length of 1.7+/-0.2 kpc and a recent star formation rate of 0.12 Msun yr^-1, in excellent agreement with optical observations. Deep, multi-color imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope, covering ~32% of our Chandra field, was used to search for optical counterparts to the X-ray sources, and we have developed a new source classification scheme to determine which sources are likely X-ray binaries, supernova remnants, and background AGN candidates. Finally, we present the X-ray luminos...

  8. The Chandra Local Volume Survey: The X-ray Point Source Population of NGC 404

    CERN Document Server

    Binder, B; Eracleous, M; Gaetz, T J; Kong, A K H; Skillman, E D; Weisz, D R

    2012-01-01

    We present a comprehensive X-ray point source catalog of NGC 404 obtained as part of the Chandra Local Volume Survey. A new, 97 ks Chandra ACIS-S observation of NGC 404 was combined with archival observations for a total exposure of ~123 ks. Our survey yields 74 highly significant X-ray point sources and is sensitive to a limiting unabsorbed luminosity of ~6x10^35 erg s^-1 in the 0.35-8 keV band. To constrain the nature of each X-ray source, cross-correlations with multi-wavelength data were generated. We searched overlapping HST observations for optical counterparts to our X-ray detections, but find only two X-ray sources with candidate optical counterparts. We find 21 likely low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), although this number is a lower limit due to the difficulties in separating LMXBs from background AGN. The X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) in both the soft and hard energy bands are presented. The XLFs in the soft band (0.5-2 keV) and the hard band (2-8 keV) have a limiting luminosity at the 90% comple...

  9. The BMW-Chandra survey. Serendipitous Source Catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, P; Campana, S; Moretti, A; Panzera, M R; Tagliaferri, G; Mottini, M

    2009-01-01

    We present the BMW-Chandra source catalogue derived from Chandra ACIS-I observations (exposure time >10ks) public as of March 2003 by using a wavelet detection algorithm (Lazzati et al. 1999; Campana et al. 1999). The catalogue contains a total of 21325 sources, 16758 of which are serendipitous. Our sky coverage in the soft band (0.5-2 keV, S/N =3) is ~8 deg^2 for F_X > 10^-13 erg cm^-2 s-1, and ~2 deg^2 for F_X >10^-15 erg cm^-2 s^-1. The catalogue contains information on positions, count rates (and errors) in three energy bands. (total, 0.5-7 keV; soft, 0.5-2 keV; and hard, 2-7keV), and in four additional energy bands, SB1 (0.5-1keV), SB2 (1-2 keV), HB1 (2-4 keV), and HB2 (4-7keV), as well as information on the source extension, and cross-matches with the FIRST, IRAS, 2MASS, and GSC-2 catalogues.

  10. The BMW-Chandra survey. Serendipitous Source Catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, P.; Mignani, R. P.; Campana, S.; Moretti, A.; Panzera, M. R.; Tagliaferri, G.; Mottini, M.

    2009-07-01

    We present the BMW-Chandra source catalogue derived from Chandra ACIS-I observations (exposure time > 10ks) public as of March 2003 by using a wavelet detection algorithm (Lazzati et al. 1999; Campana et al. 1999). The catalogue contains a total of 21325 sources, 16758 of which are serendipitous. Our sky coverage in the soft band (0.5-2keV, S/N=3) is ~ 8 deg2 for FX ≥ 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1, and ~ 2 deg2 for FX ≥ 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1. The catalogue contains information on positions, count rates (and errors) in three energy bands (total, 0.5-7keV; soft, 0.5-2keV; and hard, 2-7keV), and in four additional energy bands, SB1 (0.5-1keV), SB2 (1-2keV), HB1 (2-4keV), and HB2 (4-7keV), as well as information on the source extension, and cross-matches with the FIRST, IRAS, 2MASS, and GSC-2 catalogues.

  11. THE CHANDRA LOCAL VOLUME SURVEY: THE X-RAY POINT-SOURCE CATALOG OF NGC 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, B.; Williams, B. F.; Dalcanton, J. J.; Anderson, S. F.; Weisz, D. R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Eracleous, M. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Gaetz, T. J.; Plucinsky, P. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Skillman, E. D. [Astronomy Department, University of Minnesota, 116 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Kong, A. K. H. [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2012-10-10

    We present the source catalog of a new Chandra ACIS-I observation of NGC 300 obtained as part of the Chandra Local Volume Survey. Our 63 ks exposure covers {approx}88% of the D{sub 25} isophote (R Almost-Equal-To 6.3 kpc) and yields a catalog of 95 X-ray point sources detected at high significance to a limiting unabsorbed 0.35-8 keV luminosity of {approx}10{sup 36} erg s{sup -1}. Sources were cross-correlated with a previous XMM-Newton catalog, and we find 75 'X-ray transient candidate' sources that were detected by one observatory, but not the other. We derive an X-ray scale length of 1.7 {+-} 0.2 kpc and a recent star formation rate of 0.12 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} in excellent agreement with optical observations. Deep, multi-color imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope, covering {approx}32% of our Chandra field, was used to search for optical counterparts to the X-ray sources, and we have developed a new source classification scheme to determine which sources are likely X-ray binaries, supernova remnants, and background active galactic nucleus candidates. Finally, we present the X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) at different X-ray energies, and we find the total NGC 300 X-ray point-source population to be consistent with other late-type galaxies hosting young stellar populations ({approx}< 50 Myr). We find that XLF of sources associated with older stellar populations has a steeper slope than the XLF of X-ray sources coinciding with young stellar populations, consistent with theoretical predictions.

  12. Variability of Optical Counterparts in the Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Britt, Christopher T; Johnson, C B; Baldwin, A; Jonker, P G; Nelemans, G; Torres, M A P; Maccarone, T; Steeghs, D; Greiss, S; Heinke, C; Bassa, C G; Collazzi, A; Villar, A; Gabb, M; Gossen, L

    2014-01-01

    We present optical lightcurves of variable stars consistent with the positions of X-ray sources identified with the Chandra X-ray Observatory for the Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey. Using data from the Mosaic-II instrument on the Blanco 4m Telescope at CTIO, we gathered time-resolved photometric data on timescales from $\\sim2$ hr to 8 days over the $\\frac{3}{4}$ of the X-ray survey containing sources from the initial GBS catalog. Among the lightcurve morphologies we identify are flickering in interacting binaries, eclipsing sources, dwarf nova outbursts, ellipsoidal variations, long period variables, spotted stars, and flare stars. $87\\%$ of X-ray sources have at least one potential optical counterpart. $24\\%$ of these candidate counterparts are detectably variable; a much greater fraction than expected for randomly selected field stars, which suggests that most of these variables are real counterparts. We discuss individual sources of interest, provide variability information on candidate counterparts, and di...

  13. THE CHANDRA LOCAL VOLUME SURVEY: THE X-RAY POINT-SOURCE POPULATION OF NGC 404

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, B.; Williams, B. F.; Weisz, D. R. [University of Washington, Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Eracleous, M. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Center for Gravitational Wave Physics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Gaetz, T. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kong, A. K. H. [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Skillman, E. D. [University of Minnesota, Astronomy Department, 116 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    We present a comprehensive X-ray point-source catalog of NGC 404 obtained as part of the Chandra Local Volume Survey. A new 97 ks Chandra ACIS-S observation of NGC 404 was combined with archival observations for a total exposure of {approx}123 ks. Our survey yields 74 highly significant X-ray point sources and is sensitive to a limiting unabsorbed luminosity of {approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 35} erg s{sup -1} in the 0.35-8 keV band. To constrain the nature of each X-ray source, cross-correlations with multi-wavelength data were generated. We searched overlapping Hubble Space Telescope observations for optical counterparts to our X-ray detections, but find only two X-ray sources with candidate optical counterparts. We find 21 likely low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), although this number is a lower limit due to the difficulties in separating LMXBs from background active galactic nuclei. The X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) in both the soft and hard energy bands are presented. The XLFs in the soft band (0.5-2 keV) and the hard band (2-8 keV) have a limiting luminosity at the 90% completeness limit of 10{sup 35} erg s{sup -1} and 10{sup 36} erg s{sup -1}, respectively, significantly lower than previous X-ray studies of NGC 404. We find the XLFs to be consistent with those of other X-ray populations dominated by LMXBs. However, the number of luminous (>10{sup 37} erg s{sup -1}) X-ray sources per unit stellar mass in NGC 404 is lower than is observed for other galaxies. The relative lack of luminous XRBs may be due to a population of LMXBs with main-sequence companions formed during an epoch of elevated star formation {approx}0.5 Gyr ago.

  14. A Deep Chandra ACIS Study of NGC 4151. I. the X-ray Morphology of the 3 kpc-diameter Circum-nuclear Region and Relation to the Cold Interstellar Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Junfeng; Risaliti, Guido; Elvis, Martin; Karovska, Margarita; Zezas, Andreas; Mundell, Carole G; Dumas, Gaelle; Schinnerer, Eva

    2011-01-01

    We report on the imaging analysis of 200 ks sub-arcsecond resolution Chandra ACIS-S observations of the nearby Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151. Bright, structured soft X-ray emission is observed to extend from 30 pc to 1.3 kpc in the south-west from the nucleus, much farther than seen in earlier X-ray studies. The terminus of the north-eastern X-ray emission is spatially coincident with a CO gas lane, where the outflow likely encounters dense gas in the host galactic disk. X-ray emission is also detected outside the boundaries of the ionization cone, which indicates that the gas there is not completely shielded from the nuclear continuum, as would be the case for a molecular torus collimating the bicone. In the central r<200 pc region, the subpixel processing of the ACIS data recovers the morphological details on scales of <30~pc (<0.5") first discovered in Chandra HRC images. The X-ray emission is more absorbed towards the boundaries of the ionization cone, as well as perpendicular to the bicone along the...

  15. The Chandra COSMOS Legacy survey: optical/IR identifications

    CERN Document Server

    Marchesi, S; Elvis, M; Salvato, M; Brusa, M; Comastri, A; Gilli, R; Hasinger, G; Lanzuisi, G; Miyaji, T; Treister, E; Urry, C M; Vignali, C; Zamorani, G; Allevato, V; Cappelluti, N; Cardamone, C; Finoguenov, A; Griffiths, R E; Karim, A; Laigle, C; LaMassa, S M; Jahnke, K; Ranalli, P; Schawinski, K; Schinnerer, E; Silverman, J D; Smolcic, V; Suh, H; Trakhtenbrot, B

    2015-01-01

    We present the catalog of optical and infrared counterparts of the Chandra COSMOS-Legacy Survey, a 4.6 Ms Chandra program on the 2.2 square degrees of the COSMOS field, combination of 56 new overlapping observations obtained in Cycle 14 with the previous C-COSMOS survey. In this Paper we report the i, K, and 3.6 micron identifications of the 2273 X-ray point sources detected in the new Cycle 14 observations. We use the likelihood ratio technique to derive the association of optical/infrared (IR) counterparts for 97% of the X-ray sources. We also update the information for the 1743 sources detected in C-COSMOS, using new K and 3.6 micron information not available when the C-COSMOS analysis was performed. The final catalog contains 4016 X-ray sources, 97% of which have an optical/IR counterpart and a photometric redshift, while 54% of the sources have a spectroscopic redshift. The full catalog, including spectroscopic and photometric redshifts and optical and X-ray properties described here in detail, is availa...

  16. VARIABILITY OF OPTICAL COUNTERPARTS IN THE CHANDRA GALACTIC BULGE SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, C. T.; Hynes, R. I.; Johnson, C. B.; Baldwin, A.; Collazzi, A.; Gossen, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Jonker, P. G.; Torres, M. A. P. [SRON, Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Nelemans, G. [Department of Astrophysics, IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Maccarone, T. [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Box 41051, Science Building, Lubbock, TX 79409-1051 (United States); Steeghs, D.; Greiss, S. [Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Heinke, C. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, CCIS 4-183, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada); Bassa, C. G. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Villar, A. [Department of Physics, Massachussettes Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States); Gabb, M. [Department of Physics, Florida Atlantic University, 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33431-0991 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    We present optical light curves of variable stars consistent with the positions of X-ray sources identified with the Chandra X-ray Observatory for the Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS). Using data from the Mosaic-II instrument on the Blanco 4 m Telescope at CTIO, we gathered time-resolved photometric data on timescales from ∼2 hr to 8 days over the 3/4 of the X-ray survey containing sources from the initial GBS catalog. Among the light curve morphologies we identify are flickering in interacting binaries, eclipsing sources, dwarf nova outbursts, ellipsoidal variations, long period variables, spotted stars, and flare stars. Eighty-seven percent of X-ray sources have at least one potential optical counterpart. Twenty-seven percent of these candidate counterparts are detectably variable; a much greater fraction than expected for randomly selected field stars, which suggests that most of these variables are real counterparts. We discuss individual sources of interest, provide variability information on candidate counterparts, and discuss the characteristics of the variable population.

  17. Optical and infrared counterparts of the X-ray sources detected in the Chandra Cygnus OB2 Legacy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Guarcello, M G; Wright, N J; Naylor, T; Flaccomio, E; Kashyap, V L; Garcia-Alvarez, D

    2015-01-01

    The young massive OB association Cygnus OB2, in the Cygnus X complex, is the closest (1400 pc) star forming region to the Sun hosting thousands of young low mass stars and up to 1000 OB stars, among which are some of the most massive stars known in our Galaxy. This region holds great importance for several fields of modern astrophysics, such as the study of the physical properties of massive and young low-mass stars and the feedback provided by massive stars on star and planet formation process. Cygnus OB2 has been recently observed with Chandra/ACIS-I as part of the 1.08Msec Chandra Cygnus OB2 Legacy Project. This survey detected 7924 X-ray sources in a square degree area centered on Cyg OB2. Since a proper classification and study of the observed X-ray sources also requires the analysis of their optical and infrared counterparts, we combined a large and deep set of optical and infrared catalogs available for this region with our new X-ray catalog. In this paper we describe the matching procedure and present...

  18. THE CHANDRA COSMOS LEGACY SURVEY: OPTICAL/IR IDENTIFICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchesi, S.; Civano, F.; Urry, C. M. [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, 260 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Elvis, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Salvato, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Brusa, M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Vignali, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Zamorani, G.; Cappelluti, N. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Hasinger, G. [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Miyaji, T. [Instituto de Astronomía sede Ensenada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Km. 103, Carret. Tijunana-Ensenada, Ensenada, BC (Mexico); Treister, E. [Universidad de Concepción, Departamento de Astronomía, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Allevato, V.; Finoguenov, A. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2a, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Cardamone, C. [Department of Science, Wheelock College, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Griffiths, R. E. [Physics and Astronomy Dept., Natural Sciences Division, University of Hawaii at Hilo, 200 W. Kawili Street, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Karim, A. [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); and others

    2016-01-20

    We present the catalog of optical and infrared counterparts of the Chandra  COSMOS-Legacy  Survey, a 4.6 Ms Chandra  program on the 2.2 deg{sup 2} of the COSMOS field, combination of 56 new overlapping observations obtained in Cycle 14 with the previous C-COSMOS survey. In this Paper we report the i, K, and 3.6 μm identifications of the 2273 X-ray point sources detected in the new Cycle 14 observations. We use the likelihood ratio technique to derive the association of optical/infrared (IR) counterparts for 97% of the X-ray sources. We also update the information for the 1743 sources detected in C-COSMOS, using new K and 3.6 μm information not available when the C-COSMOS analysis was performed. The final catalog contains 4016 X-ray sources, 97% of which have an optical/IR counterpart and a photometric redshift, while ≃54% of the sources have a spectroscopic redshift. The full catalog, including spectroscopic and photometric redshifts and optical and X-ray properties described here in detail, is available online. We study several X-ray to optical (X/O) properties: with our large statistics we put better constraints on the X/O flux ratio locus, finding a shift toward faint optical magnitudes in both soft and hard X-ray band. We confirm the existence of a correlation between X/O and the the 2–10 keV luminosity for Type 2 sources. We extend to low luminosities the analysis of the correlation between the fraction of obscured AGNs and the hard band luminosity, finding a different behavior between the optically and X-ray classified obscured fraction.

  19. The Chandra COSMOS Legacy survey: overview and point source catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Civano, F; Comastri, A; Urry, M C; Elvis, M; Cappelluti, N; Puccetti, S; Brusa, M; Zamorani, G; Hasinger, G; Aldcroft, T; Alexander, D M; Allevato, V; Brunner, H; Capak, P; Finoguenov, A; Fiore, F; Fruscione, A; Gilli, R; Glotfelty, K; Griffiths, R E; Hao, H; Harrison, F A; Jahnke, K; Kartaltepe, J; Karim, A; LaMassa, S M; Lanzuisi, G; Miyaji, T; Ranalli, P; Salvato, M; Sargent, M; Scoville, N J; Schawinski, K; Schinnerer, E; Silverman, J; Smolcic, V; Stern, D; Toft, S; Trakhenbrot, B; Treister, E; Vignali, C

    2016-01-01

    The COSMOS-Legacy survey is a 4.6 Ms Chandra program that has imaged 2.2 deg$^2$ of the COSMOS field with an effective exposure of $\\simeq$160 ks over the central 1.5 deg$^2$ and of $\\simeq$80 ks in the remaining area. The survey is the combination of 56 new observations, obtained as an X-ray Visionary Project, with the previous C-COSMOS survey. We describe the reduction and analysis of the new observations and the properties of 2273 point sources detected above a spurious probability of 2$\\times 10^{-5}$. We also present the updated properties of the C-COSMOS sources detected in the new data. The whole survey includes 4016 point sources (3814, 2920 and 2440 in the full, soft and hard band). The limiting depths are 2.2 $\\times$ 10$^{-16}$, 1.5 $\\times$ 10$^{-15}$ and 8.9$\\times$ 10$^{-16}$ ${\\rm erg~cm}^{-2}~{\\rm s}^{-1}$ in the 0.5-2, 2-10 and 0.5-10 keV bands, respectively. The observed fraction of obscured AGN with column density $> 10^{22}$ cm$^{-2}$ from the hardness ratio (HR) is $\\sim$50$^{+17}_{-16}$%...

  20. Stellar X-ray sources in the Chandra COSMOS survey

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Nicholas J; Civano, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of the X-ray properties of a sample of solar- and late-type field stars identified in the Chandra Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS), a deep (160ks) and wide (0.9 deg2) extragalactic survey. The sample of 60 sources was identified using both morphological and photometric star/galaxy separation methods. We determine X-ray count rates, extract spectra and light curves and perform spectral fits to determine fluxes and plasma temperatures. Complementary optical and near-IR photometry is also presented and combined with spectroscopy for 48 of the sources to determine spectral types and distances for the sample. We find distances ranging from 30pc to ~12kpc, including a number of the most distant and highly active stellar X-ray sources ever detected. This stellar sample extends the known coverage of the L_X-distance plane to greater distances and higher luminosities, but we do not detect as many intrinsically faint X-ray sources compared to previous surveys. Overall the sample is typically more...

  1. The Brera Multi-scale Wavelet Chandra Survey. The serendipitous source catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, P; Mignani, R P; Moretti, A; Panzera, M R; Tagliaferri, G; Mottini, M

    2009-01-01

    We present the Brera Multi-scale Wavelet Chandra (BMW-Chandra) source catalogue drawn from essentially all Chandra ACIS-I pointed observations with an exposure time in excess of 10ks public as of March 2003 (136 observations). Using the wavelet detection algorithm developed by Lazzati et al. (1999) and Campana et al. (1999), which can characterise both point-like and extended sources, we identified 21325 sources. Among them, 16758 are serendipitous, i.e. not associated with the targets of the pointings. This makes our catalogue the largest compilation of Chandra sources to date. The 0.5-10keV absorption corrected fluxes of these sources range from 3E-16 to 9E-12 erg/cm2/s with a median of 7E-15 erg/cm2/s. The catalogue consists of count rates and relative errors in three energy bands (total, 0.5-7keV; soft, 0.5-2keV; and hard, 2-7keV), where the detection was performed, and source positions relative to the highest signal-to-noise detection among the three bands. The wavelet algorithm also provides an estimate...

  2. 7.1 keV sterile neutrino constraints from X-ray observations of 33 clusters of galaxies with Chandra ACIS

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, F; Nandra, K; Clerc, N; Gaspari, M

    2016-01-01

    Recently an unidentified emission line at 3.55 keV has been detected in X-ray spectra of clusters of galaxies. The line has been discussed as a possible decay signature of 7.1 keV sterile neutrinos, which have been proposed as a dark matter candidate. We aim at putting constraints on the proposed line emission in a large sample of Chandra-observed clusters and obtain limits on the mixing-angle in a 7.1 keV sterile neutrino dark matter scenario. For a sample of 33 high-mass clusters of galaxies we merge all observations from the Chandra data archive. Each cluster has more than 100 ks of combined exposure. The resulting high signal-to-noise spectra are used to constrain the flux of an unidentified line emission at 3.55 keV in the individual spectra and a merged spectrum of all clusters. We obtained very detailed spectra around the 3.55 keV range and limits on an unidentified emission line. Assuming all dark matter were made of 7.1 keV sterile neutrinos the upper limits on the mixing angle are $\\rm{sin^2(2\\Theta...

  3. Chandra ACIS-S Observations of Three Quasars with Low-Redshift Damped Ly-alpha Absorption Constraints on the Cosmic Neutral-Gas-Phase Metallicity at Redshift z \\approx 0.4

    CERN Document Server

    Turnshek, D A; Ptak, A F; Griffiths, R E; Monier, E M; Turnshek, David A.; Rao, Sandhya M.; Ptak, Andrew F.; Griffiths, Richard E.; Monier, Eric M.

    2003-01-01

    Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO) ACIS-S spectra of three quasars which lie behind three foreground damped Lyman alpha (DLA) absorbers are analyzed in order to attempt to determine the amount of photoelectric absorption due to metals present in their x-ray spectra. These absorbers are the three largest neutral hydrogen column density absorption-line systems known at low redshift (0.313 \\le z_abs \\le 0.524). They have HI column densities which lie between 3E21 and 5E21 atoms/cm^2. At these redshifts the amount of photoelectric absorption at x-ray energies is primarily an indicator of the oxygen abundance. Since the column densities of these systems are so high, one would expect accurate metallicity measurements of them to yield a robust estimate of the column-density-weighted cosmic neutral-gas-phase metallicity at z \\approx 0.4. We consider cases where the DLA gas has solar element abundance ratios and ones with the alpha-group element abundance ratios enhanced. For the adopted assumptions, the column-density-w...

  4. The Brera Multi-scale Wavelet Chandra Survey. I. Serendipitous source catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, P; Mignani, R P; Moretti, A; Mottini, M; Panzera, M R; Tagliaferri, G

    2008-01-01

    We present the BMW-Chandra source catalogue drawn from essentially all Chandra ACIS-I pointed observations with an exposure time in excess of 10ks public as of March 2003 (136 observations). Using the wavelet detection algorithm developed by Lazzati et al. (1999) and Campana et al. (1999), which can characterise both point-like and extended sources, we identified 21325 sources. Among them, 16758 are serendipitous, i.e. not associated with the targets of the pointings, and do not require a non-automated analysis. This makes our catalogue the largest compilation of Chandra sources to date. The 0.5--10 keV absorption corrected fluxes of these sources range from ~3E-16 to 9E-12 erg cm^-2 s^-1 with a median of 7E-15 erg cm^-2 s^-1. The catalogue consists of count rates and relative errors in three energy bands (total, 0.5-7keV; soft, 0.5-2keV; and hard, 2-7keV), and source positions relative to the highest signal-to-noise detection among the three bands. The wavelet algorithm also provides an estimate of the exten...

  5. The First Chandra Field

    OpenAIRE

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Cameron, Robert A.; Gandhi, Poshak; Foellmi, Cédric; Elsner, Ronald F.; Patel, Sandeep K.; Wu, Kinwah; O'Dell, Stephen L.

    2005-01-01

    Before the official first-light images, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory obtained an X-ray image of the field to which its focal plane was first exposed. We describe this historic observation and report our study of the first Chandra field. Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) detected 15 X-ray sources, the brightest being dubbed ``Leon X-1'' to honor the Chandra Telescope Scientist, Leon Van Speybroeck. Based upon our analysis of the X-ray data and spectroscopy at the European Sou...

  6. The Chandra Deep Field-North Survey and the Cosmic X-ray Background

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, W N; Bauer, F E; Hornschemeier, A E

    2002-01-01

    Chandra has performed a 1.4 Ms survey centred on the Hubble Deep Field-North (HDF-N), probing the X-ray Universe 55-550 times deeper than was possible with pre-Chandra missions. We describe the detected point and extended X-ray sources and discuss their overall multiwavelength (optical, infrared, submillimeter, and radio) properties. Special attention is paid to the HDF-N X-ray sources, luminous infrared starburst galaxies, optically faint X-ray sources, and high-to-extreme redshift AGN. We also describe how stacking analyses have been used to probe the average X-ray emission properties of normal and starburst galaxies at cosmologically interesting distances. Finally, we discuss plans to extend the survey and argue that a 5-10 Ms Chandra survey would lay key groundwork for future missions such as XEUS and Generation-X.

  7. A 610 MHz Survey of the 1H XMM-Newton/Chandra Survey Field

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, D; McHardy, I M; Dwelly, T; Page, M J; Loaring, N S

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of a deep 610 MHz survey of the 1^H XMM/Chandra survey area with the GMRT. The resulting maps have a resolution of ~7 arcsec and an rms noise limit of 60 microJy. To a 5 sigma detection limit of 300 microJy we detect 223 sources within a survey area of diameter 64 arcmin. We compute the 610 MHz source counts and compare them to those measured at other radio wavelengths. The well know flattening of the Euclidean-normalised 1.4 GHz source counts below ~2 mJy, usually explained by a population of starburst galaxies undergoing luminosity evolution, is seen at 610 MHz. The 610 MHz source counts can be modelled by the same populations that explain the 1.4 GHz source counts, assuming a spectral index of -0.7 for the starburst galaxies and the steep spectrum AGN population. We find a similar dependence of luminosity evolution on redshift for the starburst galaxies at 610 MHz as is found at 1.4 GHz (i.e. 'Q'= 2.45 (+0.3,-0.4)).

  8. The Chandra Cygnus OB2 Legacy Survey: Design and X-ray Point Source Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Nicholas J; Guarcello, Mario G; Aldcroft, Tom L; Kashyap, Vinay L; Damiani, Francesco; DePasquale, Joe; Fruscione, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    The Cygnus OB2 association is the largest concentration of young and massive stars within 2 kpc of the Sun, including an estimated 65 O-type stars and hundreds of OB stars. The Chandra Cygnus OB2 Legacy Survey is a large imaging program undertaken with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer onboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The survey has imaged the central 0.5 deg^2 of the Cyg OB2 association with an effective exposure of 120ks and an outer 0.35 deg^2 area with an exposure of 60ks. Here we describe the survey design and observations, the data reduction and source detection, and present a catalog of 8,000 X-ray point sources. The survey design employs a grid of 36 heavily (~50%) overlapping pointings, a method that overcomes Chandra's low off-axis sensitivity and produces a highly uniform exposure over the inner 0.5 deg^2. The full X-ray catalog is described here and is made available online.

  9. The Chandra Deep Group Survey -- cool core evolution in groups and clusters of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Pascut, Aurelia

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of a study which assembles deep observations with the ACIS-I instrument on the Chandra Observatory to study the evolution in the core properties of a sample of galaxy groups and clusters out to redshifts $z\\approx 1.3$. A search for extended objects within these fields yields a total of 62 systems for which redshifts are available, and we added a further 24 non-X-ray-selected clusters, to investigate the impact of selection effects and improve our statistics at high redshift. Six different estimators of cool core strength are applied to these data: the entropy (K) and cooling time ($t_{cool}$) within the cluster core, the cooling time as a fraction of the age of the Universe ($t_{cool}/t_{Uni}$), and three estimators based on the cuspiness of the X-ray surface brightness profile. A variety of statistical tests are used to quantify evolutionary trends in these cool core indicators. In agreement with some previous studies, we find that there is significant evolution in $t_{cool}/t_{Uni}$, ...

  10. The Chandra Deep Field-South Survey: 7 Ms Source Catalogs

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, B; Xue, Y Q; Lehmer, B; Alexander, D M; Bauer, F E; Vito, F; Yang, G; Basu-Zych, A R; Comastri, A; Gilli, R; Gu, Q -S; Hornschemeier, A E; Koekemoer, A; Liu, T; Mainieri, V; Paolillo, M; Ranalli, P; Rosati, P; Schneider, D P; Shemmer, O; Smail, I; Sun, M; Tozzi, P; Vignali, C; Wang, J -X

    2016-01-01

    We present X-ray source catalogs for the $\\approx7$ Ms exposure of the Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S), which covers a total area of 484.2 arcmin$^2$. Utilizing WAVDETECT for initial source detection and ACIS Extract for photometric extraction and significance assessment, we create a main source catalog containing 1008 sources that are detected in up to three X-ray bands: 0.5-7.0 keV, 0.5-2.0 keV, and 2-7 keV. A supplementary source catalog is also provided including 47 lower-significance sources that have bright ($K_s\\le23$) near-infrared counterparts. We identify multiwavelength counterparts for 992 (98.4%) of the main-catalog sources, and we collect redshifts for 986 of these sources, including 653 spectroscopic redshifts and 333 photometric redshifts. Based on the X-ray and multiwavelength properties, we identify 711 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the main-catalog sources. Compared to the previous $\\approx4$ Ms CDF-S catalogs, 291 of the main-catalog sources are new detections. We have achieved unpre...

  11. Chandra Multi-wavelength Plane (ChaMPlane) Survey Design and Initial Results

    CERN Document Server

    Grindlay, J; Hong, J S; Jenkins, J; Kim, D W; Schlegel, E M; Drake, J; Kashyap, V; Edmonds, P; Cohn, H; Lugger, P M; Cool, A; Grindlay, Jonathan; Zhao, Ping; Hong, JaeSub; Jenkins, Johnathan; Kim, Dong-Woo; Schlegel, Eric; Drake, Jeremy; Kashyap, Vinay; Edmonds, Peter; Cohn, Haldan; Lugger, Phyllis; Cool, Adrienne

    2002-01-01

    The Chandra Multiwavength Plane (ChaMPlane) Survey of the galactic plane incorporates serendipitous sources from selected Chandra pointings in or near the galactic plane (b 20 ksec; lack of bright diffuse or point sources) to measure or constrain the luminosity function of low-luminosity accretion sources in the Galaxy. The primary goal is to detect and identify accreting white dwarfs (cataclysmic variables, with space density still uncertain by a factor of >10-100), neutron stars and black holes (quiescent low mass X-ray binaries) to constrain their space densities and thus origin and evolution. Secondary objectives are to identify Be stars in high mass X-ray binaries and constrain their space densities, and to survey the H-R diagram for stellar coronal sources. A parallel optical imaging under the NOAO Long Term Survey program provides deep optical images using the Mosaic imager on the CTIO and KPNO 4-m telescopes. The 36arcmin X 36arcmin optical images (Halpha, R, V and I) cover ~5X the area of each enclos...

  12. The Chandra COSMOS Survey: III. Optical and Infrared Identification of X-ray Point Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Civano, F; Brusa, M; Comastri, A; Salvato, M; Zamorani, G; Aldcroft, T; Bongiorno, A; Capak, P; Cappelluti, N; Cisternas, M; Fiore, F; Fruscione, A; Hao, H; Kartaltepe, J; Koekemoer, A; Gilli, R; Impey, C D; Lanzuisi, G; Lusso, E; Mainieri, V; Miyaji, T; Lilly, S; Masters, D; Puccetti, S; Schawinski, K; Scoville, N Z; Silverman, J; Trump, J; Urry, M; Vignali, C; Wright, N J

    2012-01-01

    The Chandra COSMOS Survey (C-COSMOS) is a large, 1.8 Ms, Chandra program that has imaged the central 0.9 deg^2 of the COSMOS field down to limiting depths of 1.9 10^-16 erg cm^-2 s-1 in the 0.5-2 keV band, 7.3 10^-16 erg cm^-2 s^-1 in the 2-10 keV band, and 5.7 10^-16 erg cm^-2 s-1 in the 0.5-10 keV band. In this paper we report the i, K and 3.6micron identifications of the 1761 X-ray point sources. We use the likelihood ratio technique to derive the association of optical/infrared counterparts for 97% of the X-ray sources. For most of the remaining 3%, the presence of multiple counterparts or the faintness of the possible counterpart prevented a unique association. For only 10 X-ray sources we were not able to associate a counterpart, mostly due to the presence of a very bright field source close by. Only 2 sources are truly empty fields. Making use of the large number of X-ray sources, we update the "classic locus" of AGN and define a new locus containing 90% of the AGN in the survey with full band luminosi...

  13. The Chandra planetary nebula survey (CHANPLANS). II. X-ray emission from compact planetary nebulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, M.; Kastner, J. H. [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Montez, R. Jr. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Balick, B. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Frew, D. J.; De Marco, O.; Parker, Q. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Macquarie Research Centre for Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrophotonics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Jones, D. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Atacama, Copayapu 485, Copiapó (Chile); Miszalski, B. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory, 7935 (South Africa); Sahai, R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 183-900, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Blackman, E.; Frank, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Chu, Y.-H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Guerrero, M. A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, IAA-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, Granada, E-18008 (Spain); Lopez, J. A. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Ensenada, Apdo. Postal 22860, Ensenada, B. C. (Mexico); Zijlstra, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Bujarrabal, V. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Corradi, R. L. M. [Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Nordhaus, J. [NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Fellow, Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); and others

    2014-10-20

    We present results from the most recent set of observations obtained as part of the Chandra X-ray observatory Planetary Nebula Survey (CHANPLANS), the first comprehensive X-ray survey of planetary nebulae (PNe) in the solar neighborhood (i.e., within ∼1.5 kpc of the Sun). The survey is designed to place constraints on the frequency of appearance and range of X-ray spectral characteristics of X-ray-emitting PN central stars and the evolutionary timescales of wind-shock-heated bubbles within PNe. CHANPLANS began with a combined Cycle 12 and archive Chandra survey of 35 PNe. CHANPLANS continued via a Chandra Cycle 14 Large Program which targeted all (24) remaining known compact (R {sub neb} ≲ 0.4 pc), young PNe that lie within ∼1.5 kpc. Results from these Cycle 14 observations include first-time X-ray detections of hot bubbles within NGC 1501, 3918, 6153, and 6369, and point sources in HbDs 1, NGC 6337, and Sp 1. The addition of the Cycle 14 results brings the overall CHANPLANS diffuse X-ray detection rate to ∼27% and the point source detection rate to ∼36%. It has become clearer that diffuse X-ray emission is associated with young (≲ 5 × 10{sup 3} yr), and likewise compact (R {sub neb} ≲ 0.15 pc), PNe with closed structures and high central electron densities (n{sub e} ≳ 1000 cm{sup –3}), and is rarely associated with PNe that show H{sub 2} emission and/or pronounced butterfly structures. Hb 5 is one such exception of a PN with a butterfly structure that hosts diffuse X-ray emission. Additionally, two of the five new diffuse X-ray detections (NGC 1501 and NGC 6369) host [WR]-type central stars, supporting the hypothesis that PNe with central stars of [WR]-type are likely to display diffuse X-ray emission.

  14. Supermassive Black-Hole Growth Over Cosmic Time: Active Galaxy Demography, Physics, and Ecology from Chandra Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, W N

    2010-01-01

    Extragalactic X-ray surveys over the past decade have dramatically improved understanding of the majority populations of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over most of the history of the Universe. Here we briefly highlight some of the exciting discoveries about AGN demography, physics, and ecology with a focus on results from Chandra. We also discuss some key unresolved questions and future prospects.

  15. The Norma Arm Region Chandra Survey: X-ray Populations in the Spiral Arms

    CERN Document Server

    Fornasini, Francesca M; Bodaghee, Arash; Krivonos, Roman A; An, Hongjun; Rahoui, Farid; Gotthelf, Eric V; Bauer, Franz E; Stern, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We present a catalog of 1415 X-ray sources identified in the Norma arm region Chandra survey (NARCS), which covers a 2 deg x 0.8 deg region in the direction of the Norma spiral arm to a depth of $\\approx$20 ks. Of these sources, 1130 are point-like sources detected with $\\geq3\\sigma$ confidence in at least one of three energy bands (0.5-10, 0.5-2, and 2-10 keV), five have extended emission, and the remainder are detected at low significance. Since most sources have too few counts to permit individual classification, they are divided into five spectral groups defined by their quantile properties. We analyze stacked spectra of X-ray sources within each group, in conjunction with their fluxes, variability, and infrared counterparts, to identify the dominant populations in our survey. We find that $\\sim$50% of our sources are foreground sources located within 1-2 kpc, which is consistent with expectations from previous surveys. Approximately 20% of sources are likely located in the proximity of the Scutum-Crux an...

  16. Statistical Characterization of the Chandra Source Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Primini, Francis A; Davis, John E; Nowak, Michael A; Evans, Ian N; Glotfelty, Kenny J; Anderson, Craig S; Bonaventura, Nina R; Chen, Judy C; Doe, Stephen M; Evans, Janet D; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C; Gibbs, Danny G; Grier, John D; Hain, Roger M; Hall, Diane M; Harbo, Peter N; Xiangqun,; He,; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael L; McDowell, Jonathan C; Miller, Joseph B; Mitschang, Arik W; Morgan, Douglas L; Mossman, Amy E; Nichols, Joy S; Plummer, David A; Refsdal, Brian L; Rots, Arnold H; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Sundheim, Beth A; Tibbetts, Michael S; Van Stone, David W; Winkelman, Sherry L; Zografou, Panagoula

    2011-01-01

    The first release of the Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) contains ~95,000 X-ray sources in a total area of ~0.75% of the entire sky, using data from ~3,900 separate ACIS observations of a multitude of different types of X-ray sources. In order to maximize the scientific benefit of such a large, heterogeneous data-set, careful characterization of the statistical properties of the catalog, i.e., completeness, sensitivity, false source rate, and accuracy of source properties, is required. Characterization efforts of other, large Chandra catalogs, such as the ChaMP Point Source Catalog (Kim et al. 2007) or the 2 Mega-second Deep Field Surveys (Alexander et al. 2003), while informative, cannot serve this purpose, since the CSC analysis procedures are significantly different and the range of allowable data is much less restrictive. We describe here the characterization process for the CSC. This process includes both a comparison of real CSC results with those of other, deeper Chandra catalogs of the same targets and e...

  17. The Chandra X-ray Survey of Planetary Nebulae (ChanPlaNS): Probing Binarity, Magnetic Fields, and Wind Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Kastner, J H; Balick, B; Frew, D J; Miszalski, B; Sahai, R; Blackman, E; Chu, Y -H; De Marco, O; Frank, A; Guerrero, M A; Lopez, J A; Rapson, V; Zijlstra, A; Behar, E; Bujarrabal, V; Corradi, R L M; Nordhaus, J; Parker, Q; Sandin, C; Schönberner, D; Soker, N; Sokoloski, J L; Steffen, M; Ueta, T; Villaver, E

    2012-01-01

    We present an overview of the initial results from the Chandra Planetary Nebula Survey (ChanPlaNS), the first systematic (volume-limited) Chandra X-ray Observatory survey of planetary nebulae (PNe) in the solar neighborhood. The first phase of ChanPlaNS targeted 21 mostly high-excitation PNe within ~1.5 kpc of Earth, yielding 3 detections of diffuse X-ray emission and 9 detections of X-ray-luminous point sources at the central stars (CSPNe) of these objects. Combining these results with those obtained from Chandra archival data for all (14) other PNe within ~1.5 kpc that have been observed to date, we find an overall X-ray detection rate of 68%. Roughly 50% of the PNe observed by Chandra harbor X-ray-luminous CSPNe, while soft, diffuse X-ray emission tracing shocks formed by energetic wind collisions is detected in ~30%; five objects display both diffuse and point-like emission components. The presence of X-ray sources appears correlated with PN density structure, in that molecule-poor, elliptical nebulae are...

  18. The Norma arm region Chandra survey catalog: X-ray populations in the spiral arms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornasini, Francesca M. [Astronomy Department, University of California, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Tomsick, John A.; Bodaghee, Arash; Krivonos, Roman A. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); An, Hongjun [Department of Physics, McGill University, Rutherford Physics Building, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Rahoui, Farid [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Gotthelf, Eric V. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Bauer, Franz E. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Stern, Daniel, E-mail: f.fornasini@berkeley.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MS 169-506, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We present a catalog of 1415 X-ray sources identified in the Norma Arm Region Chandra Survey (NARCS), which covers a 2° × 0.°8 region in the direction of the Norma spiral arm to a depth of ≈20 ks. Of these sources, 1130 are point-like sources detected with ≥3σ confidence in at least one of three energy bands (0.5-10, 0.5-2, and 2-10 keV), five have extended emission, and the remainder are detected at low significance. Since most sources have too few counts to permit individual classification, they are divided into five spectral groups defined by their quantile properties. We analyze stacked spectra of X-ray sources within each group, in conjunction with their fluxes, variability, and infrared counterparts, to identify the dominant populations in our survey. We find that ∼50% of our sources are foreground sources located within 1-2 kpc, which is consistent with expectations from previous surveys. Approximately 20% of sources are likely located in the proximity of the Scutum-Crux and near Norma arm, while 30% are more distant, in the proximity of the far Norma arm or beyond. We argue that a mixture of magnetic and nonmagnetic cataclysmic variables dominates the Scutum-Crux and near Norma arms, while intermediate polars and high-mass stars (isolated or in binaries) dominate the far Norma arm. We also present the cumulative number count distribution for sources in our survey that are detected in the hard energy band. A population of very hard sources in the vicinity of the far Norma arm and active galactic nuclei dominate the hard X-ray emission down to f{sub X} ≈ 10{sup –14} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}, but the distribution curve flattens at fainter fluxes. We find good agreement between the observed distribution and predictions based on other surveys.

  19. The Chandra Planetary Nebula Survey (ChanPlaNS). II. X-ray Emission from Compact Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, M; Montez, R; Balick, B; Frew, D J; Jones, D; Miszalski, B; Sahai, R; Blackman, E; Chu, Y -H; De Marco, O; Frank, A; Guerrero, M A; Lopez, J A; Zijlstra, A; Bujarrabal, V; Corradi, R L M; Nordhaus, J; Parker, Q A; Sandin, C; Schönberner, D; Soker, N; Sokoloski, J L; Steffen, M; Toalá, J A; Ueta, T; Villaver, E

    2014-01-01

    We present results from the most recent set of observations obtained as part of the Chandra X-ray observatory Planetary Nebula Survey (ChanPlaNS), the first comprehensive X-ray survey of planetary nebulae (PNe) in the solar neighborhood (i.e., within ~1.5 kpc of the Sun). The survey is designed to place constraints on the frequency of appearance and range of X-ray spectral characteristics of X-ray-emitting PN central stars and the evolutionary timescales of wind-shock-heated bubbles within PNe. ChanPlaNS began with a combined Cycle 12 and archive Chandra survey of 35 PNe. ChanPlaNS continued via a Chandra Cycle 14 Large Program which targeted all (24) remaining known compact (R_neb ~1000 cm^-3), and rarely associated with PNe that show H_2 emission and/or pronounced butterfly structures. Hb 5 is one such exception of a PN with a butterfly structure that hosts diffuse X-ray emission. Additionally, of the five new diffuse X-ray detections, two host [WR]-type CSPNe, NGC 1501 and NGC 6369, supporting the hypothes...

  20. The 2 Ms Chandra Deep Field-North Survey and the 250 ks Extended Chandra Deep Field-South Survey: Improved Point-Source Catalogs

    CERN Document Server

    Xue, Y Q; Brandt, W N; Alexander, D M; Bauer, F E; Lehmer, B D; Yang, G

    2016-01-01

    We present improved point-source catalogs for the 2 Ms Chandra Deep Field-North (CDF-N) and the 250 ks Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (E-CDF-S), implementing a number of recent improvements in Chandra source-cataloging methodology. For the CDF-N/E-CDF-S, we provide a main catalog that contains 683/1003 X-ray sources detected with wavdetect at a false-positive probability threshold of $10^{-5}$ that also satisfy a binomial-probability source-selection criterion of $P<0.004$/$P<0.002$. Such an approach maximizes the number of reliable sources detected: a total of 196/275 main-catalog sources are new compared to the Alexander et al. (2003) CDF-N/Lehmer et al. (2005) E-CDF-S main catalogs. We also provide CDF-N/E-CDF-S supplementary catalogs that consist of 72/56 sources detected at the same wavdetect threshold and having $P$ of $0.004-0.1$/$0.002-0.1$ and $K_s\\le22.9/K_s\\le22.3$ mag counterparts. For all $\\approx1800$ CDF-N and E-CDF-S sources, including the $\\approx500$ newly detected ones (these being...

  1. A survey of extended radio jets in AGN with Chandra and HST First Results

    CERN Document Server

    Sambruna, R M; Tavecchio, F; Urry, C M; Cheung, C C; Chartas, G; Scarpa, R; Gambill, J K; Sambruna, Rita M.; Gambill, Jessica K.

    2002-01-01

    We present the first results from an X-ray and optical survey of a sample of AGN radio jets with Chandra and HST. We focus here on the first six sources observed at X-rays, in four of which a bright X-ray jet was detected for the first time. In three out of four cases optical emission from the jet is also detected in our HST images. We compare the X-ray morphology with the radio as derived from improved processing of archival VLA data and we construct spectral energy distributions (SED) for the most conspicuous emission knots. In most cases the SEDs, together with the similarity of the X-ray and radio morphologies, favor an inverse Compton origin of the X-rays. The most likely origin of the seed photons is the Cosmic Microwave Background, implying the jets are still relativistic on kiloparsec scales. However, in the first knot of the PKS 1136-135 jet, X-rays are likely produced via the synchrotron process. In all four cases bulk Lorentz factors of a few are required. The radio maps of the two jets not detecte...

  2. A Statistical Analysis of Point-like Sources in the Chandra Galactic Center Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.F.Wu; S.N.Zhang; F.J.Lu; Y.K.Jin

    2007-01-01

    The Chandra Galactic Center Survey detected ~ 800 X-ray point-like sources in the 2°× 0.8° sky region around the Galactic Center. We study the spatial and luminosity distributions of these sources according to their spectral properties. Fourteen bright sources detected are used to fit jointly an absorbed power-law model, from which the power-law photon index is determined to be ~2.5. Assuming that all other sources have the same power-law form, the relation between hardness ratio and HI column density NH is used to estimate the NH values for all sources. Monte Carlo simulations show that these sources are more likely concentrated in the Galactic center region, rather than distributed throughout the Galactic disk. We also find that the luminosities of the sources are positively correlated with their HI column densities, i.e., a more luminous source has a higher HI column density. From this relation, we suggest that the X-ray luminosity comes from the interaction between an isolated old neutron star and interstellar medium (mainly dense molecular clouds). Using the standard Bondi accretion theory and the statistical information of molecular clouds in the Galactic center, we confirm this positive correlation and calculate the luminosity range in this scenario,which is consistent with the observation (1032 - 1035 erg s-1).

  3. The Chandra COSMOS-Legacy survey: Source X-ray spectral properties

    CERN Document Server

    Marchesi, S; Civano, F; Iwasawa, K; Suh, H; Comastri, A; Zamorani, G; Allevato, V; Griffiths, R; Miyaji, T; Ranalli, P; Salvato, M; Schawinski, K; Silverman, J; Treister, E; Urry, C M; Vignali, C

    2016-01-01

    We present the X-ray spectral analysis of the 1855 extragalactic sources in the Chandra COSMOS-Legacy survey catalog having more than 30 net counts in the 0.5-7 keV band. 38% of the sources are optically classified Type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGN), 60% are Type 2 AGN and 2% are passive, low-redshift galaxies. We study the distribution of AGN photon index and of the intrinsic absorption N(H,z) based on the sources optical classification: Type 1 have a slightly steeper mean photon index than Type 2 AGN, which on the other hand have average intrinsic absorption ~3 times higher than Type 1 AGN. We find that ~15% of Type 1 AGN have N(H,z)>1E22 cm^(-2), i.e., are obscured according to the X-ray spectral fitting; the vast majority of these sources have L(2-10keV)>$1E44 erg/s. The existence of these objects suggests that optical and X-ray obscuration can be caused by different phenomena, the X-ray obscuration being for example caused by dust-free material surrounding the inner part of the nuclei. ~18% of Type 2 AG...

  4. Deep X-ray and UV Surveys of Galaxies with Chandra, XMM-Newton, and GALEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornschemeier, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Only with the deepest Chandra surveys has X-ray emission from normal and star forming galaxies (as opposed to AGN, which dominate the X-ray sky) been accessible at cosmologically interesting distances. The X-ray emission from accreting binaries provide a critical glimpse into the binary phase of stellar evolution and studies of the hot gas reservoir constrain past star formation. UV studies provide important, sensitive diagnostics of the young star forming populations and provide the most mature means for studying galaxies at 2 luminosity function of galaxies and important constraints on star formation scaling relations such as the X-ray-Star Formation Rate correlation and the X-ray/Stellar Mass correlation. We will discuss what we learn from these deep observations of Coma, including the recently established suppression of the X-ray emission from galaxies in the Coma outskirts that is likely associated with lower levels of past star formation and/or the results of tidal gas stripping.

  5. The VLA Survey of the Chandra Deep Field South. IV. Source Population

    CERN Document Server

    Padovani, P; Tozzi, P; Kellermann, K I; Fomalont, E B; Miller, N; Rosati, P; Shaver, P

    2008-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of 256 radio sources from our deep (flux density limit of 42 microJy at the field centre at 1.4 GHz) Chandra Deep Field South 1.4 and 5 GHz VLA survey. The radio population is studied by using a wealth of multi-wavelength information in the radio, optical, and X-ray bands. The availability of redshifts for ~ 80% of the sources in our complete sample allows us to derive reliable luminosity estimates for the majority of the objects. X-ray data, including upper limits, for all our sources turn out to be a key factor in establishing the nature of faint radio sources. Due to the faint optical levels probed by this study, we have uncovered a population of distant Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) systematically missing from many previous studies of sub-millijansky radio source identifications. We find that, while the well-known flattening of the radio number counts below 1 mJy is mostly due to star forming galaxies, these sources and AGN make up an approximately equal fraction of the sub-m...

  6. Selected First Results from the 7 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, W. Niel; Chandra Deep Field-South Team

    2017-01-01

    The exposure on the Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) has recently been increased to 7 Ms, making it the most sensitive extragalactic X-ray survey by a wide margin. About 1050 X-ray sources have been detected, primarily distant active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and starburst/normal galaxies. The unmatched deep multiwavelength coverage for these sources allows superb follow-up investigations; e.g., 98.4% of the X-ray sources have multiwavelength counterparts, and 97.8% have spectroscopic/photometric redshifts. I will briefly describe the source catalog for the 7 Ms CDF-S and some exciting first science results. The latter will likely include (1) constraints on SMBH growth in the first galaxies as revealed by direct detection and stacking; (2) long-term variability studies of the AGNs producing most of cosmic accretion power; (3) AGN/galaxy interactions as investigated via the host properties of X-ray AGNs; and (4) measurements of the evolving X-ray binary populations of normal and starburst galaxies.

  7. ESO Imaging Survey. Deep Public Survey Multi-Color Optical Data for the Chandra Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Arnouts, S; Benoist, C; Groenewegen, M A T; Costa, L; Schirmer, M; Mignani, R P; Slijkhuis, R; Hatziminaoglou, E; Hook, R; Madejsky, R; Rité, C; Wicenec, A

    2001-01-01

    (short) This paper presents multi-passband optical data obtained from observations of the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), located at alpha ~ 3h 32m, delta ~ -27d 48m. The observations were conducted at the ESO/MPG 2.2m telescope at La Silla using the 8kx8k Wide-Field Imager (WFI). This data set, taken over a period of one year, represents the first field to be completed by the ongoing Deep Public Survey (DPS) being carried out by the ESO Imaging Survey (EIS) project. This paper describes the optical observations, the techniques employed for un-supervised pipeline processing and the general characteristics of the final data set. The paper includes data taken in six different filters U'UBVRI. The data cover an area of about 0.25 square degrees reaching 5 sigma limiting magnitudes of U'_AB=26.0, U_AB=25.7, B_AB=26.4$, V_AB=25.4, R_AB=25.5 and I_AB= 24.7 mag, as measured within a 2xFWHM aperture. The optical data covers the area of ~ 0.1 square degrees for which moderately deep observations in two near-infrared...

  8. Chandra Examines a Quadrillion-Volt Pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    The high-voltage environment of one of the most energetic and strongly magnetized pulsars known has been surveyed by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. A team of astronomers found a powerful jet of high-energy particles extending over a distance of 20 light years and bright arcs believed to be due to particles of matter and anti-matter generated by the pulsar. The team of US, Canadian, and Japanese scientists pointed Chandra at the rapidly spinning neutron star B1509-58, located 19,000 light years away in the constellation of Circinus, for over five hours. These results were announced at the "Two Years of Science with Chandra" symposium in Washington, DC. "Jets and arcs on this vast scale have never been seen in any other pulsar," said Bryan Gaensler of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. "The spectacular images we have obtained of this source are letting us test theories as to how pulsars unleash so much energy." The features seen with Chandra give the scientists insight into the process by which voltages of more than 7000 trillion volts are created around rotating neutron stars (the dense remnants of supernova explosions) and how these extreme voltages affect their environment. B1509-58 is of particular interest because it has a much stronger magnetic field than the Crab Nebula pulsar, which exhibits similar features on a much smaller scale. The general picture emerging from these results is that high-energy particles of matter and antimatter are streaming away from the neutron star along its poles and near its equator. The particles leaving the poles produce the jets; astronomers speculate that only one side of the jet is apparent in B1509-58, indicating that this one side is beamed in our direction, while the other is rushing away. "Until this observation, no one knew for sure whether such tremendous voltages and energy outputs were a trademark of all pulsars, or if the Crab was an oddball," said Vicky Kaspi of McGill University in Montreal. "Now thanks

  9. First Results from the 7 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South Survey: A Good Hard Look at Growing Supermassive Black Holes in the Distant Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, William; Chandra Deep Fields Team

    2017-01-01

    Sensitive cosmic X-ray surveys with the Chandra, XMM-Newton, and now NuSTAR observatories have revolutionized our ability to find and study distant active galactic nuclei (AGNs), the main sites of supermassive black hole growth in the Universe. I will describe some recent discoveries about the demographics, physics, and ecology of distant AGNs coming from the deepest Chandra survey to date, the 7 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South. Some specific topics covered will include (1) robust X-ray spectral and variability characterization of the AGNs producing most of cosmic accretion power; (2) the demographics of AGNs in the first galaxies as revealed by direct detection and stacking; and (3) AGN/galaxy interactions as investigated via the host properties of X-ray AGNs. I will also briefly describe other remarkable discoveries coming from this survey; e.g., measurements of the evolving X-ray binary populations of normal and starburst galaxies.

  10. THE CHANDRA X-RAY SURVEY OF PLANETARY NEBULAE (CHANPLANS): PROBING BINARITY, MAGNETIC FIELDS, AND WIND COLLISIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastner, J. H.; Montez, R. Jr.; Rapson, V. [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Balick, B. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Frew, D. J.; De Marco, O.; Parker, Q. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Macquarie Research Centre for Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrophotonics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Miszalski, B. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory, 7935 (South Africa); Sahai, R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 183-900, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Blackman, E.; Frank, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Chu, Y.-H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, Champagne-Urbana, IL (United States); Guerrero, M. A. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Astronomia, Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, Granada 18008 (Spain); Lopez, J. A. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Ensenada, Apdo. Postal 22860, Ensenada, B. C. (Mexico); Zijlstra, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Behar, E. [Department of Physics, Technion (Israel); Bujarrabal, V. [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional, Apartado 112, E-28803, Alcala de Henares (Spain); Corradi, R. L. M. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Nordhaus, J. [Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Sandin, C., E-mail: jhk@cis.rit.edu, E-mail: soker@physics.technion.ac.il, E-mail: eva.villaver@uam.es [Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); and others

    2012-08-15

    We present an overview of the initial results from the Chandra Planetary Nebula Survey (CHANPLANS), the first systematic (volume-limited) Chandra X-Ray Observatory survey of planetary nebulae (PNe) in the solar neighborhood. The first phase of CHANPLANS targeted 21 mostly high-excitation PNe within {approx}1.5 kpc of Earth, yielding four detections of diffuse X-ray emission and nine detections of X-ray-luminous point sources at the central stars (CSPNe) of these objects. Combining these results with those obtained from Chandra archival data for all (14) other PNe within {approx}1.5 kpc that have been observed to date, we find an overall X-ray detection rate of {approx}70% for the 35 sample objects. Roughly 50% of the PNe observed by Chandra harbor X-ray-luminous CSPNe, while soft, diffuse X-ray emission tracing shocks-in most cases, 'hot bubbles'-formed by energetic wind collisions is detected in {approx}30%; five objects display both diffuse and point-like emission components. The presence (or absence) of X-ray sources appears correlated with PN density structure, in that molecule-poor, elliptical nebulae are more likely to display X-ray emission (either point-like or diffuse) than molecule-rich, bipolar, or Ring-like nebulae. All but one of the point-like CSPNe X-ray sources display X-ray spectra that are harder than expected from hot ({approx}100 kK) central stars emitting as simple blackbodies; the lone apparent exception is the central star of the Dumbbell nebula, NGC 6853. These hard X-ray excesses may suggest a high frequency of binary companions to CSPNe. Other potential explanations include self-shocking winds or PN mass fallback. Most PNe detected as diffuse X-ray sources are elliptical nebulae that display a nested shell/halo structure and bright ansae; the diffuse X-ray emission regions are confined within inner, sharp-rimmed shells. All sample PNe that display diffuse X-ray emission have inner shell dynamical ages {approx}< 5 Multiplication

  11. The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey: optical catalogue and point-source counterparts to X-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Wevers, T; Jonker, P G; Bassa, C; Nelemans, G; van Grunsven, T; Gonzalez-Solares, E A; Torres, M A P; Heinke, C; Steeghs, D; Maccarone, T J; Britt, C; Hynes, R I; Johnson, C; Wu, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS), we present a catalogue of optical sources in the GBS footprint. This consists of two regions centered at Galactic latitude b = 1.5 degrees above and below the Galactic Centre, spanning (l x b) = (6x1) degrees. The catalogue consists of 2 or more epochs of observations for each line of sight in r', i' and H{\\alpha} filters. It is complete down to r' = 20.2 and i' = 19.2 mag; the mean 5{\\sigma} depth is r' = 22.5 and i' = 21.1 mag. The mean root-mean-square residuals of the astrometric solutions is 0.04 arcsec. We cross-correlate this optical catalogue with the 1640 unique X-ray sources detected in Chandra observations of the GBS area, and find candidate optical counterparts to 1480 X-ray sources. We use a false alarm probability analysis to estimate the contamination by interlopers, and expect ~ 10 per cent of optical counterparts to be chance alignments. To determine the most likely counterpart for each X-ray source, we compute the likelihood ratio for all o...

  12. Chandra Observations of the Highest Redshift Quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Shemmer, O; Brandt, W N; Brinkmann, J; Diamond-Stanic, A M; Fan, X; Gunn, J E; Richards, G T; Schneider, D P; Strauss, M A; Anderson, Scott F.; Brinkmann, Jon; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan, Xiaohui; Gunn, James E.; Richards, Gordon T.; Schneider, Donald P.; Shemmer, Ohad; Strauss, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    We present new Chandra observations of 21 z>4 quasars, including 11 sources at z>5. These observations double the number of X-ray detected quasars at z>5, allowing investigation of the X-ray spectral properties of a substantial sample of quasars at the dawn of the modern Universe. By jointly fitting the spectra of 15 z>5 radio-quiet quasars (RQQs), including sources from the Chandra archive, with a total of 185 photons, we find a mean X-ray power-law photon index of Gamma=1.95^{+0.30}_{-0.26}, and a mean neutral intrinsic absorption column density of N_H5 RQQs, excluding broad absorption line quasars, is alpha_ox=-1.69+/-0.03, which is consistent with the value predicted from the observed relationship between alpha_ox and ultraviolet luminosity. Four of the sources in our sample are members of the rare class of weak emission-line quasars, and we detect two of them in X-rays. We discuss the implications our X-ray observations have for the nature of these mysterious sources and, in particular, whether their wea...

  13. The Chandra Survey of Extragalactic Sources in the 3CR Catalog: X-ray Emission from Nuclei, Jets, and Hotspots in the Chandra Archival Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Massaro, F; Liuzzo, E; Orienti, M; Paladino, R; Paggi, A; Tremblay, G R; Wilkes, B J; Kuraszkiewicz, J; Baum, S A; O'Dea, C P

    2016-01-01

    As part of our program to build a complete radio and X-ray database of all the 3CR extragalactic radio sources, we present an analysis of 93 sources for which Chandra archival data are available. Most of these sources have been already published. Here we provide a uniform re-analysis and present nuclear X-ray fluxes and X-ray emission associated with radio jet knots and hotspots using both publicly available radio images and new radio images that have been constructed from data available in the VLA archive. For about 1/3 of the sources in the selected sample a comparison between the Chandra and the radio observations was not reported in the literature: we find X-ray detections of 2 new radio jet knots and 17 hotspots. We also report the X-ray detection of extended emission from the intergalactic medium of 15 galaxy clusters, two of which were most likely unknown previously.

  14. Chandra Survey of Nearby Highly Inclined Disc Galaxies - III: Comparison with Hydrodynamical Simulations of Circumgalactic Coronae

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jiang-Tao; Wang, Q Daniel

    2014-01-01

    X-ray observations of circumgalactic coronae provide a valuable means by which to test galaxy formation theories. Two primary mechanisms are thought to be responsible for the establishment of such coronae: accretion of intergalactic gas (IGM) and/or galactic feedback. In this paper, we first compare our Chandra sample of galactic coronae of 53 nearby highly-inclined disc galaxies to an analytical model considering only the accretion of IGM. We confirm the existing conclusion that this pure accretion model substantially over-predicts the coronal emission. We then select 30 field galaxies from our original sample, and correct their coronal luminosities to uniformly compare them to deep X-ray measurements of several massive disc galaxies from the literature, as well as to a comparable sample of simulated galaxies drawn from the Galaxies-Intergalactic Medium Interaction Calculation (GIMIC). These simulations explicitly model both accretion and SNe feedback and yield galaxies exhibit X-ray properties in broad agre...

  15. The Chandra Source Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Ian N; Glotfelty, Kenny J; Anderson, Craig S; Bonaventura, Nina R; Chen, Judy C; Davis, John E; Doe, Stephen M; Evans, Janet D; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C; Gibbs, Danny G; Grier, John D; Hain, Roger M; Hall, Diane M; Harbo, Peter N; Xiangqun,; He,; Houck, John C; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael L; McDowell, Jonathan C; Miller, Joseph B; Mitschang, Arik W; Morgan, Douglas L; Mossman, Amy E; Nichols, Joy S; Nowak, Michael A; Plummer, David A; Refsdal, Brian L; Rots, Arnold H; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Sundheim, Beth A; Tibbetts, Michael S; Van Stone, David W; Winkelman, Sherry L; Zografou, Panagoula

    2010-01-01

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is a general purpose virtual X-ray astrophysics facility that provides access to a carefully selected set of generally useful quantities for individual X-ray sources, and is designed to satisfy the needs of a broad-based group of scientists, including those who may be less familiar with astronomical data analysis in the X-ray regime. The first release of the CSC includes information about 94,676 distinct X-ray sources detected in a subset of public ACIS imaging observations from roughly the first eight years of the Chandra mission. This release of the catalog includes point and compact sources with observed spatial extents <~ 30''. The catalog (1) provides access to the best estimates of the X-ray source properties for detected sources, with good scientific fidelity, and directly supports scientific analysis using the individual source data; (2) facilitates analysis of a wide range of statistical properties for classes of X-ray sources; and (3) provides efficient access to ...

  16. The NuSTAR Extragalactic Surveys: Initial Results and Catalog from the Extended Chandra Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Mullaney, J R; Aird, J; Alexander, D M; Civano, F M; Hickox, R C; Lansbury, G B; Ajello, M; Assef, R; Ballantyne, D R; Balokovic, M; Bauer, F E; Brandt, W N; Boggs, S E; Brightman, M; Christensen, F E; Comastri, A; Craig, W W; Elvis, M; Forster, K; Gandhi, P; Grefenstette, B W; Hailey, C J; Harrison, F A; Koss, M; LaMassa, S M; Luo, B; Madsen, K K; Puccetti, S; Saez, C; Stern, D; Treister, E; Urry, C M; Wik, D R; Zappacosta, L; Zhang, W

    2015-01-01

    We present initial results and the source catalog from the NuSTAR survey of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (hereafter, ECDFS) - currently the deepest contiguous component of the NuSTAR extragalactic survey program. The survey covers the full ~30 arcmin x 30 arcmin area of this field to a maximum depth of ~360 ks (~220 ks when corrected for vignetting at 3-24 keV), reaching sensitivity limits of ~1.3 x 10^-14 erg/cm2/s (3-8 keV), ~3.4 x 10^-14 erg/cm2/s (8-24 keV) and ~3.0 x 10^-14 erg/cm2/s (3-24 keV). Fifty four (54) sources are detected over the full field, although five of these are found to lie below our significance threshold once contaminating flux from neighboring (i.e., blended) sources is taken into account. Of the remaining 49 that are significant, 19 are detected in the 8-24 keV band. The 8-24 keV to 3-8 keV band ratios of the twelve sources that are detected in both bands span the range 0.39-1.7, corresponding to a photon index range of Gamma ~ 0.5-2.3, with a median photon index of 1.70 +/...

  17. An ALMA survey of submillimetre galaxies in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South: High resolution 870um source counts

    CERN Document Server

    Karim, Alexander; Hodge, Jackie; Smail, Ian; Walter, Fabian; Biggs, Andy; Simpson, James; Danielson, Alice; Alexander, David; Bertoldi, Frank; Chapman, Scott; Coppin, Kristen; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Edge, Alastair; Greve, Thomas; Ivison, Rob; Knudsen, Kirsten; Menten, Karl; Schinnerer, Eva; Wardlow, Julie; Weiß, Axel; van der Werf, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We report the first counts of faint submillimetre galaxies (SMG) in the 870-um band derived from arcsecond resolution observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). We have used ALMA to map a sample of 122 870-um-selected submillimetre sources drawn from the (0.5x0.5)deg^2 LABOCA Extended Chandra Deep Field South Submillimetre Survey (LESS). These ALMA maps have an average depth of sigma(870um)~0.4mJy, some ~3x deeper than the original LABOCA survey and critically the angular resolution is more than an order of magnitude higher, FWHM of ~1.5" compared to ~19" for the LABOCA discovery map. This combination of sensitivity and resolution allows us to precisely pin-point the SMGs contributing to the submillimetre sources from the LABOCA map, free from the effects of confusion. We show that our ALMA-derived SMG counts broadly agree with the submillimetre source counts from previous, lower-resolution single-dish surveys, demonstrating that the bulk of the submillimetre sources are not caused by blendi...

  18. Bent-Tailed Radio Sources in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey of the Chandra Deep Field-South

    CERN Document Server

    Dehghan, Siamak; Franzen, Thomas M O; Norris, Ray P; Miller, Neal A

    2015-01-01

    Using the 1.4 GHz Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS), supplemented with the 1.4 GHz Very Large Array images, we undertook a search for bent-tailed (BT) radio galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field-South (CDFS). Here we present a catalog of 56 detections, which include 45 bent-tailed sources, four diffuse low-surface-brightness objects (one relic, two halos, and one unclassified object), and a further seven complex, multi-component sources. We report BT sources with rest-frame powers in the range $10^{22} \\leq$ $\\textrm{P}_{1.4 \\textrm{ GHz}} \\leq 10^{26}$ W Hz$^{-1}$, redshifts up to 2 and linear extents from tens of kpc up to about one Mpc. This is the first systematic study of such sources down to such low powers and high redshifts and demonstrates the complementary nature of searches in deep, limited area surveys as compared to shallower, large surveys. Of the sources presented here one is the most distant bent-tailed source yet detected at a redshift of 2.1688. Two of the sources are found to be as...

  19. The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey: optical catalogue and point-source counterparts to X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wevers, T.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Jonker, P. G.; Bassa, C.; Nelemans, G.; van Grunsven, T.; Gonzalez-Solares, E. A.; Torres, M. A. P.; Heinke, C.; Steeghs, D.; Maccarone, T. J.; Britt, C.; Hynes, R. I.; Johnson, C.; Wu, Jianfeng

    2016-06-01

    As part of the Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS), we present a catalogue of optical sources in the GBS footprint. This consists of two regions centred at Galactic latitude b = 1.5° above and below the Galactic Centre, spanning (l × b) = (6° × 1°). The catalogue consists of two or more epochs of observations for each line of sight in r', i' and H α filters. The catalogue is complete down to r' = 20.2 and i' = 19.2 mag; the mean 5σ depth is r' = 22.5 and i' = 21.1 mag. The mean root-mean-square residuals of the astrometric solutions is 0.04 arcsec. We cross-correlate this optical catalogue with the 1640 unique X-ray sources detected in Chandra observations of the GBS area, and find candidate optical counterparts to 1480 X-ray sources. We use a false alarm probability analysis to estimate the contamination by interlopers, and expect ˜10 per cent of optical counterparts to be chance alignments. To determine the most likely counterpart for each X-ray source, we compute the likelihood ratio for all optical sources within the 4σ X-ray error circle. This analysis yields 1480 potential counterparts (˜90 per cent of the sample). 584 counterparts have saturated photometry (r' ≤ 17, i' ≤ 16), indicating these objects are likely foreground sources and the real counterparts. 171 candidate counterparts are detected only in the i' band. These sources are good qLMXB and CV candidates as they are X-ray bright and likely located in the Bulge.

  20. ESO Imaging Survey. The Stellar Catalogue in the Chandra Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Groenewegen, M A T; Hatziminaoglou, E; Benoist, C; Olsen, L F; Costa, L; Arnouts, S; Madejsky, R; Mignani, R P; Rité, C; Sikkema, G; Slijkhuis, R; Vandame, B

    2002-01-01

    (abridged) Stellar catalogues in five passbands (UBVRI) over an area of approximately 0.3 deg^2, comprising about 1200 objects, and in seven passbands (UBVRIJK) over approximately 0.1 deg^2, comprising about 400 objects, in the direction of the Chandra Deep Field South are presented. The 90% completeness level of the number counts is reached at approximately U = 23.8, B = 24.0, V = 23.5, R = 23.0, I = 21.0, J = 20.5, K = 19.0. A scheme is presented to select point sources from these catalogues, by combining the SExtractor parameter CLASS_STAR from all available passbands. Probable QSOs and unresolved galaxies are identified by using the previously developed \\chi^2-technique (Hatziminaoglou et al 2002), that fits the overall spectral energy distributions to template spectra and determines the best fitting template. The observed number counts, colour-magnitude diagrams, colour-colour diagrams and colour distributions are presented and, to judge the quality of the data, compared to simulations based on the predi...

  1. Chandra Survey of Nearby Highly Inclined Disc Galaxies - II: Correlation Analysis of Galactic Coronal Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jiang-Tao

    2013-01-01

    X-ray observations provide a key tool for exploring the properties of galactic coronae and their formation processes. In an earlier paper, we have presented a Chandra data analysis of the coronae of 53 nearby highly-inclined disc galaxies. Here we study the correlation of the X-ray measurements with other galaxy properties and compare the results with those obtained for elliptical galaxies. A good correlation is present between the coronal luminosity Lx and the SFR. But we find a better correlation between Lx and the total SN mechanical energy input rate (ESN), including the expected contribution from core collapsed (CC) and Ia SNe. The X-ray radiation efficiency (eta=Lx/ESN) has a mean value of ~0.4% with an rms of ~0.5dex. eta further correlates with MTF/M* (MTF is the baryon mass measured from the rotation velocity and the Tully-Fisher relation, M* is the stellar mass measured from the K-band luminosity) and the CC SN rate surface density (FSN, in units of SN/yr/kpc^2), which can be characterized as: eta=0...

  2. An Archival Chandra and XMM-Newton Survey of Type 2 Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jianjun; Ptak, Andrew Francis; Heckman, Timothy; Zakamska, Nadia L.

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate obscuration in high-luminosity type 2 active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we analyzed Chandra and XMM-Newton archival observations for 71 type 2 quasars detected at 0.05 100 eV in the rest frame) and we detect this line in the other sources through a joint fit (spectral stacking). The correlation between the Fe K alpha and [O III] fluxes and the inverse correlation of the equivalent width of the Fe Ka line with the ratio of hard X-ray and [O III] fluxes is consistent with previous results for lower luminosity Seyfert 2 galaxies. We conclude that obscuration is the cause of the weak hard X-ray emission rather than intrinsically low X-ray luminosities. We find that about half of the population of optically selected type 2 quasars are likely to be Compton thick. We also find no evidence that the amount of X-ray obscuration depends on the AGN luminosity (over a range of more than three orders of magnitude in luminosity).

  3. A submillimetre galaxy at z=4.76 in the LABOCA survey of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Coppin, Kristen; Alexander, David M; Weiss, Axel; Walter, Fabian; Swinbank, Mark; Greve, Thomas; Kovacs, Attila; De Breuck, Carlos; Dickinson, Mark; Ibar, Edo; Ivison, Rob; Reddy, Naveen; Spinrad, Hyron; Stern, Daniel; Brandt, Niel; Chapman, Scott; Dannerbauer, Helmut; van Dokkum, Pieter; Dunlop, James; Frayer, David; Gawiser, Eric; Geach, James; Huynh, Minh; Knudsen, Kirsten; Koekemoer, Anton; Lehmer, Bret; Menten, Karl; Papovich, Casey; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schinnerer, Eva; Wardlow, Julie; van der Werf, Paul

    2009-01-01

    We report on the identification of the highest redshift submm-selected source currently known: LESSJ033229.4-275619. This source was detected in the Large Apex BOlometer CAmera (LABOCA) Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS) Submillimetre Survey (LESS), a sensitive 870-um survey (~1.2-mJy rms) of the full 30'x30' ECDFS with the LABOCA camera on the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) telescope. The submm emission is identified with a radio counterpart for which optical spectroscopy provides a redshift of z=4.76. We show that the bolometric emission is dominated by a starburst with a star formation rate of ~1000 Msun/yr, although we also identify a moderate luminosity Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) in this galaxy. Thus it has characteristics similar to those of z~2 submm galaxies (SMGs), with a mix of starburst and obscured AGN signatures. This demonstrates that ultraluminous starburst activity is not just restricted to the hosts of the most luminous (and hence rare) QSOs at z~5, but was also occurring in l...

  4. X-ray properties of radio-selected star forming galaxies in the Chandra-COSMOS survey

    CERN Document Server

    Ranalli, P; Zamorani, G; Cappelluti, N; Civano, F; Georgantopoulos, I; Gilli, R; Schinnerer, E; Smolcic, V; Vignali, C

    2012-01-01

    X-ray surveys contain sizable numbers of star forming galaxies, beyond the AGN which usually make the majority of detections. Many methods to separate the two populations are used in the literature, based on X-ray and multiwavelength properties. We aim at a detailed test of the classification schemes and to study the X-ray properties of the resulting samples. We build on a sample of galaxies selected at 1.4 GHz in the VLA-COSMOS survey, classified by Smolcic et al. (2008) according to their optical colours and observed with Chandra. A similarly selected control sample of AGN is also used for comparison. We review some X-ray based classification criteria and check how they affect the sample composition. The efficiency of the classification scheme devised by Smolcic et al. (2008) is such that ~30% of composite/misclassified objects are expected because of the higher X-ray brightness of AGN with respect to galaxies. The latter fraction is actually 50% in the X-ray detected sources, while it is expected to be muc...

  5. The black hole - bulge mass relation of Active Galactic Nuclei in the Extended Chandra Deep Field - South Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Schramm, Malte

    2012-01-01

    We present results from a study to determine whether relations, established in the local Universe, between the mass of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies are in place at higher redshifts. We establish a well-constructed sample of 18 X-ray-selected, broad-line Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South - Survey with 0.5 < z < 1.2. This redshift range is chosen to ensure that HST imaging is available with at least two filters that bracket the 4000 Angstrom break thus providing reliable stellar mass estimates of the host galaxy by accounting for both young and old stellar populations. We compute single-epoch, virial black hole masses from optical spectra using the broad MgII emission line. For essentially all galaxies in our sample, their total stellar mass content agrees remarkably well, given their BH masses, with local relations of inactive galaxies and active SMBHs. We further decompose the total stellar mass into bulge and disk components separately wit...

  6. THE VERY LARGE ARRAY 1.4 GHz SURVEY OF THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH: SECOND DATA RELEASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Neal A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Bonzini, Margherita; Mainieri, Vincenzo; Padovani, Paolo; Rosati, Piero [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Fomalont, Edward B.; Kellermann, Kenneth I. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Tozzi, Paolo; Vattakunnel, Shaji, E-mail: nmiller@astro.umd.edu [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste (Italy)

    2013-04-01

    Deep radio observations at 1.4 GHz for the Extended Chandra Deep Field South were performed in 2007 June through September and presented in a first data release. The survey was made using six separate pointings of the Very Large Array with over 40 hr of observation per pointing. In the current paper, we improve on the data reduction to produce a second data release (DR2) mosaic image. This DR2 image covers an area of about a third of a square degree, reaches a best rms sensitivity of 6 {mu}Jy, and has a typical sensitivity of 7.4 {mu}Jy per 2.''8 by 1.''6 beam. We also present a more comprehensive catalog, including sources down to peak flux densities of five or more times the local rms noise along with information on source sizes and relevant pointing data. We discuss in some detail the consideration of whether sources are resolved under the complication of a radio image created as a mosaic of separate pointings each suffering some degree of bandwidth smearing, and the accurate evaluation of the flux densities of such sources. Finally, the radio morphologies and optical/near-IR counterpart identifications are used to identify 17 likely multiple-component sources and arrive at a catalog of 883 radio sources, which is roughly double the number of sources contained in the first data release.

  7. The VLA 1.4GHz Survey of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South: Second Data Release

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, N A; Fomalont, E B; Kellermann, K I; Mainieri, V; Padovani, P; Rosati, P; Tozzi, P; Vattakunnel, S

    2013-01-01

    Deep radio observations at 1.4GHz for the Extended Chandra Deep Field South were performed in June through September of 2007 and presented in a first data release (Miller et al. 2008). The survey was made using six separate pointings of the Very Large Array (VLA) with over 40 hours of observation per pointing. In the current paper, we improve on the data reduction to produce a second data release (DR2) mosaic image. This DR2 image covers an area of about a third of a square degree and reaches a best rms sensitivity of 6 uJy and has a typical sensitivity of 7.4 uJy per 2.8" by 1.6" beam. We also present a more comprehensive catalog, including sources down to peak flux densities of five or more times the local rms noise along with information on source sizes and relevant pointing data. We discuss in some detail the consideration of whether sources are resolved under the complication of a radio image created as a mosaic of separate pointings each suffering some degree of bandwidth smearing, and the accurate eval...

  8. Chandra survey of nearby highly inclined disk galaxies -- IV: New insights into the working of stellar feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Q Daniel; Jiang, Xiaochuan; Fang, Taotao

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy evolution is regulated by the interplay between galactic disks and their surrounding medium. We study this interplay by examining how the galactic coronal emission efficiency of stellar feedback depends on the (surface and specific) star formation rates (SFRs) and other parameters for a sample of 52 Chandra-observed nearby highly inclined disk galaxies. We first measure the star forming galactic disk sizes, as well as the SFRs of these galaxies, using data from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer, and then show that 1) the specific 0.5-2~keV luminosity of the coronal emission correlates with the specific SFR in a {\\sl sub-linear} fashion: on average, $L_X/L_K \\propto (SFR/M_*)^{\\Gamma}$ with $\\Gamma =0.29\\pm0.12$; 2) the efficiency of the emission $ L_X/SFR$ decreases with increasing surface SFR ($I_{SFR}$; $\\Gamma = -0.44\\pm0.12$); and 3) the characteristic temperature of the X-ray-emitting plasma weakly correlates with $I_{SFR}$ ($\\Gamma = 0.08\\pm0.04$). These results, somewhat surprising and ant...

  9. A deep Giant Metre-wave Radio Telescope 610-MHz survey of the 1H XMM-Newton/Chandra survey field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, D.; Seymour, N.; McHardy, I. M.; Dwelly, T.; Page, M. J.; Loaring, N. S.

    2007-07-01

    We present the results of a deep 610-MHz survey of the 1H XMM-Newton/Chandra survey area with the Giant Metre-wave Radio Telescope. The resulting maps have a resolution of ~7 arcsec and an rms noise limit of 60 μJy. To a 5σ detection limit of 300 μJy, we detect 223 sources within a survey area of 64 arcmin in diameter. We compute the 610-MHz source counts and compare them to those measured at other radio wavelengths. The well-known flattening of the Euclidean-normalized 1.4-GHz source counts below ~2 mJy, usually explained by a population of starburst galaxies undergoing luminosity evolution, is seen at 610 MHz. The 610-MHz source counts can be modelled by the same populations that explain the 1.4-GHz source counts, assuming a spectral index of -0.7 for the starburst galaxies and the steep spectrum active galactic nucleus (AGN) population. We find a similar dependence of luminosity evolution on redshift for the starburst galaxies at 610 MHz as is found at 1.4 GHz (i.e. `Q' = 2.45+0.3-0.4).

  10. Chandra survey of nearby highly inclined disk galaxies - IV. New insights into the working of stellar feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q. Daniel; Li, Jiangtao; Jiang, Xiaochuan; Fang, Taotao

    2016-04-01

    Galaxy evolution is regulated by the interplay between galactic discs and their surrounding medium. We study this interplay by examining how the galactic coronal emission efficiency of stellar feedback depends on the (surface and specific) star formation rates (SFRs) and other parameters for a sample of 52 Chandra-observed nearby highly inclined disc galaxies. We first measure the star-forming galactic disc sizes, as well as the SFRs of these galaxies, using data from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer, and then show that (1) the specific 0.5-2 keV luminosity of the coronal emission correlates with the specific SFR in a sub-linear fashion: on average, LX/LK∝(SFR/M*)Γ with Γ = 0.29 ± 0.12; (2) the efficiency of the emission LX/SFR decreases with increasing surface SFR (ISFR; Γ = -0.44 ± 0.12); and (3) the characteristic temperature of the X-ray-emitting plasma weakly correlates with ISFR (Γ = 0.08 ± 0.04). These results, somewhat surprising and anti-intuitive, suggest that (i) the linear correlation between LX and SFR, as commonly presented, is largely due to the correlation of these two parameters with galaxy mass; (ii) much of the mechanical energy from stellar feedback likely drives global outflows with little X-ray cooling and with a mass-loading efficiency decreasing fast with increasing ISFR (Γ ≲ -0.5); (iii) these outflows heat and inflate the medium around the galactic disks of massive galaxies, reducing its radiative cooling rate, whereas for relatively low-mass galaxies, the energy in the outflows is probably dissipated in regions far away from the galactic discs.

  11. The Field X-ray AGN Fraction to z=0.7 from the Chandra Multiwavelength Project and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Haggard, Daryl; Anderson, Scott F; Constantin, Anca; Aldcroft, Tom L; Kim, Dong-Woo; Barkhouse, Wayne A

    2010-01-01

    We employ the Chandra Multiwavelength Project (ChaMP) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to study the fraction of X-ray-active galaxies in the field out to z = 0.7. We utilize spectroscopic redshifts from SDSS and ChaMP, as well as photometric redshifts from several SDSS catalogs, to compile a parent sample of more than 100,000 SDSS galaxies and nearly 1,600 Chandra X-ray detections. Detailed ChaMP volume completeness maps allow us to investigate the local fraction of active galactic nuclei (AGN), defined as those objects having broad-band X-ray luminosities L_X (0.5-8 keV) > 10^42 erg s^-1, as a function of absolute optical magnitude, X-ray luminosity, redshift, mass, and host color/morphological type. In five independent samples complete in redshift and i-band absolute magnitude, we determine the field AGN fraction to be between 0.16 +/- 0.06% (for z M_i > -20) and 3.80 +/- 0.92% (for z < 0.7 and M_i < -23). We find striking agreement between our ChaMP/SDSS field AGN fraction and the Chandra clu...

  12. X-Rays Beware: The Deepest Chandra Catalogue of Point Sources in M31

    CERN Document Server

    Vulic, N; Barmby, P

    2016-01-01

    This study represents the most sensitive Chandra X-ray point source catalogue of M31. Using 133 publicly available Chandra ACIS-I/S observations totalling ~1 Ms, we detected 795 X-ray sources in the bulge, northeast, and southwest fields of M31, covering an area of approximately 0.6 deg$^{2}$, to a limiting unabsorbed 0.5-8.0 keV luminosity of $10^{34}$ erg/s. In the inner bulge, where exposure is approximately constant, X-ray fluxes represent average values because they were determined from many observations over a long period of time. Similarly, our catalogue is more complete in the bulge fields since monitoring allowed more transient sources to be detected. The catalogue was cross-correlated with a previous XMM-Newton catalogue of M31's $D_{25}$ isophote consisting of 1948 X-ray sources, with only 979 within the field of view of our survey. We found 387 (49%) of our Chandra sources (352 or 44% unique sources) matched to within 5 arcsec of 352 XMM-Newton sources. Combining this result with matching done to ...

  13. Modeling Contamination Migration on the Chandra X-ray Observatory II

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Steve; Swartz, Doug; Tice, Neil; Plucinsky, Paul; Grant, Catherine; Marshall, Herman; Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2013-01-01

    During its first 14 years of operation, the cold (about -60degC) optical blocking filter of the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS), aboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory, has accumulated a growing layer of molecular contamination that attenuates low-energy x rays. Over the past few years, the accumulation rate, spatial distribution, and composition may have changed, perhaps partially related to changes in the operating temperature of the ACIS housing. This evolution of the accumulation of the molecular contamination has motivated further analysis of contamination migration on the Chandra X-ray Observatory, particularly within and near the ACIS cavity. To this end, the current study employs a higher-fidelity geometric model of the ACIS cavity, detailed thermal modeling based upon monitored temperature data, and an accordingly refined model of the molecular transport.

  14. X-rays beware: the deepest Chandra catalogue of point sources in M31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulic, N.; Gallagher, S. C.; Barmby, P.

    2016-10-01

    This study represents the most sensitive Chandra X-ray point source catalogue of M31. Using 133 publicly available Chandra ACIS-I/S observations totalling ˜1 Ms, we detected 795 X-ray sources in the bulge, north-east, and south-west fields of M31, covering an area of ≈0.6 deg2, to a limiting unabsorbed 0.5-8.0 keV luminosity of ˜1034 erg s-1. In the inner bulge, where exposure is approximately constant, X-ray fluxes represent average values because they were determined from many observations over a long period of time. Similarly, our catalogue is more complete in the bulge fields since monitoring allowed more transient sources to be detected. The catalogue was cross-correlated with a previous XMM-Newton catalogue of M31's D25 isophote consisting of 1948 X-ray sources, with only 979 within the field of view of our survey. We found 387 (49 per cent) of our Chandra sources (352 or 44 per cent unique sources) matched to within 5 arcsec of 352 XMM-Newton sources. Combining this result with matching done to previous Chandra X-ray sources we detected 259. new sources in our catalogue. We created X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) in the soft (0.5-2.0 keV) and hard (2.0-8.0 keV) bands that are the most sensitive for any large galaxy based on our detection limits. Completeness-corrected XLFs show a break around ≈1.3 × 1037 erg s-1, consistent with previous work. As in past surveys, we find that the bulge XLFs are flatter than the disc, indicating a lack of bright high-mass X-ray binaries in the disc and an aging population of low-mass X-ray binaries in the bulge.

  15. Modeling Contamination Migration on the Chandra X-ray Observatory - II

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Swartz, Douglas A.; Tice, Neil W.; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Grant, Catherine E.; Marshall, Herman L.; Vikhlinin, Alexey A.; Tennant, Allyn F.

    2013-01-01

    During its first 14 years of operation, the cold (about -60C) optical blocking filter of the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS), aboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory, has accumulated a growing layer of molecular contamination that attenuates low-energy x rays. Over the past few years, the accumulation rate, spatial distribution, and composition have changed. This evolution has motivated further analysis of contamination migration within and near the ACIS cavity. To this end, the current study employs a higher-fidelity geometric model of the ACIS cavity, detailed thermal modeling based upon temperature data, and a refined model of the molecular transport.

  16. An ALMA Survey of Submillimeter Galaxies in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South: The AGN Fraction and X-ray Properties of Submillimeter Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, S X; Luo, B; Smail, I; Alexander, D M; Danielson, A L R; Hodge, J A; Karim, A; Lehmer, B D; Simpson, J M; Swinbank, A M; Walter, F; Wardlow, J L; Xue, Y Q; Chapman, S C; Coppin, K E K; Dannerbauer, H; De Breuck, C; Menten, K M; van der Werf, P

    2013-01-01

    The large gas and dust reservoirs of submm galaxies (SMGs) could potentially provide ample fuel to trigger an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN), but previous studies of the AGN fraction in SMGs have been controversial largely due to the inhomogeneity and limited angular resolution of the available submillimeter surveys. Here we set improved constraints on the AGN fraction and X-ray properties of the SMGs with ALMA and Chandra observations in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (E-CDF-S). This study is the first among similar works to have unambiguously identified the X-ray counterparts of SMGs; this is accomplished using the fully submm-identified, statistically reliable SMG catalog with 99 SMGs from the ALMA LABOCA E-CDF-S Submillimeter Survey (ALESS). We found 10 X-ray sources associated with SMGs (median redshift z = 2.3), of which 8 were identified as AGNs using several techniques that enable cross-checking. The other 2 X-ray detected SMGs have levels of X-ray emission that can be plausibly explained by the...

  17. Chandra Survey in the AKARI North Ecliptic Pole Deep Field. I. X-ray Data, Point-like Source Catalog, Sensitivity Maps, and Number Counts

    CERN Document Server

    Krumpe, M; Brunner, H; Hanami, H; Ishigaki, T; Takagi, T; Markowitz, A G; Goto, T; Malkan, M A; Matsuhara, H; Pearson, C; Ueda, Y; Wada, T

    2014-01-01

    We present data products from the 300 ks Chandra survey in the AKARI North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) deep field. This field has a unique set of 9-band infrared photometry covering 2-24 micron from the AKARI Infrared Camera, including mid-infrared (MIR) bands not covered by Spitzer. The survey is one of the deepest ever achieved at ~15 micron, and is by far the widest among those with similar depths in the MIR. This makes this field unique for the MIR-selection of AGN at z~1. We design a source detection procedure, which performs joint Maximum Likelihood PSF fits on all of our 15 mosaicked Chandra pointings covering an area of 0.34 square degree. The procedure has been highly optimized and tested by simulations. We provide a point source catalog with photometry and Bayesian-based 90 per cent confidence upper limits in the 0.5-7, 0.5-2, 2-7, 2-4, and 4-7 keV bands. The catalog contains 457 X-ray sources and the spurious fraction is estimated to be ~1.7 per cent. Sensitivity and 90 per cent confidence upper flux limit...

  18. Chandra Observations of Starburst Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestwich, Andrea; Lavoie, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We present early X-ray results from Chandra for two starburst galaxies, M82 and NGC3256, obtained using AXAF CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS-I) and the HRC. For M82 the arcsecond spatial resolution enables us to separate the point source component from the extended emission for the first time. Astrometry reveals that most of the X-ray sources are not coincident with the family of compact radio sources believed to be Super Nova Remnants (SNRs). In addition, based on three epoch Chandra observations, several of the X-ray sources are clearly variable indicating that they are binaries. When we deconvolve the extended and point source components detected in the hard X-ray band, we find that 50 percent arises from the extended component. This fact, together with its morphology, constrains the various models proposed to explain the hard X-ray emission. For NGC3256 we resolve two closely separated nuclei. These new data support a pure starburst origin for the total X-ray emission rather than a composite AGN/starburst, thereby making NGC3256 one of the most X-ray luminous starburst galaxies known.

  19. CHANDRA'S CLOSE ENCOUNTER WITH THE DISINTEGRATING COMETS 73P/2006 (SCHWASSMANN-WACHMANN 3) FRAGMENT B AND C/1999 S4 (LINEAR)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolk, S. J.; Lisse, C. M.; Bodewits, D.; Christian, D. J.; Dennerl, K.

    2009-01-01

    On 2006 May 23, we used the ACIS-S instrument on Chandra to study the X-ray emission from the B fragment of comet 73P/2006 (Schwassmann-Wachmann 3) (73P/B). We obtained a total of 20 ks of Chandra observation time of Fragment B, and also investigated contemporaneous Advanced Composition Explorer and

  20. The kinematics and chemical stratification of the type Ia supernova remnant 0519-69.0 : an XMM-Newton and Chandra study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosenko, D.; Helder, E.A.; Vink, J.

    2010-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the XMM-Newton and Chandra X-ray data of the young type Ia supernova remnant SNR 0519-69.0, which is situated in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We used data from both the Chandra ACIS and XMM-Newton EPIC MOS instruments, and high resolution X-ray spectra obtained with

  1. Chandra Survey of Nearby Highly-Inclined Disk Galaxies I: X-ray Measurements of Galactic Coronae

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jiang-Tao

    2012-01-01

    We present a systematical analysis of the Chandra observations of 53 nearby highly-inclined (i>60 degree) disk galaxies to study the coronae around them. This sample covers a broad range of galaxy properties: e.g., about three orders of magnitude in the SFR and more than two orders of magnitude in the stellar mass. The Chandra observations of the diffuse soft X-ray emission from 20 of these galaxies are presented for the first time. The data are reduced in a uniform manner, including the excision/subtraction of both resolved and unresolved stellar contributions. Various coronal properties, such as the scale height and luminosity, are characterized for all the sample galaxies. For galaxies with high enough counting statistics, we also examine the thermal and chemical states of the coronal gas. We note on galaxies with distinct multi-wavelength characteristics which may affect the coronal properties. The uniformly processed images, spectra, and brightness profiles, as well as the inferred hot gas parameters, fo...

  2. Shelter from the Storm: Protecting the Chandra X-ray Observatory from Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Robert A.; Morris, David C.; Virani, Shanil N.; Wolk, Scott J.; Blackwell, William C.; Minow, Joseph I.; O'dell, Stephen L.

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory was launched in July 1999, and the first images were recorded by the ACIS x-ray detector in August 1999. Shortly after first light, degradation of the energy resolution and charge transfer efficiency in the ACIS CCD detectors was observed, and this was quickly attributed to cumulative particle radiation damage in the CCD's, in particular from 100 keV to 200 keV protons. Since the onset of this radiation damage to ACIS, several improvements have been made to autonomous Chandra operation and ground-based operations and mission planning, to limit the effects of radiation while preserving optimum observing efficiency for the Observatory. These changes include implementing an automatic science instrument radiation protection system on Chandra, implementing a real-time radiation monitoring and alert system by the Science Operations Team, and improving the radiation prediction models used in mission planning for the Observatory. These satellite- and ground-based systems provide protection for Chandra from passages through the Earth's trapped radiation belts and outer magnetosphere and from flares and coronal mass ejections from the Sun. We describe the design and performance of the automatic on-board radiation protection system on Chandra, and the ground-based software systems and data products for real-time radiation monitoring. We also describe the development and characterize the performance of the Chandra Radiation Model (CRM), which provides predictions of the solar wind and magnetospheric proton fluxes along Chandra's orbit, indexed by the geomagnetic activity index, Kp. We compare the observed and predicted damage rates to ACIS based on net mission proton fluence, and outline planned enhancements to the CRM.

  3. A Chandra X-Ray observation of the binary millisecond pulsar PSR J1023+0038

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogdanov, S.; Archibald, A.M.; Hessels, J.W.T.; Kaspi, V.M.; Lorimer, D.; McLaughlin, M.A.; Ransom, S.M.; Stairs, I.H.

    2011-01-01

    We present a Chandra X-Ray Observatory ACIS-S variability, spectroscopy, and imaging study of the peculiar binary containing the millisecond pulsar J1023+0038. The X-ray emission from the system exhibits highly significant (12.5σ) large-amplitude (factor of two to three) orbital variability over the

  4. The Chandra X-Ray Observatory Radiation Environmental Model Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, William C.; Minow, Joseph I.; ODell, Stephen L.; Cameron, Robert A.; Virani, Shanil N.

    2003-01-01

    CRMFLX (Chandra Radiation Model of ion FLUX) is a radiation environment risk mitigation tool for use as a decision aid in planning the operation times for Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) detector. The accurate prediction of the proton flux environment with energies of 100 - 200 keV is needed in order to protect the ACIS detector against proton degradation. Unfortunately, protons of this energy are abundant in the region of space where Chandra must operate. In addition, on-board particle detectors do not measure proton flux levels of the required energy range. CRMFLX is an engineering environment model developed to predict the proton flux in the solar wind, magnetosheath, and magnetosphere phenomenological regions of geospace. This paper describes the upgrades to the ion flux databases for the magnetosphere, magnetosheath, and solar wind regions. These data files were created by using Geotail and Polar spacecraft flux measurements only when the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft's 0.14 MeV particle flux was below a threshold value. This new database allows for CRMFLX output to be correlated with both the geomagnetic activity level, as represented by the Kp index, as well as with solar proton events. Also, reported in this paper are results of analysis leading to a change in Chandra operations that successfully mitigates the false trigger rate for autonomous radiation events caused by relativistic electron flux contamination of proton channels.

  5. Chandra Resolves Cosmic X-ray Glow and Finds Mysterious New Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    -energy X-ray background, showing that it arose in very faraway galaxies with extremely bright cores, called quasars or Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). The Chandra team sampled a region of the sky about one-fifth the angular area of a full moon and resolved about 80 percent of the more-energetic X-ray background into discrete sources. Stretched across the entire sky, this would account for approximately 70 million sources, most of which would be identified with galaxies. Their analysis confirms that a significant fraction of the X-ray background cannot be due to diffuse radiation from hot, intergalactic gas. Combined X-ray and optical observations showed that nearly one third of the sources are galaxies whose cores are very bright in X rays yet emit virtually no optical light from the core. The observation suggests that these "veiled galactic nuclei" galaxies may number in the tens of millions over the whole sky. They almost certainly harbor a massive black hole at their core that produces X rays as the gas is pulled toward it at nearly the speed of light. Their bright X-ray cores place these galaxies in the AGN family. Because these numerous AGN are bright in X rays, but optically dim, the Chandra observation implies that optical surveys of AGN are very incomplete. A second new class of objects, comprising approximately one-third of the background, is assumed to be "ultra-faint galaxies." Mushotzky said that these sources may emit little or no optical light, either because the dust around the galaxy blocks the light totally or because the optical light is eventually absorbed by relatively cool gas during its long journey across the universe. In the latter scenario, Mushotzky said that these sources would have a redshift of 6 or higher, meaning that they are well over 14 billion light years away and thus the earliest, most distant objects ever identified. "This is a very exciting discovery," said Dr. Alan Bunner, Director of NASA's Structure and Evolution of the universe

  6. An ALMA Survey of Submillimetre Galaxies in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South: The Far-Infrared Properties of SMGs

    CERN Document Server

    Swinbank, Mark; Smail, Ian; Harrison, Chris; Hodge, Jacqueline; Karim, Alex; Walter, Fabian; Alexander, Dave; Brandt, Niel; de Breuck, Carlos; da Cunha, Elizabete; Chapman, Scott; Coppin, Kristen; Danielson, Alice; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Decarli, Roberto; Greve, Thomas; Ivison, Rob; Knudsen, Kirsten; Lagos, Claudia; Schinnerer, Eva; Thomson, Alasdair; Wardlow, Julie; Weiss, Axel; van der Werf, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We exploit ALMA 870um (345GHz) observations of submillimetre sources in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South to investigate the far-infrared properties of high-redshift submillimetre galaxies (SMGs). Using the precisely located 870um ALMA positions of 99 SMGs, together with 24um and radio imaging of this field, we deblend the Herschel/SPIRE imaging of this region to extract their far-infrared fluxes and colours. The median photometric redshifts for ALMA LESS (ALESS) SMGs which are detected in at least two SPIRE bands increases with wavelength of the peak in their SEDs, with z=2.3+/-0.2, 2.5+/-0.3 and 3.5+/-0.5 for the 250, 350 and 500-um peakers respectively. We find that 34 ALESS SMGs do not have a >3-sigma counterpart at 250, 350 or 500-um. These galaxies have a median photometric redshift of z=3.3+/-0.5, which is higher than the full ALESS SMG sample; z=2.5+/-0.2. Using the photometric redshifts together with the 250-870um photometry, we estimate the far-infrared luminosities and characteristic dust tempe...

  7. The ATLAS 5.5 GHz Survey of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South: The Second Data Release

    CERN Document Server

    Huynh, M T; Hopkins, A M; Norris, R P; Seymour, N

    2015-01-01

    We present a new image of the 5.5 GHz radio emission from the extended Chandra Deep Field South. Deep radio observations at 5.5 GHz were obtained in 2010 and presented in the first data release. A further 76 hours of integration has since been obtained, nearly doubling the integration time. This paper presents a new analysis of all the data. The new image reaches 8.6 microJy rms, an improvement of about 40% in sensitivity. We present a new catalogue of 5.5 GHz sources, identifying 212 source components, roughly 50% more than were detected in the first data release. Source counts derived from this sample are consistent with those reported in the literature for S_{5.5GHz} > 0.1 mJy but significantly lower than published values in the lowest flux density bins (S_{5.5GHz} 0.5 mJy, consistent with the flattening of the spectral index observed in 5 GHz sub-mJy samples. The median spectral index of the whole sample is \\alpha_{med} = -0.58, indicating that these observations may be starting to probe the star forming...

  8. Chandra X-ray Observations of the 0.6 < z < 1.1 Red-Sequence Cluster Survey Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Hicks, Amalia K; Bautz, Mark; Cain, Benjamin; Gilbank, David; Gladders, M D; Hoekstra, Henk; Yee, Howard; Garmire, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of Chandra observations of 13 optically-selected clusters with 0.63; though 3 were not observed long enough to support detailed analysis. Surface brightness profiles are fit to beta-models. Integrated spectra are extracted within R(2500), and Tx and Lx information is obtained. We derive gas and total masses within R(2500) and R(500). Cosmologically corrected scaling relations are investigated, and we find the RCS clusters to be consistent with self-similar scaling expectations. However discrepancies exist between the RCS sample and lower-z X-ray selected samples for relationships involving Lx, with the higher-z RCS clusters having lower Lx for a given Tx. In addition, we find that gas mass fractions within R(2500) for the high-z RCS sample are lower than expected by a factor of ~2. This suggests that the central entropy of these high-z objects has been elevated by processes such as pre-heating, mergers, and/or AGN outbursts, that their gas is still infalling, or that they contain compar...

  9. The LABOCA survey of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South: Two modes of star formation in AGN hosts?

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, D; Rafferty, D; Shao, L; Hasinger, G; Weiss, A; Walter, F; Smail, I; Alexander, D M; Brandt, W N; Chapman, S; Coppin, K; Schreiber, N M Forster; Gawiser, E; Genzel, R; Greve, T R; Ivison, R J; Koekemoer, A M; Kurczynski, P; Menten, K M; Nordon, R; Popesso, P; Schinnerer, E; Silverman, J D; Wardlow, J; Xue, Y Q

    2010-01-01

    We study the co-existence of star formation and AGN activity in X-ray selected AGN by analyzing stacked 870um submm emission from a deep and wide map of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, obtained with LABOCA at the APEX telescope. The total X-ray sample of 895 sources with median redshift z~1 is detected at a mean submm flux of 0.49+-0.04mJy, corresponding to a typical star formation rate around 30Msun/yr for a T=35K, beta=1.5 greybody far-infrared SED. The good S/N permits stacking analyses for subgroups. We observe a trend of star formation rate increasing with redshift. An increase of star formation rate with AGN luminosity is indicated at the highest L_2-10>~1E44erg/s luminosities only. Increasing trends with X-ray obscuration as expected in some AGN evolutionary scenarios are not observed for the bulk of the X-ray AGN sample but may be present for the highest intrinsic luminosity objects. This suggests a transition between two modes in the coexistence of AGN activity and star formation. For the bulk...

  10. The Chandra Local Volume Survey I: The X-ray Point Source Populations of NGC 55, NGC 2403, and NGC 4214

    CERN Document Server

    Binder, B; Eracleous, M; Plucinsky, P P; Gaetz, T J; Anderson, S F; Skillman, E D; Dalcanton, J J; Kong, A K H; Weisz, D R

    2015-01-01

    We present comprehensive X-ray point source catalogs of NGC~55, NGC~2403, and NGC~4214 as part of the Chandra Local Volume Survey. The combined archival observations have effective exposure times of 56.5 ks, 190 ks, and 79 ks for NGC~55, NGC~2403, and NGC~4214, respectively. When combined with our published catalogs for NGC 300 and NGC 404, our survey contains 629 X-ray sources total down to a limiting unabsorbed luminosity of $\\sim5\\times10^{35}$ erg s$^{-1}$ in the 0.35-8 keV band in each of the five galaxies. We present X-ray hardness ratios, spectral analysis, radial source distributions, and an analysis of the temporal variability for the X-ray sources detected at high significance. To constrain the nature of each X-ray source, we carried out cross-correlations with multi-wavelength data sets. We searched overlapping Hubble Space Telescope observations for optical counterparts to our X-ray detections to provide preliminary classifications for each X-ray source as a likely X-ray binary, background AGN, su...

  11. The Chandra COSMOS Legacy Survey: Energy Spectrum of the Cosmic X-Ray Background and Constraints on Undetected Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelluti, Nico; Li, Yanxia; Ricarte, Angelo; Agarwal, Bhaskar; Allevato, Viola; Tasnim Ananna, Tonima; Ajello, Marco; Civano, Francesca; Comastri, Andrea; Elvis, Martin; Finoguenov, Alexis; Gilli, Roberto; Hasinger, Günther; Marchesi, Stefano; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Pacucci, Fabio; Treister, E.; Urry, C. Megan

    2017-03-01

    Using Chandra observations in the 2.15 deg2 COSMOS-legacy field, we present one of the most accurate measurements of the Cosmic X-ray Background (CXB) spectrum to date in the [0.3–7] keV energy band. The CXB has three distinct components: contributions from two Galactic collisional thermal plasmas at kT ∼ 0.27 and 0.07 keV and an extragalactic power law with a photon spectral index Γ = 1.45 ± 0.02. The 1 keV normalization of the extragalactic component is 10.91 ± 0.16 keV cm‑2 s‑1 sr‑1 keV‑1. Removing all X-ray-detected sources, the remaining unresolved CXB is best fit by a power law with normalization 4.18 ± 0.26 keV cm‑2 s‑1 sr‑1 keV‑1 and photon spectral index Γ = 1.57 ± 0.10. Removing faint galaxies down to {i}{AB}∼ 27{--}28 leaves a hard spectrum with {{Γ }}∼ 1.25 and a 1 keV normalization of ∼1.37 keV cm‑2 s‑1 sr‑1 keV‑1. This means that ∼91% of the observed CXB is resolved into detected X-ray sources and undetected galaxies. Unresolved sources that contribute ∼8%–9% of the total CXB show marginal evidence of being harder and possibly more obscured than resolved sources. Another ∼1% of the CXB can be attributed to still undetected star-forming galaxies and absorbed active galactic nuclei. According to these limits, we investigate a scenario where early black holes totally account for non-source CXB fraction and constrain some of their properties. In order to not exceed the remaining CXB and the z∼ 6 accreted mass density, such a population of black holes must grow in Compton-thick envelopes with {N}H > 1.6 × 1025 cm‑2 and form in extremely low-metallicity environments ({Z}ȯ )∼ {10}-3.

  12. AN ALMA SURVEY OF SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES IN THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH: NEAR-INFRARED MORPHOLOGIES AND STELLAR SIZES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chian-Chou; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, A. M.; Simpson, J. M.; Ma, Cheng-Jiun; Alexander, D. M.; Danielson, A. L. R.; Edge, A. C. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Biggs, A. D.; Ivison, R. J. [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Chapman, S. C. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 3J5 (Canada); Coppin, K. E. K. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Dannerbauer, H. [Institut für Astrophysik, Universität Wien, Türkenschanzstraße 17, A-1180 Wien (Austria); Greve, T. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Karim, A. [Argelander-Institute for Astronomy, Bonn University, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Menten, Karl M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Schinnerer, E.; Walter, F. [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Wardlow, J. L. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); and others

    2015-02-01

    We analyze Hubble Space Telescope WFC3/H {sub 160}-band observations of a sample of 48 Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array detected submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South field, to study their stellar morphologies and sizes. We detect 79% ± 17% of the SMGs in the H {sub 160}-band imaging with a median sensitivity of 27.8 mag, and most (80%) of the nondetections are SMGs with 870 μm fluxes of S {sub 870} < 3 mJy. With a surface brightness limit of μ {sub H} ∼ 26 mag arcsec{sup –2}, we find that 82% ± 9% of the H {sub 160}-band-detected SMGs at z = 1-3 appear to have disturbed morphologies, meaning they are visually classified as either irregulars or interacting systems, or both. By determining a Sérsic fit to the H {sub 160} surface brightness profiles, we derive a median Sérsic index of n = 1.2 ± 0.3 and a median half-light radius of r{sub e} = 4.4{sub −0.5}{sup +1.1} kpc for our SMGs at z = 1-3. We also find significant displacements between the positions of the H {sub 160} component and 870 μm emission in these systems, suggesting that the dusty starburst regions and less-obscured stellar distribution are not colocated. We find significant differences in the sizes and the Sérsic index between our z = 2-3 SMGs and z ∼ 2 quiescent galaxies, suggesting that a major transformation of the stellar light profile is needed in the quenching processes if SMGs are progenitors of the red-and-dead z ∼ 2 galaxies. Given the short-lived nature of SMGs, we postulate that the majority of the z = 2-3 SMGs with S {sub 870} ≳ 2 mJy are early/mid-stage major mergers.

  13. The Extended Chandra Deep Field-South Survey: Optical spectroscopy of faint X-ray sources with the VLT and Keck

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, J D; Salvato, M; Hasinger, G; Bergeron, J; Capak, P; Szokoly, G; Finoguenov, A; Gilli, R; Rosati, P; Tozzi, P; Vignali, C; Alexander, D M; Brandt, W N; Lehmer, B D; Luo, B; Rafferty, D; Xue, Y Q; Balestra, I; Bauer, F E; Brusa, M; Comastri, A; Kartaltepe, J; Koekemoer, A M; Miyaji, T; Schneider, D P; Treister, E; Wisotski, L; Schramm, M

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a program to acquire high-quality optical spectra of X-ray sources detected in the E-CDF-S and its central area. New spectroscopic redshifts are measured for 283 counterparts to Chandra sources with deep exposures (t~2-9 hr per pointing) using multi-slit facilities on both the VLT and Keck thus bringing the total number of spectroscopically-identified X-ray sources to over 500 in this survey field. We provide a comprehensive catalog of X-ray sources detected in the E-CDF-S including the optical and near-infrared counterparts, and redshifts (both spectroscopic and photometric) that incorporate published spectroscopic catalogs thus resulting in a final sample with a high fraction (80%) of X-ray sources having secure identifications. We demonstrate the remarkable coverage of the Lx-z plane now accessible from our data while emphasizing the detection of AGNs that contribute to the faint end of the luminosity function at 1.5

  14. THE CHANDRA PLANETARY NEBULA SURVEY (ChanPlaNS). III. X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE CENTRAL STARS OF PLANETARY NEBULAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montez, R. Jr. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37212 (United States); Kastner, J. H.; Freeman, M. [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); and others

    2015-02-10

    We present X-ray spectral analysis of 20 point-like X-ray sources detected in Chandra Planetary Nebula Survey observations of 59 planetary nebulae (PNe) in the solar neighborhood. Most of these 20 detections are associated with luminous central stars within relatively young, compact nebulae. The vast majority of these point-like X-ray-emitting sources at PN cores display relatively ''hard'' (≥0.5 keV) X-ray emission components that are unlikely to be due to photospheric emission from the hot central stars (CSPN). Instead, we demonstrate that these sources are well modeled by optically thin thermal plasmas. From the plasma properties, we identify two classes of CSPN X-ray emission: (1) high-temperature plasmas with X-ray luminosities, L {sub X}, that appear uncorrelated with the CSPN bolometric luminosity, L {sub bol} and (2) lower-temperature plasmas with L {sub X}/L {sub bol} ∼ 10{sup –7}. We suggest these two classes correspond to the physical processes of magnetically active binary companions and self-shocking stellar winds, respectively. In many cases this conclusion is supported by corroborative multiwavelength evidence for the wind and binary properties of the PN central stars. By thus honing in on the origins of X-ray emission from PN central stars, we enhance the ability of CSPN X-ray sources to constrain models of PN shaping that invoke wind interactions and binarity.

  15. An ALMA survey of Sub-millimetre Galaxies in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South: Detection of [C II] at z=4.4

    CERN Document Server

    Swinbank, Mark; Smail, Ian; Hodge, Jackie; Walter, Fabian; Bertoldi, Frank; Biggs, Andy; De Breuck, Carlos; Chapman, Scott; Coppin, Kristen; Cox, Pierre; Danielson, Alice; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Ivison, Rob; Greve, Thomas; Knudsen, Kirsten; Menten, Karl; Simpson, James; Schinnerer, Eva; Wardlow, Julie; Weiss, Axel; van der Werf, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We present ALMA 870-um (345GHz) observations of two sub-millimetre galaxies (SMGs) drawn from an ALMA study of the 126 sub-millimeter sources from the LABOCA Extended Chandra Deep Field South Survey (LESS). The ALMA data identify the counterparts to these previously unidentified sub-millimeter sources and serendipitously detect bright emission lines in their spectra which we show are most likely to be [C II]157.74um emission yielding redshifts of z=4.42 and z=4.44. This blind detection rate within the 7.5-GHz bandpass of ALMA is consistent with the previously derived photometric redshift distribution of SMGs and suggests a modest, but not dominant (4. We find that the ratio of L_CII/L_FIR in these SMGs is much higher than seen for similarly far-infrared-luminous galaxies at z~0, which is attributed to the more extended gas reservoirs in these high-redshift ULIRGs. Indeed, in one system we show that the [C II] emission shows hints of extended emission on >3kpc scales. Finally, we use the volume probed by our A...

  16. The Chandra Planetary Nebulae Survey (ChanPlaNS): III. X-ray Emission from the Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Montez, R; Balick, B; Behar, E; Blackman, E; Bujarrabal, V; Chu, Y -H; Corradi, R L M; De Marco, O; Frank, A; Freeman, M; Frew, D J; Guerrero, M A; Jones, D; Lopez, J A; Miszalski, B; Nordhaus, J; Parker, Q A; Sahai, R; Sandin, C; Schonberner, D; Soker, N; Sokoloski, J L; Steffen, M; Toalá, J A; Ueta, T; Villaver, E; Zijlstra, A

    2014-01-01

    We present X-ray spectral analysis of 20 point-like X-ray sources detected in Chandra Planetary Nebula Survey (ChanPlaNS) observations of 59 planetary nebulae (PNe) in the solar neighborhood. Most of these 20 detections are associated with luminous central stars within relatively young, compact nebulae. The vast majority of these point-like X-ray-emitting sources at PN cores display relatively "hard" ($\\geq0.5$~keV) X-ray emission components that are unlikely to be due to photospheric emission from the hot central stars (CSPN). Instead, we demonstrate that these sources are well modeled by optically-thin thermal plasmas. From the plasma properties, we identify two classes of CSPN X-ray emission: (1) high-temperature plasmas with X-ray luminosities, $L_{\\rm X}$, that appear uncorrelated with the CSPN bolometric luminosity, $L_{\\rm bol}$; and (2) lower-temperature plasmas with $L_{\\rm X}/L_{\\rm bol}\\sim10^{-7}$. We suggest these two classes correspond to the physical processes of magnetically active binary comp...

  17. A Public, K-Selected, Optical-to-Near-Infrared Catalog of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS) from the MUltiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC)

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Edward N; van Dokkum, Pieter G; Quadri, Ryan F; Gawiser, Eric; Bell, Eric F; Barrientos, L Felipe; Blanc, Guillermo A; Castander, Francisco J; Damen, Maaike; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Hall, Patrick B; Herrera, David; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Kriek, Mariska; Labbé, Ivo; Lira, Paulina; Maza, José; Rudnick, Gregory; Treister, Ezequiel; Urry, C Megan; Willis, Jon P; Wuyts, Stijn

    2009-01-01

    We present a new K-selected, optical-to-near-infrared photometric catalog of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS), making it publicly available to the astronomical community. The dataset is founded on publicly available imaging, supplemented by original zJK imaging data obtained as part of the MUltiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC). The final photometric catalog consists of photometry derived from nine band U-K imaging covering the full 0.5x0.5 sq. deg. of the ECDFS, plus H band data for approximately 80% of the field. The 5sigma flux limit for point-sources is K = 22.0 (AB). This is also the nominal completeness and reliability limit of the catalog: the empirical completeness for 21.75 < K < 22.00 is 85+%. We have verified the quality of the catalog through both internal consistency checks, and comparisons to other existing and publicly available catalogs. As well as the photometric catalog, we also present catalogs of photometric redshifts and restframe photometry derived from the ten b...

  18. Testing The Cas A Neutron Star Temperature Decline With Other Chandra Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshamouty, Khaled; Heinke, C. O.; Ho, W. C. G.; Patnaude, D. J.; Shternin, P. S.; Yakovlev, D. G.

    2012-01-01

    The neutron star in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant is 330 years old, making it the youngest neutron star in the Milky Way. Heinke & Ho (2010) reported a rapid cooling drop of 4% in its surface temperature (21% drop in observed flux) from Chandra ACIS-S archival data between 2000 and 2009. This opened the suggestion of enhanced neutrino emission due to a superfluid transition in the core to account for the observed rapid cooling (Page et al. 2011, Shternin et al. 2011). Here we present analysis of archival Chandra ACIS-I, HRC-I and HRC-S data over the same time period to test the rate. We used the best ACIS-S carbon atmosphere spectral fits to infer the countrates corresponding to various temperatures, along with current (CALDB 4.4.6) estimates of the effective area and its changes over time for these cameras, to calculate the temperature drops in each instrument. We find that the HRC-I data are consistent with the ACIS-S result, though tending to smaller declines. The ACIS-I data suggest a slightly larger drop. The HRC-S data (with the longest exposures) indicate a marginal temperature decline of 0.9+0.7-0.7 % (90% conf.) over 9 years.

  19. Event Pileup in AXAF's ACIS CCD Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Brian R.

    1998-01-01

    AXAF's high resolution mirrors will focus a point source near the optical axis to a spot that is contained within a radius of about two pixels on the ACIS Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) camera. Because of the small spot size, the accuracy to which fluxes and spectral energy distributions of bright point sources can be measured will be degrad3ed by event pileup. Event pileup occurs when two or more X-ray photons arrive simultaneously in a single detection cell on a CCD readout frame. When pileup occurs, ACIS's event detection algorithm registers the photons as a single X-ray event. The pulse height channel of the event will correspond to an energy E approximately E-1 + E-2...E-n, where n is the number of photons registered per detection cell per readout frame. As a result, pileup artificially hardens the observed spectral energy distribution. I will discuss the effort at the AXAF Science Center Lo calibrate pileup in ACIS using focused, nearly monochromatic X-ray source. I will discuss techniques for modeling and correcting pileup effects in polychromatic spectra.

  20. X-ray properties of radio-selected star forming galaxies in the Chandra-COSMOS survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ranalli, P.; Comastri, A.; Zamorani, G.; Cappelluti, N.; Civano, F.; Georgantopoulos, I.; Gilli, R.; Schinnerer, E.; Smolcic, V.; Vignali, C.

    2012-01-01

    X-ray surveys contain sizable numbers of star forming galaxies, beyond the AGN which usually make the majority of detections. Many methods to separate the two populations are used in the literature, based on X-ray and multiwavelength properties. We aim at a detailed test of the classification schemes and to study the X-ray properties of the resulting samples. We build on a sample of galaxies selected at 1.4 GHz in the VLA-COSMOS survey, classified by Smolcic et al. (2008) according to their o...

  1. Chandra-SDSS Normal and Star-Forming Galaxies I: X-ray Source Properties of Galaxies Detected by Chandra in SDSS DR2

    CERN Document Server

    Hornschemeier, A E; Ptak, A F; Tremonti, C A; Colbert, E J M

    2004-01-01

    We have cross-correlated X-ray catalogs derived from archival Chandra ACIS observations with a Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 2 (DR2) galaxy catalog to form a sample of 42 serendipitously X-ray detected galaxies over the redshift interval 0.03 < z < 0.25. This pilot study will help fill in the "redshift gap" between local X-ray-studied samples of normal galaxies and those in the deepest X-ray surveys. Our chief purpose is to compare optical spectroscopic diagnostics of activity (both star-formation and accretion) with X-ray properties of galaxies. Our work supports a normalization value of the X-ray-star-formation-rate (X-ray-SFR) correlation consistent with the lower values published in the literature. The difference is in the allocation of X-ray emission to high-mass X-ray binaries relative to other components such as hot gas, low-mass X-ray binaries, and/or AGN. We are able to quantify a few pitfalls in the use of lower-resolution, lower signal-to-noise optical spectroscopy to identify ...

  2. Modeling Contamination Migration on the Chandra X-Ray Observatory - III

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Swartz, Douglas A.; Tice, Neil W.; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Grant, Catherine E.; Marshall, Herman L.; Vikhlinin, Alexy A.; Tennant, Allyn F.; Dahmer, Matthew T.

    2015-01-01

    During its first 16 years of operation, the cold (about -60 C) optical blocking filter of the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS), aboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory, has accumulated a growing layer of molecular contamination that attenuates low-energy x rays. Over the past few years, the accumulation rate, spatial distribution, and composition have changed. This evolution has motivated further analysis of contamination migration within and near the ACIS cavity, in part to evaluate potential bake-out scenarios intended to reduce the level of contamination. Keywords: X-ray astronomy, CCDs, contamination, modeling and simulation, spacecraft operations

  3. Chandra Catches Cannibal Galaxy in the Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    quantities of energy as it falls into a giant black hole in the center of the galaxy. Closer in, the effects of a more recent explosion show up as dark twin cavities, each large enough to contain a galaxy half the diameter of our Milky Way galaxy. These cavities, which have been detected at lower resolution by previous X-ray satellites, appear to be buoyant, magnetized bubbles of energetic particles. The Chandra image shows that the gas that has piled up in the brilliant rims has "cooled" to a temperature of 30 million degrees. A long spiral of hot gas appears to be winding inward around the cavities toward the center of the galaxy. Fabian and his colleagues propose that the cooling of gas in this spiral can lead to the formation of a spiral structure of stars that has been detected in optical images of the galaxy. The observation was made on January 29, 2000 for 6.8 hours using the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS). The Advanced CCD X-ray Spectrometer (ACIS) X-ray camera was developed for NASA by Penn State University, University Park, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, manages the Chandra program. TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, California, is the prime contractor for the spacecraft. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Center controls science and flight operations from Cambridge, Massachusetts. Images associated with this release are available on the World Wide Web at http://chandra.harvard.edu AND http://chandra.nasa.gov

  4. XBootes: An X-Ray Survey of the NDWFS Bootes Field - Paper I Overview and Initial Results

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, S S; Forman, W R; Jones, C; Green, P J; Kochanek, C S; Vikhlinin, A; Fabricant, D; Fazio, G; Brand, K; Brown, M J I; Dey, A; Jannuzi, B T; Najita, J; McNamara, B; Shields, J; Rieke, M; Murray, Stephen S.; Kenter, Almus; Forman, William R.; Jones, Christine; Green, Paul J.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Fabricant, Daniel; Fazio, Giovani; Brand, Kate; Brown, Michael J. I.; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Najita, Joan; Namara, Brian Mc; Shields, Joseph; Rieke, Marcia

    2005-01-01

    We obtained a 5 ksec deep Chandra X-ray Observatory ACIS-I map of the 9.3 square degree Bootes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. Here we describe the data acquisition and analysis strategies leading to a catalog of 4642 (3293) point sources with 2 or more (4 or more) counts, corresponding to a limiting flux of roughly 4(8)x10^{-15} erg cm^{-2}s^{-1} in the 0.5-7 keV band. These Chandra XBootes data are unique in that they consitute the widest contiguous X-ray field yet observed to such a faint flux limit. Because of the extraordinarily low background of the ACIS, we expect only 14% (0.7%) of the sources to be spurious. We also detected 43 extended sources in this survey. The distribution of the point sources among the 126 pointings (ACIS-I has a 16 x 16 arcminute field of view) is consistent with Poisson fluctuations about the mean of 36.8 sources per pointing. While a smoothed image of the point source distribution is clumpy, there is no statistically significant evidence of large scale filamentary s...

  5. Chandra deep observation of XDCP J0044.0-2033, a massive galaxy cluster at z>1.5

    CERN Document Server

    Tozzi, P; Jee, M J; Fassbender, R; Rosati, P; Nastasi, A; Forman, W; Sartoris, B; Borgani, S; Boehringer, H; Altieri, B; Pratt, G W; Nonino, M; Jones, C

    2014-01-01

    We report the analysis of the Chandra observation of XDCP J0044.0-2033, a massive, distant (z=1.579) galaxy cluster discovered in the XDCP survey. The total exposure time of 380 ks with Chandra ACIS-S provides the deepest X-ray observation currently achieved on a massive, high redshift cluster. Extended emission from the Intra Cluster Medium (ICM) is detected at a very high significance level (S/N~20) on a circular region with a 44" radius, corresponding to $R_{ext}=375$ kpc at the cluster redshift. We perform an X-ray spectral fit of the ICM emission modeling the spectrum with a single-temperature thermal mekal model. Our analysis provides a global temperature $kT=6.7^{+1.3}_{-0.9}$ keV, and a iron abundance $Z_{Fe} = 0.41_{-0.26}^{+0.29}Z_{Fe_\\odot}$ (error bars correspond to 1 $\\sigma$). We fit the background-subtracted surface brightness profile with a single $\\beta$-model out to 44", finding a rather flat profile with no hints of a cool core. We derive the deprojected electron density profile and compute...

  6. Spatial Correlation Function of the Chandra Selected Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Barger, A. J.; Cowie, L. L.

    2006-01-01

    We present the spatial correlation function analysis of non-stellar X-ray point sources in the Chandra Large Area Synoptic X-ray Survey of Lockman Hole Northwest (CLASXS). Our 9 ACIS-I fields cover a contiguous solid angle of 0.4 deg(exp 2) and reach a depth of 3 x 10(exp -15) erg/square cm/s in the 2-8 keV band. We supplement our analysis with data from the Chandra Deep Field North (CDFN). The addition of this field allows better probe of the correlation function at small scales. A total of 233 and 252 sources with spectroscopic information are used in the study of the CLASXS and CDFN fields respectively. We calculate both redshift-space and projected correlation functions in co-moving coordinates, averaged over the redshift range of 0.1 tau(sub 0 = 8.1(sup +1.2 sub -2.2) Mpc, and gamma = 2.1 +/- 0.5 for the CLASXS field, and tau(sub 0) = 5.8(sup +.1.0 sub -1.5) Mpc, gamma = 1.38(sup +0.12 sub -0.14 for the CDFN field. By comparing the real- and redshift-space correlation functions in the combined CLASXS and CDFN samples, we are able to estimate the redshift distortion parameter Beta = 0.4 +/- 0.2 at an effective redshift z = 0.94. We compare the correlation functions for hard and soft spectra sources in the CLASXS field and find no significant difference between the two groups. We have also found that the correlation between X-ray luminosity and clustering amplitude is weak, which, however, is fully consistent with the expectation using the simplest relations between X-ray luminosity, black hole mass, and dark halo mass. We study the evolution of the AGN clustering by dividing the samples into 4 redshift bins over 0.1 Mpcestimate the evolution of the bias, and find that the bias increases rapidly with redshift (b(z = 0.45) = 0.95 +/- 0.15 and b(z = 2.07) = 3.03 +/- 0.83): The typical mass of the dark matter halo derived from the bias estimates show little change with redshift. The average halo mass is found to be log (M(sub halo)/M(sun))approximates 12.1. Subject

  7. The BMW-Chandra Serendipitous Source Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, P.; Campana, S.; Mignani, R. P.; Moretti, A.; Mottini, M.; Panzera, M. R.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2004-08-01

    We present the BMW-Chandra source catalog drawn from all Chandra ACIS-I pointed observations with an exposure time in excess of 10 ks public as of March 2003 (136 observations). Using the wavelet detection algorithm developed by Lazzati et al. (1999) and Campana et al. (1999), which can characterize point-like as well as extended sources, we identified 21325 sources. Among them, 16758 are serendipitous, i.e. not associated with the targets of the pointings, and do not require a non-automated analysis. This makes our catalog the largest compilation of Chandra sources to date. The 0.5--10 keV absorption corrected fluxes of these sources range from ˜ 3× 10-16 to 9×10-12 erg cm-2 s-1 with a median of 7× 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1. The catalog consists of count rates and relative errors in three energy bands (total, 0.5--7 keV; soft, 0.5--2 keV; and hard band, 2--7 keV), and source positions relative to the highest signal-to-noise detection among the three bands. The wavelet algorithm also provides an estimate of the extension of the source which we refined with a σ -clipping method. We report on the main properties of the sources in our catalog, such as sky coverage ( ˜ 8 deg2 at a limiting flux of ˜ 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1) and cosmological log N--log S for a subset at high Galactic latitude (∣ b ∣ > 20o) for a flux as low as ˜ 1.5 × 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1. Support for this work was provided by the Italian MIUR.

  8. Proper motions of thermally emitting isolated neutron stars measured with Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Motch, C; Haberl, F; Schwope, A; Zavlin, V E

    2009-01-01

    The remarkable astrometric capabilities of Chandra offer the possibility to measure proper motions of X-ray sources with an unprecedented accuracy in this wavelength range. We recently completed a proper motion survey of three of the seven thermally emitting radio-quiet isolated neutron stars (INSs) discovered in the ROSAT all-sky survey. These INSs (RX J0420.0-5022, RX J0806.4-4123, and RX J1308.6+2127) either lack an optical counterpart or have one so faint that ground based or space born optical observations push the current possibilities of the instrumentation to the limit. Pairs of ACIS observations were acquired 3 to 5 years apart to measure the displacement of the sources on the X-ray sky using as reference the background of extragalactic or remote Galactic X-ray sources. We derive 2 sigma upper limits of 123 mas/yr and 86 mas/yr on the proper motion of RX J0420.0-5022 and RX J0806.4-4123, respectively. RX J1308.6+2127 exhibits a very significant displacement (~ 9 sigma) yielding mu = 220 +/- 25 mas/yr...

  9. Deep Chandra observations of TeV binaries - I. LS I +61°303

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rea, N.; Torres, D.F.; van der Klis, M.; Jonker, P.G.; Méndez, M.; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A.

    2010-01-01

    We report on a 95 ks Chandra observation of the TeV emitting high-mass X-ray binary LS I +61°303, using the ACIS-S camera in continuous clocking mode to search for a possible X-ray pulsar in this system. The observation was performed while the compact object was passing from phase 0.94 to 0.98 in it

  10. Deep Chandra observations of TeV binaries : I. LSI+61°303

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rea, N.; Torres, D. F.; van der Klis, M.; Jonker, P.G.; Mendez, M.; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A.

    2010-01-01

    We report on a 95 ks Chandra observation of the TeV emitting high-mass X-ray binary LS I +61 degrees 303, using the ACIS-S camera in continuous clocking mode to search for a possible X-ray pulsar in this system. The observation was performed while the compact object was passing from phase 0.94 to 0.

  11. Real Time Space Weather Support for Chandra X-Ray Observatory Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Minow, Joseph I.; Miller, J. Scott; Wolk, Scott J.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Spitzbart, Bradley D.; Swartz. Douglas A.

    2012-01-01

    NASA launched the Chandra X-ray Observatory in July 1999. Soon after first light in August 1999, however, degradation in the energy resolution and charge transfer efficiency of the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) x-ray detectors was observed. The source of the degradation was quickly identified as radiation damage in the charge-transfer channel of the front-illuminated CCDs, by weakly penetrating ( soft , 100 500 keV) protons as Chandra passed through the Earth s radiation belts and ring currents. As soft protons were not considered a risk to spacecraft health before launch, the only on-board radiation monitoring system is the Electron, Proton, and Helium Instrument (EPHIN) which was included on Chandra with the primary purpose of monitoring energetic solar particle events. Further damage to the ACIS detector has been successfully mitigated through a combination of careful mission planning, autonomous on-board radiation protection, and manual intervention based upon real-time monitoring of the soft-proton environment. The AE-8 and AP-8 trapped radiation models and Chandra Radiation Models are used to schedule science operations in regions of low proton flux. EPHIN has been used as the primary autonomous in-situ radiation trigger; but, it is not sensitive to the soft protons that damage the front-illuminated CCDs. Monitoring of near-real-time space weather data sources provides critical information on the proton environment outside the Earth s magnetosphere due to solar proton events and other phenomena. The operations team uses data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) to provide near-real-time monitoring of the proton environment; however, these data do not give a representative measure of the soft-proton (Space Weather Prediction Center. This presentation describes the radiation mitigation strategies to minimize the proton damage in the ACIS CCD detectors and the importance of real-time data sources that are used to protect

  12. Deep Chandra observations of TeV binaries I : LS I+61 303

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rea, N.; Torres, D.F.; Klis, M. van der; Mendez, M.; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A.; Jonker, P.G.

    2010-01-01

    We report on a 95 ks Chandra observation of the TeV emitting High Mass X– ray Binary LS I+61303, using the ACIS-S camera in Continuos Clocking mode to search for a possible X-ray pulsar in this system. The observation was performed while the compact object was passing from phase 0.94 to 0.98 in its

  13. A Chandra Observation of the Face-on Spiral Galaxy NGC 3938

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhidar, Kelsey; Schlegel, Eric M.

    2017-01-01

    The ACIS detector (Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer) onboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory has imaged the face-on spiral NGC 3938 for 50 ksec. We will detect ~50 sources within the D25 radius. We will describe the luminosity distribution in comparison with distributions from other nearby spiral galaxies. We do not detect any diffuse emission. We will compare the X-ray data to observations at other wavebands.

  14. Chandra Observations of a 1.9 kpc Separation Double X-ray Source in a Candidate Dual AGN Galaxy at z=0.16

    CERN Document Server

    Comerford, Julia M; Gerke, Brian F; Madejski, Greg M

    2011-01-01

    We report Chandra observations of a double X-ray source in the z=0.1569 galaxy SDSS J171544.05+600835.7. The galaxy was initially identified as a dual AGN candidate based on the double-peaked [O III] emission lines, with a line-of-sight velocity separation of 350 km/s, in its Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectrum. We used the Kast Spectrograph at Lick Observatory to obtain two longslit spectra of the galaxy at two different position angles, which reveal that the two AGN emission components have not only a velocity offset, but also a projected spatial offset of 1.9 kpc/h70 on the sky. Chandra/ACIS observations of two X-ray sources with the same spatial offset and orientation as the optical emission suggest the galaxy most likely contains Compton-thick dual AGN, although the observations could also be explained by AGN jets. Deeper X-ray observations that reveal Fe K lines, if present, would distinguish between the two scenarios. The observations of a double X-ray source in SDSS J171544.05+600835.7 are a proof of co...

  15. The BMW-Chandra Serendipitous Source Catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, P.; Campana, S.; Mignani, R. P.; Moretti, A.; Panzera, M. R.; Tagliaferri, G.

    We present the BMW-Chandra Source Catalogue drawn from all Chandra ACIS-I pointed observations with an exposure time in excess of 10 ks public as of March 2003 (136 observations). Using the wavelet detection algorithm developed by \\citep{Lazzatiea99} and \\citep{Campanaea99}, which can characterize point-like as well as extended sources, we identified 21325 sources which were visually inspected and verified. Among them, 16758 are not associated with the targets of the pointings and are considered certain; they have a 0.5-10 keV absorption corrected flux distribution median of ˜ 7 × 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1. The catalogue consists of source positions, count rates, extensions and relative errors in three energy bands (total, 0.5-7 keV; soft, 0.5-2 keV; and hard band, 2-7 keV), as well as the additional information drawn from the headers of the original files. We also extracted source counts in four additional energy bands, (0.5-1.0 keV, 1.0-2.0 keV, 2.0-4.0 keV and 4.0-7.0 keV). We compute the sky coverage in the soft and hard bands. The complete catalogue provides a sky coverage in the soft band (0.5-2 keV, S/N =3) of ˜ 8 deg2 at a limiting flux of ˜ 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1, and ˜ 2 deg2 at a limiting flux of ˜ 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1. http://www.merate.mi.astro.it/~xanadu/BMC/bmc_home.html

  16. Chandra Publication Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rots, Arnold H; Becker, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    In this study we develop and propose publication metrics, based on an analysis of data from the Chandra bibliographic database, that are more meaningful and less sensitive to observatory-specific characteristics than the traditional metrics. They fall in three main categories: speed of publication; fraction of observing time published; and archival usage. Citation of results is a fourth category, but lends itself less well to definite statements. For Chandra, the median time from observation to publication is 2.36 years; after about 7 years 90% of the observing time is published; and the total annual publication output of the mission is 60-70% of the cumulative observing time available, assuming a two year lag between data retrieval and publication.

  17. The Chandra COSMOS Legacy Survey: Clustering of X-ray selected AGN at 2.9

    CERN Document Server

    Allevato, V; Finoguenov, A; Marchesi, S; Zamorani, G; Hasinger, G; Salvato, M; Miyaji, T; Gilli, R; Cappelluti, N; Brusa, M; Suh, H; Lanzuisi, G; Trakhtenbrot, B; Griffiths, R; Vignali, C; Schawinski, K; Karim, A

    2016-01-01

    We present the measurement of the projected and redshift space 2-point correlation function (2pcf) of the new catalog of Chandra COSMOS-Legacy AGN at 2.9$\\leq$z$\\leq$5.5 ($\\langle L_{bol} \\rangle \\sim$10$^{46}$ erg/s) using the generalized clustering estimator based on phot-z probability distribution functions (Pdfs) in addition to any available spec-z. We model the projected 2pcf estimated using $\\pi_{max}$ = 200 h$^{-1}$ Mpc with the 2-halo term and we derive a bias at z$\\sim$3.4 equal to b = 6.6$^{+0.60}_{-0.55}$, which corresponds to a typical mass of the hosting halos of log M$_h$ = 12.83$^{+0.12}_{-0.11}$ h$^{-1}$ M$_{\\odot}$. A similar bias is derived using the redshift-space 2pcf, modelled including the typical phot-z error $\\sigma_z$ = 0.052 of our sample at z$\\geq$2.9. Once we integrate the projected 2pcf up to $\\pi_{max}$ = 200 h$^{-1}$ Mpc, the bias of XMM and \\textit{Chandra} COSMOS at z=2.8 used in Allevato et al. (2014) is consistent with our results at higher redshift. The results suggest only...

  18. Ten Years of Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2009-01-01

    We celebrated the 10-th anniversary of the Launch of the Chandra X-ray Observatory on July 13, 2009. During these 10 years data from this Great Observatory have had a profound impact on 21st century astrophysics. With its unrivaled capability to produce sub-arcsecond images, the Observatory has enabled astronomers to make new discoveries in topics as diverse as comets and cosmology. We shall review some of the highlights, discuss the current status, and future plans.

  19. The Chandra Bibliography Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rots, A. H.; Winkelman, S. L.; Paltani, S.; Blecksmith, S. E.; Bright, J. D.

    2004-07-01

    Early in the mission, the Chandra Data Archive started the development of a bibliography database, tracking publications in refereed journals and on-line conference proceedings that are based on Chandra observations, allowing our users to link directly to articles in the ADS from our archive, and to link to the relevant data in the archive from the ADS entries. Subsequently, we have been working closely with the ADS and other data centers, in the context of the ADEC-ITWG, on standardizing the literature-data linking. We have also extended our bibliography database to include all Chandra-related articles and we are also keeping track of the number of citations of each paper. Obviously, in addition to providing valuable services to our users, this database allows us to extract a wide variety of statistical information. The project comprises five components: the bibliography database-proper, a maintenance database, an interactive maintenance tool, a user browsing interface, and a web services component for exchanging information with the ADS. All of these elements are nearly mission-independent and we intend make the package as a whole available for use by other data centers. The capabilities thus provided represent support for an essential component of the Virtual Observatory.

  20. Chandra Associates Pulsar and Historic Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    . Its rough cigar-like shape is in contrast to the graceful arcs observed around the Crab and Vela pulsars. However, together with those pulsars, G11.2-0.3 demonstrates that such complicated structures are ubiquitous around young pulsars. This has left astronomers confounded. Chandra observed G11.2-0.3 with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer at two epochs: August 6, 2000, and October 15, 2000, for approximately 20,000 and 15,000 seconds respectively. The ACIS X-ray camera was developed for NASA by Pennsylvania State University and MIT. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL, manages the Chandra program. TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, California, is the prime contractor for the spacecraft. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Center controls science and flight operations from Cambridge, MA. In addition to their appointments at McGill, Dr. Kaspi is also affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Dr. Roberts is a Quebec Merit Postdoctoral Fellow. Funding for this work was provided by NASA, NSF, and NSERC (Canada). During the AAS meeting, the scientists involved in this release can be reached at the AAS Press Room at the Town & Country Resort in San Diego, CA. The phone numbers for the Press Room are (619) 908-5057, (619) 908-5040, and (619) 908-5041 from January 8-11. Images associated with this release are available on the World Wide Web at: http://chandra.harvard.edu AND http://chandra.nasa.gov

  1. SNR 1E0102.2-7219 after Six Years with Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, M. J.; Schlegel, E. M.; Keohane, J.

    2005-12-01

    We present Chandra X-ray Observatory archived observations of the supernova remnant 1E0102.2-7219 in the Small Magellanic Cloud. Combining 22 ACIS-I observations for 230 ks of total exposure time, we present ACIS images with an unprecedented signal to noise ratio for this remnant. We present three upper limits on the X-ray flux for the remnant's elusive central compact object, which are consistent with current neutron star cooling models, based on a Cas A-like blackbody spectrum. Additionally, we discuss the elliptical structure of the remnant and the relative positions of the blast wave, the reverse shock, and the extent of 1E0102.2-7219's rim. This research was supported by the NSF REU Program at SAO under Eric Schlegel, whose research was supported by contract number NAS8-39073 from NASA to SAO for operation of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. Jonathan Keohane's research was supported by Chandra award GO3-4070C.

  2. Galaxy Clusters with Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Forman, W; Markevitch, M L; Vikhlinin, A A; Churazov, E

    2002-01-01

    We discuss Chandra results related to 1) cluster mergers and cold fronts and 2) interactions between relativistic plasma and hot cluster atmospheres. We describe the properties of cold fronts using NGC1404 in the Fornax cluster and A3667 as examples. We discuss multiple surface brightness discontinuities in the cooling flow cluster ZW3146. We review the supersonic merger underway in CL0657. Finally, we summarize the interaction between plasma bubbles produced by AGN and hot gas using M87 and NGC507 as examples.

  3. Lunar Prospecting With Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Observations of the bright side of the Moon with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have detected oxygen, magnesium, aluminum and silicon over a large area of the lunar surface. The abundance and distribution of those elements will help to determine how the Moon was formed. "We see X-rays from these elements directly, independent of assumptions about the mineralogy and other complications," said Jeremy Drake of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., at a press conference at the "Four Years with Chandra" symposium in Huntsville, Alabama. "We have Moon samples from the six widely-space Apollo landing sites, but remote sensing with Chandra can cover a much wider area," continued Drake. "It's the next best thing to being there, and it's very fast and cost-effective." The lunar X-rays are caused by fluorescence, a process similar to the way that light is produced in fluorescent lamps. Solar X-rays bombard the surface of the Moon, knock electrons out of the inner parts of the atoms, putting them in a highly unstable state. Almost immediately, other electrons rush to fill the gaps, and in the process convert their energy into the fluorescent X-rays seen by Chandra. According to the currently popular "giant impact" theory for the formation of the Moon, a body about the size of Mars collided with the Earth about 4.5 billion years ago. This impact flung molten debris from the mantle of both the Earth and the impactor into orbit around the Earth. Over the course of tens of millions of years, the debris stuck together to form the Moon. By measuring the amounts of aluminum and other elements over a wide area of the Moon and comparing them to the Earth's mantle, Drake and his colleagues plan to help test the giant impact hypothesis. "One early result," quipped Drake, "is that there is no evidence for large amounts of calcium, so cheese is not a major constituent of the Moon." Illustration of Earth's Geocorona Illustration of Earth's Geocorona The same

  4. Chandra Discovers Cosmic Cannonball

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    One of the fastest moving stars ever seen has been discovered with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This cosmic cannonball is challenging theories to explain its blistering speed. Astronomers used Chandra to observe a neutron star, known as RX J0822-4300, over a period of about five years. During that span, three Chandra observations clearly show the neutron star moving away from the center of the Puppis A supernova remnant. This remnant is the stellar debris field created during the same explosion in which the neutron star was created about 3700 years ago. Chandra X-ray Image of RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A Chandra X-ray Image of RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A By combining how far it has moved across the sky with its distance from Earth, astronomers determined the neutron star is moving at over 3 million miles per hour. At this rate, RX J0822-4300 is destined to escape from the Milky Way after millions of years, even though it has only traveled about 20 light years so far. "This star is moving at 3 million miles an hour, but it's so far away that the apparent motion we see in five years is less than the height of the numerals in the date on a penny, seen from the length of a football field," said Frank Winkler of Middlebury College in Vermont. "It's remarkable, and a real testament to the power of Chandra, that such a tiny motion can be measured." Labeled Image of RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A Labeled Image of RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A "Just after it was born, this neutron star got a one-way ticket out of the Galaxy," said co-author Robert Petre of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. "Astronomers have seen other stars being flung out of the Milky Way, but few as fast as this." So-called hypervelocity stars have been previously discovered shooting out of the Milky Way with speeds around one million miles per hour. One key difference between RX J0822-4300 and these other reported galactic escapees is the source of their speed. The hypervelocity stars are

  5. New Results from Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Forman, W; Jones, C; Vikhlinin, A A; Churazov, E

    2001-01-01

    We discuss two themes from Chandra observations of galaxies and clusters. First, we describe the effects of radio-emitting plasmas or ``bubbles'', inflated by active galactic nuclei, on the hot X-ray emitting gaseous atmospheres in galaxies and clusters. We describe the interaction of the ``bubbles'' and the X-ray emitting gas as the buoyant bubbles rise through the hot gas. Second, we describe sharp, edge-like surface brightness structures in clusters. Chandra observations show that these features are not shock fronts as was originally thought, but ``cold fronts'', most likely the boundaries of the remaining cores of merger components. Finally, we present recent observations of M86 and NGC507 which show similar sharp features around galaxies. For M86, the sharp edge is the boundary between the galaxy's X-ray corona and the Virgo cluster gas. The structures around NGC507, the central galaxy in a group, could be relics of galaxy formation or may reflect the motion of NGC507 in the larger potential of the group...

  6. An ALMA Survey of Submillimeter Galaxies in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South: The Redshift Distribution and Evolution of Submillimeter Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, James; Smail, Ian; Alexander, Dave; Brandt, Niel; Bertoldi, Frank; de Breuck, Carlos; Chapman, Scott; Coppin, Kristen; da Cunha, Elisabete; Danielson, Alice; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Greve, Thomas; Hodge, Jackie; Ivison, Rob; Karim, Alex; Knudsen, Kirsten; Poggianti, Bianca; Schinnerer, Eva; Thomson, Alasdair; Walter, Fabian; Wardlow, Julie; Weiss, Axel; van der Werf, Paul

    2013-01-01

    We present the first photometric redshift distribution for a large unbiased sample of 870um selected submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) with robust identifications based on observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). In our analysis we consider 96 SMGs in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, 77 of which have 4-19 band, optical-near-infrared, photometry. We model the Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) for these 77 SMGs, deriving a median photometric redshift of z=2.3+/-0.1. The remaining 19 SMGs have insufficient optical or near-infrared photometry to derive photometric redshifts, but a stacking analysis of IRAC and Herschel observations confirms they are not spurious. Assuming these sources have an absolute H-band magnitude distribution comparable to that of a complete sample of z~1-2 SMGs, we demonstrate that the undetected SMGs lie at higher redshifts, raising the median redshift for SMGs to z=2.5+/-0.2. More critically we show that the proportion of galaxies undergoing an SMG phase at z>3 i...

  7. ACIS-I observations of NGC2264. Membership and X-ray properties of PMS stars

    CERN Document Server

    Flaccomio, E; Sciortino, S

    2006-01-01

    We analyze a deep, 100 ksec long, Chandra ACIS observation of NGC2264. We detect 420 sources, 85% of which are associated with known optical and NIR counterparts. More than 90% of these counterparts are NGC2264 members, thus significantly increasing the known low mass cluster population by about 100 objects. Among the sources without counterpart, ~50% are likely members, several of which we expect to be previously unknown protostellar objects. We confirm several previous findings on the X-ray activity of low mass PMS stars: X-ray luminosity is related to stellar mass, although with a large scatter; L_X/L_bol is close to but almost invariably below the saturation level, 1e-3. A comparison between CTTS and WTTS shows several differences: CTTS are on average less active than WTTS; their emission may also be more time variable and is on average slightly harder. However, we find evidence in some CTTS of extremely cool, ~0.1-0.2 keV, plasma which we speculate is heated by accretion shocks. We conclude that activity...

  8. A Chandra Study of the Galactic Globular Cluster Omega Centauri

    CERN Document Server

    Haggard, Daryl; Davies, Melvyn B

    2009-01-01

    We analyze a ~70 ksec Chandra ACIS-I exposure of the globular cluster Omega Centauri (NGC 5139). The ~17 amin x 17 amin field of view fully encompasses three core radii and almost twice the half-mass radius. We detect 180 sources to a limiting flux of ~4.3x10^-16 erg/cm^2/s (Lx = 1.2x10^30 erg/s at 4.9 kpc). After accounting for the number of active galactic nuclei and possible foreground stars, we estimate that 45-70 of the sources are cluster members. Four of the X-ray sources have previously been identified as compact accreting binaries in the cluster--three cataclysmic variables (CVs) and one quiescent neutron star. Correlating the Chandra positions with known variable stars yields eight matches, of which five are probable cluster members that are likely to be binary stars with active coronae. Extrapolating these optical identifications to the remaining unidentified X-ray source population, we estimate that 20-35 of the sources are CVs and a similar number are active binaries. This likely represents most ...

  9. Chandra Observation of the Starburst Galaxy NGC 2146

    CERN Document Server

    Inui, T; Tsuru, T G; Koyama, K; Matsushita, S; Peck, A B; Tarchi, A; Inui, Tatsuya; Matsumoto, Hironori; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Koyama, Katsuji; Matsushita, Satoki; Peck, Alison B.; Tarchi, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    We present six monitoring observations of the starburst galaxy NGC 2146 using the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We have detected 67 point sources in the 8'.7 x 8'.7 field of view of the ACIS-S detector. Six of these sources were Ultra-Luminous X-ray Sources, the brightest of which has a luminosity of 5 x 10^{39} ergs s^{-1}. One of the source, with a luminosity of ~1 x 10^{39} ergs s^{-1}, is coincident with the dynamical center location, as derived from the ^{12}CO rotation curve. We suggest that this source may be a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus. We have produced a table where the positions and main characteristics of the Chandra-detected sources are reported. The comparison between the positions of the X-ray sources and those of compact sources detected in NIR or radio does not indicate any definite counterpart. Taking profit of the relatively large number of sources detected, we have derived a logN-logS relation and a luminosity function. The former shows a break at \\~10^{-15} ergs cm^{-2} s^{-1}, t...

  10. Supernova Remnant 1987A: High Resolution Images and Spectrum from Chandra Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Park, S; Burrows, D N; Racusin, J L; McCray, R; Borkowski, K J; Park, Sangwook; Zhekov, Svetozar A.; Burrows, David N.; Racusin, Judith L.; Cray, Richard Mc; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.

    2005-01-01

    We report on the morphological and spectral evolution of SNR 1987A from the monitoring observations with the Chandra/ACIS. As of 2005, the X-ray-bright lobes are continuously brightening and expanding all around the ring. The softening of the overall X-ray spectrum also continues. The X-ray lightcurve is particularly remarkable: i.e., the recent soft X-ray flux increase rate is significantly deviating from the model which successfully fits the earlier data, indicating even faster flux increase rate since early 2004 (day ~6200). We also report results from high resolution spectral analysis with deep Chandra/LETG observations. The high resolution X-ray line emission features unambiguously reveal that the X-ray emission of SNR 1987A is originating primarily from a "disk" along the inner ring rather than from a spherical shell. We present the ionization structures, elemental abundances, and the shock velocities of the X-ray emitting plasma.

  11. The Chandra HelpDesk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, Elizabeth C.

    2008-03-01

    The Chandra X-ray Center (CXC) HelpDesk has answered hundreds of user questions over the course of the Chandra mission, ranging from basic syntax errors to advanced analysis questions. This talk gives an introduction to the HelpDesk system and staff, presents a sample of recent HelpDesk requests, and discusses how user-submitted questions improve the software and documentation.

  12. Yes, High School Students Can Analyze Chandra Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, J. W.; Clearfield, C. R.; Olbert, C. M.

    2002-12-01

    For the past two years, high school students at the North Carolina School of Science and Math (NCSSM) have worked with new and archival Chandra data, and have produced interesting scientific results. These results have included one refereed paper in the Ap.J., and about a dozen presentations at scientific meetings (including three at this meeting). The students were selected, based on interest, from the junior class at NCSSM, to stay on campus and work intensively for 2 to 4 weeks over the summer. Each team of students selected an object with public Chandra ACIS data, and were taught how to produce data products such as images and spectra, as well as conduct a literature search. In most cases, a paper had already been published using those data, and the students were usually able to reproduce the results. As the students waded through the literature, they would search for a theory to test or an interesting new phenomenon. Often the students would request an image in another wavelength to compare in detail to the Chandra data. After the summer, many students continued to work throughout the following fall semester, producing a paper for submission to the Siemens Westinghouse Science and Technology Competition by the beginning of October. In the process of conducting research, the students learn to apply many physics concepts, and learn valuable scientific research and writing skills. Those students that choose to continue with astrophysics can often dive directly into a high-level research project immediately when they arrive at college. These programs have been funded by NASA, through E/PO grants attached to parent research grants.

  13. Dark Matter Reality Check: Chandra Casts Cloud On Alternative Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    has successfully distinguished dark matter from MOND. The researchers also found that the Chandra data fit predictions of the cold dark matter theories, according to which dark matter consists of slowly moving particles, which interact with each other and "normal" matter only through gravity. Other forms of dark matter, such as self-interacting dark matter, and cold molecular dark matter, are not consistent with the observation in that they require a dark matter halo that is too round or too flat, respectively. "Chandra's ability to precisely identify and locate the point-like sources contaminating the diffuse emission in the X-ray image was absolutely essential," said Buote. "Only then could we make accurate measurements of the shape and orientation of the X-ray image contours." The conclusion from the Chandra data that NGC 720 possesses a dark matter halo assumes that the hot gas cloud has not been unduly disturbed by collisions or mergers with other galaxies in the last 100 million years. The lack of evidence of such activity indicates that this assumption is valid. Chandra observed NGC 720, which is about 80 million light years from Earth, for 11 hours with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS). Other members of the team include Tesla Jeltema and Claude Canizares of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, and Gordon Garmire of Pennsylvania State University in University Park. Penn State and MIT developed the instrument for NASA. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program, and TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, Calif., is the prime contractor for the spacecraft. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Center controls science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass.

  14. Chandra view of the dynamically young cluster of galaxies A1367 II. point sources

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, M

    2002-01-01

    A 40 ks \\emph{Chandra} ACIS-S observation of the dynamically young cluster A1367 yields new insights on X-ray emission from cluster member galaxies. We detect 59 point-like sources in the ACIS field, of which 8 are identified with known cluster member galaxies. Thus in total 10 member galaxies are detected in X-rays when three galaxies discussed in paper I (Sun & Murray 2002; NGC 3860 is discussed in both papers) are included. The superior spatial resolution and good spectroscopy capability of \\chandra allow us to constrain the emission nature of these galaxies. Central nuclei, thermal halos and stellar components are revealed in their spectra. Four new low luminosity nuclei (LLAGN) are found, including an absorbed one (NGC 3861). This discovery makes the LLAGN/AGN content in this part of A1367 very high ($\\sim$ 20%). Thermal halos with temperatures around 0.5 - 0.8 keV are revealed in the spectra of two elliptical galaxies NGC 3842 and NGC 3837, which suggests that galactic coronae can survive in cluster...

  15. The End of Days -- Chandra Catches X-ray Glow From Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    operations team replanned the telescope's observation activities and by Monday morning, and by Monday morning, Chandra was pointed at the supernova and observed it for about nine hours. Lewin, who had been awarded the rights to Chandra's first observation of a nearby supernova, was ecstatic. "This is a unique chance that we have been hoping for!!!!" he wrote in an e-mail to Tananbaum. "I was impressed by how rapid the Chandra response was, " said Kirshner. "Supernovae expand quickly and cool quickly, so each day we delay observing the supernova it has changed irretrievably," Filippenko said. "We caught this really early, only a day or two after the explosion. We were lucky." The Chandra observation was taken with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) on November 1 and 2, and 11 and 12, 1999 in two separate observations that lasted approximately nine hours each. ACIS was built by Pennsylvania State University, University Park. and MIT. To follow Chandra's progress, visit the Chandra site at: http://chandra.harvard.edu AND http://chandra.nasa.gov NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL, manages the Chandra program. TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, CA, is the prime contractor for the spacecraft. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Center controls science and flight operations from Cambridge, MA. This image will be available on NASA Video File which airs at noon, 3:00 p.m., 6:00 p.m., 9:00 p.m. and midnight Eastern Time. NASA Television is available on GE-2, transponder 9C at 85 degrees West longitude, with vertical polarization. Frequency is on 3880.0 megahertz, with audio on 6.8 megahertz. High resolution digital versions of the X-ray image (JPG, 300 dpi TIFF ) and other information associated with this release are available on the Internet at: http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/sn1999em/ or via links in: http://chandra.harvard.edu

  16. CHANDRA Detection of the AM CVn binary ES Cet (KUV 01584-0939)

    CERN Document Server

    Strohmayer, T E

    2004-01-01

    We report on CHANDRA ACIS observations of the ultracompact AM CVn binary ES Cet. This object has a 10.3 minute binary period and is the most compact of the confirmed AM CVn systems. We have, for the first time, unambiguously detected the X-ray counterpart to ES Cet. In a 20 ksec ACIS-S image a point-like X-ray source is found within 1'' of the catalogued optical position. The mean countrate in ACIS-S is 0.013 cts/s, and there is no strong evidence for variability. We extract the first X-ray spectrum from ES Cet, and find that it is not well described by simple continuum models. We find suggestive evidence for discrete spectral components at about 470 and 890 eV, that can be modelled as gaussian emission lines. In comparison with recent X-ray detections of nitrogen and neon in another AM CVn system (GP Com), it appears possible that these features may represent emission lines from these same elements; however, deeper spectroscopy will be required to confirm this.

  17. Chandra observation of the fast X-ray transient IGR J17544-2619: evidence for a neutron star?

    CERN Document Server

    in 't Zand, J J M

    2005-01-01

    IGR J17544-2619 belongs to a distinct group of at least seven fast X-ray transients that cannot readily be associated with nearby flare stars or pre-main sequence stars and most probably are X-ray binaries with wind accretion. Sofar, the nature of the accretor has been determined in only one case (SAX J1819.3-2525/V4641 Sgr). We carried out a 20 ks Chandra ACIS-S observation of IGR J17544-2619 which shows the source in quiescence going into outburst. The Chandra position confirms the previous tentative identification of the optical counterpart, a blue O9Ib supergiant at 3 to 4 kpc (Pellizza, Chaty & Negueruela, in prep.). This is the first detection of a fast X-ray transient in quiescence. The quiescent spectrum is very soft. The photon index of 5.9+/-1.2 (90% confidence error margin) is much softer than 6 quiescent black hole candidates that were observed with Chandra ACIS-S (Kong et al. 2002; Tomsick et al. 2003). Assuming that a significant fraction of the quiescent photons comes from the accretor and ...

  18. CHANDRA DEEP OBSERVATION OF XDCP J0044.0-2033, A MASSIVE GALAXY CLUSTER AT z > 1.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tozzi, P.; Santos, J. S.; Rosati, P. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Jee, M. J. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616-8677 (United States); Fassbender, R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma (OAR), via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Nastasi, A. [Istitut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS, Bat. 121, Université Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Forman, W.; Jones, C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Sartoris, B.; Borgani, S. [Università degli Studi di Trieste, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via A.Valerio, 2 I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Boehringer, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fr extraterrestrische Physik Giessenbachstr.1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Altieri, B. [European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), European Space Agency, Apartado de Correos 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Pratt, G. W. [CEA Saclay, Service d' Astrophysique, LOrme des Merisiers, Bat. 709, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Nonino, M. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy)

    2015-01-20

    We report the analysis of the Chandra observation of XDCP J0044.0-2033, a massive, distant (z = 1.579) galaxy cluster discovered in the XDCP survey. The total exposure time of 380 ks with Chandra ACIS-S provides the deepest X-ray observation currently achieved on a massive, high-redshift cluster. Extended emission from the intra cluster medium (ICM) is detected at a very high significance level (S/N ∼ 20) on a circular region with a 44'' radius, corresponding to R {sub ext} = 375 kpc at the cluster redshift. We perform an X-ray spectral fit of the ICM emission modeling the spectrum with a single-temperature thermal mekal model. Our analysis provides a global temperature kT=6.7{sub −0.9}{sup +1.3} keV, and a iron abundance Z{sub Fe}=0.41{sub −0.26}{sup +0.29}Z{sub Fe{sub ⊙}} (error bars correspond to 1σ). We fit the background-subtracted surface brightness profile with a single β-model out to 44'', finding a rather flat profile with no hints of a cool core. We derive the deprojected electron density profile and compute the ICM mass within the extraction radius R {sub ext} = 375 kpc to be M {sub ICM}(r < R {sub ext}) = (1.48 ± 0.20) × 10{sup 13} M {sub ☉}. Under the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium and assuming isothermality within R {sub ext}, the total mass is M{sub 2500}=1.23{sub −0.27}{sup +0.46}×10{sup 14} M{sub ⊙} for R{sub 2500}=240{sub −20}{sup +30} kpc. Extrapolating the profile at radii larger than the extraction radius R {sub ext} we find M{sub 500}=3.2{sub −0.6}{sup +0.9}×10{sup 14} M{sub ⊙} for R{sub 500}=562{sub −37}{sup +50} kpc. This analysis establishes the existence of virialized, massive galaxy clusters at redshift z ∼ 1.6, paving the way to the investigation of the progenitors of the most massive clusters today. Given its mass and the XDCP survey volume, XDCP J0044.0-2033 does not create significant tension with the WMAP-7 ΛCDM cosmology.

  19. ASA's Chandra Neon Discovery Solves Solar Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory survey of nearby sun-like stars suggests there is nearly three times more neon in the sun and local universe than previously believed. If true, this would solve a critical problem with understanding how the sun works. "We use the sun to test how well we understand stars and, to some extent, the rest of the universe," said Jeremy Drake of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass. "But in order to understand the sun, we need to know exactly what it is made of," he added. It is not well known how much neon the sun contains. This is critical information for creating theoretical models of the sun. Neon atoms, along with carbon, oxygen and nitrogen, play an important role in how quickly energy flows from nuclear reactions in the sun's core to its edge, where it then radiates into space. Chandra X-ray Spectrum of II Pegasi Chandra X-ray Spectrum of II Pegasi The rate of this energy flow determines the location and size of a crucial stellar region called the convection zone. The zone extends from near the sun's surface inward approximately 125,000 miles. The zone is where the gas undergoes a rolling, convective motion much like the unstable air in a thunderstorm. "This turbulent gas has an extremely important job, because nearly all of the energy emitted at the surface of the sun is transported there by convection," Drake said. The accepted amount of neon in the sun has led to a paradox. The predicted location and size of the solar convection zone disagree with those deduced from solar oscillations. Solar oscillations is a technique astronomers previously relied on to probe the sun's interior. Several scientists have noted the problem could be fixed if the abundance of neon is in fact about three times larger than currently accepted. Attempts to measure the precise amount of neon in the Sun have been frustrated by a quirk of nature; neon atoms in the Sun give off no signatures in visible light. However, in a gas

  20. The AT-LESS CO(1-0) survey of submillimetre galaxies in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South: First results on cold molecular gas in galaxies at z ˜ 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Minh T.; Emonts, B. H. C.; Kimball, A. E.; Seymour, N.; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, A. M.; Brandt, W. N.; Casey, C. M.; Chapman, S. C.; Dannerbauer, H.; Hodge, J. A.; Ivison, R. J.; Schinnerer, E.; Thomson, A. P.; van derWerf, P.; Wardlow, J. L.

    2017-01-01

    We present the first results from our on-going Australia Telescope Compact Array survey of 12CO(1-0) in ALMA-identified submillimetre galaxies in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South. Strong detections of 12CO(1-0) emission from two submillimetre galaxies, ALESS 122.1 (z = 2.0232) and ALESS 67.1 (z = 2.1230), were obtained. We estimate gas masses of Mgas ˜ 1.3 × 1011 M⊙ and Mgas ˜ 1.0 × 1011M⊙ for ALESS 122.1 and ALESS 67.1, respectively, adopting αCO = 1.0. Dynamical mass estimates from the kinematics of the 12CO(1-0) line yields Mdynsin 2i = (2.1 ± 1.1) × 1011 M⊙ and (3.2 ± 0.9) × 1011 M⊙ for ALESS 122.1 and ALESS 67.1, respectively. This is consistent with the total baryonic mass estimates of these two systems. We examine star formation efficiency using the LFIR versus L^' }_CO(1-0) relation for samples of local ULIRGs and LIRGs, and more distant star-forming galaxies, with 12CO(1-0) detections. We find some evidence of a shallower slope for ULIRGs and SMGs compared to less luminous systems, but a larger sample is required for definite conclusions. We determine gas-to-dust ratios of 170 ± 30 and 140 ± 30 for ALESS 122.1 and ALESS 67.1, respectively, showing ALESS 122.1 has an unusually large gas reservoir. By combining the 38.1 GHz continuum detection of ALESS 122.1 with 1.4 and 5.5 GHz data, we estimate that the free-free contribution to radio emission at 38.1 GHz is 34 ± 17 μJy, yielding a star formation rate (1400 ± 700 M⊙ yr-1) consistent with that from the infrared luminosity.

  1. Chandra Discovers Eruption and Pulsation in Nova Outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    ,000 light years, it could be seen with the naked eye for about a month, during which it was about 100,000 times brighter than our own Sun," said R. Mark Wagner of the University of Arizona. Nova Aquilae Chandra observed the nova, so-called because early astronomers believed they heralded the appearance of a new star, four times from April 2000 through October 2000. "Our first Chandra observations showed that the expanding gas around Nova Aquilae was hot and nearly opaque," said Joachim Krautter of the State Observatory in Heidelberg, Germany. "When we looked months later with Chandra, the expanding gases cleared enough for us to see through them to the underlying star on which the explosion occurred." The latter Chandra X-ray data revealed the cyclical changes in brightness are due to the white dwarf expanding and shrinking over a 40-minute period. They also showed that the temperature on the surface of the white dwarf was 300,000 degrees Celsius, making Nova Aquilae one of the hottest stars ever observed to undergo such pulsations. "The observations told us that thermonuclear fusion reactions were still occurring on the surface layers of the white dwarf - more than eight months after the explosion first began!" said Robert Gehrz of the University of Minnesota. Other members of the team are Howard Bond (Space Telescope Science Institute), Yousaf Butt (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics), Koji Mukai (Goddard Space Flight Center), Peter Hauschildt (University of Georgia), Margarida Hernanz (Institute for Space Studies, Catalonia, Spain), Marina Orio (University of Wisconsin and the Torino Observatory in Italy), and Charles Woodward (University of Minnesota). Chandra observed Nova Aquilae for a total of 10 hours with the High Resolution Camera (HRC) and the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS). The HRC was built for NASA by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, MA. The ACIS instrument was built for NASA by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

  2. Chandra Observations of Comets C/2012 S1 (ISON) and C/2011 L4 (PanSTARRS)

    OpenAIRE

    Snios, Bradford; Kharchenko, Vasili; Lisse, Carey M.; Wolk, Scott J.; Dennerl, Konrad; Combi, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    We present our results on the Chandra X-ray Observatory Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) observations of the bright Oort Cloud comets C/2012 S1 (ISON) and C/2011 L4 (PanSTARRS). ISON was observed between 2013 October 31-November 06 during variable speed solar wind (SW), and PanSTARRS was observed between 2013 April 17-23 during fast SW. ISON produced an extended parabolic X-ray morphology consistent with a collisionally thick coma, while PanSTARRS demonstrated only a diffuse X-ray-emi...

  3. X-ray Mass Profiles from Chandra Galaxy Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paggi, Alessandro; Kim, Dong-Woo; Anderson, Craig; Burke, Douglas J.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Fruscione, Antonella; Lauer, Jennifer L.; McCollough, Michael L.; Morgan, Douglas; Mossman, Amy; O'Sullivan, Ewan; Trinchieri, Ginevra

    2016-04-01

    We present preliminary results of a Chandra/XMM-Newton joint analysis on a sample of three Early Type Galaxies (ETGs, namely NGC4649, NGC4636 and NGC5846). X-ray observations of the hot ISM is used to measure the total enclosed mass assuming hydrostatic equilibrium, and compasion with mass distributions obtained through optical kinematics data of globular clusters and planetary nebulae yields informations about disturbances in the ISM distribution due to nuclear activity, merging history, etc. Our analysis makes use of the Chandra Galaxy Atlas (CGA) data products - exploiting the unmatched spatial resolution of the ACIS detectors to reveal fine ISM features and disturbances in the inner galactic regions - and XMM-Newton data - relying on the large field of view of EPIC detector to extend the mass profiles to larger radii. We then measured the mass profiles in various pie sectors to separate different gas features (e.g., discontinuity and extended tail) and compared them with GCs/PNe based mass profiles. The X-ray mass profiles of NGC4649 show a generally relaxed morphology and, in agreement with previous analysis, the comparison with the optical mass profiles shows a significant deviations on parsec scale likely due to non-thermal pressure linked to nuclear activity. In significantly disturbed cases (NGC4648 and NGC5846) where we found discontinuities and extended tails, we found that the mass profiles are over-estimated toward the compressed discontinuity and under-estimated toward the extended tails, similar to inflow and outflow cases. These preliminary results are promising toward an extended analysis of the whole CGA sample in order to study the distribution of gas temperature and metal abundances in the ISM, and to investigate scaling relations between ETG global quantities like ISM temperature, luminosity and total mass.

  4. An Introduction to the Chandra Carina Complex Project

    CERN Document Server

    Townsley, Leisa K; Corcoran, Michael F; Feigelson, Eric D; Gagné, Marc; Montmerle, Thierry; Oey, M S; Smith, Nathan; Garmire, Gordon P; Getman, Konstantin V; Povich, Matthew S; Evans, Nancy Remage; Nazé, Yaël; Parkin, E R; Preibisch, Thomas; Wang, Junfeng; Wolk, Scott J; Chu, You-Hua; Cohen, David H; Gruendl, Robert A; Hamaguchi, Kenji; King, Robert R; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; McCaughrean, Mark J; Moffat, Anthony F J; Oskinova, L M; Pittard, Julian M; Stassun, Keivan G; ud-Doula, Asif; Walborn, Nolan R; Waldron, Wayne L; Churchwell, Ed; Nichols, J S; Owocki, Stanley P; Schulz, N S

    2011-01-01

    The Great Nebula in Carina provides an exceptional view into the violent massive star formation and feedback that typifies giant HII regions and starburst galaxies. We have mapped the Carina star-forming complex in X-rays, using archival Chandra data and a mosaic of 20 new 60ks pointings using the Chandra X-ray Observatory's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer, as a testbed for understanding recent and ongoing star formation and to probe Carina's regions of bright diffuse X-ray emission. This study has yielded a catalog of properties of >14,000 X-ray point sources; >9800 of them have multiwavelength counterparts. Using Chandra's unsurpassed X-ray spatial resolution, we have separated these point sources from the extensive, spatially-complex diffuse emission that pervades the region; X-ray properties of this diffuse emission suggest that it traces feedback from Carina's massive stars. In this introductory paper, we motivate the survey design, describe the Chandra observations, and present some simple results, pr...

  5. CIAO: Chandra's data analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruscione, Antonella; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Allen, Glenn E.; Brickhouse, Nancy S.; Burke, Douglas J.; Davis, John E.; Durham, Nick; Elvis, Martin; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Harris, Daniel E.; Huenemoerder, David P.; Houck, John C.; Ishibashi, Bish; Karovska, Margarita; Nicastro, Fabrizio; Noble, Michael S.; Nowak, Michael A.; Primini, Frank A.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Smith, Randall K.; Wise, Michael

    2006-06-01

    The CIAO (Chandra Interactive Analysis of Observations) software package was first released in 1999 following the launch of the Chandra X-ray Observatory and is used by astronomers across the world to analyze Chandra data as well as data from other telescopes. From the earliest design discussions, CIAO was planned as a general-purpose scientific data analysis system optimized for X-ray astronomy, and consists mainly of command line tools (allowing easy pipelining and scripting) with a parameter-based interface layered on a flexible data manipulation I/O library. The same code is used for the standard Chandra archive pipeline, allowing users to recalibrate their data in a consistent way. We will discuss the lessons learned from the first six years of the software's evolution. Our initial approach to documentation evolved to concentrate on recipe-based "threads" which have proved very successful. A multi-dimensional abstract approach to data analysis has allowed new capabilities to be added while retaining existing interfaces. A key requirement for our community was interoperability with other data analysis systems, leading us to adopt standard file formats and an architecture which was as robust as possible to the input of foreign data files, as well as re-using a number of external libraries. We support users who are comfortable with coding themselves via a flexible user scripting paradigm, while the availability of tightly constrained pipeline programs are of benefit to less computationally-advanced users. As with other analysis systems, we have found that infrastructure maintenance and re-engineering is a necessary and significant ongoing effort and needs to be planned in to any long-lived astronomy software.

  6. Chandra X-Ray Observatory Image of Crab Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    After barely 2 months in space, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO) took this sturning image of the Crab Nebula, the spectacular remains of a stellar explosion, revealing something never seen before, a brilliant ring around the nebula's heart. The image shows the central pulsar surrounded by tilted rings of high-energy particles that appear to have been flung outward over a distance of more than a light-year from the pulsar. Perpendicular to the rings, jet-like structures produced by high-energy particles blast away from the pulsar. Hubble Space Telescope images have shown moving knots and wisps around the neutron star, and previous x-ray images have shown the outer parts of the jet and hinted at the ring structure. With CXO's exceptional resolution, the jet can be traced all the way in to the neutron star, and the ring pattern clearly appears. The image was made with CXO's Advanced Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) and High Energy Transmission Grating. The Crab Nebula, easily the most intensively studied object beyond our solar system, has been observed using virtually every astronomical instrument that could see that part of the sky

  7. Invisible Giant: Chandra's Limits on X-rays from Betelgeuse

    CERN Document Server

    Posson-Brown, J; Pease, D O; Drake, J J; Posson-Brown, Jennifer; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Pease, Deron O.; Drake, Jeremy J.

    2006-01-01

    We have analyzed Chandra calibration observations of Betelgeuse ($\\alpha$ Ori, M2 Iab, $m_{V} = 0.58$, 131 pc) obtained at the aimpoint locations of the HRC-I (8 ks), HRC-S (8 ks), and ACIS-I (5 ks). Betelgeuse is undetected in all the individual observations as well as cumulatively. We derive $3\\sigma$ upper limits to its X-ray count rates and compute the corresponding X-ray flux upper limits for isothermal coronal plasma over a range of temperatures, $T=0.3-10$~MK. We place a flux limit at the telescope of $\\fx\\approx4\\times10^{-15}$~ergs~s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ at T=1~MK. The upper limit is lowered by a factor of $\\approx3$ at higher temperatures, roughly an order of magnitude lower than that obtained previously. Assuming that the entire stellar surface is active, these fluxes correspond to a surface flux limit that ranges from 30-7000~ergs~s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ at T=1~MK, to $\\approx 1$~ergs~s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ at higher temperatures, five orders of magnitude lower than the quiet Sun X-ray surface flux. We discuss...

  8. Imaging the Circumnuclear Region of NGC 1365 with Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Junfeng; Elvis, M; Risaliti, G; Mazzarella, J M; Howell, J H; Lord, S

    2009-01-01

    We present the first Chandra/ACIS imaging study of the circumnuclear region of the nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 1365. The X-ray emission is resolved into point-like sources and complex, extended emission. The X-ray morphology of the extended emission shows a biconical soft X-ray emission region extending ~5 kpc in projection from the nucleus, coincident with the high excitation outflow cones seen in optical emission lines particularly to the northwest. Harder X-ray emission is detected from a kpc-diameter circumnuclear ring, coincident with the star-forming ring prominent in the Spitzer mid-infrared images; this X-ray emission is partially obscured by the central dust lane of NGC 1365. Spectral fitting of spatially separated components indicates a thermal plasma origin for the soft extended X-ray emission (kT=0.57 keV). Only a small amount of this emission can be due to photoionization by the nuclear source. Detailed comparison with [OIII]5007 observations shows the hot interstellar medium (ISM) is spatially ant...

  9. Mutations in ACY1, the gene encoding aminoacylase 1, cause a novel inborn error of metabolism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sass, J.O.; Mohr, V.; Olbrich, H.; Engelke, U.F.H.; Horvath, J.; Fliegauf, M.; Loges, N.T.; Schweitzer-Krantz, S.; Moebus, R.; Weiler, P.; Kispert, A.; Superti-Furga, A.; Wevers, R.A.; Omran, H.

    2006-01-01

    N-terminal acetylation of proteins is a widespread and highly conserved process. Aminoacylase 1 (ACY1; EC 3.5.14) is the most abundant of the aminoacylases, a class of enzymes involved in hydrolysis of N-acetylated proteins. Here, we present four children with genetic deficiency of ACY1. They were i

  10. Chandra Independently Determines Hubble Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    A critically important number that specifies the expansion rate of the Universe, the so-called Hubble constant, has been independently determined using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This new value matches recent measurements using other methods and extends their validity to greater distances, thus allowing astronomers to probe earlier epochs in the evolution of the Universe. "The reason this result is so significant is that we need the Hubble constant to tell us the size of the Universe, its age, and how much matter it contains," said Max Bonamente from the University of Alabama in Huntsville and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Ala., lead author on the paper describing the results. "Astronomers absolutely need to trust this number because we use it for countless calculations." Illustration of Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect Illustration of Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect The Hubble constant is calculated by measuring the speed at which objects are moving away from us and dividing by their distance. Most of the previous attempts to determine the Hubble constant have involved using a multi-step, or distance ladder, approach in which the distance to nearby galaxies is used as the basis for determining greater distances. The most common approach has been to use a well-studied type of pulsating star known as a Cepheid variable, in conjunction with more distant supernovae to trace distances across the Universe. Scientists using this method and observations from the Hubble Space Telescope were able to measure the Hubble constant to within 10%. However, only independent checks would give them the confidence they desired, considering that much of our understanding of the Universe hangs in the balance. Chandra X-ray Image of MACS J1149.5+223 Chandra X-ray Image of MACS J1149.5+223 By combining X-ray data from Chandra with radio observations of galaxy clusters, the team determined the distances to 38 galaxy clusters ranging from 1.4 billion to 9.3 billion

  11. A Full Year's Chandra Exposure on SDSS Quasars from the Chandra Multiwavelength Project

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Paul J; Richards, G T; Barkhouse, W A; Constantin, A; Haggard, D; Karovska, M; Kim, D -W; Kim, M; Vikhlinin, A; Mossman, A; Silverman, J D; Anderson, S F; Kashyap, V; Wilkes, B J; Tananbaum, H

    2008-01-01

    We study the spectral energy distributions and evolution of a large sample of optically selected quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) that were observed in 323 Chandra images analyzed by the Chandra Multiwavelength Project (ChaMP). Our highest-confidence matched sample includes 1135 X-ray detected quasars in the redshift range 0.23 QSOs detected, we find no evidence for evolution out to z~5 for either the X-ray photon index Gamma or for the ratio of optical/UV to X-ray flux alpha_ox. About 10% of detected QSOs are obscured (Nh>1E22), but the fraction might reach ~1/3 if most non-detections are absorbed. We confirm a significant correlation between alpha_ox and optical luminosity, but it flattens or disappears for fainter AGN alone. Gamma hardens significantly both towards higher X-ray luminosity, and for relatively X-ray loud quasars. These trends may represent a relative increase in non-thermal X-ray emission, and our findings thereby strengthen analogies between Galactic black hole binaries and ...

  12. Two Pulsar Wind Nebulae: Chandra/XMM-Newton Imaging of GeV J1417-6100

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, C Y; Romani, R W; Roberts, Mallory S.E.; Romani, Roger W.

    2005-01-01

    We report on Chandra ACIS and XMM-Newton MOS/PN imaging observations of two pulsar wind nebulae (K3/PSR J1420-6048 and G313.3+0.1=`the rabbit') associated with the Galactic unidentified gamma-ray source GeV J1417-6100. With the excellent ACIS imaging, the very energetic pulsar PSR J1420-6048 is separated from its surrounding nebula. This nebula has surprisingly little compact structure, although a faint arc is seen near the pulsar. Similarly, two point sources are resolved in the rabbit nebula. The large XMM-Newton collecting area provides useful spectral constraints on the rabbit and the associated point sources. Based on spectra and X-ray morphology, we identify one point source as a plausible pulsar counterpart. Large backgrounds and low source counts limited pulse search sensitivities, but we report pulse upper limits and a candidate 108ms period for the rabbit pulsar based on the XMM-Newton data and an ACIS CC observation. Comparison of the X-ray images with high resolution ATCA radio maps shows that the...

  13. Chandra Observations of Pluto's Escaping Atmosphere in Support of the New Horizons Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, Ralph, Jr.

    2013-09-01

    Current models of Pluto's extended N2+CH4 atmosphere are still very uncertain, causing numerous difficulties in optimizing the New Horizons fast flyby operations plan for the dwarf planet. Applying knowledge gained from studying cometary X-ray emission, Chandra ACIS-S photometric imaging of X-rays produced by CXE between the solar wind and Pluto's atmosphere will address both the run of atmospheric density and the interaction of the solar wind with the extended Plutonian atmosphere. Determining the atmosphere's extent and amount of free molecular escape will aid the atmospheric sounding measurements of the NH ALICE instrument, while determining the x-ray luminosity will help the NH PEPSI instrument characterize the solar wind particle environment.

  14. A Narrow Band Chandra X-ray Analysis of SNR 3C 391

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Su; Yang Chen

    2005-01-01

    We present narrow-band and equivalent width (EW) images of the thermal composite supernova remnant (SNR) 3C 391 in the X-ray emission lines of Mg, Si and S using the Chandra ACIS Observational data. The EW images re veal the spatial distribution of the emission of the metal species Mg, Si and S in the remnant. They have a clumpy structure similar to that seen in the broadband diffuse emission, suggesting that they are largely of interstellar origin. We find an interesting finger-like feature protruding outside the southwestern radio border of the remnant, somewhat similar to the jet-like Si structure found in the famous SNR Cas A. This feature may possibly be the debris of the jet of ejecta from an asymmetrical supernova explosion of a massive progenitor star.

  15. Chandra Cluster Cosmology Project III: Cosmological Parameter Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikhlinin, A.; Kravtsov, A. V.; Burenin, R. A.;

    2009-01-01

    function evolution to be used as a useful growth of a structure-based dark energy probe. In this paper, we present cosmological parameter constraints obtained from Chandra observations of 37 clusters with langzrang = 0.55 derived from 400 deg2 ROSAT serendipitous survey and 49 brightest z ≈ 0.05 clusters...... detected in the All-Sky Survey. Evolution of the mass function between these redshifts requires ΩΛ > 0 with a ~5σ significance, and constrains the dark energy equation-of-state parameter to w 0 = –1.14 ± 0.21, assuming a constant w and a flat universe. Cluster information also significantly improves...

  16. Maximising the mileage from the Chandra podcasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcand, K. K.; Watzke, M.

    2008-06-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory captures X-ray images and measures spectra of many highenergy cosmic phenomena. There is a constant challenge to devise new and appropriate means to bring these potentially esoteric science results and concepts in a digestible way to the public. One of the ideas to address this challenge became the Chandra podcast.

  17. Chandra Detects Halo Of Hot Gas Around Milky Way-Like Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    the galaxy's disk. These data clearly show the hot gas is heated by clusters of massive stars and is now expanding into the halo of the galaxy. NGC 4631 X-ray: NASA/CXC/UMass/D.Wang et al. UV: NASA/GSFC/UIT "What we see in NGC 4631 can be thought of as the bursting flames of a gigantic cosmic camp fire," said Wang. "Using Chandra and Hubble together, we really get a complete story of what is happening in this galaxy." NGC 4631 is a galaxy that has high amounts of star formation, possibly triggered by interaction with neighboring galaxies. Such star formation might have created the conditions necessary to heat the gas seen by Chandra, as vast amounts of energy are released from supernovas and massive stars in star-forming regions - enough to lift the gas out of the plane of the galaxy. These new results provide important clues about the cycling of energy and mass in a galaxy like our own Milky Way and about the evolutionary history of galaxies, which are thought to be more active in star formation in the past than at the present. Other members of the research team include: Stefan Immler, University of Massachusetts; Rene Walterbos, New Mexico State University; James Lauroesch, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, and Dieter Breitschwerdt, Max Plank Institute, Germany. Chandra observed NGC 4631 with its Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) instrument, which was developed for NASA by Pennsylvania State University, University Park, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL, manages the Chandra program, and TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, CA, is the prime contractor for the spacecraft. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Center controls science and flight operations from Cambridge, MA.

  18. The Young Stellar Population in M17 Revealed by Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broos, Patrick S.; Feigelson, Eric D.; Townsley, Leisa K.; Getman, Konstantin V.; Wang, Junfeng; Garmire, Gordon P.; Jiang, Zhibo; Tsuboi, Yohko

    2007-04-01

    We report here results from a Chandra ACIS observation of the stellar populations in and around the M17 H II region. The field reveals 886 sources with observed X-ray luminosities (uncorrected for absorption) between ˜29.3 ergs s-1tables of X-ray source properties, several results are presented: 1. The X-ray luminosity function is calibrated to that of the Orion Nebula Cluster population to infer a total population of roughly 8000-10,000 stars in M17, one-third lying in the central NGC 6618 cluster. 2. About 40% of the ACIS sources are heavily obscured with AV>10 mag. Some are concentrated around well-studied star-forming regions -- IRS 5/UC1, the Kleinmann-Wright Object, and M17-North -- but most are distributed across the field. As previously shown, star formation appears to be widely distributed in the molecular clouds. X-ray emission is detected from 64 of the hundreds of Class I protostar candidates that can be identified by near- and mid-infrared colors. These constitute the most likely protostar candidates known in M17. 3. The spatial distribution of X-ray stars is complex: in addition to the central NGC 6618 cluster and well-known embedded groups, we find a new embedded cluster (designated M17-X), a 2 pc long arc of young stars along the southwest edge of the M17 H II region, and 0.1 pc substructure within various populations. These structures may indicate that the populations are dynamically young. 4. All (14/14) of the known O stars but only about half (19/34) of the known B0-B3 stars in the M17 field are detected. These stars exhibit the long-reported correlation between X-ray and bolometric luminosities of LX˜10-7Lbol. While many O and early-B stars show the soft X-ray emission expected from microshocks in their winds or moderately hard emission that could be caused by magnetically channeled wind shocks, six of these stars exhibit very hard thermal plasma components (kT>4 keV) that may be due to colliding wind binaries. More than 100 candidate new OB

  19. Unveiling obscured accretion in the Chandra Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Fiore, F; Santini, P; Puccetti, S; Brusa, M; Feruglio, C; Fontana, A; Giallongo, E; Comastri, A; Gruppioni, C; Pozzi, F; Zamorani, G; Vignali, C

    2007-01-01

    A large population of heavily obscured, Compton Thick AGNs is predicted by models of galaxy formation, models of Cosmic X-ray Background and by the ``relic'' super-massive black-hole mass function measured from local bulges. However, so far only a handful of Compton thick AGNs have been possibly detected using even the deepest Chandra and XMM surveys. Compton-thick AGNs can be recovered thanks to the reprocessing of the AGN UV emission in the infrared by selecting sources with AGN luminosity's in the mid-infrared and faint near-infrared and optical emission. To this purpose, we make use of deep HST, VLT, Spitzer and Chandra data on the Chandra Deep Field South to constrain the number of Compton thick AGN in this field. We show that sources with high 24micron to optical flux ratios and red colors form a distinct source population, and that their infrared luminosity is dominated by AGN emission. Analysis of the X-ray properties of these extreme sources shows that most of them are indeed likely to be highly obsc...

  20. Chandra Observations of MRK 273 Unveiling the Central AGN and the Extended Hot Gas Halo

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, X Y; Mao, S; Boller, T; Deng, Z G; Wu, H; Boller, Th.

    2001-01-01

    We report X-ray observations of the field containing the ultraluminous IRAS galaxy Mrk~273 Using the ACIS-S3 instrument on board Chandra. The high resolution X-ray image, for the first time, reveals a compact hard X-ray nucleus in Mrk~273. Its X-ray energy distribution is well described by a heavily obscured power-law spectrum plus a narrow $\\Feka$ emission line at 6.4 keV. The neutral hydrogen column density is about $4\\times10^{23}\\cm^{-2}$, implying an absorption -corrected X-ray luminosity (0.1--10 keV) for the nucleus of $\\Lx\\approx 6.5\\times 10^{43} \\ergs$. There are also bright soft X-ray clumps and diffuse soft X-ray emissions surrounding the central hard X-ray nucleus within the $10\\arcsec$ of the nuclear region. Its spectrum can be fitted by a MEKAL thermal model with temperature of about 0.8 keV and high metallicity ($Z\\sim 1.5Z_\\odot$) plus emission lines from $\\alpha$ elements and ions. Further outside the central region, the Chandra observations reveal a very extended hot gas halo with a project...

  1. Hunting for accretors towards the bulge with the Chandra and Hubble Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Brittany; Aufdemberge, Emily; Hong, JaeSub; Clarkson, William I.; Van Den Berg, Maureen; Sahu, Kailash C.; Grindlay, Jonanthan; Rich, Robert Michael; Calamida, Annalisa

    2017-01-01

    We are undertaking a deep X-ray/optical observational campaign of a well-studied low-extinction region towards the Galactic Bulge. Crucially, we have chosen a field for which very high-quality proper motions already exist from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations (or can be produced from a combination of archival and new observations covering much of the large Chandra ACIS-I field of view), allowing kinematic population membership constraints for X-ray point sources. While the ultimate scientific goal is to provide a new constraint on bulge formation models by tracing the accreting binary population that can be kinematically identified with the bulge, a large number of science investigations will ultimately be enabled by this initiative.Here we report on our search for accreting binaries within the Sagittarius Window. The deep Chandra observations provide a rich catalog of X-ray point sources, while the new HST observations allow a sensitive search for Hα emission-line objects including the accreting binaries we seek. We present the techniques used to uncover accretors, and outline progress towards a catalog of X-ray point sources with kinematic and Hα identifications.

  2. Chandra Observation of the Globular Cluster NGC 6440 and a Comparison with Other Recent Results

    CERN Document Server

    Pooley, D; Verbunt, F; Homer, L; Margon, B; Gaensler, B M; Kaspi, V M; Miller, J M; Fox, D W; Van der Klis, M; Pooley, David; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Verbunt, Frank; Homer, Lee; Margon, Bruce; Gaensler, Bryan M.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Miller, Jon M.; Fox, Derek W.; Klis, Michiel van der

    2001-01-01

    As part of our campaign to determine the nature of the various source populations of the low-luminosity globular cluster X-ray sources, we have obtained a Chandra X-ray Observatory ACIS-S3 image of the globular cluster NGC 6440. We detect 24 sources to a limiting luminosity of ~2 times 10^31 erg/s (0.5-2.5keV) inside the cluster's half-mass radius, all of which lie within ~2 core radii of the cluster center. We also find excess emission in and around the core which could be due to unresolved point sources. Based upon X-ray luminosities and colors, we conclude that there are 4-5 likely quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries and that most of the other sources are cataclysmic variables. We compare these results to Chandra results from other globular clusters and find the X-ray luminosity functions differ among the clusters.

  3. Pre-outburst $Chandra$ Observations of the Recurrent Nova T Pyxidis

    CERN Document Server

    Balman, Solen

    2014-01-01

    I present a total of 98.8 ksec ($\\sim$ 3$\\times$30 ksec) observation of T Pyx with the ACIS-S3 detector on-board the $Chandra$ Observatory obtained during the quiescent phase, about 2-3 months before its outburst in April 2011. The total $Chandra$ spectrum of the source T Pyx gives a maximum temperature kT$_{max}$$>$ 37.0 keV with (0.9-1.5)$\\times 10^{-13}$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ and (1.3-2.2)$\\times$10$^{32}$ erg s$^{-1}$ (at 3.5 kpc) in the 0.1-50 keV range using a multi-temperature plasma emission model (i.e., CEVMKL in XSPEC). I find a ratio of (L$_{x}$/L$_{disk}$)$\\simeq$(2-7)$\\times$10$^{-4}$ indicating considerable inefficiency of emission in the boundary layer. There is no blackbody emission with 2$\\sigma$ upper limits kT$_{BB}$$<$ 25 eV and L$_{soft}$$<$ 2.0$\\times$10$^{33}$ erg s$^{-1}$ in the 0.1-10.0 keV band. All fits yield only interstellar N${\\rm _H}$ during quiescence. I suggest that T Pyx has an optically thin boundary layer (BL) merged with an ADAF-like flow (Advection-Dominated Flow) ...

  4. Chandra observations of Cygnus OB2

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Nicholas J; Drew, Janet E; Vink, Jorick S

    2011-01-01

    Cygnus OB2 is the nearest example of a massive star forming region, containing over 50 O-type stars and hundreds of B-type stars. We have analyzed two Chandra pointings in Cyg OB2, detecting ~1700 X-ray sources, of which ~1450 are thought to be members of the association. Optical and near-IR photometry has been obtained for ~90% of these sources from recent deep Galactic plane surveys. We have performed isochrone fits to the near-IR color-magnitude diagram, deriving ages of 3.5(+0.75,-1.0) and 5.25(+1.5,-1.0) Myrs for sources in the two fields, both with considerable spreads around the pre-MS isochrones. The presence of a second population in the region, somewhat older than the present-day O-type stars, has been suggested by other authors and fits with the ages derived here. The fraction of sources with inner circumstellar disks (as traced by the K-band excess) is found to be very low, but appropriate for a population of age ~5 Myrs. We measure the stellar mass functions and find a power-law slope of Gamma = ...

  5. A Chandra Study of Radial Temperature Profiles of the Intra-Cluster Medium in 50 Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Zhenghao; Wang, Jingying; Gu, Junhua; Li, Weitian; Hu, Dan; Zhang, Chenhao; Gu, Liyi; An, Tao; Liu, Chengze; Zhang, Zhongli; Zhu, Jie; Wu, Xiang-Ping

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the spatial distribution of the ICM temperature in galaxy clusters in a quantitative way and probe the physics behind, we analyze the X-ray spectra of a sample of 50 galaxy clusters, which were observed with the Chandra ACIS instrument in the past 15 years, and measure the radial temperature profiles out to $0.45r_{500}$. We construct a physical model that takes into account the effects of gravitational heating, thermal history (such as radiative cooling, AGN feedback, and thermal conduction) and work done via gas compression, and use it to fit the observed temperature profiles by running Bayesian regressions. The results show that in all cases our model provides an acceptable fit at the 68% confidence level. To further validate this model we select nine clusters that have been observed with both Chandra (out to $\\gtrsim 0.3r_{500}$) and Suzaku (out to $\\gtrsim 1.5r_{500}$), fit their Chandra spectra with our model, and compare the extrapolation of the best-fits with the Suzaku measure...

  6. Chandra's Find of Lonely Halo Raises Questions About Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-01

    elliptical galaxies will be required before this issue can be resolved." Chandra observed NGC 4555 with its Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) in February 2003. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington. Northrop Grumman of Redondo Beach, Calif., formerly TRW, Inc., was the prime development contractor for the observatory. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations from the Chandra X-ray Center in Cambridge, Mass. Additional information and images are available at: http://chandra.harvard.edu and http://chandra.nasa.gov

  7. The All-Wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey(AEGIS) Data Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.; Guhathakurta, P.; Konidaris, N.P.; Newman, J.A.; Ashby, M.L.N.; Biggs, A.D.; Barmby, P.; Bundy, K.; Chapman, S.C.; Coil,A.L.; Conselice, C.J.; Cooper, M.C.; Croton, D.J.; Eisenhardt, P.R.M.; Ellis, R.S.; Faber, S.M.; Fang, T.; Fazio, G.G.; Georgakakis, A.; Gerke,B.F.; Goss, W.M.; Gwyn, S.; Harker, J.; Hopkins, A.M.; Huang, J.-S.; Ivison, R.J.; Kassin, S.A.; Kirby, E.N.; Koekemoer, A.M.; Koo, D.C.; Laird, E.S.; Le Floc' h, E.; Lin, L.; Lotz, J.M.; Marshall, P.J.; Martin,D.C.; Metevier, A.J.; Moustakas, L.A.; Nandra, K.; Noeske, K.G.; Papovich, C.; Phillips, A.C.; Rich,R. M.; Rieke, G.H.; Rigopoulou, D.; Salim, S.; Schiminovich, D.; Simard, L.; Smail, I.; Small,T.A.; Weiner,B.J.; Willmer, C.N.A.; Willner, S.P.; Wilson, G.; Wright, E.L.; Yan, R.

    2006-10-13

    In this the first of a series of Letters, we present a description of the panchromatic data sets that have been acquired in the Extended Groth Strip region of the sky. Our survey, the All-wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS), is intended to study the physical properties and evolutionary processes of galaxies at z{approx}1. It includes the following deep, wide-field imaging data sets: Chandra/ACIS X-ray (0.5-10 keV), GALEX ultraviolet (1200-2500 Angstroms), CFHT/MegaCam Legacy Survey optical (3600-9000 Angstroms), CFHT/CFH12K optical (4500-9000 Angstroms), Hubble Space Telescope/ACS optical (4400-8500 Angstroms), Palomar/WIRC near-infrared (1.2-2.2 {micro}m), Spitzer/IRAC mid-infrared (3.6-8.0 {micro}m), Spitzer/MIPS far-infrared (24-70 {micro}m), and VLA radio continuum (6-20 cm). In addition, this region of the sky has been targeted for extensive spectroscopy using the DEIMOS spectrograph on the Keck II 10 m telescope. Our survey is compared to other large multiwavelength surveys in terms of depth and sky coverage.

  8. The All-wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS) Data Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.; Guhathakurta, P.; Konidaris, N.; Newman, J.A.; Ashby, M.L.N.; Biggs, A.D.; Barmby, P.; Bundy, K.; Chapman, S.; Coil, A.L.; Conselice, C.; Cooper, M.; Croton,; Eisenhardt, P.; Ellis, R.; Faber, S.; Fang, T.; Fazio, G.G.; Georgakakis, A.; Gerke, B.; Goss, W.M.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept. /Lick Observ. /LBL, Berkeley

    2006-07-21

    In this the first of a series of ''Letters'', we present a description of the panchromatic data sets that have been acquired in the Extended Groth Strip region of the sky. Our survey, the All-wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS), is intended to study the physical properties and evolutionary processes of galaxies at z {approx} 1. It includes the following deep, wide-field imaging data sets: Chandra/ACIS{sup 30} X-ray (0.5-10 keV), GALEX{sup 31} ultraviolet (1200-2500 A), CFHT/MegaCam Legacy Survey{sup 32} optical (3600-9000 {angstrom}), CFHT/CFH12K optical (4500-9000 {angstrom}), Hubble Space Telescope/ACS{sup 33} optical (4400-8500 {angstrom}), Palomar/WIRC{sup 34} near-infrared (1.2-2.2 {micro}m), Spitzer/IRAC{sup 35} mid-infrared (3.6-8.0 {micro}m), Spitzer/MIPS far-infrared (24-70 {micro}m), and VLA{sup 36} radio continuum (6-20 cm). In addition, this region of the sky has been targeted for extensive spectroscopy using the DEIMOS spectrograph on the Keck II 10 m telescope{sup 37}. Our survey is compared to other large multiwavelength surveys in terms of depth and sky coverage.

  9. A Chandra Study of Temperature Distributions of the Intracluster Medium in 50 Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhenghao; Xu, Haiguang; Wang, Jingying; Gu, Junhua; Li, Weitian; Hu, Dan; Zhang, Chenhao; Gu, Liyi; An, Tao; Liu, Chengze; Zhang, Zhongli; Zhu, Jie; Wu, Xiang-Ping

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the spatial distribution of the intracluster medium temperature in galaxy clusters in a quantitative way and probe the physics behind it, we analyze the X-ray spectra from a sample of 50 clusters that were observed with the Chandra ACIS instrument over the past 15 years and measure the radial temperature profiles out to 0.45r500. We construct a physical model that takes into consideration the effects of gravitational heating, thermal history (such as radiative cooling, active galactic nucleus feedback, and thermal conduction), and work done via gas compression, and use it to fit the observed temperature profiles by running Bayesian regressions. The results show that in all cases our model provides an acceptable fit at the 68% confidence level. For further validation, we select nine clusters that have been observed with both Chandra (out to ≳0.3r500) and Suzaku (out to ≳1.5r500) and fit their Chandra spectra with our model. We then compare the extrapolation of the best fits with the Suzaku measurements and find that the model profiles agree with the Suzaku results very well in seven clusters. In the remaining two clusters the difference between the model and the observation is possibly caused by local thermal substructures. Our study also implies that for most of the clusters the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium is safe out to at least 0.5r500 and the non-gravitational interactions between dark matter and its luminous counterparts is consistent with zero.

  10. Dissecting Photometric Redshift for Active Galactic Nucleus Using XMM- and Chandra-COSMOS Samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvato, M.; Ilbert, O.; Hasinger, G.; Rau, A.; Civano, F.; Zamorani, G.; Brusa, M.; Elvis, M.; Vignali, C.; Aussel, H.; Comastri, A.; Fiore, F.; Le Floc'h, E.; Mainieri, V.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Capak, P.; Caputi, K.; Cappelluti, N.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; Fotopoulou, S.; Fruscione, A.; Gilli, R.; Halliday, C.; Kneib, J. -P.; Kakazu, Y.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Kovac, K.; Ideue, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Impey, C. D.; Le Fevre, O.; Lamareille, F.; Lanzuisi, G.; Le Borgne, J. -F.; Le Brun, V.; Lilly, S.; Maier, C.; Manohar, S.; Masters, D.; McCracken, H.; Messias, H.; Mignoli, M.; Mobasher, B.; Nagao, T.; Pello, R.; Puccetti, S.; Perez-Montero, E.; Renzini, A.; Sargent, M.; Sanders, D. B.; Scodeggio, M.; Scoville, N.; Shopbell, P.; Silvermann, J.; Taniguchi, Y.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Trump, J. R.; Zucca, E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we release accurate photometric redshifts for 1692 counterparts to Chandra sources in the central square degree of the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field. The availability of a large training set of spectroscopic redshifts that extends to faint magnitudes enabled photometric redsh

  11. Chandra Cluster Cosmology Project. II. Samples and X-Ray Data Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikhlinin, A.; Burenin, R. A.; Ebeling, H.;

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the measurements of the galaxy cluster mass functions at z ≈ 0.05 and z ≈ 0.5 using high-quality Chandra observations of samples derived from the ROSAT PSPC All-Sky and 400 deg2 surveys. We provide a full reference for the data analysis procedures, present updated calibration of relati...

  12. Flickering Quasar Helps Chandra Measure the Expansion Rate of the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-01

    -delay in one observation. "Based on computer models developed at Penn State and MIT, we have identified about ten gravitational lens systems with time-delays of less than a day," said Chartas. "One long observation of each source with a superior X-ray telescope could provide enough data to nail down the Hubble constant in the blink of an eye." The team is planning to apply the gravitational-lens method in the near future to several of these systems using the Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observatories. The Chandra observations of quasar RX J0911.4+0551 were made on November 2, 1999, using the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS). The effort involved several scientists from Penn State and MIT. ACIS was conceived and developed for NASA by Penn State and MIT under Garmire's leadership. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, manages the Chandra program. TRW, Inc., in Redondo Beach, California, is the prime contractor for the spacecraft. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Center controls science and flight operations from Cambridge, Massachusetts. RX J0911.4+551 Handout Constellation Hydra To follow Chandra's progress, visit the Chandra site at: http://chandra.harvard.edu AND http://chandra.nasa.gov

  13. Adenylate Cyclase AcyA Regulates Development, Aflatoxin Biosynthesis and Fungal Virulence in Aspergillus flavus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kunlong; Qin, Qiuping; Liu, Yinghang; Zhang, Limei; Liang, Linlin; Lan, Huahui; Chen, Chihao; You, Yunchao; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Shihua

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus is one of the most important opportunistic pathogens of crops and animals. The carcinogenic mycotoxin, aflatoxins produced by this pathogen cause a health problem to human and animals. Since cyclic AMP signaling controls a range of physiological processes, like fungal development and infection when responding to extracellular stimuli in fungal pathogens, in this study, we investigated the function of adenylate cyclase, a core component of cAMP signaling, in aflatoxins biosynthesis and virulence on plant seeds in A. flavus. A gene replacement strategy was used to generate the deletion mutant of acyA that encodes the adenylate cyclase. Severe defects in fungal growth, sporulation and sclerotia formation were observed in the acyA deletion mutant. The defect in radical growth could be partially rescued by exogenous cAMP analog. The acyA mutant was also significantly reduced in aflatoxins production and virulence. Similar to the former studies in other fungi, The acyA mutant showed enhancing tolerance to oxidative stress, but more sensitive to heat stress. Overall, the pleiotropic defects of the acyA deletion mutant indicates that the cAMP-PKA pathway is involved in fungal development, aflatoxins biosynthesis and plant seed invasion in A. flavus. PMID:28066725

  14. The All-wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS) Data Sets

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, M; Konidaris, N; Newman, J A; Ashby, M L N; Biggs, A D; Barmby, P; Bundy, K; Chapman, S; Coil, A L; Conselice, C J; Cooper, M; Croton, D; Eisenhardt, P; Ellis, R; Faber, S; Fang, T; Fazio, G G; Georgakakis, A; Gerke, B; Goss, W M; Gwyn, S; Harker, J; Hopkins, A; Huang, J S; Ivison, R J; Kassin, S A; Kirby, E; Koekemoer, A; Koo, D C; Laird, E; Le Floc'h, E; Lin, L; Lotz, J; Marshall, P J; Martin, D C; Metevier, A; Moustakas, L A; Nandra, K; Noeske, K F; Papovich, C; Phillips, A C; Rich, R M; Rieke, G H; Rigopoulou, D; Salim, S; Schiminovich, D; Simard, L; Smail, I; Small, T A; Weiner, B; Willmer, C N A; Willner, S P; Wilson, G; Wright, E; Yan, R

    2006-01-01

    In this the first of a series of Letters, we present a description of the panchromatic data sets that have been acquired in the Extended Groth Strip region of the sky. Our survey, the All-wavelength Extended Groth strip International Survey (AEGIS), is intended to study the physical properties and evolutionary processes of galaxies at z ~ 1. It includes the following deep, wide-field imaging data sets: Chandra/ACIS X-ray (0.5 - 10 keV), GALEX ultraviolet (1200 - 2500 Angstrom), CFHT/MegaCam Legacy Survey optical (3600 - 9000 Angstroms), CFHT/CFH12K optical (4500 - 9000 Angstroms), Hubble Space Telescope/ACS optical (4400 - 8500 Angstroms), Palomar/WIRC near-infrared (1.2 - 2.2 microns), Spitzer/IRAC mid-infrared (3.6 - 8.0 microns), Spitzer/MIPS far-infrared (24 - 70 microns), and VLA radio continuum (6 - 20 cm). In addition, this region of the sky has been targeted for extensive spectroscopy using the DEIMOS spectrograph on the Keck II 10 m telescope. Our survey is compared to other large multiwavelength sur...

  15. Studies of Pulsar Wind Nebula in the Supernova Remnant IC443: Preliminary Observations from the Chandra Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyibi, E. A.

    2009-10-01

    Preliminary observations of the Chandra data were made in order to study the Pulsar Wind Nebula in the Supernova Remnant IC443. The Chandra X-ray observatory short observation on IC443 was centred on 13 chip ACIS. The CIAO analytical programme was used for the data analysis. The data were separated into point source, with an energy range of 2.1 to 10.0 keV, and diffuse source with energy less than 2.1 Kev. The resulting spectra were fitted to a power law. The observed density numbers and the normalised counts of both the point source and the diffuse source were used to describe the X-ray source. Afin d'étudier la "Pulsar wind Nebula" dans le reste de la Supernova IC 443, nous avons mené une exploitation préliminaire des observations provenant du satellite spatiale Chandra. L'observation brêve de IC 443, par Chandra fut centrée sur les composantes du spectromètre identifiées par la séquence 13. Le programme informatique CIAO fut utilisé pour l'analyse des données. Les données furent groupées en sources ponctuelles, chacune ayant des énergies allant de 2.1 a 10.0 kev ; et en sources diffuses chacune avec des énergies de moins de 2.1 kev. Les spectres obtenus furent interpolés à l'aide de fonction puissance. La densité de flux ainsi que le décompte des particules induites au détecteur par le rayonnement provenant des sources ponctuelles et diffuses furent utilisés pour décrire la source de rayon-X.

  16. Evaluating Joint Morbidity after Chondral Harvest for Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (ACI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Helen S.; Richardson, James B.; Parker, Jane C. E.; Roberts, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Objective To establish if harvesting cartilage to source chondrocytes for autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) results in donor site morbidity. Design Twenty-three patients underwent ACI for chondral defects of either the ankle or the hip. This involved cartilage harvest from the knee (stage I), chondrocyte expansion in the laboratory and implantation surgery (stage II) into the affected joint. Prior to chondral harvest, no patient had sought treatment for their knee. Lysholm knee scores were completed prior to chondral harvest and annually post-ACI. Histological analyses of the donor site were performed at 12.3 ± 1.5 months for 3 additional patients who had previously had ACI of the knee. Results The median preoperative Lysholm score was 100, with no significant differences observed at either 13.7±1.7 months or 4.8±1.8 years postharvest (median Lysholm scores 91.7 and 87.5, respectively). Patients whose cartilage was harvested from the central or medial trochlea had a significantly higher median Lysholm score at latest follow-up (97.9 and 93.4, respectively), compared with those taken from the intercondylar notch (median Lysholm score 66.7). The mean International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) II histological score for the biopsies taken from the donor site of 3 additional knee ACI patients was 117 ± 10 (maximum score 140). Conclusions This study suggests that the chondral harvest site in ACI is not associated with significant joint morbidity, at least up to 5 years postharvest. However, one should carefully consider the location for chondral harvest as this has been shown to affect knee function in the longer term. PMID:26958313

  17. Chandra reveals a black-hole X-ray binary within the ultraluminous supernova remnant MF 16

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, T P

    2003-01-01

    We present evidence, based on Chandra ACIS-S observations of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 6946, that the extraodinary X-ray luminosity of the MF 16 supernova remnant actually arises in a black-hole X-ray binary. This conclusion is drawn from the point-like nature of the X-ray source, its X-ray spectrum closely resembling the spectrum of other ultraluminous X-ray sources thought to be black-hole X-ray binary systems, and the detection of rapid hard X-ray variability from the source. We briefly discuss the nature of the hard X-ray variability, and the origin of the extreme radio and optical luminosity of MF 16 in light of this identification.

  18. Chandra Finds Oxygen and Neon Ring in Ashes of Exploded Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    studying these supernova remnants for decades, but now we're getting the kind of information we need to really test the theories," said Canizares. "Understanding supernovas helps us to learn about the processes that formed chemical elements like those which are found on Earth and are necessary for life," said Flanagan. Most of the oxygen in the universe, for example, is synthesized in the interiors of relatively few massive stars like the one being studied here. When they explode, they expel the newly manufactured elements which become part of the raw material for new stars and planets. The amount of oxygen in the E0102-72 ring is enough for thousands of solar systems. By measuring the expansion velocity of the ring, the team can estimate the amount of energy liberated in the explosion. The expansion energy would be enough to power the Sun for 3 billion years. The ring has more complex structure and motion than can be explained by current simplified theories, suggesting complexity in the explosion itself or in the surrounding interstellar matter. The supernova remnant also provides a laboratory for atomic physics. The observations show how the atoms in the expelled matter behave when heated to such high temperatures. The images reveal the progressive stripping of electrons from the atoms after the super-sonic shock wave has passed. The Chandra observation was taken using the HETG in conjunction with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) on September 28 and October 10, 1999. ACIS was built by Pennsylvania State University, University Park, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge. To follow Chandra's progress or download images visit the Chandra sites at http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2000/0015/index.html AND http://chandra.nasa.gov NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program. TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, Calif., is the prime contractor for the spacecraft. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Center controls science

  19. Beyond Chandra - the X-ray Surveyor

    CERN Document Server

    Weisskopf, Martin C; Tananbaum, Harvey; Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 16 years, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has provided an unparalleled means for exploring the universe with its half-arcsecond angular resolution. Chandra studies have deepened our understanding of galaxy clusters, active galactic nuclei, galaxies, supernova remnants, planets, and solar system objects addressing almost all areas of current interest in astronomy and astrophysics. As we look beyond Chandra, it is clear that comparable or even better angular resolution with greatly increased photon throughput is essential to address even more demanding science questions, such as the formation and subsequent growth of black hole seeds at very high redshift; the emergence of the first galaxy groups; and details of feedback over a large range of scales from galaxies to galaxy clusters. Recently, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, together with the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, has initiated a concept study for such a mission named the X-ray Surveyor. This study starts with a baseline payloa...

  20. NASA's Chandra Finds Black Holes Are "Green"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    Black holes are the most fuel efficient engines in the Universe, according to a new study using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. By making the first direct estimate of how efficient or "green" black holes are, this work gives insight into how black holes generate energy and affect their environment. The new Chandra finding shows that most of the energy released by matter falling toward a supermassive black hole is in the form of high-energy jets traveling at near the speed of light away from the black hole. This is an important step in understanding how such jets can be launched from magnetized disks of gas near the event horizon of a black hole. Illustration of Fuel for a Black Hole Engine Illustration of Fuel for a Black Hole Engine "Just as with cars, it's critical to know the fuel efficiency of black holes," said lead author Steve Allen of the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology at Stanford University, and the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. "Without this information, we cannot figure out what is going on under the hood, so to speak, or what the engine can do." Allen and his team used Chandra to study nine supermassive black holes at the centers of elliptical galaxies. These black holes are relatively old and generate much less radiation than quasars, rapidly growing supermassive black holes seen in the early Universe. The surprise came when the Chandra results showed that these "quiet" black holes are all producing much more energy in jets of high-energy particles than in visible light or X-rays. These jets create huge bubbles, or cavities, in the hot gas in the galaxies. Animation of Black Hole in Elliptical Galaxy Animation of Black Hole in Elliptical Galaxy The efficiency of the black hole energy-production was calculated in two steps: first Chandra images of the inner regions of the galaxies were used to estimate how much fuel is available for the black hole; then Chandra images were used to estimate the power required to produce

  1. 15 Years of Chandra Observations of Capella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Vinay

    2014-11-01

    Capella is the strongest coronal line source accessible to Chandra. It has been cumulatively observed with gratings for over 1.2 Ms. The accumulated spectrum represents astrophysical ground truth for atomic physics calculations that is unprecedented in quality. We analyze co-added spectra to generate a comprehensive list of detectable lines and their locations, spanning two orders of magnitude in photon energy. We compare the locations of identifiable lines with locations from atomic databases ATOMDB and Chianti and characterize the uncertainties in the databases. The full line lists and comparisons will be made available at the Dataverse at http://dx.doi.org/10.7910/DVN/27084 This work is supported by Chandra grant AR0-11001X and NASA Contract NAS8-03060 to the Chandra X-Ray Center.

  2. Chandra Observations of Comets C/2012 S1 (ISON) and C/2011 L4 (PanSTARRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snios, Bradford; Kharchenko, Vasili; Lisse, Carey M.; Wolk, Scott J.; Dennerl, Konrad; Combi, Michael R.

    2016-02-01

    We present our results on the Chandra X-ray Observatory Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) observations of the bright Oort Cloud comets C/2012 S1 (ISON) and C/2011 L4 (PanSTARRS). ISON was observed between 2013 October 31-November 06 during variable speed solar wind (SW), and PanSTARRS was observed between 2013 April 17-23 during fast SW. ISON produced an extended parabolic X-ray morphology consistent with a collisionally thick coma, while PanSTARRS demonstrated only a diffuse X-ray-emitting region. We consider these emissions to be from charge exchange (CX) and model each comet's emission spectrum from first principles accordingly. Our model agrees with the observational spectra and also generates composition ratios for heavy, highly charged SW ions interacting with the cometary atmosphere. We compare our derived SW ion compositions to observational data and find a strong agreement between them. These results further demonstrate the utility of CX emissions as a remote diagnostics tool of both astrophysical plasma interaction and SW composition. In addition, we observe potential soft X-ray emissions via ACIS around 0.2 keV from both comets that are correlated in intensity to the hard X-ray emissions between 0.4-1.0 keV. We fit our CX model to these emissions, but our lack of a unique solution at low energies makes it impossible to conclude if they are cometary CX in origin. Finally, we discuss probable emission mechanism sources for the soft X-rays and explore new opportunities these findings present in understanding cometary emission processes via Chandra.

  3. CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF COMETS C/2012 S1 (ISON) AND C/2011 L4 (PanSTARRS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snios, Bradford; Kharchenko, Vasili [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Lisse, Carey M. [Planetary Exploration Group, Space Department, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Wolk, Scott J. [Chandra X-Ray Observatory Center, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dennerl, Konrad [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Combi, Michael R. [Department of Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2016-02-20

    We present our results on the Chandra X-ray Observatory Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) observations of the bright Oort Cloud comets C/2012 S1 (ISON) and C/2011 L4 (PanSTARRS). ISON was observed between 2013 October 31–November 06 during variable speed solar wind (SW), and PanSTARRS was observed between 2013 April 17–23 during fast SW. ISON produced an extended parabolic X-ray morphology consistent with a collisionally thick coma, while PanSTARRS demonstrated only a diffuse X-ray-emitting region. We consider these emissions to be from charge exchange (CX) and model each comet's emission spectrum from first principles accordingly. Our model agrees with the observational spectra and also generates composition ratios for heavy, highly charged SW ions interacting with the cometary atmosphere. We compare our derived SW ion compositions to observational data and find a strong agreement between them. These results further demonstrate the utility of CX emissions as a remote diagnostics tool of both astrophysical plasma interaction and SW composition. In addition, we observe potential soft X-ray emissions via ACIS around 0.2 keV from both comets that are correlated in intensity to the hard X-ray emissions between 0.4–1.0 keV. We fit our CX model to these emissions, but our lack of a unique solution at low energies makes it impossible to conclude if they are cometary CX in origin. Finally, we discuss probable emission mechanism sources for the soft X-rays and explore new opportunities these findings present in understanding cometary emission processes via Chandra.

  4. Clinical analysis of 82 eases of ACI (Acute Cerebral Infarction) developed by the young and middle-aged

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaoguang

    2000-01-01

    @@Eight hundred cases of ACI have been treated in omr hospital in the recent 5 years, There are 82 cases from 25 to 45 years of age, accounting for about 10 percent. So ACI suffered by the young and middle-aged should be paid attention to

  5. X-ray observations of dust obscured galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Corral, A; Comastri, A; Ranalli, P; Akylas, A; Salvato, M; Lanzuisi, G; Vignali, C; Koutoulidis, L

    2016-01-01

    We present the properties of X-ray detected dust obscured galaxies (DOGs) in the Chandra Deep Field South. In recent years, it has been proposed that a significant percentage of the elusive Compton-thick (CT) active galactic nuclei (AGN) could be hidden among DOGs. In a previous work, we presented the properties of X-ray detected DOGs by making use of the deepest X-ray observations available at that time, the 2Ms observations of the Chandra deep fields. In that work, we only found a moderate percentage ($<$ 50%) of CT AGN among the DOGs sample, but we were limited by poor photon statistics. In this paper, we use not only a deeper 6 Ms Chandra survey of the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), but combine these data with the 3 Ms XMM-Newton survey of the CDF-S. We also take advantage of the great coverage of the CDF-S region from the UV to the far-IR to fit the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of our sources. Out of the 14 AGN composing our sample, 9 are highly absorbed (but only 3 could be CT AGN), wherea...

  6. Chandra Looks Back At The Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    In an unusual observation, a team of scientists has scanned the northern polar region of Earth with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. The results show that the aurora borealis, or "northern lights," also dance in X-ray light, creating changing bright arcs of X-ray energy above the Earth's surface. While other satellite observations had previously detected high-energy X-rays from the Earth auroras, the latest Chandra observations reveal low-energy X-rays generated during auroral activity for the first time. The researchers, led by Dr. Ron Elsner of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., used Chandra to observe the Earth 10 times over a four-month period in 2004. The images were created from approximately 20-minute scans during which Chandra was aimed at a fixed point in the sky and the Earth's motion carried the auroral regions through Chandra's field of view. From the ground, the aurora are well known to change dramatically over time and this is the case in X-ray light as well. The X-rays in this sample of the Chandra observations, which have been superimposed on a simulated image of the Earth, are seen here at four different epochs. Illlustration of Earth's Magnetosphere and Auroras Illlustration of Earth's Magnetosphere and Auroras Auroras are produced by solar storms that eject clouds of energetic charged particles. These particles are deflected when they encounter the Earth�s magnetic field, but in the process large electric voltages are created. Electrons trapped in the Earth�s magnetic field are accelerated by these voltages and spiral along the magnetic field into the polar regions. There they collide with atoms high in the atmosphere and emit X-rays. Chandra has also observed dramatic auroral activity on Jupiter. Dr. Anil Bhardwaj of Vikram Sarabhai Space Center in Trivandrum, India, is the lead author on a paper describing these results in the Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics. Dr. Bhardwaj was a co

  7. Animal-Computer Interaction (ACI) : An analysis, a perspective, and guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, E.L.

    2016-01-01

    Animal-Computer Interaction (ACI)’s founding elements are discussed in relation to its overarching discipline Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). Its basic dimensions are identified: agent, computing machinery, and interaction, and their levels of processing: perceptual, cognitive, and affective. Subs

  8. Chandra Reveals The X-Ray Glint In The Cat's Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    central star to create this "lukewarm" area. However, this theory apparently does not apply for NGC 6543. Chu and her colleagues found that the chemical abundances within the hot gas were like those in the wind from the star, and different from the cooler outer material. These results indicate that mixing is not occurring, and that the cooling between the inner and outer shells of material is due to some other process. The intensity of the X-rays from the central star was also unexpected. The star itself has a surface temperature of about 60,000 degrees, whereas the X-ray measurement indicates a temperature of a few million degrees. "We could be seeing shock waves in the fast stellar wind itself," said Martin Guerrero of the University of Illinois, lead author on a companion paper that describes the central star. "This is the first time we see such X-ray emission from the central star of a planetary nebula." A planetary nebula (so called because it looks like a planet when viewed with a small telescope) is formed when a dying red giant star puffs off its outer layer, leaving behind a hot core that will eventually collapse to form a dense star called a white dwarf. A fast wind emanating from the hot core rams into the ejected atmosphere, pushes it outward, and creates the graceful filamentary structures seen with optical telescopes. With Chandra, it is now possible to see the high-pressure hot bubble inside these filaments and study how the nebula is formed in more detail. The Cat's Eye Nebula, which is about 3,000 light years from Earth, was formed about a thousand years ago. Other members of the research team include Robert Gruendl, and James Kaler (University of Illinois), and Rosa Williams (National Research Council). NGC 6543 was observed with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) on May 10-11, 1999, for a total exposure time of 46,000 seconds. The ACIS X-ray camera was developed for NASA by Pennsylvania State University and MIT. NASA's Marshall Space Flight

  9. Chandra Observes Cosmic Traffic Pile-Up In Energetic Quasar Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-01

    produced in gamma rays, a question that researchers are unable to resolve with current telescopes. The energy emitted from the jet in 3C273 probably comes from gas that falls toward a supermassive black hole at the center of the quasar, but is redirected by strong electromagnetic fields into a collimated jet. While the black hole itself is not observed directly, scientists can discern properties of the black hole by studying the jet. The formation of the jet from the matter that falls into the black hole is a process that remains poorly understood. The quasar 3C273 is no stranger to making astronomical news. Discovered in the 1960s, 3C273 was one of the first objects to be recognized a "quasi-stellar" object, due to its incredible optical and radio brightness, but perplexing properties. Only after careful consideration did astronomers determine that 3C273 and others of its ilk were not nearby stars, but instead incredibly powerful objects billions of light years away. The Chandra observation of 3C273 was made with both the Low Energy Transmission Grating (LETG) and the High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG), in conjunction with the High Resolution Camera (HRC) and the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS). In addition to Dr. Marshall, the team of researchers includes J.J. Drake, A. Fruscione, J. Grimes, D. Harris, M. Juda, R. Kraft, S.S. Murray, D. Pease, A. Siemiginowska, S. Vrtilek, and B.J. Wargelin (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics), P.M. Ogle (MIT), and S. Mathur (Ohio State University.) The HRC was built for NASA by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. The HETG and ACIS instruments were built for NASA by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, and Pennsylvania State University, University Park. The LETG was built by the Space Research Organization of the Netherlands and the Max Plank Institute. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program. TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, Calif., is the prime

  10. Chandra Imaging of Gamma-Ray Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Kargaltsev, Oleg; Hare, Jeremy; Pavlov, George G

    2013-01-01

    We review the multiwavelength properties of the few known gamma-ray binaries, focusing on extended emission recently resolved with Chandra. We discuss the implications of these findings for the nature of compact objects and for physical processes operating in these systems.

  11. The Chandra Source Catalog: Processing and Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Janet; Evans, Ian N.; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Hain, Roger; Hall, Diane M.; Miller, Joseph B.; Plummer, David A.; Zografou, Panagoula; Primini, Francis A.; Anderson, Craig S.; Bonaventura, Nina R.; Chen, Judy C.; Davis, John E.; Doe, Stephen M.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G., II; Grier, John D.; Harbo, Peter N.; He, Xiang Qun (Helen); Houck, John C.; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael L.; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Mitschang, Arik W.; Morgan, Douglas L.; Mossman, Amy E.; Nichols, Joy S.; Nowak, Michael A.; Refsdal, Brian L.; Rots, Arnold H.; Siemiginowska, Aneta L.; Sundheim, Beth A.; Tibbetts, Michael S.; van Stone, David W.; Winkelman, Sherry L.

    2009-09-01

    Chandra Source Catalog processing recalibrates each observation using the latest available calibration data, and employs a wavelet-based source detection algorithm to identify all the X-ray sources in the field of view. Source properties are then extracted from each detected source that is a candidate for inclusion in the catalog. Catalog processing is completed by matching sources across multiple observations, merging common detections, and applying quality assurance checks. The Chandra Source Catalog processing system shares a common processing infrastructure and utilizes much of the functionality that is built into the Standard Data Processing (SDP) pipeline system that provides calibrated Chandra data to end-users. Other key components of the catalog processing system have been assembled from the portable CIAO data analysis package. Minimal new software tool development has been required to support the science algorithms needed for catalog production. Since processing pipelines must be instantiated for each detected source, the number of pipelines that are run during catalog construction is a factor of order 100 times larger than for SDP. The increased computational load, and inherent parallel nature of the processing, is handled by distributing the workload across a multi-node Beowulf cluster. Modifications to the SDP automated processing application to support catalog processing, and extensions to Chandra Data Archive software to ingest and retrieve catalog products, complete the upgrades to the infrastructure to support catalog processing.

  12. Enhancement of pomalidomide anti-tumor response with ACY-241, a selective HDAC6 inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamang, David; Yang, Min; Jones, Simon S.; Quayle, Steven N.

    2017-01-01

    Thalidomide-based Immunomodulatory Drugs (IMiDs®), including lenalidomide and pomalidomide, are effective therapeutics for multiple myeloma. These agents have been approved with, or are under clinical development with, other targeted therapies including proteasome inhibitors, αCD38 monoclonal antibodies, as well as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors for combination therapy. HDAC inhibitors broadly targeting Class I and IIb HDACs have shown potent preclinical efficacy but have frequently demonstrated an undesirable safety profile in combination therapy approaches in clinical studies. Therefore, development of more selective HDAC inhibitors could provide enhanced efficacy with reduced side effects in combination with IMiDs® for the treatment of B-cell malignancies, including multiple myeloma. Here, the second generation selective HDAC6 inhibitor citarinostat (ACY-241), with a more favorable safety profile than non-selective pan-HDAC inhibitors, is shown to synergize with pomalidomide in in vitro assays through promoting greater apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, utilizing a multiple myeloma in vivo murine xenograft model, combination treatment with pomalidomide and ACY-241 leads to increased tumor growth inhibition. At the molecular level, combination treatment with ACY-241 and pomalidomide leads to greater suppression of the pro-survival factors survivin, Myc, and IRF4. The results presented here demonstrate synergy between pomalidomide and ACY-241 in both in vitro and in vivo preclinical models, providing further impetus for clinical development of ACY-241 for use in combination with IMiDs for patients with multiple myeloma and potentially other B-cell malignancies. PMID:28264055

  13. Chandra Catches Early Phase of Cosmic Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    A NASA Chandra X-ray Observatory image has revealed a complex of several intergalactic hot gas clouds in the process of merging. The superb Chandra spatial resolution made it possible to distinguish individual galaxies from the massive clouds of hot gas. One of the clouds, which that envelops hundreds of galaxies, has an extraordinarily low concentration of iron atoms, indicating that it is in the very early stages of cluster evolution. "We may be seeing hot intergalactic gas in a relatively pristine state before it has been polluted by gas from galaxies," said Q. Daniel Wang of the University of Massachusetts in Amherst, and lead author on an upcoming Astrophysical Journal article describing the study. "This discovery should provide valuable insight into how the most massive structures in the universe are assembled." 3-Panel Image of Abell 2125, Its Core & Galaxy C153 3-Panel Image of Abell 2125, Its Core & Galaxy C153 The complex, known as Abell 2125,is about 3 billion light years from Earth, and is seen at a time about 11 billion years after the Big Bang, when many galaxy clusters are believed to have formed. The Chandra Abell 2125 image shows several huge elongated clouds of multimillion degree gas coming together from different directions. These hot gas clouds, each of which contains hundreds of galaxies, appear to be in the process of merging to form a single massive galaxy cluster. Chandra, Hubble Space Telescope, and Very Large Array radio telescope data show that several galaxies in the Abell 2125 core cluster are being stripped of their gas as they fall through surrounding high-pressure hot gas. This stripping process has enriched the core cluster's gas in heavy elements such as iron. Abell 2125's Core & Galaxy C153 Abell 2125's Core & Galaxy C153 The gas in the pristine cloud, which is still several million light years away from the core cluster, is conspicuous for its lack of iron atoms. This anemic cloud must be in a very early evolutionary stage. The

  14. Chandra X-ray Observatory Optical Axis and Aimpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Chandra X-ray Observatory revolutionized the X-ray astronomy as being the first, and so far the only, X-ray telescope achieving sub-arcsecond resolution. Chandra comprises of three principal elements: the High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA), Pointing Control and Aspect Determination (PCAD) system, and the Science Instrument Module (SIM). To achieve and retain the unprecedented imaging quality, it is critical that these three principal elements stay rigid and stable for the entire life time of the Chandra operation. Tracking the Chandra optical axis and aimpoint with respect to detector positions is the most relevant measurement for understanding telescope stability. The study shows that both the optical axis and the aimpoint has been drifting since Chandra launch. I will discuss the telescope focal-point, optical axis, aimpoint, their positiondrifts during the mission, the impact to Chandra operations, and the permanent default aimpoint, to be implemented in Chandra cycle 18.

  15. Tools for Dissecting Supernova Remnants Observed with Chandra: Methods and Application to the Galactic Remnant W49B

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Laura A; Pooley, David A; Jeltema, Tesla E

    2008-01-01

    We introduce methods to quantify the X-ray morphologies of supernova remnants observed with the Chandra X-ray Telescope. These include a power-ratio technique to measure morphological asymmetries, correlation-length analysis to probe chemical segregation and distribution, and wavelet-transform analysis to quantify X-ray substructure. We demonstrate the utility and accuracy of these techniques on relevant synthetic data. Additionally, we show the methods' capabilities by applying them to the 55-ks Chandra ACIS observation of the galactic supernova remnant W49B. We analyze the images of prominent emission lines in W49B and use the results to discern physical properties. We find that the iron morphology is very distinct from the other elements: it is statistically more asymmetric, more segregated, and has 25% larger emitting substructures than the lighter ions. Comparatively, the silicon, sulfur, argon, and calcium are well-mixed, more isotropic, and have smaller, equally-sized emitting substructures. Based on f...

  16. Chandra and ASCA X-ray Observations of the Radio Supernova SN1979C IN NGC 4321

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, A; Schlegel, E M

    2001-01-01

    We report on the X-ray observation of the radio selected supernova SN1979C carried out with ASCA in 1997 December and serendipitously available from a Chandra Guaranteed Time Observation in 1999 November. The supernova, of type SN II-Linear (SN IIL), was first observed in the optical and occurred in the weakly barred, almost face on spiral galaxy NGC 4321 (M100). The galaxy, a member of the Virgo S cluster, is at a distance of 17.1 Mpc, and contains at least three other supernovae discovered in this century. The useful exposure time was ~25 ks for the Solid-State Imaging Spectrometer (SIS), ~28 ks for the Gas Scintillation Imaging Spectrometer (GIS), and ~2.5 ks for Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS). No point source was detected at the radio position of SN1979C in a 3' diameter half power response circle in the ASCA data. The background and galaxy subtracted SN signal had a 3sigma upper limit to the flux of 6.3x10^-14 ergs/s/cm^-2 in the full ASCA SIS band (0.4-10.0 keV) and a 3sigma upper li...

  17. Finding Rare AGN: XMM-Newton and Chandra Observations of SDSS Stripe 82

    CERN Document Server

    LaMassa, Stephanie M; Cappelluti, Nico; Civano, Francesca; Ranalli, Piero; Glikman, Eilat; Treister, Ezequiel; Richards, Gordon; Ballantyne, David; Stern, Daniel; Comastri, Andrea; Cardamone, Carie; Schawinski, Kevin; Boehringer, Hans; Chon, Gayoung; Murray, Stephen S; Green, Paul; Nandra, Kirpal

    2013-01-01

    We have analyzed the {\\it XMM-Newton} and {\\it Chandra} data overlapping $\\sim$16.5 deg$^2$ of Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82, including $\\sim$4.6 deg$^2$ of proprietary {\\it XMM-Newton} data that we present here. In total, 3362 unique X-ray sources are detected at high significance. We derive the {\\it XMM-Newton} number counts and compare them with our previously reported {\\it Chandra} Log$N$-Log$S$ relations and other X-ray surveys. The Stripe 82 X-ray source lists have been matched to multi-wavelength catalogs using a maximum likelihood estimator algorithm. We discovered the highest redshift ($z=5.86$) quasar yet identified in an X-ray survey. We find 2.5 times more high luminosity (L$_x \\geq 10^{45}$ erg s$^{-1}$) AGN than the smaller area {\\it Chandra} and {\\it XMM-Newton} survey of COSMOS and 1.3 times as many identified by XBo\\"otes. Comparing the high luminosity AGN we have identified with those predicted by population synthesis models, our results suggest that this AGN population is a more import...

  18. Performance as Promised: How the Chandra X-ray Observatory Accomplished One of Nasa's Most Challenging Missions for Billions of Dollars Less than Originally Planned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Greg; Hefner, Keith

    2004-01-01

    As the nation looks toward bold new ventures in space, the Chandra X-ray Observatory program offers an example of how billion-dollar missions can be successfully developed within tightening fiscal constraints. Chandra experienced many of challenges facing bold space programs (state-of-the-art technical requirements and budget-induced slips and restructurings), and yet the Chandra team achieved nearly all the originally envisioned performance for dramatically lower cost. This was accomplished by a combination of team- work, systems engineering, advanced technology insertion, and effective approaches for program implementation. A thorough tradeoff of science utility vs. cost led to the selection of a highly elliptical orbit with uncrewed robotic delivery, deployment, and maintenance. Progressive, focused technology demonstrations were accomplished prior to commitment of major resources to critical elements of the system design, such as the high resolution mirror assembly (HRMA). Pathfinder hardware was developed to reduce risks. A variety of schedule risk reduction measures were implemented and resulted in the X-ray calibration taking place exactly within five days of its originally planned date after after five years of development. The team worked together in an effective manner to contain requirements creep. reductions such as the ACIS-2 chip device. It is estimated that the above combination of measures achieved the avoidance of over $4B in costs, while enabling a highly successful mission.

  19. Electron Heating and Cosmic Rays at a Supernova Shock from Chandra X-ray Observations of E0102.2-7219

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, J P; Decourchelle, A; Hughes, John P.; Rakowski, Cara E.; Decourchelle, Anne

    2000-01-01

    In this Letter we use the unprecedented spatial resolution of the Chandra X-ray Observatory to carry out, for the first time, a measurement of the post-shock electron temperature and proper motion of a young SNR, specifically to address questions about the post-shock partition of energy among electrons, ions, and cosmic rays. The expansion rate, 0.100 +/- 0.025 percent per yr, and inferred age, ~1000 yr, of E0102.2-7219, from a comparison of X-ray observations spanning 20 years, are fully consistent with previous estimates based on studies of high velocity oxygen-rich optical filaments in the remnant. With a radius of 6.4 pc for the blast wave estimated from the Chandra image, our expansion rate implies a blast wave velocity of ~6000 km/s and a range of electron temperatures 2.5 - 45 keV, dependent on the degree of collisionless electron heating. Analysis of the Chandra ACIS spectrum of the immediate post-shock region reveals a thermal plasma with abundances and column density typical of the Small Magellanic ...

  20. Chandra hardware and systems: keeping things running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, Lisa

    2006-06-01

    System management for any organization can be a challenge, but satellite projects present their own issues. I will be presenting the network and system architecture chosen to support the scientists in the Chandra X-ray Center. My group provides the infrastructure for science data processing, mission planning, user support, archive support and software development. Our challenge is to create a stable environment with enough flexibility to roll with the changes during the mission. I'll discuss system and network choices, web service, backups, security and systems monitoring. Also, how to build infrastructure that's flexible, how to support a large group of scientists with a relatively small staff, what challenges we faced (anticipated and unanticipated) and what lessons we learned over the past 6 years since the launch of Chandra. Finally I'll outline our plans for the future including beowulf cluster support, an improved helpdesk system, methods for dealing with the explosive amount of data that needs to be managed.

  1. Infrared Faint Radio Sources in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Minh T.

    2009-01-01

    Infrared-Faint Radio Sources (IFRSs) are a class of radio objects found in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) which have no observable counterpart in the Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic Survey (SWIRE). The extended Chandra Deep Field South now has even deeper Spitzer imaging (3.6 to 70 micron) from a number of Legacy surveys. We report the detections of two IFRS sources in IRAC images. The non-detection of two other IFRSs allows us to constrain the source type. Detailed modeling of the SED of these objects shows that they are consistent with high redshift AGN (z > 2).

  2. The nuclear accretion in the FR I radio galaxy IC4296 from CHANDRA and VLBA observations

    CERN Document Server

    Pellegrini, S; Comastri, A; Fabbiano, G; Fiore, F; Vignali, C; Morganti, R; Trinchieri, G

    2003-01-01

    A high angular resolution study of the nucleus of the FR I galaxy IC4296 using Chandra ACIS-S and VLBA observations is presented, with the aim of studying the nature of the accretion process. Pointlike and hard X-ray emission is found, well described by a moderately absorbed power law of Gamma=1.48^{+0.42}_{-0.34}; no iron fluorescence line from cold material is detected. The 0.3-10 keV luminosity is 2.4\\times 10^{41} erg/s, that is \\sim 400 times lower than the accretion luminosity resulting from the estimated Bondi mass accretion rate and a radiative efficiency of 10%. On the parsec scale a jet and a counter-jet extend out from a central unresolved ``core'' in the 8.4 GHz image. Their orientation is in good agreement with that of the large scale jets and their bulk speed is relativistic. The parsec scale spectrum is convex over 2-22 GHz. The observed nuclear luminosity is not likely to be reconciled with the accretion luminosity by assuming that Compton thick material surrounds the nucleus. Low radiative ef...

  3. Chandra Observation of the X-Ray Source Population of NGC 6946

    CERN Document Server

    Holt, S S; Hwang, U; Petre, R

    2003-01-01

    We present the results of a study of discrete X-ray sources in NGC 6946 using a deep Chandra ACIS observation. Based on the slope of the log N-log S distribution and the general correlation of sources with the spiral arms, we infer that the overall discrete source sample in NGC 6946 is dominated by high mass X-ray binaries, in contrast to the source distributions in M31 and the Milky Way. This is consistent with the higher star formation rate in NGC 6946 than in those galaxies. We find that the strong X-ray sources in the region of the galactic center do not correlate in detail with images of the region in the near-IR, although one of them may be coincident with the galactic center. The non-central ultra-luminous X-ray source in NGC 6946, previously identified with a supernova remnant, has an X-ray spectrum and luminosity that is inconsistent with either a traditional pulsar wind nebula or a blast wave remnant.

  4. The Puzzling Detection of X-rays From Pluto by Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Lisse, C M; Wolk, S J; Bagenal, F; Stern, S A; Gladstone, G R; Cravens, T E; Hill, M E; Kollmann, P; Weaver, H A; Strobel, D F; Elliott, H A; McComas, D J; Binzel, R P; Snios, B T; Bhardwaj, A; Chutjian, A; Young, L A; Olkin, C B; Ennico, K A

    2016-01-01

    Using Chandra ACIS-S, we have obtained imaging Xray spectrophotometry of the Pluto system in support of the New Horizons flyby on 14 July 2015. 174 ksec of observations were obtained on 4 visits in Feb 2014 to Aug 2015. We measured a net signal of 6.8 counts and a noise level of 1.2 counts in a comoving 11 x 11 pixel box (100 x 100 R_Pluto) in the 0.31 to 0.60 keV passband for a detection at > 99.95 C.L. The Pluto photons do not match the background spectrum, are coincident with a 90% flux aperture comoving with Pluto, and are not sky source confused. The mean 0.31 to 0.60 keV Xray power from Pluto is 200 MW, in the midrange of Xray power levels seen for known solar system emission sources: auroral precipitation, solar Xray scattering, and charge exchange (CXE) between solar wind (SW) ions & atmospheric neutrals. We eliminate auroral effects as a source, as Pluto has no known magnetic field & the New Horizons Alice UV spectrometer detected no airglow from Pluto during the flyby. Nano-scale atmospheric...

  5. A Chandra search for the pulsar wind nebula around PSR B1055-52

    CERN Document Server

    Posselt, B; Pavlov, G G

    2015-01-01

    The nearby, middle-aged PSR B1055-52 has many properties in common with the Geminga pulsar. Motivated by the Geminga's enigmatic and prominent pulsar wind nebula (PWN), we searched for extended emission around PSR B1055-52 with Chandra ACIS. For an energy range 0.3-1 keV, we found a 4 sigma flux enhancement in a 4.9-20 arcsec annulus around the pulsar. There is a slight asymmetry in the emission close, 1.5-4 arcsec, to the pulsar. The excess emission has a luminosity of about 10^{29} erg s^{-1} in an energy range 0.3-8 keV for a distance of 350 pc. Overall, the faint extended emission around PSR B1055-52 is consistent with a PWN of an aligned rotator moving away from us along the line of sight with supersonic velocity, but a contribution from a dust scattering halo cannot be excluded. Comparing the properties of other nearby, middle-aged pulsars, we suggest that the geometry -- the orientations of rotation axis, magnetic field axis, and the sight-line -- is the deciding factor for a pulsar to show a prominent...

  6. A Chandra Observation of the TW Hydrae Association Brown Dwarf 2MASSW J1139511-315921

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, Philip J; Gagné, Marc

    2011-01-01

    We report on a sequence of Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of the TW Hydrae brown dwarf (BD) 2MASSW J1139511-315921 (2M1139). In the combined 31 ks ACIS-S exposure, 2M1139 is detected at the 3-sigma confidence level. We find an X-ray luminosity of L_X = 1.4^(+2.7)_(-1.0) x 10^26 ergs s^-1 or log(L_X/L_bol) = -4.8 +/- 0.3. This object is similar to another TW Hydrae BD member, CD-33 7795B (TWA 5B): both have H-alpha emission, both show no signatures of accretion, and both have comparable ages and spectral types. TWA 5B was previously detected in X-rays with a luminosity of L_X = 4 x 10^27 ergs s^-1 or log(L_X/L_bol) = -3.4, an order of magnitude more luminous in X-rays than 2M1139. We find that the discrepancy between the X-ray luminosity of 2M1139 and TWA 5B is consistent with the spread in X-ray luminosity in the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) for BDs of similar spectral types. Though rotation may play a role in the X-ray activity of ultracool dwarfs like 2M1139 and TWA 5B, the discrepancy cannot be expla...

  7. Chandra Observations of the X-ray Point Source Population in NGC 4636

    CERN Document Server

    Posson-Brown, J; Forman, W; Donnelly, R H; Jones, C; Posson-Brown, Jennifer; Raychaudhury, Somak; Forman, William; Jones, Christine

    2006-01-01

    We present an analysis of the X-ray point source population in the nearby Virgo elliptical galaxy NGC 4636 from four Chandra X-ray observations. These ACIS observations, totaling ~210 ks, were taken over a three year period. Using a wavelet decomposition detection algorithm, we detect 336 individual point sources. For our analysis, we use a subset of the 245 detections with >10 cts (a limiting luminosity of approximately 1E37 erg/s in the 0.5-2 keV band, outside the 1.5' bright galaxy core). Of these sources, ~120 are likely members of the galaxy. We examine, for the first time, variability over a period of years for X-ray point sources in an elliptical galaxy. We present a luminosity function for the point sources in NGC 4636, fit by a power-law with gamma= -1.24 +/- 0.04, as well as a radial source density profile, hardness ratios for the sources, and lightcurves for bright sources which display short-term variability. We find an upper limit to the current X-ray luminosity of the historical supernova SN1939...

  8. Chandra Observations of the Gamma-ray Binary LSI+61303: Extended X-ray Structure?

    CERN Document Server

    Paredes, J M; Bosch-Ramon, V; West, J R; Butt, Y M; Torres, D F; Martí, J

    2007-01-01

    We present a 50 ks observation of the gamma-ray binary LSI+61303 carried out with the ACIS-I array aboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory. This is the highest resolution X-ray observation of the source conducted so far. Possible evidence of an extended structure at a distance between 5 and 12 arcsec towards the North of LSI+61303 have been found at a significance level of 3.2 sigma. The asymmetry of the extended emission excludes an interpretation in the context of a dust-scattered halo, suggesting an intrinsic nature. On the other hand, while the obtained source flux, of F_{0.3-10 keV}=7.1^{+1.8}_{-1.4} x 10^{-12} ergs/cm^2/s, and hydrogen column density, N_{H}=0.70+/-0.06 x 10^{22} cm^{-2}, are compatible with previous results, the photon index Gamma=1.25+/-0.09 is the hardest ever found. In light of these new results, we briefly discuss the physics behind the X-ray emission, the location of the emitter, and the possible origin of the extended emission ~0.1 pc away from LSI+61303.

  9. X-ray Sources in the Hubble Deep Field Detected by Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Hornschemeier, A E; Garmire, G P; Schneider, D P; Broos, P S; Townsley, L K; Bautz, M W; Burrows, D N; Chartas, G; Feigelson, E D; Griffiths, R; Lumb, D H; Nousek, J A; Sargent, W L W

    2000-01-01

    We present first results from an X-ray study of the Hubble Deep Field North (HDF-N) and its environs obtained using 166 ks of data collected by the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) on board the Chandra X-ray Observatory. This is the deepest X-ray observation ever reported, and in the HDF-N itself we detect six X-ray sources down to a 0.5--8 keV flux limit of 4E-16 erg cm^-2 s^-1. Comparing these sources with objects seen in multiwavelength HDF-N studies shows positional coincidences with the extremely red object NICMOS J123651.74 +621221.4, an active galactic nucleus (AGN), three elliptical galaxies, and one nearby spiral galaxy. The X-ray emission from the ellipticals is consistent with that expected from a hot interstellar medium, and the spiral galaxy emission may arise from a `super-Eddington' X-ray binary or ultraluminous supernova remnant. Four of the X-ray sources have been detected at radio wavelengths. We also place X-ray upper limits on AGN candidates found in the HDF-N, and we present the t...

  10. Chandra Study of the Cepheus B Star Forming Region: Stellar Populations and the Initial Mass Function

    CERN Document Server

    Getman, K V; Feigelson, E D; Garmire, G; Townsley, L; Tsujimoto, M; Broos, Patrick; Feigelson, Eric D.; Garmire, Gordon; Getman, Konstantin V.; Townsley, Leisa; Tsujimoto, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    Cepheus B (Cep B) molecular cloud and a portion of the nearby Cep OB3b OB association, one of the most active regions of star formation within 1 kpc, has been observed with the ACIS detector on board the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We detect 431 X-ray sources, of which 89% are confidently identified as clustered pre-main sequence stars. Two main results are obtained. First, we provide the best census to date for the stellar population of the region. We identify many members of two rich stellar clusters: the lightly obscured Cep OB3b association, and the deeply embedded cluster in Cep B whose existence was previously traced only by a handful of radio sources and T Tauri stars. Second, we find a discrepancy between the X-ray Luminosity Functions of the Cep OB3b and the Orion Nebula Cluster. This may be due to different Initial Mass Functions of two regions (excess of ~0.3 solar mass stars), or different age distributions. Several other results are obtained. A diffuse X-ray component seen in the field is attribut...

  11. Chandra X-Ray Observations of Nineteen Millisecond Pulsars in the Globular Cluster 47 Tucanae

    CERN Document Server

    Bogdanov, S; Heinke, C O; Camilo, F; Freire, P C C; Becker, W; Bogdanov, Slavko; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Heinke, Craig O.; Camilo, Fernando; Freire, Paulo C. C.; Becker, Werner

    2006-01-01

    We present spectral and long-timescale variability analyses of \\textit{Chandra} ACIS-S observations of the 19 millisecond pulsars (MSPs) with precisely known positions in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae. The X-ray emission of the majority of these MSPs is well described by a thermal (blackbody or neutron star hydrogen atmosphere) spectrum with a temperature $T_{\\rm eff}\\sim(1-3)\\times10^6$ K, emission radius $R_{\\rm eff}\\sim0.1-3$ km, and luminosity $L_{X}\\sim10^{30-31}$ ergs s$^{-1}$. For several MSPs, there is indication that a second thermal component is required, similar to what is seen in some nearby field MSPs. The radio-eclipsing binary MSPs 47 Tuc J, O, and W show a significant non-thermal component, with photon index $\\Gamma\\sim 1-1.5$, which may originate in an shock formed due to interaction between the relativistic pulsar wind and matter from the stellar companion. We re-examine the X-ray--spindown luminosity relation ($L_{X}-\\dot{E}$) and find that due to the large uncertainties in both parameter...

  12. A Chandra X-ray observation of the globular cluster Terzan 1

    CERN Document Server

    Cackett, E M; Heinke, C O; Pooley, D; Lewin, W H G; Grindlay, J E; Edmonds, P D; Jonker, P G; Miller, J M

    2005-01-01

    We present a 19 ks Chandra ACIS-S observation of the globular cluster Terzan 1. Fourteen sources are detected within 1.4 arcmin of the cluster center with 2 of these sources predicted to be not associated with the cluster (background AGN or foreground objects). The neutron star X-ray transient, X1732-304, has previously been observed in outburst within this globular cluster with the outburst seen to last for at least 12 years. Here we find 4 sources that are consistent with the ROSAT position for this transient, but none of the sources are fully consistent with the position of a radio source detected with the VLA that is likely associated with the transient. The most likely candidate for the quiescent counterpart of the transient has a relatively soft spectrum and an unabsorbed 0.5-10 keV luminosity of 2.6E32 ergs/s, quite typical of other quiescent neutron stars. Assuming standard core cooling, from the quiescent flux of this source we predict long (>400 yr) quiescent episodes to allow the neutron star to co...

  13. XMM-Newton and Chandra Cross Calibration Using HIFLUGCS Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Schellenberger, G; Lovisari, L; Nevalainen, J; David, L

    2014-01-01

    Cosmological constraints from clusters rely on accurate gravitational mass estimates, which strongly depend on cluster gas temperature measurements. Therefore, systematic calibration differences may result in biased, instrument-dependent cosmological constraints. This is of special interest in the light of the tension between the Planck results of the primary temperature anisotropies of the CMB and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich plus X-ray cluster counts analyses. We quantify in detail the systematics and uncertainties of the cross-calibration of the effective area between five X-ray instruments, EPIC-MOS1/MOS2/PN onboard XMM-Newton and ACIS-I/S onboard Chandra, and the influence on temperature measurements. Furthermore, we assess the impact of the cross calibration uncertainties on cosmology. Using the HIFLUGCS sample, consisting of the 64 X-ray brightest galaxy clusters, we constrain the ICM temperatures through spectral fitting in the same, mostly isothermal, regions and compare them. Our work is an extension to a pre...

  14. Bondad de los criterios del ACI para calificar la calidad de un hormigón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gabriel Gómez Cortés

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan los criterios de aceptación de un hormigón por resultados de resistencia, bajo el punto de vista de las curvas características de operación (Curvas O-C, se concluye que los criterios del ACI dan al consumidor de hormigón un riesgo alto de aceptar un producto que no cumpla con las especificaciones.

  15. Finding Rare AGN: X-ray Number Counts of Chandra Sources in Stripe 82

    CERN Document Server

    LaMassa, Stephanie M; Glikman, Eilat; Cappelluti, Nico; Civano, Francesca; Comastri, Andrea; Treister, Ezequiel; Arifin,; Boehringer, Hans; Cardamone, Carie; Chon, Gayoung; Kephart, Miranda; Murray, Stephen S; Richards, Gordon; Ross, Nic; Rozner, Joshua S; Schawinski, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    We present the first results of a wide area X-ray survey within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82, a 300 deg$^2$ region of the sky with a substantial investment in multi-wavelength coverage. We analyzed archival {\\it Chandra} observations that cover 7.5 deg$^2$ within Stripe 82 ("Stripe 82 ACX"), reaching 4.5$\\sigma$ flux limits of 7.9$\\times10^{-16}$, 3.4$\\times10^{-15}$ and 1.8$\\times10^{-15}$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ in the soft (0.5-2 keV), hard (2-7 keV) and full (0.5-7 keV) bands, to find 774, 239 and 1118 X-ray sources, respectively. Three hundred twenty-one sources are detected only in the full band and 9 sources are detected solely in the soft band. Utilizing data products from the {\\it Chandra} Source Catalog, we construct independent Log$N$-Log$S$ relationships, detailing the number density of X-ray sources as a function of flux, which show general agreement with previous {\\it Chandra} surveys. We compare the luminosity distribution of Stripe 82 ACX with the smaller, deeper CDF-S + E-CDFS...

  16. Chandra Finds Surprising Black Hole Activity In Galaxy Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    bright active galaxies, often referred to as Active Galactic Nuclei, or AGN. Many astronomers think that all galaxies have central, supermassive black holes, yet only a small percent show activity. What is needed to power the AGN is fuel in the form of a nearby reservoir of gas and dust. Galaxy clusters contain hundreds to thousands of galaxies. They are the largest known structures in the universe and serve as a microcosm for the mechanics of the Universe at large. The galaxies in clusters are often old, reddish elliptically shaped galaxies, distinct from blue, spiral galaxies like our own. These old galaxies also do not have many young stars. The theory now in question is that as galaxies enter into clusters at high speeds, they are stripped of their interstellar gas, much as a strong wind strips leaves from a tree. Galaxies may also collide with one another and use up all of their gas in one huge burst of star formation triggered by this interaction. These processes remove most, if not all, of the gas that isn't locked up in stars. As they no longer have the raw material to form new stars, the stellar population slowly gets old and the Galaxy appears red. No gas is left to fuel an AGN. Previous surveys of galaxy clusters with optical telescopes have found that about only one percent of the galaxies in a cluster have AGN. This latest Chandra observation if typical, however, bumps the count up to about 5 percent. The team found six red galaxies with high X-ray activity during a nearly 14-hour Chandra observation of a galaxy cluster named Abell 2104, over 700 million light years from Earth. Based on previous optical surveys, only one was expected. "If we relied on optical data alone, we would have missed these hidden monsters," said co-author Dr. John Mulchaey. Only one of the six AGN, in fact, had the optical spectral properties typical of AGN activity. "The presence of these AGN indicate that supermassive black holes have somehow retained a fuel source, despite the

  17. Chandra Takes In The Bright Lights, Big City Of The Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has made a stunning, high-energy panorama of the central regions of our Milky Way galaxy. The findings are an important step toward understanding the most active area of the Milky Way as well as other galaxies throughout the universe. Like a sprawling megalopolis, the new Chandra images show hundreds of white dwarf stars, neutron stars and black holes bathed in an incandescent fog of multimillion-degree gas around a supermassive black hole. "The center of the galaxy is where the action is," said Q. Daniel Wang of the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. "With these images, we get a new perspective of the interplay between stars, gas and dust, as well as the magnetic fields and gravity in the region. We can see how such forces affect the immediate vicinity and may influence other aspects of the galaxy." Wang presented the montage of 30 separate Chandra images today at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Washington, and in a paper published in the Jan. 10, 2002, issue of the journal Nature. The images, made with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) July 16-21, 2001, covered a 400- by 900-light-year swath of the center of the galaxy. One immediate result was that the team could separate out the individual X-ray sources from the diffuse glow produced by hot gas. "We can now see that the sources are responsible for most of the X-rays from highly ionized iron previously attributed to the diffuse glow," said Eric Gotthelf, of Columbia University in New York, a co-author. "So we must now revise our notion of the hot gas, which appears to be about 10 times cooler than previously thought. It's only a relatively mild 10 million degrees!" The diffuse X-ray emission seems to be related to the turmoil and density of matter in the inner Milky Way. Stars are forming there at a much more rapid rate than in the galactic "suburbs." Many of the most massive stars in the galaxy are located in the galactic center and are furiously

  18. Automated classification of Chandra X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehm, Derek; Kargaltsev, O.; Rangelov, B.; Volkov, I.; Pavlov, G. G.

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of the latest generation X-ray telescopes there has been a major influx of data associated with the detection of hundreds of thousands X-ray sources. As one can rarely tell a source type from its X-ray properties alone, the full potential of the X-ray catalogs can only be unlocked by correlating multiwavelength (MW) properties via cross-identification with other surveys. However, one would spend an enormous amount of time classifying these objects by their physical nature if the classification was to be done on a source-by-source basis by humans. Therefore, we are using a supervised learning algorithm to classify sources detected by the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The classifications are based on a training dataset which currently includes about 7,000 X-ray sources of known nature (main sequence stars, Wolf-Rayet stars, young stars, active galactic nuclei, low mass X-ray binaries, high mass x-ray binaries, and neutron stars). For each source, the training dataset includes up to 24 multiwavelength properties. The efficiency and accuracy of the classification is verified by dividing the training dataset in two and performing cross-validation. The results are also inspected by plotting source properties in 2D slices of the parameter space. As an application of our automated procedure we classified unidentified sources in the supernova remnant (SNR) G352.7-0.1, in the field of HESS J1809-193, and in part of the Chandra Source Catalog 1.0. We present the results of the verification tests and the classification results. This research was partially supported by NASA/SAO grant AR3-14017X.

  19. Chandra Finds Well-Established Black Holes In Distant Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    Pushing further back toward the first generation of objects to form in the universe, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has observed the three most distant known quasars and found them to be prodigious producers of X-rays. This indicates that the supermassive black holes powering them were already in place when the Universe was only about one billion years old. "Chandra's superb sensitivity has allowed the detection of X-rays from the dawn of the modern universe, when the first massive black holes and galaxies were forming," said Niel Brandt of Penn State University, leader of one the teams involved. "These results indicate that future X-ray surveys should be able to detect the first black holes to form in the Universe." The three quasars were recently discovered at optical wavelengths by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and are 13 billion light years from Earth, making them the most distant known quasars. The X-rays Chandra detected were emitted when the universe was only a billion years old, about 7 percent of the present age of the Universe. Since X-rays reveal conditions in the immediate vicinity of supermassive black holes, Brandt proposed that Chandra look at these objects in three snapshots of about two hours each to see if they were different from their older counterparts. The observations on January 29, 2002 were made public immediately and the four different teams quickly went to work on them. Brandt's team concluded that the quasars looked similar to ones that were at least twice as old, so the conditions around the central black hole had not changed much in that time, contrary to some theoretical expectations. A team led by Smita Mathur of Ohio State University reached a similar conclusion. "These young quasars do not appear to be any different from their older cousins, based upon our current understanding and assumptions," said Mathur. "Perhaps the most remarkable thing about them may be that they are so absolutely unremarkable." Jill Bechtold of the

  20. Deep Medium-Band Subaru Imaging of the MUSYC Extended Chandra Deep Field South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urry, C. Megan; Cardamone, C.; van Dokkum, P.; Gawiser, E.; Brammer, G.; Taylor, N.; Treister, E.; Taniguchi, Y.; Sasaki, S.; Virani, S.; Kriek, M.

    2009-01-01

    We report on deep medium-band imaging with the Subaru telescope, in 18 filters from 427 nm to 856 nm, of the MUSYC survey field in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South. We detect 80,000 galaxies to equivalent magnitude R 27 mag, of which approximately 1,000 are X-ray-luminous AGN observed with Chandra and XMM. Combining the Subaru data with optical and IR data (in U,U38,B,V,R,I,z,J,K) we obtain photometric redshifts using EAZY, a fast public photometric redshift code, in the range 0outliers. We describe the colors of normal galaxies and AGN host galaxies at 0

  1. Chandra Observations of Embedded Young Stellar Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Koyama, K

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews the Chandra deep exposure observations of star forming regions, rho-Ophiuchi, Orion Molecular Clouds 2 and 3, Sagittarius B2 and Monoceros R2. The results are; (1) class I protostars are found to exhibit higher temperature plasma than those of T Tauri stars, (2) heavily absorbed X-rays are discovered from the candidates of class 0 protostars, (3) hard and highly variable X-rays are observed from high-mass young stars, and (4) young brown dwarfs emit X-rays similar to those of low-mass young stars.

  2. Chandra Observations of SNR RCW 103

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Kari A; Park, Sangwook

    2015-01-01

    We analyze three Chandra observations, with a combined exposure time of 99 ks, of the Galactic supernova remnant RCW 103, a young supernova remnant, previously with no clear detection of metal-rich ejecta. Based on our imaging and spectral analyses of these deep Chandra data, we find evidence for metal-rich ejecta emission scattered throughout the remnant. X-ray emission from the shocked ejecta is generally weak, and the shocked circumstellar medium (CSM) is a largely dominant component across the entire remnant. The CSM component shows abundances of ~0.5 solar, while Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe abundances of the ejecta are up to a few times solar. Comparison of these ejecta abundances with yields from supernova nucleosynthesis models suggests, together with the existence of a central neutron star, a progenitor mass of ~18-20 M$_\\odot$, though the Fe/Si ratios are larger than predicted. The shocked CSM emission suggests a progenitor with high mass-loss rate and subsolar metallicity.

  3. A Deep Chandra Observation of A2052

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, E. L.; Douglass, E. M.; Sarazin, C. L.; Clarke, T. E.; McNamara, B. R.

    We present initial results from a long (125 ksec) Chandra observation of Abell 2052. A2052 is a bright, nearby, cooling core cluster at a redshift of z=0.0348. It was previously observed for 36 ksec with Chandra [3,4]. The longer observation reveals ripples in the surface brightness, similar to what has been seen in e.g., the Perseus cluster [5] and M87/Virgo [6]. The southern cavity now appears to be split into two cavities with the southernmost cavity likely representing a ghost bubble from earlier radio activity. There also appears to be a ghost bubble present to the NW of the cluster center. Bright emission in the X-ray corresponds very well with optical line emission, and the correlated X-ray emission is seen to continue from the N bubble edge closer to the AGN in this longer exposure, tracking the H-α emission. The energy deposited by the radio source, as determined by measuring the pressure in the bright, X-ray shells, averaged over the repetition rate of the radio source (determined from either the ripple separation or the ghost cavity distances) can easily offset the cooling in the core of the cluster.

  4. Stellar Forensics with Striking Image from Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    A spectacular new image shows how complex a star's afterlife can be. By studying the details of this image made from a long observation by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, astronomers can better understand how some stars die and disperse elements like oxygen into the next generation of stars and planets. At a distance of about 20,000 light years, G292.0+1.8 is one of only three supernova remnants in the Milky Way known to contain large amounts of oxygen. The image shows a rapidly expanding, intricately structured, debris field that contains, along with oxygen, other elements such as neon and silicon that were forged in the star before it exploded. Hard X-ray Image of G292.0+1.8 Hard X-ray Image of G292.0+1.8 "We are finding that, just like snowflakes, each supernova remnant is complicated and beautiful in its own way," said Sangwook Park of Penn State who led the work, released in conjunction with the "8 Years of Chandra" symposium in Huntsville, Ala. The new, deep Chandra image - equaling nearly 6 days worth of observing time - shows an incredibly complex structure. Understanding the details of G292.0+1.8 is especially important because astronomers have considered it to be a "textbook" case of a supernova created by the death of a massive star. Chandra X-ray Image of G292.0+1.8 Chandra X-ray Image of G292.0+1.8 By mapping the distribution of X-rays in different energy bands, the Chandra image traces the distribution of chemical elements ejected in the supernova. The results imply that the explosion was not symmetrical. For example, blue (silicon and sulfur) and green (magnesium) are seen strongly in the upper right, while yellow and orange (oxygen) dominate the lower left. These elements light up at different temperatures, indicating that the temperature is higher in the upper right portion of G292.0+1.8. Slightly below and to the left of the center of G292.0+1.8 is a pulsar, a dense, rapidly rotating neutron star that remained behind after the original star

  5. X-raying Galaxies: A Chandra Legacy

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Q Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This presentation reviews Chandra's major contribution to the understanding of nearby galaxies. After a brief summary on significant advances in characterizing various types of discrete X-ray sources, the presentation focuses on the global hot gas in and around galaxies, especially normal ones like our own. The hot gas is a product of stellar and AGN feedback -- the least understood part in theories of galaxy formation and evolution. Chandra observations have led to the first characterization of the spatial, thermal, chemical, and kinetic properties of the gas in our Galaxy. The gas is concentrated around the Galactic bulge and disk on scales of a few kpc. The column density of chemically-enriched hot gas on larger scales is at least an order magnitude smaller, indicating that it may not account for the bulk of the missing baryon matter predicted for the Galactic halo according to the standard cosmology. Similar results have also been obtained for other nearby galaxies. The X-ray emission from hot gas is well...

  6. 4th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Computer and Information Science

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This edited book presents scientific results of the 14th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Computer and Information Science (ICIS 2015) which was held on June 28 – July 1, 2015 in Las Vegas, USA. The aim of this conference was to bring together researchers and scientists, businessmen and entrepreneurs, teachers, engineers, computer users, and students to discuss the numerous fields of computer science and to share their experiences and exchange new ideas and information in a meaningful way. Research results about all aspects (theory, applications and tools) of computer and information science, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered along the way and the solutions adopted to solve them.

  7. Shuttle and Transfer Orbit Thermal Analysis and Testing of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory Charge-Couple Device Imaging Spectrometer Radiator Shades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, John R.

    1999-01-01

    Thermal analyses of the Shuttle and Transfer Orbit of the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS), one of two science instruments on the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, revealed a low-earth orbit (LEO) overheating problem on the goldized Kapton faces of two radiator shades. The shades were coated with the goldized Kapton to provide a low hemispherical emittance to minimize direct and backloaded heating from the sun and the observatory and high specularity to optimize the coupling to space on two passive radiators which cool the focal plane to -120 C +/- 1 C during on-orbit operations. Since the observatory has a highly elliptical final orbit of 10,000 kilometers by 140,000 kilometers and the ACIS radiators and shades are oriented anti-sun, the high solar absorptance to emittance ratio of the goldized Kapton was not an issue. However, during Shuttle bay-to-earth operations, the short duration solar heating occurring near the eclipse entry and exit resulted in shade temperatures in excess of the cure temperature of the adhesive used to bond the goldized Kapton and honeycomb face-sheets. The detailed thermal analysis demonstrating the LEO overheating as well as the redesign options and thermal testing of a redesigned development unit shade are presented.

  8. The unusual X-ray morphology of NGC4636 revealed by deep Chandra observations: cavities and shocks created by past AGN outbursts

    CERN Document Server

    Baldi, A; Jones, C; Kraft, R; Nulsen, P; Churazov, E; David, L; Giacintucci, S

    2009-01-01

    We present Chandra ACIS-I and ACIS-S observations ($\\sim$200 ks in total) of the X-ray luminous elliptical galaxy NGC 4636, located in the outskirts of the Virgo cluster. A soft band (0.5-2 keV) image shows the presence of a bright core in the center surrounded by an extended X-ray corona and two pronounced quasi-symmetric, 8 kpc long, arm-like features. Each of this features defines the rimof an ellipsoidal bubble. An additional bubble-like feature, whose northern rim is located $\\sim2$ kpc south of the north-eastern arm, is detected as well. We present surface brightness and temperature profiles across the rims of the bubbles, showing that their edges are sharp and characterized by temperature jumps of about 20-25%. Through a comparison of the observed profiles with theoretical shock models, we demonstrate that a scenario where the bubbles were produced by shocks, probably driven by energy deposited off-center by jets, is the most viable explanation to the X-ray morphology observed in the central part of NG...

  9. Error Probability of MRC in Frequency Selective Nakagami Fading in the Presence of CCI and ACI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Azizur; Sum, Chin-Sean; Funada, Ryuhei; Sasaki, Shigenobu; Baykas, Tuncer; Wang, Junyi; Harada, Hiroshi; Kato, Shuzo

    An exact expression of error rate is developed for maximal ratio combining (MRC) in an independent but not necessarily identically distributed frequency selective Nakagami fading channel taking into account inter-symbol, co-channel and adjacent channel interferences (ISI, CCI and ACI respectively). The characteristic function (CF) method is adopted. While accurate analysis of MRC performance cannot be seen in frequency selective channel taking ISI (and CCI) into account, such analysis for ACI has not been addressed yet. The general analysis presented in this paper solves a problem of past and present interest, which has so far been studied either approximately or in simulations. The exact method presented also lets us obtain an approximate error rate expression based on Gaussian approximation (GA) of the interferences. It is shown, especially while the channel is lightly faded, has fewer multipath components and a decaying delay profile, the GA may be substantially inaccurate at high signal-to-noise ratio. However, the exact results also reveal an important finding that there is a range of parameters where the simpler GA is reasonably accurate and hence, we don't have to go for more involved exact expression.

  10. Analysis of On-Orbit ACIS Squeegee Mode Data on Chip I0

    CERN Document Server

    Virani, S N; Grant, C E; La Marr, B; Virani, Shanil N.; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Grant, Catherine E.; Marr, Beverly La

    2001-01-01

    The MIT and CXC ACIS teams have explored a number of measures to ameliorate the effects of radiation damage suffered by the ACIS FI CCDs. One of these measures is a novel CCD read-out method called ``squeegee mode''. A variety of different implementations of the squeegee mode have now been tested on the I0 CCD. Our results for the fitted FWHM at Al-K$\\alpha$ and Mn-K$\\alpha$ clearly demonstrate that all the squeegee modes provide improved performance in terms of reducing CTI and improving spectral resolution. Our analysis of the detection efficiency shows that the so-called squeegee modes ``Vanilla'' and ``Maximum Observing Efficiency'' provide the same detection efficiency as the standard clocking, once the decay in the intensity of the radioactive source has been taken into account. The squeegee modes which utilize the slow parallel transfer (``Maximum Spectral Resolution'', ``Maximum Angular Resolution'', and ``Sub-Array'') show a significantly lower detection efficiency than the standard clocking. The slo...

  11. Identifications of Four INTEGRAL Sources in the Galactic Plane via Chandra Localizations

    CERN Document Server

    Tomsick, J A; Foschini, L; Kaaret, Philip; Rodríguez, J; Walter, R; Chaty, Sylvain; Foschini, Luigi; Kaaret, Philip; Rodriguez, Jerome; Tomsick, John A.; Walter, Roland

    2006-01-01

    Hard X-ray imaging of the Galactic plane by the INTEGRAL satellite is uncovering many new 20-100 keV sources. A significant fraction of these sources are High-Mass X-Ray Binaries (HMXBs) containing neutron stars. In this work, we present results from INTEGRAL, Chandra, optical, and IR observations of 4 of the IGR sources: IGR J16195-4945, IGR J16207-5129, IGR J16167-4957, and IGR J17195-4100. In all four cases, one relatively bright Chandra source is seen in the INTEGRAL error circle, and these are all likely to be counterparts of the IGR sources. The sources have hard 0.3-10 keV spectra with power-law photon indices of 0.5-1.1. The Chandra positions along with optical and IR sky survey catalogs as well as our own photometry have allowed us to obtain optical and IR identifications for all 4 sources. The J-band magnitudes are in the range 14.9-10.4, and we have used the optical/IR spectral energy distributions to constrain the nature of the sources. Blackbody components with temperature lower limits of >9400 K...

  12. The Restless Universe - Understanding X-Ray Astronomy in the Age of Chandra and Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Eric M.

    2002-10-01

    Carl Sagan once noted that there is only one generation that gets to see things for the first time. We are in the midst of such a time right now, standing on the threshold of discovery in the young and remarkable field of X-ray astronomy. In The Restless Universe , astronomer Eric Schlegel offers readers an informative survey of this cutting-edge science. Two major space observatories launched in the last few years--NASA's Chandra and the European Newton --are now orbiting the Earth, sending back a gold mine of data on the X-ray universe. Schlegel, who has worked on the Chandra project for seven years, describes the building and launching of this space-based X-ray observatory. But the book goes far beyond the story of Chandra . What Schlegel provides here is the background a nonscientist would need to grasp the present and follow the future of X-ray astronomy. He looks at the relatively brief history of the field, the hardware used to detect X-rays, the satellites--past, present, and future--that have been or will be flown to collect the data, the way astronomers interpret this data, and, perhaps most important, the insights we have already learned as well as speculations about what we may soon discover. And throughout the book, Schlegel conveys the excitement of looking at the universe from the perspective brought by these new observatories and the sharper view they deliver. Drawing on observations obtained from Chandra, Newton , and previous X-ray observatories, The Restless Universe gives a first look at an exciting field which significantly enriches our understanding of the universe.

  13. Chandra's View of Tycho's Supernova Remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This Chandra image reveals, in detail, the turbulent debris created by a supernova explosion that was observed by the Danish Astronomer Tycho Brahe in the year 1572. The colors show different x-ray energies, with red, green, and blue representing low, medium, and high energies, respectively. Most likely caused by the destruction of a white dwarf star, a shock wave produced by the expanding debris is outlined by the sharp blue circular arcs of 20 million degree Celsius gas seen on the outer rim. The stellar debris, visible only by x-ray, has a temperature of about 10 million degrees, and shows up as mottled yellow, green, and red fingers of gas.

  14. Chandra data archive operations: lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollough, Michael L.; Rots, Arnold H.; Winkelman, Sherry L.

    2006-06-01

    We present a discussion of the lessons learned from establishing and operating the Chandra Data Archive (CDA). We offer an overview of the archive, what preparations were done before launch, the transition to operations, actual operations, and some of the unexpected developments that had to be addressed in running the archive. From this experience we highlight some of the important issues that need to be addressed in the creation and running of an archive for a major project. Among these are the importance of data format standards; the integration of the archive with the rest of the mission; requirements throughout all phases of the mission; operational requirements; what to expect at launch; the user interfaces; how to anticipate new tasks; and overall importance of team management and organization.

  15. Updated phase coherent timing solution of the isolated neutron star RX J0720.4-3125 using recent XMM-Newton and Chandra observations

    CERN Document Server

    Hohle, M M; Vink, J; Turolla, R; Zane, S; de Vries, C P; Méndez, M

    2010-01-01

    Since the last phase coherent timing solution of the nearby radio-quiet isolated neutron star RX J0720.4-3125 six new XMM-Newton and three Chandra observations were carried out. The phase coherent timing solutions from previous authors were performed without restricting to a fixed energy band. However, we recently showed that the phase residuals are energy dependent, and thus phase coherent solutions must be computed referring always to the same energy band. We updated the phase coherent timing solution for RX J0720.4-3125 by including the recent XMM-Newton EPIC-pn, MOS1, MOS2 and Chandra ACIS data in the energy range 400-1000~eV. Altogether these observations cover a time span of almost 10~yrs. A further timing solution was obtained including the ROSAT pointed data. In this case, observations cover a time span of $\\approx$16~yrs. To illustrate the timing differences between the soft band (120-400~eV) and the hard band (400-1000~eV) a timing solution for the soft band is also presented and the results are ver...

  16. Chandra observation of an unusually long and intense X-ray flare from a young solar-like star in M78

    CERN Document Server

    Grosso, N; Feigelson, E D; Forbes, T G

    2004-01-01

    LkHA312 has been observed serendipitously with the ACIS-I detector on board Chandra with 26h continuous exposure. This H_alpha emission line star belongs to the star-forming region M78 (NGC2068). From the optical and NIR data, we show that it is a pre-main sequence (PMS) low-mass star with a weak NIR excess. This genuine T Tauri star displayed an X-ray flare with an unusual long rise phase (~8h). The X-ray emission was nearly constant during the first 18h of the observation, and then increased by a factor of 13 during a fast rise phase (~2h), and reached a factor of 16 above the quiescent X-ray level at the end of a gradual phase (~6h) showing a slower rise. To our knowledge this flare, with \\~0.4-~0.5 cts/s, has the highest count rate observed so far with Chandra from a PMS low-mass star. By chance, the source position, 8.2' off-axis, protected this observation from pile-up. We make a spectral analysis of the X-ray emission versus time, showing that the plasma temperature of the quiescent phase and the flare...

  17. Chandra and optical/IR observations of CXOJ1415.2+3610, a massive, newly discovered galaxy cluster at z~1.5

    CERN Document Server

    Tozzi, P; Nonino, M; Rosati, P; Borgani, S; Sartoris, B; Altieri, B; Sanchez-Portal, M

    2012-01-01

    (Abridged) We report the discovery of CXO J1415.2+3610, a distant (z~1.5) galaxy cluster serendipitously detected in a deep, high-resolution Chandra observation targeted to study the cluster WARP J1415.1+3612 at z=1.03. This is the highest-z cluster discovered with Chandra so far. Moreover, the total exposure time of 280 ks with ACIS-S provides the deepest X-ray observation currently achieved on a cluster at z>1.5. We perform an X-ray spectral fit of the extended emission of the Intra Cluster Medium (ICM) with XSPEC, and we detect at a 99.5% confidence level the rest frame 6.7-6.9 keV Iron K_\\alpha line complex, from which we obtain z_X=1.46\\pm0.025. The analysis of the z-3.6\\mu m color-magnitude diagram shows a well defined sequence of red galaxies within 1' from the cluster X-ray emission peak with a color range [5 < z-3.6 \\mu m < 6]. The photometric redshift obtained by SED fitting is z_phot=1.47\\pm 0.25. After fixing the redshift to z=1.46, we perform the final spectral analysis and measure the aver...

  18. AEGIS: Chandra Observation of DEEP2 Galaxy Groups and Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, T; Davis, D; Newman, J; Davis, M; Nandra, K; Laird, E; Koo, D; Coil, A; Cooper, M; Croton, D; Yan, R

    2006-01-01

    We present a 200 ksec Chandra observation of seven spectroscopically selected, high redshift (0.75 < z < 1.03) galaxy groups and clusters discovered by the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey in the Extended Groth Strip (EGS). X-ray emission at the locations of these systems is consistent with background. The 3-sigma upper limits on the bolometric X-ray luminosities (L_X) of these systems put a strong constraint on the relation between L_X and the velocity dispersion of member galaxies sigma_gal at z~1; the DEEP2 systems have lower luminosity than would be predicted by the local relation. Our result is consistent with recent findings that at high redshift, optically selected clusters tend to be X-ray underluminous. A comparison with mock catalogs indicates that it is unlikely that this effect is entirely caused by a measurement bias between sigma_gal and the dark matter velocity dispersion. Physically, the DEEP2 systems may still be in the process of forming and hence not fully virialized, or they may be defic...

  19. The Chandra COSMOS Legacy survey: the z>3 sample

    CERN Document Server

    Marchesi, S; Salvato, M; Shankar, F; Comastri, A; Elvis, M; Lanzuisi, G; Trakhtenbrot, B; Vignali, C; Zamorani, G; Allevato, V; Brusa, M; Fiore, F; Gilli, R; Griffiths, R; Hasinger, G; Miyaji, T; Schawinski, K; Treister, E; Urry, C M

    2016-01-01

    We present the largest high-redshift (30 at z>3. We compute the number counts in the observed 0.5-2 keV band, finding a decline in the number of sources at z>3 and constraining phenomenological models of X-ray background. We compute the AGN space density at z>3 in two different luminosity bins. At higher luminosities (logL(2-10 keV) > 44.1 erg/s) the space density declines exponentially, dropping by a factor ~20 from z~3 to z~6. The observed decline is ~80% steeper at lower luminosities (43.55 erg/s 44.1 erg/s, unobscured and obscured objects may have different evolution with redshift, the obscured component being three times higher at z~5. Finally, we compare our space density with predictions of quasar activation merger models, whose calibration is based on optically luminous AGN. These models significantly overpredict the number of expected AGN at logL(2-10 keV) > 44.1 erg/s with respect to our data.

  20. The Chandra COSMOS-Legacy Survey: The z>3 Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesi, S.; Civano, F.; Salvato, M.; Shankar, F.; Comastri, A.; Elvis, M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Vignali, C.; Zamorani, G.; Allevato, V.; Brusa, M.; Fiore, F.; Gilli, R.; Griffiths, R.; Hasinger, G.; Miyaji, T.; Schawinski, K.; Treister, E.; Urry, C. M.

    2016-08-01

    We present the largest high-redshift (3 work, we treat z phot as a probability-weighted sum of contributions, adding to our sample the contribution of sources with z phot 0 at z > 3. We compute the number counts in the observed 0.5-2 keV band, finding a decline in the number of sources at z > 3 and constraining phenomenological models of the X-ray background. We compute the AGN space density at z > 3 in two different luminosity bins. At higher luminosities (logL(2-10 keV) > 44.1 erg s-1), the space density declines exponentially, dropping by a factor of ˜20 from z ˜ 3 to z ˜ 6. The observed decline is ˜80% steeper at lower luminosities (43.55 erg s-1 44.1 erg s-1, unobscured and obscured objects may have different evolution with redshift, with the obscured component being three times higher at z ˜ 5. Finally, we compare our space density with predictions of quasar activation merger models, whose calibration is based on optically luminous AGNs. These models significantly overpredict the number of expected AGNs at logL (2-10 keV) > 44.1 erg s-1 with respect to our data.

  1. Deep Chandra observations of TeV binaries - I. LSI+61°303

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, N.; Torres, D. F.; van der Klis, M.; Jonker, P. G.; Méndez, M.; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A.

    2010-07-01

    We report on a 95ks Chandra observation of the TeV emitting high-mass X-ray binary LSI+61°303, using the ACIS-S camera in continuous clocking mode to search for a possible X-ray pulsar in this system. The observation was performed while the compact object was passing from phase 0.94 to 0.98 in its orbit around the Be companion star (hence close to the apastron passage). We did not find any periodic or quasi-periodic signal (at this orbital phase) in a frequency range of 0.005-175Hz. We derived an average pulsed fraction (PF) 3σ upper limit for the presence of a periodic signal of flux and spectrum even in this very small orbital phase range, in particular we detect two flares, lasting thousands of seconds, with a very hard X-ray spectrum with respect to the average source spectral distribution. The X-ray PF limits we derived are lower than the PF of any isolated rotational-powered pulsar, in particular having a TeV counterpart. In this scenario, most of the X-ray emission of LSI+61°303 should necessarily come from the interwind or innerpulsar wind zone shock rather than from the magnetosphere of the putative pulsar. On the other hand, very low X-ray PFs are not unseen in accreting neutron star systems, although we cannot at all exclude the black hole nature of the hosted compact object, a pulsar with a beam pointing away from our line of sight or spinning faster than ~5.6ms, nor that pulsations might have a transient appearance in only a small fraction of the orbit. Furthermore, we did not find evidence for the previously suggested extended X-ray emission.

  2. High-Redshift AGNs and the Next Decade of Chandra and XMM-Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, W N

    2016-01-01

    We briefly review how X-ray observations of high-redshift active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at z = 4-7 have played a critical role in understanding their basic demographics as well as their physical processes; e.g., absorption by nuclear material and winds, accretion rates, and jet emission. We point out some key remaining areas of uncertainty, highlighting where further Chandra and XMM-Newton observations/analyses, combined with new multiwavelength survey data, can advance understanding over the next decade.

  3. 12th ACIS/IEEE International Conference on Computer Science and Information Science

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This edited book presents scientific results of the 12th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Computer and Information Science (ICIS 2013) which was held on June 16-20, 2013 in Toki Messe, Niigata, Japan. The aim of this conference was to bring together scientists, engineers, computer users, and students to share their experiences and exchange new ideas, research results about all aspects (theory, applications and tools) of computer and information science, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered along the way and the solutions adopted to solve them The conference organizers selected the best 20 papers from those papers accepted for presentation at the conference. The papers were chosen based on review scores submitted by members of the program committee, and underwent further rigorous rounds of review.    

  4. 3th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Computer and Information Science

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This edited book presents scientific results of the 13th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Computer and Information Science (ICIS 2014) which was held on June 4-6, 2014 in Taiyuan, China. The aim of this conference was to bring together researchers and scientists, businessmen and entrepreneurs, teachers, engineers, computer users, and students to discuss the numerous fields of computer science and to share their experiences and exchange new ideas and information in a meaningful way. Research results about all aspects (theory, applications and tools) of computer and information science, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered along the way and the solutions adopted to solve them. The conference organizers selected the best papers from those papers accepted for presentation at the conference.  The papers were chosen based on review scores submitted by members of the program committee, and underwent further rigorous rounds of review. This publication captures 14 of the conference’s most promis...

  5. Synergistic effect of radiation on colon carcinogenesis induced by methylazoxymethanol acetate in ACI/N rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Takuji; Morishita, Yukio; Kawamori, Toshihiko; Suzui, Masumi; Kojima, Toshihiro; Sugie, Shigeyuki; Mori, Hideki (Gifu Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1993-10-01

    The effect on colon and liver carcinogenicity in rats of a single X-irradiation exposure given either before or after methylazoxymethanol (MAM) acetate was studied in ACI/N rats of both sexes. A single dose of X-irradiation (3 Gy) was administered either 3 months before or after three weekly s.c. injection of MAM acetate (25 mg/kg body weight). At 365 days after the start, the incidence and multiplicity of MAM acetate-induced intestinal tumors were enhanced by X-irradiation either prior to or after the MAM acetate treatment. In addition, X-irradiation before MAM acetate increased the incidence of hepatocellular foci in either sex. In females, X-irradiation either before or after MAM acetate exposure decreased intestinal tumorigenesis. These findings suggest an apparent synergism of these agents in intestinal carcinogenesis of male rats. (author).

  6. Technical photography for mural paintings: the newly discovered frescoes in Aci Sant’Antonio (Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cosentino

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A cycle of 18th century frescoes, depicting the last days of Christ on earth, were recently discovered in Aci Sant’Antonio (Sicily, Italy. The paintings survive along the corners of an originally square chapel that was altered in the early 20th century, acquiring the current octagonal plan. This paper presents the results of the technical photography documentation of these wall paintings and illustrates the methodological challenges that were posed during their examination. Raking light photography was used to reveal the paintings’ state of conservation, details of the plaster work and painting techniques. Ultraviolet fluorescence and infrared false color photography were also performed to evaluate areas of interest for further analytical and diagnostic studies. The first striking feature is the lack of giornate. Only pontate are clearly seen in all the scenes thus indicating that in the larger paint areas, a mixed of fresco and secco technique would have been used.

  7. The Crucifix Chapel of Aci Sant’Antonio: Newly discovered frescoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Cosentino

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper we present the discovery of a series of frescoes for the first time, revealed in 2012 during a restoration carried out in the Crucifix chapel in the Mother Church of Sant’Antonio in the town Aci Sant’Antonio (Catania, Sicily. The murals were preserved in each of the corners of the square chapel behind the XIX° century counter wall.  In this paper we also show the application of multispectral imaging (MSI and portable XRF spectroscopy (pXRF for the identification of pigments on this interesting case of painted murals.  Documentation from the 19th century remodeling is available, and when taken into account along with this case study, represents an interesting case of “terminus ante quem” (TAQ chronology since we are aware of the date when the last retouching to the square chapel walls could have been applied.  AbstractQuesto lavoro presenta per la prima volta la scoperta di una serie di affreschi effettuata nel 2012 durante il restauro della cappella del crocifisso nella chiesa madre di Aci Sant’Antonio, Sicilia. Le pitture murali si sono conservate in ognuno degli angoli della cappella quadrata dietro le contropareti aggiunte nel XIX secolo. In questo articolo si mostra anche l’applicazione combinata dell’imaging multispettrale (MSI e della spettroscopia di fluorescenza X portatile (pXRF per l’identificazione dei pigmenti su queste pitture murali da poco scoperte. Dopo una ricerca d’archivio, e’ stata ritrovata la documentazione degli interventi che hanno portato alla copertura degli affreschi nel XIX secolo. Dal momento che siamo al corrente dell’anno in cui gli ultimi interventi sugli affreschi possono essere stati eseguiti, questi murali rappresentano un interessante caso di  cronologia “terminus ante quem” (TAQ, in particolare per quel che riguarda l’uso dei pigmenti. 

  8. Tocopherols inhibit oxidative and nitrosative stress in estrogen-induced early mammary hyperplasia in ACI rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Gupta, Soumyasri; So, Jae Young; Wall, Brian; Wahler, Joseph; Smolarek, Amanda K; Sae-Tan, Sudathip; Soewono, Kelvin Y; Yu, Haixiang; Lee, Mao-Jung; Thomas, Paul E; Yang, Chung S; Suh, Nanjoo

    2015-09-01

    Oxidative stress is known to play a key role in estrogen-induced breast cancer. This study assessed the chemopreventive activity of the naturally occurring γ-tocopherol-rich mixture of tocopherols (γ-TmT) in early stages of estrogen-induced mammary hyperplasia in ACI rats. ACI rats provide an established model of rodent mammary carcinogenesis due to their high sensitivity to estrogen. Female rats were implanted with 9 mg of 17β-estradiol (E2) in silastic tubings and fed with control or 0.3% γ-TmT diet for 1, 3, 7, and 14 d. γ-TmT increased the levels of tocopherols and their metabolites in the serum and mammary glands of the rats. Histological analysis revealed mammary hyperplasia in the E2 treated rats fed with control or γ-TmT diet. γ-TmT decreased the levels of E2-induced nitrosative and oxidative stress markers, nitrotyrosine, and 8-oxo-dG, respectively, in the hyperplastic mammary tissues. 8-Isoprostane, a marker of oxidative stress in the serum, was also reduced by γ-TmT. Noticeably, γ-TmT stimulated Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response in the mammary glands of E2 treated rats, evident from the induced mRNA levels of Nrf2 and its downstream antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. Therefore, inhibition of nitrosative/oxidative stress through induction of antioxidant response is the primary effect of γ-TmT in early stages of E2-induced mammary hyperplasia. Due to its cytoprotective activity, γ-TmT could be a potential natural agent for the chemoprevention of estrogen-induced breast cancer.

  9. In Brief: Chandra Observatory marks 10 years in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-08-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, originally envisioned as a 5-year mission, was deployed into an elliptical orbit around Earth 10 years ago, on 23 July 1999. The most powerful X-ray telescope yet, Chandra has provided a peak into the high-energy universe and has independently confirmed the existence of dark energy. Martin Weisskopf, Chandra project scientist at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., said discoveries made possible by the observatory “have made dramatic changes to our understanding of the universe and its constituents.” “The Great Observatories program—of which Chandra is a major part—shows how astronomers need as many tools as possible to tackle the big questions out there,” said Ed Weiler, associate administrator of NASA's Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters in Washington. The Hubble Space Telescope, Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, and Spitzer Space Telescope are NASA's other Great Observatories. For more information, visit http://chandra.harvard.edu/ten/ and http://chandra.nasa.gov.

  10. A Chandra Study of Sgr A East A Supernova Remnant Regulating The Activity Of Our Galactic Center?

    CERN Document Server

    Maeda, Y; Feigelson, E D; Morris, M; Bautz, M W; Brandt, W N; Burrows, D N; Doty, J P; Garmire, G P; Pravdo, S H; Ricker, G R; Townsley, L K

    2001-01-01

    We report on the X-ray emission from the shell-like, non-thermal radio source Sgr A East located in the inner few parsecs of the Galaxy based on observations made with the ACIS detector on board Chandra. This is the first time Sgr A East has been clearly resolved from other complex structures in the region. The X-ray emitting region is concentrated within the central $\\simeq 2$ pc of the larger radio shell. The spectrum shows strong K$\\alpha$ lines from highly ionized ions of S, Ar, Ca, and Fe. A simple isothermal plasma model gives electron temperature $\\sim 2$ keV, absorption column $\\sim 1 \\times 10^{23}$ H/cm^2, luminosity $\\sim 8 \\times 10^{34}$ ergs/s in the 2--10 keV band, and gas mass $\\sim 2\\eta^{1/2}$ M$_{\\odot}$ with a filling factor $\\eta$. The plasma appears to be rich in heavy elements, over-abundant by roughly a factor of four with respect to solar abundances, and shows a spatial gradient of elemental abundance: the spatial distribution of iron is more compact than that of the lighter elements....

  11. Chandra Detection of the First X-ray Forest along the Line of Sight To Mkn 421

    CERN Document Server

    Nicastro, F; Elvis, M; Drake, J; Fiore, F; Fang, T; Fruscione, A; Krongold, Y; Marshall, H; Williams, R; Nicastro, Fabrizio; Mathur, Smita; Elvis, Martin; Drake, Jeremy; Fiore, Fabrizio; Fang, Taotao; Fruscione, Antonella; Krongold, Yair; Marshall, Herman; Williams, Rik

    2005-01-01

    We present the first >=3.5 sigma (conservative) or >=5.8 sigma (sum of lines significance) detection of two Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM) filaments at z>0, which we find along the line of sight to the blazar Mkn 421. These systems are detected through highly ionized resonant metal absorption in high quality Chandra-ACIS and -HRC Low Energy Transmission Grating (LETG) spectra of Mkn 421, obtained following our two Target of Opportunity requests during two outburst phases. The two intervening WHIM systems that we detect, have OVII and NVII columns of N(OVII)=(1.0 +/- 0.3) x 1e15 cm-2} N(NVII)=(0.8 +/- 0.4) x 1e15 cm-2, and N(OVII)=(0.7 +/- 0.3) x 1e15 cm-2, N(NVII)=(1.4 +/- 0.5) x 1e15 cm-2 respectively. From the detected number of WHIM filaments along this line of sight we can estimate the number of OVII filaments per unit redshift with columns larger than 7e14 cm-2, dP(OVII)/dz(N(OVII)>=7e14) = 67^{+88}_{-43}, consistent, within the large 1-sigma errors, with the hydrodynamical simulation predictions o...

  12. The Effect of Variability on X-Ray Binary Luminosity Functions: Multiple Epoch Observations of NGC 300 with Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Binder, Breanna; Williams, Benjamin F; Eracleous, Michael; Gaetz, Terrance J; Plucinsky, Paul P; Skillman, Evan D

    2016-01-01

    We have obtained three epochs of Chandra ACIS-I observations (totaling $\\sim$184 ks) of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC~300 to study the logN-logS distributions of its X-ray point source population down to $\\sim$2$\\times$10$^{-15}$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ in the 0.35-8 keV band (equivalent to $\\sim$10$^{36}$ erg s$^{-1}$). The individual epoch logN-logS distributions are best described as the sum of a background AGN component, a simple power law, and a broken power law, with the shape of the logN-logS distributions sometimes varying between observations. The simple power law and AGN components produce a good fit for "persistent" sources (i.e., with fluxes that remain constant within a factor of $\\sim$2). The differential power law index of $\\sim$1.2 and high fluxes suggest that the persistent sources intrinsic to NGC~300 are dominated by Roche lobe overflowing low mass X-ray binaries. The variable X-ray sources are described by a broken power law, with a faint-end power law index of $\\sim$1.7, a bright-end index ...

  13. Detection of X-ray Emission from the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium through the Angular Autocorrelation Function with Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Huffenberger, Kevin; Ursino, Eugenio

    2012-01-01

    We have used the angular Autocorrelation Function (AcF) on the angular scale of a few arcminutes to detect and characterize the emission from the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM) in a pointing with Chandra's ACIS-S instrument. We focused our attention on the energy bands 0.4-0.6 keV, where the WHIM emission is expected to be strongest, due to the redshifted O VII and O VIII lines, and 0.7-0.9 keV, where the WHIM emission is expected to be significantly smaller. After removing identified point sources, and any spurious signal due to detector background and unidentified point sources, in the lower energy band we found a clear AcF signal that we attribute to the WHIM, with a statistical significance of several sigmas (chi2=129, N=31). The attribution of the signal to the WHIM (and not to other spurious emissions, such as unresolved point sources) is confirmed by the higher energy band where the signal is compatible with zero.

  14. Chandra Observations of Comets C/2012 S1 (ISON) and C/2011 L4 (PanSTARRS)

    CERN Document Server

    Snios, Bradford; Lisse, Carey M; Wolk, Scott J; Dennerl, Konrad; Combi, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    We present our results on the Chandra X-ray Observatory Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) observations of the bright Oort Cloud comets C/2012 S1 (ISON) and C/2011 L4 (PanSTARRS). ISON was observed between 2013 October 31-November 06 during variable speed solar wind (SW), and PanSTARRS was observed between 2013 April 17-23 during fast SW. ISON produced an extended parabolic X-ray morphology consistent with a collisionally thick coma, while PanSTARRS demonstrated only a diffuse X-ray-emitting region. We consider these emissions to be from charge exchange (CX) and model each comet's emission spectrum from first principles accordingly. Our model agrees with the observational spectra and also generates composition ratios for heavy, highly charged SW ions interacting with the cometary atmosphere. We compare our derived SW ion compositions to observational data and find a strong agreement between them. These results further demonstrate the utility of CX emissions as a remote diagnostics tool of both astrophys...

  15. XMM-Newton and Chandra Observations of the Galaxy Group NGC 5044. 1; Evidence for Limited Multiphase Hot Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buote, David A.; Lewis, Aaron D.; Brighenti, Fabrizio; Mathews, William G.

    2003-01-01

    Using new XMM and Chandra observations, we present an analysis of the temperature structure of the hot gas within a radius of 100 kpc of the bright nearby galaxy group NGC 5044. A spectral deprojection analysis of data extracted from circular annuli reveals that a two-temperature model (2T) of the hot gas is favored over single-phase or cooling flow (M = 4.5 +/- 0.2 solar mass/yr) models within the central approx.30 kpc. Alternatively, the data can be fitted equally well if the temperature within each spherical shell varies continuously from approx.T(sub h) to T(sub c) approx. T(sub h)/2, but no lower. The high spatial resolution of the Chandra data allows us to determine that the temperature excursion T(sub h) approaches T(sub c) required in each shell exceeds the temperature range between the boundaries of the same shell in the best-fitting single-phase model. This is strong evidence for a multiphase gas having a limited temperature range. We do not find any evidence that azimuthal temperature variations within each annulus on the sky can account for the range in temperatures within each shell. We provide a detailed investigation of the systematic errors on the derived spectral models considering the effects of calibration, plasma codes, bandwidth, variable NH, and background rate. We find that the RGS gratings and the EPIC and ACIS CCDs give fully consistent results when the same models are fitted over the same energy ranges for each instrument. The cooler component of the 2T model has a temperature (T(sub c) approx. 0.7 keV) similar to the kinetic temperature of the stars. The hot phase has a temperature (T(sub h) approx. 1.4 keV) characteristic of the virial temperature of the solar mass halo expected in the NGC 5044 group. However, in view of the morphological disturbances and X-ray holes visible in the Chandra image within R approx. equals 10 kpc, bubbles of gas heated to approx.T(sub h) in this region may be formed by intermittent AGN feedback. Some

  16. Deep Chandra observations of Pictor A

    CERN Document Server

    Hardcastle, M J; Birkinshaw, M; Croston, J H; Goodger, J L; Marshall, H L; Perlman, E S; Siemiginowska, A; Stawarz, L; Worrall, D M

    2015-01-01

    We report on deep Chandra observations of the nearby broad-line radio galaxy Pictor A, which we combine with new Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) observations. The new X-ray data have a factor 4 more exposure than observations previously presented and span a 15-year time baseline, allowing a detailed study of the spatial, temporal and spectral properties of the AGN, jet, hotspot and lobes. We present evidence for further time variation of the jet, though the flare that we reported in previous work remains the most significantly detected time-varying feature. We also confirm previous tentative evidence for a faint counterjet. Based on the radio through X-ray spectrum of the jet and its detailed spatial structure, and on the properties of the counterjet, we argue that inverse-Compton models can be conclusively rejected, and propose that the X-ray emission from the jet is synchrotron emission from particles accelerated in the boundary layer of a relativistic jet. For the first time, we find evidence that...

  17. Chandra Discovers the X-ray Signature of a Powerful Wind from a Galactic Microquasar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-01

    CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) was used as a camera to record the X-ray spectral data, which computers processed and plotted onto a graph, revealing the P Cygni signature. Specific elements, such as silicon or iron, emit specific X-ray wavelengths, revealing their presence in the emitting material to astronomers. Before the observation with Chandra, astronomers knew the force of gravity in an X-ray binary system strips material off the surface of the normal star and then pulls this material toward the surface of the super-dense neutron star, forming a relatively flat spiraling cloud of gas called an accretion disk. The detailed Chandra data revealed, in addition, that the radiation and rotational forces in the Circinus X-1 disk are blasting some of the inward-spiraling gas back out into space in a powerful wind, which creates the P Cygni lines in the object's spectrum. P Cygni profiles carry much diagnostic information that is hard to obtain in other ways--such as how fast the wind is moving, how much material it contains, how dense it is, and its chemical composition. "The wind coming out of Circinus X-1 is composed of gas that contains highly ionized atoms of silicon, neon, iron, magnesium, and sulfur, and its peak observed velocity is about 4.5 million miles per hour--so fast it would cross the entire radius of the Earth in about three seconds," Brandt reports. The astronomers used Doppler techniques that detect positive velocities from material moving away from Earth, with signals shifted toward the red end of the spectrum, and negative velocities from material that is coming toward Earth, with signals shifted toward the blue end of the spectrum. "We learned these two stars clearly interact dramatically with each other while this wind is blowing outward at high velocity, which appears to be causing certain properties of the wind to change over time," Schulz says. The researchers produced a time-lapse movie of one of their spectra, which is available on the World

  18. 75 FR 7471 - Chandra Coffee and Rabun Boatworks, Complainants v. Georgia Power Company, Respondent; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Chandra Coffee and Rabun Boatworks, Complainants v. Georgia Power Company... January 8, 2010, Chandra Coffee and Rabun Boatworks (Complainants) filed with the Federal...

  19. Imbalance between apoptosis and cell proliferation during early stages of mammary gland carcinogenesis in ACI rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutanzi, Kristy R.; Koturbash, Igor [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB, T1K3M4 (Canada); Bronson, Roderick T. [Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Pogribny, Igor P., E-mail: igor.pogribny@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Kovalchuk, Olga, E-mail: olga.kovalchuk@uleth.ca [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB, T1K3M4 (Canada)

    2010-12-10

    Estrogen and ionizing radiation are well-documented human breast carcinogens, yet the exact mechanisms of their deleterious effects on mammary gland remain to be discerned. Here we analyze the balance between cellular proliferation and apoptosis in the mammary glands of rats exposed to estrogen and X-ray radiation and the combined action of these carcinogenic agents. For the first time, we show that combined exposure to estrogen and radiation has a synergistic effect on cell proliferation in the mammary glands of ACI rats, as evidenced by a substantially greater magnitude of cell proliferation, especially after 12 and 18 weeks of treatment, when compared to mammary glands of rats exposed to estrogen or radiation alone. We also demonstrate that an imbalance between cell proliferation and apoptosis, rather than enhanced cell proliferation or apoptosis suppression alone, may be a driving force for carcinogenesis. Our studies further suggest that compromised functional activity of p53 may be one of the mechanisms responsible for the proliferation/apoptosis imbalance. In sum, the results of our study indicate that evaluation of the extent of cell proliferation and apoptosis before the onset of preneoplastic lesions may be a potential biomarker of breast cancer risk after exposure to breast carcinogens.

  20. Chandra Images Provide New Vision of Cosmic Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    Images from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory released today reveal previously unobserved features in the remnants of three different supernova explosions. Two of the remnants G21.5-0.9 and PSR 0540-69 show dramatic details of the prodigious production of energetic particles by a rapidly rotating, highly magnetized neutron star, as well as the enormous shell structures produced by the explosions. The image of the third remnant, E0102-72, reveals puzzling spoke-like structures in its interior. G21.5-0.9, in the constellation of Scutum, is about 16,000 light years (1 light year = 6 trillion miles) from Earth. Chandra's image shows a bright nebula surrounded by a much larger diffuse cloud. Inside the inner nebula is a bright central source that is thought to be a rapidly rotating highly magnetized neutron star. A rotating neutron star acts like a powerful generator, creating intense electric voltages that accelerate electrons to speeds close to the speed of light. The total output of this generator is greater than a thousand suns. The fluffy appearance of the central nebula is thought to be due to magnetic field lines which constrain the motions of the high-energy electrons. "It's a remarkable image," said Dr. Patrick Slane of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. "Neither the inner core nor the outer shell has ever been seen before." "It is as though we have a set of Russian dolls, with structures embedded within structures," said Professor Gordon Garmire of Penn State University, and principal investigator of the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer, the X-ray camera that was used to make two of the images. NASA's project scientist, Dr. Martin Weisskopf of the Marshall Space Flight Center said, "Chandra's capability to provide surprises and insights continues." PSR 0540-69 PSR 0540-69 The existence of a rotating neutron star, or pulsar, in the center of G21.5-0.9 is inferred from the appearance of the nebula and the energy distribution of X-rays and radio

  1. Chandra Observations of Eight Sources Discovered by INTEGRAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsick, John A.; Krivonos, Roman; Wang, Qinan; Bodaghee, Arash; Chaty, Sylvain; Rahoui, Farid; Rodriguez, Jerome; Fornasini, Francesca M.

    2016-01-01

    We report on 0.3-10 keV observations with the Chandra X-ray Observatory of eight hard X-ray sources discovered within 8° of the Galactic plane by the International Gamma-ray Astrophysics Laboratory satellite. The short (˜5 ks) Chandra observations of the IGR source fields have yielded very likely identifications of X-ray counterparts for three of the IGR sources: IGR J14091-6108, IGR J18088-2741, and IGR J18381-0924. The first two have very hard spectra in the Chandra band that can be described by a power law with photon indices of Γ = 0.6 ± 0.4 and -{0.7}-0.3+0.4, respectively (90% confidence errors are given), and both have a unique near-IR counterpart consistent with the Chandra position. IGR J14091-6108 also displays a strong iron line and a relatively low X-ray luminosity, and we argue that the most likely source type is a cataclysmic variable (CV), although we do not completely rule out the possibility of a high mass X-ray binary. IGR J18088-2741 has an optical counterpart with a previously measured 6.84 hr periodicity, which may be the binary orbital period. We also detect five cycles of a possible 800-950 s period in the Chandra light curve, which may be the compact object spin period. We suggest that IGR J18088-2741 is also most likely a CV. For IGR J18381-0924, the spectrum is intrinsically softer with {{Γ }}={1.5}-0.4+0.5, and it is moderately absorbed, NH = (4 ± 1) × 1022 cm-2. There are two near-IR sources consistent with the Chandra position, and they are both classified as galaxies, making it likely that IGR J18381-0924 is an active galactic nucleus. For the other five IGR sources, we provide lists of nearby Chandra sources, which may be used along with further observations to identify the correct counterparts, and we discuss the implications of the low inferred Chandra count rates for these five sources.

  2. Chandra x-ray results on v426 ophiuchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Homer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available De las observaciones de 45 ks de Chandra de V426 Oph hemos obtenido espectros de rayos X de alta resoluci on con relaci on se~nal-a-ruido moderada, y una curva de luz no interrumpida de buena calidad. Los espectros se adaptan razonablemente a un modelo de ujo de enfriamiento, similar a EX Hya y U Gem. Nuestro an alisis de las curvas de luz de Chandra y las adicionales de rayos X/ optico revela una modulaci on persistente a 4.2 hr desde 1988 hasta 2003, probablemente el per odo de giro de la enana blanca, indicando una naturaleza polar intermedia para V426 Oph.

  3. Chandra and Hubble Space Telescope Study of the Globular Cluster NGC 288

    CERN Document Server

    Kong, A K H; Pooley, D; Lewin, W H G; Homer, L; Verbunt, F; Anderson, S F; Margon, B

    2006-01-01

    We report on the Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of the globular cluster NGC 288. We detect four X-ray sources within the core radius and seven additional sources within the half-mass radius down to a limiting luminosity of Lx=7e30 erg/s (assuming cluster membership) in the 0.3-7 keV band. We also observed the cluster with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys and identify optical counterparts to seven X-ray sources out of the nine sources within the HST field-of-view. Based on the X-ray and optical properties, we find 2-5 candidates of cataclysmic variables (CVs) or chromospherically active binaries, and 2-5 background galaxies inside the half-mass radius. Since the core density of NGC 288 is very low, the faint X-ray sources of NGC 288 found in the Chandra and HST observations is higher than the prediction on the basis of the collision frequency. We suggest that the CVs and chromospherically active binaries are primordial in origin, in agreement with theoretical expectation.

  4. The sub-mJy radio sky in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South: source population

    CERN Document Server

    Bonzini, M; Mainieri, V; Kellermann, K I; Miller, N; Rosati, P; Tozzi, P; Vattakunnel, S

    2013-01-01

    The sub-mJy radio population is a mixture of active systems, that is star forming galaxies (SFGs) and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We study a sample of 883 radio sources detected at 1.4 GHz in a deep Very Large Array survey of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (E-CDFS) that reaches a best rms sensitivity of 6 microJy. We have used a simple scheme to disentangle SFGs, radio-quiet (RQ), and radio-loud (RL) AGNs based on the combination of radio data with Chandra X-ray data and mid-infrared observations from Spitzer. We find that at flux densities between about 30 and 100 microJy the radio population is dominated by SFGs (~60%) and that RQ AGNs become increasingly important over RL ones below 100 microJy. We also compare the host galaxy properties of the three classes in terms of morphology, optical colours and stellar masses. Our results show that both SFG and RQ AGN host galaxies have blue colours and late type morphology while RL AGNs tend to be hosted in massive red galaxies with early type morphology....

  5. The first complete genome sequences of the acI lineage, the most abundant freshwater Actinobacteria, obtained by whole-genome-amplification of dilution-to-extinction cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ilnam; Kim, Suhyun; Islam, Md. Rashedul; Cho, Jang-Cheon

    2017-01-01

    The acI lineage of the phylum Actinobacteria is the most abundant bacterial group in most freshwater lakes. However, due to difficulties in laboratory cultivation, only two mixed cultures and some incomplete single-amplified or metagenome-derived genomes have been reported for the lineage. Here, we report the initial cultivation and complete genome sequences of four novel strains of the acI lineage from the tribes acI-A1, -A4, -A7, and -C1. The acI strains, initially isolated by dilution-to-extinction culturing, eventually failed to be maintained as axenic cultures. However, the first complete genomes of the acI lineage were successfully obtained from these initial cultures through whole genome amplification applied to more than hundreds of cultured acI cells. The genome sequences exhibited features of genome streamlining and showed that the strains are aerobic chemoheterotrophs sharing central metabolic pathways, with some differences among tribes that may underlie niche diversification within the acI lineage. Actinorhodopsin was found in all strains, but retinal biosynthesis was complete in only A1 and A4 tribes. PMID:28186143

  6. Chandra and HST Imaging of the Quasars PKS B0106+013 and 3C 345: Inverse Compton X-Rays and Magnetized Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharb, P.; Lister, M. L.; Marshall, H. L.; Hogan, B. S.

    2012-04-01

    We present results from deep (~70 ks) Chandra/ACIS observations and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys F475W observations of two highly optically polarized quasars belonging to the MOJAVE blazar sample, viz., PKS B0106+013 and 1641+399 (3C 345). These observations reveal X-ray and optical emissions from the jets in both sources. X-ray emission is detected from the entire length of the 0106+013 radio jet, which shows clear bends or wiggles—the X-ray emission is brightest at the first prominent kiloparsec jet bend. A picture of a helical kiloparsec jet with the first kiloparsec-scale bend representing a jet segment moving close(r) to our line of sight, and getting Doppler boosted at both radio and X-ray frequencies, is consistent with these observations. The X-ray emission from the jet end, however, peaks at about 0farcs4 (~3.4 kpc) upstream of the radio hot spot. Optical emission is detected both at the X-ray jet termination peak and at the radio hot spot. The X-ray jet termination peak is found upstream of the radio hot spot by around 0farcs2 (~1.3 kpc) in the short projected jet of 3C 345. HST optical emission is seen in an arc-like structure coincident with the bright radio hot spot, which we propose is a sharp (apparent) jet bend instead of a terminal point, that crosses our line of sight and consequently has a higher Doppler beaming factor. A weak radio hot spot is indeed observed less than 1'' downstream of the bright radio hot spot, but has no optical or X-ray counterpart. By making use of the parsec-scale radio and the kiloparsec-scale radio/X-ray data, we derive constraints on the jet Lorentz factors (Γjet) and inclination angles (θ): for a constant jet speed from parsec to kiloparsec scales, we obtain a Γjet of ~70 for 0106+013 and ~40 for 3C 345. On relaxing this assumption, we derive a Γjet of ~2.5 for both the sources. Upper limits on θ of ~13° are obtained for the two quasars. Broadband (radio-optical-X-ray) spectral

  7. Cosmological constraints from Chandra observations of galaxy clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Steven W

    2002-09-15

    Chandra observations of rich, relaxed galaxy clusters allow the properties of the X-ray gas and the total gravitating mass to be determined precisely. Here, we present results for a sample of the most X-ray luminous, dynamically relaxed clusters known. We show that the Chandra data and independent gravitational lensing studies provide consistent answers on the mass distributions in the clusters. The mass profiles exhibit a form in good agreement with the predictions from numerical simulations. Combining Chandra results on the X-ray gas mass fractions in the clusters with independent measurements of the Hubble constant and the mean baryonic matter density in the Universe, we obtain a tight constraint on the mean total matter density of the Universe, Omega(m), and an interesting constraint on the cosmological constant, Omega(Lambda). We also describe the 'virial relations' linking the masses, X-ray temperatures and luminosities of galaxy clusters. These relations provide a key step in linking the observed number density and spatial distribution of clusters to the predictions from cosmological models. The Chandra data confirm the presence of a systematic offset of ca. 40% between the normalization of the observed mass-temperature relation and the predictions from standard simulations. This finding leads to a significant revision of the best-fit value of sigma(8) inferred from the observed temperature and luminosity functions of clusters.

  8. Chandra: Ten Years of Amazing Science with a Great Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2009-01-01

    We review briefly review the history of the development of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, highlighting certain details that many attendees of this Conference might not be aware of. We then present a selection of scientific highlights of the first 10 years of this remarkable and unique mission.

  9. Romanticism or Reality? An Exploration of Frances Mary Hendry's "Chandra."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jilaine

    This paper singles out a novel written for children about India, "Chandra" (1995) by Frances Mary Hendry, as a powerful and useful novel to present to today's 11 to 14 year old students. The paper contends that the novel allows students to explore and consider different value systems, challenges them to become aware of prejudice and the…

  10. Highlights and Discoveries from the Chandra X-ray Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Tananbaum, H; Tucker, W; Wilkes, B; Edmonds, P

    2014-01-01

    Within 40 years of the detection of the first extrasolar X-ray source in 1962,NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has achieved an increase in sensitivity of 10 orders of magnitude, comparable to the gain in going from naked-eye observations to the most powerful optical telescopes over the past 400 years. Chandra is unique in its capabilities for producing sub-arcsecond X-ray images with 100-200 eV energy resolution for energies in the range 0.08Chandra mission provides a long observing baseline with stable and well-calibrated instruments, enabling temporal studies over time-scales from milliseconds to years. In this report we present a selection of highlights that illustrate how observations using Chandra, sometimes alone, but often in conjunction with other telescopes, have deepened, and in some instances revolutionized, our understanding ...

  11. Highlights and discoveries from the Chandra X-ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tananbaum, H.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Tucker, W.; Wilkes, B.; Edmonds, P.

    2014-06-01

    Within 40 years of the detection of the first extra-solar x-ray source in 1962, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has achieved an increase in sensitivity of 10 orders of magnitude, comparable to the gain in going from naked-eye observations to the most powerful optical telescopes over the past 400 years. Chandra is unique in its capabilities for producing sub-arcsecond x-ray images with 100-200 eV energy resolution for energies in the range 0.08 cosmic phenomena. The extended Chandra mission provides a long observing baseline with stable and well-calibrated instruments, enabling temporal studies over timescales from milliseconds to years. In this report we present a selection of highlights that illustrate how observations using Chandra, sometimes alone, but often in conjunction with other telescopes, have deepened, and in some instances revolutionized, our understanding of topics as diverse as protoplanetary nebulae; massive stars; supernova explosions; pulsar wind nebulae; the superfluid interior of neutron stars; accretion flows around black holes; the growth of supermassive black holes and their role in the regulation of star formation and growth of galaxies; impacts of collisions, mergers, and feedback on growth and evolution of groups and clusters of galaxies; and properties of dark matter and dark energy.

  12. Chandra Opens New Line of Investigation on Dark Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    Astronomers have detected and probed dark energy by applying a powerful, new method that uses images of galaxy clusters made by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. The results trace the transition of the expansion of the Universe from a decelerating to an accelerating phase several billion years ago, and give intriguing clues about the nature of dark energy and the fate of the Universe. "Dark energy is perhaps the biggest mystery in physics," said Steve Allen of the Institute of Astronomy (IoA) at the University of Cambridge in England, and leader of the study. "As such, it is extremely important to make an independent test of its existence and properties." Abell 2029 Chandra X-ray Image of Abell 2029 Allen and his colleagues used Chandra to study 26 clusters of galaxies at distances corresponding to light travel times of between one and eight billion years. These data span the time when the Universe slowed from its original expansion, before speeding up again because of the repulsive effect of dark energy. "We're directly seeing that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating by measuring the distances to these galaxy clusters," said Andy Fabian also of the IoA, a co-author on the study. The new Chandra results suggest that the dark energy density does not change quickly with time and may even be constant, consistent with the "cosmological constant" concept first introduced by Albert Einstein. If so, the Universe is expected to continue expanding forever, so that in many billions of years only a tiny fraction of the known galaxies will be observable. More Animations Animation of the "Big Rip" If the dark energy density is constant, more dramatic fates for the Universe would be avoided. These include the "Big Rip," where dark energy increases until galaxies, stars, planets and eventually atoms are eventually torn apart. The "Big Crunch," where the Universe eventually collapses on itself, would also be ruled out. Chandra's probe of dark energy relies on the unique

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The COSMOS-Legacy Survey (CLS) catalog (Civano+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civano, F.; Marchesi, S.; Comastri, A.; Urry, M. C.; Elvis, M.; Cappelluti, N.; Puccetti, S.; Brusa, M.; Zamorani, G.; Hasinger, G.; Aldcroft, T.; Alexander, D. M.; Allevato, V.; Brunner, H.; Capak, P.; Finoguenov, A.; Fiore, F.; Fruscione, A.; Gilli, R.; Glotfelty, K.; Griffiths, R. E.; Hao, H.; Harrison, F. A.; Jahnke, K.; Kartaltepe, J.; Karim, A.; Lamassa, S. M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Miyaji, T.; Ranalli, P.; Salvato, M.; Sargent, M.; Scoville, N. J.; Schawinski, K.; Schinnerer, E.; Silverman, J.; Smolcic, V.; Stern, D.; Toft, S.; Trakhenbrot, B.; Treister, E.; Vignali, C.

    2016-05-01

    The half-a-field shift tiling strategy was designed to uniformly cover the COSMOS Hubble area in depth and point-spread function (PSF) size by combining the old C-COSMOS (Elvis+, 2009, J/ApJS/184/158) observations with the new Chandra ones (see Figure 1). We summarize the main properties of the new ACIS-I Chandra COSMOS-Legacy observations in Table 1. The observations took place in four blocks: 2012 November to 2013 January; 2013 March to July; 2013 October to 2014 January; and 2014 March. The mean net effective exposure time per field was 48.8ks after all the cleaning and reduction operations. (2 data files).

  14. Chandra Studies of Unidentified X-ray Sources in the Galactic Bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hideyuki

    2013-09-01

    We propose to study a complete X-ray sample in the luminosity range of > 10^34 erg s^-1 in the Galactic bulge, including 5 unidentified sources detected in the ROSAT All Sky Survey. Our goal is to obtain a clear picture about X-ray populations in the bulge, by utilizing the excellent Chandra position accuracy leading to unique optical identification together with the X-ray spectral properties. This is a new step toward understanding the formation history of the bulge. Furthermore, because the luminosity range we observe corresponds to a ``missing link'' region ever studied for a neutron star or blackhole X-ray binary, our results are also unique to test accretion disk theories at intermediate mass accretion rates.

  15. 14th ACIS/IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Studies in Computational Intelligence : Volume 492

    2013-01-01

    This edited book presents scientific results of the 14th ACIS/IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing (SNPD 2013), held in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA on July 1-3, 2013. The aim of this conference was to bring together scientists, engineers, computer users, and students to share their experiences and exchange new ideas, research results about all aspects (theory, applications and tools) of computer and information science, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered along the way and the solutions adopted to solve them. The conference organizers selected the 17 outstanding papers from those papers accepted for presentation at the conference.  

  16. 15th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This edited book presents scientific results of 15th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing (SNPD 2014) held on June 30 – July 2, 2014 in Las Vegas Nevada, USA. The aim of this conference was to bring together scientists, engineers, computer users, and students to share their experiences and exchange new ideas, research results about all aspects (theory, applications and tools) of computer and information science, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered along the way and the solutions adopted to solve them. The conference organizers selected the 13 outstanding papers from those papers accepted for presentation at the conference.

  17. Simulating the sensitivity to stellar point sources of Chandra X-ray observations

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Nicholas J; Guarcello, Mario G; Kashyap, Vinay L; Zezas, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The Chandra Cygnus OB2 Legacy Survey is a wide and deep X-ray survey of the nearby and massive Cygnus OB2 association. The survey has detected ~8,000 X-ray sources, the majority of which are pre-main sequence X-ray emitting young stars in the association itself. To facilitate quantitative scientific studies of these sources as well as the underlying OB association it is important to understand the sensitivity of the observations and the level of completeness the observations have obtained. Here we describe the use of a hierarchical Monte Carlo simulation to achieve this goal by combining the empirical properties of the observations, analytic estimates of the source verification process, and an extensive set of source detection simulations. We find that our survey reaches a 90% completeness level for a pre-main-sequence population at the distance of Cyg OB2 at an X-ray luminosity of 4 x 10^30 ergs/s and a stellar mass of 1.3 Msun for a randomly distributed population. For a spatially clustered population such ...

  18. Chandra and Swift Observations of Unidentified Fermi-LAT Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Davide; Cheung, T.; Gehrels, N.

    2010-03-01

    In the last year we targeted some of the unidentified Fermi-LAT objects (UFOs) at high Galactic latitude with Chandra and Swift in order to determine the basic properties (positions, fluxes, hardness ratios) of all X-ray sources within the Fermi-LAT localization circles. These satellites enable us to detect the X-ray conterparts with a flux limit that is at least an order of magnitude lower than achieved in extant RASS data and to further follow-up at other wavelengths, with the ultimate goal to reveal the nature of these enigmatic gamma-ray sources. Here we present the results obtained with 5 Chandra pointings of high Galactic latitude UFOs in the Fermi-LAT 3-months bright source list. The association of detected X-ray sources within the improved 11-months Fermi-LAT localization circles with available optical and radio observations is discussed.

  19. Adapative software solutions: lessons learned from Chandra flight operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shropshire, Daniel P.; Bucher, Sabina; Rose, Joseph

    2006-06-01

    After over 6 highly successful years on orbit, the Chandra X-ray Observatory continues to deliver world class science to members of the X-ray community. Much of this success can be attributed to an excellent space vehicle, however; the creation of several unique software tools has allowed for extremely efficient and smooth running operations. The Chandra Flight Operations Team, staffed by members of Northrop Grumman Space Technology, has created a suite of software tools designed to help optimize on-console operations, mission planning and scheduling, and spacecraft engineering and trending. Many of these tools leverage COTS products and Web based technologies. We describe the original mission concepts, need for supplemental software tools, development and implementation, use of these tools in the current operations scenario, and efficiency improvements due to their use.

  20. Highlights and discoveries from the Chandra X-ray Observatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tananbaum, H; Weisskopf, M C; Tucker, W; Wilkes, B; Edmonds, P

    2014-06-01

    Within 40 years of the detection of the first extra-solar x-ray source in 1962, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has achieved an increase in sensitivity of 10 orders of magnitude, comparable to the gain in going from naked-eye observations to the most powerful optical telescopes over the past 400 years. Chandra is unique in its capabilities for producing sub-arcsecond x-ray images with 100-200 eV energy resolution for energies in the range 0.08 black holes; the growth of supermassive black holes and their role in the regulation of star formation and growth of galaxies; impacts of collisions, mergers, and feedback on growth and evolution of groups and clusters of galaxies; and properties of dark matter and dark energy.

  1. A Chandra view of the normal S0 galaxy NGC 1332: I. An unbroken, steep power law luminosity function for the LMXB population

    CERN Document Server

    Humphrey, P J

    2004-01-01

    Chandra ACIS-S3 observations of the S0 galaxy NGC 1332 resolve much of the emission into 73 point-sources, of which 37 lie within the D_25 isophote. The unresolved emission is discussed in two companion papers. The source luminosity function (XLF) shows the break seen in other early-type galaxies at \\~2x10^{38}ergs/s. After correcting for detection incompleteness due to source confusion and contamination from diffuse emission, the break vanishes and the data are well-described as a single power law. This casts further doubt on there being a ``universal'' XLF break in such galaxies dividing neutron-star and black-hole systems. The slope of the differential XLF (dN/dL), beta=2.7+/-0.5, is steeper than has been found for analogous fits of other early-type galaxies but resembles what is generally seen at high luminosities. Two of the sources within D_25 are ULX, although neither have L_X>2x 10^{39} ergs/s. The absence of very luminous ULX in early-type galaxies suggests a break in the XLF slope at ~1-2x 10^{39} e...

  2. Chandra Observation of an X-ray Flare at Saturn: Evidence for Direct Solar Control on Saturn's Disk X-ray Emissions

    CERN Document Server

    Bhardwaj, A; Elsner, R F; Ford, P G; Gladstone, G R; Bhardwaj, Anil; Cravens, Thomas E.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Ford, Peter G.

    2005-01-01

    Saturn was observed by Chandra ACIS-S on 20 and 26-27 January 2004 for one full Saturn rotation (10.7 hr) at each epoch. We report here the first observation of an X-ray flare from Saturn's non-auroral (low-latitude) disk, which is seen in direct response to an M6-class flare emanating from a sunspot that was clearly visible from both Saturn and Earth. Saturn's disk X-ray emissions are found to be variable on time scales of hours to weeks to months, and correlated with solar F10.7 cm flux. Unlike Jupiter, X-rays from Saturn's polar (auroral) region have characteristics similar to those from its disk. This report, combined with earlier studies, establishes that disk X-ray emissions of the giant planets Saturn and Jupiter are directly regulated by processes happening on the Sun. We suggest that these emissions could be monitored to study X-ray flaring from solar active regions when they are on the far side and not visible to Near-Earth space weather satellites.

  3. A Chandra X-ray study of the young star cluster NGC 6231: low-mass population and initial mass function

    CERN Document Server

    Damiani, F; Sciortino, S

    2016-01-01

    NGC6231 is a massive young star cluster, near the center of the Sco OB1 association. While its OB members are well studied, its low-mass population has received little attention. We present high-spatial resolution Chandra ACIS-I X-ray data, where we detect 1613 point X-ray sources. Our main aim is to clarify global properties of NGC6231 down to low masses through a detailed membership assessment, and to study the cluster stars' spatial distribution, the origin of their X-ray emission, the cluster age and formation history, and initial mass function. We use X-ray data, complemented by optical/IR data, to establish cluster membership. The spatial distribution of different stellar subgroups also provides highly significant constraints on cluster membership, as does the distribution of X-ray hardness. We perform spectral modeling of group-stacked X-ray source spectra. We find a large cluster population down to ~0.3 Msun (complete to ~1 Msun), with minimal non-member contamination, with a definite age spread (1-8 ...

  4. Merger-driven Fueling of Active Galactic Nuclei: Six Dual and Offset Active Galactic Nuclei Discovered with Chandra and Hubble Space Telescope Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Comerford, Julia M; Barrows, R Scott; Greene, Jenny E; Zakamska, Nadia L; Madejski, Greg M; Cooper, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    Dual active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and offset AGNs are kpc-scale separation supermassive black holes pairs created during galaxy mergers, where both or one of the black holes are AGNs, respectively. These dual and offset AGNs are valuable probes of the link between mergers and AGNs but are challenging to identify. Here we present Chandra/ACIS observations of 12 optically-selected dual AGN candidates at z < 0.34, where we use the X-rays to identify AGNs. We also present HST/WFC3 observations of 10 of these candidates, which reveal any stellar bulges accompanying the AGNs. We discover a dual AGN system with separation of 2.2 kpc, where the two stellar bulges have coincident [O III] and X-ray sources. This system is an extremely minor merger (460:1) that may include a dwarf galaxy hosting an intermediate mass black hole. We also find six single AGNs, and five systems that are either dual or offset AGNs with separations < 10 kpc. Four of the six dual AGNs and dual/offset AGNs are in ongoing major mergers, a...

  5. A Chandra observation of the long-duration X-ray transient KS 1731-260 in quiescence too cold a neutron star?

    CERN Document Server

    Wijnands, R; Markwardt, C B; Lewin, W H G; Van der Klis, M; Wijnands, Rudy; Miller, Jon M.; Markwardt, Craig; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Klis, Michiel van der

    2001-01-01

    After more than a decade of actively accreting at about a tenth of the Eddington critical mass accretion rate, the neutron-star X-ray transient KS 1731-260 returned to quiescence in early 2001. We present a Chandra/ACIS-S observation taken several months after this transition. We detected the source at an unabsorbed flux of ~2 x 10^{-13} erg/s/cm^2 (0.5-10 keV). For a distance of 7 kpc, this results in a 0.5-10 keV luminosity of ~1 x 10^{33} erg/s and a bolometric luminosity approximately twice that. The quiescent luminosity of KS 1731-260 is very similar to that of the other quiescent neutron star systems. However, if this quiescent X-ray luminosity is due to the cooling of the neutron star, this low luminosity may indicate that the source spends several hundreds of years in quiescence in between outbursts for the neutron star to cool. If true, then it might be the first such X-ray transient to be identified and a class of several hundred similar systems might be present in the Galaxy. Alternatively, enhance...

  6. Studying the Evolving Universe with XMM-Newton and Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Hasinger, G

    2003-01-01

    First indications of the warm/hot intergalactic medium, tracing out the large scale structure of the universe, have been obtained in sensitive Chandra and XMM-Newton high resolution absorption line spectroscopy of bright blazars. High resolution X-ray spectroscopy and imaging also provides important new constraints on the physical condition of the cooling matter in the centers of clusters, requiring major modifications to the standard cooling flow models. XMM-Newton and Chandra low resolution spectroscopy detected significant Fe K_alpha absorption features in the spectrum of the ultraluminous, high redshift lensed broad absorption line QSO APM 08279+5255, yielding new insights in the outflow geometry indicating a supersolar Fe/O ratio. Chandra high resolution imaging spectroscopy of the nearby ULIRG/obscured QSO NGC 6240 for the first time gave evidence of two active supermassive black holes in the same galaxy, likely bound to coalesce in the course of the ongoing major merger in this galaxy. Deep X-ray surve...

  7. Cross-matching within the Chandra Source Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rots, Arnold H.; Burke, Douglas J.; Civano, Francesca; Hain, Roger; Nguyen, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Cross-matching among overlapping source detections in the development of the Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) presents considerable challenges, since the Point Spread Function (PSF) of the Chandra X-ray Observatory varies significantly over the field of view. For the production of the second release of the CSC we have developed a cross-match tool that is based on the Bayesian algorithms by Budavari, Heinis, and Szalay (ApJ 679, 301 and 705, 739), making use of the error ellipses for the derived positions of the detections.However, calculating match probabilities only on the basis of error ellipses breaks down when the PSFs are significantly different. This is an issue that is not commonly addressed in cross-match tools. We have applied a satisfactory modification to the algorithm that, although not perfect, ameliorates the issue for the vast majority of such cases.A separate issue is that as the number of overlapping detections increases, the number of matches to be considered increases at an alarming rate, requiring procedural adjustments to ensure that the cross-matching finishes within a Hubble time.We intend to make the tool available as a general purpose cross-match engine for calculating match probabilities between sources in multiple catalogs simultaneously.This work has been supported by NASA under contract NAS 8-03060 to the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for operation of the Chandra X-ray Center.

  8. Chandra Grating Spectroscopy of Three Hot White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczak, J.; Werner, K.; Rauch, T.; Schuh, S.; Drake, J. J.; Kruk, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopic observations of single hot white dwarfs are scarce. With the Chandra Low-Energy Transmission Grating, we have observed two white dwarfs, one is of spectral type DA (LB1919) and the other is a non-DA of spectral type PG1159 (PG1520+525). The spectra of both stars are analyzed, together with an archival Chandra spectrum of another DA white dwarf (GD246). Aims. The soft X-ray spectra of the two DA white dwarfs are investigated in order to study the effect of gravitational settling and radiative levitation of metals in their photospheres. LB1919 is of interest because it has a significantly lower metallicity than DAs with otherwise similar atmospheric parameters. GD246 is the only white dwarf known that shows identifiable individual iron lines in the soft X-ray range. For the PG1159 star, a precise effective temperature determination is performed in order to confine the position of the blue edge of the GW Vir instability region in the HRD. Methods. The Chandra spectra are analyzed with chemically homogeneous as well as stratified NLTE model atmospheres that assume equilibrium between gravitational settling and radiative acceleration of chemical elements. Archival EUV and UV spectra obtained with EUVE, FUSE, and HST are utilized to support the analysis. Results. No metals could be identified in LB1919. All observations are compatible with a pure hydrogen atmosphere. This is in stark contrast to the vast majority of hot DA white dwarfs that exhibit light and heavy metals and to the stratified models that predict significant metal abundances in the atmosphere. For GD246 we find that neither stratified nor homogeneous models can fit the Chandra spectrum. The Chandra spectrum of PG1520+525 constrains the effective temperature to T(sub eff) = 150 000 +/- 10 000 K. Therefore, this nonpulsating star together with the pulsating prototype of the GWVir class (PG1159-035) defines the location of the blue edge of the GWVir instability region

  9. Chandra Reviews Black Hole Musical: Epic But Off-Key

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    A gigantic sonic boom generated by a supermassive black hole has been found with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, along with evidence for a cacophony of deep sound. This discovery was made by using data from the longest X-ray observation ever of M87, a nearby giant elliptical galaxy. M87 is centrally located in the Virgo cluster of galaxies and is known to harbor one of the Universe's most massive black holes. Scientists detected loops and rings in the hot, X-ray emitting gas that permeates the cluster and surrounds the galaxy. These loops provide evidence for periodic eruptions that occurred near the supermassive black hole, and that generate changes in pressure, or pressure waves, in the cluster gas that manifested themselves as sound. Chandra Low Energy X-ray Images of M87 Chandra Low Energy X-ray Images of M87 "We can tell that many deep and different sounds have been rumbling through this cluster for most of the lifetime of the Universe," said William Forman of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). The outbursts in M87, which happen every few million years, prevent the huge reservoir of gas in the cluster from cooling and forming many new stars. Without these outbursts and resultant heating, M87 would not be the elliptical galaxy it is today. "If this black hole wasn't making all of this noise, M87 could have been a completely different type of galaxy," said team member Paul Nulsen, also of the CfA, "possibly a huge spiral galaxy about 30 times brighter than the Milky Way." Chandra High Energy X-ray Image of M87 Chandra High Energy X-ray Image of M87 The outbursts result when material falls toward the black hole. While most of the matter is swallowed, some of it was violently ejected in jets. These jets are launched from regions close to the black hole (neither light nor sound can escape from the black hole itself) and push into the cluster's gas, generating cavities and sound which then propagate outwards. Chandra's M87 observations also

  10. Dark Energy, Black Holes and Exploding Stars: NASA's Chandra Observatory Marks Five Years of Scientific Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    On Aug. 12, 1999, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory opened its sunshade doors for the first time, allowing celestial X-ray light to reach the observatory's mirrors. This one small step for the observatory proved to be a giant leap for science as Chandra began its mission to shed new light on a violent, mysterious universe invisible to the human eye. The Marshall Center manages the Chandra program. On August 12, 1999, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory opened its sunshade doors for the first time, allowing celestial X-ray light to reach the observatory's mirrors. This one small step for the observatory proved to be a giant leap for science as Chandra began its mission to shed new light on a violent, mysterious universe invisible to the human eye. "Humans cannot see X-rays, but Chandra can," said Chandra project scientist Dr. Martin C. Weisskopf of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. "And what the observatory has revealed in five short years has been nothing short of amazing. Thanks to Chandra, we've gleaned new information on dark energy, black holes, exploding stars and all other categories of astronomical objects." "Chandra's resolving power is equivalent to the ability to read a newspaper headline a half-mile away," said Chandra Program Manager Keith Hefner of the Marshall Center. "It's an engineering marvel that has performed nearly flawlessly and provided major science discoveries over the past five years." A Chandra timeline reveals some of its most noteworthy discoveries: * Chandra finds a ring around the Crab Nebula. After only two months in space, the observatory reveals a brilliant ring around the heart of the Crab Pulsar in the Crab Nebula - the remains of a stellar explosion - providing clues about how the nebula is energized by a pulsing neutron, or collapsed, star. (Sept. 28, 1999) * Chandra reveals a possible black hole in the Milky Way. Culminating 25 years of searching by astronomers, researchers say that a faint X-ray source, newly

  11. The Chandra X-ray Observatory is prepped for solar panel deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    In the Vertical Processing Facility, a TRW technician checks the attachment of the solar panel array (out of sight to the right) to the Chandra X-ray Observatory, at left. Formerly called the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, Chandra comprises three major elements: the spacecraft, the science instrument module (SIM), and the world's most powerful X-ray telescope. Chandra will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high-temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe. Chandra is scheduled for launch July 9 aboard Space Shuttle Columbia, on mission STS-93.

  12. CHANDRA HIGH-RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS OF CID-42, A CANDIDATE RECOILING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Civano, F.; Elvis, M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Aldcroft, T.; Trichas, M.; Fruscione, A. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bongiorno, A.; Brusa, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Blecha, L.; Loeb, A. [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Comastri, A.; Gilli, R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, Bologna 40127 (Italy); Salvato, M.; Komossa, S. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, Excellence Cluster, Boltzmannstrass 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Koekemoer, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Mainieri, V. [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Piconcelli, E. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, Monteporzio-Catone 00040 (Italy); Vignali, C. [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, Bologna 40127 (Italy)

    2012-06-10

    We present Chandra High Resolution Camera observations of CID-42, a candidate recoiling supermassive black hole (SMBH) at z = 0.359 in the COSMOS survey. CID-42 shows two optical compact sources resolved in the HST/ACS image embedded in the same galaxy structure and a velocity offset of {approx}1300 km s{sup -1} between the H{beta} broad and narrow emission line, as presented by Civano et al. Two scenarios have been proposed to explain the properties of CID-42: a gravitational wave (GW) recoiling SMBH and a double Type 1/Type 2 active galactic nucleus (AGN) system, where one of the two is recoiling because of slingshot effect. In both scenarios, one of the optical nuclei hosts an unobscured AGN, while the other one, either an obscured AGN or a star-forming compact region. The X-ray Chandra data allow us to unambiguously resolve the X-ray emission and unveil the nature of the two optical sources in CID-42. We find that only one of the optical nuclei is responsible for the whole X-ray unobscured emission observed and a 3{sigma} upper limit on the flux of the second optical nucleus is measured. The upper limit on the X-ray luminosity plus the analysis of the multiwavelength spectral energy distribution indicate the presence of a star-forming region in the second source rather than an obscured SMBH, thus favoring the GW recoil scenario. However, the presence of a very obscured SMBH cannot be fully ruled out. A new X-ray feature, in a SW direction with respect to the main source, is discovered and discussed.

  13. Lessons Learned Designing and Building the Chandra Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenberg, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    This poster offers some of the major lessons learned by key members of the Chandra Telescope team. These lessons are gleaned from our experiences developing, designing, building and testing the telescope and its subsystems, with 15 years of hindsight. Among the topics to be discussed are the early developmental tests, known as VETA-I and VETA-II, requirements derivation, the impact of late requirements and reflection on the conservatism in the design process. This poster offers some opinions on how these lessons can affect future missions.

  14. Chandra Observations of Tycho’s Supernova Remnant

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U. Hwang; R. Petre; A. E. Szymkowiak; S. S. Holt

    2002-03-01

    We present a new Chandra observation of Tycho’s supernova remnant with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer. Multicolor X-ray imaging reveals new details of the outer shock and ejecta. At energies between 4 and 6 keV, the outline of the outer shock is clearly revealed in X-rays for the first time. The distribution of the emission from lines of Si and Fe are confirmed to have a different morphology from each other, and the Si ejecta are shown to extend to the blast shock at several locations. Characteristic spectra of the outer shock and ejecta are also presented.

  15. A Million-Second Chandra View of Cassiopeia A

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, U; Badenes, C; Berends, F A; Blondin, J M; Cioffi, D; Delaney, T A; Dewey, D; Fesen, R A; Flanagan, K A; Fryer, C L; Ghavamian, P; Hughes, J P; Morse, J A; Plucinsky, P P; Petre, R; Pohl, M; Rudnick, L; Sankrit, R; Slane, P O; Smith, R K; Vink, J; Warren, J S; Hwang, Una; Badenes, Carles; Berendse, Fred; Blondin, John; Cioffi, Denis; Laney, Tracey De; Dewey, Daniel; Fesen, Robert; Flanagan, Kathryn A.; Fryer, Christopher L.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Hughes, John P.; Morse, Jon A.; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Petre, Robert; Pohl, Martin; Rudnick, Lawrence; Sankrit, Ravi; Slane, Patrick O.; Smith, Randall K.; Vink, Jacco; Warren, Jessica S.

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a million-second observation of the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The bipolar structure of the Si-rich ejecta (NE jet and SW counterpart) is clearly evident in the new images, and their chemical similarity is confirmed by their spectra. These are most likely due to jets of ejecta as opposed to cavities in the circumstellar medium, since we can reject simple models for the latter. The properties of these jets and the Fe-rich ejecta will provide clues to the explosion of Cas A.

  16. 17th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    SNPD 2016

    2016-01-01

    This edited book presents scientific results of the 17th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing (SNPD 2016) which was held on May 30 - June 1, 2016 in Shanghai, China. The aim of this conference was to bring together researchers and scientists, businessmen and entrepreneurs, teachers, engineers, computer users, and students to discuss the numerous fields of computer science and to share their experiences and exchange new ideas and information in a meaningful way. Research results about all aspects (theory, applications and tools) of computer and information science, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered along the way and the solutions adopted to solve them.

  17. 6th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This edited book presents scientific results of the 16th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing (SNPD 2015) which was held on June 1 – 3, 2015 in Takamatsu, Japan. The aim of this conference was to bring together researchers and scientists, businessmen and entrepreneurs, teachers, engineers, computer users, and students to discuss the numerous fields of computer science and to share their experiences and exchange new ideas and information in a meaningful way. Research results about all aspects (theory, applications and tools) of computer and information science, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered along the way and the solutions adopted to solve them.

  18. The Calan-Yale Deep Extragalactic Research (CYDER) Survey: Optical Properties and Deep Spectroscopy of Extragalactic Serendipitous X-Ray Sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.S. Coppi; E. Treister; F.J. Castander; T.J. Maccarone; E. Gawiser; J. Maza; D. Herrera; C.M. Urry; V. Gonzalez; C. Montoya; P. Pineda

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of deep optical imaging and spectroscopy of archival Chandra sources with intermediate fluxes (>1e-15 erg/cm2/sec). 267 Chandra sources were detected in 5 archival fields, with 106 spectroscopic IDs obtained using Magellan and the VLT. The survey is designed to fill the gap be

  19. The Jet/Disk Connection in AGN: Chandra and XMM-Newton Observations of Three Powerful Radio-Loud Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambruna, Rita; Gliozzi, Mario; Tavecchio, F.; Maraschi, L.; Foschini, Luigi

    2007-01-01

    The connection between the accretion process that powers AGN and the formation of jets is still poorly understood. Here we tackle this issue using new, deep Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of tlie cores of three powerful radio loud quasars: 1136-135, 1150+497 (Chandra), and 0723+679 (XMM-Newton), in the redshift range z=0.3-0.8. These sources are known from our previous Chandra siiapsliot survey to liave kpc-scale X-ray jets. In 1136-135 and 1150-1+497; evidence is found for the presence of diffuse thermal X-ray emission around the cores; on scales of 40-50 kpc and with luminosity L(sub 0.3-2 kev approx. 10(sup 43) erg per second, suggesting thermal emission from the host galaxy or a galaxy group. The X-ray continua of the cores in the three sources are described by an upward-curved (concave) broken power law, with photon indices GAMMA (sub soft) approx. 1.8 - 2.1 and GAMMA (sub hard) approx. 1.7 below and above approx. equal to 2 keV, respectively. There is evidence for an uiiresolved Fe K alpha line with EW approx. 70 eV in the three quasars. The Spectral Energy Distributions of the sources can be well described by a mix of jet and disk emission, with the jet dominating the radio and hard X-rays (via synchrotron and external Compton) and the disk dominating the optical/UV through soft X-rays. The ratio of the jet-to-disk powers is approx. 1, consistent with those derived for a number of gamma ray emitting blazars. This indicates that near equality of accretion and jet power may be common in powerful radio-loud AGN.

  20. Chandra and XMM–Newton Observations of H2O Maser Galaxy Mrk 348

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Wang; J. S. Zhang; Q. Guo

    2014-09-01

    For H2O megamaser galaxy Mrk 348, Chandra and XMM–Newton data are analysed. The nuclear fitting results of XMM–Newton data suggest the possible existence of a heavily obscured AGN. But the nuclear spectrum extracted from Chandra cannot be well-fitted by the best fitting model for XMM–Newton. Further optimal fitting and discussions are needed.

  1. Historical Remembrances of the Chandra X-ray Observatory: How Partnerships Created Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Robert

    2009-09-01

    As the astronomy community plans for new ventures in space, we're forced to find creative solutions to operate within the ever increasing fiscal constraints of the current economic environment. The Chandra X-ray Observatory program offers an example of how missions can be successfully developed within manageable budget constraints. The ten year anniversary offers us the chance to look back at the Chandra team's special partnership between scientists, managers, and industry that led to our success.Chandra experienced many of the challenges common to major observatories: state-of-the-art technical requirements, budget-induced slips, and restructurings. Yet the Chandra team achieved excellent performance for dramatically lower cost. In fact, Chandra completed its prime mission for billions of dollars less than originally planned. In 1992, NASA MSFC and Northrop Grumman (then TRW) together led a major restructure that saved approximately 3.4B in program cost, while we improved the imaging capability and observing efficiency of Chandra. This was accomplished by a combination of team-work, systems engineering, advanced technology insertion, and effective approaches for program implementation, combined with a high performance culture that aligned goals and focused on mission success. Northrop Grumman is proud of our role in supporting the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and our academic partners in advancing the frontiers of x-ray astronomy and scientific discovery with Chandra. As Chandra continues its extended mission, the observatory continues to provide superb scientific performance.

  2. Groups of Galaxies in AEGIS: The 200 ksec Chandra Extended X-ray Source catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Jeltema, Tesla E; Laird, Elise S; Willmer, Christopher N A; Coil, Alison L; Cooper, Michael C; Davis, Marc; Nandra, Kirpal; Newman, Jeffrey A

    2009-01-01

    We present the discovery of seven X-ray emitting groups of galaxies selected as extended X-ray sources in the 200 ksec Chandra coverage of the All-wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS). In addition, we report on AGN activity associated to these systems. Using the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey coverage, we identify optical counterparts and determine velocity dispersions. In particular, we find three massive high-redshift groups at z>0.7, one of which is at z=1.13, the first X-ray detections of spectroscopically selected DEEP2 groups. We also present a first look at the the L_X-T, L_X-sigma, and sigma-T scaling relations for high-redshift massive groups. We find that the properties of these X-ray selected systems agree well with the scaling relations of similar systems at low redshift, although there are X-ray undetected groups in the DEEP2 catalogue with similar velocity dispersions. The other three X-ray groups with identified redshifts are associated with lower mass groups at z~0.07 and...

  3. Chandra Multiwavelength Project X-ray Point Source Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, M; Wilkes, B J; Green, P J; Kim, E; Anderson, C S; Barkhouse, W A; Evans, N R; Ivezic, Z; Karovska, M; Kashyap, V L; Lee, M G; Maksym, P; Mossman, A E; Silverman, J D; Tananbaum, H D; Kim, Minsun; Kim, Dong-Woo; Wilkes, Belinda J.; Green, Paul J.; Kim, Eunhyeuk; Anderson, Craig S.; Barkhouse, Wayne A.; Evans, Nancy R.; Ivezic, Zeljko; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Maksym, Peter; Mossman, Amy E.; Silverman, John D.; Tananbaum, Harvey D.

    2006-01-01

    We present the Chandra Multiwavelength Project (ChaMP) X-ray point source catalog with ~6,800 X-ray sources detected in 149 Chandra observations covering \\~10 deg^2. The full ChaMP catalog sample is seven times larger than the initial published ChaMP catalog. The exposure time of the fields in our sample ranges from 0.9 to 124 ksec, corresponding to a deepest X-ray flux limit of f_{0.5-8.0} = 9 x 10^{-16} erg/cm2/sec. The ChaMP X-ray data have been uniformly reduced and analyzed with ChaMP-specific pipelines, and then carefully validated by visual inspection. The ChaMP catalog includes X-ray photometric data in 8 different energy bands as well as X-ray spectral hardness ratios and colors. To best utilize the ChaMP catalog, we also present the source reliability, detection probability and positional uncertainty. To quantitatively assess those parameters, we performed extensive simulations. In particular, we present a set of empirical equations: the flux limit as a function of effective exposure time, and the p...

  4. The Chandra Deep Field South the 1 Million Second

    CERN Document Server

    Rosati, P; Giacconi, R; Gilli, R; Hasinger, G; Kewley, L J; Mainieri, V; Nonino, M; Norman, C; Szokoly, G; Wang, J X; Zirm, A W; Bergeron, J; Borgani, S; Gilmozzi, R; Grogin, N A; Koekemoer, A M; Schreier, E J; Zheng, W

    2002-01-01

    We present the main results from our 940 ksec observation of the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS), using the source catalog described in an accompanying paper (Giacconi et al. 2001). We extend the measurement of source number counts to 5.5e-17 erg/cm^2/s in the soft 0.5-2 keV band and 4.5e-16 erg/cm^2/s in the hard 2-10 keV band. The hard band LogN-LogS shows a significant flattening (slope~=0.6) below ~1e-14 erg/cm^2/s, leaving at most 10-15% of the X-ray background (XRB) to be resolved, the main uncertainty lying in the measurement of the total flux of the XRB. On the other hand, the analysis in the very hard 5-10 keV band reveals a relatively steep LogN-LogS (slope ~=1.3) down to 1e-15 erg/cm^2/s. Together with the evidence of a progressive flattening of the average X-ray spectrum near the flux limit, this indicates that there is still a non negligible population of faint hard sources to be discovered at energies not well probed by Chandra, which possibly contribute to the 30 keV bump in the spectrum of the...

  5. Chandra Observes the End of an Era SN 1987A

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Kari A; Park, Sangwook; McCray, Richard; Dwek, Eli; Burrows, David N

    2016-01-01

    Updated imaging and photometric results from Chandra observations of SN 1987A, covering the last 16 years, are presented. We find that the 0.5-2 keV light curve has remained constant at ~8x10^-12 erg s^-1 cm^-2 since 9500 days, with the 3-8 keV light curve continuing to increase until at least 10000 days. The expansion rate of the ring is found to be energy dependent, such that after day 6000 the ring expands faster in the 2-10 keV band than it does at energies <2 keV. Images show a reversal of the east-west asymmetry between 7000 and 8000 days after the explosion. The latest images suggest the southeastern side of the equatorial ring is beginning to fade. Consistent with the latest optical and infrared results, our Chandra analysis indicates the blast wave is now leaving the dense equatorial ring, which marks the beginning of a major change in the evolutionary phase of the supernova remnant 1987A.

  6. The incidence and risk factors of associated acute myocardial infarction (AMI in acute cerebral ischemic (ACI events in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Seifi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between myocardial infarction (AMI and clinical outcome in patients with primary admissions diagnosis of acute cerebral ischemia (ACI in the US. METHODS: Data from Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS was queried from 2002-2011 for inpatient admissions of patients with a primary diagnosis of ACI with and without AMI using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification coding (ICD-9. A multivariate stepwise regression analysis was performed to assess the correlation between identifiable risk factors and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: During 10 years the NIS recorded 886,094 ACI admissions with 17,526 diagnoses of AMI (1.98%. The overall cumulative mortality of cohort was 5.65%. In-hospital mortality was associated with AMI (aOR 3.68; 95% CI 3.49-3.88, p≤0.0001, rTPA administration (aOR 2.39 CI, 2.11-2.71, p<0.0001, older age (aOR 1.03, 95% CI, 1.03-1.03, P<0.0001 and women (aOR 1.06, 95% CI 1.03-1.08, P<0.0001. Overall, mortality risk declined over the course of study; from 20.46% in 2002 to 11.8% in 2011 (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.95-0.96, P<0.0001. Survival analysis demonstrated divergence between the AMI and non-AMI sub-groups over the course of study (log-rank p<0.0001. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that although the prevalence of AMI in patients hospitalized with primary diagnosis of ACI is low, it negatively impacts survival. Considering the high clinical burden of AMI on mortality of ACI patients, a high quality monitoring in the event of cardiac events should be maintained in this patient cohort. Whether prompt diagnosis and treatment of associated cardiovascular diseases may improve outcome, deserves further study.

  7. Measuring redshift through X-ray spectroscopy of galaxy clusters: results from Chandra data and future prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Heng; Borgani, Stefano; Rosati, Piero; Zhu, Zong-Hong

    2011-01-01

    The ubiquitous presence of the Fe line complex in the X-ray spectra of galaxy clusters offers the possibility of measuring their redshift without resorting to spectroscopic follow-up observations. In this paper we assess the accuracy with which the redshift of galaxy clusters can be recovered from X-ray spectral analysis of Chandra archival data. This study indicates a strategy to build large surveys of clusters whose identification and redshift measurement are both based on X-ray data alone. We apply a blind search for K--shell and L--shell Fe line complex in X-ray cluster spectra using Chandra archival observations of galaxy clusters. The presence of the Fe line in the ICM spectra can be detected by simply analyzing the C-statistics variation $\\Delta C_{stat}$ as a function of the redshift parameter. We repeat the measurement under different conditions, and compare the X-ray derived redshift $z_X$ with the one obtained through optical spectroscopy $z_o$. We explore also how a number of priors on metallicity...

  8. The Plerionic Supernova Remnant G21.5-0.9 Powered by PSR J1833-1034: New Spectroscopic and Imaging Results Revealed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Heather; Safi-Harb, Samar

    2010-11-01

    In 1999, the Chandra X-ray Observatory revealed a 150'' radius halo surrounding the 40'' radius pulsar wind nebula (PWN) G21.5-0.9. A 2005 imaging study of G21.5-0.9 showed that the halo is limb-brightened and suggested that this feature is a candidate for the long-sought supernova remnant (SNR) shell. We present a spectral analysis of SNR G21.5-0.9, using the longest effective observation to date (578.6 ks with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) and 278.4 ks with the High-Resolution Camera (HRC)) to study unresolved questions about the spectral nature of remnant features, such as the limb brightening of the X-ray halo and the bright knot in the northern part of the halo. The Chandra analysis favors the non-thermal interpretation of the limb. Its spectrum is fit well with a power-law model with a photon index Γ = 2.13 (1.94-2.33) and a luminosity of Lx (0.5-8 keV) = (2.3 ± 0.6) × 1033 erg s-1 (at an assumed distance of 5.0 kpc). An srcut model was also used to fit the spectrum between the radio and X-ray energies. While the absence of a shell in the radio still prohibits constraining the spectrum at radio wavelengths, we assume a range of spectral indices to infer the 1 GHz flux density and the rolloff frequency of the synchrotron spectrum in X-rays and find that the maximum energy to which electrons are accelerated at the shock ranges from ~60 to 130 TeV (B/10 μG)-1/2, where B is the magnetic field in units of μG. For the northern knot, we constrain previous models and find that a two-component power-law (or srcut) + pshock model provides an adequate fit, with the pshock model requiring a very low ionization timescale and solar abundances for Mg and Si. Our spectroscopic study of PSR J1833-1034, the highly energetic pulsar powering G21.5-0.9, shows that its spectrum is dominated by hard non-thermal X-ray emission with some evidence of a thermal component that represents ~9% of the observed non-thermal emission and that suggests non-standard rapid

  9. Chandra Looks Over a Cosmic Four-Leaf Clover

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    A careful analysis of observations by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory of a rare quadruple quasar has uncovered evidence that possibly a single star in a foreground galaxy magnified X-rays coming from the quasar. This discovery gives astronomers a new and extremely precise probe of the gas flow around the supermassive black hole that powers the quasar. "If our interpretation is correct, then we are seeing details around this black hole that are 50,000 times smaller than either the Hubble Space Telescope or Chandra could see under ordinary circumstances," said George Chartas of Penn State University in University Park, and lead author of a recent article on the Cloverleaf quasar in The Astrophysical Journal. The Cloverleaf quasar is a single object about 11 billion light years from Earth that appears as four images produced by a process known as gravitational lensing. If one or more galaxies lie along the line of sight to a more distant quasar, the gravitational field of the intervening galaxies can bend and magnify the light from the quasar and produce multiple images of it. The four images of the Cloverleaf quasar have been produced by one or more intervening galaxies. Cloverleaf Quasar Chandra X-ray Image of the Cloverleaf quasar One of the images (A), in the Cloverleaf is brighter than the others in both optical and X-ray light. Chartas and his colleagues found the relative brightness of this image was greater in X-ray than in optical light. The X-rays from iron atoms were also enhanced relative to X-rays at lower energies. Since the amount of brightening due to gravitational lensing does not vary with the wavelength, this means that an additional object has magnified the X-rays. The increased magnification of the X-ray light can be explained by gravitational microlensing, an effect which has been used to search for compact stars and planets in our galaxy. Microlensing occurs when a star or a multiple star system passes in front of light from a background object

  10. Chandra Locates Mother Lode of Planetary Ore in Colliding Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered rich deposits of neon, magnesium, and silicon in a pair of colliding galaxies known as The Antennae. When the clouds in which these elements are present cool, an exceptionally high number of stars with planets should form. These results may foreshadow the fate of the Milky Way and its future collision with the Andromeda Galaxy. "The amount of enrichment of elements in The Antennae is phenomenal," said Giuseppina Fabbiano of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in Cambridge, Mass. at a press conference at a meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Atlanta, Ga. "This must be due to a very high rate of supernova explosions in these colliding galaxies." Fabbiano is lead author of a paper on this discovery by a team of U.S. and U.K. scientists that will appear in an upcoming issue of The Astrophysical Journal Letters. When galaxies collide, direct hits between stars are extremely rare, but collisions between huge gas clouds in the galaxies can trigger a stellar baby boom. The most massive of these stars race through their evolution in a few million years and explode as supernovas. Heavy elements manufactured inside these stars are blown away by the explosions and enrich the surrounding gas for thousands of light years. "The amount of heavy elements supports earlier studies that indicate there was a very high rate of relatively recent supernovas, 30 times that of the Milky Way," according to collaborator Andreas Zezas of the CfA. Animation of Colliding Galaxies Animation of Colliding Galaxies The supernova violence also heats the gas to millions of degrees Celsius. This makes much of the matter in the clouds invisible to optical telescopes, but it can be observed by an X-ray telescope. Chandra data revealed for the first time regions of varying enrichment in the galaxies – in one cloud magnesium and silicon are 16 and 24 times as abundant as in the Sun. "These are the kinds of elements that

  11. EXAMINING THE RADIO-LOUD/RADIO-QUIET DICHOTOMY WITH NEW CHANDRA AND VLA OBSERVATIONS OF 13 UGC GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharb, P.; Axon, D. J.; Robinson, A. [Physics Department, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Capetti, A.; Balmaverde, B. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino, Strada Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese (Italy); Chiaberge, M.; Macchetto, D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Grandi, P. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, Bologna (Italy); Giovannini, G. [INAF, Istituto di Radioastronomia di Bologna, via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Montez, R., E-mail: kharb@cis.rit.edu [Center for Imaging Science, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    We present the results from new {approx}15 ks Chandra-ACIS and 4.9 GHz Very Large Array (VLA) observations of 13 galaxies hosting low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs). This completes the multiwavelength study of a sample of 51 nearby early-type galaxies described in Capetti and Balmaverde and Balmaverde and Capetti. The aim of the three previous papers was to explore the connection between the host galaxies and AGN activity in a radio-selected sample. We detect nuclear X-ray emission in eight sources and radio emission in all but one (viz., UGC 6985). The new VLA observations improve the spatial resolution by a factor of 10: the presence of nuclear radio sources in 12 of the 13 galaxies confirms their AGN nature. As previously indicated, the behavior of the X-ray and radio emission in these sources depends strongly on the form of their optical surface brightness profiles derived from Hubble Space Telescope imaging, i.e., on their classification as 'core', 'power-law', or 'intermediate' galaxies. With more than twice the number of 'power-law' and 'intermediate' galaxies compared to previous work, we confirm with a much higher statistical significance that these galaxies lie well above the radio-X-ray correlation established in Fanaroff-Riley type I radio galaxies and the low-luminosity 'core' galaxies. This result highlights the fact that the 'radio-loud/radio-quiet' dichotomy is a function of the host galaxy's optical surface brightness profile. We present radio-optical-X-ray spectral indices for all 51 sample galaxies. Survival statistics point to significant differences in the radio-to-optical and radio-to-X-ray spectral indices between the 'core' and 'power-law galaxies (Gehan's Generalized Wilcoxon test probability p for the two classes being statistically similar is <10{sup -5}), but not in the optical-to-X-ray spectral indices (p = 0.25). Therefore, the

  12. The Effect of Variability on X-Ray Binary Luminosity Functions: Multiple-epoch Observations of NGC 300 with Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, B.; Gross, J.; Williams, B. F.; Eracleous, M.; Gaetz, T. J.; Plucinsky, P. P.; Skillman, E. D.

    2017-01-01

    We have obtained three epochs of Chandra ACIS-I observations (totaling ∼184 ks) of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 300 to study the logN–logS distributions of its X-ray point-source population down to ∼2 × 10‑15 erg s‑1 cm‑2 in the 0.35–8 keV band (equivalent to ∼1036 erg s‑1). The individual epoch logN–logS distributions are best described as the sum of a background active galactic nucleus (AGN) component, a simple power law, and a broken power law, with the shape of the logN–logS distributions sometimes varying between observations. The simple power law and AGN components produce a good fit for “persistent” sources (i.e., with fluxes that remain constant within a factor of ∼2). The differential power-law index of ∼1.2 and high fluxes suggest that the persistent sources intrinsic to NGC 300 are dominated by Roche-lobe-overflowing low-mass X-ray binaries. The variable X-ray sources are described by a broken power law, with a faint-end power-law index of ∼1.7, a bright-end index of ∼2.8–4.9, and a break flux of ∼ 8× {10}-15 erg s‑1 cm‑2 (∼4 × 1036 erg s‑1), suggesting that they are mostly outbursting, wind-fed high-mass X-ray binaries, although the logN–logS distribution of variable sources likely also contains low-mass X-ray binaries. We generate model logN–logS distributions for synthetic X-ray binaries and constrain the distribution of maximum X-ray fluxes attained during outburst. Our observations suggest that the majority of outbursting X-ray binaries occur at sub-Eddington luminosities, where mass transfer likely occurs through direct wind accretion at ∼1%–3% of the Eddington rate.

  13. CHEERS Results from NGC 3393, II: Investigating the Extended Narrow Line Region using Deep Chandra Observations and Hubble Narrow Line Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Maksym, W Peter; Elvis, Martin; Karovska, Margarita; Paggi, Alessandro; Raymond, John; Wang, Junfeng; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa

    2016-01-01

    The CHandra Extended Emission Line Region Survey (CHEERS) is an X-ray study of nearby active galactic nuclei (AGN) designed to take full advantage of Chandra's unique angular resolution by spatially resolving feedback signatures and effects. In the second paper of a series on CHEERS target NGC 3393, we examine deep high-resolution Chandra images and compare them with Hubble narrow line images of [O III], [S II] and H$\\alpha$, as well as previously-unpublished mid-ultraviolet (MUV) images. We find evidence for a complex multi-phase structure in the circumnuclear ISM, with no single simple correlation between X-rays and high-ionization ([O III]/H$\\alpha$-dominated) and low-ionization ([S II]-dominated) features. We also find X-ray structures ~50-pc in extent, H$\\alpha$ evidence for gas compression, and extended MUV emission associated with the S-shaped arms that envelope the radio jets. In conjunction with existing STIS kinematics, these findings support a role for shock contributions to the feedback, driven by...

  14. Chandra Observations of Shock Kinematics in Supernova Remnant 1987A

    CERN Document Server

    Zhekov, S A; Borkowski, K J; Burrows, D N; Park, S

    2005-01-01

    We report the first results from deep X-ray observations of the SNR 1987A with the Chandra LETG. Temperatures inferred from line ratios range from 0.1 - 2 keV and increase with ionization potential. Expansion velocities inferred from X-ray line profiles range from 300 - 1700 km/s, much less than the velocities inferred from the radial expansion of the radio and X-ray images. We can account for these observations with a scenario in which the X-rays are emitted by shocks produced where the supernova blast wave strikes dense protrusions of the inner circumstellar ring, which are also responsible for the optical hot spots.

  15. Chandra LETG Observations of Supernova Remnant 1987A

    CERN Document Server

    Zhekov, S A; Burrows, D N; McCray, R; Park, S; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Burrows, David N.; Cray, Richard Mc; Park, Sangwook; Zhekov, Svetozar A.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the results from deep Chandra LETG observations of the supernova remnant 1987A (SNR 1987A). We find that a distribution of shocks, spanning the same range of velocities (from 300 to 1700 km/s) as deduced in the first part of our analysis (Zhekov et al. 2005, ApJL, 628, L127), can account for the entire X-ray spectrum of this object. The post-shock temperature distribution is bimodal, peaking at kT 0.5 and 3 keV. Abundances inferred from the X-ray spectrum have values similar to those for the inner circumstellar ring, except that the abundances of nitrogen and oxygen are approximately a factor of two lower than those inferred from the optical/UV spectrum. The velocity of the X-ray emitting plasma has decreased since 1999, apparently because the blast wave has entered the main body of the inner circumstellar ring.

  16. Chandra LETGS and XMM-Newton observations of NGC 4593

    CERN Document Server

    Steenbrugge, K C; Blustin, A J; Branduardi-Raymont, G; Sako, M; Behar, E; Kahn, S M; Paerels, F B S; Walter, R

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze spectra of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4593 obtained with the Chandra Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS), the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) and the European Photon Imaging Camera's (EPIC) onboard of XMM-Newton. The two observations were separated by ~7 months. In the LETGS spectrum we detect a highly ionized warm absorber corresponding to an ionization state of 400x10^{-9} W m, visible as a depression at 10-18 AA. This depression is formed by multiple weak Fe and Ne lines. A much smaller column density was found for the lowly ionized warm absorber, corresponding to xi = 3x10^{-9} W m. However, an intermediate ionization warm absorber is not detected. For the RGS data the ionization state is hard to constrain. The EPIC results show a narrow Fe Kalpha line.

  17. An investigation into a half page from Newton's Principia in the wake of Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Snow, W M

    2002-01-01

    There is a section in Chandrashekar's ''Newton's Principia for the Common Reader '', (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1995) in which he claims to find a small error in the Principia. . However we believe that there is a mistake of interpretation underlying Chandra's claim and that the Principia is correct as it stands. This short paper describes Chandra's misinterpretation of a geometric construction of Newton and gives an outline of Newton's demonstration by following the standard English version of the Principia line by line and converting it into modern mathematical notation in the spirit of Chandra's book.

  18. Searching for bulk motions in the ICM of massive, merging clusters with Chandra CCD data

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ang; Tozzi, Paolo; Zhu, Zong-Hong

    2016-01-01

    We search for bulk motions in the Intra Cluster Medium (ICM) of massive clusters showing evidence of an ongoing or a recent major merger, with spatially resolved spectroscopy in {\\sl Chandra} CCD data. We identify a sample of 6 merging clusters with >150 ks {\\sl Chandra} exposure in the redshift range 0.1 1000$ km/s in the ICM of massive merging clusters at 0.1 < z < 0.3. Despite the CCD spectral resolution is not sufficient for a detailed analysis of the ICM dynamics, {\\sl Chandra} CCD data constitute a key diagnostic tool complementary to X-ray bolometers onboard future X-ray missions.

  19. NASA'S Chandra Finds New Evidence on Origin of Supernovas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    CAMBRIDGE, Ma. -- Astronomers may now know the cause of an historic supernova explosion that is an important type of object for investigating dark energy in the universe. The discovery, made using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, also provides strong evidence that a star can survive the explosive impact generated when a companion star goes supernova. The new study examined the remnant of a supernova observed by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe in 1572. The object, dubbed Tycho for short, was formed by a Type Ia supernova, a category of stellar explosion useful in measuring astronomical distances because of their reliable brightness. Type Ia supernovas have been used to determine that the universe is expanding at an accelerating rate, an effect attributed to the prevalence of an invisible, repulsive force throughout space called dark energy. A team of researchers analyzed a deep Chandra observation of Tycho and found an arc of X-ray emission in the supernova remnant. Evidence supports the conclusion that a shock wave created the arc when a white dwarf exploded and blew material off the surface of a nearby companion star. "There has been a long-standing question about what causes Type Ia supernovas," said Fangjun Lu of the Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing. "Because they are used as steady beacons of light across vast distances, it is critical to understand what triggers them." One popular scenario for Type Ia supernovas involves the merger of two white dwarfs. In this case, no companion star or evidence for material blasted off a companion should exist. In the other main competing theory, a white dwarf pulls material from a "normal," or sun-like, companion star until a thermonuclear explosion occurs. Both scenarios may actually occur under different conditions, but the latest Chandra result from Tycho supports the latter one. n addition, the Tycho study seems to show the remarkable resiliency of stars, as the supernova

  20. Near-infrared spectroscopy of 20 new Chandra sources in the Norma Arm

    CERN Document Server

    Rahoui, Farid; Fornasini, Francesca M; Bodaghee, Arash; Bauer, Franz E

    2014-01-01

    We report on CTIO/NEWFIRM and CTIO/OSIRIS photometric and spectroscopic observations of 20 new X-ray (0.5-10 keV) emitters discovered in the Norma Arm Region Chandra Survey (NARCS). NEWFIRM photometry was obtained to pinpoint the near-infrared counterparts of NARCS sources, while OSIRIS spectroscopy was used to help identify 20 sources with possible high mass X-ray binary properties. We find that (1) two sources are WN8 Wolf-Rayet stars, maybe in colliding wind binaries, part of the massive star cluster Mercer 81; (2) two are emission-line stars, possibly in X-ray binaries, that exhibit near- and mid-infrared excesses either due to free-free emission from the decretion discs of Be stars or warm dust in the stellar winds of peculiar massive stars such as B[e] supergiants or luminous blue variables; (3) one is a B8-A3 IV-V star that could be in a quiescent high mass X-ray binary system; (4) two are cataclysmic variables including one intermediate polar; (5) three may be neutron star symbiotic binaries; (6) five...

  1. The high-redshift (z>3) AGN population in the 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Vito, F; Gilli, R; Comastri, A; Iwasawa, K; Brandt, W N; Alexander, D M; Brusa, M; Lehmer, B; Bauer, F E; Schneider, D P; Xue, Y Q; Luo, B

    2012-01-01

    We present results from a spectral analysis of a sample of high-redshift (z>3) X-ray selected AGN in the 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), the deepest X-ray survey to date. The sample is selected using the most recent spectroscopic and photometric information available in this field. It consists of 34 sources with median redshift z=3.7, 80 median net counts in the 0.5-7 keV band and median rest-frame absorption-corrected luminosity $L_{2-10 \\rmn{keV}}\\approx1.5\\times10^{44}\\rmn{erg} \\rmn{s^{-1}}$. Spectral analysis for the full sample is presented and the intrinsic column density distribution, corrected for observational biases using spectral simulations, is compared with the expectations of X-ray background (XRB) synthesis models. We find that $\\approx57$ per cent of the sources are highly obscured ($N_H>10^{23}\\rmn{cm^{-2}}$). Source number counts in the $0.5-2\\rmn{keV}$ band down to flux $F_{0.5-2 \\rmn{keV}}\\approx4\\times10^{-17}\\rmn{erg} \\rmn{s^{-1}cm^{-2}}$ are also presented. Our results are consis...

  2. Linking Stellar Coronal Activity and Rotation at 500 Myr: A Deep Chandra Observation of M37

    CERN Document Server

    Núñez, Alejandro; Covey, Kevin R; Hartman, Joel D; Kraus, Adam L; Bowsher, Emily C; Douglas, Stephanie T; López-Morales, Mercedes; Pooley, David A; Posselt, Bettina; Saar, Steven H; West, Andrew A

    2015-01-01

    Empirical calibrations of the stellar age-rotation-activity relation (ARAR) rely on observations of the co-eval populations of stars in open clusters. We used the Chandra X-ray Observatory to study M37, a 500-Myr-old open cluster that has been extensively surveyed for rotation periods ($P_{\\rm rot}$). M37 was observed almost continuously for five days, for a total of 440.5 ksec, to measure stellar X-ray luminosities ($L_{\\mathrm{X}}$), a proxy for coronal activity, across a wide range of masses. The cluster's membership catalog was revisited to calculate updated membership probabilities from photometric data and each star's distance to the cluster center. The result is a comprehensive sample of 1699 M37 members: 426 with $P_{\\rm rot}$, 278 with X-ray detections, and 76 with both. We calculate Rossby numbers, $R_o = P_{\\rm rot}/\\tau$, where $\\tau$ is the convective turnover time, and ratios of the X-ray-to-bolometric luminosity, $L_{\\rm X}/L_{\\rm bol}$, to minimize mass dependencies in our characterization of ...

  3. The Chandra Deep Field South as a test case for Global Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portaluri, E.; Viotto, V.; Ragazzoni, R.; Gullieuszik, M.; Bergomi, M.; Greggio, D.; Biondi, F.; Dima, M.; Magrin, D.; Farinato, J.

    2017-04-01

    The era of the next generation of giant telescopes requires not only the advent of new technologies but also the development of novel methods, in order to exploit fully the extraordinary potential they are built for. Global Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics (GMCAO) pursues this approach, with the goal of achieving good performance over a field of view of a few arcmin and an increase in sky coverage. In this article, we show the gain offered by this technique to an astrophysical application, such as the photometric survey strategy applied to the Chandra Deep Field South as a case study. We simulated a close-to-real observation of a 500 × 500 arcsec2 extragalactic deep field with a 40-m class telescope that implements GMCAO. We analysed mock K-band images of 6000 high-redshift (up to z = 2.75) galaxies therein as if they were real to recover the initial input parameters. We attained 94.5 per cent completeness for source detection with SEXTRACTOR. We also measured the morphological parameters of all the sources with the two-dimensional fitting tools GALFIT. The agreement we found between recovered and intrinsic parameters demonstrates GMCAO as a reliable approach to assist extremely large telescope (ELT) observations of extragalactic interest.

  4. HST/ACS Imaging of Omega Centauri: Optical Counterparts of Chandra X-Ray Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Cool, Adrienne M; Arias, Tersi; Brochmann, Michelle; Dorfman, Jason; Gafford, April; White, Vivian; Anderson, Jay

    2012-01-01

    We present results of a search for optical counterparts of X-ray sources in and toward the globular cluster Omega Centauri (NGC 5139) using the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope. The ACS data consist of a mosaic of Wide Field Channel (WFC) images obtained using F625W, F435W, and F658N filters; with 9 pointings we cover the central ~10'x10' of the cluster and encompass 109 known Chandra sources. We find promising optical counterparts for 59 of the sources, ~40 of which are likely to be associated with the cluster. These include 27 candidate cataclysmic variables (CVs), 24 of which are reported here for the first time. Fourteen of the CV candidates are very faint, with absolute magnitudes in the range M_625 = 10.4 - 12.6, making them comparable in brightness to field CVs near the period minimum discovered in the SDSS (Gansicke et al. 2009). Additional optical counterparts include three BY Dra candidates, a possible blue straggler, and a previously-reported quiescent low-mass X-ray ...

  5. Chandra X-Ray Observations of Young Clusters. III. NGC 2264 and the Orion Flanking Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Rebull, L M; Micela, G; Ramírez, S V; Sciortino, S; Stauffer, J R; Strom, S E; Wolff, S C

    2006-01-01

    Chandra observations of solar-like pre-main sequence (PMS) stars in the Orion Flanking Fields (age ~1 Myr) and NGC 2264 (~3 Myr) are compared with the results of the COUP survey of similar objects in the ONC (~0.5 Myr). The correlations between log Lx and mass found for PMS stars on convective tracks in these clusters are consistent with the relationships found for the ONC, indicating little change in the median values of either log Lx or log Lx/Lbol during the first ~3-5 Myr of evolution down convective tracks. The fraction of stars with extreme values of Lx, more than 10 times higher than the average for a given Lbol or with log Lx/Lbol greater than the canonical saturation value of -2.9, is however larger by a factor of two in the younger ONC when compared with the Orion FF and NGC 2264. PMS stars in NGC 2264 on radiative tracks have Lx/Lbol values that are systematically lower by a factor of ~10 times than those found for stars of similar mass on convective tracks. The dramatic decrease in flux from conve...

  6. Effect of crude extracts of selected actinomycetes on biofilm formation of A. schindleri, M. aci, and B. cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Hafiz Ghulam Murtaza; Aftab, Usman; Sajid, Imran; Abbas, Zaigham; Sabri, Anjum Nasim

    2015-05-01

    Actinomycetes are well known group of gram positive bacteria for their potential to produce antibiotics. This study sought to assess the ability of the selected actinomycetes to control biofilm forming bacteria isolated from different dental plaque samples. On the basis of morphological differences three out of ten different dental plaque bacterial isolates were selected for further study. These isolates were biochemically and genetically characterized and were identified as Acinetobacter schinndleri, Moraxella aci, and Bacillus cereus. Antibiotic resistant profile was measured through disc diffusion method and found that all three isolates were moderately sensitive to ofloxacin and erythromycin and resistant to trimethoprim. Antibacterial activity of ten different Streptomyces strains was assessed through an agar plug and well diffusion method against three dental biofilm forming bacteria. Two Streptomyces strains named as S. erythrogriseus and S. labedae showed good antibacterial activity against Moraxella and Acinetobacter strains. Ability of the four active antibiotic producing strains to inhibit biofilm formation was assessed using microtiter biofilm detection assay. It was found that biofilm forming ability of Acinetobacter and Moraxella was inhibited by S. labedae an antibiotic producing strain, while S. macrosporeus can only inhibit biofilm formation by B. cereus.

  7. The Making of the Chandra X-ray Observatory: the Project Scientist's Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Weisskopf, Martin C

    2010-01-01

    We review the history of the development of the Chandra X-ray Observatory from our personal perspective. This review is necessarily biased and limited by space since it attempts to cover a time span approaching 5 decades.

  8. Chandra position of IGR J17454-2919 and discovery of a possible NIR counterpart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paizis, A.; Nowak, M.; Chati, S.;

    2015-01-01

    On 2014 November 3, we observed the recently discovered INTEGRAL source IGR J17454-2919 (ATels #6530, #6574 and #6602) with Chandra HETGS for 20ks. The J2000.0 Chandra position we obtain is RA: 17 45 27.689 DEC: -29 19 53.83 (90% uncertainty of 0.6") This position (2.4" away from the Swift positi...

  9. Resolving galaxy cluster gas properties at z~1 with XMM-Newton and Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Bartalucci, I; Pratt, G W; Démoclès, J; van der Burg, R F J; Mazzotta, P

    2016-01-01

    We present a pilot X-ray study of the five most massive ($M_{500}>5 \\times 10^{14} M_{\\odot}$), distant (z~1), galaxy clusters detected via the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect. We optimally combine XMM-Newton and Chandra X-ray observations by leveraging the throughput of XMM to obtain spatially-resolved spectroscopy, and the spatial resolution of Chandra to probe the bright inner parts and to detect embedded point sources. Capitalising on the excellent agreement in flux-related measurements, we present a new method to derive the density profiles, constrained in the centre by Chandra and in the outskirts by XMM. We show that the Chandra-XMM combination is fundamental for morphological analysis at these redshifts, the Chandra resolution being required to remove point source contamination, and the XMM sensitivity allowing higher significance detection of faint substructures. The sample is dominated by dynamically disturbed objects. We use the combined Chandra-XMM density profiles and spatially-resolved temperature prof...

  10. SNR 1E 0102.2-7219 as an X-ray Calibration Standard in the 0.5-1.0 keV Bandpass and Its Application to the CCD Instruments aboard Chandra, Suzaku, Swift and XMM-Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Plucinsky, Paul P; Foster, Adam; Haberl, Frank; Miller, Eric D; Pollock, A M T; Sembay, Steve

    2016-01-01

    We desire a simple comparison of the absolute effective areas of the current generation of CCD instruments onboard the following observatories: Chandra ACIS-S3, XMM-Newton (EPIC-MOS and EPIC-pn), Suzaku XIS, and Swift XRT and a straightforward comparison of the time-dependent response of these instruments across their respective mission lifetimes. We have been using 1E 0102.2-7219, the brightest supernova remnant in the Small Magellanic Cloud, to evaluate and modify the response models of these instruments. 1E 0102.2-7219 has strong lines of O, Ne, and Mg below 1.5 keV and little or no Fe emission to complicate the spectrum. As part of the activities of the International Astronomical Consortium for High Energy Calibration (IACHEC), we have developed a standard spectral model for 1E 0102.2-7219. The model is empirical in that it includes Gaussians for the identified lines, an absorption component in the Galaxy, another absorption component in the SMC, and two thermal continuum components. In our fits, the mode...

  11. Proper motions of ROSAT discovered isolated neutron stars measured with Chandra: First X-ray measurement of the large proper motion of RX J1308.6+2127/RBS 1223

    CERN Document Server

    Motch, C; Haberl, F; Schwope, A; Zavlin, V E

    2007-01-01

    The unprecedented spatial resolution of the Chandra observatory opens the possibility to detect with relatively high accuracy proper motions at X-ray wavelengths. We have conducted an astrometric study of three of the "Magnificent Seven", the thermally emitting radio quiet isolated neutron stars (INSs) discovered by ROSAT. These three INSs (RX J0420.0-5022, RX J0806.4-4123 and RX J1308.6+2127/RBS 1223) either lack an optical counterpart or have one too faint to be used for astrometric purposes. We obtained ACIS observations 3 to 5 years apart to constrain or measure the displacement of the sources on the X-ray sky using as reference the background of extragalactic or remote galactic X-ray sources. Upper limits of 138 mas/yr and 76 mas/yr on the proper motion of RX J0420.0-5022 and RX J0806.4-4123, respectively, have already been presented in Motch et al. (2007). Here we report the very significant measurement (~ 10 sigma) of the proper motion of the third INS of our program, RX J1308.6+2127/RBS1223. Comparing...

  12. LOFAR, VLA, and Chandra observations of the Toothbrush galaxy cluster

    CERN Document Server

    van Weeren, R J; Brüggen, M; Andrade-Santos, F; Ogrean, G A; Williams, W L; Röttgering, H J A; Dawson, W A; Forman, W R; de Gasperin, F; Hardcastle, M J; Jones, C; Miley, G K; Rafferty, D A; Rudnick, L; Sabater, J; Sarazin, C L; Shimwell, T W; Bonafede, A; Best, P N; Bîrzan, L; Cassano, R; Chyży, K T; Croston, J H; Dijkema, T J; Ensslin, T; Ferrari, C; Heald, G; Hoeft, M; Horellou, C; Jarvis, M J; Kraft, R P; Mevius, M; Intema, H T; Murray, S S; Orrú, E; Pizzo, R; Sridhar, S S; Simionescu, A; Stroe, A; van der Tol, S; White, G J

    2016-01-01

    We present deep LOFAR observations between 120-181 MHz of the "Toothbrush" (RX J0603.3+4214), a cluster that contains one of the brightest radio relic sources known. Our LOFAR observations exploit a new and novel calibration scheme to probe 10 times deeper than any previous study in this relatively unexplored part of the spectrum. The LOFAR observations, when combined with VLA, GMRT, and Chandra X-ray data, provide new information about the nature of cluster merger shocks and their role in re-accelerating relativistic particles. We derive a spectral index of $\\alpha = -0.8 \\pm 0.1$ at the northern edge of the main radio relic, steepening towards the south to $\\alpha \\approx - 2$. The spectral index of the radio halo is remarkably uniform ($\\alpha = -1.16$, with an intrinsic scatter of $\\leq 0.04$). The observed radio relic spectral index gives a Mach number of $\\mathcal{M} = 2.8^{+0.5}_{-0.3}$, assuming diffusive shock acceleration (DSA). However, the gas density jump at the northern edge of the large radio r...

  13. Chandra Phase-Resolved Spectroscopy of the Crab Pulsar

    CERN Document Server

    Weisskopf, M C; Paerels, F; Becker, W; Tennant, A F; Swartz, D A; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Dell, Stephen L. O'; Paerels, Frits; Becker, Werner; Tennant, Allyn F.; Swartz, Douglas A.

    2004-01-01

    We present the first phase-resolved study of the X-ray spectral properties of the Crab Pulsar that covers all pulse phases. The superb angular resolution of the Chandra X-ray Observatory enables distinguishing the pulsar from the surrounding nebulosity, even at pulse minimum. Analysis of the pulse-averaged spectrum measures interstellar X-ray extinction due primarily to photoelectric absorption and secondarily to scattering by dust grains in the direction of the Crab Nebula. We confirm previous findings that the line-of-sight to the Crab is underabundant in oxygen, although more-so than recently measured. Using the abundances and cross sections from Wilms, Allen & McCray (2000) we find [O/H] = (3.33 +/-0.25) x 10**-4. Analysis of the spectrum as a function of pulse phase measures the low-energy X-ray spectral index even at pulse minimum -- albeit with large statistical uncertainty -- and we find marginal evidence for variations of the spectral index. The data are also used to set a new (3-sigma) upper lim...

  14. Echoes of multiple outbursts of Sagittarius A* revealed by Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Clavel, Maïca; Goldwurm, A; Morris, M R; Ponti, G; Soldi, S; Trap, G

    2013-01-01

    The relatively rapid spatial and temporal variability of the X-ray radiation from some molecular clouds near the Galactic center shows that this emission component is due to the reflection of X-rays generated by a source that was luminous in the past, most likely the central supermassive black hole, Sagittarius A*. Studying the evolution of the molecular cloud reflection features is therefore a key element to reconstruct Sgr A*'s past activity. The aim of the present work is to study this emission on small angular scales in order to characterize the source outburst on short time scales. We use Chandra high-resolution data collected from 1999 to 2011 to study the most rapid variations detected so far, those of clouds between 5' and 20' from Sgr A* towards positive longitudes. Our systematic spectral-imaging analysis of the reflection emission, notably of the Fe Kalpha line at 6.4 keV and its associated 4-8 keV continuum, allows us to characterize the variations down to 15" angular scale and 1-year time scale. ...

  15. Chandra Multiwavelength Project: Normal Galaxies at Intermediate Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, D W; Colmenero, E R; Green, P J; Kim, M; Mossman, A; Schlegel, E M; Silverman, J D; Aldcroft, T; Ivezic, Z; Anderson, C; Kashyap, V; Tananbaum, H; Wilkes, B J

    2005-01-01

    (abridged) We have investigated 136 Chandra extragalactic sources without broad optical emission lines, including 93 galaxies with narrow emission lines (NELG) and 43 with only absorption lines (ALG). Based on fx/fo, Lx, X-ray spectral hardness and optical emission line diagnostics, we have conservatively classified 36 normal galaxies (20 spirals and 16 ellipticals) and 71 AGNs. We found no statistically significant evolution in Lx/LB, within the limited z range. We have built log(N)-log(S), after correcting for completeness based on a series of simulations. The best-fit slope is -1.5 for both S and B energy bands, which is considerably steeper than that of the AGN-dominated cosmic background sources, but slightly flatter than the previous estimate, indicating normal galaxies will not exceed the AGN population until fx ~ 2 x 10-18 erg s-1 cm-2 (a factor of ~5 lower than the previous estimate). A group of NELGs appear to be heavily obscured in X-rays, i.e., a typical type 2 AGN. After correcting for intrinsic ...

  16. Coronal physics and the chandra emission line project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Brickhouse

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el lanzamiento del observatorio de rayos-X Chandra se ha iniciado la espectroscop a de alta resoluci on en rayos-X de las fuentes c osmicas. Observa- ciones profundas de tres fuentes estelares con emisi on coronal|Capela, Proci on y HR 1099|est an dando no s olo datos de calibraci on invaluables sino tambi en medios de comparaci on para los modelos de emisi on de plasmas. Estos modelos, que han sido cuestionados por los problemas para entender los datos de baja y moderada re- soluci on de ASCA y del EUVE, son necesarios para interpretar los datos de coronas estelares, galaxias y c umulos de galaxias, remanentes de supernova y otras fuentes. El Proyecto de L neas de Emisi on es una colaboraci on para mejorar los modelos y su primera fase es la comparaci on de los modelos con los espectros observados de Capela, Proci on y HR 1099. Las metas de la comparaci on son (1 determinar y veri car la precisi on y fortaleza de los diagn osticos y (2 identi car y priorizar los elementos de la espectroscop a que requieran m as trabajo tanto te orico como de laboratorio. Uno de los puntos cr ticos de esta labor es entender hasta que punto se pueden aplicar las hip otesis simpli cadoras comunmente usadas (equilibrio coro- nal, baja opacidad. Discutimos, en este contexto, los avances m as recientes en el entendimiento de las coronas estelares.

  17. Chandra Confirmation of a Pulsar Wind Nebula in DA 495

    CERN Document Server

    Arzoumanian, Z; Landecker, T L; Kothes, R; Camilo, F

    2008-01-01

    As part of a multiwavelength study of the unusual radio supernova remnant DA 495, we present observations made with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Imaging and spectroscopic analysis confirms the previously detected X-ray source at the heart of the annular radio nebula, establishing the radiative properties of two key emission components: a soft unresolved source with a blackbody temperature of 1 MK consistent with a neutron star, surrounded by a nonthermal nebula 40'' in diameter exhibiting a power-law spectrum with photon index Gamma = 1.6+/-0.3, typical of a pulsar wind nebula. The implied spin-down luminosity of the neutron star, assuming a conversion efficiency to nebular flux appropriate to Vela-like pulsars, is ~10^{35} ergs/s, again typical of objects a few tens of kyr old. Morphologically, the nebular flux is slightly enhanced along a direction, in projection on the sky, independently demonstrated to be of significance in radio polarization observations; we argue that this represents the orientation o...

  18. Chandra counterparts of CANDELS GOODS-S sources

    CERN Document Server

    Cappelluti, N; Fontana, A; Zamorani, G; Amorin, R; Castellano, M; Merlin, E; Santini, P; Elbaz, D; Schreiber, C; Shu, X; Wang, T; Dunlop, J S; Bourne, N; Bruce, V A; Buitrago, F; Michałowski, Michał J; Derriere, S; Ferguson, H C; Faber, S M; Vito, F

    2015-01-01

    Improving the capabilities of detecting faint X-ray sources is fundamental to increase the statistics on faint high-z AGN and star-forming galaxies.We performed a simultaneous Maximum Likelihood PSF fit in the [0.5-2] keV and [2-7] keV energy bands of the 4 Ms {\\em Chandra} Deep Field South (CDFS) data at the position of the 34930 CANDELS H-band selected galaxies. For each detected source we provide X-ray photometry and optical counterpart validation. We validated this technique by means of a raytracing simulation. We detected a total of 698 X-ray point-sources with a likelihood $\\mathcal{L}$$>$4.98 (i.e. $>$2.7$\\sigma$). We show that the prior knowledge of a deep sample of Optical-NIR galaxies leads to a significant increase of the detection of faint (i.e. $\\sim$10$^{-17}$ cgs in the [0.5-2] keV band) sources with respect to "blind" X-ray detections. By including previous catalogs, this work increases the total number of X-ray sources detected in the 4 Ms CDFS, CANDELS area to 793, which represents the large...

  19. Chandra observation of the supernova remnant N11L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Chen, Yang; Chu, You-Hua; Williams, Rosa M.

    2016-06-01

    We performed a Chandra X-ray study of the supernova remnant (SNR) N11L in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The X-ray emission is predominantly distributed within the main shell and the northern loop-like filaments traced by the optical narrow band images, with an indistinct extension along the north area. The brightest emission comes from a northeast-southwest ridge, and peaks at two patches at center and southwest. Spectral analysis indicates that the blast wave is propagating in a inhomogenous environment, and the X-ray emission overall is dominated by thermal gas whose composition is consistent with the LMC average abundance. The ionization time of the hot plasma implied by the X-ray spectral analysis is consistent with the Sedov age of the SNR derived from the best-fit parameters and the apparent radius of the SNR based on the optical images, however, the consequent explosion energy is no only at least one order of magnitude less than the canonical value of 10^{51} ergs, but also takes a small portion of the thermal energy of the hot gas. That discrepancy supports the blown-out scenario.

  20. Investigating the cores of fossil systems with Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Bharadwaj, V; Sanders, J S; Schellenberger, G

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the cores of fossil galaxy groups and clusters (`fossil systems') using archival Chandra data for a sample of 17 fossil systems. We determined the cool-core fraction for fossils via three observable diagnostics, the central cooling time, cuspiness, and concentration parameter. We quantified the dynamical state of the fossils by the X-ray peak/brightest cluster galaxy (BCG), and the X-ray peak/emission weighted centre separations. We studied the X-ray emission coincident with the BCG to detect the presence of potential thermal coronae. A deprojection analysis was performed for z < 0.05 fossils to obtain cooling time and entropy profiles, and to resolve subtle temperature structures. We investigated the Lx-T relation for fossils from the 400d catalogue to see if the scaling relation deviates from that of other groups. Most fossils are identified as cool-core objects via at least two cool-core diagnostics. All fossils have their dominant elliptical galaxy within 50 kpc of the X-ray peak, and mo...

  1. Chandra Observations of Outflows from PSR J1509-5850

    CERN Document Server

    Klingler, Noel; Rangelov, Blagoy; Pavlov, George G; Posselt, Bettina; Ng, C -Y

    2016-01-01

    PSR J1509-5850 is a middle-aged pulsar with the period P ~ 89 ms, spin-down power Edot = 5.1 x 10^35 erg/s, at a distance of about 3.8 kpc. We report on deep Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of this pulsar and its pulsar wind nebula (PWN). In addition to the previously detected tail extending up to 7' southwest from the pulsar (the southern outflow), the deep images reveal a similarly long, faint diffuse emission stretched toward the north (the northern outflow) and the fine structure of the compact nebula (CN) in the pulsar vicinity. The CN is resolved into two lateral tails and one axial tail pointing southwest (a morphology remarkably similar to that of the Geminga PWN), which supports the assumption that the pulsar moves towards the northeast. The luminosities of the southern and northern outflows are about 1 x 10^33 and 4 x 10^32 erg/s, respectively. The spectra extracted from four regions of the southern outflow do not show any softening with increasing distance from the pulsar. The lack of synchr...

  2. Chandra's Darkest Bright Star: not so Dark after All?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Thomas R.

    2008-11-01

    The Chandra High Resolution camera (HRC) has obtained numerous short exposures of the ultraviolet (UV)-bright star Vega (α Lyrae; HD 172167: A0 V), to calibrate the response of the detector to out-of-band (non-X-ray) radiation. A new analysis uncovered a stronger "blue leak" in the imaging section (HRC-I) than reported in an earlier study of Vega based on a subset of the pointings. The higher count rate—a factor of nearly 2 above prelaunch estimates—raised the possibility that genuine coronal X-rays might lurk among the out-of-band events. Exploiting the broader point-spread function of the UV leak compared with soft X-rays identified an excess of counts centered on the target, technically at 3σ significance. A number of uncertainties, however, prevent a clear declaration of a Vegan corona. A more secure result would be within reach of a deep uninterrupted HRC-I pointing.

  3. Chandra Confirmation of a Pulsar Wind Nebula in DA 495

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzoumanian, Z.; Safi-Harb, S.; Landecker, T.L.; Kothes, R.; Camilo, F.

    2008-01-01

    As part of a multiwavelength study of the unusual radio supernova remnant DA 495, we present observations made with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Imaging and spectroscopic analysis confirms the previously detected X-ray source at the heart of the annular radio nebula, establishing the radiative properties of two key emission components: a soft unresolved source with a blackbody temperature of 1 MK consistent with a neutron star, surrounded by a nontherma1 nebula 40" in diameter exhibiting a power-law spectrum with photon index Gamma = 1.63, typical of a pulsar wind nebula. Morphologically, the nebula appears to be slightly extended along a direction, in projection on the sky, previously demonstrated to be of significance in radio and ASCA observations; we argue that this represents the orientation of the pulsar spin axis. At smaller scales, a narrow X-ray feature is seen extending out 5" from the point source, but energetic arguments suggest that it is not the resolved termination shock of the pulsar wind against the ambient medium. Finally, we argue based on synchrotron lifetimes in the nebular magnetic field that DA 495 represents the first example of a pulsar wind nebula in which electromagnetic flux makes up a significant part, together with particle flux, of the neutron star's wind.

  4. The Chandra X-ray Observatory is prepped for solar panel deployment copy form; photos beginning with

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    TRW workers in the Vertical Processing Facility check equipment after deployment of the solar panel array above them, attached to the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Formerly called the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, Chandra comprises three major elements: the spacecraft, the science instrument module (SIM), and the world's most powerful X-ray telescope. Chandra will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high-temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe. Chandra is scheduled for launch July 9 aboard Space Shuttle Columbia, on mission STS-93.

  5. First Images From Chandra X-Ray Observatory to be Released

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-01

    The first images from the world's most powerful X-ray telescope, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, will be unveiled at a media briefing at 1 p.m. EDT, Thursday, Aug. 26. The briefing will be held in the James E. Webb Auditorium at NASA Headquarters, 300 E St. SW, Washington, DC. The images include the spectacular remnants of a supernova and other astronomical objects. Panelists will be: - Dr. Edward Weiler, Associate Administrator for Space Science, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC; - Dr. Harvey Tananbaum, Director of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's Chandra X-ray Center, Cambridge, MA; - Dr. Martin Weisskopf, NASA's Chandra Project Scientist, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL; and - Dr. Robert Kirshner, astrophysicist, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. The event will be carried live on NASA Television with question-and-answer capability for reporters covering the briefing from participating NASA centers and from the Chandra Operations Control Center in Cambridge. NASA Television is available on transponder 9C, satellite GE-2 at 85 degrees West longitude, vertical polarization, frequency 3880 MHz, audio of 6.8 MHz. Chandra has been undergoing activation and checkout since it was placed into orbit during Space Shuttle mission STS-93 in July. Chandra will examine exploding stars, black holes, colliding galaxies and other high-energy cosmic phenomena to help scientists gain a better understanding of the structure and evolution of the universe. Chandra images and additional information will be available following the briefing on the Internet at: http://chandra.nasa.gov and http://chandra.harvard.edu NASA press releases and other information are available automatically by sending an Internet electronic mail message to domo@hq.nasa.gov. In the body of the message (not the subject line) users should type the words "subscribe press-release" (no quotes). The system will reply with a confirmation via E-mail of each subscription. A second

  6. LOFAR, VLA, and Chandra Observations of the Toothbrush Galaxy Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Weeren, R. J.; Brunetti, G.; Brüggen, M.; Andrade-Santos, F.; Ogrean, G. A.; Williams, W. L.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Dawson, W. A.; Forman, W. R.; de Gasperin, F.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Jones, C.; Miley, G. K.; Rafferty, D. A.; Rudnick, L.; Sabater, J.; Sarazin, C. L.; Shimwell, T. W.; Bonafede, A.; Best, P. N.; Bîrzan, L.; Cassano, R.; Chyży, K. T.; Croston, J. H.; Dijkema, T. J.; Enßlin, T.; Ferrari, C.; Heald, G.; Hoeft, M.; Horellou, C.; Jarvis, M. J.; Kraft, R. P.; Mevius, M.; Intema, H. T.; Murray, S. S.; Orrú, E.; Pizzo, R.; Sridhar, S. S.; Simionescu, A.; Stroe, A.; van der Tol, S.; White, G. J.

    2016-02-01

    We present deep LOFAR observations between 120 and 181 MHz of the “Toothbrush” (RX J0603.3+4214), a cluster that contains one of the brightest radio relic sources known. Our LOFAR observations exploit a new and novel calibration scheme to probe 10 times deeper than any previous study in this relatively unexplored part of the spectrum. The LOFAR observations, when combined with VLA, GMRT, and Chandra X-ray data, provide new information about the nature of cluster merger shocks and their role in re-accelerating relativistic particles. We derive a spectral index of α =-0.8+/- 0.1 at the northern edge of the main radio relic, steepening toward the south to α ≈ -2. The spectral index of the radio halo is remarkably uniform (α =-1.16, with an intrinsic scatter of ≤slant 0.04). The observed radio relic spectral index gives a Mach number of { M }={2.8}-0.3+0.5, assuming diffusive shock acceleration. However, the gas density jump at the northern edge of the large radio relic implies a much weaker shock ({ M }≈ 1.2, with an upper limit of { M }≈ 1.5). The discrepancy between the Mach numbers calculated from the radio and X-rays can be explained if either (i) the relic traces a complex shock surface along the line of sight, or (ii) if the radio relic emission is produced by a re-accelerated population of fossil particles from a radio galaxy. Our results highlight the need for additional theoretical work and numerical simulations of particle acceleration and re-acceleration at cluster merger shocks.

  7. Chandra Counterparts of CANDELS GOODS-S Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelluti, N.; Comastri, A.; Fontana, A.; Zamorani, G.; Amorin, R.; Castellano, M.; Merlin, E.; Santini, P.; Elbaz, D.; Schreiber, C.; Shu, X.; Wang, T.; Dunlop, J. S.; Bourne, N.; Bruce, V. A.; Buitrago, F.; Michałowski, Michał J.; Derriere, S.; Ferguson, H. C.; Faber, S. M.; Vito, F.

    2016-06-01

    Improving the capabilities of detecting faint X-ray sources is fundamental for increasing the statistics on faint high-z active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and star-forming galaxies (SFGs). We performed a simultaneous maximum likelihood point-spread function fit in the [0.5-2] keV and [2-7] keV energy bands of the 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS) data at the position of the 34,930 CANDELS H-band selected galaxies. For each detected source we provide X-ray photometry and optical counterpart validation. We validated this technique by means of a ray-tracing simulation. We detected a total of 698 X-ray point sources with a likelihood { L }\\gt 4.98 (i.e., >2.7σ). We show that prior knowledge of a deep sample of optical-NIR galaxies leads to a significant increase in the detection of faint (i.e., ˜10-17 cgs in the [0.5-2] keV band) sources with respect to “blind” X-ray detections. By including previous X-ray catalogs, this work increases the total number of X-ray sources detected in the 4 Ms CDFS, CANDELS area to 793, which represents the largest sample of extremely faint X-ray sources assembled to date. Our results suggest that a large fraction of the optical counterparts of our X-ray sources determined by likelihood ratio actually coincides with the priors used for the source detection. Most of the new detected sources are likely SFGs or faint, absorbed AGNs. We identified a few sources with putative photometric redshift z > 4. Despite the low number statistics and the uncertainties on the photo z, this sample significantly increases the number of X-ray-selected candidate high-z AGNs.

  8. NASA's High Energy Vision: Chandra and the X-Ray Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mais, D. E.; Stencel, R. E.; Richards, D.

    2004-05-01

    The Chandra X-Ray Observatory is the most sophisticated X-ray observatory launched by NASA. Chandra is designed to observe X-rays from high-energy regions of the universe, such as the remnants of supernovae explosions, col- liding galaxies, black holes, pulsars, neutron stars, quasars, and X-ray bi- nary stars. The spectacular results from the first five years of Chandra ob- servations are changing and redefining theories with each observation. Every exciting new image shows glimpses of such exotic phenomena as super-massive black holes, surprising black hole activity in old galaxies, rivers of grav- ity that define the cosmic landscape, unexpected x-ray activity in proto- stars and failed stars, puzzling distributions of elements in supernovae remnants, the sound waves from a super-massive black hole, and the even the tantalizing possibility of an entirely new form of matter - the strange quark star. On September 14, 2000, triggered by alerts from amateur astron- omers worldwide, Chandra observed the outburst of the brightest northern dwarf nova SS Cygni. The cooperation of hundreds of amateur variable star astronomers and the Chandra X-Ray scientists and spacecraft specialists pro- vided proof that the collaboration of amateur and professional astronomers is a powerful tool to study cosmic phenomena.

  9. A NuSTAR survey of nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Rigby, Jane R.; Stern, Daniel;

    2015-01-01

    We present a Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), Chandra, and XMM-Newton survey of nine of the nearest ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). The unprecedented sensitivity of NuSTAR at energies above 10 keV enables spectral modeling with far better precision than was previously...

  10. Comparison of Cold-Knife Conization versus Loop Electrosurgical Excision for Cervical Adenocarcinoma In Situ (ACIS): A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanming; Chen, Changxian; Li, Li

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this systematic review was to conduct a more comprehensive literature search and meta-analysis of original studies to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) versus cold-knife conization (CKC) in conservative surgical treatment of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (ACIS) for women who have not completed childbearing. Methods Systematic searches were conducted in the PUBMED, EMBASE, Cochrane, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases to identify all potential studies involving patients with ACIS treated with LEEP versus CKC published until December 2015. Results Eighteen retrospective studies were included in this systematic review. All the 18 included studies reported the rate of positive margins, and the results of the individual studies varied. The positive margins were 44% (267/607) after LEEP and 29% (274/952) after CKC. The pooled meta-analysis exhibited significantly different outcome (RR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.34–1.80, P<0.00001) without significant heterogeneity (P = 0.34). The residual rate following LEEP was 9.1% (17/186) and 11% (39/350) after CKC in re-cone or hysterectomy cases. Recurrent ACIS following LEEP was reported in 10 of 142 (7.0%) cases compared to 10 of 177 (5.6%) cases following CKC. There were no significant differences in the residual rate (RR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.60–1.72, P = 0.95) or recurrence rate (RR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.46–2.79; P = 0.79) between the two procedures. Conclusions The present systematic review demonstrates that both LEEP and CKC are safe and effective for the conservative treatment of ACIS. LEEP appears to be as equally effective as CKC regarding the residual and recurrence rates. Due to the findings showing that LEEP achieves comparable oncologic outcomes with fewer obstetric complications to that of CKC, LEEP may be the preferred option in patients whose fertility preservation is important. However, further prospective studies with a

  11. Chandra Observations of the Components of Clusters, Groups, and Galaxies and their Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Forman, W; Markevitch, M L; Vikhlinin, A A; Churazov, E

    2001-01-01

    We discuss two themes from Chandra observations of galaxies, groups, and clusters. First, we review the merging process as seen through the high angular resolution of Chandra. We present examples of sharp, edge-like surface brightness structures ``cold fronts'', the boundaries of the remaining cores of merger components and the Chandra observations of CL0657, the first clear example of a strong cluster merger shock. In addition to reviewing already published work, we present observations of the cold front around the elliptical galaxy NGC1404 which is infalling into the Fornax cluster and we discuss multiple ``edges'' in ZW3146. Second, we review the effects of relativistic, radio-emitting plasmas or ``bubbles'', inflated by active galactic nuclei, on the hot X-ray emitting gaseous atmospheres in galaxies and clusters. We review published work and also discuss the unusual X-ray structures surrounding the galaxies NGC4636 and NGC507.

  12. Managing radiation degradation of CCDs on the Chandra X-ray Observatory II

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Bissell, Bradley A.; Blackwell, William C.; Cameron, Robert A.; Chappell, Jon II.; DePasquale, Joseph M.; Gage, Kenneth R.; Grant, Catherine E.; Harbison, Christine F.

    2005-01-01

    The CCDs on the Chandra X-ray Observatory are vulnerable to radiation damage from low-energy protons scattered off the telescope's mirrors onto the focal plane. Following unexpected damage incurred early in the mission, the Chandra Team developed, implemented, and maintains a radiation-protection program. This program - involving scheduled radiation safing during radiation-belt passes, intervention based upon real-time space-weather conditions and radiation-environment modeling, and on-board radiation monitoring with autonomous radiation safing - has successfully managed the radiation damage to the CCDs. Since implementing the program, the charge-transfer inefficiency (CTI) has increased at an average annual rate of only 2.9x10^-6 (2.3%) for the front- illuminated CCDs and 0.95x10^-6 (6.5%) for the back-illuminated CCDs. This paper describes the current status of Chandra radiation-management program.

  13. Intrinsic Absorption in the Spectrum of Mrk 279: Simultaneous Chandra, FUSE, and STIS Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Jennifer E.; Kriss, Gerard A.; Lee, Julia C; Arav, Nahum; Ogle, Patrick; Roraback, Kenneth; Weaver, Kimberly; Alexander, Tal; Brotherton, Michael; Green, Richard F.; Hutchings, John; Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Marshall, Herman; Oegerle, William; Zheng, Wei

    2004-01-01

    We present a study of the intrinsic X-ray and far-ultraviolet absorption in the Seyfert 1.5 galaxy Markarian 279 using simultaneous observations from the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope, and the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). We also present FUSE observations made at three additional epochs. We detect the Fe K-alpha emission line in the Chandra spectrum, and its flux is consistent with the low X-ray continuu...

  14. Chandra Observations of Dying Radio Sources in Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, M.; Markevitch, M.; Govoni, F.; Parma, P.; Fanti, R.; de Ruiter, H. R.; Mack, K.-H.

    2012-01-01

    Context. The dying radio sources represent a very interesting and largely unexplored stage of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) evolution. They are considered to be very rare, and almost all of the few known ones were found in galaxy clusters. However, considering the small number detected so far, it has not been possible to draw any firm conclusions about their X-ray environment. Aims. We present X-ray observations performed with the Chandra satellite of the three galaxy clusters Abell 2276, ZwCl 1829.3+6912, and RX J1852.1+5711, which harbor at their center a dying radio source with an ultra-steep spectrum that we recently discovered. Methods. We analyzed the physical properties of the X-ray emitting gas surrounding these elusive radio sources. We determined the global X-ray properties of the clusters, derived the azimuthally averaged profiles of metal abundance, gas temperature, density, and pressure. Furthermore, we estimated the total mass profiles. Results. The large-scale X-ray emission is regular and spherical, suggesting a relaxed state for these systems. Indeed, we found that the three clusters are also characterized by significant enhancements in the metal abundance and declining temperature profiles toward the central region. For all these reasons, we classified RX J1852.1+5711, Abell 2276, and ZwCl 1829.3+6912 as cool-core galaxy clusters. Conclusions. We calculated the non-thermal pressure of the radio lobes assuming that the radio sources are in the minimum energy condition. For all dying sources we found that this is on average about one to two orders of magnitude lower than that of the external gas, as found for many other radio sources at the center of galaxy groups and clusters. We found marginal evidence for the presence of X-ray surface brightness depressions coincident with the fossil radio lobes of the dying sources in A2276 and ZwCl 1829.3+691. We estimated the outburst age and energy output for these two dying sources. The energy power from

  15. HST/ACS IMAGING OF OMEGA CENTAURI: OPTICAL COUNTERPARTS OF CHANDRA X-RAY SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cool, Adrienne M.; Arias, Tersi; Brochmann, Michelle; Dorfman, Jason; Gafford, April; White, Vivian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Haggard, Daryl [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics, Physics and Astronomy Department, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Anderson, Jay, E-mail: cool@sfsu.edu, E-mail: dhaggard@northwestern.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    We present results of a search for optical counterparts of X-ray sources in and toward the globular cluster Omega Centauri (NGC 5139) using the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope. The ACS data consist of a mosaic of Wide Field Channel images obtained using F625W, F435W, and F658N filters; with nine pointings we cover the central {approx}10' Multiplication-Sign 10' of the cluster and encompass 109 known Chandra sources. We find promising optical counterparts for 59 of the sources, {approx}40 of which are likely to be associated with the cluster. These include 27 candidate cataclysmic variables (CVs), 24 of which are reported here for the first time. Fourteen of the CV candidates are very faint, with absolute magnitudes in the range M {sub 625} =10.4-12.6, making them comparable in brightness to field CVs near the period minimum discovered in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Additional optical counterparts include three BY Dra candidates, a possible blue straggler, and a previously reported quiescent low-mass X-ray binary. We also identify 3 foreground stars and 11 probable active galactic nuclei. Finally, we report the discovery of a group of seven stars whose X-ray properties are suggestive of magnetically active binaries, and whose optical counterparts lie on or very near the metal-rich anomalous giant and subgiant branches in {omega} Cen. If the apparent association between these seven stars and the RGB/SGB-a stars is real, then the frequency of X-ray sources in this metal-rich population is enhanced by a factor of at least five relative to the other giant and subgiant populations in the cluster. If these stars are not members of the metal-rich population, then they bring the total number of red stragglers (also known as sub-subgiants) that have been identified in {omega} to Cen 20, the largest number yet known in any globular cluster.

  16. A new method to estimate photosynthetic parameters through net assimilation rate-intercellular space CO2 concentration (A-Ci ) curve and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moualeu-Ngangue, Dany P; Chen, Tsu-Wei; Stützel, Hartmut

    2017-02-01

    Gas exchange (GE) and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) measurements are widely used to noninvasively study photosynthetic parameters, for example the rates of maximum Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax ), electron transport rate (J), daytime respiration (Rd ) and mesophyll conductance (gm ). Existing methods for fitting GE data (net assimilation rate-intercellular space CO2 concentration (A-Ci ) curve) are based on two assumptions: gm is unvaried with CO2 concentration in the intercellular space (Ci ); and light absorption (α) and the proportion of quanta absorbed by photosystem II (β) are constant in the data set. These may result in significant bias in estimating photosynthetic parameters. To avoid the above-mentioned hypotheses, we present a new method for fitting A-Ci curves and CF data simultaneously. This method was applied to a data set obtained from cucumber (Cucumis sativus) leaves of various leaf ages and grown under eight different light conditions. The new method had significantly lower root mean square error and a lower rate of failures compared with previously published methods (6.72% versus 24.1%, respectively) and the effect of light conditions on Vcmax and J was better observed. Furthermore, the new method allows the estimation of a new parameter, the fraction of incoming irradiance harvested by photosystem II, and the dependence of gm on Ci .

  17. Soy isoflavone exposure through all life stages accelerates 17β-estradiol-induced mammary tumor onset and growth, yet reduces tumor burden, in ACI rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Frank Josef; Pemp, Daniela; Soukup, Sebastian T; Wende, Kathleen; Zhang, Xiajie; Zierau, Oliver; Muders, Michael H; Bosland, Maarten C; Kulling, Sabine E; Lehmann, Leane; Vollmer, Günter

    2016-08-01

    There is an ongoing debate whether the intake of soy-derived isoflavones (sISO) mediates beneficial or adverse effects with regard to breast cancer risk. Therefore, we investigated whether nutritional exposure to a sISO-enriched diet from conception until adulthood impacts on 17β-estradiol (E2)-induced carcinogenesis in the rat mammary gland (MG). August-Copenhagen-Irish (ACI) rats were exposed to dietary sISO from conception until postnatal day 285. Silastic tubes containing E2 were used to induce MG tumorigenesis. Body weight, food intake, and tumor growth were recorded weekly. At necropsy, the number, position, size, and weight of each tumor were determined. Plasma samples underwent sISO analysis, and the morphology of MG was analyzed. Tumor incidence and multiplicity were reduced by 20 and 56 %, respectively, in the sISO-exposed rats compared to the control rats. Time-to-tumor onset was shortened from 25 to 20 weeks, and larger tumors developed in the sISO-exposed rats. The histological phenotype of the MG tumors was independent of the sISO diet received, and it included both comedo and cribriform phenotypes. Morphological analyses of the whole-mounted MGs also showed no diet-dependent differences. Lifelong exposure to sISO reduced the overall incidence of MG carcinomas in ACI rats, although the time-to-tumor was significantly shortened.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey (Wevers+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wevers, T.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Jonker, P. G.; Bassa, C.; Nelemans, G.; van Grunsven, T.; Gonzalez-Solares, E. A.; Torres, M. A. P.; Heinke, C.; Steeghs, D.; Maccarone, T. J.; Britt, C.; Hynes, R. I.; Johnson, C.; Wu, J.

    2016-03-01

    Each image fits file (pobjXXX.fits) has 8 extensions, each corresponding to one of the 8 CCDs in the mosaic instrument. From these images, two data products are created: the single-filter object catalogues, containing the positions, fluxes etc. of all sources on the respective detectors. These single-filter catalogues are then combined to create merged 3-filter catalogues, where pointers are incorporated to point back to the original single-filter catalogue positions. The file 'mosaicobs.dat' gives an overview of which field corresponds to which catalogue file. Below is a description of the entries in both sets of catalogues. Indicated between square brackets are the units (if applicable). (12 data files).

  19. ChAInGeS: The Chandra Arp Interacting Galaxies Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Beverly J; Miller, Olivia; Burleson, Jacob A; Nowak, Michael A; Struck, Curtis

    2012-01-01

    We have conducted a statistical analysis of the ultra-luminous X-ray point sources (ULXs; L(X) >= 10^39 erg/s) in a sample of galaxies selected from the Arp Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies. We find a possible enhancement of a factor of ~2-4 in the number of ULXs per blue luminosity for the strongly interacting subset. Such an enhancement would be expected if ULX production is related to star formation, as interacting galaxies tend to have enhanced star formation rates on average. For most of the Arp galaxies in our sample, the total number of ULXs compared to the far-infrared luminosity is consistent with values found earlier for spiral galaxies. This suggests that for these galaxies, ULXs trace recent star formation. However, for the most infrared-luminous galaxies, we find a deficiency of ULXs compared to the infrared luminosity. For these very infrared-luminous galaxies, AGNs may contribute to powering the far-infrared; alternatively, ULXs may be highly obscured in the X-ray in these galaxies and therefore not ...

  20. Chandra and XMM-Newton Observations of the First Quasars: X-Rays from the Age of Cosmic Enlightenment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignali, C.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, D. P.; Anderson, S. F.; Fan, X.; Gunn, J. E.; Kaspi, S.; Richards, G. T.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2003-06-01

    We report on Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of a sample of 13 quasars at z~4.7-5.4 mostly taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The present sample complements previous X-ray studies of z>=4 quasars, in which the majority of the objects are optically more luminous and at lower redshifts. All but two of our quasars have been detected in the X-ray band, thus doubling the number of z>=4.8 X-ray-detected quasars. The two nondetections are likely to be due to a short exposure time (SDSSp J033829.31+002156.3) and to the presence of intrinsic absorption (SDSSp J173744.87+582829.5). We confirm and extend to the highest redshifts the presence of a correlation between AB1450(1+z) magnitude and soft X-ray flux for z>=4 quasars and the presence of a steeper optical-to-X-ray spectral energy distribution (parameterized by αox) for high-luminosity, high-redshift quasars than for lower luminosity, lower redshift quasars. The second effect is likely due to the known anticorrelation between αox and rest-frame 2500 Å luminosity, whose significance is confirmed via partial correlation analysis. The joint ~2.5-36 keV rest-frame spectrum of the z>4.8 SDSS quasars observed thus far by Chandra is well parameterized by a power law with photon index Γ=1.84+0.31-0.30; this photon index is consistent with those of z~0-3 quasars and that obtained from joint spectral fitting of z~4.1-4.5 optically luminous Palomar Digital Sky Survey quasars. No evidence for widespread intrinsic X-ray absorption has been found (NH<~4.0×1022 cm-2 on average at 90% confidence). We also obtained Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) photometric observations for eight of our target quasars. None of these shows significant (greater than 30%) optical variability over the time interval of a few years (in the observed frame) between the SDSS and HET observations.

  1. Deep Chandra X-ray Observations of Low Mass X-ray Binary Candidates in the Early-Type Galaxy NGC 4697

    CERN Document Server

    Sivakoff, Gregory R; Juett, Adrienne M; Sarazin, Craig L; Irwin, Jimmy A

    2008-01-01

    Chandra X-ray observations routinely resolve tens to hundreds of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) per galaxy in nearby massive early-type galaxies. These studies have raised important issues regarding the behavior of this population of remnants of the once massive stars in early-type galaxies, namely the connection between LMXBs and globular clusters (GCs) and the nature of the LMXB luminosity function (LF). In this paper, we combine five epochs of Chandra observations and one central field Hubble Space Telescope Advance Camera for Surveys observation of NGC 4697, one of the nearest, optically luminous elliptical (E6) galaxies, to probe the GC-LMXB connection and LMXB-LF down to a detection/completeness limit of (0.6/1.4) x 10^{37} ergs/s. We detect 158 sources, present their luminosities and hardness ratios, and associate 34 LMXBs with GCs. We confirm that GCs with higher encounter rates (\\Gamma_h) and redder colors (higher metallicity Z) are more likely to contain GCs, and find that the expected number of LM...

  2. A Chandra study of X-ray sources in the field of the z=2.16 radio galaxy MRC 1138-262

    CERN Document Server

    Pentericci, L; Carilli, C L; Harris, D E; Miley, G K; Röttgering, H J A

    2002-01-01

    We present results from a Chandra X-ray Observatory study of the field X-ray source population in the vicinity of the radio galaxy MRC 1138-262. Many serendipitous X-ray sources are detected in an area of 8'x8' around the radio source and 90% are identified in our deep VLT images. The space density of such sources is higher than expected on the basis of the statistics of ROSAT and Chandra deep surveys. The most likely explanation is in terms of a concentration of AGN associated with the protocluster at z=2.16 which was found around the radio galaxy in previous studies. Two sources have a confirmed spectroscopic redshift close to that of the radio galaxy, and for three more sources other observations suggest that they are associated with the protocluster. Four of these five X-ray sources form, together with the radio galaxy, a filament in the plane of the sky. The direction of the filament is similar to that of the radio source axis, the large scale distribution of the other protocluster members, the 150 kpc-s...

  3. Analytic parameter dependence of Harish-Chandra modules for real reductive Lie groups - a family affair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Noort, V.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is written in the subfield of mathematics known as representation theory of real reductive Lie groups. Let G be a Lie group in the Harish-Chandra class with maximal compact subgroup K and Lie algebra g. Let Omega be a connected complex manifold. By a family of G-representations parametri

  4. CHANDRA Observations of V407 Vul: Confirmation of the Spin-up

    CERN Document Server

    Strohmayer, T E

    2004-01-01

    V407 Vul is a candidate double-degenerate binary with a putative 1.756 mHz (9.5 min) orbital frequency. In a previous timing study using archival ROSAT and ASCA data we reported evidence for an increase of this frequency at a rate consistent with expectations for gravitational radiation from a detached ultracompact binary system. Here we report the results of new CHANDRA timing observations which confirm the previous indications of spin-up of the X-ray frequency, and provide much tighter constraints on the frequency derivative. We obtained with CHANDRA a total of 90 ksec of exposure in two epochs separated in time by 11.5 months. The total time span of the archival ROSAT, ASCA and new CHANDRA data is now 10.5 years. This more than doubles the interval spanned by the ROSAT and ASCA data alone, providing much greater sensitivity to a frequency derivative. With the addition of the CHANDRA data an increasing frequency is unavoidable, with a value df/dt = 7.0 x 10-18 Hz/s. Although a long-term spin-up trend is con...

  5. Chandra and XMM–Newton Observations of H2O Maser Galaxy Mrk 266

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Wang; J. S. Zhang; J. H. Fan

    2011-03-01

    For H2O megamaser galaxy Mrk 266, its Chandra and XMM–Newton data are analyzed here. It shows existence of two obscured nuclei (separation is ∼ 5''). Our preferred model, the high energy reflected model can fit the hard component of both nuclei spectra well.

  6. Chandra observations of comet 9P/Tempel 1 during the Deep Impact campaign

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisse, C. M.; Dennerl, K.; Christian, D. J.; Wolk, S. J.; Bodewits, D.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Hansen, K. C.; Hoekstra, R.; Combi, M.; Fry, C. D.; Dryer, M.; Maekinen, T.; Sun, W.; Jansen, K.C.; Mäkinen, T.

    2007-01-01

    We present results from the Chandra X-ray Observatory's extensive campaign studying Comet 9P/Tempel 1 (T1) in support of NASA's Deep Impact (DI) mission. T1 was observed for similar to 295 ks between 30th June and 24th July 2005, and continuously for similar to 64 ks on July 4th during the impact ev

  7. Finding Supernova Ia Progenitors with the Chandra X-ray Observatory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikkel T. B.; Nelemans, Gijs; Voss, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    We examine pre-supernova Chandra images to find X-ray luminosities of type Ia supernova progenitors. At present, we have one possible direct detection and upper limits for the X-ray luminosities of a number of other supernova progenitors. The method has also yielded a possible detection of a X...

  8. Chandra Data Analysis of H2O Megamaser Galaxy NGC 4258

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Baisheng Liu; Jiangshui Zhang; Jin Wang

    2011-03-01

    Chandra observations of NGC 4258 were analyzed to investigate the circumnuclear environment of the H2O megamaser galaxy. Its adaptively-smoothed image shows a bright nucleus and another weak source nearby. For the maser host nucleus, our preferred fitting of its spectra gives the absorption of ∼ 7 × 1022cm-2.

  9. Chandra High Resolution Spectroscopy of the Burst Spectrum of EXO 0748-67

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telis, G.; Paerels, F.; Audard, M.; Lanz, T.; Cottam, J.; Méndez, R.M.; Bildsten, L.; Chang, P.; Marshall, H.

    2004-01-01

    We have observed EXO0748-67 for approximately 300 ksec with the High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer on Chandra. A total of 35 Type I X-ray bursts occurred during our observation, and from these we obtained a composite burst spectrum with high sensitivity in the Fe K band. Along with the sp

  10. Intrinsic Absorption in the Spectrum of Mrk 279: Simultaneous Chandra, FUSE, and STIS Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, J E; Lee, J C; Arav, N; Ogle, P M; Roraback, K; Weaver, K; Alexander, T; Brotherton, M; Green, R F; Hutchings, J B; Kaiser, M E; Marshall, H; Oegerle, W; Zheng, W; Scott, Jennifer E.; Kriss, Gerard A.; Lee, Julia C.; Arav, Nahum; Ogle, Patrick; Roraback, Kenneth; Weaver, Kimberly; Alexander, Tal; Brotherton, Michael; Green, Richard F.; Hutchings, John; Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Marshall, Herman; Oegerle, William; Zheng, Wei

    2004-01-01

    We present a study of the intrinsic X-ray and far-ultraviolet absorption in the Seyfert 1.5 galaxy Markarian 279 using simultaneous observations from the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope, and the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). We also present FUSE observations made at three additional epochs. We detect the Fe K-alpha emission line in the Chandra spectrum, and its flux is consistent with the low X-ray continuum flux level of Mrk 279 at the time of the observation. Due to low signal-to-noise ratios in the Chandra spectrum, no O VII or O VIII absorption features are observable in the Chandra data, but the UV spectra reveal strong and complex absorption from HI and high-ionization species such as O VI, N V, and C IV, as well as from low-ionization species such as C III, N III, C II, and N II in some velocity components. The far-UV spectral coverage of the FUSE data provides information on high-order Lyman series absorption, which...

  11. Resolving galaxy cluster gas properties at z ∼ 1 with XMM-Newton and Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartalucci, I.; Arnaud, M.; Pratt, G. W.; Démoclès, J.; van der Burg, R. F. J.; Mazzotta, P.

    2017-02-01

    Massive, high-redshift, galaxy clusters are useful laboratories to test cosmological models and to probe structure formation and evolution, but observations are challenging due to cosmological dimming and angular distance effects. Here we present a pilot X-ray study of the five most massive (M500 > 5 × 1014M⊙), distant (z 1), clusters detected via the Sunyaev-Zel'Dovich effect. We optimally combine XMM-Newton and Chandra X-ray observations by leveraging the throughput of XMM-Newton to obtain spatially-resolved spectroscopy, and the spatial resolution of Chandra to probe the bright inner parts and to detect embedded point sources. Capitalising on the excellent agreement in flux-related measurements, we present a new method to derive the density profiles, which are constrained in the centre by Chandra and in the outskirts by XMM-Newton. We show that the Chandra-XMM-Newton combination is fundamental for morphological analysis at these redshifts, the Chandra resolution being required to remove point source contamination, and the XMM-Newton sensitivity allowing higher significance detection of faint substructures. Measuring the morphology using images from both instruments, we found that the sample is dominated by dynamically disturbed objects. We use the combined Chandra-XMM-Newton density profiles and spatially-resolved temperature profiles to investigate thermodynamic quantities including entropy and pressure. From comparison of the scaled profiles with the local REXCESS sample, we find no significant departure from standard self-similar evolution, within the dispersion, at any radius, except for the entropy beyond 0.7 R500. The baryon mass fraction tends towards the cosmic value, with a weaker dependence on mass than that observed in the local Universe. We make a comparison with the predictions from numerical simulations. The present pilot study demonstrates the utility and feasibility of spatially-resolved analysis of individual objects at high-redshift through

  12. Linking Stellar Coronal Activity and Rotation at 500 Myr: A Deep Chandra Observation of M37

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Alejandro; Agüeros, Marcel A.; Covey, Kevin R.; Hartman, Joel D.; Kraus, Adam L.; Bowsher, Emily C.; Douglas, Stephanie T.; López-Morales, Mercedes; Pooley, David A.; Posselt, Bettina; Saar, Steven H.; West, Andrew A.

    2015-08-01

    Empirical calibrations of the stellar age-rotation-activity relation (ARAR) rely on observations of the co-eval populations of stars in open clusters. We used the Chandra X-ray Observatory to study M37, a 500-Myr-old open cluster that has been extensively surveyed for rotation periods ({P}{rot}). M37 was observed almost continuously for five days, for a total of 440.5 ks, to measure stellar X-ray luminosities ({L}{{X}}), a proxy for coronal activity, across a wide range of masses. The cluster’s membership catalog was revisited to calculate updated membership probabilities from photometric data and each star’s distance to the cluster center. The result is a comprehensive sample of 1699 M37 members: 426 with {P}{rot}, 278 with X-ray detections, and 76 with both. We calculate Rossby numbers, {R}o= {P}{rot}/τ , where τ is the convective turnover time, and ratios of the X-ray-to-bolometric luminosity, {L}{{X}}/{L}{bol}, to minimize mass dependencies in our characterization of the rotation-coronal activity relation at 500 Myr. We find that fast rotators, for which {R}o\\lt 0.09+/- 0.01, show saturated levels of activity, with log({L}{{X}}/{L}{bol})=\\-3.06+/- 0.04. For {R}o≥slant 0.09+/- 0.01, activity is unsaturated and follows a power law of the form {R}oβ , where β = -{2.03}-0.14+0.17. This is the largest sample available for analyzing the dependence of coronal emission on rotation for a single-aged population, covering stellar masses in the range 0.4-1.3 {M}⊙ , {P}{rot} in the range 0.4-12.8 days, and {L}{{X}} in the range {10}28.4-30.5 {erg} {{{s}}}-1. Our results make M37 a new benchmark open cluster for calibrating the ARAR at ages of ≈ 500 Myr.

  13. An isomer-specific study of solid nitromethane decomposition pathways - Detection of aci-nitromethane (H2CNO(OH)) and nitrosomethanol (HOCH2NO) intermediates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksyutenko, Pavlo; Förstel, Marko; Crandall, Parker; Sun, Bing-Jian; Wu, Mei-Hung; Chang, Agnes H. H.; Kaiser, Ralf I.

    2016-08-01

    An isomer specific study of energetic electron exposed nitromethane ices was performed via photoionization - reflectron time of flight mass spectrometry (PI-ReTOF-MS) of the subliming products employing tunable vacuum ultraviolet light for ionization. Supported by electronic structure calculations, nitromethane (CH3NO2) was found to isomerize to methyl nitrite (CH3ONO) and also via hydrogen migration to the hitherto elusive aci-nitromethane isomer (H2CNO(OH)). The latter isomerizes to nitrosomethanol (HOCH2NO) through hydroxyl group (OH) migration, and, probably, ring closure to the cyclic 2-hydroxy-oxaziridine isomer (c-H2CON(OH)) as well. The importance of hydrogen migrations was also verified via the nitrosomethane (CH3NO) - formaldehyde oxime isomer (CH2NOH) pair.

  14. Around 200 new X-ray binary IDs from 13 years of Chandra observations of the M31 center

    CERN Document Server

    Barnard, R; Primini, F; Li, Z; Baganoff, F; Murray, S S

    2013-01-01

    We have created 0.3--10 keV, 13 year, unabsorbed luminosity lightcurves for 528 X-ray sources in the central 20' of M31. We have 174 Chandra observations spaced at ~1 month intervals thanks to our transient monitoring program, deeper observations of the M31 nucleus, and some public data from other surveys. We created 0.5--4.5 keV structure functions (SFs) for each source, for comparison with the ensemble structure function of AGN. We find 220 X-ray sources with luminosities > ~1E+35 erg/s that have SFs with significantly more variability than the ensemble AGN SF, and are likely X-ray binaries (XBs). A further 30 X-ray sources were identified as XBs using other methods. We therefore have 250 probable XBs in total, including ~200 new identifications. This result represents great progress over the ~50 XBs and ~40 XB candidates previously identified out of the ~2000 X-ray sources within the D_25 region of M31; it also demonstrates the power of SF analysis for identifying XBs in external galaxies. We also identify...

  15. Revealing the heavily obscured AGN population of High Redshift 3CRR Sources with Chandra X-ray Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkes, Belinda J; Haas, Martin; Barthel, Peter; Leipski, Christian; Willner, S P; Worrall, D M; Birkinshaw, Mark; Antonucci, Robert; Ashby, M L N; Chini, Rolf; Fazio, G G; Lawrence, Charles; Ogle, Patrick; Schulz, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Chandra observations of a complete, flux-limited sample of 38 high-redshift (10) indicating obscuration (log N_H ~ 22-24 cm^-2). These properties and the correlation between obscuration and radio core-fraction are consistent with orientation-dependent obscuration as in Unification models. About half the NLRGs have soft X-ray hardness ratios and/or high [OIII] emission line to X-ray luminosity ratio suggesting obscuration by Compton thick (CT) material so that scattered nuclear or extended X-ray emission dominates (as in NGC1068). The ratios of unobscured to Compton-thin (10^{22} 1.5 x 10^{24} cm^-2) is 2.5:1.4:1 in this high luminosity, radio-selected sample. The obscured fraction is 0.5, higher than is typically reported for AGN at comparable luminosities from multi-wavelength surveys (0.1-0.3). Assuming random nuclear orientation, the unobscured half-opening angle of the disk/wind/torus structure is ~ 60deg and the obscuring material covers 30deg of which ~ 12deg is Compton thick. The multi-wavelength prope...

  16. Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of the first quasars X-rays from the age of cosmic enlightenment

    CERN Document Server

    Vignali, C; Schneider, D P; Anderson, S F; Fan, X; Gunn, J E; Kaspi, S; Richards, G T; Strauss, M A; Strauss, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    We report on Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of a sample of 13 quasars at z~4.7-5.4 mostly taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The present sample complements previous X-ray studies of z>4 quasars, in which the majority of the objects are optically more luminous and at lower redshifts. All but two of our quasars have been detected in the X-ray band, thus doubling the number of z>4.8 X-ray detected quasars. The two non-detections are likely to be due to a short exposure time and to the presence of intrinsic absorption. We confirm and extend to the highest redshifts the presence of a correlation between AB1450(1+z) magnitude and soft X-ray flux for z>4 quasars, and the presence of a steeper optical-to-X-ray spectral energy distribution (parameterized by aox) for high-luminosity, high-redshift quasars than for lower-luminosity, lower-redshift quasars. The second effect is likely due to the known anti-correlation between aox and rest-frame 2500 Angstrom luminosity, whose significance is confirmed v...

  17. Exposure to estrogen and ionizing radiation causes epigenetic dysregulation, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, and genome instability in the mammary gland of ACI rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutanzi, Kristy; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2013-07-01

    The impact of environmental mutagens and carcinogens on the mammary gland has recently received a lot of attention. Among the most generally accepted carcinogenic agents identified as factors that may increase breast cancer incidence are ionizing radiation and elevated estrogen levels. However, the molecular mechanisms of mammary gland aberrations associated with radiation and estrogen exposure still need to be further elucidated, especially the interplay between elevated hormone levels and radiation. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated molecular changes induced in rat mammary gland tissue by estrogen, ionizing radiation, and the combined action of these two carcinogens using a well-established ACI rat model. We found that continuous exposure of intact female ACI rats to elevated levels of estrogen or to both estrogen and radiation resulted in significant hyperproliferative changes in rat mammary glands. In contrast, radiation exposure alone did not induce hyperplasia. Interestingly, despite the obvious disparity in mammary gland morphology, we did not detect significant differences in the levels of genomic methylation among animals exposed to estrogen, radiation, or both agents together. Specifically, we observed a significant global genomic hypomethylation at 6 weeks of exposure. However, by 12 and 18 weeks, the levels of global DNA methylation returned to those of age-matched controls. We also found that combined exposure to radiation and estrogen significantly altered the levels of histone H3 and H4 methylation and acetylation. Most importantly, we for the first time demonstrated that estrogen and radiation exposure caused a significant induction of p42/44 MAPK and p38 pathways that was paralleled by elevated levels of H3S10 phosphorylation, a well-established biomarker of genome and chromosome instability. The precise role of MAPK pathways and their inter-relationship with H3S10 phosphorylation and genome instability in mammary gland tissues needs

  18. Chandra Discovers X-Ray Ring Around Cosmic Powerhouse in Crab Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    After barely two months in space, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has taken a stunning image of the Crab Nebula, the spectacular remains of a stellar explosion, and has revealed something never seen before: a brilliant ring around the nebula's heart. Combined with observations from the Hubble Space Telescope, the image provides important clues to the puzzle of how the cosmic "generator," a pulsing neutron star, energizes the nebula, which still glows brightly almost 1,000 years after the explosion. "The inner ring is unique," said Professor Jeff Hester of Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ. "It has never been seen before, and it should tell us a lot about how the energy from the pulsar gets into the nebula. It's like finding the transmission lines between the power plant and the light bulb." Professor Mal Ruderman of Columbia University, New York, NY, agreed. "The X-rays Chandra sees are the best tracer of where the energy is. With images such as these, we can directly diagnose what is going on." What is going on, according to Dr. Martin Weisskopf, Chandra Project Scientist from NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, is awesome. "The Crab pulsar is accelerating particles up to the speed of light and flinging them out into interstellar space at an incredible rate." The image shows tilted rings or waves of high-energy particles that appear to have been flung outward over the distance of a light year from the central star, and high-energy jets of particles blasting away from the neutron star in a direction perpendicular to the spiral. Hubble Space Telescope images have shown moving knots and wisps around the neutron star, and previous X-ray images have shown the outer parts of the jet and hinted at the ring structure. With Chandra's exceptional resolution, the jet can be traced all the way in to the neutron star, and the ring pattern clearly appears. The image was made with Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer and High Energy Transmission

  19. An Overview of the Performance of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Weisskopf, M C; Bautz, M; Cameron, R A; Dewey, D; Drake, J J; Grant, C E; Marshall, H L; Murray, S S

    2003-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory is the X-ray component of NASA's Great Observatory Program which includes the recently launched Spitzer Infrared Telescope, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for observations in the visible, and the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) which, after providing years of useful data has reentered the atmosphere. All these facilities provide, or provided, scientific data to the international astronomical community in response to peer-reviewed proposals for their use. The Chandra X-ray Observatory was the result of the efforts of many academic, commercial, and government organizations primarily in the United States but also in Europe. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) manages the Project and provides Project Science; Northrop Grumman Space Technology (NGST -- formerly TRW) served as prime contractor responsible for providing the spacecraft, the telescope, and assembling and testing the Observatory; and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) provides technical support a...

  20. The Precise Location of the Soft Gamma Repeater SGR 1627-41 with Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, S.; Kouveliotou, C.; Patel, S. K.; Tennant, A. F.; Woods, P. M.; Eichler, D.; Lyubarsky, Y.; Bouchet, P.

    2003-01-01

    We report the precise localization of the Soft Gamma Repeater SGR 1627-41 with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The best position for SGR 1627-41 was determined to be RA=16:35:51.844, DEC=-47:35:23.31 (J2000) with an accuracy of 0.6 arcsec. We present the results of our search for an IR counterpart to SGR 1627-41 and compare our results to the existing detections and limits of other magnetar infrared and optical observations in the literature. We also present new observations of SGR 1806-20 obtained during the recent reactivation of the source. In addition, we have determined a precise location for archival Chandra observations and reanalyzed archival IR data in the search for a counterpart.

  1. The BMW Detection Algorithm applied to the Chandra Deep Field south deeper and deeper

    CERN Document Server

    Moretti, A; Campana, S; Tagliaferri, G

    2002-01-01

    Chandra deep fields represent the deepest look at the X-ray sky. We analyzed the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS) with the aid of a dedicated wavelet-based algorithm. Here we present a detailed description of the procedures used to analyze this field, tested and verified by means of extensive simulations. We show that we can safely reconstruct the LogN-Log S source distribution of the CDFS down to limiting fluxes of 2.4x10^-17 and 2.1x10^-16 erg s^-1 cm^-2 in the soft (0.5-2 keV) and hard (2-10 keV) bands, respectively, fainter by a factor ~ 2 than current estimates. At these levels we can account for ~ 90% of the 1-2 keV and 2-10 keV X-ray background.

  2. Chandra Observes the End of an Era in SN 1987A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Kari A.; Zhekov, Svetozar A.; Park, Sangwook; McCray, Richard; Dwek, Eli; Burrows, David N.

    2016-09-01

    Updated imaging and photometric results from Chandra observations of SN 1987A, covering the last 16 years, are presented. We find that the 0.5-2 keV light curve has remained constant at ˜8 × 10-12 erg s-1 cm-2 since 9500 days, with the 3-8 keV light curve continuing to increase until at least 10,000 days. The expansion rate of the ring is found to be energy dependent, such that after day 6000 the ring expands faster in the 2-10 keV band than it does at energies fade. Consistent with the latest optical and infrared results, our Chandra analysis indicates the blast wave is now leaving the dense ER, which marks the beginning of a major change in the evolutionary phase of the supernova remnant 1987A.

  3. Observations of the Crab Nebula with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2012-01-01

    The Crab Nebula and its pulsar has been the subject of a number of detailed observations with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The superb angular resolution of Chandra s high-resolution telescope has made possible numerous remarkable results. Here we describe a number of specific studies of the Crab that I and my colleagues have undertaken. We discuss the geometry of the system, which indicates that the "inner X-ray ring", typically identified with the termination shock of the pulsar s particle wind, is most likely not in the equatorial plane of the pulsar. Other topics are the northern wisps and their evolution with time; the characterization of features in the jet to the southeast; pulse-phase spectroscopy and possible correlations with the features at other wavelengths, particularly the optical polarization; and a search for correlations of the X-ray flux with the recently-discovered gamma -ray flares.

  4. Applying the Background-Source separation algorithm to Chandra Deep Field South data

    CERN Document Server

    Guglielmetti, F; Fischer, R; Rosati, P; Tozzi, P

    2012-01-01

    A probabilistic two-component mixture model allows one to separate the diffuse background from the celestial sources within a one-step algorithm without data censoring. The background is modeled with a thin-plate spline combined with the satellite's exposure time. Source probability maps are created in a multi-resolution analysis for revealing faint and extended sources. All detected sources are automatically parametrized to produce a list of source positions, fluxes and morphological parameters. The present analysis is applied to the Chandra Deep Field South 2 Ms public released data. Within its 1.884 ks of exposure time and its angular resolution (0.984 arcsec), the Chandra Deep Field South data are particularly suited for testing the Background-Source separation algorithm.

  5. Joint XMM-Newton, Chandra, and RXTE Observations of Cyg X-1 at Phase Zero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottschmidt, Katja

    2008-01-01

    We present first results of simultaneous observations of the high mass X-ray binary Cyg X-1 for 50 ks with XMM-Newton, Chandra-HETGS and RXTE in 2008 April. The observations are centered on phase 0 of the 5.6 d orbit when pronounced dips in the X-ray emission from the black hole are known to occur. The dips are due to highly variable absorption in the accretion stream from the O-star companion to the black hole. Compared to previous high resolution spectroscopy studies of the dip and non-dip emission with Chandra, the addition of XMM-Newton data allows for a better determination of the continuum, especially through the broad iron line region (with RXTE constraining the greater than 10 keV continuum).

  6. SEARCHING FOR BULK MOTIONS IN THE INTRACLUSTER MEDIUM OF MASSIVE, MERGING CLUSTERS WITH CHANDRA CCD DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ang; Yu, Heng; Tozzi, Paolo; Zhu, Zong-Hong, E-mail: yuheng@bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: zhuzh@bnu.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875 (China)

    2016-04-10

    We search for bulk motions in the intracluster medium (ICM) of massive clusters showing evidence of an ongoing or recent major merger with spatially resolved spectroscopy in Chandra CCD data. We identify a sample of six merging clusters with >150 ks Chandra exposure in the redshift range 0.1 < z < 0.3. By performing X-ray spectral analysis of projected ICM regions selected according to their surface brightness, we obtain the projected redshift maps for all of these clusters. After performing a robust analysis of the statistical and systematic uncertainties in the measured X-ray redshift z{sub X}, we check whether or not the global z{sub X} distribution differs from that expected when the ICM is at rest. We find evidence of significant bulk motions at more than 3σ in A2142 and A115, and less than 2σ in A2034 and A520. Focusing on single regions, we identify significant localized velocity differences in all of the merger clusters. We also perform the same analysis on two relaxed clusters with no signatures of recent mergers, finding no signs of bulk motions, as expected. Our results indicate that deep Chandra CCD data enable us to identify the presence of bulk motions at the level of v{sub BM} > 1000 km s{sup −1} in the ICM of massive merging clusters at 0.1 < z < 0.3. Although the CCD spectral resolution is not sufficient for a detailed analysis of the ICM dynamics, Chandra CCD data constitute a key diagnostic tool complementing X-ray bolometers on board future X-ray missions.

  7. Chandra observations of the H2O megamaser galaxy Mrk1210

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    We present the first Chandra X-ray observations of the H2O megamaser galaxy Mrk1210 (UGC4203), a Seyfert 2 galaxy at an approximate distance of D~57.6 Mpc. The Chandra X-ray image, with by far the highest angular resolution (~1"), displays an unresolved compact core toward the nuclear region of Mrk1210. Comparisons with the previous X-ray observations in the nuclear emission and the spectral shape indicate a fairly stable phase between 2001 (BeppoSAX and XMM-Newton) and 2004 (Chandra) after a dramatic variation since 1995 (ASCA). The best-fit model of Chandra X-ray spectrum consists of two components. The soft scattered component can be best fitted by a moderately absorbed power-law model adding a spectral line at ~0.9 keV (possibly a Ne-Kα fluorescent line), while the hard nuclear component can be well reproduced by a heavily absorbed power-law model (NH~2×1023 cm-2) with an additional line at ~6.19 keV (close to the Fe-Kα fluorescent line). The derived absorption-corrected X-ray luminosity implies that the dramatic variation of spectral properties is caused by significant changes of the absorbing column density along the line-of-sight, while the intrinsic nuclear X-ray lu-minosity remains stable. In this case, the absorbers should be anisotropic and its size can be constrained to be less than 0.0013 pc. In addition, we also estimate the mass of central engine, the disk radius and the accretion rate of the accretion disk to be 107.12±0.31M⊙, ~1 pc and 0.006, respectively.

  8. Chandra observations of the H2O megamaser galaxy Mrk1210

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG JiangShui; FAN JunHui

    2009-01-01

    We present the first Chandra X-ray observations of the H2O megamaser galaxy Mrk1210 (UGC4203), a Seyfert 2 galaxy at an approximate distance of D~57.6 Mpc. The Chandra X-ray image, with by far the highest angular resolution (~1"), displays an unresolved compact core toward the nuclear region of Mrk1210. Comparisons with the previous X-ray observations in the nuclear emission and the spectral shape indicate a fairly stable phase between 2001 (BeppoSAX and XMM-Newton) and 2004 (Chandra) after a dramatic variation since 1995 (ASCA). The best-fit model of Chandra X-ray spectrum consists of two components. The soft scattered component can be best fitted by a moderately absorbed power-law model adding a spectral line at ~0.9 keV (possibly a Ne-Kα fluorescent line), while the hard nuclear component can be well reproduced by a heavily absorbed power-law model (NH~2×1023cm-2) with an additional line at~6.19 keV (close to the Fe-Kα fluorescent line). The derived absorption-corrected X-ray luminosity implies that the dramatic variation of spectral properties is caused by significant changes of the absorbing column density along the line-of-sight, while the intrinsic nuclear X-ray luminosity remains stable. In this case, the absorbers should be anisotropic and its size can be constrained to be less than 0.0013 pc. In addition, we also estimate the mass of central engine, the disk radius and the accretion rate of the accretion disk to be 107.12±0.31M⊙, ~1 pc and 0.006, respectively.

  9. Intrinsic Absorption in the Spectrum of NGC 7469: Simultaneous Chandra, FUSE, and STIS Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, J E; Lee, J C; Quijano, J K; Brotherton, M; Canizares, C R; Green, R F; Hutchings, J B; Kaiser, M E; Marshall, H; Oegerle, W; Ogle, P; Zheng, W; Scott, Jennifer E.; Kriss, Gerard A.; Lee, Julia C.; Quijano, Jessica Kim; Brotherton, Michael; Canizares, Claude R.; Green, Richard F.; Hutchings, John; Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Marshall, Herman; Oegerle, William; Ogle, Patrick; Zheng, Wei

    2005-01-01

    We present simultaneous X-ray, far-ultraviolet, and near-ultraviolet spectra of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 7469 obtained with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer, and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. Previous non-simultaneous observations of this galaxy found two distinct UV absorption components, at -560 and -1900 km/s, with the former as the likely counterpart of the X-ray absorber. We confirm these two absorption components in our new UV observations, in which we detect prominent O VI, Ly alpha, N V, and C IV absorption. In our Chandra spectrum we detect O VIII emission, but no significant O VIII or O VII absorption. We also detect a prominent Fe K alpha emission line in the Chandra spectrum, as well as absorption due to hydrogen-like and helium-like neon, magnesium, and silicon at velocities consistent with the -560 km/s UV absorber. The FUSE data reveal that the H I and C IV column densities in this UV- and X-ray- absorbing compon...

  10. TGCat, The Chandra Transmission Grating Catalog and Archive: Systems, Design and Accessibility

    CERN Document Server

    Mitschang, Arik W; Nichols, Joy S

    2010-01-01

    The recently released Chandra Transmission Grating Catalog and Archive, TGCat, presents a fully dynamic on-line catalog allowing users to browse and categorize Chandra gratings observations quickly and easily, generate custom plots of resulting response corrected spectra on-line without the need for special software and to download analysis ready products from multiple observations in one convenient operation. TGCat has been registered as a VO resource with the NVO providing direct access to the catalogs interface. The catalog is supported by a back-end designed to automatically fetch newly public data, process, archive and catalog them, At the same time utilizing an advanced queue system integrated into the archive's MySQL database allowing large processing projects to take advantage of an unlimited number of CPUs across a network for rapid completion. A unique feature of the catalog is that all of the high level functions used to retrieve inputs from the Chandra archive and to generate the final data produc...

  11. Chandra and XMM Observations of the Composite Supernova Remnant G327.1-1.1

    CERN Document Server

    Temim, Tea; Gaensler, B M; Hughes, John P; van der Swaluw, Eric

    2008-01-01

    We present new X-ray imaging and spectroscopy of a composite supernova remnant G327.1-1.1 using the Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observatories. G327.1-1.1 has an unusual morphology consisting of a symmetric radio shell and an off center nonthermal component that indicates the presence of a pulsar wind nebula (PWN). Radio observations show a narrow finger of emission extending from the PWN structure towards the northwest. X-ray studies with ASCA, ROSAT, and BeppoSAX revealed elongated extended emission and a compact source at the tip of the finger that may be coincident with the actual pulsar. The high resolution Chandra observations provide new insight into the structure of the inner region of the remnant. The images show a compact source embedded in a cometary structure, from which a trail of X-ray emission extends in the southeast direction. The Chandra images also reveal two prong-like structures that appear to originate from the vicinity of the compact source and extend into a large bubble that is oriente...

  12. Chandra X-ray Detection of the Enigmatic Field Star BP Psc

    CERN Document Server

    Kastner, Joel H; Rodriguez, David; Grosso, Nicolas; Zuckerman, B; Perrin, Marshall D; Forveille, Thierry; Graham, James R

    2010-01-01

    BP Psc is a remarkable emission-line field star that is orbited by a dusty disk and drives a parsec-scale system of jets. We report the detection by the Chandra X-ray Observatory of a weak X-ray point source coincident with the centroids of optical/IR and submillimeter continuum emission at BP Psc. As the star's photosphere is obscured throughout the visible and near-infrared, the Chandra X-ray source likely represents the first detection of BP Psc itself. The X-rays most likely originate with magnetic activity at BP Psc and hence can be attributed either to a stellar corona or to star-disk interactions. The log of the ratio of X-ray to bolometric luminosity (log(L_X/L_{bol}) lies in the range -5.8 to -4.2. This is smaller than log(L_X/L_{bol}) ratios typical of low-mass, pre-main sequence stars, but is well within the log(L_X/L_{bol}) range observed for rapidly-rotating (FK Com-type) G giant stars. Hence, the Chandra results favor an exotic model wherein the disk/jet system of BP Psc is the result of its ver...

  13. The Chandra X-Ray Observatory's Radiation Environment and the AP-8/AE-8 Model

    CERN Document Server

    Virani, S N; Plucinsky, P P; Butt, Y M; Virani, Shanil N.; Mueller-Mellin, Reinhold; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Butt, Yousaf M.

    2000-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO) was launched on July 23, 1999 and reached its final orbit on August 7, 1999. The CXO is in a highly elliptical orbit, approximately 140,000 km x 10,000 km, and has a period of approximately 63.5 hours (~ 2.65 days). It transits the Earth's Van Allen belts once per orbit during which no science observations can be performed due to the high radiation environment. The Chandra X-ray Observatory Center (CXC) currently uses the National Space Science Data Center's ``near Earth'' AP-8/AE-8 radiation belt model to predict the start and end times of passage through the radiation belts. However, our scheduling software uses only a simple dipole model of the Earth's magnetic field. The resulting B, L magnetic coordinates, do not always give sufficiently accurate predictions of the start and end times of transit of the Van Allen belts. We show this by comparing to the data from Chandra's on-board radiation monitor, the EPHIN (Electron, Proton, Helium Instrument particle detector) instr...

  14. An X-ray Tour of Massive Star-forming Regions with Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Townsley, L K

    2006-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory is providing fascinating new views of massive star-forming regions, revealing all stages in the life cycles of massive stars and their effects on their surroundings. I present a Chandra tour of some of the most famous of these regions: M17, NGC 3576, W3, Tr14 in Carina, and 30 Doradus. Chandra highlights the physical processes that characterize the lives of these clusters, from the ionizing sources of ultracompact HII regions (W3) to superbubbles so large that they shape our views of galaxies (30 Dor). X-ray observations usually reveal hundreds of pre-main sequence (lower-mass) stars accompanying the OB stars that power these great HII region complexes, although in one case (W3 North) this population is mysteriously absent. The most massive stars themselves are often anomalously hard X-ray emitters; this may be a new indicator of close binarity. These complexes are sometimes suffused by soft diffuse X-rays (M17, NGC 3576), signatures of multi-million-degree plasmas created by fas...

  15. ACI患者血清EPO CRP水平的变化%The changes of the concentration of serum EPO and CRP of the ACI patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小玲; 邰迎东

    2013-01-01

      目的观察内源性促红细胞生成素(erythropoietin,EPO)、C-反应蛋白(CRP)在急性脑梗死(acute cerebral infarction,ACI)中水平的变化,探讨EPO可能存在的神经保护作用及机制。方法 ACI患者64例,根据头颅CT或MRI梗死灶横断面最大直径分为小梗死灶组、中梗死灶组、大梗死灶组,与正常对照组35例作对照分析。采用酶联免疫吸附试验(enzyme linked immunosorbent assay,ELISA)双抗体夹心法测定血清EPO水平;采用免疫比浊法测定血清C-反应蛋白(C-reactive Protein,CRP)水平。结果脑梗死组血清EPO及CRP水平均高于正常对照组(P0.05)。随着梗死灶的增大,血清EPO水平有逐渐降低的趋势,血清CRP水平有逐渐升高的趋势。结论内源性EPO在ACI中可能存在着一定的神经保护作用,机制之一可能是减轻脑缺血区的炎症反应。外源性EPO有望成为ACI一种新的治疗选择。%  Objective To investigate the probable existence of neuroprotective effects and mechanism of endogenous EPO in the ACI and to provide evidences of the probability of the clinical application of EPO for curing ACI. Methods To select 64 cases of patients with acute cerebral infarction 35 cases of normal control group. The serum concentration of EPO was measured by ELISA and the serum concentration of CRP was measured by immuoturbidimetry. Results The concentrations of serum EPO、IL-6 and CRP of cerebral infarction group (CI)were higher than those of normal control group (P<0.01);According to the analysis of the bivariate correlation,there were negative correlations between EPO and CRP(r=-0.643,P<0.01);The serum concentrations of EPO of the small CI were higher than those of the medium or the large one(P<0.01),and the serum concentrations of EPO of the medium CI were higher than those of the large one (P<0.05).The more larger the cerebral infarction size became,the more lower the concentrations of

  16. CHANDRA Observations of RX J1914.4+ 2456: Spin-up of a White Dwarf?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.

    2004-01-01

    RX 51914.4+2456 is a candidate double-degenerate binary with a putative 1.756 mHz orbital frequency. In a previous timing study using archival ROSAT and ASCA data we reported evidence for an increase of the putative orbital frequency at a rate consistent with expectations for gravitational radiation from the system. Here we report the results of new Chandra timing observations which confirm the previous indications of spin-up of the X-ray frequency, and provide much tighter constraints on the frequency derivative, u. We obtained with Chandra a total of 75 ksec of exposure in two epochs separated in time by 10.3 months. The total time span of the archival ROSAT, ASCA and new Chandra data is now 10.2 years. This more than doubles the interval spanned by the ROSAT and ASCA data alone, providing much greater sensitivity to a frequency derivative. With the addition of the Chandra data an increasing frequency is unavoidable, and the mean i/ is 5.9f0.9 x 10-l' Hz s-'. Interestingly, power spectra of the longest Chandra pointing show evidence for a sideband structure to the 1.756 mHz frequency. The fundamental and first harmonic show evidence for upper sidebands with a frequency separation of E 0.5 mHz from their parent peaks. Additionally, the first and second harmonics show evidence for lower sidebands with approximately half the frequency separation of the upper sidebands. Similar sideband structure is a common feature of Intermediate Polars (Ips)-although it is usually observed in the optical-and suggests the presence of a longer period in the system, perhaps the previously unseen orbital period. If this is correct the sideband structure indicates an orbital period close to 1 hr, and the observed u likely represents the accretion-induced spin-up of a white dwarf. We discuss the implications of these findings for the nature of RX J1914.4+2456.

  17. CHANDRA Observations of V407 Vul: Confirmation of the Spin-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, T.

    2004-01-01

    V407 Vu1 (RX J1914.4+2456) is a candidate double-degenerate binary with a putative 1.756 mHz (9.5 min) orbital frequency. In a previous timing study using archival ROSAT and ASCA data we reported evidence for an increase of this frequency at a rate consistent with expectations for gravitational radiation from a detached ultracompact binary system. Here we report the results of new Chandra timing observations which confirm the previous indications of spin-up of the X-ray frequency, and provide much tighter constraints on the frequency derivative, nu (raised dot). We obtained with Chandra a total of 90 ksec of exposure in two epochs separated in time by 11.5 months. The total time span of the archival ROSAT, ASCA and new Chandra data is now approximately equal to 10.5 years. This more than doubles the interval spanned by the ROSAT and ASCA data alone, providing much greater sensitivity to a frequency derivative. With the addition of the Chandra data an increasing frequency is unavoidable, and the mean nu (raised dot) is 7.0 plus or minus 0.8 x l0(exp -18) Hz per second. Although a long-term spin-up trend is confirmed, there is excess variance in the phase timing residuals, perhaps indicative of shorter timescale torque fluctuations or phase instability associated with the source of the X-ray flux. Power spectral searches for periods longward of the 9.5 minute period do not find any significant modulations, however, the sensitivity of searches in this frequency range are somewhat compromised by the dithering of the Chandra attitude. The observed spin-up is of a magnitude consistent with that expected from gravitational radiation decay, however, the factor of approximately equal to 3 variations in flux combined with the timing noise could conceivably result from accretion-induced spin-up of a white dwarf. Continued monitoring to explore correlations of torque with X-ray flux could provide a further test of this hypothesis.

  18. Chandra Observations and Models of the Mixed Morphology Supernova Remnant W44: Global Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, R. L.; Kuntz, K. D.; Petre, R.

    2004-01-01

    We report on the Chandra observations of the archetypical mixed morphology (or thermal composite) supernova remnant, W44. As with other mixed morphology remnants, W44's projected center is bright in thermal X-rays. It has an obvious radio shell, but no discernable X-ray shell. In addition, X-ray bright knots dot W44's image. The spectral analysis of the Chandra data show that the remnant s hot, bright projected center is metal-rich and that the bright knots are regions of comparatively elevated elemental abundances. Neon is among the affected elements, suggesting that ejecta contributes to the abundance trends. Furthermore, some of the emitting iron atoms appear to be underionized with respect to the other ions, providing the first potential X-ray evidence for dust destruction in a supernova remnant. We use the Chandra data to test the following explanations for W44's X-ray bright center: 1.) entropy mixing due to bulk mixing or thermal conduction, 2.) evaporation of swept up clouds, and 3.) a metallicity gradient, possibly due to dust destruction and ejecta enrichment. In these tests, we assume that the remnant has evolved beyond the adiabatic evolutionary stage, which explains the X-ray dimness of the shell. The entropy mixed model spectrum was tested against the Chandra spectrum for the remnant's projected center and found to be a good match. The evaporating clouds model was constrained by the finding that the ionization parameters of the bright knots are similar to those of the surrounding regions. While both the entropy mixed and the evaporating clouds models are known to predict centrally bright X-ray morphologies, their predictions fall short of the observed brightness gradient. The resulting brightness gap can be largely filled in by emission from the extra metals in and near the remnant's projected center. The preponderance of evidence (including that drawn from other studies) suggests that W44's remarkable morphology can be attributed to dust destruction

  19. «La nieve arder». La retórica afectiva en el universo petrarquista de la zarzuela Acis y Galatea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Marroquín, Lucía

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available «La nieve arder» analyses the zarzuela Acis y Galatea, with music by José de Literes on a libretto by Antonio de Cañizares, in the context of the Petrarchan-inherited aesthetics. It focuses on the rhetorical aspects expressed both in text and music, strongly influenced by the Aristotelian tradition, and re-interpreted in several textual and musical treatises: Robortello, Herrera, Lope de Vega and, within a musical context, those by Zarlino, Caccini, Galilei, Kircher, Bermudo and Nasarre, amongst others. This article also takes into account the historical aspects relevant for the first performances of Literes and Cañizares' zarzuela, as well as the social and political circumstances which influenced the introduction of the Italian dramma per música in 17th century Spain.«La nieve arder» analiza la zarzuela Acis y Galatea, con música de José de Literes sobre un libreto de Antonio de Cañizares, en el contexto de la estética barroca de tradición petrarquista. El análisis parte de una descripción de los aspectos retórico-afectivos expresados tanto en el texto como en la música, pertenecientes en su mayoría a la tradición aristotélica reinterpretada en los días del humanismo renacentista en numerosos tratados de retórica y poética (Robortello, Herrera, López Pinciano, Lope de Vega y de música (Zarlino, Kircher, Galilei, Caccini o, en España, Bermudo y Nasarre. El artículo toma en cuenta aspectos históricos que resultaron relevantes para las primeras interpretaciones de la obra, además de las circunstancias sociales y políticas que influyeron en la introducción del dramma per música de procedencia italiana en la España del siglo XVII.

  20. THE CHANDRA MULTI-WAVELENGTH PROJECT: OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY AND THE BROADBAND SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF X-RAY-SELECTED AGNs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trichas, Markos; Green, Paul J.; Aldcroft, Tom; Kim, Dong-Woo; Mossman, Amy [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Silverman, John D. [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU), University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Barkhouse, Wayne [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND 58202 (United States); Cameron, Robert A. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Constantin, Anca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, James Madison University, PHCH, Harrisonburg, VA 22807 (United States); Ellison, Sara L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8P 1A1 (Canada); Foltz, Craig [Division of Astronomical Sciences, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, VA 22230 (United States); Haggard, Daryl [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Jannuzi, Buell T. [NOAO, Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Marshall, Herman L. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Perez, Laura M. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Romero-Colmenero, Encarni [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory, 7935 (South Africa); Ruiz, Angel [Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera-INAF, Milan (Italy); Smith, Malcolm G., E-mail: mtrichas@cfa.harvard.edu [Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory, La Serena (Chile); and others

    2012-06-01

    From optical spectroscopy of X-ray sources observed as part of the Chandra Multi-wavelength Project (ChaMP), we present redshifts and classifications for a total of 1569 Chandra sources from our targeted spectroscopic follow-up using the FLWO/1.5 m, SAAO/1.9 m, WIYN 3.5 m, CTIO/4 m, KPNO/4 m, Magellan/6.5 m, MMT/6.5 m, and Gemini/8 m telescopes, and from archival Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopy. We classify the optical counterparts as 50% broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs), 16% emission line galaxies, 14% absorption line galaxies, and 20% stars. We detect QSOs out to z {approx} 5.5 and galaxies out to z {approx} 3. We have compiled extensive photometry, including X-ray (ChaMP), ultraviolet (GALEX), optical (SDSS and ChaMP-NOAO/MOSAIC follow-up), near-infrared (UKIDSS, Two Micron All Sky Survey, and ChaMP-CTIO/ISPI follow-up), mid-infrared (WISE), and radio (FIRST and NVSS) bands. Together with our spectroscopic information, this enables us to derive detailed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for our extragalactic sources. We fit a variety of template SEDs to determine bolometric luminosities, and to constrain AGNs and starburst components where both are present. While {approx}58% of X-ray Seyferts (10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1} < L{sub 2-10keV} <10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}) require a starburst event (>5% starburst contribution to bolometric luminosity) to fit observed photometry only 26% of the X-ray QSO (L{sub 2-10keV} >10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}) population appear to have some kind of star formation contribution. This is significantly lower than for the Seyferts, especially if we take into account torus contamination at z > 1 where the majority of our X-ray QSOs lie. In addition, we observe a rapid drop of the percentage of starburst contribution as X-ray luminosity increases. This is consistent with the quenching of star formation by powerful QSOs, as predicted by the merger model, or with a time lag between the peak of star formation and QSO

  1. Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase cytoplasmic tail binding protein-1 (MTCBP-1) acts as an eukaryotic aci-reductone dioxygenase (ARD) in the methionine salvage pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Wakako; Gotoh, Isamu; Uekita, Takamasa; Seiki, Motoharu

    2005-06-01

    MTCBP-1 was identified as a protein that binds the cytoplasmic tail of membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP/MMP-14). Since MTCBP-1 has a putative beta-barrel structure, it is presumably a member of the recently proposed cupin superfamily that contains tremendously diverged functions of proteins in spite of their well-conserved beta-barrel structure. MTCBP-1 shows significant homology to the bacterial aci-reductone dioxygenase (ARD) in the cupin family, which is an enzyme in the methionine salvage pathway (MTA cycle). Since it is difficult to speculate the functions of cupin proteins simply based on their sequence homology, we examined whether the eukaryotic ARD homologs surely function in the methionine metabolism. Under sulfur-depleted conditions, yeast could grow when substrate of MTA cycle was provided. Disruption of the yeast ARD homolog, YMR009w gene, abolished ability of the cells to grow in this culture condition. Re-expression of either the YMR009w or MTCBP-1 gene restored the cell growth. Mutation analysis revealed that the glutamic acid residue in the beta-barrel fold and the N-terminal extension from the beta-barrel fold were found to be important for the activity to restore the growth. Thus, MTCBP-1 isolated as a binding protein for MT1-MMP was demonstrated to function as an ARD-like enzyme in the MTA cycle in yeast.

  2. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Trichloroethylene (CAS No. 79-01-6) in Four Strains of Rats (ACI, August, Marshall, Osborne-Mendel) (Gavage Studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    Trichloroethylene is an industrial solvent used primarily for vapor degreasing and cold cleaning. It was selected for study because of its industrial use and for potential for human exposure. (An estimated 3.5 million workers are exposed to trichloroethylene.) In an earlier study trichloroethylene (stabilized with epichlorohydrin and 1,2-epoxybutane) administered by gavage caused hepatocellular carcinomas in male and female B6C3F1 mice. Trichloroethylene administration did not increase the incidence of tumors in male or female Osborne-Mendel rats. However, the survival of dosed rats was reduced, thereby compromising the sensitivity of the study to detect a carcinogenic effect. The studies described in this report were conducted to compare the sensitivities of four strains of rats (ACI, August, Marshall, and Osborne-Mendel) to diisopropylamine-stabilized trichloroethylene. The results of the present studies demonstrate that long-term administration of trichloroethylene produces nephrotoxicity in four strains of rats and that the susceptibilities of these strains to the nephrotoxic effects of the chemical are similar. Because of chemically induced toxicity, reduced survival, and incomplete documentation of the experimental data, the studies are considered inadequate for either comparing or assessing trichloroethylene-induced carcinogenesis in these strains of rats. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of trichloroethylene (more than 99% pure, stabilized with 8 ppm diisopropylamine) were conducted by administering the chemical in corn oil gavage at doses of 0, 500, or 1,000 mg/kg per day, 5 day per week, for 103 weeks to groups of 50 male and 50 female ACI, August, Marshall, and Osborne-Mendel rats. The doses were selected on the basis of results from 13-week gavage studies in which groups of 10 male and 10 female ACI, August, and Marshall rats received daily doses or trichloroethylene (male: 125-2,000 mg/kg; female: 63-1,000 mg/kg). Doses for Osborne-Mendel rats

  3. Variability Selected Low-Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei in the 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M.; Brandt, W. N.; Xue, Y. Q.; Paolillo, D. M.; Alexander, F. E.; Bauer, F. E.; Lehmer, B. D.; Luo, B.; Shemmer, O.; Schneider, D. P.; Vignail, C.

    2012-01-01

    The 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) and other deep X-ray surveys have been highly effective at selecting active galactic nuclei (AGN). However, cosmologically distant low-luminosity AGN (LLAGN) have remained a challenge to identify due to significant contribution from the host galaxy. We identify long-term X ray variability (approx. month years, observed frame) in 20 of 92 CDF-S galaxies spanning redshifts approx equals 00.8 - 1.02 that do not meet other AGN selection criteria. We show that the observed variability cannot be explained by X-ray binary populations or ultraluminous X-ray sources, so the variability is most likely caused by accretion onto a supermassive black hole. The variable galaxies are not heavily obscured in general, with a stacked effective power-law photon index of Gamma(sub Stack) approx equals 1.93 +/- 0.13, and arc therefore likely LLAGN. The LLAGN tend to lie it factor of approx equal 6-89 below the extrapolated linear variability-luminosity relation measured for luminous AGN. This may he explained by their lower accretion rates. Variability-independent black-hole mass and accretion-rate estimates for variable galaxies show that they sample a significantly different black hole mass-accretion-rate space, with masses a factor of 2.4 lower and accretion rates a factor of 22.5 lower than variable luminous AGNs at the same redshift. We find that an empirical model based on a universal broken power-law power spectral density function, where the break frequency depends on SMBH mass and accretion rate, roughly reproduces the shape, but not the normalization, of the variability-luminosity trends measured for variable galaxies and more luminous AGNs.

  4. Applications for edge detection techniques using Chandra and XMM-Newton data: galaxy clusters and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, S. A.; Sanders, J. S.; Fabian, A. C.

    2016-09-01

    The unrivalled spatial resolution of the Chandra X-ray observatory has allowed many breakthroughs to be made in high-energy astrophysics. Here we explore applications of Gaussian gradient magnitude (GGM) filtering to X-ray data, which dramatically improves the clarity of surface brightness edges in X-ray observations, and maps gradients in X-ray surface brightness over a range of spatial scales. In galaxy clusters, we find that this method is able to reveal remarkable substructure behind the cold fronts in Abell 2142 and Abell 496, possibly the result of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. In Abell 2319 and Abell 3667, we demonstrate that the GGM filter can provide a straightforward way of mapping variations in the widths and jump ratios along the lengths of cold fronts. We present results from our ongoing programme of analysing the Chandra and XMM-Newton archives with the GGM filter. In the Perseus cluster, we identify a previously unseen edge around 850 kpc from the core to the east, lying outside a known large-scale cold front, which is possibly a bow shock. In MKW 3s we find an unusual `V' shape surface brightness enhancement starting at the cluster core, which may be linked to the AGN jet. In the Crab nebula a new, moving feature in the outer part of the torus is identified which moves across the plane of the sky at a speed of ˜0.1c, and lies much further from the central pulsar than the previous motions seen by Chandra.

  5. A CHANDRA OBSERVATION OF THE ECLIPSING WOLF-RAYET BINARY CQ Cep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Stephen L. [CASA, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0389 (United States); Zhekov, Svetozar A. [Space Research and Technology Institute, Akad. G. Bonchev Str., Sofia, 1113 (Bulgaria); Güdel, Manuel [Dept. of Astrophysics, Univ. of Vienna, Türkenschanzstr. 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Schmutz, Werner, E-mail: stephen.skinner@colorado.edu, E-mail: szhekov@space.bas.bg, E-mail: manuel.guedel@univie.ac.at, E-mail: werner.schmutz@pmodwrc.ch [Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos and World Radiation Center (PMOD/WRC), Dorfstrasse 33, CH-7260 Davos Dorf (Switzerland)

    2015-02-01

    The short-period (1.64 d) near-contact eclipsing WN6+O9 binary system CQ Cep provides an ideal laboratory for testing the predictions of X-ray colliding wind shock theory at close separation where the winds may not have reached terminal speeds before colliding. We present results of a Chandra X-ray observation of CQ Cep spanning ∼1 day during which a simultaneous Chandra optical light curve was acquired. Our primary objective was to compare the observed X-ray properties with colliding wind shock theory, which predicts that the hottest shock plasma (T ≳ 20 MK) will form on or near the line-of-centers between the stars. The X-ray spectrum is strikingly similar to apparently single WN6 stars such as WR 134 and spectral lines reveal plasma over a broad range of temperatures T ∼ 4-40 MK. A deep optical eclipse was seen as the O star passed in front of the Wolf-Rayet star and we determine an orbital period P {sub orb} = 1.6412400 d. Somewhat surprisingly, no significant X-ray variability was detected. This implies that the hottest X-ray plasma is not confined to the region between the stars, at odds with the colliding wind picture and suggesting that other X-ray production mechanisms may be at work. Hydrodynamic simulations that account for such effects as radiative cooling and orbital motion will be needed to determine if the new Chandra results can be reconciled with the colliding wind picture.

  6. Chandra and XMM Monitoring of the Black Hole X-ray Binary IC 10 X-1

    OpenAIRE

    Laycock, Silas G. T.; Cappallo, Rigel C.; Moro, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    The massive black hole + Wolf-Rayet binary IC10 X-1 was observed in a series of 10 Chandra and 2 XMM-Newton observations spanning 2003-2012, showing consistent variability around 7 x10^37 erg/s, with a spectral hardening event in 2009. We phase-connected the entire light-curve by folding the photon arrival times on a series of trial periods spanning the known orbital period and its uncertainty, refining the X-ray period to P = 1.45175(1)d. The duration of minimum-flux in the X-ray eclipse is ...

  7. Intrinsic Absorption in the Spectrum of NGC 7469: Simultaneous Chandra, FUSE, and STIS Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Jennifer E.; Kriss, Gerard A.; Lee, Julia C; Quijano, Jessica Kim; Brotherton, Michael; Canizares, Claude R.; Green, Richard F.; Hutchings, John; Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Marshall, Herman; Oegerle, William; Ogle, Patrick; Zheng, Wei

    2005-01-01

    We present simultaneous X-ray, far-ultraviolet, and near-ultraviolet spectra of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 7469 obtained with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer, and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. Previous non-simultaneous observations of this galaxy found two distinct UV absorption components, at -560 and -1900 km/s, with the former as the likely counterpart of the X-ray absorber. We confirm these two absorption co...

  8. Metal abundances in PG1159 stars from Chandra and FUSE spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, K; Dreizler, S; Rauch, T; Barstow, M A; Kruk, J W

    2002-01-01

    We investigate FUSE spectra of three PG1159 stars and do not find any evidence for iron lines. From a comparison with NLTE models we conclude a deficiency of 1-1.5 dex. We speculate that iron was transformed into heavier elements. A soft X-ray Chandra spectrum of the unique H- and He-deficient star H1504+65 is analyzed. We find high neon and magnesium abundances and confirm that H1504+65 is the bare core of either a C-O or a O-Ne-Mg white dwarf.

  9. The Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating: Design, Fabrication, Ground Calibration and Five Years in Flight

    CERN Document Server

    Canizares, C R; Dewey, D; Flanagan, K A; Galton, E B; Huenemoerder, D P; Ishibashi, K; Markert, T H; Marshall, H L; McGuirk, M; Schattenburg, M L; Schulz, N S; Smith, H I; Wise, M; Canizares, Claude R.; Davis, John E.; Dewey, Daniel; Flanagan, Kathryn A.; Galton, Eugene B.; Huenemoerder, David P.; Ishibashi, Kazunori; Markert, Thomas H.; Marshall, Herman L.; Guirk, Michael Mc; Schattenburg, Mark L.; Schulz, Norbert S.; Smith, Henry I.; Wise, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Details of the design, fabrication, ground and flight calibration of the High Energy Transmission Grating, HETG, on the Chandra X-ray Observatory are presented after five years of flight experience. Specifics include the theory of phased transmission gratings as applied to the HETG, the Rowland design of the spectrometer, details of the grating fabrication techniques, and the results of ground testing and calibration of the HETG. For nearly six years the HETG has operated essentially as designed, although it has presented some subtle flight calibration effects.

  10. Deeper Chandra Follow-up of Cygnus TeV Source Perpetuates Mystery

    CERN Document Server

    Butt, Y; Benaglia, P; Combi, J; Dame, T; Miniati, F; Romero, G; Butt, Yousaf; Drake, Jeremy; Benaglia, Paula; Combi, Jorge; Dame, Thomas; Miniati, Francesco; Romero, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    A 50 ksec Chandra observation of the unidentified TeV source in Cygnus reported by the HEGRA collaboration reveals no obvious X-ray counterpart(s). 220 Point-like X-ray sources are detected within or nearby the extended TeV J2032+4130 source region, of which at least 30 are massive stars and 6 are known radio emitters. Based on the low X-ray and radio emissivity we favor a nucleonic rather than electronic origin of the very high energy gamma-ray flux and suspect it is related to the very massive and extremely powerful Cygnus OB2 stellar association.

  11. NASA Chandra X-ray Observatory Selected as Editor's Choice in 2000 Discover Magazine Awards for Technological Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory, NASA's newest and most powerful X-ray space telescope, has been selected as the winner of the Editor's Choice category of the 2000 Discover Magazine Awards for Technological Innovation. The team of government, industry, university and research institutions that designed, built and deployed Chandra for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala, will be formally recognized June 24 at a gala awards celebration at Epcot at the Walt Disney World Resort in Orlando, Fl. Dr. Harvey Tananbaum, director of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's Chandra X-ray Science Center, Cambridge, Mass., which conducts the Chandra science mission for NASA, will receive the award on behalf of the team. "Chandra has opened a new window for astronomers into the universe of high-energy cosmic events such as pulsars, supernova remnants and black holes," said Tananbaum. "We're now able to create spectacularly detailed images of celestial phenomena whose mere existence we could only hypothesize before." Among Chandra's most significant discoveries to date, he lists the detection of a giant ring around the heart of the Crab Nebula, details of the shock wave created by an exploding star and resolution of the high-energy X-ray "glow" in the universe into millions of specific light sources. "The successful launch, deployment and on-orbit operations of NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory is a testament to the solid partnership between TRW, NASA and the science community that has been enabling NASA's most important space science missions for the past 40 years," said Timothy W. Hannemann, executive vice president and general manager, TRW Space & Electronics Group. "The extraordinary images that Chandra is delivering daily speaks loudly not only to the quality of the science instruments on board, but also to the engineering talents and dedication to mission success exhibited by every member of NASA's Chandra mission team." Chandra, named in honor of Nobel

  12. IDENTIFYING THE LOCATION IN THE HOST GALAXY OF THE SHORT GRB 111117A WITH THE CHANDRA SUBARCSECOND POSITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, T.; Troja, E. [Center for Research and Exploration in Space Science and Technology (CRESST), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Aoki, K. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Guiriec, S.; Barthelmy, S. D. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Im, M.; Jeon, Y. [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe (CEOU), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Leloudas, G.; Malesani, D.; De Ugarte Postigo, A.; Andersen, M. I. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Melandri, A.; D' Avanzo, P. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Urata, Y. [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Chung-Li 32054, Taiwan (China); Xu, D. [Department of Particle Physics and Astronomy, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Gorosabel, J.; Sanchez-Ramirez, R. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Bai, J. [Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan Province, 650011 (China); Briggs, M. S. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Foley, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); and others

    2013-03-20

    We present our successful Chandra program designed to identify, with subarcsecond accuracy, the X-ray afterglow of the short GRB 111117A, which was discovered by Swift and Fermi. Thanks to our rapid target of opportunity request, Chandra clearly detected the X-ray afterglow, though no optical afterglow was found in deep optical observations. The host galaxy was clearly detected in the optical and near-infrared band, with the best photometric redshift of z=1.31{sub -0.23}{sup +0.46} (90% confidence), making it one of the highest known short gamma-ray burst (GRB) redshifts. Furthermore, we see an offset of 1.0 {+-} 0.2 arcsec, which corresponds to 8.4 {+-} 1.7 kpc, between the host and the afterglow position. We discuss the importance of using Chandra for obtaining subarcsecond X-ray localizations of short GRB afterglows to study GRB environments.

  13. Nustar and Chandra insight into the nature of the 3-40 kev nuclear emission in NGC 253

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmer, B. D.; Wik, D. R.; Hornschemeier, A. E.;

    2013-01-01

    We present results from three nearly simultaneous Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array ( NuSTAR ) and Chandra monitoring observations between 2012 September 2 and 2012 November 16 of the local star-forming galaxy NGC 253. The 3-40 keV intensity of the inner ~ 20 arcsec ( ~ 400 pc) nuclear region......, as measured by NuSTAR , varied by a factor of ~ 2 across the three monitoring observations. The Chandra data reveal that the nuclear region contains three bright X-ray sources, including a luminous ( L2-10 keV ~ few × 1039 erg s-1 ) point source located ~ 1 arcsec from the dynamical center of the galaxy...... nature for this source. Future NuSTAR and Chandra monitoring would be well equipped to break the degeneracy between the AGN and ULX nature of the 2003 source, if again caught in a high state....

  14. Two Years of Chandra Observations: Neutron Stars and Pulsars with Emphasis on the Pulsar in the Crab Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Chandra X-Ray Observatory is entering its third year of operation. The Observatory, the premiere x-ray telescope for high-resolution imaging, has exceeded all expectations. The sub-arc second angular resolution together with other instrumental capabilities has allowed for new insights into the understanding of compact x-ray emitting objects including neutron stars and pulsars. We briefly review the Chandra Program and the first two years of observation with emphasis on these interesting objects. We detail the results of our observations of the pulsar in the Crab Nebula including the first continuum spectrum that is virtually uncontaminated by any dust-scattered radiation.

  15. Simultaneous NuSTAR/Chandra Observations of The Bursting Pulsar GRO J1744-28 During Its Third Reactivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Younes, G.; Kouveliotou, C.; Grefenstette, B. W.;

    2015-01-01

    keV with an Eddington persistent flux level. Seven bursts, followed by dips, are seen with Chandra, three of which are also detected with NuSTAR. Timing analysis reveals a slight increase in the persistent emission pulsed fraction with energy (from 10% to 15%) up to 10 keV, above which it remains......We report on a 10 ks simultaneous Chandra/High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG)-Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observation of the Bursting Pulsar, GRO J1744-28, during its third detected outburst since discovery and after nearly 18 yr of quiescence. The source is detected up to 60...

  16. A Chandra Observation of Abell 13: Investigating the Origin of the Radio Relic

    CERN Document Server

    Juett, Adrienne M; Clarke, Tracy E; Andernach, Heinz; Ehle, Matthias; Fujita, Yutaka; Kempner, Joshua C; Roy, Alan L; Rudnick, Lawrence; Slee, O Bruce

    2007-01-01

    We present results from the Chandra X-ray observation of Abell 13, a galaxy cluster that contains an unusual noncentral radio source, also known as a radio relic. This is the first pointed X-ray observation of Abell 13, providing a more sensitive study of the properties of the X-ray gas. The X-ray emission from Abell 13 is extended to the northwest of the X-ray peak and shows substructure indicative of a recent merger event. The cluster X-ray emission is centered on the bright galaxy H of Slee et al. 2001. We find no evidence for a cooling flow in the cluster. A knot of excess X-ray emission is coincident with the other bright elliptical galaxy F. This knot of emission has properties similar to the enhanced emission associated with the large galaxies in the Coma cluster. With these Chandra data we are able to compare the properties of the hot X-ray gas with those of the radio relic from VLA data, to study the interaction of the X-ray gas with the radio emitting electrons. Our results suggest that the radio re...

  17. Applications for edge detection techniques using Chandra and XMM-Newton data: galaxy clusters and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, S A; Fabian, A C

    2016-01-01

    The unrivalled spatial resolution of the Chandra X-ray observatory has allowed many breakthroughs to be made in high energy astrophysics. Here we explore applications of Gaussian Gradient Magnitude (GGM) filtering to X-ray data, which dramatically improves the clarity of surface brightness edges in X-ray observations, and maps gradients in X-ray surface brightness over a range of spatial scales. In galaxy clusters, we find that this method is able to reveal remarkable substructure behind the cold fronts in Abell 2142 and Abell 496, possibly the result of Kelvin Helmholtz instabilities. In Abell 2319 and Abell 3667, we demonstrate that the GGM filter can provide a straightforward way of mapping variations in the widths and jump ratios along the lengths of cold fronts. We present results from our ongoing programme of analysing the Chandra and XMM-Newton archives with the GGM filter. In the Perseus cluster we identify a previously unseen edge around 850 kpc from the core to the east, lying outside a known large ...

  18. A Chandra and Spitzer census of the young star cluster in the reflection nebula NGC 7129

    CERN Document Server

    Stelzer, B

    2009-01-01

    The reflection nebula NGC 7129 has long been known to be a site of recent star formation as evidenced, e.g., by the presence of deeply embedded protostars and HH objects. However, studies of the stellar population produced in the star formation process have remained rudimentary. At a presumed age of ~3 Myr, NGC7129 is in the critical range where disks around young stars disappear. We make use of Chandra X-ray and Spitzer and 2MASS IR imaging observations to identify the pre-main sequence stars in NGC7129. We define a sample of Young Stellar Objects based on color-color diagrams composed from IR photometry between 1.6 and 8 mu, from 2MASS and Spitzer, and based on X-ray detected sources from a Chandra observation. This sample is composed of 26 Class II and 25 Class III candidates. The sample is estimated to be complete down to ~ 0.5 solar masses. The most restricted and least biased sub-sample of pre-main sequence stars is composed of lightly absorbed (A_V < 5 mag) stars in the cluster core. This sample com...

  19. The Northern Rims of SNR RCW 86 - Chandra's Recent Observations and their Implications for Particle Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, D.

    2016-06-01

    The Chandra observations towards the northwest (NW) and northeast (NE) rims of supernova remnant (SNR) RCW 86 reveal great detail about the characteristics of the shocks, particle acceleration and the local environments in these 2 distinct regions. Both the NW and NE of RCW 86 show clear evidence of non-thermal X-ray emission, identified as synchrotron radiation from shock-accelerated electrons with TeV energies, interacting with the compressed, and probably amplified, local magnetic field. Magnetic field amplification (MFA) is broadly believed to result from, and contribute to, cosmic ray acceleration at the shocks of SNRs. However, we still lack a detailed understanding of the particle acceleration mechanism, and with this study we address the connection between the shock properties and ambient medium with MFA. The Chandra observations of RCW 86 allowed us to constrain the magnitude of the post-shock magnetic field in the NE and NW rims by deriving synchrotron filament widths, and also the densities in these regions, using thermal emission co-located with the non-thermal rims. I will discuss our analysis in detail and comment on how MFA appears to be related to certain characteristics of the SNR shock.

  20. Chandra observations of the pulsar PSR B1929+10 and its environment

    CERN Document Server

    Misanovic, Zdenka; Garmire, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    We report on two Chandra observations of the 3-Myr pulsar B1929+10, which reveal a faint compact (~9"x4") nebula elongated in the direction perpendicular to the pulsar's proper motion, two patchy wings, and a possible short (~3") jet emerging from the pulsar. In addition, we detect a tail extending up to at least 4' in the direction opposite to the pulsar's proper motion, aligned with the 15'-long tail detected in ROSAT and XMM-Newton observations. The overall morphology of the nebula suggests that the shocked pulsar wind is confined by the ram pressure due to the pulsar's supersonic speed. The shape of the compact nebula in the immediate vicinity of the pulsar seems to be consistent with the current MHD models. However, since these models do not account yet for the change of the flow velocity at larger distances from the pulsar, they are not able to constrain the extent of the long pulsar tail. The luminosity of the whole nebula as seen by Chandra is ~10^30 ergs/s in the 0.3-8 keV band, for the distance of 3...

  1. A bright thermonuclear X-ray burst simultaneously observed with Chandra and RXTE

    CERN Document Server

    Zand, J J M in t; Marshall, H L; Ballantyne, D R; Jonker, P G; Paerels, F B S; Palmer, D M; Patruno, A; Weinberg, N N

    2013-01-01

    The prototypical accretion-powered millisecond pulsar SAX J1808.4-3658 was observed simultaneously with Chandra-LETGS and RXTE-PCA near the peak of a transient outburst in November 2011. A single thermonuclear (type-I) burst was detected, the brightest yet observed by Chandra from any source, and the second-brightest observed by RXTE. We found no evidence for discrete spectral features during the burst; absorption edges have been predicted to be present in such bursts, but may require a greater degree of photospheric expansion than the rather moderate expansion seen in this event (a factor of a few). These observations provide a unique data set to study an X-ray burst over a broad bandpass and at high spectral resolution (lambda/delta-lambda=200-400). We find a significant excess of photons at high and low energies compared to the standard black body spectrum. This excess is well described by a 20-fold increase of the persistent flux during the burst. We speculate that this results from burst photons being sc...

  2. Phase Coherent Timing of RX J0806.3+1527 with ROSAT and CHANDRA

    CERN Document Server

    Strohmayer, T E

    2003-01-01

    RX J0806.3+1527 is an ultra-compact, double degenerate binary with the shortest known orbital period (321.5 s). Hakala et al. (2003) have recently reported new optical measurements of the orbital frequency of the source which indicate that the frequency has increased over the ~9 years since the earliest ROSAT observations. They find two candidate solutions for the long term change in the frequency; df/dt = 3 or 6 x 10E-16 Hz/s. Here we present the results of a phase coherent timing study of the archival ROSAT and Chandra data for RX J0806.3+1527 in the light of these new constraints. We find that the ROSAT -- Chandra timing data are consistent with both of the solutions reported by Hakala et al., but that the higher df/dt = 6.1 x 10E-16 Hz/s solution is favored at the ~97 % level. Such a large df/dt can be accomodated by an ~1 Msun detached double degenerate system powered in the X-ray by electrical energy (Wu et al. 2002). With such a large df/dt the system provides a unique opportunity to explore the intera...

  3. A Chandra HETGS observation of the Narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy Ark 564

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, C; Marshall, H L; Matsumoto, Chiho; Leighly, Karen M.; Marshall, Herman L.

    2004-01-01

    We present results from a 50 ks observation of the narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy Ark 564 with the Chandra HETGS. The spectra above 2 keV are modeled by a power-law with a photon-index of 2.56+/-0.06. We confirm the presence of the soft excess below about 1.5 keV. If we fit the excess with blackbody model, the best-fit temperature is 0.124 keV. Ark 564 has been reported to show a peculiar emission line-like feature at 1 keV in various observations using lower resolution detectors, and the Chandra grating spectroscopy rules out an origin of blends of several narrow emission lines. We detect an edge-like feature at 0.712 keV in the source rest frame. The preferred interpretation of this feature is combination of the O VII K-edge and a number of L-absorption lines from slightly ionized iron, which suggests a warm absorber with ionization parameter xi~1 and N_H ~ 10^21 cm^-2. These properties are roughly consistent with those of the UV absorber. We also detect narrow absorption lines of O VII, O VIII, Ne IX, Ne X, ...

  4. Results of a Deep Chandra Observation of the Crab Nebula and Pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, M. C.; Becker, W.; Elsner, R. F.; Juda, M.; Kolodziejczak, J.; Murray, S. S.; ODell, S.; Paerels, F.; Shibazaki, N.; Swartz, D.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Crab Nebula and pulsar were observed for a total of 150 ksec with the LETG/HRC-S combination aboard the Chandra X-Ray Observatory in 2000, January and February. One of the principal aims of the experiment was to study the emission from the pulsar as a function of pulse phase. Neutron stars are believed to be formed with core temperatures of 10(exp 11) K. As the pulsar is the best studied of the young known neutron stars with an age of only 940 yrs, it should be possible to observe thermal emission from the hot stellar surface which in turn constrains equations of state. The pulsar, on the other hand, is a powerful non-thermal emitter, powering an X-ray bright synchrotron nebula which, in Einstein and ROSAT observations, overshadowed the fainter thermal surface emission. Making use of the high angular resolution provided by Chandra we were able to detect X-rays from the Crab-pulsar at all pulse phases. We discuss whether this detection is indeed of thermal emission or of a faint synchrotron component of the pulsed emission from the magnetosphere. We further comment on dynamical effects observed in the pulsar-wind outflow and the analysis of the LETG spectral data, especially near the oxygen edge.

  5. Monitoring of the Crab Nebula with Chandra and Other Observatories Including HST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2014-01-01

    Subsequent to the detections AGILE and Fermi/LAT of the gamma-ray flares from the Crab Nebula in the fall of 2010, this team has been monitoring the X-Ray emission from the Crab on a regular basis. X-Ray observations have taken place typically once per month when viewing constraints allow and more recently four times per year. There have been notable exceptions, e.g. in April of 2011 and March 2013 when we initiated a set of Chandra Target of opportunity observations in conjunction with bright gamma-ray flares. For much of the time regular HST observations were made in conjunction with the Chandra observations. The aim of this program to further characterize, in depth, the X-Ray and optical variations that take place in the nebula, and by so doing determine the regions which contribute to the harder X-ray variations and, if possible, determine the precise location within the Nebula of the origin of the gamma-ray flares. As part of this project members of the team have developed Singular Value Decomposition techniques to sequences of images in order to more accurately characterize features. The current status of the project will be presented highlighting studies of the inner knot and possible correlations with the flares.

  6. The outer regions of galaxy clusters: Chandra constraints on the X-ray surface brightness

    CERN Document Server

    Ettori, S

    2008-01-01

    (Abridged version) We study the properties of the X-ray surface brightness profiles in a sample of galaxy clusters that are observed with Chandra and have emission detectable with a signal-to-noise ratio larger than 2 at a radius beyond R500 ~ 0.7 R200. Our study aims at measuring the slopes of the X-ray surface brightness and of the gas density profiles in the outskirts of massive clusters. These constraints are then compared to similar results obtained from observations and numerical simulations of the temperature and dark matter density profiles with the intention to present a consistent picture of the outer regions of galaxy clusters. We extract the surface brightness profiles S_b(r) from X-ray exposures obtained with Chandra of 52 X-ray luminous galaxy clusters at z>0.3. We estimate R200 both using a beta-model to reproduce the surface brightness profile and scaling relations from the literature, showing that the two methods converge to comparable values. We evaluate then the radius, R_S2N, at which the ...

  7. Dissecting Photometric redshift for Active Galactic Nuclei using XMM- and Chandra-COSMOS samples

    CERN Document Server

    Salvato, M; Hasinger, G; Rau, A; Civano, F; Zamorani, G; Brusa, M; Elvis, M; Vignali, C; Aussel, H; Comastri, A; Fiore, F; Floc'h, E Le; Mainieri, V; Bardelli, S; Bolzonella, M; Bongiorno, A; Capak, P; Caputi, K; Cappelluti, N; Carollo, C M; Contini, T; Garilli, B; Iovino, A; Fotopoulou, S; Fruscione, A; Gilli, R; Halliday, C; Kneib, J-P; Kakazu, Y; Kartaltepe, J S; Koekemoer, A M; Kovac, K; Ideue, Y; Ikeda, H; Impey, C D; Fevre, O Le; Lamareille, F; Lanzuisi, G; Borgne, J-F Le; Brun, V Le; Lilly, S J; Maier, C; Manohar, S; Masters, D; McCracken, H; Messias, H; Mignoli, M; Mobasher, B; Nagao, T; Pello, R; Puccetti, S; Renzini, E Perez Montero A; Sargent, M; Sanders, D B; Scodeggio, M; Scoville, N; Shopbell, P; Silvermann, J; Taniguchi, Y; Tasca, L; Tresse, L; Trump, J R; Zucca, E

    2011-01-01

    With this paper, we release accurate photometric redshifts for 1692 counterparts to Chandra sources in the central square degree of the COSMOS field. The availability of a large training set of spectroscopic redshifts that extends to faint magnitudes enabled photometric redshifts comparable to the highest quality results presently available for normal galaxies. We demonstrate that morphologically extended, faint X-ray sources without optical variability are more accurately described by a library of normal galaxies (corrected for emission lines) than by AGN-dominated templates, even if these sources have AGN-like X-ray luminosities. Preselecting the library on the bases of the source properties allowed us to reach an accuracy sigma_(Delta z/(1+z_spec)) \\sim0.015 with a fraction of outliers of 5.8% for the entire Chandra-COSMOS sample. In addition, we release revised photometric redshifts for the 1735 optical counterparts of the XMM-detected sources over the entire 2 sq. deg.of COSMOS. For 248 sources, our upda...

  8. 1WGAJ1226.9+3332 a high redshift cluster discovered by Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Cagnoni, I; Kim, D W; Mazzotta, P; Huang, J S; Celotti, A

    2001-01-01

    We report the detection of 1WGAJ1226.9+3332 as an arcminute scale extended X-ray source with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The Chandra observation and R and K band imaging strongly support the identification of 1WGAJ1226.9+3332 as a high redshift cluster of galaxies, most probably at z=0.85 +- 0.15, with an inferred temperature kT =10 (+4;-3) keV and an unabsorbed luminosity (in a r=120" aperture) of 1.3 (+0.16;-0.14) x 1e45 erg/s (0.5-10 keV). This indication of redshift is also supported by the K and R band imaging, and is in agreement with the spectroscopic redshift of 0.89 found by Ebeling et al. (2001). The surface brightness profile is consistent with a beta-model with beta=0.770 +- 0.025, rc=(18.1 +-0.9)" (corresponding to 101 +- 5 kpc at z=0.89), and S(0)=1.02 +- 0.08 counts/arcsec**2. 1WGAJ1226.9+3332 was selected as an extreme X-ray loud source with FX/FV>60; this selection method, thanks to the large area sampled, seems to be a highly efficient method for finding luminous high z clusters of galaxi...

  9. A Spatial and Spectral Study of Nonthermal Filaments in Historical Supernova Remnants: Observational Results with Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Bamba, A; Yoshida, T; Terasawa, T; Koyama, K; Bamba, Aya; Yamazaki, Ryo; Yoshida, Tatsuo; Terasawa, Toshio; Koyama, Katsuji

    2004-01-01

    The outer shells of young supernova remnants (SNRs) are the most plausible acceleration sites of high-energy electrons with the diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) mechanism. We studied spatial and spectral properties close to the shock fronts in four historical SNRs (Cas A, Kepler's remnant, Tycho's remnant, and RCW 86) with excellent spatial resolution of {\\it Chandra}. In all of the SNRs, hard X-ray emissions were found on the rims of the SNRs, which concentrate in very narrow regions (so-called "filaments"); apparent scale widths on the upstream side are below or in the order of the point spread function of {\\it Chandra}, while 0.5--40 arcsec (0.01--0.4 pc) on the downstream side with most reliable distances. The spectra of these filaments can be fitted with both thermal and nonthermal (power-law and {\\tt SRCUT}) models. The former requires unrealistic high temperature ($\\ga$2 keV) and low abundances ($\\la$1 solar) for emission from young SNRs and may be thus unlikely. The latter reproduces the spectra wit...

  10. Chandra observations of the hyper-luminous infrared galaxy IRAS F15307+3252

    CERN Document Server

    Hlavacek-Larrondo, J; Hogan, M T; Gendron-Marsolais, M -L; Edge, A C; Fabian, A C; Russell, H R; Iwasawa, K; Mezcua, M

    2016-01-01

    Hyper-luminous infrared galaxies (HyLIRGs) lie at the extreme luminosity end of the IR galaxy population with L_IR>10^13L_sun. They are thought to be closer counterparts of the more distant sub-mm galaxies, and should therefore be optimal targets to study the most massive systems in formation. We present deep Chandra observations of IRAS F15307+3252 (100 ks), a classical HyLIRG located at z=0.93, hosting a radio-loud AGN (L_1.4GHz=3.5*10^25 W/Hz). The Chandra X-ray images reveal extended, asymmetric X-ray emission in the soft 0.3-2.0 keV band, extending to 160 kpc in the southern direction. VLA observations at 1.4 GHz and 8.4 GHz reveal no radio counterpart to this extended X-ray emission. The emission is therefore most likely of thermal origin originating from a hot intragroup or intracluster medium virializing in the potential. The temperature (2 keV) and bolometric X-ray luminosity (3*10^43 erg/s) of the gas follow the expected L_X-ray-T correlation for groups and clusters of galaxies. We also find that th...

  11. Diagnosing the Black Hole Accretion Physics of Sgr A*: Spitzer/Chandra Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hora, Joseph L.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Willner, Steven P.; Gurwell, Mark A.; Smith, Howard Alan; Ashby, Matthew; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Witzel, Gunther; Morris, Mark; Ghez, Andrea M.; Meyer, Leo; Becklin, Eric E.; Ingalls, James G.; Glaccum, William J.; Carey, Sean J.; Haggard, Daryl; Marrone, Daniel P.; Gammie, Charles F.

    2017-01-01

    The Galactic center offers the closest opportunity for studying accretion onto a supermassive black hole. The fluctuating source, Sgr A*, is detected across the electromagnetic spectrum and its flux may originate in either the accretion flow or a jet, or both. Disentangling the power source and emission mechanisms of the flares is a central challenge to our understanding of the Sgr A* accretion flow. Recent general relativistic magneto-hydrodynamic (GRMHD) models indicate that variability can be produced by a tilted inner disk, gravitational lensing of bright spots in the disk by the hole, or particle acceleration in reconnection events. These models produce different flare characteristics, and better characterization of flares may enable us to distinguish between strong and weakly magnetized disks. Following our successful Spitzer observations of the variability of Sgr A* in 2013 and 2014, we have undertaken a program of simultaneous IRAC (4.5 micron) and Chandra (2-10 keV) observations to (1) probe the accretion physics of Sgr A* on event-horizon scales and (2) detect any effect of the object G2 on Sgr A*. In addition, several ground-based observatories participated in the campaigns, at wavelengths including radio, sub-mm, and the near-infrared. We will present initial Spitzer/Chandra results from the two 24-hour epochs in 2016 July. Only such long-duration, continuous, multi-wavelength observations can achieve a comprehensive view of the dominant emission process(es) and quantify the physical properties near the event horizon.

  12. Luminosity Functions and Point Source Properties from Multiple Chandra Observations of M81

    CERN Document Server

    Sell, P H; Zezas, A; Heinz, S; Homan, J; Lewin, W H G

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of 15 Chandra observations of the nearby spiral galaxy M81 taken over the course of six weeks in May--July 2005. Each observation reaches a sensitivity of ~10^37 erg/s. With these observations and one previous deeper Chandra observation, we compile a master source list of 265 point sources, extract and fit their spectra, and differentiate basic populations of sources through their colors. We also carry out variability analyses of individual point sources and of X-ray luminosity functions in multiple regions of M81 on timescales of days, months, and years. We find that, despite measuring significant variability in a considerable fraction of sources, snapshot observations provide a consistent determination of the X-ray luminosity function of M81. We also fit the X-ray luminosity functions for multiple regions of M81 and, using common parametrizations, compare these luminosity functions to those of two other spiral galaxies, M31 and the Milky Way.

  13. Revealing the Focused Companion Wind in Cygnus X-1 with Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, J M; Schulz, N S; Marshall, H L; Fabian, A C; Remillard, R A; Wijnands, R; Lewin, W H G

    2002-01-01

    We have analyzed a Chandra HETGS spectrum of the Galactic black hole Cygnus X-1, obtained at a source flux which is approximately twice that commonly observed in its persistent low-intensity, spectrally-hard state. We find a myriad of absorption lines in the spectrum, including Ly-alpha lines and helium-like resonance lines from Ne, Na, Mg, and Si. We calculate a flux-weighted mean red-shift of ~100 km/s and a flux-weighted mean velocity width of 800 km/s (FWHM) for lines from these elements. We also detect a number of transitions from Fe XVIII-XXIV and Ni XIX-XX in absorption; however, the identification of these lines is less certain and a greater range of shifts and breadth is measured. Our observation occurred at a binary phase of phi = 0.76; the lines observed are consistent with absorption in an ionized region of the supergiant O9.7 Iab companion wind. The spectrum is extremely complicated in that a range of temperatures and densities are implied. Prior Chandra HETGS spectra of Cygnus X-1 were obtained ...

  14. Chandra Image Gives First Look at Mars Emitted X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Giving scientists their first look, Chandra observed x-rays produced by fluorescent radiation from oxygen atoms of the Sun in the sparse upper atmosphere of Mars, about 120 kilometers (75 miles) above its surface. The x-ray power detected from the Martian atmosphere is very small, amounting to only 4 megawatts, comparable to the x-ray power of about ten thousand medical x-ray machines. At the time of the Chandra observation, a huge dust storm developed on Mars that covered about one hemisphere, later to cover the entire planet. This hemisphere rotated out of view over the 9-hour observation, but no change was observed in the x-ray intensity indicating that the dust storm did not affect the upper atmosphere. Scientists also observed a halo of x-rays extending out to 7,000 kilometers above the surface of Mars believed to be produced by collisions of ions racing away from the Sun (the solar wind).

  15. Near-infrared counterparts of Chandra X-ray sources toward the Galactic Center

    CERN Document Server

    DeWitt, Curtis; Eikenberry, Stephen S; Blum, Robert; Olsen, Knut; Sellgren, Kris; Sarajedini, Ata

    2010-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory has now discovered nearly 10,000 X-ray point sources in the 2 x 0.8 degree region around the Galactic Center (Muno 2009). The sources are likely to be a population of accreting binaries in the Galactic Center, but little else is known of their nature. We obtained JHKs imaging of the 17'x 17' region around Sgr A*, an area containing 4339 of these X-ray sources, with the ISPI camera on the CTIO 4-m telescope. We cross-correlate the Chandra and ISPI catalogs to find potential IR counterparts to the X-ray sources. The extreme IR source crowding in the field means that it is not possible to establish the authenticity of the matches with astrometry and photometry alone. We find 2137 IR/X-ray astrometrically matched sources: statistically we estimate that our catalog contains 289 +/- 13 true matches to soft X-ray sources and 154 +/- 39 matches to hard X-ray sources. However, the fraction of true counterparts to candidate counterparts for hard sources is just 11 %, compared to 60 % for s...

  16. A Deep Chandra Observation of the AGN Outburst and Merger in Hickson Compact Group 62

    CERN Document Server

    Rafferty, D A; Nulsen, P E J; McNamara, B R; Brandt, W N; Wise, M W; Röttgering, H J A

    2012-01-01

    We report on an analysis of new Chandra data of the galaxy group HCG 62, well known for possessing cavities in its intragroup medium (IGM) that were inflated by the radio lobes of its central active galactic nucleus (AGN). With the new data, a factor of three deeper than previous Chandra data, we re-examine the energetics of the cavities and determine new constraints on their contents. We confirm that the ratio of radiative to mechanical power of the AGN outburst that created the cavities is less than 10^-4, among the lowest of any known cavity system, implying that the relativistic electrons in the lobes can supply only a tiny fraction of the pressure required to support the cavities. This finding implies additional pressure support in the lobes from heavy particles (e.g., protons) or thermal gas. Using spectral fits to emission in the cavities, we constrain any such volume-filling thermal gas to have a temperature kT > 4.3 keV. For the first time, we detect X-ray emission from the central AGN, with a lumino...

  17. Astronomical Surveys and Big Data

    CERN Document Server

    Mickaelian, A M

    2015-01-01

    Recent all-sky and large-area astronomical surveys and their catalogued data over the whole range of electromagnetic spectrum are reviewed, from Gamma-ray to radio, such as Fermi-GLAST and INTEGRAL in Gamma-ray, ROSAT, XMM and Chandra in X-ray, GALEX in UV, SDSS and several POSS I and II based catalogues (APM, MAPS, USNO, GSC) in optical range, 2MASS in NIR, WISE and AKARI IRC in MIR, IRAS and AKARI FIS in FIR, NVSS and FIRST in radio and many others, as well as most important surveys giving optical images (DSS I and II, SDSS, etc.), proper motions (Tycho, USNO, Gaia), variability (GCVS, NSVS, ASAS, Catalina, Pan-STARRS) and spectroscopic data (FBS, SBS, Case, HQS, HES, SDSS, CALIFA, GAMA). An overall understanding of the coverage along the whole wavelength range and comparisons between various surveys are given: galaxy redshift surveys, QSO/AGN, radio, Galactic structure, and Dark Energy surveys. Astronomy has entered the Big Data era. Astrophysical Virtual Observatories and Computational Astrophysics play a...

  18. Precise Localization of the Soft Gamma Repeater SGR 1627-41 with Chandra and the Anomalous X-Ray Pulsar AXP 1E1841-045 with Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Stefanie; Patel, Sandeep K.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Bouchet, Patrice; Ozel, Feryal; Tennant, Allyn F.; Woods, Peter M.; Hurley, Kevin; Becker, Werner; Slane, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    We present precise localizations of AXP 1E184-045 and SGR 1627-41 with Chandra. We obtained new infrared observations of SGR 1627-41 and reanalyzed archival observations of AXP 1E1841-045 in order to refine their positions and search for infrared counterparts. A faint source is detected inside the error circle of AXP 1E1841-045. In the case of SGR 1627-41, several sources are located within the error radius of the X-ray position, and we discuss the likelihood of one of them being the counterpart. We compare the properties of our candidates to those of other known anomalous X-ray pulsar (AXP) and soft gamma repeater (SGR) counterparts. We find that the counterpart candidates for SGR 1627-41 and SGR 1806-20 would have to be intrinsically much brighter than AXPs in order to have counterparts detectable with the observational limits currently available for these sources. To confirm the reported counterpart of SGR 1806-20, we obtained new infrared observations during the 2003 July burst activation of the source. No brightening of the suggested counterpart is detected, implying that the counterpart of SGR 1806-20 remains yet to be identified.

  19. Shuttle and Transfer Orbit Thermal Analysis and Testing of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory CCD Imaging Spectrometer Radiator Shades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, John R.

    2001-01-01

    Contents include the following: (1) Introduction: Chandra X-ray observatory. Advanced CCD imaging spectrometer. (2) LEO and transfer orbit analyses: Geometric modeling in TSS w/specularity. Low earth orbital heating calculations. (3) Thermal testing and LMAC. (4) Problem solving. (5) VDA overcoat analyses. (6) VDA overcoat testing and MSFC. (7) Post-MSFC test evaluation.

  20. Chandra and Swift observations of the quasi-persistent neutron star transient EXO 0748−676 back to quiescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Degenaar; R. Wijnands; M.T. Wolff; P.S. Ray; K.S. Wood; J. Homan; W.H.G. Lewin; P.G. Jonker; E.M. Cackett; J.M. Miller; E.F. Brown

    2009-01-01

    The quasi-persistent neutron star X-ray transient and eclipsing binary EXO 0748-676 recently started the transition to quiescence following an accretion outburst that lasted more than 24 years. We report on two Chandra and 12 Swift observations performed within five months after the end of the outbu

  1. The O VII X-ray forest toward Markarian 421: Consistency between XMM-Newton and Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Kaastra, J S; Den Herder, J W A; Paerels, F B S; De Plaa, J; Rasmussen, A P; De Vries, C P

    2006-01-01

    Recently the first detections of highly ionised gas associated with two Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM) filaments have been reported. The evidence is based on X-ray absorption lines due to O VII and other ions observed by Chandra towards the bright blazar Mrk 421. We investigate the robustness of this detection by a re-analysis of the original Chandra LETGS spectra, the analysis of a large set of XMM-Newton RGS spectra of Mrk 421, and additional Chandra observations. We address the reliability of individual spectral features belonging to the absorption components, and assess the significance of the detection of these components. We also use Monte Carlo simulations of spectra. We confirm the apparent strength of several features in the Chandra spectra, but demonstrate that they are statistically not significant. This decreased significance is due to the number of redshift trials that are made and that are not taken into account in the original discovery paper. Therefore these features must be attributed t...

  2. Observations of the recurrent M31 transient XMMU~J004215.8+411924 with Swift, Chandra, HST and Einstein

    CERN Document Server

    Barnard, R; Murray, S; Nooraee, N; Pietsch, W

    2010-01-01

    The transient X-ray source XMMU J004215.8+411924 within M31 was found to be in outburst again in the 2010 May 27 Chandra observation. We present results from our four Chandra and seven Swift observations that covered this outburst. X-ray transient behaviour is generally caused by one of two things: mass accretion from a high mass companion during some restricted phase range in the orbital cycle, or disc instability in a low mass system. We aim to exploit Einstein, HST, Chandra and Swift observations to determine the nature of XMMU J004215.8+411924. We model the 2010 May spectrum, and use the results to convert from intensity to counts in the fainter Chandra observations, as well as the Swift observations; these data are used to create a lightcurve. We also estimate the flux in the 1979 January 13 Einstein observation. Additionally, we search for an optical counterpart in HST data. Our best X-ray positions from the 2006 and 2010 outbursts are 0.3" apart, and 1.6" from the Einstein source; these outbursts are l...

  3. Chandra and Swift observations of the quasi-persistent neutron star transient EXO 0748-676 in quiescence

    CERN Document Server

    Degenaar, N; Wolff, M T; Ray, P S; Wood, K S; Homan, J; Lewin, W H G; Jonker, P G; Cackett, E M; Miller, J M; Brown, E F

    2008-01-01

    The quasi-persistent neutron star X-ray transient and eclipsing binary EXO 0748-676 recently returned to quiescence following an accretion outburst that lasted more than 24 years. We report on 2 Chandra and 5 Swift observations performed approximately one to two months after the transition from outburst to quiescence. The Chandra observations detect the source at a bolometric thermal luminosity of ~9.8E33 (d/7.4 kpc) erg/s. The spectrum is composed of a soft, thermal component that fits to a neutron star atmosphere model with kT^inf~0.11 keV, combined with a hard powerlaw tail that contributes ~20% of the total 0.5-10 keV quiescent flux. Several Swift observations were obtained 1-2 weeks before the Chandra observations and another series was taken approximately 2 weeks thereafter. The combined Chandra/Swift data set reveals a relatively hot and luminous quiescent system with a temperature of kT^inf~0.11-0.13 keV and a bolometric thermal luminosity that slightly decreased from ~1.6E34 to ~8.3E33 (d/7.4 kpc) er...

  4. Simultaneous NuSTAR/Chandra Observations of The Bursting Pulsar GRO J1744-28 During Its Third Reactivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Younes, G.; Kouveliotou, C.; Grefenstette, B. W.

    2015-01-01

    We report on a 10 ks simultaneous Chandra/High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG)-Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observation of the Bursting Pulsar, GRO J1744-28, during its third detected outburst since discovery and after nearly 18 yr of quiescence. The source is detected up to ...

  5. The nature of a broad line radio galaxy: Simultaneous RXTE and Chandra HETG observations of 3C 382

    CERN Document Server

    Gliozzi, M; Eracleous, M; Yaqoob, T

    2007-01-01

    We present the results from simultaneous chandra and rxte observations of the X-ray bright Broad-Line Radio Galaxy (BLRG) 3C 382. The long (120 ks) exposure with chandra HETG allows a detailed study of the soft X-ray continuum and of the narrow component of the Fe Kalpha line. The rxte PCA data are used to put an upper limit on the broad line component and constrain the hard X-ray continuum. A strong soft excess below 1 keV is observed in the time-averaged HETG spectrum, which can be parameterized with a steep power law or a thermal model. The flux variability at low energies indicates that the origin of the soft excess cannot be entirely ascribed to the circumnuclear diffuse emission, detected by chandra on scales of 20-30 arcsec (22-33 kpc). A narrow (sigma<90 eV) Fe Kalpha line (with EW< 100 eV) is observed by the chandra HEG. Similar values for the line parameters are measured by the rxte PCA, suggesting that the contribution from a broad line component is negligible. The fact that the exposure is s...

  6. Cataclysmic Variables and Other Compact Binaries in the Globular Cluster NGC 362: Candidates from Chandra and HST

    CERN Document Server

    Margon, Bruce; Homer, L; Pooley, D; Bassa, C G; Anderson, S F; Lewin, W H G; Verbunt, F; Kong, A K H; Plotkin, R M

    2010-01-01

    Highly sensitive and precise X-ray imaging from Chandra, combined with the superb spatial resolution of HST optical images, dramatically enhances our empirical understanding of compact binaries such as cataclysmic variables and low mass X-ray binaries, their progeny, and other stellar X-ray source populations deep into the cores of globular clusters. Our Chandra X-ray images of the globular cluster NGC 362 reveal 100 X-ray sources, the bulk of which are likely cluster members. Using HST color-magnitude and color-color diagrams, we quantitatively consider the optical content of the NGC 362 Chandra X-ray error circles, especially to assess and identify the compact binary population in this condensed-core globular cluster. Despite residual significant crowding in both X-rays and optical, we identify an excess population of H{\\alpha}-emitting objects that is statistically associated with the Chandra X-ray sources. The X-ray and optical characteristics suggest that these are mainly cataclysmic variables, but we al...

  7. Proper motions of ROSAT discovered isolated neutron stars measured with Chandra: First X-ray measurement of the large proper motion of RX J1308.6+2127/RBS 1223

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motch, C.; Pires, A. M.; Haberl, F.; Schwope, A.; Zavlin, V. E.

    2008-02-01

    The unprecedented spatial resolution of the Chandra observatory opens the possibility to detect with relatively high accuracy proper motions at X-ray wavelengths. We have conducted an astrometric study of three of the ``Magnificent Seven'', the thermally emitting radio quiet isolated neutron stars (INSs) discovered by ROSAT. These three INSs (RX J0420.0-5022, RX J0806.4-4123 and RX J1308.6+2127/RBS 1223) either lack an optical counterpart or have one too faint to be used for astrometric purposes. We obtained ACIS observations 3 to 5 years apart to constrain or measure the displacement of the sources on the X-ray sky using as reference the background of extragalactic or remote galactic X-ray sources. Upper limits of 138 mas/yr and 76 mas/yr on the proper motion of RX J0420.0-5022 and RX J0806.4-4123, respectively, have already been presented in [7]. Here we report the very significant measurement (~10 sigma) of the proper motion of the third INS of our program, RX J1308.6+2127/RBS 1223. Comparing observations obtained in 2002 and 2007 reveals a displacement of 1.1 arcsec implying a yearly proper motion of 223 mas, the second fastest measured for the ROSAT discovered INSs. The source is rapidly moving away from the galactic plane at a speed which precludes any significant accretion of matter from the interstellar medium. Its transverse velocity of ~740 (d/700 pc) km/s might be the largest of the ``Magnificent Seven'' and among the fastest recorded for neutron stars. RX J1308.6+2127/RBS 1223 is thus a young high velocity cooling neutron star. The source may have its origin in the closest part of the Scutum OB2 association about 0.8 Myr ago, an age consistent with that expected from cooling curves, but significantly younger than inferred from pulse timing measurements (1.5 Myr).

  8. Nustar and Chandra Insight into the Nature of the 3-40 Kev Nuclear Emission in Ngc 253

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmer, Bret D.; Wik, Daniel R.; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Ptak, Andrew; Antoniu, V.; Argo, M.K.; Bechtol, K.; Boggs, S.; Christensen, F.E.; Craig, W.W.; Hailey, C.J.; Harrison, F.A.; Krivonos, R.; Leyder, Jean-Christophe Xavier Georges; Maccarone, T.J.; Stern, D.; Venters, T.; Zezas, A.; Zhang, W.W.

    2013-01-01

    We present results from three nearly simultaneous Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Chandra monitoring observations between 2012 September 2 and 2012 November 16 of the local star-forming galaxy NGC 253. The 3-40 kiloelectron volt intensity of the inner approximately 20 arcsec (approximately 400 parsec) nuclear region, as measured by NuSTAR, varied by a factor of approximately 2 across the three monitoring observations. The Chandra data reveal that the nuclear region contains three bright X-ray sources, including a luminous (L (sub 2-10 kiloelectron volt) approximately few × 10 (exp 39) erg per s) point source located approximately 1 arcsec from the dynamical center of the galaxy (within the sigma 3 positional uncertainty of the dynamical center); this source drives the overall variability of the nuclear region at energies greater than or approximately equal to 3 kiloelectron volts. We make use of the variability to measure the spectra of this single hard X-ray source when it was in bright states. The spectra are well described by an absorbed (power-law model spectral fit value, N(sub H), approximately equal to 1.6 x 10 (exp 23) per square centimeter) broken power-law model with spectral slopes and break energies that are typical of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), but not active galactic nuclei (AGNs). A previous Chandra observation in 2003 showed a hard X-ray point source of similar luminosity to the 2012 source that was also near the dynamical center (Phi is approximately equal to 0.4 arcsec); however, this source was offset from the 2012 source position by approximately 1 arcsec. We show that the probability of the 2003 and 2012 hard X-ray sources being unrelated is much greater than 99.99% based on the Chandra spatial localizations. Interestingly, the Chandra spectrum of the 2003 source (3-8 kiloelectron volts) is shallower in slope than that of the 2012 hard X-ray source. Its proximity to the dynamical center and harder Chandra spectrum

  9. VLBA AND CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF JETS IN FRI RADIO GALAXIES: CONSTRAINTS ON JET EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharb, P.; O' Dea, C. P. [Department of Physics, Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Tilak, A. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Baum, S. A. [Center for Imaging Science, Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Haynes, E.; Noel-Storr, J.; Fallon, C.; Christiansen, K. [Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, 10 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-07-20

    We present here the results from new Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations at 1.6 and 5 GHz of 19 galaxies of a complete sample of 21 Uppasala General Catalog (UGC) Fanaroff-Riley type I (FRI) radio galaxies. New Chandra data of two sources, viz., UGC 00408 and UGC 08433, are combined with the Chandra archival data of 13 sources. The 5 GHz observations of 10 'core-jet' sources are polarization-sensitive, while the 1.6 GHz observations constitute second-epoch total intensity observations of nine 'core-only' sources. Polarized emission is detected in the jets of seven sources at 5 GHz, but the cores are essentially unpolarized, except in M87. Polarization is detected at the jet edges in several sources, and the inferred magnetic field is primarily aligned with the jet direction. This could be indicative of magnetic field 'shearing' due to jet-medium interaction, or the presence of helical magnetic fields. The jet peak intensity I{sub {nu}} falls with distance d from the core, following the relation, I{sub {nu}}{proportional_to}d{sup a} , where a is typically {approx} - 1.5. Assuming that adiabatic expansion losses are primarily responsible for the jet intensity 'dimming,' two limiting cases are considered: (1) the jet has a constant speed on parsec scales and is expanding gradually such that the jet radius r{proportional_to}d 0{sup .4}; this expansion is, however, unobservable in the laterally unresolved jets at 5 GHz, and (2) the jet is cylindrical and is accelerating on parsec scales. Accelerating parsec-scale jets are consistent with the phenomenon of 'magnetic driving' in Poynting-flux-dominated jets. While slow jet expansion as predicted by case (1) is indeed observed in a few sources from the literature that are resolved laterally, on scales of tens or hundreds of parsecs, case (2) cannot be ruled out in the present data, provided the jets become conical on scales larger than those probed by VLBA. Chandra

  10. NASA Managers Set July 20 As Launch Date for Chandra Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-01

    NASA managers set Tuesday, July 20, 1999, as the official launch date for NASA's second Space Shuttle Mission of the year that will mark the launch of the first female Shuttle Commander and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. Columbia is scheduled to liftoff from Launch Pad 39-B at the Kennedy Space Center on July 20 at the opening of a 46-minute launch window at 12:36 a.m. EDT. Columbia's planned five-day mission is scheduled to end with a night landing at the Kennedy Space Center just after 11:30 p.m. EDT on July 24. Following its deployment from the Shuttle, Chandra will join the Hubble Space Telescope and the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory as the next in NASA's series of "Great Observatories." Chandra will spend at least five years in a highly elliptical orbit which will carry it one-third of the way to the moon to observe invisible and often violent realms of the cosmos containing some of the most intriguing mysteries in astronomy ranging from comets in our solar system to quasars at the edge of the universe. Columbia's 26th flight is led by Air Force Col. Eileen Collins, who will command a Space Shuttle mission following two previous flights as a pilot. The STS-93 Pilot is Navy Captain Jeff Ashby who will be making his first flight into space. The three mission specialists for the flight are: Air Force Lt. Col. Catherine "Cady" Coleman, who will be making her second flight into space; Steven A. Hawley, Ph.D, making his fifth flight; and French Air Force Col. Michel Tognini of the French Space Agency (CNES), who is making his first Space Shuttle flight and second trip into space after spending two weeks on the Mir Space Station as a visiting cosmonaut in 1992. NASA press releases and other information are available automatically by sending an Internet electronic mail message to domo@hq.nasa.gov. In the body of the message (not the subject line) users should type the words "subscribe press-release" (no quotes). The system will reply with a confirmation via E-mail of

  11. The O VII X-Ray Forest toward Markarian 421: Consistency between XMM-Newton and Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaastra, J. S.; Werner, N.; Herder, J. W. A. den; Paerels, F. B. S.; de Plaa, J.; Rasmussen, A. P.; de Vries, C. P.

    2006-11-01

    Recently, the first detections of highly ionized gas associated with two warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) filaments have been reported. The evidence is based on X-ray absorption lines due to O VII and other ions observed by Chandra toward the bright blazar Mrk 421. We investigate the robustness of this detection by a reanalysis of the original Chandra LETGS spectra, the analysis of a large set of XMM-Newton RGS spectra of Mrk 421, and additional Chandra observations. We address the reliability of individual spectral features belonging to the absorption components, and assess the significance of the detection of these components. We also use Monte Carlo simulations of spectra. We confirm the apparent strength of several features in the Chandra spectra, but demonstrate that they are statistically not significant. This decreased significance is due to the number of redshift trials that are made and that are not taken into account in the original discovery paper. Therefore, these features must be attributed to statistical fluctuations. This is confirmed by the RGS spectra, which have a higher signal-to-noise ratio than the Chandra spectra, but do not show features at the same wavelengths. Finally, we show that the possible association with a Lyα absorption system also lacks sufficient statistical evidence. We conclude that there is insufficient observational proof for the existence of the two proposed WHIM filaments toward Mrk 421, the brightest X-ray blazar in the sky. Therefore, the highly ionized component of the WHIM still remains to be discovered.

  12. SNR 1E 0102.2-7219 as an X-ray calibration standard in the 0.5-1.0 keV bandpass and its application to the CCD instruments aboard Chandra, Suzaku, Swift and XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plucinsky, Paul P.; Beardmore, Andrew P.; Foster, Adam; Haberl, Frank; Miller, Eric D.; Pollock, Andrew M. T.; Sembay, Steve

    2017-01-01

    Context. The flight calibration of the spectral response of charge-coupled device (CCD) instruments below 1.5 keV is difficult in general because of the lack of strong lines in the on-board calibration sources typically available. This calibration is also a function of time due to the effects of radiation damage on the CCDs and/or the accumulation of a contamination layer on the filters or CCDs. Aims: We desire a simple comparison of the absolute effective areas of the current generation of CCD instruments onboard the following observatories: Chandra ACIS-S3, XMM-Newton (EPIC-MOS and EPIC-pn), Suzaku XIS, and Swift XRT and a straightforward comparison of the time-dependent response of these instruments across their respective mission lifetimes. Methods: We have been using 1E 0102.2-7219, the brightest supernova remnant in the Small Magellanic Cloud, to evaluate and modify the response models of these instruments. 1E 0102.2-7219 has strong lines of O, Ne, and Mg below 1.5 keV and little or no Fe emission to complicate the spectrum. The spectrum of 1E 0102.2-7219 has been well-characterized using the RGS gratings instrument on XMM-Newton and the HETG gratings instrument on Chandra. As part of the activities of the International Astronomical Consortium for High Energy Calibration (IACHEC), we have developed a standard spectral model for 1E 0102.2-7219 and fit this model to the spectra extracted from the CCD instruments. The model is empirical in that it includes Gaussians for the identified lines, an absorption component in the Galaxy, another absorption component in the SMC, and two thermal continuum components with different temperatures. In our fits, the model is highly constrained in that only the normalizations of the four brightest lines/line complexes (the O vii Heα triplet, O viii Lyα line, the Ne ix Heα triplet, and the Ne x Lyα line) and an overall normalization are allowed to vary, while all other components are fixed. We adopted this approach to

  13. VISTA MILKY WAY PUBLIC SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Minniti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a public IR variability survey, named \\Vista Variables in the V a L ctea" (V V V , of the Milky Way bulge and an adjacent section of the mid-plane where star formation activity is high. This would take 1920 hours, covering 109 point sources within an area of 520 sq deg, including 33 known globular clusters and 350 open clusters. The nal products will be a deep IR atlas in 5 passbands and a catalogue of 106 variable point sources. These will produce a 3-D map of the surveyed region (unlike single-epoch surveys that only give 2-D maps using well-understood primary distance indicators such as RR Lyrae stars. It will yield important information on the ages of the populations. The observations will be combined with data from MACHO, OGLE, EROS, VST, SPITZER, HST, CHANDRA, INTEGRAL, and ALMA for a complete understanding of the variable sources in the inner Milky Way. Several important implications for the history of the Milky Way, for globular cluster evolution, for the population census of the bulge and center, and for pulsation theory would follow from this survey.

  14. Unifying X-ray winds in radio galaxies with Chandra HETG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, Francesco

    2013-09-01

    X-ray winds are routinely observed in the spectra of Seyfert galaxies. They can be classified as warm absorbers (WAs), with v~100-1,000km/s, and ultra-fast outflows (UFOs), with v>10,000km/s. In stark contrast, the lack of sensitive enough observations allowed the detection of WAs or UFOs only in very few radio galaxies. Therefore, we propose to observe a small sample of three radio galaxies with the Chandra HETG - 3C111 for 150ks, 3C390.3 for 150ks and 3C120 for 200ks - to detect and study in detail their WAs. We will quantify the importance of mechanical feedback from winds in radio galaxies and compare them to the radio jet power. We will also test whether WAs and UFOs can be unified in a single, multi-phase and multi-scale outflow, as recently reported for Seyferts.

  15. Deep Chandra Observations of the Cool Core Clusters A2052 and A262

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Elizabeth L.; Randall, S. W.; Douglass, E. M.; Clarke, T. E.; Anderson, L. A.; Sarazin, C. L.; McNamara, B. R.

    2008-03-01

    We present deep Chandra observations of the cool core clusters Abell 2052 and Abell 262. New features, including ghost bubbles, ripples, edges, and a tunnel are revealed. Correlations of features seen in the X-ray and radio give evidence for multiple outbursts of the AGN. Comparison of the radio source energy input rates with the ICM cooling rates shows that the radio source can easily offset the cooling in A2052 and is much closer to offsetting the cooling in A262 than was estimated previously. Maps of pressure and temperature will be presented, as well as correlations between surface brightness features and optical-line emission. We constrain the temperature of diffuse, hot gas that may be filling the bubbles and providing pressure support to uphold the cool, dense shells surrounding the bubbles.

  16. Lessons from the development and operation of the Chandra x-ray observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Daniel A.

    2014-07-01

    Genuine teamwork was a key ingredient of the success of the Chandra x-ray observatory mission. Examples are the science center personnel working as part of the instrument principal investigators (IPI) teams during pre-launch development, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) supporting NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) by directly working with the prime contractor, TRW (now Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems), and TRW acceptance of outside scientists performing the data reduction and analysis for qualification of the aspect camera. An end-to-end thread was defined early on, based on the MSFC/SAO operation of the Einstein observatory x-ray telescope, and covered the cycle from solicitation and peer review of observation proposals through scheduling to data processing and delivery. An open science working group chaired by MSFC included instrument principal investigators and interdisciplinary scientists spanning diverse astrophysical and instrumental expertise.

  17. Resolving the Bondi Accretion Flow toward the Supermassive Black Hole of NGC 3115 with Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ka-Wah; Irwin, J.; Million, E.; Yukita, M.; Mathews, W.; Bregman, J.

    2011-09-01

    Gas undergoing Bondi accretion on to a supermassive black hole (SMBH) becomes hotter toward smaller radii. We searched for this signature with a Chandra observation of the hot gas in NGC 3115, which optical observation show has a very massive SMBH. Our observations show that the gas temperature rises toward the galaxy center as expected in all accretion models in which the black hole is gravitationally capturing the ambient gas. The data support that the Bondi radius is at least about 4-5 arcsec (188-235 pc), suggesting a supermassive blackhole of two billion solar masses that is consistent with the upper end of the optical results. The density profile within the Bondi radius has a power law index of 1.03, and we will discuss the interpretations of the results.

  18. Chandra X-ray Spectroscopy of Kes75, its Young Pulsar, and its Synchrotron Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, B F; Helfand, D J

    2001-01-01

    We have observed the young Galactic supernova remnant Kes 75 with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. This object is one of an increasing number of examples of a shell-type remnant with a central extended radio core harboring a pulsar. Here we present a preliminary spatially resolved spectroscopic analysis of the Kes~75 system. We find that the spectrum of the pulsar is significantly harder than that of the wind nebula, and both of these components can be isolated from the diffuse thermal emission that seems to follow the same distribution as the extended radio shell. When we characterize the thermal emission with a model of an under-ionized plasma and non-solar elemental abundances, we require a significant diffuse high energy component, which we model as a power-law with a photon index similar to that of the synchrotron nebula.

  19. Impacts of Chandra X-ray Observatory Public Communications and Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcand, Kimberly K.; Watzke, Megan; Lestition, Kathleen; Edmonds, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory Center runs a multifaceted Public Communications & Engagement program encompassing press relations, public engagement, and education. Our goals include reaching a large and diverse audience of national and international scope, establishing direct connections and working relationships with the scientists whose research forms the basis for all products, creating peer-reviewed materials and activities that evolve from an integrated pipeline design and encourage users toward deeper engagement, and developing materials that target underserved audiences such as women, Spanish speakers, and the sight and hearing impaired. This talk will highlight some of the key features of our program, from the high quality curated digital presence to the cycle of research and evaluation that informs our practice at all points of the program creation. We will also discuss the main impacts of the program, from the tens of millions of participants reached through the establishment and sustainability of a network of science 'volunpeers.'

  20. Chandra Smells a RRAT: X-ray Detection of a Rotating Radio Transient

    CERN Document Server

    Gaensler, B M; Reynolds, S; Borkowski, K; Rea, N; Possenti, A; Israel, G; Burgay, M; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Krämer, M; Lyne, A; Stairs, I

    2006-01-01

    "Rotating RAdio Transients" (RRATs) are a newly discovered astronomical phenomenon, characterised by occasional brief radio bursts, with average intervals between bursts ranging from minutes to hours. The burst spacings allow identification of periodicities, which fall in the range 0.4 to 7 seconds. The RRATs thus seem to be rotating neutron stars, albeit with properties very different from the rest of the population. We here present the serendipitous detection with the Chandra X-ray Observatory of a bright point-like X-ray source coincident with one of the RRATs. We discuss the temporal and spectral properties of this X-ray emission, consider counterparts in other wavebands, and interpret these results in the context of possible explanations for the RRAT population.

  1. Annealing bounds to prevent further Charge Transfer Inefficiency increase of the Chandra X-ray CCDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monmeyran, Corentin; Patel, Neil S.; Bautz, Mark W.; Grant, Catherine E.; Prigozhin, Gregory Y.; Agarwal, Anuradha; Kimerling, Lionel C.

    2016-12-01

    After the front-illuminated CCDs on board the X-ray telescope Chandra were damaged by radiation after launch, it was decided to anneal them in an effort to remove the defects introduced by the irradiation. The annealing led to an unexpected increase of the Charge Transfer Inefficiency (CTI). The performance degradation is attributed to point defect interactions in the devices. Specifically, the annealing at 30 °C activated the diffusion of the main interstitial defect in the device, the carbon interstitial, which led to its association with a substitutional impurity, ultimately resulting in a stable and electrically active defect state. Because the formation reaction of this carbon interstitial and substitutional impurity associate is diffusion limited, we recommend a higher upper bound for the annealing temperature and duration of any future CCD anneals, that of -50 °C for one day or -60 °C for a week, to prevent further CTI increase.

  2. Chandra Detection of a Hot Gaseous Corona Around the Edge-on Galaxy NGC 4631

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Q D; Walterbos, R; Lauroesch, J T; Breitschwerdt, D; Immler, Stefan; Walterbos, Rene; Lauroesch, James T.; Breitschwerdt, Dieter

    2001-01-01

    We present a Chandra X-ray observation that shows, unambiguously for the first time, the presence of a giant diffuse X-ray-emitting corona around the edge-on disk galaxy NGC 4631. This corona, with a characteristic thermal temperature of 2-7\\times10^6 K, extends as far as 8 kpc away from the galactic plane. The X-ray morphology resembles the radio halo of the galaxy, indicating a close connection between outflows of hot gas, cosmic rays, and magnetic field from the galactic disk. Enhanced diffuse X-ray emission is apparently enclosed by numerous H\\alpha-emitting loops blistered out from the central disk of the galaxy, as is evident in a comparison with our deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging.

  3. Deep Chandra Observations of the Composite Supernova Remnant G327.1-1.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temim, Tea

    2014-11-01

    G327.1-1.1 is a composite SNR containing a symmetric radio shell and a PWN that has likely been disrupted by the reverse shock. Previous X-ray studies reveled a complex morphology; a compact core embedded in bow-shock-like structure, prong-like features extending into large arcs, and thermal emission from the SNR shell. We present deep, 350 ks Chandra observations of G327.1-1.1 that provide new information about the properties of the system, such as the spatial variations in the spectral index across the observed PWN structures, and the thermal temperature across the SNR shell. We also present preliminary HD simulations of an asymmetric PWN/SNR interaction in a system with a moving pulsar, expanding into a non-uniform ISM density, which offer new insight into the nature of the remnant.

  4. PROBING WOLF–RAYET WINDS: CHANDRA/HETG X-RAY SPECTRA OF WR 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huenemoerder, David P.; Schulz, N. S. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 70 Vassar St., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Gayley, K. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Hamann, W.-R.; Oskinova, L.; Shenar, T. [Institut für Physik und Astronomie, Universität Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24/25, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Ignace, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614 (United States); Nichols, J. S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., MS 34, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Pollock, A. M. T., E-mail: dph@space.mit.edu, E-mail: ken.gayley@gmail.com, E-mail: wrh@astro.physik.uni-potsdam.de, E-mail: lida@astro.physik.uni-potsdam.de, E-mail: shtomer@astro.physik.uni-potsdam.de, E-mail: ignace@mail.etsu.edu, E-mail: jnichols@cfa.harvard.edu [European Space Agency, ESAC, Apartado 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada (Spain)

    2015-12-10

    With a deep Chandra/HETGS exposure of WR 6, we have resolved emission lines whose profiles show that the X-rays originate from a uniformly expanding spherical wind of high X-ray-continuum optical depth. The presence of strong helium-like forbidden lines places the source of X-ray emission at tens to hundreds of stellar radii from the photosphere. Variability was present in X-rays and simultaneous optical photometry, but neither were correlated with the known period of the system or with each other. An enhanced abundance of sodium revealed nuclear-processed material, a quantity related to the evolutionary state of the star. The characterization of the extent and nature of the hot plasma in WR 6 will help to pave the way to a more fundamental theoretical understanding of the winds and evolution of massive stars.

  5. Chandra Takes on Heavy Jets and Massive Winds in 4U 1630-47

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilsen, Joey

    2014-11-01

    Recently, Díaz Trigo et al. reported the discovery of relativistic baryons in a jet in XMM/ATCA observations of the 2012 outburst of the black hole 4U 1630-47. We present a search for a similarly massive jet earlier in the same outburst using high-resolution X-ray spectra from the Chandra HETGS. Despite a detection of radio emission with ATCA, we find no evidence of a heavy jet in the X-ray spectrum, with tight upper limits on the relativistic emission lines seen by Díaz Trigo eight months later. Instead, we find deep absorption lines from a massive, highly ionized disk wind, whose properties can be probed with detailed photoionization models. We explore several scenarios to explain the two modes of massive outflow in this remarkable black hole system.

  6. A wide Chandra view of the core of the Perseus cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Fabian, A C; Allen, S W; Canning, R E A; Churazov, E; Crawford, C S; Forman, W; GaBany, J; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J; Johnstone, R M; Russell, H R; Reynolds, C S; Salome, P; Taylor, G B; Young, A J

    2011-01-01

    We present new Chandra images of the X-ray emission from the core of the Perseus cluster of galaxies. The total observation time is now 1.4 Ms. New depressions in X-ray surface brightness are discovered to the north of NGC1275, which we interpret as old rising bubbles. They imply that bubbles are long-lived and do not readily breakup when rising in the hot cluster atmosphere. The existence of a 300 kpc long NNW-SSW bubble axis means there cannot be significant transverse large scale flows exceeding 100 km/s. Interesting spatial correlations are seen along that axis in early deep radio maps. A semi-circular cold front about 100 kpc west of the nucleus is seen. It separates an inner disturbed region dominated by the activity of the active nucleus of NGC1275 from the outer region where a subcluster merger dominates.

  7. A Comprehensive Analysis on Chandra Deep Follow-up GRBs: Implications for Off-Axis Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Bin-Bin; Ryan, David N Burrows Geoffrey Scott; Racusin, Judith L; Troja, Eleonora; MacFadyen, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    We present a sample of 27 GRBs with detailed Swift light curves supplemented by late time Chandra observations. By fitting to empirical mathematical functions, we find a higher fraction of jet-break candidates 56% than previous studies using Swift-only samples (12%) and different analysis techniques. To answer the missing jet-break problem in general, we further develop a numerical simulation based model which can be directly fit to the data using a Bayesian Monte Carlo method. Our numerical model takes into account all the factors that can shape a jet-break: (i) lateral expansion (ii) edge effects and (iii) off-axis effects. Comparing to the empirical function fit, our results provide improved fits to the light curves and better constraints on physical parameters. More importantly, our results suggest that off-axis effects are important and must be included in interpretations of GRB jet breaks.

  8. In-Flight Calibration of the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, H L; Ishibashi, K; Marshall, Herman L.; Dewey, Daniel; Ishibashi, Kazunori

    2003-01-01

    We present results from in-flight calibration of the High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS) on the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Basic grating assembly parameters such as orientation and average grating period were measured using emission line sources. These sources were also used to determine the locations of individual CCDs within the flight detector. The line response function (LRF) was modeled in detail using an instrument simulator based on pre-flight measurements of the grating alignments and periods. These LRF predictions agree very well with in-flight observations of sources with narrow emission lines. Using bright continuum sources, we test the consistency of the detector quantum efficiencies by comparing positive orders to negative orders.

  9. A Very Deep Chandra Observation of Abell 2052: Bubbles, Shocks, and Sloshing

    CERN Document Server

    Blanton, E L; Clarke, T E; Sarazin, C L; McNamara, B R; Douglass, E M; McDonald, M

    2011-01-01

    We present first results from a very deep (~650 ksec) Chandra X-ray observation of Abell 2052, as well as archival VLA radio observations. The data reveal detailed structure in the inner parts of the cluster, including bubbles evacuated by the AGN's radio lobes, compressed bubble rims, filaments, and loops. Two concentric shocks are seen, and a temperature rise is measured for the innermost one. On larger scales, we report the first detection of an excess surface brightness spiral feature. The spiral has cooler temperatures, lower entropies, and higher abundances than its surroundings, and is likely the result of sloshing gas initiated by a previous cluster-cluster or sub-cluster merger. Initial evidence for previously unseen bubbles at larger radii related to earlier outbursts from the AGN is presented.

  10. Chandra Observations of MBM 12 and Models of the Local Bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. K.; Edgar, R. J.; Plucinsky, P. P.; Wargelin, B. J.; Freeman, P. E.; Biller, B. A.

    2005-04-01

    Chandra observations toward the nearby molecular cloud MBM 12 show unexpectedly strong and nearly equal foreground O VIII and O VII emission. As the observed portion of MBM 12 is optically thick at these energies, the emission lines must be formed nearby, coming from either the Local Bubble (LB) or charge exchange with ions from the Sun. Equilibrium models for the LB predict stronger O VII than O VIII, so these results suggest that the LB is far from equilibrium or that a substantial portion of O VIII is from another source, such as charge exchange within the solar system. Despite the likely contamination, we can combine our results with other EUV and X-ray observations to reject LB models that posit a cool recombining plasma as the source of LB X-rays.

  11. 国外预应力水池规范AWWA D110-04,AWWA D115-06及ACI 372R-03介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王长祥; 刘树峰; 王学海

    2014-01-01

    本文介绍了美国标准AWWA D110-04,AWWA D115-06及ACI 372R-03相关内容.重点对于预应力圆形水池的混凝土及预应力筋材料要求、池壁的环向及竖向预应力控制、非预应力筋及池壁、底板及顸盖构造要求等方面进行了介绍,以供国内工程设计人员参考.

  12. Chandra observations of the peculiar X-ray transient IGR J16358-4726

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, S.K.; Kouveliotou, C.; Tennant, A.; Woods, P.M.; Finger, M.; King, A.; Ubertini, P.; Winkler, C.; Courvoisier, T.J.-L.; Klis, M. van der; Wachter, S

    2004-06-01

    The new transient IGR J16358-4726 was discovered on 2003 March 19 with INTEGRAL. We detected the source serendipitously during our 2003 March 24 observation of SGR 1627 - 41 with the CHANDRA X-ray Observatory at the 1.7 x 10{sup -10} ergs s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} flux level (2-10 keV) with a very high absorption column (N{sub H}=3.3x10{sup 23} cm{sup -2}) and a hard power law spectrum of photon index 0.5(1). We discovered a very strong flux modulation with a period of 5880(50) s and peak-to-peak pulse fraction of 70(6) % (2-10 keV), clearly visible in the x-ray data. The nature, however, of IGR 16357-4726 remains unresolved. Most likely, we are looking at a galactic binary neutron star system as evidenced by the detection of rest frame fluorescence line emission from neutral Fe K (6.4 keV) in the Chandra spectrum. If the detected modulation is a spin period, this transient is a new kind of object, belonging to a class of very hard transients recently revealed with the unique INTEGRAL capabilities. The only neutron star systems known with similar spin periods are low luminosity persistent wind-fed pulsars, which exhibit very soft X-ray spectra. If this is an orbital period, then the system could be a compact Low Mass X-ray Binary.

  13. Chandra Observations of the Sextuply Imaged Quasar SDSS J2222+2745

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooley, David A.; Rappaport, Saul A.

    2017-01-01

    While there are ˜100 examples of background quasars strongly lensed by galaxies, there are only a few examples of background quasars strongly lensed by clusters. These systems are both rare and important because they can provide unique constraints on the internal structure of clusters through measurements of the frequency of occurrence and modeling the mass distributions. These constraints, along with statistics of image multiplicity can provide a strong test of the ΛCDM paradigm.SDSS J2222+2745 was discovered by Dahle et al. (2013), and three images (A-C) of the quasar are immediately obvious in the SDSS image, with a fourth image (D) also evident. Through follow-up imaging and spectroscopy, Dahle et al. found evidence for two additional images (E and F), which are not evident in the SDSS image since they are overwhelmed by the light from the red elliptical galaxies in the center of the system. While there are no direct predictions of the occurrence of six-imaged cluster-lensed quasars in the literature, the predicted occurrence of any type of cluster-lensed quasar is very rare and depends sensitively on cosmological parameters such as the matter density ΩM and the matter power spectrum σ8. We report on our Chandra observation of SDSS J2222+2745, which clearly shows all six images of the quasar. We present the lensing model based on our Chandra observation and discuss the effects of stellar microlensing on the observed flux ratios in the X-ray and optical bands.

  14. Chandra Reveals Heavy Obscuration and Circumnuclear Star Formation in Seyfert 2 Galaxy NGC 4968

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Yaqoob, Tahir; Levenson, N. A.; Boorman, Peter; Heckman, Timothy M.; Gandhi, Poshak; Rigby, Jane R.; Urry, C. Megan; Ptak, Andrew F.

    2017-01-01

    We present the Chandra imaging and spectral analysis of NGC 4968, a nearby (z = 0.00986) Seyfert 2 galaxy. We discover extended (∼1 kpc) X-ray emission in the soft band (0.5–2 keV) that is neither coincident with the narrow line region nor the extended radio emission. Based on spectral modeling, it is linked to on-going star formation (∼2.6–4 M⊙ yr‑1). The soft emission at circumnuclear scales (inner ∼400 pc) originates from hot gas, with kT ∼ 0.7 keV, while the most extended thermal emission is cooler (kT ∼ 0.3 keV). We refine previous measurements of the extreme Fe Kα equivalent width in this source ({EW}={2.5}-1.0+2.6 {keV}), which suggests the central engine is completely embedded within Compton-thick levels of obscuration. Using physically motivated models fit to the Chandra spectrum, we derive a Compton-thick column density (NH > 1.25 × 1024 cm‑2) and an intrinsic hard (2–10 keV) X-ray luminosity of ∼3–8 × 1042 erg s‑1 (depending on the presumed geometry of the obscurer), which is over two orders of magnitude larger than that observed. The large Fe Kα EW suggests a spherical covering geometry, which could be confirmed with X-ray measurements above 10 keV. NGC 4968 is similar to other active galaxies that exhibit extreme Fe Kα EWs (i.e., >2 keV) in that they also contain on-going star formation. This work supports the idea that gas associated with nuclear star formation may increase the covering factor of the enshrouding gas and play a role in obscuring active galactic nuclei.

  15. Identification of Faint Chandra X-ray Sources in the Core-Collapsed Globular Cluster NGC 6397: Evidence for a Bimodal Cataclysmic Variable Population

    CERN Document Server

    Cohn, Haldan N; Couch, Sean M; Anderson, Jay; Cool, Adrienne M; Berg, Maureen van den; Bogdanov, Slavko; Heinke, Craig O; Grindlay, Jonathan E; 10.1088/0004-637X/722/1/20

    2011-01-01

    We have searched for optical identifications for 79 Chandra X-ray sources that lie within the half-mass radius of the nearby, core-collapsed globular cluster NGC 6397, using deep Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys Wide Field Channel imaging in H-alpha, R, and B. Photometry of these images allows us to classify candidate counterparts based on color-magnitude diagram location. In addition to recovering nine previously detected cataclysmic variables (CVs), we have identified six additional faint CV candidates, a total of 42 active binaries (ABs), two millisecond pulsars (MSPs), one candidate active galactic nucleus, and one candidate interacting galaxy pair. Of the 79 sources, 69 have a plausible optical counterpart. The 15 likely and possible CVs in NGC 6397 mostly fall into two groups: a brighter group of six for which the optical emission is dominated by contributions from the secondary and accretion disk, and a fainter group of seven for which the white dwarf dominates the optical emission. T...

  16. A search for iron emission lines in the Chandra X-ray spectra of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Cackett, E M; Homan, J; Van der Klis, M; Lewin, W H G; Méndez, M; Raymond, J; Steeghs, D; Wijnands, R

    2008-01-01

    While iron emission lines are well studied in black hole systems, both in X-ray binaries and Active Galactic Nuclei, there has been less of a focus on these lines in neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). However, recent observations with Suzaku and XMM-Newton have revealed broad asymmetric iron line profiles in 4 neutron star LMXBs, confirming an inner disk origin for these lines in neutron star systems. Here, we present a search for iron lines in 6 neutron star LMXBs. For each object we have simultaneous Chandra and RXTE observations at 2 separate epochs, allowing for both a high resolution spectrum, as well as broadband spectral coverage. Out of the six objects in the survey, we only find significant iron lines in two of the objects, GX 17+2 and GX 349+2. However, we cannot rule out that there are weak, broad lines present in the other sources. The equivalent width of the line in GX 17+2 is consistent between the 2 epochs, while in GX 349+2 the line equivalent width increases by a factor of ~3 betwe...

  17. A new (2+1)D cluster finding algorithm based on photometric redshifts: large scale structure in the Chandra Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Trevese, D; Fontana, A; Giallongo, E; Trevese, Dario; Castellano, Marco; Fontana, Adriano; Giallongo, Emanuele

    2006-01-01

    Aims: We study galaxy clustering and explore the dependence of galaxy properties on the the environment up to a redshift z~1, on the basis of a deep multi-band survey in the Chandra Deep Field South. Methods: We have developed a new method which combines galaxy angular positions and photometric redshifts to estimate the local galaxy number-density. This allows both the detection of overdensities in the galaxy distribution and the study of the properties of the galaxy population as a function of the environmental density. Results: We detect two moderate overdensities at z~0.7 and z~1 previously identified spectroscopically. We find that the fraction of red galaxies within each structure increases with volume density, extending to z~1 previous results. We measure ``red sequence'' slopes consistent with the values found in X-ray selected clusters, supporting the notion that the mass-metallicity relation hold constant up to z~1. Conclusions: Our method based on photometric redshifts allows to extend structure det...

  18. A joint analysis of BLAST 250--500um and LABOCA 870um observations in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Chapin, Edward L; Coppin, Kristen E; Devlin, Mark J; Dunlop, James S; Greve, Thomas R; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfied, Matthew F; Hughes, David H; Ivison, Rob J; Marsden, Gaelen; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Netterfield, Calvin B; Pascale, Enzo; Scott, Douglas; Smail, Ian; Viero, Marco; Walter, Fabian; Weiss, Axel; van der Werf, Paul

    2010-01-01

    We present a joint analysis of the overlapping BLAST 250, 350, 500um, and LABOCA 870um observations (from the LESS survey) of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South. Out to z ~ 3, the BLAST filters sample near the peak wavelength of thermal far-infrared (FIR) emission from galaxies (rest-frame wavelengths ~ 60--200um), primarily produced by dust heated through absorption in star-forming clouds. However, identifying counterparts to individual BLAST sources is very challenging, given the large beams (FWHM 36--60 arcsec). In contrast, the ground-based 870um observations have a significantly smaller 19 arcsec FWHM beam, and are sensitive to higher-redshifts (z ~ 1--5, and potentially beyond) due to the more favourable negative K-correction. In this study we use the LESS data, as well as deep Spitzer and VLA imaging, to identify 125 individual sources that produce significant emission in the BLAST bands. We characterize the temperatures and FIR luminosities for a subset of 73 sources with well-measured submm SEDs a...

  19. The Evolution of Normal Galaxy X-ray Emission Through Cosmic History: Constraints from the 6 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South

    CERN Document Server

    Lehmer, B D; Mineo, S; Brandt, W N; Eufrasio, R T; Fragos, T; Hornschemeier, A E; Luo, B; Xue, Y Q; Bauer, F E; Gilfanov, M; Ranalli, P; Schneider, D P; Shemmer, O; Tozzi, P; Trump, J R; Vignali, C; Wang, J -X; Yukita, M; Zezas, A

    2016-01-01

    We present measurements of the evolution of normal-galaxy X-ray emission from $z \\approx$ 0-7 using local galaxies and galaxy samples in the 6 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) survey. The majority of the CDF-S galaxies are observed at rest-frame energies above 2 keV, where the emission is expected to be dominated by X-ray binary (XRB) populations; however, hot gas is expected to provide small contributions to the observed- frame < 1 keV emission at $z < 1$. We show that a single scaling relation between X-ray luminosity ($L_{\\rm X}$) and star-formation rate (SFR) is insufficient for characterizing the average X-ray emission at all redshifts. We establish that scaling relations involving not only SFR, but also stellar mass ($M_\\star$) and redshift, provide significantly improved characterizations of the average X-ray emission from normal galaxy populations at $z \\approx$ 0-7. We further provide the first empirical constraints on the redshift evolution of X-ray emission from both low-mass XRB (LMXB) an...

  20. Tracing the Mass-Dependent Star Formation History of Late-Type Galaxies using X-ray Emission: Results from the CHANDRA Deep Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmer, B.D; Brandt, W.N.; Schneider, D.P.; Steffen, A.T.; Alexander, D.M.; Bell, E.F.; Hornschemeier, A.E.; McIntosh, D.H.; Bauer, F.E.; Gilli, R.; Mainieri, V.; Silverman, J.D.; Tozzi, P.; Wolf, C.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the X-ray evolution over the last approx.9 Gyr of cosmic history (i.e., since z = 1.4) of late-type galaxy populations in the Chandra Deep Field-North and Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-N and E-CDF-S. respectively; jointly CDFs) survey fields. Our late-type galaxy sample consists of 2568 galaxies. which were identified using rest-frame optical colors and HST morphologies. We utilized X-ray stacking analyses to investigate the X-ray emission from these galaxies, emphasizing the contributions from normal galaxies that are not dominated by active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Over this redshift range, we find significant increases (factors of approx. 5-10) in the X-ray-to-optical mean luminosity ratio (L(sub x)/L(sub B)) and the X-ray-to-stellar-mass mean ratio (L(sub x)/M(sub *)) for galaxy populations selected by L(sub B) and M(sub *), respectively. When analyzing galaxy samples selected via SFR, we find that the mean X-ray-to-SFR ratio (L(sub x)/SFR) is consistent with being constant over the entire redshift range for galaxies with SFR = 1-100 Solar Mass/yr, thus demonstrating that X-ray emission can be used as a robust indicator of star-formation activity out to z approx. 1.4. We find that the star-formation activity (as traced by X-ray luminosity) per unit stellar mass in a given redshift bin increases with decreasing stellar mass over the redshift range z = 0.2-1, which is consistent with previous studies of how star-formation activity depends on stellar mass. Finally, we extend our X-ray analyses to Lyman break galaxies at z approx. 3 and estimate that L(sub x)/L(sub B) at z approx. 3 is similar to its value at z = 1.4.