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Sample records for chandigarh cyclotron

  1. Introducing combined measles, mumps and rubella vaccine in Chandigarh, India: issues and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Nidhi; Kaur, Ravneet; Gupta, Madhu; Sharma, Deepak

    2014-06-01

    Cyclical outbreaks of mumps have been noticed across Chandigarh city during winter months. Chandigarh does not provide measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination in the State immunization schedule. Epidemiological shift in age at diagnosis of mumps was noticed with higher incidence in older children and adults. Increased occurrence of complications can be predicted with this age shift. Silent burden of rubella with serious outcomes in newborns further strengthen the case for MMR vaccine inclusion in routine immunization program of Chandigarh.

  2. Stress and suicidal ideas in adolescent students in Chandigarh

    OpenAIRE

    Arun Priti; Chavan B

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objectives: School students in India have a high stress level and high rate of deliberate self-harm. The present study was conducted to find out stress, psychological health, and presence of suicidal ideas in school students and to find out any correlation between these variables. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional study conducted on school students in urban area of Chandigarh city. Materials and Methods: Data was collected on 2402 students from classes VII to XII on socio...

  3. HEALTH PROMOTING BEHAVIOR AMONG COLLEGE STUDENTS IN CHANDIGARH, INDIA

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    Suraj Senjam

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: India faces multiple threats of diseases. The increasing trend of lifestyle related health problems is becoming a serious issue in India. The best strategy to tackle this changing health concern is adoption of healthy lifestyle and health promotion activities. Objectives: To determine the level of involvement in health promoting behaviors of college students in Chandigarh. Material & Methods: This college based cross sectional study was conducted in four randomly selected colleges of Chandigarh during September 2007 to June 2008. Results: Two hundred students (F=100, M=100 were studied by using self administered health promoting lifestyle profile (HPLP questionnaires. Mean HPLP score was 138.69 (M=137.98, F=139.39. Female students were more likely to have better health promoting practices than their counterpart male students, but difference was not significant. Female students showed more sense of health responsibility than male students (p=0.00, whereas male students were significantly more involved in physical activities than female students (p=0.02. Overall, only few students (18.5% searched health related article from the internet; 26% went for normal health check up in the last year; 13.5% students practiced yoga regularly; 24.5% of them tried to choose diet with low fat content; 30% of them skipped meals regularly, and 25.5% of them ate processed food regularly. Conclusion: The study results showed that college students in Chandigarh had reasonably good orientation towards health promoting practices.

  4. Cyclotrons: 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.A. (comp.)

    1978-01-01

    A compilation is presented of the experimental facilities of the world's cyclotrons including history and status, staff and operation, research staff, target facilities, magnet, acceleration system, vacuum system, characteristic beams, beam properties, and a plan view of the facility for each cyclotron. (GHT)

  5. Bacteriological study of Indian cheese (paneer sold in Chandigarh

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    Vaishnavi C

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to isolate and identify bacterial pathogens/contaminants in paneer samples sold in Chandigarh. Fifty eight samples of paneer bought at random were cultured on several media. Bacterial colony counts were also done. The predominant organisms isolated were Staphylococcus species, aerobic spore bearers, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Campylobacter jejuni, Acinetobacter species and Streptococcus species. The viable bacterial counts obtained ranged from 3 x 102 to 9.7 x 1010 CFU/mL. Contamination of paneer by pathogenic bacteria could be an important factor of gastrointestinal illnesses in the consumers.

  6. Breast feeding pattern in urban infants in Chandigarh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V; Sharma, R; Vanaja, K; Real, M

    1984-01-01

    The pattern of breastfeeding and the factors which determine the practice were assessed in 670 mothers from urban areas of Chandigarh. Unsupplemented breastmilk was administered to only 36.6% of babies up until 4 months of age. Women from the lower socioeconomic class, uneducated, and poorly educated mothers were more successful than those from the upper socioeconomic clases or those with higher education (P0.01). The success rate for breastfeeding was higher among babies born at home (50.0%) as compared to those born in the hospital (32.3%). Similarly, high proportions of male infants were successfully breastfed (40.3%) as compared to females (31.6%). Among those infants weaned breastfeeding was discontinued before 1 month of age in more than 60%. The main reason that breastfeeding failed was insufficient milk. Promotional efforts for unsupplemented breastfeeding should consider some of the above factors for their success.

  7. Regional PIXE facility at Chandigarh (India) and Trace Element Analysis of Aerosol and Bio-medical Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govil, I. M.

    2009-03-01

    A regional Proton induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) facility is newly developed using 3 Mev Proton beam from Variable Energy Cyclotron, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India). A new target chamber has been designed to cater for Proton Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE) and Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) along with PIXE measurements. The HPGe x-ray detector, the Ge (Li) gamma-ray detector and a silicon surface barrier (SSB) detector can be mounted simultaneously in the chamber for this purpose. A remotely controlled stepper motor is provided to move the target wheel holding 12/24 samples at a time. This facility is now routinely used for the detection of trace elements in the aerosol, medical and forensic science samples. The paper presents the analysis of Aerosol samples collected from highly polluted steel city of Mandi Govindgarh in Punjab state and relatively clean city of Jammu in Jammu & Kashmir region. The results from the analysis of these samples show some basic differences in the trace element profile of the two cities. The paper also describes the trace element analysis of fly ash in the vicinity of Ropar Thermal Power plant in Punjab. The scope of this study was to determine the concentration and composition of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in the vicinity of coal-fired thermal power plants in India. The data taken for the Bio-medical samples are also discussed.

  8. Stress and suicidal ideas in adolescent students in Chandigarh

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    Arun Priti

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: School students in India have a high stress level and high rate of deliberate self-harm. The present study was conducted to find out stress, psychological health, and presence of suicidal ideas in school students and to find out any correlation between these variables. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional study conducted on school students in urban area of Chandigarh city. Materials and Methods: Data was collected on 2402 students from classes VII to XII on socio-demographic scale, 12-item general health questionnaire, Mooney problem checklist, and suicide risk eleven -a visual analogue scale. Statistical analysis used was chi square and Spearman′s correlation. Results: Out of 2402 students, 1078 (45.8% had psychological problems, half (1201 students perceived problems in their role as students, 930 (45% reported academic decline, 180 (8.82% students reported that life was a burden, 122 (6% reported suicidal ideas and 8 (0.39% students reported suicidal attempt. There was significant correlation between student′s perception of life as a burden and class they were studying, mother′s working status, psychological problems and problems students experienced in relation to study, peers, future planning and with parents. Conclusions: Students with academic problems and unsupportive environment at home perceived life as a burden and had higher rates of suicidal ideations.

  9. Rubella outbreak in the union territory of Chandigarh, North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mini P; Kumar, Archit; Gautam, Neha; Khurana, Jasmine; Gupta, Madhu; Ratho, Radha Kanta

    2015-02-01

    Rubella virus outbreaks usually occur when a large numbers of susceptible individuals accumulate. The disease presents clinically with fever and maculopapular rash. The present study reports the investigation of rubella outbreak in a modern and well-planned village near Chandigarh, North India. The blood samples were collected from 39 cases with febrile rash and from 15 age and sex matched healthy controls residing in the same locality and subjected for the detection of Rubella IgM and IgG antibodies by Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The throat swabs, urine and blood samples from acute cases were also collected and subjected to RT-PCR using the primers targeting the E1 region. The genetic characterization of the rubella virus was carried out to identify the circulating genotypes. In the present outbreak, 13 laboratory confirmed cases were reported. Rubella IgM antibodies were detected in 12/39 (30.7%) patients. Rubella RNA could be detected in 83.3% (5/6) of urine, 22.2% (2/9) of throat swabs, and 8.3% (1/12) of blood samples. The rubella genotype responsible for the present outbreak was identified as genotype 1a. This outbreak highlights the need for the introduction of rubella vaccine in the National Immunization Programme of India to prevent outbreaks and to aim towards the eradication of this disease. This study reports the presence of genotype 1a in North India for the first time and stresses the need for further molecular work to identify the circulating strains of the virus.

  10. Cyclotron waves in plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Lominadze, D G

    2013-01-01

    Cyclotron Waves in Plasma is a four-chapter text that covers the basic physical concepts of the theory of cyclotron waves and cyclotron instabilities, brought about by the existence of steady or alternating plasma currents flowing perpendicular to the magnetic field.This book considers first a wide range of questions associated with the linear theory of cyclotron oscillations in equilibrium plasmas and in electron plasmas in metals and semiconductors. The next chapter deals with the parametric excitation of electron cyclotron oscillations in plasma in an alternating electric field. A chapter f

  11. Diary of an endocrine resident: Recollections from Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Endocrinology is a relatively newer field in medicine but it has gained tremendous progress in the recent past and is currently one of the most cherished and sought after superspecialty subject. The journey is long and an average of 12 years is spent to complete a superspecialty training starting from Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery career. To get a seat in endocrinology in institutes like PGIMER, Chandigarh is difficult, the training is grueling and the final exit is tough but the ...

  12. Bio-medical waste management in the U.T., Chandigarh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kamaljit; Arora, Shakti Kumar; Dhadwal, P J S; Singla, Ashwani; John, Siby

    2004-01-01

    Investigations were carried out to assess the generation and disposal of biomedical waste in the various medical establishments in the urban and rural areas of the U.T. Chandigarh. It was found that there were 474 medical establishments in the U.T., Chandigarh including Nursing Homes, Clinics, Dispensaries, Pathological labs., Hospitals, Veterinary Institutions and Animal houses. The total quantity of bio-medical waste generated in Chandigarh is 811.35 kg/day and the rate of generation of bio-medical waste varies from 0.06 kg/day/bed to 0.25 kg/day/bed. Though the major hospitals are equipped with incinerators, proper bio-medical waste management system is yet to be implemented. The medical establishments in the rural area and smaller ones in the urban area dispose off their bio-medical waste along with municipal solid waste and no waste management system exists. It is recommended that an integrated waste management plan using the three incinerators installed at the major hospitals can safely dispose off the total bio-medical waste generated in the city.

  13. Alfven cyclotron instability and ion cyclotron emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorelenkov, N.N.; Cheng, C.Z.

    1995-07-01

    Two-dimensional solutions of compressional Alfven eigenmodes (CAE) are studied in the cold plasma approximation. For finite inverse aspect ratio tokamak plasmas the two-dimensional eigenmode envelope is localized at the low magnetic field side with the radial and poloidal localization on the order of a/{radical}m and a/(fourth root of m), respectively, where m is the dominant poloidal mode number. Charged fusion product driven Alfven Cyclotron Instability (ACI) of the compressional Alfven eigenmodes provides the explanation for the ion cyclotron emission (ICE) spectrum observed in tokamak experiments. The ACI is excited by fast charged fusion products via Doppler shifted cyclotron wave-particle resonances. The ion cyclotron and electron Landau dampings and fast particle instability drive are calculated perturbatively for deuterium-deuterium (DD) and deuterium-tritium (DT) plasmas. Near the plasma edge at the low field side the velocity distribution function of charged fusion products is localized in both pitch angle and velocity. The poloidal localization of the eigenmode enhances the ACI growth rates by a factor of {radical}m in comparison with the previous results without poloidal envelope. The thermal ion cyclotron damping determines that only modes with eigenfrequencies at multiples of the edge cyclotron frequency of the background ions can be easily excited and form an ICE spectrum similar to the experimental observations. Theoretical understanding is given for the results of TFTR DD and DT experiments with {upsilon}{sub {alpha}0}/{upsilon}{sub A} < 1 and JET experiments with {upsilon}{sub {alpha}0}/{upsilon}{sub A} > 1.

  14. A recent outbreak of cholera due to Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa in & around Chandigarh, North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Neelam; Kaur, Jasjit; Sharma, Kusum; Singh, Malkit; Kalra, J K; Sharma, N M; Sharma, Meera

    2003-06-01

    An outbreak of cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa occurred in and around Chandigarh during July 22-31, 2002. Of the 303 patients admitted to two hospitals, 82 were confirmed by culture. Two rehabilitation colonies located at the periphery of Chandigarh were mainly affected. The isolates were biotyped as Eltor and were susceptible to many antibiotics. Thirty one (35.2%) of 88 water samples showed evidence of faecal contamination. The survey of the area revealed sewage contamination of the drinking water supply. The outbreak was controlled by providing safe drinking water to the people and correcting the defects in the sewage and water pipelines.

  15. The Population Structure of Vibrio cholerae from the Chandigarh Region of Northern India

    KAUST Repository

    Abd El Ghany, Moataz

    2014-07-24

    Background:Cholera infection continues to be a threat to global public health. The current cholera pandemic associated with Vibrio cholerae El Tor has now been ongoing for over half a century.Methodology/Principal Findings:Thirty-eight V. cholerae El Tor isolates associated with a cholera outbreak in 2009 from the Chandigarh region of India were characterised by a combination of microbiology, molecular typing and whole-genome sequencing. The genomic analysis indicated that two clones of V. cholera circulated in the region and caused disease during this time. These clones fell into two distinct sub-clades that map independently onto wave 3 of the phylogenetic tree of seventh pandemic V. cholerae El Tor. Sequence analyses of the cholera toxin gene, the Vibrio seventh Pandemic Island II (VSPII) and SXT element correlated with this phylogenetic position of the two clades on the El Tor tree. The clade 2 isolates, characterized by a drug-resistant profile and the expression of a distinct cholera toxin, are closely related to the recent V. cholerae isolated elsewhere, including Haiti, but fell on a distinct branch of the tree, showing they were independent outbreaks. Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) distinguishes two sequence types among the 38 isolates, that did not correspond to the clades defined by whole-genome sequencing. Multi-Locus Variable-length tandem-nucleotide repeat Analysis (MLVA) identified 16 distinct clusters.Conclusions/Significance:The use of whole-genome sequencing enabled the identification of two clones of V. cholerae that circulated during the 2009 Chandigarh outbreak. These clones harboured a similar structure of ICEVchHai1 but differed mainly in the structure of CTX phage and VSPII. The limited capacity of MLST and MLVA to discriminate between the clones that circulated in the 2009 Chandigarh outbreak highlights the value of whole-genome sequencing as a route to the identification of further genetic markers to subtype V. cholerae isolates.

  16. The population structure of Vibrio cholerae from the Chandigarh Region of Northern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moataz Abd El Ghany

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cholera infection continues to be a threat to global public health. The current cholera pandemic associated with Vibrio cholerae El Tor has now been ongoing for over half a century.Thirty-eight V. cholerae El Tor isolates associated with a cholera outbreak in 2009 from the Chandigarh region of India were characterised by a combination of microbiology, molecular typing and whole-genome sequencing. The genomic analysis indicated that two clones of V. cholera circulated in the region and caused disease during this time. These clones fell into two distinct sub-clades that map independently onto wave 3 of the phylogenetic tree of seventh pandemic V. cholerae El Tor. Sequence analyses of the cholera toxin gene, the Vibrio seventh Pandemic Island II (VSPII and SXT element correlated with this phylogenetic position of the two clades on the El Tor tree. The clade 2 isolates, characterized by a drug-resistant profile and the expression of a distinct cholera toxin, are closely related to the recent V. cholerae isolated elsewhere, including Haiti, but fell on a distinct branch of the tree, showing they were independent outbreaks. Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST distinguishes two sequence types among the 38 isolates, that did not correspond to the clades defined by whole-genome sequencing. Multi-Locus Variable-length tandem-nucleotide repeat Analysis (MLVA identified 16 distinct clusters.The use of whole-genome sequencing enabled the identification of two clones of V. cholerae that circulated during the 2009 Chandigarh outbreak. These clones harboured a similar structure of ICEVchHai1 but differed mainly in the structure of CTX phage and VSPII. The limited capacity of MLST and MLVA to discriminate between the clones that circulated in the 2009 Chandigarh outbreak highlights the value of whole-genome sequencing as a route to the identification of further genetic markers to subtype V. cholerae isolates.

  17. Secular changes in Mid-Upper-Arm Circumference of Chandigarh Infants

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    A.K.. Bhalla

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The secular trend in terms of growth of mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC of fullterm, normal birth weight infants of the two sexes, representing Cohort I (Male: 44, Female: 30 born between 1978-1980 and Cohort II (Male: 50, Female: 50 born between 2006-2007 to parents representing upper socio-economic strata, in Chandigarh was longitudinally evaluated as the same so far has not been studied. All babies were enrolled from Labor Room of the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research and subsequently, followed in Growth Clinic of the Department of Pediatrics. MUAC amongst infants of the two sexes representing both the Cohorts grew uninterruptedly between 1 to 12 months. Cohort I and II male infants in general, possessed larger MUAC than females. However, statistically significant gender differences were recorded for Cohort II infants only at 9 months. The mean MUAC of infants belonging to Cohort II, measured significantly (p≤0.001 greater than Cohort I infants during first year of life. Higher growth attainments recorded for MUAC in Cohort II infants than those of Cohort I speak of existence of progressive secular trend amongst Chandigarh infants over a period of about three decades.

  18. Persisting malnutrition in Chandigarh: decadal underweight trends and impact of ICDS program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Jarnail Singh; Prinja, Shankar; Bhatia, Satpal Singh

    2011-04-01

    Decline in malnutrition levels has been dismal since the 1990s. We ascertained decadal trend in childhood nutritional status between 1997 and 2007 in Chandigarh, India and assessed impact of Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) on childhood undernutrition. A total of 803 under-five children, 547 children between 12-23 months age, and 218 women with an infant child were recruited for the study. Findings of present study were compared with another methodologically similar study (1997) from Chandigarh and Reproductive and Child Health Rapid Household Survey (1998) to draw decadal trends. Prevalence of underweight among under-five children remained almost stagnant in the last one decade from 51.6%; (1997) to 50.4%; (2007). There was insignificant difference (P=0.3) in prevalence of underweight among children registered under ICDS program (52.1%;) and those not registered (48.4%;) in 2007. Other health and service provision indicators had mixed results in the past decade. Health services utilization was poorest in urban slums.

  19. Synchro-cyclotron

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    The electromagnetic coil which forms the first section of the proton extraction channel in the improved synchro-cyclotron. The photograph shows the positioning gear and the current septum. An extraction efficiency above 50% is expected.

  20. The new cyclotrons

    CERN Multimedia

    Lawson, J D

    1966-01-01

    Article describing how valuable scientific work can still be carried out with the smaller energy cyclotrons such as those at the Radiochemical Centre, Amersham and the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell (2 pages).

  1. Cyclotron Institute Upgrade Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Henry [Texas A& M University; Yennello, Sherry [Texas A& M University; Tribble, Robert [Texas A& M University

    2014-08-26

    The Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University has upgraded its accelerator facilities to extend research capabilities with both stable and radioactive beams. The upgrade is divided into three major tasks: (1) re-commission the K-150 (88”) cyclotron, couple it to existing beam lines to provide intense stable beams into the K-500 experimental areas and use it as a driver to produce radioactive beams; (2) develop light ion and heavy ion guides for stopping radioactive ions created with the K-150 beams; and (3) transport 1+ ions from the ion guides into a charge-breeding electron-cyclotron-resonance ion source (CB-ECR) to produce highly-charged radioactive ions for acceleration in the K-500 cyclotron. When completed, the upgraded facility will provide high-quality re-accelerated secondary beams in a unique energy range in the world.

  2. Estimation of fluoride levels in various commercially available carbonated soft drinks in Chandigarh city, India

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    Mohit Bansal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fluoride has a preventive action on dental caries. However, Excessive ingestion of fluoride from different sources can lead to the development of dental fluorosis. Aim: To estimate fluoride levels in various commercially available carbonated soft drinks available in Chandigarh city. Materials and Methods: Twelve different brands of commercially available soft drinks were purchased from three different places and divided into three groups. Fluoride levels were estimated using fluoride test strips Quantofix 37211 Fluka; Sigma-Aldrich. Results: Fluoride levels ranged from 0.12 to 0.42 mg/dl F with the maximum level in Thumbs up and least in Diet Pepsi. Conclusion: The levels of fluoride varied in various carbonated soft drinks analyzed. This could contribute significantly to the total fluoride intake from all sources and thus be an important risk factor for the development of dental fluorosis.

  3. Cuatro europeos en Chandigarh. LC + Pierre Jeanneret, Jane Drew & Maxwell Fry

    OpenAIRE

    Casciato, M. (Maristella)

    2010-01-01

    La partición de la India en 1947 tras el fin de la Administración británica, está en el origen de la intervención de Le Corbusier en Chandigarh. La ruptura territorial causó la entrega a Pakistán de Lahore, la antigua capital del Punjab, uno de sus estados más prósperos. Este acontecimiento motivó la decisión del primer gobierno indio poscolonial de convertir la pérdida en un símbolo de la identidad de la nación recién liberada. Para conseguirlo el Primer Ministro Nehru decidió const...

  4. Epidemiology of dental caries in Chandigarh school children and trends over the last 25 years

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    Goyal A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of dental caries in 6, 9, 12 and 15-year-old school children of Chandigarh, selected on a randomized basis was evaluated using Moller′s criteria (1966 and correlated with the various risk factors. The mean deft was found to be 4.0 ± 3.6 in 6 year old and 4.61 ± 3.14 in 9 year old, whereas the mean DMFT in 12 and 15 year old was found to be 3.03 ± 2.52 and 3.82 ± 2.85 respectively. The high prevalence of dental caries in these children was attributed to the lack of use of fluoride toothpaste (80% children, lack of knowledge about etiology of dental caries (98% and frequency of sugar exposures up to more than five times per day (30%.

  5. A study of health problems and loneliness among the elderly in Chandigarh

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    Bhatia V

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What are the health-related problems of the aged and why do they feel lonely? Objective: To study the health-related problems and loneliness among the elderly in different micro-environment groups. Participants: Aged persons of age 65 years and above. Setting: Urban and rural area of Chandigarh. Design: Cross-sectional. Statistical Analysis: t-test and Z test. Results: During the study, it was found that out of the total 361 aged persons of Chandigarh, 311 (86.1% persons reported one or more health-related complaints, with an average of two illnesses. The illness was higher among the females (59.5% as compared to males (40.5%. The main health-related problems were disorders of the circulatory system (51.2%, musculoskeletal system and connective tissue (45.7%. It was also found that loneliness was prevalent more in females (72.8% as compared to males (65.6%. Loneliness was more prevalent among persons who lived alone (92.2% as compared to those who lived with their spouse (58.9% or when husband and wife lived with the family (61.4%. It was higher among the widows (85.2% and widowers (75.8% who lived with the family as compared to the aged who lived with the spouse (58.9% and the aged husband and wife who lived with the family (61.4%. Conclusion: Special geriatric services should be started in the hospitals as the majority of the aged have one or more health-related problems. The aged persons should be involved in social activities to avoid loneliness among them.

  6. Factors Influencing the Choice of a Public or Private Health Institution for Childbirth in Chandigarh

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    Trusty Khumukcham

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge of factors affecting the choice of place for delivery may help in developing a user friendly maternity program. Hence, this study aimed at finding out factors influencing women’s choice about the type of health institutions for delivery. Materials and methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in selected communities of Chandigarh city in India during 2010-11. A consecutive sample of 300 women (150 in public and 150 in private institutions who had delivered a baby in previous three months were interviewed using a pre-tested interview schedule. Chi square test was used to find association of socio-demographic, maternal, and institutional factors with the type of institution selected for delivery. Results: Women from lower socio-economic status delivered more frequently in public sector institutions (47.3% than in private institutions (16.7%  (p<0.01. In private institutions 30% of the women were delivered through Caesarean Section compared to 17.3% in public institutions (p<0.05. Physical infrastructure was better in private institutions. Cost was lower in public (Rs. 4,630 than in private institutions (Rs 21,676. Most women were satisfied with quality of care received in public and private institutions. However, some reported that public institution staff needs to be more polite. Quality of infrastructure in health facility, quality of care, and socio-economic status were associated with the choice of institution for delivery. Conclusions: Public sector health institutions are a major source of maternity care in Chandigarh, hence, care providers should be trained in handling clients gently. Regulations for adherence to protocols, e.g., indications for Caesarean Section and fee structure etc. need to be implemented in private institutions.

  7. Inflation and Cyclotron Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Greensite, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    We consider, in the context of a braneworld cosmology, the motion of the universe coupled to a four-form gauge field, with constant field strength, defined in higher dimensions. It is found, under rather general initial conditions, that in this situation there is a period of exponential inflation combined with cyclotron motion in the inflaton field space. The main effect of the cyclotron motion is that conditions on the flatness of the inflaton potential, which are typically necessary for exponential inflation, can be evaded. There are Landau levels associated with the four-form gauge field, and these correspond to quantum excitations of the inflaton field.

  8. Upgrading Synchro-cyclotron

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Final touches to the central region of SC2, the refurbished 600 MeV synchro-cyclotron, before the start of commissioning. Modifications included a new type of ion source at the centre. Protons were first accelerated in SC2 at full energy by October 1974. (See photo 7408042X)

  9. Electron Cyclotron Emission Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Cristina

    2009-11-01

    There is much interest in studying plasmas that generate hot electrons. The goal of this project is to develop a wide band electron cyclotron radiometer to measure the non-Maxwellian rapid rises in electron temperature. These rapid increases in temperature will then be correlated to instabilities in the plasma. This project explores a type of noncontact temperature measurement. We will attempt to show the feasibility of electron cyclotron emissions to measure the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment's electron plasma temperature. The radiometer has been designed to have 100dB of gain and a sensitivity of 24mV/dB given by its logarithmic amplifier. If successful, this radiometer will be used as a diagnostic tool in later projects such as the proposed experiment studying magnetic reconnection using solar flux loops.

  10. Cyclotron Line Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Mihara, Tatehiro; Nagase, Fumiaki

    2014-01-01

    We systematically analyzed the spectra of X-ray binary pulsars observed with GINGA (Mihara 1995). A new model NPEX (Negative and Positive power-laws EXponential) was introduced t o represent the pulsar continuum. Combining the NPEX continuum with the CYAB factor (cyclotron resonance scattering model), we successfully fit the whole-band spectra of all the pulsars. A possible physical meaning of the NPEX model is the Comptonized spectra. By using the smooth and concave NPEX model, the cyclotron structures were detected from 12 pulsars, about a half of the 23 sources, including new discoveries from LMC X-4 and GS 1843+00. The magnetic fields were scattered in the range of $3\\times10^{11}$ - $5\\times10^{12}$ G. The distribution was shown for the first time, which is remarkably similar to that of radio pulsars with a peak at $2 \\times 10^{12}$ G. The double harmonic cyclotron structures of 4U 0115+63 in 1990 changed to a sin gle structure in 1991. The resonance energy also increased by 40 % as the luminosity decre...

  11. Cyclotrons and positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, A.P.; Fowler, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    The state of the art of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) technology as related to cyclotron use and radiopharmaceutical production is reviewed. The paper discusses available small cyclotrons, the positron emitters which can be produced and the yields possible, target design, and radiopharmaceutical development and application. 97 refs., 12 tabs. (ACR)

  12. CHAND LC 4445 CAPITOL. EL TERCER VIAJE DE LE CORBUSIER A CHANDIGARH, MARZO-ABRIL 1952

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    Pere Fuertes Perez

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El tercer viaje de Le Corbusier a Chandigarh, un año después de su primer contacto con la India, está íntimamente ligado a la definición del Capitolio en tanto que plataforma activa, capaz de poner en tensión los palacios institucionales de la que forman parte, y en tanto que realidad aislada de la ciudad y únicamente vinculada a la experiencia de las vastas dimensiones del país, al llano que la sustenta, a su techo de cielo y a las montañas que ponen fin al terreno horizontal. Durante los veinticinco días que permanece en el lugar, Le Corbusier define el Capitolio como recinto y determina sus límites, introduce la física de los reflejos combinados, intensifica la topografía como tema arquitectónico que anima la plataforma del Capitolio y dibuja los jardines que preceden al palacio del Gobernador, como síntesis de todos los temas expuestos. Los resultados darán lugar, a su vuelta, al plano con número de atelier chand lc 4445 capitol. Más adelante, a medida que se definen los palacios, el Capitolio irá modificándose para alcanzar una nueva situación de equilibrio respecto a ellos, pero siempre en relación a aquello que sucedió durante esos días de 1952.SUMMARY. The third trip of Le Corbusier to Chandigarh, a year after his first contact with India, is closely bound to the definition of the Capitol as an active platform, capable of pulling together the institutional palaces of which it forms a part and as a reality isolated from the city and uniquely linked to the experience of the vast dimensions of the country, to the plain that supports it, to its ceiling of sky and to the mountains that end the horizontal land. During the twenty-five days he stayed there, Le Corbusier defined the Capitol as an area and determined its limits. He introduced the physics of the combined reflections, intensified the topography as an architectural theme that animates the platform of the Capitol and drew the gardens that lead to the

  13. Epidemiology of road traffic accident deaths in children in Chandigarh zone of North West India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalbir Singh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The fatalities from Road Traffic Accidents (RTA constitute a major cause of unnatural deaths among children in Chandigarh zone of North West India. The epidemiology of RTA related deaths in this age group is lacking in our country. This retrospective study (1974–2013 included children (⩽18 years who became victims of RTA and subsequently died during the course of treatment. The postmortem and hospital records of the victims were used to collect the epidemiological data regarding age, sex, area of residence, etc. These deaths constituted 9.4% of total road accident deaths reported at this hospital. Out of a total of 709 RTA deaths in children, about 16% were reported in the block year of 1974–78 and this proportion decreased to 9.4% during the block year of 1984–88 and has remained almost constant since then. The maximum number of victims belonged to the states of Haryana (36% and Punjab (34%. A higher number of deaths were observed in rural population (60%. Most of the fatalities occurred between 12–4 pm (29.9% and pedestrians (47.8% were found to be the most commonly affected. The most common affected was the 16–18 year age group (35.3%. Injury to head and neck region (81.4% was responsible for a majority of deaths. The study concluded that the RTA remains an important cause of unnatural deaths in children. The static proportion of these deaths over the past three decades signifies that the road safety policies have been ineffective in preventing causalities and need further improvements.

  14. Keratomycosis in and around Chandigarh: A five-year study from a north Indian tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chander Jagdish

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available To find out the prevalence and epidemiological features of keratomycosis in Chandigarh, the present study was carried out jointly by the Departments of Microbiology and Ophthalmology, Government Medical College Hospital, Chandigarh, over a period of 5 years from January 1999 to December 2003. Corneal scrapings were collected from a total of 154 suspected patients of keratomycosis and were processed and identified by standard laboratory techniques. The study revealed that a total of 64 cases (41.55% were positive for fungal agents. Direct microscopy was positive in 52 cases (76.47% and culture in 34 cases (53.12%. Most common fungal isolates were Aspergillus species 14 (41.18%, Fusarium species 8 (23.53%, Candida species 3 (8.82%, Curvularia species 2 (5.88% and Bipolaris species 2 (5.88%. Thus, hyaline filamentous fungi were the most common etiological agents and mechanical trauma with vegetative matter was the most common predisposing factor. Males in age group of 21-50 years were more commonly affected

  15. Spiral Inflector For Compact Cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Karamysheva, G A

    2004-01-01

    Compact cyclotron for explosives detection by nuclear resonance absorption of γ-rays in nitrogen is under development [1] Cyclotron will be equipped with the external ion source. The injection system consists of a double-drift beam bunching system, a spiral inflector, beam diagnostics, focusing and adjustment elements [2]. The spiral inflector for ion bending from axial to median plane is used. Computer model of spiral inflector for the Customs cyclotron is developed. 3D electrostatic field calculations of the designed inflector are performed. Calculated electric field map and magnetic field map of the cyclotron [3] are used for beam dynamic simulations. Numeric simulations are carried out for 500 particles using code for calculation of particle dynamics by integration of differential equations in Cartesian coordinate system written in MATLAB. Direct Coulomb particle-to-particle method is used to take into account space-charge effects.

  16. Ion Cyclotron Resonance Facility (ICR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — his facility is charged with developing and exploiting the unique capabilities of Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry, and leads the...

  17. EC-5 fifth international workshop on electron cyclotron emission and electron cyclotron heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prater, R.; Lohr, J. [eds.

    1985-12-31

    This report contains papers on the following topics: electron cyclotron emission measurements; electron cyclotron emission theory; electron cyclotron heating; gyrotron development; and ECH systems and waveguide development. These paper have been indexed separately elsewhere. (LSP).

  18. A Retrospective Cohort Study of Treatment Outcome among HIV positive and HIV negative TB patients in Chandigarh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shveta Saini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis (TB and the HIV epidemics have been well known previously but now these are emerging as a combined epidemic to pose new public health challenges. TB is the most common opportunistic infection found among HIV positive individuals. Aims & Objective: To find the prevalence of HIV infection among the TB patients diagnosed and put on treatment under RNTCP. 2. To assess their treatment outcomes in Chandigarh. Material & Methods: The present study was designed as a retrospective cohort study among the adult population (>18 years in Chandigarh from April 2012 - March 2014. All the TB patients registered for treatment at the 17 DMCs of Chandigarh, during this period were taken as the study population. The treatment outcome among TB-HIV co-infected patients was compared with those having only Tuberculosis. Results: From 1st April 2012 - 31st March 2013, a total of 3,551 patients were registered under RNTCP for treatment of tuberculosis. Among the total patients put on DOTS (3,551, 63.2% (2,246 were males and 36.7% (1,305 were females.  A total of 3,516 TB patients had their blood tested for HIV. Out of these patients, 88 (2.47% were tested positive for HIV. HIV positive status was also found to be significantly associated with occurrence of extra pulmonary tuberculosis (X2= 17.42; df 2; p 0.0001. Category – II treatment was found to be slightly more among the HIV positive TB patients as compared to the HIV negative patients. From the total sample, 2.19% (78 patients were later diagnosed as having drug resistant tuberculosis with only one (01 patient being co-infected with HIV. Out of all the TB-HIV co-infected patients, 29.55% were declared cured at the end of the treatment. A total of 63.64% of co-infected patients had completed their treatment. Death as an outcome was significantly associated with HIV positive status (1.14% as compared to HIV negative patients. Conclusion: Integration of TB-HIV collaborative activities at

  19. Cyclotron resonant interactions in cosmic particle accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Terasawa, T; 10.1007/s11214-012-9878-0

    2012-01-01

    A review is given for cyclotron resonant interactions in space plasmas. After giving a simple formulation for the test particle approach, illustrative examples for resonant interactions are given. It is shown that for obliquely propagating whistler waves, not only fundamental cyclotron resonance, but also other resonances, such as transit-time resonance, anomalous cyclotron resonance, higher-harmonic cyclotron resonance, and even subharmonic resonance can come into play. A few recent topics of cyclotron resonant interactions, such as electron injection in shocks, cyclotron resonant heating of solar wind heavy ions, and relativistic modifications, are also reviewed.

  20. Use of cyclotrons in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qaim, S.M. E-mail: s.m.qaim@fz-juelich.de

    2004-11-01

    Cyclotrons are versatile ion-accelerating machines which find many applications in medicine. In this short review their use in hadron therapy is briefly discussed. Proton therapy is gaining significance because of its capability to treat deep-lying tumours. A strong area of application of cyclotrons involves the production of short-lived neutron deficient radiotracers for use in emission tomography, especially positron emission tomography. This fast and quantitative in vivo diagnostic technique is being increasingly used in neurology, cardiology and oncology. Besides routine patient care, considerable interdisciplinary work on development of new positron emitters is under way. A short account of those efforts is given. The use of cyclotrons in the production of radionuclides for internal radiotherapy is also briefly described.

  1. CSIR cyclotron modified for radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Accelerator Centre (NAC) staff members will be making an important contribution to radiation therapy in South Africa when the Transvaal Department of Hospital Services starts treating certain types of cancer with fast neutrons, at the Pretoria Cyclotron on the CSIR campus. The fast neutrons will be utilized mainly to treat advanced cancers of the head and the neck. The project will develop along two lines. Firstly the Pretoria cyclotron must be modified and secondly satisfactory radiobiological data must be provided before patients may be treated. This radiobiological experiment heralds a new area for use of the cyclotron which has thus far been used mainly for basic nuclear research and the production of isotopes.

  2. MC-50 AVF cyclotron operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Seok; Chai, Jong Seo; Bak, Seong Ki; Park, Chan Won; Jo, Young Ho; Hong, Seong Seok; Lee, Min Yong; Jang Ho Ha

    2000-01-01

    The first cyclotron in Korea, MC-50 cyclotron is used for neutron irradiation, radionuclide development, production and material and biomedical research. 50.5MeV and 35MeV proton beam have been extracted with 20-60{mu}A. A total of beam extraction time are 1095.7 hours. 206.5 hours are used for the developments and 663.8 hours are for radionuclide production and development and 225.4 hours for application researches. The shutdown days are 23 days. Fundamental data for failure decrement and efficient beam extraction were composed and maintenance technologies were developed.

  3. Status report on cyclotron operation

    CERN Document Server

    Kovács, P; Ander, I; Lakatos, T; Fenyvesi, A; Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Tarkanyi, F

    2003-01-01

    The operation of the cyclotron in 2002 was concentrated to 9 months; January, July and August were reserved for maintenance and holidays. The overall working time of the accelerator was 4084 hours, the breakdown periods amounted to 15 hours last year. In order to improve the circumstances of the irradiations, several following improvements were done. (R.P.)

  4. The development of cyclotron radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seung Dae; Chun, K. W.; Suh, Y. S.; Lee, J. D.; Ahn, S. H. and others

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to developthe radiopharmaceuticals and automatic synthetic unit for labelled compounds, and to establish mass production system of radiopharmaceuticals. These will contribute to the early diagnosis of the disease hard to cure. The contents of this project are as follows, the development of the radiopharmaceutical for imaging of cancer, the development of automatic synthesizer for the synthesis of radio-pharmaceuticals, the development of hormone derivatives labelled with {sup 12}'3I, the development of the radiopharmaceuticals for therapy of cancer labelled with cyclotron produced radionuclides, the development of radiopharmaceuticals for therapy of cancer labelled with cyclotron produced radionuclides, the development of radiopharmaceuticals for imaging of myocardial metabolism.

  5. Commercial compact cyclotrons in the 90`s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milton, B.F.

    1995-09-01

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for radio-isotope production. In recent years, developments in the accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicate a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper the authors will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology, as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. Design criteria for the different types of commercial cyclotrons will be presented, with reference to those demands that differ from those in a research oriented cyclotron project. The authors also discuss the possibility of systems designed for higher energies and capable of extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA.

  6. Method and apparatus for ion cyclotron spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, David A [Idaho Falls, ID; Scott, Jill R [Idaho Falls, ID; McJunkin, Timothy R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-08-17

    An ion cyclotron spectrometer may include a vacuum chamber that extends at least along a z-axis and means for producing a magnetic field within the vacuum chamber so that a magnetic field vector is generally parallel to the z-axis. The ion cyclotron spectrometer may also include means for producing a trapping electric field within the vacuum chamber that includes at least a first section that induces a first magnetron effect that increases a cyclotron frequency of an ion and at least a second section that induces a second magnetron effect that decreases the cyclotron frequency of an ion. The cyclotron frequency changes induced by the first and second magnetron effects substantially cancel one another so that an ion traversing the at least first and second sections will experience no net change in cyclotron frequency.

  7. Elemental composition and sources of air pollution in the city of Chandigarh, India, using EDXRF and PIXE techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandhu, H.K.; Puri, Sanjiv; Garg, M.L.; Singh, B.; Shahi, J.S.; Mehta, D.; Swietlicki, E.; Dhawan, D.K.; Mangal, P.C.; Singh, Nirmal E-mail: nsingh.phys@puniv.chd.nic.in

    2000-01-01

    The aerosol samples collected from industrial, commercial and relatively cleaner zones from the city of Chandigarh, India, have been characterized using EDXRF and PIXE techniques. Sample collection was done over different time periods during 1994-1996 using the Millipore sampling kit. Sixteen elements, namely, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, and Pb, were quantified in these samples. The loading distribution of aerosol on the filter media was assessed by scanning the sample along its diameter using proton beam. The elemental concentrations in all the samples analyzed by both the techniques have been corrected for this distribution. The elemental concentrations measured at different sites were used in absolute principle component analysis in order to identify the major sources affecting these sites and to apportion the measured air pollutants to these sources. Plausible sources identified from this analysis are soil dust, industrial activity, vehicular traffic and refuse burning. The soil dust accounts for the major fraction of the measured mass.

  8. An outbreak of dengue fever in Peri Urban slums of Chandigarh, India, with special reference to entomological and climatic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratho R

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: Dengue viral infection is one of the most important public health problem in tropical countries. Aim: An outbreak of dengue fever was investigated in a periurban slum area of Chandigarh, India, during September to December, 2002. Materials and methods: Blood samples from 218 patients and 30 apparently healthy contacts were tested for dengue-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM and IgG antibodies including 80 acute samples collected within 5 days of illness were subjected for virus isolation in newborn mice. The average temperature, rainfall, and humidity of the epidemic year were compared with the number of dengue cases. Statistical analysis: statistical significance was found out using c2-test. Results: A total of 76 cases were positive by either dengue IgM capture assay (n=57 or virus isolation (n=17 or both (n=2. fifteen of nineteen viral isolates subjected for typing by type-specific multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were found to be of dengue virus. High rainfall and humidity with the temperature range from 21oc to 33oc during the months of August and September might have favored the breeding of mosquitoes, thus leading to an increase in the number of dengue cases in October and November, 2002. Conclusion: The present outbreak thus emphasizes the need for continuous sero epidemiological and entomological surveillance for the timely implementation of effective dengue control programme.

  9. Cyclotron Line Measurements with INTEGRAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottschmidt, K.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Caballero, I.; Fritz, S.; Schoenherr, G.; Kretschmar, P.; Wilms, J.; McBride, V. A.; Suchy, S.; Rothschild, R. E.

    2008-01-01

    Due to its broadband energy coverage, INTEGRAL has made important contributions to observing and interpreting cyclotron lines, which are present in the 10-100 keV range of a sample of accreting pulsars. In these systems photons with energies fulfilling the resonance condition inelastically Compton scatter off electrons quantized in the accretion column above the neutron star's magnetic pole(s). This process gives rise to the broad, absorption-like lines or 'cyclotron resonant scattering features' (CRSF). The observed lines allow to directly measure the B-fields of these sources, resulting in values of a few times 1E12G. In this overview I will present recent highlights regarding CRSF observations as well as discuss current ideas and models for the physical conditions in the accretion column. Among the former are the stability of the spectrum of Vela X-1 during giant flares in 2003, the observation of three cyclotron lines during the 2004 outburst of V0332+53, the confirmation of the fundamental line at approximately 45 keV during a 2005 normal outburst of A0535-26, and the simultaneous detection of the two lines in the dipping source 4U 1907+09 (for which also a torque reversal was detected for the first time). Through these and other observations it has become increasingly apparent that two types of observations can potentially be used to constrain the accretion column geometry: the determination of energy ratios for multiple harmonic lines (only two sources with greater than 2 lines are known), was well as the evolution of the fundamental line centroid, which, for different sources, may or may not be correlated with flux. Furthermore, first steps have been taken away from the usual phenomenological description of the lines, towards a physical approach based on self-consistent CRSF modeling. Initial applications are presented.

  10. Ion cyclotron waves at Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C. T.; Wei, H. Y.; Cowee, M. M.; Neubauer, F. M.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2016-03-01

    During the interaction of Titan's thick atmosphere with the ambient plasma, it was expected that ion cyclotron waves would be generated by the free energy of the highly anisotropic velocity distribution of the freshly ionized atmospheric particles created in the interaction. However, ion cyclotron waves are rarely observed near Titan, due to the long growth times of waves associated with the major ion species from Titan's ionosphere, such as CH4+ and N2+. In the over 100 Titan flybys obtained by Cassini to date, there are only two wave events, for just a few minutes during T63 flyby and for tens of minutes during T98 flyby. These waves occur near the gyrofrequencies of proton and singly ionized molecular hydrogen. They are left-handed, elliptically polarized, and propagate nearly parallel to the field lines. Hybrid simulations are performed to understand the wave growth under various conditions in the Titan environment. The simulations using the plasma and field conditions during T63 show that pickup protons with densities ranging from 0.01 cm-3 to 0.02 cm-3 and singly ionized molecular hydrogens with densities ranging from 0.015 cm-3 to 0.25 cm-3 can drive ion cyclotron waves with amplitudes of ~0.02 nT and of ~0.04 nT within appropriate growth times at Titan, respectively. Since the T98 waves were seen farther upstream than the T63 waves, it is possible that the instability was stronger and grew faster on T98 than T63.

  11. Superconducting cyclotrons at Michigan State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blosser, H. G.

    1987-04-01

    This paper describes the status of the three superconducting cyclotrons which are in operation or under construction at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory. The oldest of these, the K500, has been in operation since September 1982 supporting a national user program in heavy ion nuclear physics. A second large research cyclotron, the K800, is now nearing completion. This cyclotron will accelerate lighter heavy ions to 200 MeV/nuc and heavier particles up to energies given by 1200 Q2/ A MeV/nucleon. The magnet for this cyclotron came into operation in May 1984 and has performed smoothly and reliably in three extended operating periods. At present, K800 construction activity centers on fabrication and installation of the rf system, the extraction system, and the ECR injection line. The third NSCL superconducting cyclotron is a smaller 50 MeV deuteron cyclotron to be used for neutron therapy in the radiation oncology center of a major Detroit hospital (Harper Hospital). Design features of this small, application oriented, cyclotron are described in some detail.

  12. Developing the smallest possible medical cyclotron

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Imagine a portable medical cyclotron operated in a conventional radioactive facility at a hospital. Imagine a nurse or technician switching it on and producing isotopes at the patient’s bedside. Sounds like science fiction? Think again.   CERN has teamed up with Spain’s national scientific research centre (CIEMAT) to develop an avant-garde cyclotron to be used for Positron Emission Tomography (PET). “We plan to make a cyclotron that doesn't need an insulated building or ‘vault’: a cyclotron small enough to fit inside a hospital lift,” explains Jose Manuel Perez, who is leading the CIEMAT/CERN collaboration. “It will be the smallest possible medical cyclotron for single patient dose production and will dramatically reduce costs for hospitals.” While PET technology has transformed imaging techniques, many of its medical benefits have remained confined to highly specialised hospitals. “Studies have foun...

  13. Prescription monitoring of management pattern of osteoarthritis with non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs at PUHC, Chandigarh in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishnoi M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present prospective study was conducted in order to establish the drug-prescription trend of non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs in the management pattern of osteoarthritis at Panjab University Health Centre, Chandigarh, India. The study was carried out in between the months of November 2003 and March 2004. Data was collected from outpatients who visited Panjab University Health Centre. WHO based prescription-auditing performa was used for data collection. Demographic analysis of this prospective and observational study revealed that out of 84 patients most were females (63.1% and maximum patients were in the age group of 40-60 (59.5%. Most of the patients at Panjab University Health Centre had primary generalized Osteoarthritis with the back (50% being the site most commonly affected followed by knee (45.23% and hips (14.3%. Pain and joint stiffness was the common feature of the clinical presentation. Non-Steroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs were mostly prescribed during the observation period predominantly for pain relief. The most commonly prescribed agents were nimesulide, paracetamol, diclofenac and ibuprofen. Mostly the drugs were administered in the tablet form (86.05% with least use of gels/creams and capsules. The use of non-drug therapies including physiotherapy and exercise was least found. The present study represents the current prescribing trend of non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs for osteoarthritis at Panjab University Health Centre and it also suggested that there is still considerable scope for improvement, particularly in prescribing non-drug therapies and improving dispensing habits.

  14. Prevalence of high-risk human papilloma virus types and cervical smear abnormalities in female sex workers in Chandigarh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M P Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women in developing nations. Nearly 90% of the cases have been linked to the presence of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV types 16 and 18. The risk of cervical cancer may be high in female sex workers (FSWs due to multiple sexual partners. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of cytological abnormalities and hrHPV types 16 and 18 in FSWs in Chandigarh, North India using the liquid-based cytology (LBC approach. Materials and Methods: The cervical brush samples were collected from 120 FSW and 98 age-matched healthy controls (HCs. These were subjected to pap smear using conventional method, LBC and the detection of hrHPV types 16 and 18 was carried out using polymerase chain reaction. Results: The LBC samples showed better cytological details and also reduced the number of unsatisfactory smears from 11% in Pap to 1.5% in the LBC. A significantly higher number of inflammatory smears were reported in FSWs (51.7% vs. 34.7%, P = 0.01. The hrHPV types 16/18 were detected in 33/120 (27.5% FSW versus 23/98 (23.5% HCs. The risk of acquiring hrHPV was higher in FSWs, who had age at first sex ≤25 years, higher income and the habit of smoking. Conclusion: The high prevalence of hrHPV among FSWs and HCs suggests the need for the implementation of effective National Screening Programme for early detection of hrHPV types to decrease the burden of cervical cancer, especially in high-risk population.

  15. Cross-sectional study of self-reported ADHD symptoms and psychological comorbidity among college students in Chandigarh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishani Jhambh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Existence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in adults is scantily researched in India. There is dearth of information on prevalence of ADHD in college students worldwide. Further, fewer studies in the past have evaluated the impact of ADHD on the psychological well-being of college students. Aims: To study the prevalence of ADHD among college students and psychological problems related to ADHD. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects and Methods: A total of 237 students were recruited from various medical, engineering, and commerce and arts colleges of Chandigarh, India. They were administered the Adult ADHD Self Report Scale v1.1(ASRS and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS to diagnose adult ADHD. To assess comorbidities; General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ; Zung Depression Rating Scale (ZDRS; Rosenberg′s Self-Esteem Scale (RSES;and questions on emotional stability, social problems, and substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis were administered on all participants. Results: A total of 13 students (5.48% fulfilled the criteria for adult ADHD. These students experienced significantly higher emotional instability and low self-esteem than those without ADHD (N = 224. The occurrence of psychological problems, depression, social problems, and substance abuse was comparable in students with and without ADHD. Conclusions: ADHD is prevalent among the college students studying in the most competitive institutes as well. Students with ADHD experience higher emotional instability and poor self-esteem than others. It has little effect on their psychological well-being and social adjustment. Prompt detection and management of ADHD in college students may help them deal with these problems effectively.

  16. Injection and extraction for cyclotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Kleeven, W

    2006-01-01

    The main design goals for beam injection are explained and special problems related to a central region with internal ion source are considered. The principle of a PIG source is addressed. The issue of vertical focusing in the cyclotron centre is briefly discussed. Several examples of numerical simulations are given. Different ways of (axial) injection are briefly outlined. A proposal for a magnetostatic axial inflector is given. Different solutions for beam extraction are treated. These include the internal target, extraction by stripping, resonant extraction using a deflector and self-extraction. The different ways of creating a turn-separation are explained. The purpose of different types of extraction devices such as harmonic coils, deflectors and gradient corrector channels are outlined. Several illustrations are given in the form of photographs and drawings.

  17. Cyclotron resonance absorption in ionospheric plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalon, Elena

    1991-04-01

    The mode conversion of ordinary polarized electromagnetic waves into electrostatic cyclotron waves in the inhomogeneous ionospheric plasma is investigated. Near resonance the warm plasma dispersion relation is a function of the angle theta between the geomagnetic field and the density gradient and of the wave frequency omega, which lies between the electron cyclotron frequency and its doubling. The differential equations describing the electric field amplitudes near the plasma resonance are studied, including damping at the second gyroharmonic. The energy transmission coefficients and power absorbed by the cyclotron waves are calculated. The vertical penetration of the plasma wave amplitudes is estimated using a WKB analysis of the wave equation.

  18. Electron cyclotron heating and current drive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    1996-01-01

    Plasma heating and non-inductive current drive by waves in the electron cyclotron range of frequencies are reviewed. Both theoretical aspects concerning wave properties, heating and current drive mechanisms, as well as the major experimental results are summarized.

  19. Method and apparatuses for ion cyclotron spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, David A [Idaho Falls, ID; Scott, Jill R [Idaho Falls, ID; McJunkin, Timothy R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-03-06

    An ion cyclotron spectrometer may include a vacuum chamber that extends at least along a z-axis and means for producing a magnetic field within the vacuum chamber so that a magnetic field vector is generally parallel to the z-axis. The ion cyclotron spectrometer may also include means for producing a trapping electric field within the vacuum chamber. The trapping electric field may comprise a field potential that, when taken in cross-section along the z-axis, includes at least one section that is concave down and at least one section that is concave up so that ions traversing the field potential experience a net magnetron effect on a cyclotron frequency of the ions that is substantially equal to zero. Other apparatuses and a method for performing ion cyclotron spectrometry are also disclosed herein.

  20. Building 211 cyclotron characterization survey report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-30

    The Building 211 Cyclotron Characterization Survey includes an assessment of the radioactive and chemical inventory of materials stored within the facility; an evaluation of the relative distribution of accelerator-produced activation products within various cyclotron components and adjacent structures; measurement of the radiation fields throughout the facility; measurement and assessment of internal and external radioactive surface contamination on various equipment, facility structures, and air-handling systems; and an assessment of lead (Pb) paint and asbestos hazards within the facility.

  1. Shielding Design for a Medical Cyclotron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Feng; SONG; Guo-fang; GUAN; Feng-ping; LV; Yin-long; ZHANG; Xing-zhi

    2012-01-01

    <正>A 10 MeV 100 μA medical cyclotron is constructed at CIAE which is used in the production of FDG. The energy of the cyclotron can reach 14 MeV by adjusting the magnetic field and RF system parameters, and the shielding design is in accordance with the 14 MeV beam energy. In this shielding design only neutron is considered, and the neutron source is produced by proton

  2. Progress of General Test Stand for Intensive Beam Cyclotron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The general test stand for intensive beam cyclotron is one of the preliminary tasks of BRIF project at CIAE. The test stand, which actually is a small compact cyclotron with designed energy of 10 MeV,

  3. Cyclotron resonance absorption in ionospheric plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villalon, E. (Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (USA) Geophysics Lab., Hanscom AFB, MA (USA))

    1991-04-01

    The mode conversion of ordinary polarized electromagnetic waves into electrostatic cyclotron waves in the inhomogeneous ionospheric plasma is investigated. Near resonance the warm plasma dispersion relation is a function of the angle {theta} between the geomagnetic field and the density gradient and of the wave frequency {omega}, where {Omega} {le} {omega} {le} 2{Omega} and {Omega} is the electron cyclotron frequency. The differential equations describing the electric field amplitudes near the plasma resonance are studied, including damping at the second gyroharmonic. For certain values of {omega} and {theta} (e.g., {theta} < 45{degree}, {omega} {approximately} 2{Omega}) the wave equations reduce to the parabolic cylinder equation. The energy transmission coefficients and power absorbed by the cyclotron waves are calculated. The vertical penetration of the plasma wave amplitudes is iestimated using a WKB analysis of the wave equation.

  4. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, S.M. Finn, R.D.

    1992-08-04

    This report describes the author's continuing long term goal of promoting nuclear medicine applications by improving the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The program has 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry /Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. An essential strategy is as follows: novel radionuclides and radiotracers developed in the Radiochemistry/Cyclotron section under the DOE grant during the 1989--1992 grant period, will be employed in the Pharmacology and Immunology sections of the DOE grant during the 1992--1995 grant period. The development of novel radionuclides and tracers is of course useful in and of itself, but their utility is greatly enhanced by the interaction with the immunology and pharmacology components of the program.

  5. A line-of-sight electron cyclotron emission receiver for electron cyclotron resonance heating feedback control of tearing modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oosterbeek, J.W.; Bürger, A.; Westerhof, E.;

    2008-01-01

    An electron cyclotron emission (ECE) receiver inside the electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) transmission line has been brought into operation. The ECE is extracted by placing a quartz plate acting as a Fabry-Perot interferometer under an angle inside the electron cyclotron wave (ECW) beam...

  6. The irradiation facility at the AGOR cyclotron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandenburg, Sytze; Ostendorf, Reint; Hofstee, Mariet; Kiewiet, Harry; Beijers, Hans

    2007-01-01

    The KVI is conducting radiobiology research using protons up to 190 MeV from the superconducting AGOR cyclotron in collaboration with the University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG) since 1998. Using the same set-up, we have started irradiations for radiation hardness studies of detectors and compone

  7. Imaging Cyclotron Orbits of Electrons in Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Sagar; Lee, Gil-Ho; Klales, Anna; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Heller, Eric; Kim, Philip; Westervelt, Robert M

    2016-03-09

    Electrons in graphene can travel for several microns without scattering at low temperatures, and their motion becomes ballistic, following classical trajectories. When a magnetic field B is applied perpendicular to the plane, electrons follow cyclotron orbits. Magnetic focusing occurs when electrons injected from one narrow contact focus onto a second contact located an integer number of cyclotron diameters away. By tuning the magnetic field B and electron density n in the graphene layer, we observe magnetic focusing peaks. We use a cooled scanning gate microscope to image cyclotron trajectories in graphene at 4.2 K. The tip creates a local change in density that casts a shadow by deflecting electrons flowing nearby; an image of flow can be obtained by measuring the transmission between contacts as the tip is raster scanned across the sample. On the first magnetic focusing peak, we image a cyclotron orbit that extends from one contact to the other. In addition, we study the geometry of orbits deflected into the second point contact by the tip.

  8. Cyclotron-based neutron source for BNCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsumoto, T.; Yajima, S.; Tsutsui, H.; Ogasawara, T.; Fujita, K.; Tanaka, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Maruhashi, A.

    2013-04-01

    Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) and Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) have developed a cyclotron-based neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). It was installed at KURRI in Osaka prefecture. The neutron source consists of a proton cyclotron named HM-30, a beam transport system and an irradiation & treatment system. In the cyclotron, H- ions are accelerated and extracted as 30 MeV proton beams of 1 mA. The proton beams is transported to the neutron production target made by a beryllium plate. Emitted neutrons are moderated by lead, iron, aluminum and calcium fluoride. The aperture diameter of neutron collimator is in the range from 100 mm to 250 mm. The peak neutron flux in the water phantom is 1.8×109 neutrons/cm2/sec at 20 mm from the surface at 1 mA proton beam. The neutron source have been stably operated for 3 years with 30 kW proton beam. Various pre-clinical tests including animal tests have been done by using the cyclotron-based neutron source with 10B-p-Borono-phenylalanine. Clinical trials of malignant brain tumors will be started in this year.

  9. Cyclotron-based neutron source for BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsumoto, T.; Yajima, S.; Tsutsui, H.; Ogasawara, T.; Fujita, K. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd (Japan); Tanaka, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Maruhashi, A. [Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (Japan)

    2013-04-19

    Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) and Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) have developed a cyclotron-based neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). It was installed at KURRI in Osaka prefecture. The neutron source consists of a proton cyclotron named HM-30, a beam transport system and an irradiation and treatment system. In the cyclotron, H- ions are accelerated and extracted as 30 MeV proton beams of 1 mA. The proton beams is transported to the neutron production target made by a beryllium plate. Emitted neutrons are moderated by lead, iron, aluminum and calcium fluoride. The aperture diameter of neutron collimator is in the range from 100 mm to 250 mm. The peak neutron flux in the water phantom is 1.8 Multiplication-Sign 109 neutrons/cm{sup 2}/sec at 20 mm from the surface at 1 mA proton beam. The neutron source have been stably operated for 3 years with 30 kW proton beam. Various pre-clinical tests including animal tests have been done by using the cyclotron-based neutron source with {sup 10}B-p-Borono-phenylalanine. Clinical trials of malignant brain tumors will be started in this year.

  10. SC Cyclotron and RIB Facilities in Kolkata

    CERN Document Server

    Sinha, Bikash; Chakrabarti, Alok

    2005-01-01

    The superconducting cyclotron under construction at this Centre has bending limit (K-bend) of 520 and focusing limit (K-foc) of 160. It is being constructed, primarily, for nuclear physics experiments with heavy ion beams at intermediate energies. The 100-ton main magnet is currently in the commissioning phase with the main coil already at 4.2K temperature. Magnetic field measurements will be carried out over the next several months. All other systems of the cyclotron are in an advanced stage of fabrication or development. We plan to start assembly of the complete cyclotron around the end of 2005. In the phase-I of the project one beam line has been provided. Construction of three more beam lines and various experimental facilities for nuclear physics as well as irradiation experiments has also been funded and the work is well on its way. An ISOL type Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility is being built with the existing K=130 room temperature cyclotron, VEC, as the primary beam source. In-beam RIB production a...

  11. <600> MeV synchro-cyclotron

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    One of the 14 pancakes of the new magnet coils for the 600 MeV synchro-cyclotron which were wound and coated with epoxy resin on the CERN site. These new coils will replace the present ones which have been in use for more than 14 years but are now showing signs of deteriorations.

  12. Tokamak startup with electron cyclotron heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holly, D J; Prager, S C; Shepard, D A; Sprott, J C

    1980-04-01

    Experiments are described in which the startup voltage in a tokamak is reduced by approx. 60% by the use of a modest amount of electron cyclotron resonance heating power for preionization. A 50% reduction in volt-second requirement and impurity reflux are also observed.

  13. Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry at the Cyclotron Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagornov, Konstantin O.; Kozhinov, Anton N.; Tsybin, Yury O.

    2017-02-01

    The phenomenon of ion cyclotron resonance allows for determining mass-to-charge ratio, m/z, of an ensemble of ions by means of measurements of their cyclotron frequency, ω c . In Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), the ω c quantity is usually unavailable for direct measurements: the resonant state is located close to the reduced cyclotron frequency (ω+), whereas the ω c and the corresponding m/z values may be calculated via theoretical derivation from an experimental estimate of the ω+ quantity. Here, we describe an experimental observation of a new resonant state, which is located close to the ω c frequency and is established because of azimuthally-dependent trapping electric fields of the recently developed ICR cells with narrow aperture detection electrodes. We show that in mass spectra, peaks close to ω+ frequencies can be reduced to negligible levels relative to peaks close to ω c frequencies. Due to reduced errors with which the ω c quantity is obtained, the new resonance provides a means of cyclotron frequency measurements with precision greater than that achieved when ω+ frequency peaks are employed. The described phenomenon may be considered for a development into an FT-ICR MS technology with increased mass accuracy for applications in basic research, life, and environmental sciences.

  14. Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry at the Cyclotron Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagornov, Konstantin O; Kozhinov, Anton N; Tsybin, Yury O

    2017-04-01

    The phenomenon of ion cyclotron resonance allows for determining mass-to-charge ratio, m/z, of an ensemble of ions by means of measurements of their cyclotron frequency, ω c . In Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), the ω c quantity is usually unavailable for direct measurements: the resonant state is located close to the reduced cyclotron frequency (ω+), whereas the ω c and the corresponding m/z values may be calculated via theoretical derivation from an experimental estimate of the ω+ quantity. Here, we describe an experimental observation of a new resonant state, which is located close to the ω c frequency and is established because of azimuthally-dependent trapping electric fields of the recently developed ICR cells with narrow aperture detection electrodes. We show that in mass spectra, peaks close to ω+ frequencies can be reduced to negligible levels relative to peaks close to ω c frequencies. Due to reduced errors with which the ω c quantity is obtained, the new resonance provides a means of cyclotron frequency measurements with precision greater than that achieved when ω+ frequency peaks are employed. The described phenomenon may be considered for a development into an FT-ICR MS technology with increased mass accuracy for applications in basic research, life, and environmental sciences. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  15. Cyclotrons as Drivers for Precision Neutrino Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Adelmann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As we enter the age of precision measurement in neutrino physics, improved flux sources are required. These must have a well defined flavor content with energies in ranges where backgrounds are low and cross-section knowledge is high. Very few sources of neutrinos can meet these requirements. However, pion/muon and isotope decay-at-rest sources qualify. The ideal drivers for decay-at-rest sources are cyclotron accelerators, which are compact and relatively inexpensive. This paper describes a scheme to produce decay-at-rest sources driven by such cyclotrons, developed within the DAEδALUS program. Examples of the value of the high precision beams for pursuing Beyond Standard Model interactions are reviewed. New results on a combined DAEδALUS—Hyper-K search for CP violation that achieve errors on the mixing matrix parameter of 4° to 12° are presented.

  16. Hybrid simulation of electron cyclotron resonance heating

    CERN Document Server

    Ropponen, T; Suominen, P; Koponen, T K; Kalvas, T; Koivisto, H

    2008-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) heating is a fundamentally important aspect in understanding the physics of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS). Absorption of the radio frequency (RF) microwave power by electron heating in the resonance zone depends on many parameters including frequency and electric field strength of the microwave, magnetic field structure and electron and ion density profiles. ECR absorption has been studied in the past by e.g. modelling electric field behaviour in the resonance zone and its near proximity. This paper introduces a new ECR heating code that implements damping of the microwave power in the vicinity of the resonance zone, utilizes electron density profiles and uses right hand circularly polarized (RHCP) electromagnetic waves to simulate electron heating in ECRIS plasma.

  17. TFTR Michelson interferometer electron cyclotron emission diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, F.J.; Boyd, D.A.; Cutler, R.C.; McCarthy, M.P.

    1985-05-01

    In July 1984, a Fourier transform spectrometer employing a fast-scanning Michelson interferometer began operating on TFTR. This diagnostic system can measure the electron cyclotron emission spectrum 72 times per s with a time resolution of 11 ms and a spectral resolution of 3.6 GHz. The initial operating spectral range is 75--540 GHz, which is adequate for measuring the first three cyclotron harmonics at present TFTR magnetic field levels. The range can be extended easily to 75--1080 GHz in order to accommodate increases in toroidal magnetic field or to study superthermal ECE. The measured spectra are absolutely calibrated using a liquid nitrogen cooled blackbody reference source. The second harmonic feature of each spectrum is used to calculate the absolute electron temperature profile.

  18. Ion Cyclotron Heating on Proto-MPEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, R. H.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Rapp, J.; Biewer, T. M.; Campbell, I. H.; Caneses, J. F.; Kafle, N.; Ray, H. B.; Showers, M. A.; Piotrowicz, P. A.

    2016-10-01

    Ion cyclotron heating will be used on Proto-MPEX (Prototype Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment) to increase heat flux to the target, to produce varying ion energies without substrate biasing, and to vary the extent of the magnetic pre-sheath for the case of a tilted target. A 25 cm long, 9 cm diameter dual half-turn helical ion cyclotron antenna has been installed in the device located at the magnetic field maximum. It couples power to ions via single pass damping of the slow wave at the fundamental resonance, and operates with ω 0.8ωci at the antenna location. It is designed to operate at power levels up to 30 kW, with a later 200 kW upgrade planned. Near term experiments include measuring RF loading at low power as a function of frequency and antenna gap. The plasma is generated by a helicon plasma source that has achieved ne > 5 ×1019m-3 operating with deuterium, as measured downstream from the ion cyclotron antenna location. Measurements will be compared with 1-D and 2-D models of RF coupling. The latest results will be presented. This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  19. Beam stripping extraction from the VINCY cyclotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić-Đurović Jasna L.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction system of a cyclotron guides an ion beam from a spiral acceleration orbit, through an extraction trajectory, into a high energy transport line. The two methods commonly used to direct an ion into the extraction path are deflection, by the electric field of an electrostatic deflector, and ion stripping, by a thin carbon foil. Compared to the electrostatic deflector system, the stripping extraction provides a fast and easy change of the extracted ion energy and is easier to manufacture operate, and maintain. However, the extraction trajectory and dynamics of an ion beam after stripping are highly dependant on the ion energy and specific charge. Thus, when a multipurpose machine such as the VINCY Cyclotron is concerned, it is far from easy to deliver a variety of ion beams into the same high energy transport line and at the same time preserve a reasonable compactness of the extraction system. The front side stripping extraction system of the VINCY Cyclotron provides high (~70 MeV and mid (~30 MeV energy protons, as well as a number of heavy ions in broad energy ranges. The back side stripping extraction system extracts low energy protons (~18 MeV and enables their simultaneous use with high energy protons at the front side of the machine.

  20. Transparency of Magnetized Plasma at Cyclotron Frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Shvets; J.S. Wurtele

    2002-03-14

    Electromagnetic radiation is strongly absorbed by a magnetized plasma if the radiation frequency equals the cyclotron frequency of plasma electrons. It is demonstrated that absorption can be completely canceled in the presence of a magnetostatic field of an undulator or a second radiation beam, resulting in plasma transparency at the cyclotron frequency. This effect is reminiscent of the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) of the three-level atomic systems, except that it occurs in a completely classical plasma. Unlike the atomic systems, where all the excited levels required for EIT exist in each atom, this classical EIT requires the excitation of the nonlocal plasma oscillation. The complexity of the plasma system results in an index of refraction at the cyclotron frequency that differs from unity. Lagrangian description was used to elucidate the physics and enable numerical simulation of the plasma transparency and control of group and phase velocity. This control naturally leads to applications for electromagnetic pulse compression in the plasma and electron/ion acceleration.

  1. Commercial compact cyclotrons in the 90's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milton, B.F

    1995-09-01

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for radio-isotope production. In recent years, developments in the accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicate a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper we will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology, as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. Design criteria for the different types of commercial cyclotrons will be presented, with reference to those demands that differ from those in a research oriented cyclotron project. We will also discuss the possibility of systems designed for higher energies and capable of extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA. (author)

  2. Nuclear physics with superconducting cyclotron at Kolkata: Scopes and possibilities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sailajananda Bhattacharya

    2010-08-01

    The K500 superconducting cyclotron at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata, India is getting ready to deliver its first accelerated ion beam for experiment. At the same time, the nuclear physics programme and related experimental facility development activities are taking shape. A general review of the nuclear physics research opportunities with the superconducting cyclotron and the present status of the development of different detector arrays and other experimental facilities will be presented.

  3. Status of the Cyclotron Institute Upgrade Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melconian, Dan

    2016-09-01

    The Texas A&M University Re-accelerated EXotics (T-REX) project, an upgrade to the Cyclotron Institute, will provide high-quality re-accelerated secondary beams of a unique energy range and the ability to provide primary beams to two experiments concurrently. The upgrade is nearing completion of its three major tasks: re-commissioning of the existing K150 cyclotron; construction of light- and heavy-ion guide transport systems; and charge-boosting the K150 RIB for re-acceleration using the K500 cyclotron. The light-ion guide transport system will utilize the high intensity (>= 10 μ A) proton beam from the K150 to produce rare ions via fusion-evapouration reactions or proton-induced fission fragments. These ions will be transported to an ECR charge breeder prior to injection in the K500. The heavy-ion guide will use deep inelastic, transfer and fragmentation reactions using the up to 25 MeV/u primary beams from the K150. The products will be separated by a superconducting solenoid and collected in a large gas-catcher, after which a multi-RFQ system will transport the RIB to any of: the charge-breeder and K500; the TAMU Penning Trap beamline; or an MR-TOF for beam analysis. The status of the T-REX upgrade and an overview of its capabilities will be presented Supported by DOE Grant Number DE-FG03-93ER40773 and the Robert A. Welch Foundation Grant Number H-A-0098.

  4. Relativistic Cyclotron Instability in Anisotropic Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Rodrigo A.; Moya, Pablo S.; Navarro, Roberto E.; Araneda, Jaime A.; Muñoz, Víctor; Viñas, Adolfo F.; Alejandro Valdivia, J.

    2016-11-01

    A sufficiently large temperature anisotropy can sometimes drive various types of electromagnetic plasma micro-instabilities, which can play an important role in the dynamics of relativistic pair plasmas in space, astrophysics, and laboratory environments. Here, we provide a detailed description of the cyclotron instability of parallel propagating electromagnetic waves in relativistic pair plasmas on the basis of a relativistic anisotropic distribution function. Using plasma kinetic theory and particle-in-cell simulations, we study the influence of the relativistic temperature and the temperature anisotropy on the collective and noncollective modes of these plasmas. Growth rates and dispersion curves from the linear theory show a good agreement with simulations results.

  5. Electron cyclotron emission diagnostics on KSTAR tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, S H; Lee, K D; Kogi, Y; Kawahata, K; Nagayama, Y; Mase, A; Kwon, M

    2010-10-01

    A new electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostics system was installed for the Second Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) campaign. The new ECE system consists of an ECE collecting optics system, an overmode circular corrugated waveguide system, and 48 channel heterodyne radiometer with the frequency range of 110-162 GHz. During the 2 T operation of the KSTAR tokamak, the electron temperatures as well as its radial profiles at the high field side were measured and sawtooth phenomena were also observed. We also discuss the effect of a window on in situ calibration.

  6. Electron cyclotron emission diagnostics on KSTAR tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, S. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeokdaero, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, K. D.; Kwon, M. [National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahangno, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kogi, Y. [Fukuoka Institute of Technology, Higashiku, Fukuoka 811-0295 (Japan); Kawahata, K.; Nagayama, Y. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Mase, A. [KASTEC, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    A new electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostics system was installed for the Second Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) campaign. The new ECE system consists of an ECE collecting optics system, an overmode circular corrugated waveguide system, and 48 channel heterodyne radiometer with the frequency range of 110-162 GHz. During the 2 T operation of the KSTAR tokamak, the electron temperatures as well as its radial profiles at the high field side were measured and sawtooth phenomena were also observed. We also discuss the effect of a window on in situ calibration.

  7. Microwave Absorption in Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ming-Hai; HU Xi-Wei; WU Qin-Chong; YU Guo-Yang

    2000-01-01

    The microwave power absorption in electron cyclotron resonance plasma reactor was investigated with a twodimensional hybrid-code. Simulation results indicated that there are two typical power deposition profiles over the entire parameter region: (1) microwave power deposition peaks on the axis and decreases in radial direction,(2) microwave power deposition has its maximum at some radial position, i.e., a hollow distribution. The spatial distribution of electron temperature resembles always to the microwave power absorption profile. The dependence of plasma parameter on the gas pressure is discussed also.

  8. Improving quality of home-based postnatal care by microteaching of multipurpose workers in rural and urban slum areas of Chandigarh, India: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Madhu; Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Jamir, Limalemla; Sarwa, Ashutosh; Sinha, Smita; Bhag, Chering

    2017-01-01

    Background Microteaching is an efficient teaching tool to improve skills. Until now, its use is very limited in the health sector. A pilot study was carried out to improve the quality of home-based postnatal care by microteaching of health workers (HWs) and ascertain its feasibility for supportive supervision. Methods All (n=12) the HWs catering to a population of ~0.1 million were video recorded while performing home-based postnatal check up in Chandigarh from August 2013 to December 2014. After each round, HWs were shown their videos and trained in the facility and at home. Video recordings, assessments followed by training, continued until HWs acquired the intended skills. A pretested structured checklist based on the national home-based postnatal care guidelines was used for recording and assessing of postnatal skills. A score “0” given for no task, “1” for incorrectly done or partially done task, and “2” for correct task. The average score of each round was calculated and compared. Results The overall skill assessment score improved from 0.64 to 1.76, newborn examination skill from 0.52 to 1.63, maternal examination from 0.54 to 1.62, and counseling from 1.01 to 1.85 after three rounds of video recording. The proportion of HWs carrying a thermometer increased from 21% to 100%. Second and third rounds of video recording and microteaching were successfully carried out by the program supervisors. Conclusion This was the first study to report on the effective use of microteaching in improving home-based postnatal care skills of the health care workers and its feasibility for supportive supervision. PMID:28031730

  9. Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating of a High-Density Plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, F. Ramskov

    1986-01-01

    Various schemes for electron cyclotron resonance heating of tokamak plasmas with the ratio of electron plasma frequency to electron cyclotron frequency, "»pe/^ce* larger than 1 on axis, are investigated. In particular, a mode conversion scheme is investigated using ordinary waves at the fundamental...

  10. The next generation of electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostics (invited)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, P.; Domier, C.W.; Liang, T.; Kong, X.; Tobias, B.; Shen, Z.; N C Luhmann Jr.,; Park, H.; Classen, I.G.J.; van de Pol, M.J.; Donne, A. J. H.; R. Jaspers,

    2008-01-01

    A 128 channel two-dimensional electron cyclotron emission imaging system collects time-resolved 16x8 images of T-e profiles and fluctuations on the TEXTOR tokamak. Electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) is undergoing significant changes which promise to revolutionize and extend its capabilities

  11. A new generation of medical cyclotrons for the 90`s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milton, B.F.

    1995-08-01

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for use in radio-isotope production. In recent years, developments in accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicates a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper the authors will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. Existing and potential markets for these cyclotrons will be presented. They will also discuss the possibility of systems capable of extracted energies up to 150 MeV and extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA.

  12. Cyclotron resonance effects on stochastic acceleration of light ionospheric ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N.; Schunk, R. W.; Sojka, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    The production of energetic ions with conical pitch angle distributions along the auroral field lines is a subject of considerable current interest. There are several theoretical treatments showing the acceleration (heating) of the ions by ion cyclotron waves. The quasi-linear theory predicts no acceleration when the ions are nonresonant. In the present investigation, it is demonstrated that the cyclotron resonances are not crucial for the transverse acceleration of ions by ion cyclotron waves. It is found that transverse energization of ionospheric ions, such as He(+), He(++), O(++), and O(+), is possible by an Electrostatic Hydrogen Cyclotron (EHC) wave even in the absence of cyclotron resonance. The mechanism of acceleration is the nonresonant stochastic heating. However, when there are resonant ions both the total energy gain and the number of accelerated ions increase with increasing parallel wave number.

  13. Cyclotron and linac production of Ac-225.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Graeme; Allen, Barry J

    2009-04-01

    Radium needles that were once implanted into tumours as a cancer treatment are now obsolete and constitute a radioactive waste problem, as their half-life is 1600 years. The reduction of radium by photonuclear transmutation by bombarding Ra-226 with high-energy photons from a medical linear accelerator (linac) has been investigated. A linac dose of 2800 Gy produced about 2.4 MBq (64 microCi) of Ra-225, which decays to Ac-225 and can then be used for 'Targeted Alpha Therapy' (TAT) of cancer. This result, while consistent with theoretical calculations, is far too low to be of practical use unless much larger quantities of radium are irradiated. The increasing application of Ac-225 for cancer therapy indicates the potential need for its increased production and availability. This paper investigates the possibility of producing of Ac-225 in commercial quantities, which could potentially reduce obsolete radioactive material and displace the need for expensive importation of Ac-225 from the USA and Russia in the years ahead. Scaled up production of Ac-225 could theoretically be achieved by the use of a high current cyclotron or linac. Production specifications are determined for a linac in terms of current, pulse length and frequency, as well as an examination of other factors such as radiation issues and radionuclei separation. Yields are compared with those calculated for the Australian National Cyclotron in Sydney.

  14. Status of the NSCL Cyclotron Gas Stopper

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, N; Brodeur, M; Morrissey, D J; Schwarz, S

    2016-01-01

    A gas-filled reverse cyclotron for the thermalisation of energetic beams is under construction at NSCL/MSU. Rare isotopes produced via projectile fragmentation after in-flight separation will be injected into the device and converted into low-energy beams through buffer gas interactions as they spiral towards the centre of the device. The extracted thermal beams will be used for low energy experiments such as precision mass measurements with traps or laser spectroscopy, and further transport for reacceleration. Detailed calculations have been performed to optimize the magnetic field design as well as the transport and stopping of ions inside the gas. An RF carpet will be used to transport the thermal ions to the axial extraction point. The calculations indicate that the cyclotron gas stopper will be much more efficient for the thermalisation of light and medium mass ions compared to linear gas cells. In this contribution we will discuss simulations of the overall performance and acceptance of machine, the bea...

  15. Cyclotron Production of Technetium-99m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Katherine M.

    Technetium-99m (99mTc) has emerged as the most widely used radionuclide in medicine and is currently obtained from a 99Mo/ 99mTc generator system. At present, there are only a handful of ageing reactors worldwide capable of producing large quantities of the parent isotope, 99Mo, and owing to the ever growing shutdown periods for maintenance and repair of these ageing reactors, the reliable supply 99mTc has been compromised in recent years. With an interest in alternative strategies for producing this key medical isotope, this thesis focuses on several technical challenges related to the direct cyclotron production of 99mTc via the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction. In addition to evaluating the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc and 100Mo(p,x)99Mo reactions, this work presented the first experimental evaluation of the 100Mo(p,2n) 99gTc excitation function in the range of 8-18 MeV. Thick target calculations suggested that large quantities of cyclotron-produced 99mTc may be possible. For example, a 6 hr irradiation at 500 μA with an energy window of 18→10 MeV is expected to yield 1.15 TBq of 99mTc. The level of coproduced 99gTc contaminant was found to be on par with the current 99Mo/99mTc generator standard eluted with a 24 hr frequency. Highly enriched 100Mo was required as the target material for 99mTc production and a process for recycling of this expensive material is presented. An 87% recovery yield is reported, including metallic target preparation, irradiation, 99mTc extraction, molybdate isolation, and finally hydrogen reduction to the metal. Further improvements are expected with additional optimization experiments. A method for forming structurally stable metallic molybdenum targets has also been developed. These targets are capable of withstanding more than a kilowatt of beam power and the reliable production and extraction of Curie quantities of 99mTc has been demonstrated. With the end-goal of using the cyclotron-produced 99mTc clinically, the quality of the cyclotron

  16. Roles of Fast-Cyclotron and Alfven-Cyclotron Waves for the Multi-Ion Solar Wind

    CERN Document Server

    Xiong, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Using linear Vlasov theory of plasma waves and quasi-linear theory of resonant wave-particle interaction, the dispersion relations and the electromagnetic field fluctuations of fast and Alfven waves are studied for a low-beta multi-ion plasma in the inner corona. Their probable roles in heating and accelerating the solar wind via Landau and cyclotron resonances are quantified. We assume that (1) low-frequency Alfven and fast waves have the same spectral shape and the same amplitude of power spectral density; (2) these waves eventually reach ion cyclotron frequencies due to a turbulence cascade; (3) kinetic wave-particle interaction powers the solar wind. The existence of alpha particles in a dominant proton/electron plasma can trigger linear mode conversion between oblique fast-whistler and hybrid alpha-proton cyclotron waves. The fast-cyclotron waves undergo both alpha and proton cyclotron resonances. The alpha cyclotron resonance in fast-cyclotron waves is much stronger than that in Alfven-cyclotron waves. ...

  17. Ion cyclotron resonance heating system on Aditya

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Bora; Sunil Kumar; Raj Singh; S V Kulkarni; A Mukherjee; J P Singh; Raguraj Singh; S Dani; A Patel; Sai Kumar; V George; Y S S Srinivas; P Khilar; M Kushwah; P Shah; H M Jadav; Rajnish Kumar; S Gangopadhyay; H Machhar; B Kadia; K Parmar; A Bhardwaj; Suresh Adav; D Rathi; D S Bhattacharya

    2005-02-01

    An ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) system has been designed, fabricated indigenously and commissioned on Tokamak Aditya. The system has been commissioned to operate between 20·0 and 47·0 MHz at a maximum power of 200 kW continuous wave (CW). Duration of 500 ms is sufficient for operation on Aditya, however, the same system feeds the final stage of the 1·5 MW ICRH system being prepared for the steady-state superconducting tokamak (SST-1) for a duration of 1000 s. Radio frequency (RF) power (225 kW) has been generated and successfully tested on a dummy load for 100s at 30·0 MHz. Lower powers have been coupled to Aditya in a breakdown experiment. We describe the system in detail in this work.

  18. Simulation of cyclotron resonant scattering features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarm Fritz-Walter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available X-ray binary systems consisting of a mass donating optical star and a highly magnetized neutron star, under the right circumstances, show quantum mechanical absorption features in the observed spectra called cyclotron resonant scattering features (CRSFs. We have developed a simulation to model CRSFs using Monte Carlo methods. We calculate Green’s tables which can be used to imprint CRSFs to arbitrary X-ray continua. Our simulation keeps track of scattering parameters of individual photons, extends the number of variable parameters of previous works, and allows for more flexible geometries. Here we focus on the influence of bulk velocity of the accreted matter on the CRSF line shapes and positions.

  19. Ion cyclotron emission by spontaneous emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Costa, O. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Gresillon, D. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises

    1994-07-01

    The goal of the study is to examine whether the spontaneous emission can account for ICE (ion cyclotron emission) experimental results, or part of them. A straightforward approach to plasma emission is chosen, investigating the near equilibrium wave radiation by gyrating ions, and thus building from the majority and fast fusion ions the plasma fluctuations and emission on the fast magnetoacoustic or compressional Alfven wave mode in the IC frequency range. Similarities with the ICE experiments are shown: the emission temperature in the presence of fast ions (even in a very small amount), the strong fast ion emission increase with the harmonic, the fine double-line splitting of each peak, the linear but not proportional increase of the peak width with the harmonic. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Semi-classical quantum theory for cyclotron radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈军锋; 邓劲松; 徐毅; 尤峻汉

    1997-01-01

    A semi-classical quantum theory of the cyclotron radiation of the nonrelativistic thermal electrons in a very strong magnetic field is presented.The basic formulae of the absorption coefficient of cyclotron resonance kv and the absorption (scattering) cross-section of cyclotron resonance σv have been derived under the quadrupole approximation.σv is an important quantity in the study of the "magnetic inverse-Compton scattering".It is shown that σv is greatly larger than the Thomson cross-sectron σT,which is important in discussing the magnetic inverse-Compton scattering of the relativistic electrons in a very strong magnetic field.

  1. Accelerators for hadrontherapy: From Lawrence cyclotrons to linacs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaldi, U.; Bonomi, R.; Braccini, S.; Crescenti, M.; Degiovanni, A.; Garlasché, M.; Garonna, A.; Magrin, G.; Mellace, C.; Pearce, P.; Pittà, G.; Puggioni, P.; Rosso, E.; Verdú Andrés, S.; Wegner, R.; Weiss, M.; Zennaro, R.

    2010-08-01

    Hadrontherapy with protons and carbon ions is a fast developing methodology in radiation oncology. The accelerators used and planned for this purpose are reviewed starting from the cyclotrons used in the thirties. As discussed in the first part of this paper, normal and superconducting cyclotrons are still employed, together with synchrotrons, for proton therapy while for carbon ion therapy synchrotrons have been till now the only option. The latest developments concern a superconducting cyclotron for carbon ion therapy, fast-cycling high frequency linacs and 'single room' proton therapy facilities. These issues are discussed in the second part of the paper by underlining the present challenges, in particular the treatment of moving organs.

  2. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, S.M.; Finn, R.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes our continuing long term goal of promoting nuclear medicine applications by improving the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis, treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The program includes 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry/Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. An essential strategy is as follows: novel radionuclides and radiotracers developed in the Radiochemistry/Cyclotron section will be employed in the Pharmacology and Immunology sections during the next year. The development of novel radionuclides and tracers is of course useful in and of itself, but their utility is greatly enhanced by the interaction with the immunology and pharmacology components of the program.

  3. High-current cyclotron to drive an electronuclear assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Alenitsky, Yu G

    2002-01-01

    The proposal on creation of a high-current cyclotron complex for driving an electronuclear assembly reported at the 17th Meeting on Accelerators of Charged Particles is discussed. Some changes in the basic design parameters of the accelerator are considered in view of new results obtained in the recent works. It is shown that the cyclotron complex is now the most real and cheapest accelerator for production of proton beams with a power of up to 10 MW. Projects on design of a high-current cyclotron complex for driving an electronuclear subcritical assembly are presented.

  4. Comprehension and compliance with the discharge advice and quality of life at home among the postoperative neurosurgery patients discharged from PGIMER, Chandigarh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vishal; Singh, Amarjeet; Tewari, Manoj K.; Kaur, Sukhpal

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Neurosurgical patients require special care not only in the hospital but also after their discharge from the hospital. Comprehension and compliance to the instructions given by the doctors/nurses at the time of discharge is important in home care of these patients. Many such patients suffer from various co-morbidities. Variable periods of convalescence affect health-related quality of life in these patients. Purpose of the Study: To determine the degree of compliance of neurosurgery patients and their family caregivers with the discharge advice given by the consultantsTo evaluate the quality of life of these patientsTo know the problems faced by these patients at home. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional interview-based descriptive study was conducted in 2010 in Chandigarh. These patients were visited at their home. A scale was evolved to evaluate comprehension and compliance to the advice given at the time of discharge, according to the criteria developed by Clark et al. Lawton Brody instrumental activity of daily life and Spitzer quality of life index were used to assess patients' quality of life after the operation. Verbatim responses were recorded for the purpose of qualitative research. Results: Overall, 58 patients and their caregivers were interviewed at home. Mean age of the patients was 38.9 years. Out of 37 patients, 35 showed good comprehension and 33 patients had a good compliance with the instructions given for medication. The condition of 74.1% patients improved after the operation. Depression was reported in 31% of the patients. Many (36.2%) patients had to quit their job due to the disease. Almost half (47.4%) of the patients were independent in daily activities of their life while being evaluated on Barthel activity of daily life index. Conclusion and Recommendations: It is in the long term that the true complexity and impact of operations become apparent. After operation, such patients are likely to have a range of

  5. Diversity of bacteria and archaea from a landfill in Chandigarh, India as revealed by culture-dependent and culture-independent molecular approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthi, S; Chakrabarti, T

    2013-02-01

    The bacterial community structure of a municipal landfill in Chandigarh, India was analysed by culture-dependent as well as culture-independent molecular approaches, and archaeal structure by the latter method. Samples were collected in two phases from the surface and a depth of 0.91 m in June, 2004 and from 0.91 m, 1.52 m and 1.68 m in May, 2005. After serial dilutions, samples were plated onto tryptic soy agar (TSA), plate count agar (PCA), tryptic soy broth agar (TSBA) and TSBA100 (TSBA diluted 100 times and solidified with agarose), and incubated aerobically at 30°C. The number of bacteria (CFU) on different media ranged between 9.4×10⁵g⁻¹ (on PCA) and 1.9×10⁷g⁻¹ (on TSA) (wet weight). The numbers of bacteria enumerated from plates incubated anaerobically (anaerobic agar and reinforced clostridial agar) were 2.1×10⁷and 1.7×10⁶g⁻¹, respectively. Of the 468 isolated and purified bacteria (183 in the first phase and 285 in the second phase), 135 were characterised using phenotypic characteristics as well as 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. It was found that members of the phylum Firmicutes were overwhelmingly predominant (86.6%) in the landfill, followed by Actinobacteria (9.6%) and Proteobacteria (3.7%). Among the Firmicutes, at least 17 species from the single genus Bacillus were the most abundant inhabitants of the landfill. Detailed polyphasic characterisation of many of these isolates led to the discovery of a novel genus Paenisporosarcina (and the species P. quisquiliarum), a novel species of Microbacterium, M. immunditiarum, and reclassification of Sporosarcina macmurdoensis, Pelagibacillus goriensis, Bacillus silvestris, Bacillus insolitus, Bacillus psychrotolerans and Bacillus psychrodurans. Culture-independent analysis of two 16S rRNA gene libraries also revealed that the phylum Firmicutes was the predominant group in this community. The diversity of Archaea was found to be limited mainly to members of two orders: Methanosarcinales

  6. Development of particle induced X-ray emission facility at cyclotron laboratory and its prospective applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puri, N.K. [Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological Universily (Formerly Delhi College of Engineering, DCE), Delhi (India); Garg, M.L. [Department of Bio-Physics, Panjab Universily, Chandigarh (India); Govil, I.M. [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: We are presenting here a description of modifications in the Variable Energy Cyclotron (VEC) Chandigarh along with the installation of Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) setup. The installation of new main magnet power supply of 400A/125V out put with 10 ppm stability (model 853 M/S Danfysik, Denmark) and a new stabilized solid state power supply for RF oscillator gave the beam characteristics substantially good enough for PIXE work. A new chamber [1] was designed to cater for Proton Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE) and Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) analysis along with PIXE measurements. The HPGe X-ray detector, the Ge(Li) -ray detector and a Silicon Surface Barrier (SSB) detector could be mounted simultaneously in the chamber. A Turbo-Molecular vacuum pump was provided to produce a clean vacuum of the order of 10{sup -7} torr in PIXE chamber. A remotely controlled stepper motor could move the 12/24-position target holder. Beam size optimization along with the minimization of background was done with the help of graphite collimators, thus making the setup suitable for practical applications. We attempted to address some of the limitations using PIXE facility of Institute of Physics (IOP), India [2] and incorporated modifications (e.g. chamber design, sample holder etc.) in our set-up. Preliminary experiments for the PIXE analysis of aerosol samples, gunshot residues samples and bone samples were presented. The aerosol samples were collected using aerosol sampling kit which involves Millipore diaphragmatic vacuum pump and Sequential Filter Unit (SFU) with coarse pored Nucleo pore polycarbonate filter in such a manner that the particles passing through the 8m pore size filter were collected on the 0.4m pore size filter. Two different pistols viz. 7.65mm Indian made and 7.63mm Germany made were used to fire at a filter paper target with card board and cotton wool backing from a distance of 3 feet. Two sheets of Whatman filter paper were used to form the

  7. Undergraduate Education with the Rutgers 12-Inch Cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeth, Timothy W.

    The Rutgers 12-Inch Cyclotron is a research grade accelerator dedicated to undergraduate education. From its inception, it has been intended for instruction and has been designed to demonstrate classic beam physics phenomena and provides students hands on experience with accelerator technology. The cyclotron is easily reconfigured, allowing experiments to be designed and performed within one academic semester. Our cyclotron offers students the opportunity to operate an accelerator and directly observe many fundamental beam physics concepts, including axial and radial betatron motion, destructive resonances, weak and azimuthally varying field (AVF) focusing schemes, RF and DEE voltage effects, diagnostic techniques, and perform low energy nuclear reactions. This paper emphasizes the unique beam physics measurements and beam manipulations capable at the Rutgers 12-Inch Cyclotron.

  8. Performance of a CW RFQ Injector for the IUCF Cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Derenchuk, Vladimir Peter; East, Gary W; Friesel, Dennis; Hamm, Robert W; Jones, William P; Staples, John W

    2005-01-01

    A 750 keV RFQ proton pre-injector was installed in place of a 600 keV Cockroft-Walton high voltage terminal for the IUCF k220 Cyclotron.* The pre-injector consists of a 20 keV microwave ion source and LEBT, a unique design 750 keV CW RFQ, and a short transfer beam line to the k15 injector cyclotron center region.** This pre-injector system was installed and commissioned in June of 2003 and is now in routine service as the sole injection system to the cyclotrons. This contribution will discuss the performance of the CW RFQ pre-injector and the transmission properties of the beam through the cyclotrons.

  9. Design Study Of Cyclotron Magnet With Permanent Magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Wook; Chai, Jong Seo

    2011-06-01

    Low energy cyclotrons for Positron emission tomography (PET) have been wanted for the production of radio-isotopes after 2002. In the low energy cyclotron magnet design, increase of magnetic field between the poles is needed to make a smaller size of magnet and decrease power consumption. The Permanent magnet can support this work without additional electric power consumption in the cyclotron. In this paper the study of cyclotron magnet design using permanent magnet is shown and also the comparison between normal magnet and the magnet which is designed with permanent magnet is shown. Maximum energy of proton is 8 MeV and RF frequency is 79.3 MHz. 3D CAD design was done by CATIA P3 V5 R18 [1] and the All field calculations had been performed by OPERA-3D TOSCA [2]. The self-made beam dynamics program OPTICY [3] is used for making isochronous field and other calculations.

  10. The fundamental cyclotron line in 4U 1538-52

    CERN Document Server

    Rodes-Roca, J J; Bernabéu, J G

    2009-01-01

    We present pulse phase averaged spectra of the high mass X-ray binary pulsar 4U 1538-52/QV Nor. Observations of this persistent accreting pulsar were made with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). We study the variability of cyclotron resonant scattering feature (CRSF or simply cyclotron line) in the high energy spectra of this binary system. We show that the parameters of the CRSF are correlated. The first one is, as suggested by theory, between the width and the energy of the cyclotron line. The second one is between the relative width and the optical depth of the cyclotron line. We discuss these results with studies of other X-ray pulsars and their implications on the line variability.

  11. Single-electron detection and spectroscopy via relativistic cyclotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asner, David M.; Bradley, Rich; De Viveiros Souza Filho, Luiz A.; Doe, Peter J.; Fernandes, Justin L.; Fertl, M.; Finn, Erin C.; Formaggio, Joseph; Furse, Daniel L.; Jones, Anthony M.; Kofron, Jared N.; LaRoque, Benjamin; Leber, Michelle; MCBride, Lisa; Miller, M. L.; Mohanmurthy, Prajwal T.; Monreal, Ben; Oblath, Noah S.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rosenberg, Leslie; Rybka, Gray; Rysewyk, Devyn M.; Sternberg, Michael G.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Thummler, Thomas; VanDevender, Brent A.; Woods, N. L.

    2015-04-01

    It has been understood since 1897 that accelerating charges should emit electromagnetic radiation. Cyclotron radiation, the particular form of radiation emitted by an electron orbiting in a magnetic field, was first derived in 1904. Despite the simplicity of this concept, and the enormous utility of electron spectroscopy in nuclear and particle physics, single-electron cyclotron radiation has never been observed directly. Here we demonstrate single-electron detection in a novel radiofrequency spectrometer. We observe the cyclotron radiation emitted by individual electrons that are produced with mildly-relativistic energies by a gaseous radioactive source and are magnetically trapped. The relativistic shift in the cyclotron frequency permits a precise electron energy measurement. Precise beta electron spectroscopy from gaseous radiation sources is a key technique in modern efforts to measure the neutrino mass via the tritium decay endpoint, and this work is a proof-of-concept for future neutrino mass experiments using this technique.

  12. Cyclotron mode frequency shifts in multi-species ion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affolter, M.; Anderegg, F.; Dubin, D.H.E.; Driscoll, C.F.

    2014-06-27

    In trapped plasmas, electric fields and collective effects shift the cyclotron mode frequencies away from the “bare” cyclotron frequency for each species s. Here, these shifts are measured on a set of cyclotron modes (m=0,1, and 2) with cos(mθ) azimuthal dependence in near rigid-rotor multi-species ion plasmas. We observe that these frequency shifts are dependent on the plasma density, through the E×B rotation frequency f{sub E}, and on the “local” charge concentration δ{sub s} of species s, in close agreement with theory. - Highlights: • Cyclotron modes varying as sin(mθ) with m=0,1and2 are detected. • These mode frequencies shift by factors of the ExB rotation frequency. • These frequency shifts depend on the species charge fraction and radial distribution. • Centrifugal separation of species can greatly modify these frequency shifts.

  13. Cryogenic system for VECC K500 superconducting cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, G; Bhattacharyya, T K; Bhandari, R K

    2009-01-01

    VEC Centre, Kolkata in India is at an advanced stage of commissioning a K500 superconducting cyclotron. The superconducting coil of the magnet for cyclotron is cooled by liquid helium. Three liquid helium cooled cryopanels, placed inside the Dees of the radiofrequency system, maintain the vacuum in the acceleration region of the superconducting cyclotron. The cryogenic system for magnet for cyclotron has been tested by cooling the coil and energizing the magnet. The cryogenic system for cryopanels has also been tested. Heater and temperature sensor were placed on the liquid helium cold head for cryopanel. The temperature of the cold head was observed to be below 20 K upto a heat load of 11.7 watt.

  14. Design of 10 MeV cyclotron accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Solhju

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Design and construction of 10MeV cyclotron has been started at Amirkabir University of Technology since 2012. So far, the conceptual and detail engineering design phases have been finalized. The main purpose of this baby cyclotron is to generate proton beam for the production of PET radioisotopes. The cyclotron consists of magnet, cavity, ion source, RF and LLRF system, vacuum system, cooling system, power amplifiers and power supplies system. In this paper, a brief of design principles for all the parts of cyclotron and their final simulation results is presented. It should be noted that these simulations have been performed and optimized by the most accurate softwares such as TOSCA, ANSYS, HFSS, SolidWorks and CST. Also, the manufacturing feasibility of all the parts is performed and their dimensions and parameters are synchronized with manufacturing standards

  15. Maryland University sectored isochronous cyclotron (MUSIC): Progress report No. 32

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1968-06-28

    Completion of magnet tests, followed by completion of installation of major cyclotron components, are reported. Intermediate level power tests of the rf system are also reported. Design and fabrication of the control system are reported to be under way. (LEW)

  16. Maryland University sectored isochronous cyclotron (MUSIC): Progress report No. 26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1968-01-17

    Progress is reported in the fabrication, installation, and testing of cyclotron components, including magnets and coils, rf components, vacuum and control equipment. Also reported are magnet and rf component measurements. (LEW)

  17. Maryland University sectored isochronous cyclotron (MUSIC): Progress report No. 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1967-10-09

    Progress is reported in the design, installation of various components of the cyclotron, including coils, magnets, rf system, and vacuum system. Also reported are measurements on magnets and rf components. (LEW)

  18. Maryland University sectored isochronous cyclotron (MUSIC): Progress report No. 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1967-06-30

    Progress is reported in the fabrication and testing of cyclotron components, including magnet system and rf system components. Work on vacuum components and instrumentation and control equipment is also reported. (LEW)

  19. Variable-Energy Cyclotron for Proton Therapy Application

    CERN Document Server

    Alenitsky, Yu G; Vorozhtsov, A S; Glazov, A A; Mytsyn, G V; Molokanov, A G; Onishchenko, L M

    2004-01-01

    The requirements to characteristics of the beams used for proton therapy are considered. The operation and proposed cyclotrons for proton therapy are briefly described. The technical decisions of creation of the cyclotron with energy variation in the range 70-230 MeV and with current up to 100 nA are estimated. Taking into account the fact, that the size and cost of the cyclotron are approximately determined by the maximum proton energy, it is realistically offered to limit the maximum proton energy to 190 MeV and to elaborate a cyclotron project with a warm winding of the magnet for acceleration of H^{-} ions. The energy of the extracted protons for each run is determined by a stripped target radius in the vacuum chamber of the accelerator, and the radiation dose field for the patient is created by the external devices using the developed techniques.

  20. Fusion Reactivity in the Case of Ion Cyclotron Resonant Heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞国扬; 常永斌; 沈林芳

    2003-01-01

    By applying the integral-variable-change technique,an explicit expression of deuterium-tritium fusion reactivity in the case of second harmonic ion cyclotron resonant heating on deuterium is obtained.

  1. Ion-Beam-Excited Electrostatic Ion Cyclotron Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens;

    1976-01-01

    Self-excited electrostatic ion cyclotron waves were observed in an ion-beam-plasma system produced in a DP-operated Q-machine. The frequency of the waves showed the theoretically predicted variation with the magnetic field.......Self-excited electrostatic ion cyclotron waves were observed in an ion-beam-plasma system produced in a DP-operated Q-machine. The frequency of the waves showed the theoretically predicted variation with the magnetic field....

  2. Cyclotron-based effects on plant gravitropism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordyum, E.; Sobol, M.; Kalinina, Ia.; Bogatina, N.; Kondrachuk, A.

    Primary roots exhibit positive gravitropism and grow in the direction of the gravitational vector, while shoots respond negatively and grow opposite to the gravitational vector. We first demonstrated that the use of a weak combined magnetic field (CMF), which is comprised of a permanent magnetic field and an alternating magnetic field with the frequency resonance of the cyclotron frequency of calcium ions, can change root gravitropism from a positive direction to negative direction. Two-day-old cress seedlings were gravistimulated in a chamber that was placed into a μ-metal shield where this CMF was created. Using this "new model" of a root gravitropic response, we have studied some of its components including the movement of amyloplasts-statoliths in root cap statocytes and the distribution of Ca 2+ ions in the distal elongation zone during gravistimulation. Unlike results from the control, amyloplasts did not sediment in the distal part of a statocyte, and more Ca 2+ accumulation was observed in the upper side of a gravistimulated root for seedlings treated with the CMF. For plants treated with the CMF, it appears that a root gravitropic reaction occurs by a normal physiological process resulting in root bending although in the opposite direction. These results support the hypothesis that both the amyloplasts in the root cap statocytes and calcium are important signaling components in plant gravitropism.

  3. Electron cyclotron emission diagnostic for ITER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, W; Austin, M; Beno, J; Ellis, R; Feder, R; Ouroua, A; Patel, A; Phillips, P

    2010-10-01

    Electron temperature measurements and electron thermal transport inferences will be critical to the nonactive and deuterium phases of ITER operation and will take on added importance during the alpha heating phase. The diagnostic must meet stringent criteria on spatial coverage and spatial resolution during full field operation. During the early phases of operation, it must operate equally well at half field. The key to the diagnostic is the front end design. It consists of a quasioptical antenna and a pair of calibration sources. The radial resolution of the diagnostic is less than 0.06 m. The spatial coverage extends at least from the core to the separatrix with first harmonic O-mode being used for the core and second harmonic X-mode being used for the pedestal. The instrumentation used for the core measurement at full field can be used for detection at half field by changing the detected polarization. Intermediate fields are accessible. The electron cyclotron emission systems require in situ calibration, which is provided by a novel hot calibration source. The critical component for the hot calibration source, the emissive surface, has been successfully tested. A prototype hot calibration source has been designed, making use of extensive thermal and mechanical modeling.

  4. A small low energy cyclotron for radioisotope measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertsche, K.J.

    1989-11-01

    Direct detection of {sup 14}C by accelerator mass spectrometry has proved to be a much more sensitive method for radiocarbon dating than the decay counting method invented earlier by Libby. A small cyclotron (the cyclotrino'') was proposed for direct detection of radiocarbon in 1980. This combined the suppression of background through the use of negative ions, which had been used effectively in tandem accelerators, with the high intrinsic mass resolution of a cyclotron. Development of a small electrostatically-focused cyclotron for use as a mass spectrometer was previously reported but the sensitivity needed for detection of {sup 14}C at natural abundance was not achieved. The major contributions of this work are the integration of a high current external ion source with a small flat-field, electrostatically-focused cyclotron to comprise a system capable of measuring {sup 14}C at natural levels, and the analysis of ion motion in such a cyclotron, including a detailed analysis of phase bunching and its effect on mass resolution. A high current cesium sputter negative ion source generates a beam of carbon ions which is pre-separated with a Wien filter and is transported to the cyclotron via a series of electrostatic lenses. Beam is injected radially into the cyclotron using electrostatic deflectors and an electrostatic mirror. Axial focusing is entirely electrostatic. A microchannel plate detector is used with a phase-grated output. In its present form the system is capable of improving the sensitivity of detecting {sup 14}C in some biomedical experiments by a factor of 10{sup 4}. Modifications are discussed which could bring about an additional factor of 100 in sensitivity, which is important for archaeological and geological applications. Possibilities for measurements of other isotopes, such as {sup 3}H, and {sup 10}Be, and {sup 26}Al, are discussed. 70 refs.

  5. Cyclotron-based of plant gravisensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordyum, E.; Kalinina, Ia.; Bogatina, N.; Kondrachuk, A.

    Roots exhibit positive gravitropism they grow in the direction of a gravitational vector while shoots respond negatively and grow opposite to a gravitational vector We first demonstrated the inversion of roots gravitropism from positive to negative one under gravistimulation in the weak combined magnetic field WCMF consisted of permanent magnetic field PMF with the magnitude of order of 50 mu T and altering magnetic field AMF with the 6 mu T magnitude and a frequency of 32 Hz It was found that the effect of inversion has a resonance nature It means that in the interval of frequencies 1-45 Hz inversion of root gravitropism occurs only at frequency 32 Hz 2-3-day old cress seedlings were gravistimulated in moist chambers which are placed in mu -metal shields Inside mu -metal shields combined magnetic fields have been created The magnitude of magnetic fields was measured by a flux-gate magnetometer Experiments were performed in darkness at temperature 20 pm 1 0 C We measured the divergence angle of a growing root from its horizontal position After 1 h of gravistimulation in the WCMF we observed negative gravitropism of cress roots i e they grow in the opposite direction to a gravitational vector Frequency of 32 Hz for the magnitude of the PMF applied formally corresponds to cyclotron frequency of Ca 2 ions This indicates possible participation of calcium ions in root gravitropism There are many evidences of resonance effects of the WCMF on the biological processes that involve Ca 2 but the nature of

  6. Electric and Magnetic Vertical Focusing Study for 100 MeV High Intensity Proton Cyclotron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>For the central region design of cyclotrons, the basic problem in the vertical motion is very different from the one in the radial motion. The reason is that vertical tune is almost zero at the center of cyclotrons,

  7. Accelerators for hadrontherapy: From Lawrence cyclotrons to linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaldi, U.; Bonomi, R.; Braccini, S., E-mail: Saverio.Braccini@cern.ch; Crescenti, M.; Degiovanni, A.; Garlasche, M.; Garonna, A.; Magrin, G.; Mellace, C.; Pearce, P.; Pitta, G.; Puggioni, P.; Rosso, E.; Verdu Andres, S.; Wegner, R.; Weiss, M.; Zennaro, R.

    2010-08-21

    Hadrontherapy with protons and carbon ions is a fast developing methodology in radiation oncology. The accelerators used and planned for this purpose are reviewed starting from the cyclotrons used in the thirties. As discussed in the first part of this paper, normal and superconducting cyclotrons are still employed, together with synchrotrons, for proton therapy while for carbon ion therapy synchrotrons have been till now the only option. The latest developments concern a superconducting cyclotron for carbon ion therapy, fast-cycling high frequency linacs and 'single room' proton therapy facilities. These issues are discussed in the second part of the paper by underlining the present challenges, in particular the treatment of moving organs.

  8. Accelerators for hadrontherapy: From Lawrence cyclotrons to linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Braccini, S; Garlasche, M; Weiss, M; Crescenti, M; Pearce, P; Rosso, E; Wegner, R; Magrin, G; Pitta, G; Amaldi, U; Puggioni, P; Degiovanni, A; Mellace, C; Zennaro, R; Bonomi, R; Garonna, A

    2010-01-01

    Hadrontherapy with protons and carbon ions is a fast developing methodology in radiation oncology. The accelerators used and planned for this purpose are reviewed starting from the cyclotrons used in the thirties. As discussed in the first part of this paper, normal and superconducting cyclotrons are still employed, together with synchrotrons, for proton therapy while for carbon ion therapy synchrotrons have been till now the only option. The latest developments concern a superconducting cyclotron for carbon ion therapy, fast-cycling high frequency linacs and `single room' proton therapy facilities. These issues are discussed in the second part of the paper by underlining the present challenges, in particular the treatment of moving organs. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cassini observations of ion cyclotron waves and ions anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crary, F. J.; Dols, V. J.; Cassidy, T. A.; Tokar, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    In Saturn's equatorial, inner magnetosphere, the production of fresh ions in a pick-up distribution generates ion cyclotron waves. These waves are a sensitive indicator of fresh plasma production, but the quantitative relation between wave properties and ionization rates is nontrivial. We present a combined analysis of Cassini MAG and CAPS data, from a variety of equatorial orbits between 2005 and 2012. Using the MAG data, we determine the amplitude and peak frequency of ion cyclotron waves. From the CAPS data we extract the parallel and perpendicular velocity distribution of water group ions. We compare these results with hybrid simulations of the ion cyclotron instability and relate the observed wave amplitudes and ion velocity distributions to the production rate of pickup ions. The resulting relation between wave and plasma properties will allow us to infer ion production rates even at times when no direct ion measurements are available.

  10. Design study of the KIRAMS-430 superconducting cyclotron magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Wook; Kang, Joonsun; Hong, Bong Hwan; Jung, In Su

    2016-07-01

    Design study of superconducting cyclotron magnet for the carbon therapy was performed at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science (KIRAMS). The name of this project is The Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (KHIMA) project and a fixed frequency cyclotron with four spiral sector magnet was one of the candidate for the accelerator type. Basic parameters of the cyclotron magnet and its characteristics were studied. The isochronous magnetic field which can guide the 12C6+ ions up to 430 MeV/u was designed and used for the single particle tracking simulation. The isochronous condition of magnetic field was achieved by optimization of sector gap and width along the radius. Operating range of superconducting coil current was calculated and changing of the magnetic field caused by mechanical deformations of yokes was considered. From the result of magnetic field design, structure of the magnet yoke was planned.

  11. Vertical Electron Cyclotron Emission Diagnostic for TCV Plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodman T. P.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH and electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD are used to heat the plasma, to tailor the current profiles and to achieve different operating regimes of tokamak plasmas. Plasmas with ECRH/ECCD are characterized by non-thermal electrons, which cannot be described by a Maxwellian distribution. Non-thermal electrons are also generated during MHD activity, like sawteeth crashes. Quantifying the non-thermal electron distribution is therefore a key for understanding EC heated fusion plasmas. For this purpose a vertical electron cyclotron emission (V-ECE diagnostic is being installed at TCV. The diagnostic layout, the calibration, the analysis technique for data interpretation, the physics potentials and limitations are discussed.

  12. Electron cyclotron emission diagnostics on the large helical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Y.; Kawahata, K.; England, A.; Ito, Y.; Bretz, N.; McCarthy, M.; Taylor, G.; Doane, J.; Ikezi, H.; Edlington, T.; Tomas, J.

    1999-01-01

    The electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostic system is installed on the large helical device (LHD). The system includes the following instruments: a heterodyne radiometer, a Michelson spectrometer, and a grating polychromator. A 63.5 mm corrugated waveguide system is fully utilized. Large collection optics and notch filters at the frequency of the LHD electron cyclotron heating (ECH) were developed for this system. In addition to these filters, the rectangular waveguide notch filters, the ECE measurement with the radiometer has been successfully performed during the ECH.

  13. Fluid equations in the presence of electron cyclotron current drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, Thomas G.; Kruger, Scott E. [Tech-X Corporation, 5621 Arapahoe Avenue, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Two-fluid equations, which include the physics imparted by an externally applied radiofrequency source near electron cyclotron resonance, are derived in their extended magnetohydrodynamic forms using the formalism of Hegna and Callen [Phys. Plasmas 16, 112501 (2009)]. The equations are compatible with the closed fluid/drift-kinetic model developed by Ramos [Phys. Plasmas 17, 082502 (2010); 18, 102506 (2011)] for fusion-relevant regimes with low collisionality and slow dynamics, and they facilitate the development of advanced computational models for electron cyclotron current drive-induced suppression of neoclassical tearing modes.

  14. 2D electron cyclotron emission imaging at ASDEX Upgrade (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Classen, I. G. J. [Max Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics, Rijnhuizen, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Boom, J. E.; Vries, P. C. de [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics, Rijnhuizen, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Suttrop, W.; Schmid, E.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Schneider, P. A. [Max Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Tobias, B.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. Jr. [University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Donne, A. J. H. [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics, Rijnhuizen, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Jaspers, R. J. E. [Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Park, H. K. [POSTECH, Pohang, Gyeongbuk, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Munsat, T. [University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The newly installed electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic on ASDEX Upgrade provides measurements of the 2D electron temperature dynamics with high spatial and temporal resolution. An overview of the technical and experimental properties of the system is presented. These properties are illustrated by the measurements of the edge localized mode and the reversed shear Alfven eigenmode, showing both the advantage of having a two-dimensional (2D) measurement, as well as some of the limitations of electron cyclotron emission measurements. Furthermore, the application of singular value decomposition as a powerful tool for analyzing and filtering 2D data is presented.

  15. Electron Plasmas Cooled by Cyclotron-Cavity Resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Povilus, A P; Evans, L T; Evetts, N; Fajans, J; Hardy, W N; Hunter, E D; Martens, I; Robicheaux, F; Shanman, S; So, C; Wang, X; Wurtele, J S

    2016-01-01

    We observe that high-Q electromagnetic cavity resonances increase the cyclotron cooling rate of pure electron plasmas held in a Penning-Malmberg trap when the electron cyclotron frequency, controlled by tuning the magnetic field, matches the frequency of standing wave modes in the cavity. For certain modes and trapping configurations, this can increase the cooling rate by factors of ten or more. In this paper, we investigate the variation of the cooling rate and equilibrium plasma temperatures over a wide range of parameters, including the plasma density, plasma position, electron number, and magnetic field.

  16. Optimal Design of Proposed 800 MeV Proton Cyclotron Beam Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Jian-jun; LI; Ming; ZHANG; Tian-jue; SONG; Guo-fang; AN; Shi-zhong

    2015-01-01

    The high intensity beam dynamic simulation shows that the theoretic beam current limit of the original design version of the 800 MeV proton cyclotron CYCIEA-800is 1mA.In order to further improve the current limit and reduce beam losses in the cyclotron,the layout of the cyclotron

  17. Unstable Electrostatic Ion Cyclotron Waves Exited by an Ion Beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens;

    1976-01-01

    Electrostatic ion cyclotron waves were observed in a quiescent cesium plasma into which a low‐energy beam of sodium ions was injected. The instability appeared when the beam velocity was above 12 times the ion thermal velocity. The waves propagated along the magnetic field with a velocity somewhat...

  18. THE DEMINERALIZED WATER SYSTEM FOR THE NRL CYCLOTRON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    handling system was considered impractical to handle this heat load. Therefore, the demineralized water system for the NRL Sector-Focusing Cyclotron...decided to run the water system on a continuous basis. Continuous operation can be dangerous, because it can cause a large leak to occur, but this

  19. Heavy stable isotope separation by ion cyclotron resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louvet, P.; Compant La Fontaine, A.; Larousse, B.; Patris, M.

    1994-12-31

    The scientific feasibility of the ion cyclotron resonance process (ICR), as well as the technical one, has been investigated carefully for light metallic elements, whose masses lies between 40 and 100/1,2/. The present work deals mainly with the same demonstration for heavier elements such as ytterbium, gadolinium and barium. Recent results, as well as future prospects, are considered here. (authors).

  20. Cyclotrons with Fast Variable and/or Multiple Energy Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Baumgarten, C

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the principle possibility of stripping extraction in combination with reverse bends in isochronous separate sector cyclotrons (and/or FFAGs). If one uses reverse bends between the sectors (instead of drifts) and places stripper foils at the sector exit edges, the stripped beam has a reduced bending radius and it should be able to leave the cyclotron within the range of the reverse bend - even if the beam is stripped at less than full energy. We are especially interested in $H_2^+$-cyclotrons, which allow to double the charge to mass ratio by stripping. However the principle could be applied to other ions or ionized molecules as well. For the production of proton beams by stripping extraction of an $H_2^+$-beam, we discuss possible designs for three types of machines: First a low-energy cyclotron for the simultaneous production of several beams at multiple energies - for instance 15 MeV, 30 MeV and 70 MeV - thus allowing to have beam on several isotope production targets. In this case it is desired ...

  1. Ion-Beam-Excited, Electrostatic, Ion Cyclotron Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1977-01-01

    The stability limits of the ion‐beam‐excited, electrostatic, ion cyclotron instability were investigated in a Q‐machine plasma where the electrons could be heated by microwaves. In agreement with theory, the beam energy necessary for excitation decreased with increasing electron temperature....

  2. Ion-Beam-Excited Electrostatic Ion Cyclotron Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1977-01-01

    The stability limits of the ion‐beam‐excited, electrostatic, ion cyclotron instability were investigated in a Q‐machine plasma where the electrons could be heated by microwaves. In agreement with theory, the beam energy necessary for excitation decreased with increasing electron temperature....

  3. Vacuum Pre-designing for CYCIAE-230 Superconducting Cyclotron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Su-ping; PAN; Gao-feng; LI; Zhen-guo; QIN; Jiu-chang

    2015-01-01

    CYCIAE-230superconducting cyclotron has two separate vacuum system,one is for beam chamber,another is for cryostat.Beam chamber and cryostat shall maintain separate vacuum against atmospheric pressure.The pressure of pumps inlet is better than 1×10-4Pa and the

  4. Traveling wave ion transport for the cyclotron gas stopper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodeur, M., E-mail: maxime.brodeur.2@nd.edu; Joshi, N.; Gehring, A.E.; Bollen, G.; Morrissey, D.J.; Schwarz, S.

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Estimated transport time of thermal ions of 5 ms or less for the cyclotron gas stopper using the ion surfing method. • Experimental investigation of a prototype ion conveyor to transport ions in the magnet magnetic field gradient. • Efficient long-distance ion transport with the conveyor is expected. -- Abstract: Next generation beam thermalization devices such as the cyclotron gas stopper are being developed to efficiently deliver a broad range of radioactive isotopes to experiments. Ion transport methods utilizing a traveling wave were investigated experimentally as part of the developments needed for this device. The “ion surfing” method, which will be used to transports thermal ions inside the main chamber of the cyclotron gas stopper, was found to transport ions at speeds reaching 75 m/s, resulting in net transport times as short as 5 ms. A second traveling wave transport method called the “ion conveyor” was investigated for the challenging task of extracting the ions through the cyclotron gas stopper magnetic field gradient. Results from the first prototype conveyor show a strong pressure and wave amplitude dependance for the transport efficiency. A second prototype designed to operate over a larger pressure range is currently being tested.

  5. Cyclotron waves in a non-neutral plasma column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubin, Daniel H. E. [Department of Physics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    A kinetic theory of linear electrostatic plasma waves with frequencies near the cyclotron frequency {Omega}{sub c{sub s}} of a given plasma species s is developed for a multispecies non-neutral plasma column with general radial density and electric field profiles. Terms in the perturbed distribution function up to O(1/{Omega}{sub c{sub s}{sup 2}}) are kept, as are the effects of finite cyclotron radius r{sub c} up to O(r{sub c}{sup 2}). At this order, the equilibrium distribution is not Maxwellian if the plasma temperature or rotation frequency is not uniform. For r{sub c}{yields}0, the theory reproduces cold-fluid theory and predicts surface cyclotron waves propagating azimuthally. For finite r{sub c}, the wave equation predicts that the surface wave couples to radially and azimuthally propagating Bernstein waves, at locations where the wave frequency equals the local upper hybrid frequency. The equation also predicts a second set of Bernstein waves that do not couple to the surface wave, and therefore have no effect on the external potential. The wave equation is solved both numerically and analytically in the WKB approximation, and analytic dispersion relations for the waves are obtained. The theory predicts that both types of Bernstein wave are damped at resonances, which are locations where the Doppler-shifted wave frequency matches the local cyclotron frequency as seen in the rotating frame.

  6. Digital control in LLRF system for CYCIAE-100 cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Zhiguo, E-mail: bitbearAT@hotmail.com; Fu, Xiaoliang; Ji, Bin; Zhang, Tianjue; Wang, Chuan

    2016-05-21

    As a driven accelerator, the CYCIAE-100 cyclotron is designed by China Institute of Atomic Energy for the Beijing Radio Ion-beam Facility project. The cyclotron RF system is designed to use two RF power sources of 100 kW to drive two half-wavelength cavities respectively. Two Dee accelerating electrodes are kept separately from each other inside the cyclotron, while their accelerating voltages are maintained in phase by the efforts of LLRF control. An analog–digital hybrid LLRF system has been developed to achieve cavity tuning control, dee voltage amplitude and phase stabilization etc. The analog subsystems designs are focused on RF signal up/down conversion, tuning control, and dee voltage regulation. The digital system provides an RF signal source, aligns the cavity phases and maintains a Finite State Machine. The digital parts combine with the analog functions to provide the LLRF control. A brief system hardware introduction will be given in this paper, followed by the review of several major characteristics of the digital control in the 100 MeV cyclotron LLRF system. The commissioning is also introduced, and most of the optimization during the process was done by changing the digital parts.

  7. Radiation safety aspects of the AGOR superconducting cyclotron facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, JPM; de Meijer, RJ

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes shielding calculations and skyshine estimates for the new AGOR K=600 superconducting cyclotron facility. Both simple, semi-empirical models and Monte-Carlo simulations were used. The calculations are based on a 200 MeV proton beam incident on a trick aluminum target. Also the de

  8. The development of technology for the improvement of cyclotron performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Jong Seo; Kim, Y. S.; Ha, J. H.; Lee, M. Y.; Lee, H. S

    1999-05-01

    We show the first-order beam optics theory which is a simplified theory that can be used to carry out the initial design of a cyclotron. Based on this, a computer program has been developed to determine main cyclotron parameters such as number of magnet sectors, sector angle, hill and valley fields, and overall size of the cyclotron etc. We then show the result of two-dimensional magnetic field calculation using POISSON program. By using this program, one can determine magnet yoke geometry and the average magnetic fields etc. Finally, the three-dimensional computer program OPERA-3D had been invoked to determine magnet pole tips (i.e. sector). Validity of the design can be seen by investigating magnetic fields, radial and vertical focusing frequencies as a function of the beam energy. In this report, we show the results of cyclotron magnet design. And we designed 72 MHz RF system and ion source system. We tested RF resonance each coupling methods. We show the result of RF design and prototype operation. Our developed ion source is PIG type. We described our design methods and implementation. We report the result of getting negative hydrogen ion.

  9. Fokker-Planck Study of Tokamak Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIBingren; LONGYongxing; DONGJiaqi; LIWenzhong; JIAOYiming; WANGAike

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we add a subroutine for describing the electron cyclotron resonant heating calculation to the Fokker-Planck code. By analyzing the wave-particle resonance condition in tokamak plasma and the fast motion of electrons along magnetic field lines, suitable quasi-linear diffusion coefficients are given.

  10. Development of beam instruments at JAERI cyclotron facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okumura, Susumu; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Ishibori, Ikuo; Agematsu, Takashi; Yokota, Watalu; Nara, Takayuki; Nakamura, Yoshiteru; Arakawa, Kazuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    A beam phase monitor and two kinds of fluence distribution monitors have been developed for measuring characteristics of cyclotron beams. The beam phase monitor provides a beam phase signal for tuning a beam chopping system and a beam phase selection system. A two-dimensional fluence distribution on a large area is measured with fluence distribution monitors. (author)

  11. Electron cyclotron heating and current drive in toroidal geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritz, A.H.

    1991-11-01

    The Principal Investigator has continued to work on problems associated both with the deposition and with the emission of electron cyclotron power in toroidal plasmas. We have investigated the use of electron cyclotron resonance heating for bringing compact tokamaks (BPX) to ignition-like parameters. This requires that we continue to refine the modeling capability of the TORCH code linked with the BALDUR 1 {1/2} D transport code. Using this computational tool, we have examined the dependence of ignition on heating and transport employing both theoretical (multi-mode) and empirically based transport models. The work on current drive focused on the suppression of tearing modes near the q = 2 surface and sawteeth near the q = 1 surface. Electron cyclotron current drive in CIT near the q =2 surface was evaluated for a launch scenario where electron cyclotron power was launched near the equatorial plane. The work on suppression of sawteeth has been oriented toward understanding the suppression that has been observed in a number of tokamaks, in particular, in the WT-3 tokamak in Kyoto. To evaluate the changes in current profile (shear) near the q =1 surface, simulations have been carried out using the linked BALDUR-TORCH code. We consider effects on shear resulting both from wave-induced current as well as from changes in conductivity associated with changes in local temperature. Abstracts and a paper relating to this work is included in Appendix A.

  12. Maryland University sectored isochronous cyclotron (MUSIC): Progress report No. 35

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-10-29

    Efforts are reported on the installation and checkout of cyclotron components which had been previously fabricated. Final integration of subsystems and major systems leading to internal beam tests is reported near completion. Progress is reported in relation to control system components, focus and steering magnet design, and rf system testing. (LEW)

  13. Digital control in LLRF system for CYCIAE-100 cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhiguo; Fu, Xiaoliang; Ji, Bin; Zhang, Tianjue; Wang, Chuan

    2016-05-01

    As a driven accelerator, the CYCIAE-100 cyclotron is designed by China Institute of Atomic Energy for the Beijing Radio Ion-beam Facility project. The cyclotron RF system is designed to use two RF power sources of 100 kW to drive two half-wavelength cavities respectively. Two Dee accelerating electrodes are kept separately from each other inside the cyclotron, while their accelerating voltages are maintained in phase by the efforts of LLRF control. An analog-digital hybrid LLRF system has been developed to achieve cavity tuning control, dee voltage amplitude and phase stabilization etc. The analog subsystems designs are focused on RF signal up/down conversion, tuning control, and dee voltage regulation. The digital system provides an RF signal source, aligns the cavity phases and maintains a Finite State Machine. The digital parts combine with the analog functions to provide the LLRF control. A brief system hardware introduction will be given in this paper, followed by the review of several major characteristics of the digital control in the 100 MeV cyclotron LLRF system. The commissioning is also introduced, and most of the optimization during the process was done by changing the digital parts.

  14. Effect of Quantizing Magnetic Field on Cyclotron Energy and Cyclotron Effective Mass in Size Quantized Films with Non-Parabolic Energy Band

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.(I). GUL(I)YEV; R. F. EM(I)NBEYL(I); A. KORKUT

    2007-01-01

    The Fermi energy, cyclotron energy and cyclotron effective mass of degenerate electron gas in a size-quantized semiconductor thin film with non-parabolic energy bands are studied. The influences of quantizing magnetic field on these quantities in two-band approximation of the Kane model are investigated. It is shown that the Fermi energy oscillates in a magnetic field. The period and positions of these oscillations are found as a function of film thickness and concentration of electrons. Cyclotron energy and cyclotron effective mass are investigated as a function of film thickness in detail. The results obtained here are compared with experimental data on GaAs quantum wells.

  15. Heavy ion cocktail beams at the 88 inch Cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, Daniela; McMahan, Margaret A.; Argento, David; Gimpel, Thomas; Guy, Aran; Morel, James; Siero, Christine; Thatcher, Ray; Lyneis, Claude M.

    2002-09-03

    Cyclotrons in combination with ECR ion sources provide the ability to accelerate ''cocktails'' of ions. A cocktail is a mixture of ions of near-identical mass-to-charge (m/q) ratio. The different ions cannot be separated by the injector mass-analyzing magnet and are tuned out of the ion source together. The cyclotron then is utilized as a mass analyzer by shifting the accelerating frequency. This concept was developed soon after the first ECR ion source became operational at the 88-Inch Cyclotron and has since become a powerful tool in the field of heavy ion radiation effects testing. Several different ''cocktails'' at various energies are available at the 88-Inch cyclotron for radiation effect testing, covering a broad range of linear energy transfer and penetration depth. Two standard heavy ion cocktails at 4.5 MeV/nucleon and 10 MeV/nucleon have been developed over the years containing ions from boron to bismuth. Recently, following requests for higher penetration depths, a 15MeV/nucleon heavy ion cocktail has been developed. Up to nine different metal and gaseous ion beams at low to very high charge states are tuned out of the ion source simultaneously and injected together into the cyclotron. It is therefore crucial to balance the ion source very carefully to provide sufficient intensities throughout the cocktail. The paper describes the set-up and tuning of the ion source for the various heavy ion cocktails.

  16. Summary of EC-17: the 17th Joint Workshop on Electron Cyclotron Emission and Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (Deurne, The Netherlands, 7-10 May 2012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.; Austin, M. E.; Kubo, S.; Lin-Liu, Y. R.; Plaum, B.

    2013-01-01

    An overview is given of the papers presented at the 17th Joint Workshop on Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE) and Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH). The meeting covered all aspects of the research field ranging from theory to enabling technologies. From the workshop, advanced control by ele

  17. Cyclotron resonance studies on InAs/GaSb heterostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Petchsingh, C

    2002-01-01

    Far-infrared cyclotron resonance is used to study the magneto-optical properties of semimetallic InAs/GaSb heterostructures. Spatially separated two-dimensional electron and hole gases coexist in this 'broken-gap' type-ll system due to charge transfer across the interfaces. Hybridisations of the overlapping electron and hole wavefunctions are investigated experimentally in samples of varying growth parameters. A self-consistent 8-band k centre dot p model is used to assist in the interpretation of experimental results. In samples subjected to varying magnetic field, hybridisations result in oscillations of cyclotron resonance mass, amplitude and linewidth, accompanied by transition splittings in the vicinity of Landau level anticrossings. Asymmetries introduced by InSb interface biasing enhance these effects. Comparison of samples with varying confinement energies (at specified magnetic field) shows effective mass enhancement greater than the standard nonparabolicity effect. The mass enhancement increases wit...

  18. Studies of radioisotope production with an AVF cyclotron in TIARA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekine, Toshiaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    The production of radioisotopes to be used mainly for nuclear medicine and biology is studied with an AVF cyclotron in TIARA. A production method of no-carrier-added {sup 186}Re with the {sup 186}W(p,n){sup 186}Re reaction has been developed; this product may be used as a therapeutic agent in radioimmunotherapy due to the adequate nuclear and chemical properties. For the study of the function of plants using a positron-emitter two-dimensional imaging system, a simple method of producing the positron emitter {sup 18}F in water was developed by taking advantage of a highly-energetic {alpha} beam from the AVF cyclotron. (author)

  19. Physics of electron cyclotron current drive on DIII-D

    CERN Document Server

    Petty, C C; Harvey, R W; Kinsey, J E; Lao, L L; Lohr, J; Luce, T C; Makowski, M A; Prater, R

    2002-01-01

    OAK A271 PHYSICS OF ELECTRON CYCLOTRON CURRENT DRIVE ON DIII-D. Recent experiments on the DIII-D tokamak have focused on determining the effect of trapped particles on the electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) efficiency. The measured ECCD efficiency increases as the deposition location is moved towards the inboard midplane or towards smaller minor radius for both co and counter injection. The measured ECCD efficiency also increases with increasing electron density and/or temperature. The experimental ECCD is compared to both the linear theory (Toray-GA) as well as a quasilinear Fokker-Planck model (CQL3D). The experimental ECCD is found to be in better agreement with the more complete Fokker-Planck calculation, especially for cases of high rf power density and/or loop voltage. The narrow width of the measured ECCD profile is consistent with only low levels of radial transport for the current carrying electrons.

  20. Ernest Orlando Lawrence (1901-1958), Cyclotron and Medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, William T.

    2005-09-01

    On August 8, 2001, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory celebrated the centennial of the birth of its founder (and namesake), Ernest Orlando Lawrence. For the occasion, many speeches were given and old speeches were remembered. We recall the words of the late Luis Alvarez, a Nobel Laureate and one of the Lawrence's closest colleagues: ''Lawrence will always be remembered as the inventor of the cyclotron, but more importantly, he should be remembered as the inventor of the modern way of doing science''. J. L. Heilbron and R. W. Seidel, in the introduction of their book, ''Lawrence and His Laboratory'' stated, ''The motives and mechanisms that shaped the growth of the Laboratory helped to force deep changes in the scientific estate and in the wider society. In the entrepreneurship of its founder, Ernest Orlando Lawrence, these motives, mechanisms, and changes came together in a tight focus. He mobilized great and small philanthropists, state and local governments, corporations, and plutocrats, volunteers and virtuosos. The work they supported, from astrophysics and atomic bombs, from radiochemistry to nuclear medicine, shaped the way we observe, control, and manipulate our environment.'' Indeed, all over the civilized world, the ways we do science changed forever after Lawrence built his famed Radiation Laboratory. In this editorial, we epitomize his legacy of changing the way we do medicine, thereby affecting the health and well being of all humanity. This year marks the 75th anniversary of the invention of the cyclotron by Ernest Orlando Lawrence at the University of California at Berkeley. Lawrence conceived the idea of the cyclotron early in 1929 after reading an article by Rolf Wideroe on high-energy accelerators. In the spring of 1930 one of his students, Nels Edlefsen, constructed two crude models of a cyclotron. Later in the fall of the same year, another student, M. Stanley Livingston

  1. RF cavity design for KIRAMS-430 superconducting cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, In Su, E-mail: jis@kirams.re.kr [Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences (KIRMAS), 75 Nowon-Gil, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Bong Hwan; Kang, Joonsun; Kim, Hyun Wook; Kim, Chang Hyeuk [Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences (KIRMAS), 75 Nowon-Gil, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Key Ho [School of Information and Communication Engineering, Natural Sciences Campus, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-21

    The Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (KHIMA) has developed a superconducting cyclotron for the carbon therapy, which is called KIRAMS-430. The cyclotron is designed to accelerate only {sup 12}C{sup 6+} ions up to the energy of 430 MeV/u. It uses two normal conducting RF cavities. The RF frequency is about 70.76 MHz. The nominal dee voltage is 70 kV at the center and 160 kV at the extraction. The RF cavity was designed with 4 stems by using CST microwave studio (MWS). In this paper, we represent the simulation results and the optimized design of the RF cavity for the KIRAMS-430.

  2. Vortex dynamics and shear layer instability in high intensity cyclotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Cerfon, Antoine J

    2016-01-01

    We show that the space charge dynamics of high intensity beams in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field in cyclotrons is described by the two-dimensional Euler equations for an incompressible fluid. This analogy with fluid dynamics gives a unified and intuitive framework to explain the beam spiraling and beam break up behavior observed in experiments and in simulations. In particular, we demonstrate that beam break up is the result of a classical instability occurring in fluids subject to a sheared flow. We give scaling laws for the instability and predict the nonlinear evolution of beams subject to it. Our work suggests that cyclotrons may be uniquely suited for the experimental study of shear layers and vortex distributions that are not achievable in Penning-Malmberg traps.

  3. Examination of the Plasma located in PSI Ring Cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Pogue, Nathaniel; Schneider, Markus; Stingelin, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    A plasma has been observed inside the vacuum chamber of the PSI Ring Cyclotron. This ionized gas cloud maybe a substantial contributor to several interior components having reduced lifetimes. The plasma's generation has been directly linked to the voltage that is applied to the Flat Top Cavity through visual confirmation using CCD cameras. A spectrometer was used to correlate the plasma's intensity and ignition to the Flat Top Cavity voltage as well as to determine the composition of the plasma. This paper reports on the analysis of the plasma using spectroscopy. The spectrometer data was analyzed to determine the composition of the plasma and that the plasma intensity (luminosity) directly corresponds to the Flat Top voltage. The results showed that the plasma was comprised of elements consistent with the cyclotrons vacuum interior

  4. Heavy ion beam transmission in the AGOR cyclotron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sen, Ayanangsha

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the TRImP program initiated at the KVI in 2002, the AGOR cyclotron was used to accelerate low energy heavy ion beams up to a beam intensity (>=10^12 particles per second). Typical beam ions are: 206Pb accelerated to 8 MeV/amu and 20Ne accelerated to 25 MeV/amu. In the course of b

  5. Design options for an ITER ion cyclotron system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, D. W.; Baity, F. W.; Bigelow, T. S.; Ryan, P. M.; Goulding, R. H.; Carter, M. D.; Stallings, D. C.; Batchelor, D. B.; Hoffman, D. J.

    1996-02-01

    Recent changes have occurred in the design requirements for the ITER ion cyclotron system, requiring in-port launchers in four main horizontal ports to deliver 50 MW of power to the plasma. The design is complicated by the comparatively large antenna-separatrix distance of 10-20 cm. Designs of a conventional strap launcher and a folded waveguide launcher that can meet the new requirements are presented.

  6. Design options for an ITER ion cyclotron system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, D.W.; Baity, F.W.; Bigelow, T.S.; Ryan, P.M.; Goulding, R.H.; Carter, M.D.; Stallings, D.C.; Batchelor, D.B.; Hoffman, D.J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2009, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Recent changes have occurred in the design requirements for the ITER ion cyclotron system, requiring in-port launchers in four main horizontal ports to deliver 50 MW of power to the plasma. The design is complicated by the comparatively large antenna-separatrix distance of 10{endash}20 cm. Designs of a conventional strap launcher and a folded waveguide launcher that can meet the new requirements are presented. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Design options for an ITER ion cyclotron system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, D.W.; Baity, F.W.; Bigelow, T.S.; Ryan, P.M.; Goulding, R.H.; Carter, M.D.; Stallings, D.C.; Batchelor, D.B.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1995-09-01

    Recent changes have occurred in the design requirements for the ITER ion cyclotron system, requiring in-port launchers in four main horizontal ports to deliver 50 MW of power to the plasma. The design is complicated by the comparatively large antenna-separatrix distance of 10--20 cm. Designs of a conventional strap launcher and a folded waveguide launcher than can meet the new requirements are presented.

  8. Multimegawatt DAE$\\delta$ALUS Cyclotrons for Neutrino Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Abs, M; Alonso, J R; Barletta, W A; Barlow, R; Calabretta, L; Calanna, A; Campo, D; Celona, L; Conrad, J M; Gammino, S; Kleeven, W; Koeth, T; Maggiore, M; Okuno, H; Piazza, L A C; Seidel, M; Shaevitz, M H; Stingelin, L; Yang, J J; Yeck, J

    2012-01-01

    DAE$\\delta$ALUS (Decay-At-rest Experiment for $\\delta_{CP}$ studies At the Laboratory for Underground Science) provides a new approach to the search for CP violation in the neutrino sector. High-power continuous-wave proton cyclotrons efficiently provide the necessary proton beams with an energy of up to 800 MeV to create neutrinos from pion and muon decay-at-rest. The experiment searches for $\\bar{\

  9. Development of Production Procedure of 64Cu on Cyclotron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG; Ji-xin; CHEN; Yu-qing; LI; Guang; DENG; Xue-song; SHEN; Yi-jia; QIAO; Lai-cheng; LIU; Yu-ping; JIANG; Hua; LI; Gui-qun

    2013-01-01

    Due to intermediate half-life(12.7 h)and favourable coordination chemistry,64Cu is an important emerging medical radionuclide that is suitable for labeling a wide range of radiopharmaceuticals for PET imaging and radiotherapy of tumor.The aim of this study is to develop the procedure for 64Cu production on Cyclone-30 cyclotron providing energy from 15-30 MeV.

  10. Electron Cyclotron Waves Polarization in the TJII Stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappa, A.; Martinez-Fernandez, J.; Wagner, D.

    2013-05-01

    This report describes the theoretical calculations related with the electron cyclotron (EC) waves polarization control in the TJII stellarator. Two main aspects will be distinguished: the determination of the vacuum polarization that the wave must exhibit if a given propagation mode in a cold plasma is desired and the calculation of the behavior of the grooved polarizers and other transmission systems used to launch the vacuum wave with the required polarization. (Author) 13 refs.

  11. Coaxial Ring Cyclotron as a Perspective Nuclear Power Engineering Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Tumanyan, A. R.; Simonyan, Kh. A.; Mkrtchyan, R. L.; Amatuni, A. Ts.; Avakyan, R. O.; Khudaverdyan, A. G.

    1995-01-01

    The circuit arrangement of the proposed coaxial ring cyclotron (CRC) is described, and its main advantages, such as simple injection technique, several injected beams summation option, high efficiency, are considered. The proposed proton accelerator is a perspective machine for the solution of the main problems of the present day nuclear power engineering as well as for the next-generation nuclear power plants, representing a combination of subcritical reactors and particle accelerators. The ...

  12. The cyclotron laboratory and the RFQ accelerator in Bern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braccini, S.; Ereditato, A.; Kreslo, I.; Nirkko, M.; Scampoli, P.; von Bremen, K.; Weber, M.

    2013-07-01

    Two proton accelerators have been recently put in operation in Bern: an 18 MeV cyclotron and a 2 MeV RFQ linac. The commercial IBA 18/18 cyclotron, equipped with a specifically conceived 6 m long external beam line ending in a separate bunker, will provide beams for routine 18-F and other PET radioisotope production as well as for novel detector, radiation biophysics, radioprotection, radiochemistry and radiopharmacy developments. The accelerator is embedded into a complex building hosting two physics laboratories and four Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) laboratories. This project is the result of a successful collaboration between the Inselspital, the University of Bern and private investors, aiming at the constitution of a combined medical and research centre able to provide the most cutting-edge technologies in medical imaging and cancer radiation therapy. The cyclotron is complemented by the RFQ with the primary goals of elemental analysis via Particle Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE), and the detection of potentially dangerous materials with high nitrogen content using the Gamma-Resonant Nuclear Absorption (GRNA) technique. In this context, beam instrumentation devices have been developed, in particular an innovative beam profile monitor based on doped silica fibres and a setup for emittance measurements using the pepper-pot technique. On this basis, the establishment of a proton therapy centre on the campus of the Inselspital is in the phase of advanced study.

  13. The cyclotron laboratory and the RFQ accelerator in Bern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braccini, S.; Ereditato, A.; Kreslo, I.; Nirkko, M.; Weber, M. [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Laboratory for High Energy Physics (LHEP), University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Scampoli, P. [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Laboratory for High Energy Physics (LHEP), University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland and Department of Physical Sciences, University Federico II, Via Cintia, I-60126 Napoli (Italy); Bremen, K. von [SWAN Isotopen AG, Inselspital, CH-3010 Bern (Switzerland)

    2013-07-18

    Two proton accelerators have been recently put in operation in Bern: an 18 MeV cyclotron and a 2 MeV RFQ linac. The commercial IBA 18/18 cyclotron, equipped with a specifically conceived 6 m long external beam line ending in a separate bunker, will provide beams for routine 18-F and other PET radioisotope production as well as for novel detector, radiation biophysics, radioprotection, radiochemistry and radiopharmacy developments. The accelerator is embedded into a complex building hosting two physics laboratories and four Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) laboratories. This project is the result of a successful collaboration between the Inselspital, the University of Bern and private investors, aiming at the constitution of a combined medical and research centre able to provide the most cutting-edge technologies in medical imaging and cancer radiation therapy. The cyclotron is complemented by the RFQ with the primary goals of elemental analysis via Particle Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE), and the detection of potentially dangerous materials with high nitrogen content using the Gamma-Resonant Nuclear Absorption (GRNA) technique. In this context, beam instrumentation devices have been developed, in particular an innovative beam profile monitor based on doped silica fibres and a setup for emittance measurements using the pepper-pot technique. On this basis, the establishment of a proton therapy centre on the campus of the Inselspital is in the phase of advanced study.

  14. Modern compact accelerators of cyclotron type for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, V.; Vorozhtsov, S.

    2016-09-01

    Ion beam therapy and hadron therapy are types of external beam radiotherapy. Recently, the vast majority of patients have been treated with protons and carbon ions. Typically, the types of accelerators used for therapy were cyclotrons and synchrocyclotrons. It is intuitively clear that a compact facility fits best to a hospital environment intended for particle therapy and medical diagnostics. Another criterion for selection of accelerators to be mentioned in this article is application of superconducting technology to the magnetic system design of the facility. Compact isochronous cyclotrons, which accelerate protons in the energy range 9-30 MeV, have been widely used for production of radionuclides. Energy of 230 MeV has become canonical for all proton therapy accelerators. Similar application of a carbon beam requires ion energy of 430 MeV/u. Due to application of superconducting coils the magnetic field in these machines can reach 4-5 T and even 9 T in some cases. Medical cyclotrons with an ironless or nearly ironless magnetic system that have a number of advantages over the classical accelerators are in the development stage. In this work an attempt is made to describe some conceptual and technical features of modern accelerators under consideration. The emphasis is placed on the magnetic and acceleration systems along with the beam extraction unit, which are very important from the point of view of the facility compactness and compliance with the strict medical requirements.

  15. RF control hardware design for CYCIAE-100 cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Zhiguo, E-mail: bitbearAT@hotmail.com; Fu, Xiaoliang; Ji, Bin; Zhao, Zhenlu; Zhang, Tianjue; Li, Pengzhan; Wei, Junyi; Xing, Jiansheng; Wang, Chuan

    2015-11-21

    The Beijing Radioactive Ion-beam Facility project is being constructed by BRIF division of China Institute of Atomic Energy. In this project, a 100 MeV high intensity compact proton cyclotron is built for multiple applications. The first successful beam extraction of CYCIAE-100 cyclotron was done in the middle of 2014. The extracted proton beam energy is 100 MeV and the beam current is more than 20 μA. The RF system of the CYCIAE-100 cyclotron includes two half-wavelength cavities, two 100 kW tetrode amplifiers and power transmission line systems (all above are independent from each other) and two sets of Low Level RF control crates. Each set of LLRF control includes an amplitude control unit, a tuning control unit, a phase control unit, a local Digital Signal Process control unit and an Advanced RISC Machines based EPICS IOC unit. These two identical LLRF control crates share one common reference clock and take advantages of modern digital technologies (e.g. DSP and Direct Digital Synthesizer) to achieve closed loop voltage and phase regulations of the dee-voltage. In the beam commission, the measured dee-voltage stability of RF system is better than 0.1% and phase stability is better than 0.03°. The hardware design of the LLRF system will be reviewed in this paper.

  16. Emittance Measurement for Beamline Extension at the PET Cyclotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae-Hoon Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Particle-induced X-ray emission is used for determining the elemental composition of materials. This method uses low-energy protons (of several MeV, which can be obtained from high-energy (of tens MeV accelerators. Instead of manufacturing an accelerator for generating the MeV protons, the use of a PET cyclotron has been suggested for designing the beamline for multipurpose applications, especially for the PIXE experiment, which has a dedicated high-energy (of tens MeV accelerator. The beam properties of the cyclotron were determined at this experimental facility by using an external beamline before transferring the ion beam to the experimental chamber. We measured the beam profile and calculated the emittance using the pepper-pot method. The beam profile was measured as the beam current using a wire scanner, and the emittance was measured as the beam distribution at the beam dump using a radiochromic film. We analyzed the measurement results and are planning to use the results obtained in the simulations of external beamline and aligned beamline components. We will consider energy degradation after computing the beamline simulation. The experimental study focused on measuring the emittance from the cyclotron, and the results of this study are presented in this paper.

  17. Ion cyclotron resonance detection techniques at TRIGA-TRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuth, K.; Eberhardt, K.; Ketelaer, J. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Beyer, T.; Blaum, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet, Heidelberg (Germany); Block, M.; Herfurth, F. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Eibach, M.; Smorra, C. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet, Heidelberg (Germany); Nagy, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In Penning trap mass spectrometry the mass of stored ions is obtained via a determination of the cyclotron frequency ({nu}{sub c}=qB/(2 {pi} m)), for which two different techniques are available. The destructive time-of-flight ion cyclotron resonance (TOF-ICR) technique, based on the measurement of the flight time of excited ions, is the established method for measurements on short-lived radionuclides. It is not ideally suited for rarely produced ion species, since typically some hundred ions are required for a single resonance spectrum. At the Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP therefore a non-destructive narrow-band Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) detection system is being developed. It is based on the detection of the image currents induced by the stored ions in the trap electrodes and will ultimately reach single ion sensitivity. TRIGA-TRAP also features broad-band FT-ICR detection for the coarse identification of the trap content. Additionally, the TOF-ICR detection system has been recently improved to utilize the Ramsey excitation technique to gain in precision, and the position information of the ion impact to further suppress background events in the final time-of-flight spectrum.

  18. The cyclotron maser theory of AKR and Z-mode radiation. [Auroral Kilometric Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    The cyclotron maser mechanism which may be responsible for the generation of auroral kilometric radiation and Z-mode radiation is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the basic concepts of the cyclotron maser theory, particularly the relativistic effect of the cyclotron resonance condition. Recent development of the theory is reviewed. Finally, the results of a computer simulation study which helps to understand the nonlinear saturation of the maser instability are reported.

  19. Linear and nonlinear physics of the magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability of fusion-born ions in relation to ion cyclotron emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbajal, L., E-mail: L.Carbajal-Gomez@warwick.ac.uk; Cook, J. W. S. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, The University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Dendy, R. O. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, The University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Chapman, S. C. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, The University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Tromsø, N-9037, Tromsø (Norway); Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, D-01187, Dresden (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    The magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability (MCI) probably underlies observations of ion cyclotron emission (ICE) from energetic ion populations in tokamak plasmas, including fusion-born alpha-particles in JET and TFTR [Dendy et al., Nucl. Fusion 35, 1733 (1995)]. ICE is a potential diagnostic for lost alpha-particles in ITER; furthermore, the MCI is representative of a class of collective instabilities, which may result in the partial channelling of the free energy of energetic ions into radiation, and away from collisional heating of the plasma. Deep understanding of the MCI is thus of substantial practical interest for fusion, and the hybrid approximation for the plasma, where ions are treated as particles and electrons as a neutralising massless fluid, offers an attractive way forward. The hybrid simulations presented here access MCI physics that arises on timescales longer than can be addressed by fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulations and by analytical linear theory, which the present simulations largely corroborate. Our results go further than previous studies by entering into the nonlinear stage of the MCI, which shows novel features. These include stronger drive at low cyclotron harmonics, the re-energisation of the alpha-particle population, self-modulation of the phase shift between the electrostatic and electromagnetic components, and coupling between low and high frequency modes of the excited electromagnetic field.

  20. Microwave emission related to cyclotron instabilities in a minimum-B electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izotov, I.; Tarvainen, O.; Mansfeld, D.; Skalyga, V.; Koivisto, H.; Kalvas, T.; Komppula, J.; Kronholm, R.; Laulainen, J.

    2015-08-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) have been essential in the research and applications of nuclear physics over the past 40 years. They are extensively used in a wide range of large-scale accelerator facilities for the production of highly charged heavy ion beams of stable and radioactive elements. ECRISs are susceptible to kinetic instabilities due to resonance heating mechanism leading to anisotropic electron velocity distribution function. Instabilities of cyclotron type are a proven cause of frequently observed periodic bursts of ‘hot’ electrons and bremsstrahlung, accompanied with emission of microwave radiation and followed by considerable drop of multiply charged ions current. Detailed studies of the microwave radiation associated with the instabilities have been performed with a minimum-B 14 GHz ECRIS operating on helium, oxygen and argon plasmas. It is demonstrated that during the development of cyclotron instability ‘hot’ electrons emit microwaves in sub-microsecond scale bursts at temporally descending frequencies in the 8-15 GHz range with two dominant frequencies of 11.09 and 12.59 GHz regardless of ECRIS settings i.e. magnetic field strength, neutral gas pressure or species and microwave power. The experimental data suggest that the most probable excited plasma wave is a slow extraordinary Z-mode propagating quasi-longitudinally with respect to the external magnetic field.

  1. Electromagnetic waves near the proton cyclotron frequency: Stereo observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian, L. K. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Wei, H. Y.; Russell, C. T. [Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Luhmann, J. G. [Space Science Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Klecker, B. [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Omidi, N. [Solana Scientific Inc., Solana Beach, CA 92075 (United States); Isenberg, P. A. [Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Goldstein, M. L.; Figueroa-Viñas, A. [Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, MD 20771 (United States); Blanco-Cano, X., E-mail: lan.jian@nasa.gov [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Coyoacán D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-05-10

    Transverse, near-circularly polarized, parallel-propagating electromagnetic waves around the proton cyclotron frequency were found sporadically in the solar wind throughout the inner heliosphere. They could play an important role in heating and accelerating the solar wind. These low-frequency waves (LFWs) are intermittent but often occur in prolonged bursts lasting over 10 minutes, named 'LFW storms'. Through a comprehensive survey of them from Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory A using dynamic spectral wave analysis, we have identified 241 LFW storms in 2008, present 0.9% of the time. They are left-hand (LH) or right-hand (RH) polarized in the spacecraft frame with similar characteristics, probably due to Doppler shift of the same type of waves or waves of intrinsically different polarities. In rare cases, the opposite polarities are observed closely in time or even simultaneously. Having ruled out interplanetary coronal mass ejections, shocks, energetic particles, comets, planets, and interstellar ions as LFW sources, we discuss the remaining generation scenarios: LH ion cyclotron instability driven by greater perpendicular temperature than parallel temperature or by ring-beam distribution, and RH ion fire hose instability driven by inverse temperature anisotropy or by cool ion beams. The investigation of solar wind conditions is compromised by the bias of the one-dimensional Maxwellian fit used for plasma data calibration. However, the LFW storms are preferentially detected in rarefaction regions following fast winds and when the magnetic field is radial. This preference may be related to the ion cyclotron anisotropy instability in fast wind and the minimum in damping along the radial field.

  2. The Cyclotron Production and Nuclear Imaging of BROMINE-77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiano, Eduardo

    In this investigation, bromine-77 was produced with a medical cyclotron and imaged with gamma cameras. Br -77 emits a 240 kev photon with a half life of 56 hours. The C-Br bond is stronger than the C-I bond and bromine is not collected in the thyroid. Bromine can be used to label many organic molecules by methods analogous to radioiodination. The only North American source of Br-77 in the 70's and 80's was Los Alamos National Laboratory, but it discontinued production in 1989. In this method, a p,3n reaction on Br-77 produces Kr-77 which decays with a 1.2 hour half life to Br-77. A cyclotron generated 40 MeV proton beam is incident on a nearly saturated NaBr or LiBr solution contained in a copper or titanium target. A cooling chamber through which helium gas is flowed separates the solution from the cyclotron beam line. Helium gas is also flowed through the solution to extract Kr-77 gas. The mixture flows through a nitrogen trap where Kr-77 freezes and is allowed to decay to Br-77. Eight production runs were performed, three with a copper target and five with a titanium target with yields of 40, 104, 180, 679, 1080, 685, 762 and 118 uCi respectively. Gamma ray spectroscopy has shown the product to be very pure, however corrosion has been a major obstacle, causing the premature retirement of the copper target. Phantom and in-vivo rat nuclear images, and an autoradiograph in a rat are presented. The quality of the nuclear scans is reasonable and the autoradiograph reveals high isotope uptake in the renal parenchyma, a more moderate but uniform uptake in pulmonary and hepatic tissue, and low soft tissue uptake. There is no isotope uptake in the brain or the gastric mucosa.

  3. Hospital based superconducting cyclotron for neutron therapy: Medical physics perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudelev, M.; Burmeister, J.; Blosser, E.; Maughan, R. L.; Kota, C.

    2001-12-01

    The neutron therapy facility at the Gershenson Radiation Oncology Center, Harper University Hospital in Detroit has been operational since September 1991. The d(48.5)+Be beam is produced in a gantry mounted superconducting cyclotron designed and built at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL). Measurements were performed in order to obtain the physical characteristics of the neutron beam and to collect the data necessary for treatment planning. This included profiles of the dose distribution in a water phantom, relative output factors and the design of various beam modifiers, i.e., wedges and tissue compensators. The beam was calibrated in accordance with international protocol for fast neutron dosimetry. Dosimetry and radiobiology intercomparions with three neutron therapy facilities were performed prior to clinical use. The radiation safety program was established in order to monitor and reduce the exposure levels of the personnel. The activation products were identified and the exposure in the treatment room was mapped. A comprehensive quality assurance (QA) program was developed to sustain safe and reliable operation of the unit at treatment standards comparable to those for conventional photon radiation. The program can be divided into three major parts: maintenance of the cyclotron and related hardware; QA of the neutron beam dosimetry and treatment delivery; safety and radiation protection. In addition the neutron beam is used in various non-clinical applications. Among these are the microdosimetric characterization of the beam, the effects of tissue heterogeneity on dose distribution, the development of boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy and variety of radiobiology experiments.

  4. Cyclotron resonance studies on InAs/GaSb heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petchsingh, Cattleya

    2002-07-01

    Far-infrared cyclotron resonance is used to study the magneto-optical properties of semimetallic InAs/GaSb heterostructures. Spatially separated two-dimensional electron and hole gases coexist in this 'broken-gap' type-ll system due to charge transfer across the interfaces. Hybridisations of the overlapping electron and hole wavefunctions are investigated experimentally in samples of varying growth parameters. A self-consistent 8-band k{center_dot}p model is used to assist in the interpretation of experimental results. In samples subjected to varying magnetic field, hybridisations result in oscillations of cyclotron resonance mass, amplitude and linewidth, accompanied by transition splittings in the vicinity of Landau level anticrossings. Asymmetries introduced by InSb interface biasing enhance these effects. Comparison of samples with varying confinement energies (at specified magnetic field) shows effective mass enhancement greater than the standard nonparabolicity effect. The mass enhancement increases with hybridisation strength. A simple two-band minigap model gives good agreement with experimental results. Tilled field measurements show that hybridisation suppresses electron cyclotron resonance transitions. Increased resonance amplitudes at higher temperatures are therefore ascribed to reduced hybridisation strength. Strong evidence of Coulomb interactions between different single particle transitions shows the interactions increasing with temperature, leading to a single motion-averaged transition at sufficiently high temperature. High magnetic field measurements near the quantum limit show transition features generally consistent with electron-hole Landau level hybridisation. Multiple splittings in this field range (14-27T) are ascribed to spin splitting and subband coupling effects. Breaking of selection rules is suggested to be due to inherent band asymmetries in the samples. For narrow well samples, some transition features remain unexplained

  5. Effects of electron-cyclotron instabilities on gyrotron beam quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost, G.; Tran, T.M.; Appert, K. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP); Wuethrich, S. [CRAY Research, PATP/PSE, EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1996-02-01

    A two-dimensional PIC code aimed at the investigation of electron-cyclotron beam instabilities in gyrotrons and their effects on the beam quality is presented. The code is based on recently developed techniques for handling charge conservation and open boundaries. It has been implemented on the massively parallel computer CRAY T3D. First results show an electromagnetic backward instability periodically growing and decaying to energy levels close to those obtained from the electrostatic Bernstein wave instability. On the average, the resulting beam degradation is 3 to 4 times larger than that predicted by electrostatic models. (author) 8 figs., 14 refs.

  6. Cyclotron production of Ac-225 for targeted alpha therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolidis, C; Molinet, R; McGinley, J; Abbas, K; Möllenbeck, J; Morgenstern, A

    2005-03-01

    The feasibility of producing Ac-225 by proton irradiation of Ra-226 in a cyclotron through the reaction Ra-226(p,2n)Ac-225 has been experimentally demonstrated for the first time. Proton energies were varied from 8.8 to 24.8 MeV and cross-sections were determined by radiochemical analysis of reaction yields. Maximum yields were reached at incident proton energies of 16.8 MeV. Radiochemical separation of Ac-225 from the irradiated target yielded a product suitable for targeted alpha therapy of cancer.

  7. RF sources for ITER Ion Cyclotron H and CD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazarian, F., E-mail: fabienne.kazarian@iter.org [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 Sain-Paul-Les-Durance (France); Beaumont, B.; Arambhadiya, B.; Gassmann, T.; Lamalle, Ph.; Rathi, D. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 Sain-Paul-Les-Durance (France); Mukherjee, A.; Ajesh, P.; Machchhar, H.; Patadia, D.; Patel, M.; Rajnish, K.; Singh, R.; Suthar, G.; Trivedi, R. [ITER India, IPR, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat (India); Kumazawa, R.; Seki, T.; Saito, K.; Kasahara, H.; Mutoh, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    The Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (IC H and CD) system for ITER will provide 20 MW to the plasma. The associated Radio Frequency (RF) source system has to be compliant with all operation modes foreseen in that frame. Their specifications are fully described in this paper and constraints on IC RF source components are detailed, in particular concerning the final stage tube of the amplifier. Results of tests performed under a collaborative work at the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) facility are presented. Consequences on the procurement process by ITER India (II) are deduced.

  8. Calibration of electron cyclotron emission radiometer for KSTAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, Y; Jeong, S H; Lee, K D; Akaki, K; Mase, A; Kuwahara, D; Yoshinaga, T; Nagayama, Y; Kwon, M; Kawahata, K

    2010-10-01

    We developed and installed an electron cyclotron emission radiometer for taking measurements of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) plasma. In order to precisely measure the absolute value of electron temperatures, a calibration measurement of the whole radiometer system was performed, which confirmed that the radiometer has an acceptably linear output signal for changes in input temperature. It was also found that the output power level predicted by a theoretical calculation agrees with that obtained by the calibration measurement. We also showed that the system displays acceptable noise-temperature performance around 0.23 eV.

  9. Solar Wind Electric Fields in the Ion Cyclotron Frequency Range

    CERN Document Server

    Kellogg, P J; Mozer, F S; Horbury, T S; Reme, H

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of fluctuations of electric fields in the frequency range from a fraction of one Hz to 12.5 Hz are presented, and corrected for the Lorentz transformation of magnetic fluctuations to give the electric fields in the plasma frame. The electric fields are large enough to provide the dominant force on the ions of the solar wind in the region near the ion cyclotron frequency of protons, larger than the force due to magnetic fluctuations. They provide sufficient velocity space diffusion or heating to counteract conservation of magnetic moment in the expanding solar wind to maintain nearly isotropic velocity distributions.

  10. Calibration of electron cyclotron emission radiometer for KSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogi, Y. [Fukuoka Institute of Technology, Fukuoka 811-0295 (Japan); Jeong, S. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, K. D.; Kwon, M. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Akaki, K.; Mase, A. [KASTEC, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Kuwahara, D. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Yoshinaga, T.; Nagayama, Y.; Kawahata, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    We developed and installed an electron cyclotron emission radiometer for taking measurements of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) plasma. In order to precisely measure the absolute value of electron temperatures, a calibration measurement of the whole radiometer system was performed, which confirmed that the radiometer has an acceptably linear output signal for changes in input temperature. It was also found that the output power level predicted by a theoretical calculation agrees with that obtained by the calibration measurement. We also showed that the system displays acceptable noise-temperature performance around 0.23 eV.

  11. Automated cyclotron magnetic field measurement at the University of Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenchuk, V.; Bruckshaw, J.; Gusdal, I.; Lancaster, J.; McIlwain, A.; Oh, S.; Pogson, R.; McKee, J. S. C.

    The magnetic field of the University of Manitoba compact cyclotron has been measured in high vacuum by polar scanning with 52 flip coils. This was a unique invacuo operation was required because the Curie effect on invar material is used to trim the field. The data acquisition controller was a Digital Equipment Corporation LSI-11 with CAMAC and IEEE-488 interfaces. Filtering, display and conventional equilibrium orbit analysis were performed off-line by means of a VAX-11/750 computer. A description of the apparatus and software is given.

  12. Field Simulation of Main Magnet for 230 MeV Superconducting Cyclotron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Chuan; LI; Ming; ZHANG; Dong-sheng; YIN; Meng; YANG; Jian-jun; CUI; Tao; LV; Yin-long; AN; Shi-zhong; ZHANG; Tian-jue

    2015-01-01

    Superconducting proton cyclotrons have many advantages over competitive accelerators in medium energy range,namely,lower construction cost,lower operation cost,more compact thus more suitable to be installed in limited cite like hospitals.More specifically,as superconducting proton cyclotrons provide CW proton

  13. Electromagnetism applications in nuclear engineering: cyclotron; Aplicacoes do eletromagnetismo na engenharia nuclear; ciclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobrega Bastos; Dalla Riva, Maria Teresa Cristina da

    1995-08-01

    Particle accelerators, with special emphasis on cyclotrons, are presented. Other electromagnetic devices and their importance in technology and research are also shown. An experimental arrangement for positrons source productions using a cyclotron aiming at non-destructive testing for radiations damage studies is presented. 46 refs., 23 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Monte-Carlo Simulation of Cryopanel Parameter in CYCIAE-100 Cyclotron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN; Gao-feng; ZHANG; Su-ping; XING; Jian-sheng; LI; Zhen-guo; QIN; Jiu-chang

    2015-01-01

    The diameter of CYCIAE-100cyclotron main magnet is 4m,the angle of magnet valley is 35°and its height is about 500mm.Due to restrictions on the size of compact cyclotron structure,the available vacuum suction space is limited.According to the beam loss theory,particles

  15. Theoretical Formula and Simulation of Cyclotron Magnet Shimming in High Field Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Dong-sheng; YANG; Jian-jun; LI; Ming

    2015-01-01

    In the computation of cyclotron magnet shimming,trim-rod and magnetic channel,one common process is to calculate the variation of magnet field caused by a small iron piece.Under the circumstance of superconducting cyclotron,high field approximate can be used and we can derive

  16. A new generation of medical cyclotrons for the 90's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milton, B.F

    1995-08-01

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for use in radio-isotope production. In recent years, developments in accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicates a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper we will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. Existing and potential markets for these cyclotrons will be presented. We will also discuss the possibility of systems capable of extracted energies up to 150 MeV and extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA. (author)

  17. Design of the ion cyclotron system for TPX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, D.; Shipley, S.; Yugo, J.; Goulding, R.; Batchelor, D.; Stallings, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Fredd, E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.

    1993-06-01

    The TPX experiment will operate for very long pulse times ({ge} 1000 s) and will require current drive of several different types to explore the advanced physics operating modes as one of its main missions. Fast wave current drive (FWCD) using ion cyclotron waves in the 40--80 MHz range will be used as one of the main current-drive mechanisms. For initial operation, 8 MW of rf will be supplied, along with 8 MW of neutral beams and 1.5 MW of lower hybrid power. The ion cyclotron (IC) system is a major part of the TPX heating and current drive system. The IC system must: supply 8 MW of power through two main horizontal ports; be upgradable to provide up to 12 MW of rf power through two ports; operate, for 1000-s pulses every 75 min; drive current using FWCD with high reliability; be bakeable to 350{degree}C for cleaning; and incorporate shielding to attenuate the neutron and gamma flux from DD operation so that hands-on maintenance can be performed exterior to the vacuum vessel. The system will consist of four modified FMIT power units that will be upgraded to deliver 2 MW each to the plasma. Two antennas, each with six current straps, will be located in adjacent ports. A sophisticated matching system is needed to provide experimental flexibility and reliability.

  18. Design of the ion cyclotron system for TPX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, D.; Shipley, S.; Yugo, J.; Goulding, R.; Batchelor, D.; Stallings, D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Fredd, E. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1993-01-01

    The TPX experiment will operate for very long pulse times ([ge] 1000 s) and will require current drive of several different types to explore the advanced physics operating modes as one of its main missions. Fast wave current drive (FWCD) using ion cyclotron waves in the 40--80 MHz range will be used as one of the main current-drive mechanisms. For initial operation, 8 MW of rf will be supplied, along with 8 MW of neutral beams and 1.5 MW of lower hybrid power. The ion cyclotron (IC) system is a major part of the TPX heating and current drive system. The IC system must: supply 8 MW of power through two main horizontal ports; be upgradable to provide up to 12 MW of rf power through two ports; operate, for 1000-s pulses every 75 min; drive current using FWCD with high reliability; be bakeable to 350[degree]C for cleaning; and incorporate shielding to attenuate the neutron and gamma flux from DD operation so that hands-on maintenance can be performed exterior to the vacuum vessel. The system will consist of four modified FMIT power units that will be upgraded to deliver 2 MW each to the plasma. Two antennas, each with six current straps, will be located in adjacent ports. A sophisticated matching system is needed to provide experimental flexibility and reliability.

  19. Response of thermal ions to electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. J.; Fuselier, S. A.

    1994-01-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves generated by 10 - 50 keV protons in the Earth's equatorial magnetosphere will interact with the ambient low-energy ions also found in this region. We examine H(+) and He(+) distribution functions from approx. equals 1 to 160 eV using the Hot Plasma Composition Experiment instrument on AMPTE/CCE to investigate the thermal ion response to the waves. A total of 48 intervals were chosen on the basis of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave activity: 24 with prevalent EMIC waves and 24 with no EMIC waves observed on the orbit. There is a close correlation between EMIC waves and perpendicular heated ion distributions. For protons the perpendicular temperature increase is modest, about 5 eV, and is always observed at 90 deg pitch angles. This is consistent with a nonresonant interaction near the equator. By contrast, He(+) temperatures during EMIC wave events averaged 35 eV and sometimes exceeded 100 eV, indicating stronger interaction with the waves. Furthermore, heated He(+) ions have X-type distributions with maximum fluxes occurring at pitch angles intermediate between field-aligned and perpendicular directions. The X-type He(+) distributions are consistent with a gyroresonant interaction off the equator. The concentration of He(+) relative to H(+) is found to correlate with EMIC wave activity, but it is suggested that the preferential heating of He(+) accounts for the apparent increase in relative He(+) concentration by increasing the proportion of He(+) detected by the ion instrument.

  20. Response of thermal ions to electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. J.; Fuselier, S. A.

    1994-10-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves generated by 10 - 50 keV protons in the Earth's equatorial magnetosphere will interact with the ambient low-energy ions also found in this region. We examine H(+) and He(+) distribution functions from approx. equals 1 to 160 eV using the Hot Plasma Composition Experiment instrument on AMPTE/CCE to investigate the thermal ion response to the waves. A total of 48 intervals were chosen on the basis of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave activity: 24 with prevalent EMIC waves and 24 with no EMIC waves observed on the orbit. There is a close correlation between EMIC waves and perpendicular heated ion distributions. For protons the perpendicular temperature increase is modest, about 5 eV, and is always observed at 90 deg pitch angles. This is consistent with a nonresonant interaction near the equator. By contrast, He(+) temperatures during EMIC wave events averaged 35 eV and sometimes exceeded 100 eV, indicating stronger interaction with the waves. Furthermore, heated He(+) ions have X-type distributions with maximum fluxes occurring at pitch angles intermediate between field-aligned and perpendicular directions. The X-type He(+) distributions are consistent with a gyroresonant interaction off the equator. The concentration of He(+) relative to H(+) is found to correlate with EMIC wave activity, but it is suggested that the preferential heating of He(+) accounts for the apparent increase in relative He(+) concentration by increasing the proportion of He(+) detected by the ion instrument.

  1. Polarization in cyclotron radiation in strong magnetic fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luidmila Semionova; Denis Leahy; Jorge Paez

    2010-01-01

    We revisit the problem of radiative transitions of electrons in the presence of a strong magnetic field.We derive fully relativistic cyclotron transition rates for an arbitrary magnetic field,for any orientation of electron spin and for any polarization of the emitted radiation.Also,we obtain the transition rates for any value of the initial electron's parallel momentum.For very strong magnetic fields,transitions to the ground state predominate.Transition rates summed over the electron's spin orientation and for unpolarized radiation are also obtained,which confirm previous results by Latal.Transition widths are calculated for different electron spin orientations and different polarizations of radiation.We obtain general expressions for transition rates that reduce to the results for the non-relativistic case and for unpolarized radiation.Additionally we get,for the non-relativistic approximation,the transition rates for any polarization of radiation.As an application,the first five emission lines are evaluated and compared to the X-ray emitting neutron star V0332+53,which has multiple observable cyclotron lines,taking into account gravitational redshift.The most probable polarization is ∈(2).

  2. Robust Matching System for the ITER Ion Cyclotron System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, D.; Goulding, R.; Rasmussen, D.; Vervier, M.; Messiaen, A.; Dumortier, P.

    2008-11-01

    The ITER ion cyclotron system is required to deliver 20 MW to the ITER plasma under a number of different operating scenarios. The EU will fabricate the antenna, the US will supply the matching system and transmission lines, and India will deliver the rf sources and high-voltage power supplies. A brief description of the complete ion cyclotron system will be presented, and different design options for the matching system will be discussed. Emphasis will be on analyzing the ability of the system to operate effectively during sudden changes caused by plasma perturbations (e. g., ELMs), and on the robustness of matching algorithms. Particular challenges are: the possibility of relatively low loading of the antenna by the plasma because of a large plasma-antenna distance; the resulting high voltages in the matching system (which must be minimized by good system design); the need to install a number of large matching components in the tight space available near the tokamak; and the requirement for operation and maintenance in a radiation environment.

  3. Superconducting Ring Cyclotron for Riken RI Beam Factory in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, H.; Dantsuka, T.; Yamada, K.; Kase, M.; Maie, T.; Kamigaito, O.

    2010-04-01

    Since 1997, RIKEN Nishina Center has been constructing the Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory (RIBF) and succeeded in beam commissioning of its accelerator complex at the end of 2006. The world's first superconducting ring cyclotron (SRC) is the final booster in the RIBF accelerator complex which is able to accelerate all-element heavy ions to a speed of about 70% of the velocity of light. The ring cyclotron consists of 6 major superconducting sector magnets with a maximum field of 3.8 T. The total stored energy is 235 MJ, and its overall sizes are 19 m diameter, 8 m height and 8,300 tons. The magnet system assembly was completed in August 2005, and successfully reached the maximum field in November 2005. The first beam was extracted at the end of 2006 and the first uranium beam was extracted in March 2007. However operation of the helium refrigerator was not satisfactory although the commissioning of SRC was successful. Operation was stopped every two month due to degradation of its cooling power. In February 2008 the reason of the degradation was revealed to be oil contamination. Operation of the cryogenic system was restarted from August 2008 after hard task to clean up the helium refrigerator and to add oil separators to the compressor. After restoration long-term steady operation to keep the magnet superconducting continued for about 8 months with no sign of degradation of cooling capacity.

  4. Power requirements for electron cyclotron current drive and ion cyclotron resonance heating for sawtooth control in ITER

    CERN Document Server

    Chapman, I T; Sauter, O; Zucca, C; Asunta, O; Buttery, R J; Coda, S; Goodman, T; Igochine, V; Johnson, T; Jucker, M; La Haye, R J; Lennholm, M; Contributors, JET-EFDA

    2013-01-01

    13MW of electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) power deposited inside the q = 1 surface is likely to reduce the sawtooth period in ITER baseline scenario below the level empirically predicted to trigger neo-classical tearing modes (NTMs). However, since the ECCD control scheme is solely predicated upon changing the local magnetic shear, it is prudent to plan to use a complementary scheme which directly decreases the potential energy of the kink mode in order to reduce the sawtooth period. In the event that the natural sawtooth period is longer than expected, due to enhanced alpha particle stabilisation for instance, this ancillary sawtooth control can be provided from > 10MW of ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) power with a resonance just inside the q = 1 surface. Both ECCD and ICRH control schemes would benefit greatly from active feedback of the deposition with respect to the rational surface. If the q = 1 surface can be maintained closer to the magnetic axis, the efficacy of ECCD and ICRH schemes sig...

  5. Technical Note: Building a combined cyclotron and MRI facility: Implications for interference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofman, Mark B. M.; Kuijer, Joost P. A.; Ridder, Jan Willem de; Perk, Lars R.; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M. [Physics and Medical Technology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam 1007 MB (Netherlands) and BV Cyclotron VU, Amsterdam 1081HV (Netherlands)

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: With the introduction of hybrid PET/MRI systems, it has become more likely that the cyclotron and MRI systems will be located close to each other. This study considered the interference between a cyclotron and a superconducting MRI system. Methods: Interactions between cyclotrons and MRIs are theoretically considered. The main interference is expected to be the perturbation of the magnetic field in the MRI due to switching on or off the magnetic field of the cyclotron. MR imaging is distorted by a dynamic spatial gradient of an external inplane magnetic field larger than 0.5-0.04 {mu}T/m, depending on the specific MR application. From the design of a cyclotron, it is expected that the magnetic fringe field at large distances behaves as a magnetic dipolar field. This allows estimation of the full dipolar field and its spatial gradients from a single measurement. Around an 18 MeV cyclotron (Cyclone, IBA), magnetic field measurements were performed on 5 locations and compared with calculations based upon a dipolar field model. Results: At the measurement locations the estimated and measured values of the magnetic field component and its spatial gradients of the inplane component were compared, and found to agree within a factor 1.1 for the magnetic field and within a factor of 1.5 for the spatial gradients of the field. In the specific case of the 18 MeV cyclotron with a vertical magnetic field and a 3T superconducting whole body MR system, a minimum distance of 20 m has to be considered to prevent interference. Conclusions: This study showed that a dipole model is sufficiently accurate to predict the interference of a cyclotron on a MRI scanner, for site planning purposes. The cyclotron and a whole body MRI system considered in this study need to be placed more than 20 m apart, or magnetic shielding should be utilized.

  6. Flash ionisation signature in coherent cyclotron emission from Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Vorgul, Irena

    2016-01-01

    Brown dwarfs form mineral clouds in their atmospheres, where charged particles can produce large-scale discharges in form of lightning resulting in a substantial sudden increase of local ionisation. Brown dwarfs are observed to emit cyclotron radio emission. We show that signatures of strong transient atmospheric ionisation events (flash ionisation) can be imprinted on a pre-existing radiation. Detection of such flash ionisation events will open investigations into the ionisation state and atmospheric dynamics. Such ionisation events can also result from explosion shock waves, bursts or eruptions. We present an analytical model that describes the modulation of a pre-existing electromagnetic radiation by a time-dependent (flash) conductivity that is characteristic for flash ionisation events like lightning. Our conductivity model reproduces the conductivity function derived from observations of Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes, and is applicable to astrophysical objects with strong temporal variations in the loca...

  7. Alternative optical concept for electron cyclotron emission imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J. X., E-mail: jsliu9@berkeley.edu [Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Milbourne, T. [Department of Physics, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23185 (United States); Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Dominguez, A.; Efthimion, P. C.; Hill, K. W.; Kramer, G. J.; Kung, C.; Pablant, N. A.; Tobias, B. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Kubota, S. [Department of Physics, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Kasparek, W. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany); Lu, J. [Department of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Park, H. [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    The implementation of advanced electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) systems on tokamak experiments has revolutionized the diagnosis of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activities and improved our understanding of instabilities, which lead to disruptions. It is therefore desirable to have an ECEI system on the ITER tokamak. However, the large size of optical components in presently used ECEI systems have, up to now, precluded the implementation of an ECEI system on ITER. This paper describes a new optical ECEI concept that employs a single spherical mirror as the only optical component and exploits the astigmatism of such a mirror to produce an image with one-dimensional spatial resolution on the detector. Since this alternative approach would only require a thin slit as the viewing port to the plasma, it would make the implementation of an ECEI system on ITER feasible. The results obtained from proof-of-principle experiments with a 125 GHz microwave system are presented.

  8. Cyclotron resonance maser experiments in a bifilar helical waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharony; Drori; Jerby

    2000-11-01

    Oscillator and amplifier cyclotron-resonance-maser (CRM) experiments in a spiral bifilar waveguide are presented in this paper. The slow-wave CRM device employs a low-energy low-current electron beam (2-12 keV, approximately 0.5 A). The pitch angle of the helical waveguide is relatively small; hence, the phase velocity in this waveguide, V(ph) congruent with0.8c (where c is the speed of light), is much faster than the axial velocity of the electrons, V(ez)traveling-wave-tube-type interactions are eliminated in this device. According to the CRM theory, the dominant effect in this operating regime, V(ez)2%). The wide tunable range of this CRM device due to the nondispersive bifilar helix is discussed.

  9. Positron-Cyclotron Maser for the Core Emissions from Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, C; Wang, D; Wu, X; Ma, Chun-yu; Mao, Ding-yi; Wang, De-yu; Wu, Xin-ji

    1997-01-01

    We use the cyclotron-maser theory to explain the core emission from the magnetosphere of pulsars. As a kind of direct and efficient maser type of emission, it can give rise to escaping radiation with extremely high brightness temperature and narrow angle with respect to the magnetic axis. We find that the growth rates and real frequencies of the O-mode electromagnetic wave propagating parallel to the magnetic fields depend on the ratio of the plasma frequency $\\omega_p$ and the gyrofrequency $\\omega_b$ rather than the plasma frequency alone, as described by other models. The emission takes place in the region where the magnitude of $\\omega_p/\\omega_b$ is $10^{-2}$. The corresponding altitude is about a few decades of neutron star radius, where the magnetic field strength is about $10^6-10^8 G$. The qualitative spectrum and the lower frequency cut-off of the radio emission is obtained by this model.

  10. Electron Cyclotron Maser Emissions from Evolving Fast Electron Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, J F; Chen, L; Zhao, G Q; Tan, C M

    2016-01-01

    Fast electron beams (FEBs) are common products of solar active phenomena. Solar radio bursts are an important diagnostic tool in the understanding of FEBs as well as the solar plasma environment in which they are propagating along solar magnetic fields. In particular, the evolutions of the energy spectrum and velocity distribution of FEBs due to the interaction with the ambient plasma and field when propagating can significantly influence the efficiency and property of their emissions. In this paper, we discuss some possible evolutions of the energy spectrum and velocity distribution of FEBs due to the energy loss processes and the pitch-angle effect caused by the magnetic field inhomogeneity, and analyze the effects of these evolutions on electron cyclotron maser (ECM) emission, which is one of the most important mechanisms of producing solar radio bursts by FEBs. The results show that the growth rates all decrease with the energy loss factor $Q$, but increase with the magnetic mirror ratio $\\sigma$ as well ...

  11. Cyclotron Resonance Gain for FIR and THz Radiation in Graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Cole, Nightvid

    2016-01-01

    A cyclotron resonance maser source using low-effective-mass conduction electrons in graphene, if successful, would allow for generation of Far Infrared (FIR) and Terahertz (THz) radiation without requiring magnetic fields running into the tens of Tesla. In order to investigate this possibility, we consider a device in which electrons are effectively injected via pumping from the valence band to the conduction band using an infrared (IR) laser source, subsequently gyrate in a magnetic field applied perpendicular to the plane of the graphene, and give rise to gain for a FIR/THz wave crossing the plane of the graphene. A set of integral expressions is derived by assuming that the non-radiative energy loss processes of the electrons can be adequately represented by a damping force proportional and antiparallel to their momentum. Minimal gain may occur at very short electron damping times of hundreds of femtoseconds.

  12. Characteristics of surface sterilization using electron cyclotron resonance plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonesu, Akira; Hara, Kazufumi; Nishikawa, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2016-07-01

    The characteristics of surface sterilization using electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma were investigated. High-energy electrons and oxygen radicals were observed in the ECR zone using electric probe and optical emission spectroscopic methods. A biological indicator (BI), Geobacillus stearothermophilus, containing 1 × 106 spores was sterilized in 120 s by exposure to oxygen discharges while maintaining a temperature of approximately 55 °C at the BI installation position. Oxygen radicals and high-energy electrons were found to be the sterilizing species in the ECR region. It was demonstrated that the ECR plasma could be produced in narrow tubes with an inner diameter of 5 mm. Moreover, sterilization tests confirmed that the spores present inside the narrow tube were successfully inactivated by ECR plasma irradiation.

  13. One-electron quantum cyclotron (and implications for cold antihydrogen)

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrielse, G; Odom, B; D'Urso, B

    2001-01-01

    Quantum jumps between Fock states of a one-electron oscillator reveal the quantum limit of a cyclotron accelerator. The states live for seconds when spontaneous emission is inhibited by a factor of 140 within a cylindrical Penning trap cavity. Averaged over hours the oscillator is in thermal equilibrium with black-body photons in the cavity. At 80 mK, quantum jumps occur only when resonant microwave photons are introduced into the cavity, opening a route to improved measurements of the magnetic moments of the electron and positron. The temperature demonstrated is about 60 times lower than the 4.2 K temperature at which charged elementary particles were previously stored. Implications for the production of cold antihydrogen are discussed. (21 refs).

  14. Charge reversal Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobodin, Vladislav V; Savory, Joshua J; Kaiser, Nathan K; Dunk, Paul W; Marshall, Alan G

    2013-02-01

    We report the first charge reversal experiments performed by tandem-in-time rather than tandem-in-space MS/MS. Precursor odd-electron anions from fullerene C(60), and even-electron ions from 2,7-di-tert-butylfluorene-9-carboxylic acid and 3,3'-bicarbazole were converted into positive product ions ((-)CR(+)) inside the magnet of a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Charge reversal was activated by irradiating precursor ions with high energy electrons or UV photons: the first reported use of those activation methods for charge reversal. We suggest that high energy electrons achieve charge reversal in one step as double electron transfer, whereas UV-activated (-)CR(+) takes place stepwise through two single electron transfers and formally corresponds to a neutralization-reionization ((-)NR(+)) experiment.

  15. Electron cyclotron resonance breakdown studies in a linear plasma system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vipin K Yadav; K Sathyanarayana; D Bora

    2008-03-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma breakdown is studied in a small linear cylindrical system with four different gases - hydrogen, helium, argon and nitrogen. Microwave power in the experimental system is delivered by a magnetron at 2.45 ± 0.02 GHz in TE10 mode and launched radially to have extra-ordinary (X) wave in plasma. The axial magnetic field required for ECR in the system is such that the fundamental ECR surface ( = 875.0 G) resides at the geometrical centre of the plasma system. ECR breakdown parameters such as plasma delay time and plasma decay time from plasma density measurements are carried out at the centre using a Langmuir probe. The operating parameters such as working gas pressure (1 × 10-5 -1 × 10-2 mbar) and input microwave power (160{800 W) are varied and the corresponding effect on the breakdown parameters is studied. The experimental results obtained are presented in this paper.

  16. Conceptual design of CFETR electron cyclotron wave system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yunying, E-mail: yytang@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shushanhu Road 350, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Jinzhai Road 96, Hefei 230026, Anhui (China); Wang, Xiaojie; Liu, Fukun; Zhang, Liyuan; Wei, Wei; Xu, Handong; Xu, Weiye; Wu, Dajun; Feng, Jianqiang [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shushanhu Road 350, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • The conceptual design of 170 GHz/20 MW electron cyclotron wave system was introduced. • The layout of RF sources was given. • The design and layout of transmission lines were shown and series of microwave components were introduced. • The structure of launcher was described in detail. • By the optic calculation and optimization of RF propagation inside the launcher, the quasi-optical parameters for launcher design were given. And then temperature distribution and thermal-stress of the injection mirror were analyzed. - Abstract: China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is a test tokamak which is built for magnetically confined fusion plasma experiments. The electron cyclotron (EC) wave system of CFETR is designed to inject 20 MW RF power into the plasma for heating and current drive (H&CD) applications. The EC wave system consists of RF sources, twenty transmission lines (TLs) and one equatorial launcher. RF sources contain twenty gyrotrons with the output power 1 MW. There are series of microwave components distributed along the TL and the percentage of power losses of each TL is about 8.7%. In the equatorial launcher, five RF beams are injected into one focusing mirror and then reflected to the plasma via one injection mirror. The focusing mirror is spherical to focus Gaussian beam and the injection mirror which is flat can steer in the toroidal direction. After optic calculation and optimization, all the quasi-optical parameters for launcher design are given. Combining with the thermal stress analysis, the chosen inner diameter of water channel of injection mirror is 12 mm and the suggested water velocity is 3 m/s.

  17. Response of thermal ions to electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, B.J. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel, MD (United States); Fuselier, S.A. [Lockheed Palo Alto Research Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves generated by 10-50 keV protons in the Earth`s equatorial magnetosphere will interact with the ambient low-energy ions also found in this region. The authors examine H{sup +} and He{sup +} distribution functions from {approx} 1 to 160 eV using the Hot Plasma Composition Experiment instrument on AMPTE/CCE to investigate the thermal ion response to the waves. A total of 48 intervals were chosen on the basis of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave activity: 24 with prevalent EMIC waves and 24 with no EMIC waves observed on the orbit. There is a close correlation between EMIC waves and perpendicularly heated ion distributions. For protons the perpendicular temperature increase is modest, about 5 eV, and is always observed at 90{degrees} pitch angles. This is consistent with a nonresonant interaction near the equator. By contrast, He{sup +} temperatures during EMIC wave events averaged 35 eV and sometimes exceeded 100 eV, indicating stronger interaction with the waves. Furthermore, heated He{sup +} ions have X-type distributions with maximum fluxes occurring at pitch angles intermediate between field-aligned and perpendicular directions. The X-type He{sup +} distributions are consistent with a gyroresonant interaction off the equator. The concentration of He{sup +} relative to H{sup +} is found to correlate with EMIC wave activity, but it is suggested that the preferential heating of He{sup +} accounts for the apparent increase in relative He{sup +} concentration by increasing the proportion of He{sup +} detected by the ion instrument. 35 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Flash ionization signature in coherent cyclotron emission from brown dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorgul, I.; Helling, Ch.

    2016-05-01

    Brown dwarfs (BDs) form mineral clouds in their atmospheres, where charged particles can produce large-scale discharges in the form of lightning resulting in substantial sudden increase of local ionization. BDs are observed to emit cyclotron radio emission. We show that signatures of strong transient atmospheric ionization events (flash ionization) can be imprinted on a pre-existing radiation. Detection of such flash ionization events will open investigations into the ionization state and atmospheric dynamics. Such events can also result from explosion shock waves, material outbursts or (volcanic) eruptions. We present an analytical model that describes the modulation of a pre-existing electromagnetic radiation by a time-dependent (flash) conductivity that is characteristic for flash ionization events like lightning. Our conductivity model reproduces the conductivity function derived from observations of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes, and is applicable to astrophysical objects with strong temporal variations in the local ionization, as in planetary atmospheres and protoplanetary discs. We show that the field responds with a characteristic flash-shaped pulse to a conductivity flash of intermediate intensity. More powerful ionization events result in smaller variations of the initial radiation, or in its damping. We show that the characteristic damping of the response field for high-power initial radiation carries information about the ionization flash magnitude and duration. The duration of the pulse amplification or the damping is consistently shorter for larger conductivity variations and can be used to evaluate the intensity of the flash ionization. Our work suggests that cyclotron emission could be probe signals for electrification processes inside BD atmosphere.

  19. Intelligent Low-level RF System by Non-destructive Beam Monitoring Device for Cyclotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Malafeh, M S Sharifi Asadi; Afarideh, H; Chai, J S

    2015-01-01

    The project of a10MeV PET cyclotron accelerator for medical diagnosis and treatment was started at Amirkabir University of Technology in 2012. The low-level RF system of cyclotron accelerator is designed to stabilize acceleration voltage and control the resonance frequency of the cavity. In this work Intelligent Low Level Radio Frequency Circuit or ILLRF suitable for Most of the AVF cyclotron accelerators was designed by the beam monitoring device and narrow band tunable band-pass filter. In this design, for the RF phase detection does not need to signal processing by microcontroller

  20. The physics design of magnet in 14 MeV cyclotron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The 14 MeV, 400 μA compact cyclotron is under construction at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). The design of main magnet and the result of beam dynamics in the cyclotron will be described in this paper, including the choice of main parameters of magnet, the method of shimming isochronous field in the compact cyclotron and optimization of the magnetic field in central region. The beam will be accelerated to 14.6 MeV by optimizing the magnet structure.

  1. Design of Spiral Inflector and Central Region for a Medical Cyclotron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    CYCIAE-14 is a medical cyclotron designed to accelerate H- ions and extract protons, and it adopts the external ion source and axial injection line. The spiral inflector and the central region are the important

  2. Electrostatic electron cyclotron instabilities near the upper hybrid layer due to electron ring distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliasson, B.; Speirs, D. C.; Daldorff, L. K. S.

    2016-09-01

    A theoretical study is presented of the electrostatic electron cyclotron instability involving Bernstein modes in a magnetized plasma. The presence of a tenuous thermal ring distribution in a Maxwellian plasma decreases the frequency of the upper hybrid branch of the electron Bernstein mode until it merges with the nearest lower branch with a resulting instability. The instability occurs when the upper hybrid frequency is somewhat above the third, fourth, and higher electron cyclotron harmonics, and gives rise to a narrow spectrum of waves around the electron cyclotron harmonic nearest to the upper hybrid frequency. For a tenuous cold ring distribution together with a Maxwellian distribution an instability can take place also near the second electron cyclotron harmonic. Noise-free Vlasov simulations are used to assess the theoretical linear growth-rates and frequency spectra, and to study the nonlinear evolution of the instability. The relevance of the results to laboratory and ionospheric heating experiments is discussed.

  3. High performance computation on beam dynamics problems in high intensity compact cyclotrons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ADELMANN; Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the research progress in the beam dynamics problems for future high intensity compact cyclotrons by utilizing the state-of-the-art high performance computation technology. A "Start-to-Stop" model, which includes both the interaction of the internal particles of a single bunch and the mutual interaction of neighboring multiple bunches in the radial direction, is established for compact cyclotrons with multi-turn extraction. This model is then implemented in OPAL-CYCL, which is a 3D object-oriented parallel code for large scale particle simulations in cyclotrons. In addition, to meet the running requirement of parallel computation, we have constructed a small scale HPC cluster system and tested its performance. Finally, the high intensity beam dynamics problems in the 100 MeV compact cyclotron, which is being constructed at CIAE, are studied using this code and some conclusions are drawn.

  4. Cyclotron-based nuclear science. Progress report, April 1, 1979-March 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    Research at the cyclotron institute is summarized. These major areas are covered: nuclear structure; nuclear reactions and scattering; polarization studies; interdisciplinary nuclear science; instrumentation and systems development; and publications. (GHT)

  5. Infra red active modes due to coupling of cyclotron excitation and LO phonons in polar semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Ratna; Dubey, Swati; Ghosh, S.

    2013-06-01

    Effects of free carrier concentration, external magnetic field and Callen effective charge on infra red active modes in a polar semiconductor have been analytically investigated using simple harmonic oscillator model. Callen effective charge considerably enhances reflectivity and shifts minima towards lower values of energy. Presence of magnetic field leads towards the coupling of collective cyclotron excitations with LO phonon giving rise to maximum reflectivity whereas cyclotron resonance absorption results into minimum reflectivity.

  6. Bi-directional Alfv\\'en Cyclotron Instabilities in the Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak

    CERN Document Server

    Sharapov, S E; Akers, R; Ayed, N Ben; Cecconello, M; Cook, J W C; Cunningham, G; Verwichte, E; Tea, the MAST

    2014-01-01

    Alfv\\'en cyclotron instabilities excited by velocity gradients of energetic beam ions were investigated in MAST experiments with super-Alfv\\'enic NBI over a wide range of toroidal magnetic fields from ~0.34 T to ~0.585 T. In MAST discharges with high magnetic field, a discrete spectrum of modes in the sub-cyclotron frequency range is excited toroidally propagating counter to the beam and plasma current (toroidal mode numbers n < 0).

  7. Optically detected cyclotron resonance in a single GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartsch, Gregor

    2011-09-23

    Optically detected far-infrared cyclotron resonance (FIR-ODCR) in GaAs/AlGaAs HJs is interpreted in the frame of an exciton-dissociation mechanism. It is possible to explain the ODR mechanism by an exciton drag, mediated by ballistically propagating phonons. Furthermore, very narrow resonances are presented and realistic electron mobility values can be calculated. The exceptionally narrow ODCRs allow to measure conduction-band nonparabolicity effects and resolve satellite resonances, close to the main cyclotron resonance line.

  8. Extraction and diagnostic systems of the CIME cyclotron for SPIRAL project; Systemes d`ejection et de diagnostics du cyclotron CIME du projet SPIRAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibet, D.; Bourgarel, M.P. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Laune, B.; Malard, M.; Mormiche, M.; Serafini, A.; Szott, Ph. [Services Techniques, Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1999-11-01

    The extraction of the CIME cyclotron of the SPIRAL R.I.B. facility is composed of two electrostatic deflectors followed by two magnetostatic channels. For the diagnostics, a radial probe carrying a plastic scintillator for the radioactive beams, has been built, as well as dedicated probes in front of each of the channels. A set of 15 electrostatic pick up probes will enable the phase tuning for the stable beams. All these elements have been built and fully tested at the IPN, prior to there final installation on the CIME cyclotron. (authors) 4 figs.

  9. Evaluation of the latent radiation dose from the activated radionuclides in a cyclotron vault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunduk; Cho, Gyuseong; Kim, Sun A.; Kang, Bo Sun

    2015-02-01

    The production of short-lived radioisotopes for the synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals typically takes advantage of a cyclotron that accelerates a proton beam up to a few tens of MeV. The number of cyclotrons has been continuously increasing since the first operation of the MC-50 for the production of radiopharmaceuticals at the Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences (KIRAMS) in 1986, and currently 35 cyclotrons are under operation throughout the nation. As the number of operating cyclotrons has increased, concerns about radiation safety for the persons who are working at the facilities and dwelling in the vicinity of the facilities are becoming important issues. Radiation that could emit a time-dependent dose was shown to exist in a cyclotron vault after its shutdown. The calculation of the latent radiation dose rate was performed by using the MCNPX and the FISPACT. The calculated results for the activated long-lived radioisotopes in the concrete wall and the structural components of the cyclotron facility were compared with the measured data that were obtained by using gamma-ray spectroscopy with a HPGe detector.

  10. Influence of injection beam emittance on beam transmission efficiency in a cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurashima, Satoshi, E-mail: kurashima.satoshi@jaea.go.jp; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Miyawaki, Nobumasa; Yoshida, Ken-Ichi; Okumura, Susumu [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    The JAEA AVF cyclotron accelerates various kinds of high-energy ion beams for research in biotechnology and materials science. Beam intensities of an ion species of the order of 10{sup −9}–10{sup −6} ampere are often required for various experiments performed sequentially over a day. To provide ion beams with sufficient intensity and stability, an operator has to retune an ion source in a short time. However, the beam intensity downstream of the cyclotron rarely increases in proportion to the intensity at the ion source. To understand the cause of this beam behavior, transmission efficiencies of a {sup 12}C{sup 5+} beam from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source to the cyclotron were measured for various conditions of the ion source. Moreover, a feasible region for acceleration in the emittance of the injection beam was clarified using a transverse-acceptance measuring system. We confirmed that the beam emittance and profile were changed depending on the condition of the ion source and that matching between the beam emittance and the acceptance of the cyclotron was degraded. However, after fine-tuning to improve the matching, beam intensity downstream of the cyclotron increased.

  11. Multi-Species Test of Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating at High Altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persoon, A. M.; Peterson, W. K.; Andre, M.; Chang, T.; Gurnett, D. A.; Retterer, J. M.; Crew, G. B.

    1997-01-01

    Observations of ion distributions and plasma waves obtained by the Dynamics Explorer 1 satellite in the high-altitude, nightside auroral zone are used to study ion energization for three ion species. A number of theoretical models have been proposed to account for the transverse heating of these ion populations. One of these, the ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) mechanism, explains ion conic formation through ion cyclotron resonance with broadband electromagnetic wave turbulence in the vicinity of the characteristic ion cyclotron frequency. The cyclotron resonant heating of the ions by low-frequency electromagnetic waves is an important energy source for the transport of ions from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere. In this paper we test the applicability of the ICRH mechanism to three simultaneously heated and accelerated ion species by modelling the ion conic formation in terms of a resonant wave-particle interaction in which the ions extract energy from the portion of the broadband electromagnetic wave spectrum which includes the ion cyclotron frequency. Using a Monte Carlo technique we evaluate the ion heating produced by the electromagnetic turbulence at low frequencies and find that the wave amplitudes near the ion cyclotron frequencies are sufficient to explain the observed ion energies.

  12. Lower hybrid current drive favoured by electron cyclotron radiofrequency heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesario, R.; Cardinali, A.; Castaldo, C.; Marinucci, M.; Tuccillo, A. A. [Associazione EURATOM/ENEA sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati, 00044, Frascati (Italy); Amicucci, L.; Galli, A. [Università di Roma Sapienza, Dipartimento Ingegneria Elettronica, Rome (Italy); Giruzzi, G. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Napoli, F.; Schettini, G. [Università di Roma Tre, Dipartimento Ingegneria Elettronica, Rome (Italy)

    2014-02-12

    The important goal of adding to the bootstrap a fraction of non-inductive plasma current, which would be controlled for obtaining and optimizing steady-state profiles, can be reached by using the Current Drive produced by Lower Hybrid waves (LHCD). FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade) experiments demonstrated, indeed, that LHCD is effective at reactor-graded high plasma density, and the LH spectral broadening is reduced, operating with higher electron temperature in the outer region of plasma column (T{sub e-periphery}). This method was obtained following the guidelines of theoretical predictions indicating that the broadening of launched spectrum produced by parametric instability (PI) should be reduced, and the LHCD effect at high density consequently enabled, under higher (T{sub e-periphery}). In FTU, the temperature increase in the outer plasma region was obtained by operating with reduced particle recycling, lithized walls and deep gas fuelling by means of fast pellet. Heating plasma periphery with electron cyclotron resonant waves (ECRH) will provide a further tool for achieving steady-state operations. New FTU experimental results are presented here, demonstrating that temperature effect at the plasma periphery, affecting LH penetration, occurs in a range of plasma parameters broader than in previous work. New information is also shown on the modelling assessing frequencies and growth rates of the PI coupled modes responsible of spectral broadening. Finally, we present the design of an experiment scheduled on FTU next campaign, where ECRH power is used to slightly increase the electron temperature in the outer plasma region of a high-density discharge aiming at restoring LHCD. Consequent to model results, by operating with a toroidal magnetic field of 6.3 T, useful for locating the electron cyclotron resonant layer at the periphery of the plasma column (r/a∼0.8, f{sub 0}=144 GHz), an increase of T{sub e} in the outer plasma (from 40 eV to 80 eV at r/a∼0.8) is

  13. Status of the ITER Ion Cyclotron H and CD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamalle, P., E-mail: philippe.lamalle@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Beaumont, B.; Kazarian, F.; Gassmann, T. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Agarici, G. [Fusion for Energy, Carrer Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral Edificio B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Ajesh, P. [ITER India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382424, Gujarat (India); Alonzo, T. [Solution F, Allée du Verdon, 13770 Venelles (France); Arambhadiya, B. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Argouarch, A. [CEA Cadarache, IRFM, F-13108 St-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Bamber, R. [EURATOM/CCFE Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Berger-By, G.; Bernard, J.-M.; Brun, C. [CEA Cadarache, IRFM, F-13108 St-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Carpentier, S. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Clairet, F.; Colas, L.; Courtois, X. [CEA Cadarache, IRFM, F-13108 St-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Davis, A. [EURATOM/CCFE Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Dechelle, C.; Doceul, L. [CEA Cadarache, IRFM, F-13108 St-Paul-lez-Durance (France); and others

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► We summarize the progress and outstanding issues in the development of the ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (IC H and CD) system. ► The system is designed to robustly couple 20 MW in quasi-CW operation for a broad range of plasma scenarios, and is upgradeable to up to 40 MW. ► The design is rendered challenging by the wide spectrum of requirements and interface constraints to which it is subject. ► R and D is ongoing to validate key antenna components, and to qualify the radio-frequency (RF) sources and the transmission and matching components. ► Intensive numerical modeling and experimental studies on antenna mock-ups have been conducted to validate and optimize the RF design. -- Abstract: The ongoing design of the ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive system (20 MW, 40–55 MHz) is rendered challenging by the wide spectrum of requirements and interface constraints to which it is subject, several of which are conflicting and/or still in a high state of flux. These requirements include operation over a broad range of plasma scenarios and magnetic fields (which prompts usage of wide-band phased antenna arrays), high radio-frequency (RF) power density at the first wall (and associated operation close to voltage and current limits), resilience to ELM-induced load variations, intense thermal and mechanical loads, long pulse operation, high system availability, efficient nuclear shielding, high density of antenna services, remote-handling ability, tight installation tolerances, and nuclear safety function as tritium confinement barrier. R and D activities are ongoing or in preparation to validate critical antenna components (plasma-facing Faraday screen, RF sliding contacts, RF vacuum windows), as well as to qualify the RF power sources and the transmission and matching components. Intensive numerical modeling and experimental studies on antenna mock-ups have been conducted to validate and optimize the RF design. The paper

  14. Electron cyclotron plasma startup in the GDT experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, D. V.; Shalashov, A. G.; Gospodchikov, E. D.; Solomakhin, A. L.; Savkin, V. Ya.; Bagryansky, P. A.

    2017-01-01

    We report on a new plasma startup scenario in the gas dynamic trap (GDT) magnetic mirror device. The primary 5 MW neutral beam injection (NBI) plasma heating system fires into a sufficiently dense plasma target (‘seed plasma’), which is commonly supplied by an arc plasma generator. In the reported experiments, a different approach to seed plasma generation is explored. One of the channels of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating system is used to ionize the neutral gas and build up the density of plasma to a level suitable for NBI capture. After a short transition of approximately 1 ms the discharge becomes essentially similar to a standard one initiated by the plasma gun. This paper presents the discharge scenario and experimental data on the seed plasma evolution during ECRH, along with the dependencies on incident microwave power, magnetic configuration and pressure of a neutral gas. The characteristics of the consequent high-power NBI discharge are studied and differences from the conventional scenario are discussed. A theoretical model describing the ECR breakdown and the seed plasma accumulation in a large-scale mirror trap is developed on the basis of the GDT experiment.

  15. Cyclotron Production of Radionuclides for Nuclear Medicine at Academic Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapi, Suzanne

    2016-09-01

    The increase in use of radioisotopes for medical imaging has led to the development of new accelerator targetry and separation techniques for isotope production. For example, the development of longer-lived position emitting radionuclides has been explored to allow for nuclear imaging agents based on peptides, antibodies and nanoparticles. These isotopes (64Cu, 89Zr, 86Y) are typically produced via irradiation of solid targets on smaller cyclotrons (10-25 MeV) at academic or hospital based facilities. Recent research has further expanded the toolbox of PET tracers to include additional isotopes such as 52Mn, 55Co, 76Br and others. The smaller scale of these types of facilities can enable the straightforward involvement of students, thus adding to the next generation of nuclear science leaders. Research pertaining to development of robust and larger scale production technologies including solid target systems and remote systems for transport and purification of these isotopes has enabled both preclinical and clinical imaging research for many diseases. In particular, our group has focused on the use of radiolabeled antibodies for imaging of receptor expression in preclinical models and in a clinical trial of metastatic breast cancer patients.

  16. Applied research with cyclotron beams at FLNR JINR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oganessian, Yu.Ts.; Apel, P.Yu.; Didyk, A.Yu.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Gulbekian, G.G. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow (Russian Federation). Flerov Lab. of Nuclear Reactions

    1997-03-01

    The Center of Applied Physics at the Flerov Laboratory carries out an R and D program comprising development of track membrane technology, materials research with heavy ion beams and production of radioisotopes. Experiments are performed on three cyclotrons: U-400, U-200 and IC-100 providing a wide variety of ion beams with the energies of 1 to 10 MeV/u. The activity on track membranes (TMs) includes studies of track formation in polymers and latent track structure, track sensitization and etching, methods of membrane testing, development of track membranes on the basis of new materials, surface modification of TMs, design and construction of facilities for track membrane production. Recent experiments on heavy ion-induced radiation damage in non-polymeric substances have been devoted to defect creation in semiconductor and dielectric single crystals. TEM, SEM, STM and `in situ` luminescent spectroscopy are used to investigate heavy ion effects. Methods for producing several isotopes of high radiochemical and isotopic purity for medical, biomedical and environmental protection applications have been developed. (author)

  17. Isotope exchange by Ion Cyclotron Wall Conditioning on JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wauters, T., E-mail: t.wauters@fz-juelich.de [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, ERM/KMS, TEC Partner, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Douai, D.; Kogut, D. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Lyssoivan, A. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, ERM/KMS, TEC Partner, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Brezinsek, S. [Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung Plasmaphysik, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Belonohy, E. [Max-Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Blackman, T. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Bobkov, V. [Max-Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Crombé, K. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, ERM/KMS, TEC Partner, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Drenik, A. [Jožef Stefan Institute, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Graham, M. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Joffrin, E. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Lerche, E. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, ERM/KMS, TEC Partner, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Loarer, T. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Lomas, P.L.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Monakhov, I. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Oberkofler, M. [Max-Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Philipps, V. [Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung Plasmaphysik, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Plyusnin, V. [IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); and others

    2015-08-15

    The isotopic exchange efficiencies of JET Ion Cyclotron Wall Conditioning (ICWC) discharges produced at ITER half and full field conditions are compared for JET carbon (C) and ITER like wall (ILW). Besides an improved isotope exchange rate on the ILW providing cleaner plasma faster, the main advantage compared to C-wall is a reduction of the ratio of retained discharge gas to removed fuel. Complementing experimental data with discharge modeling shows that long pulses with high (∼240 kW coupled) ICRF power maximizes the wall isotope removal per ICWC pulse. In the pressure range 1–7.5 × 10{sup −3} Pa, this removal reduces with increasing discharge pressure. As most of the wall-released isotopes are evacuated by vacuum pumps in the post discharge phase, duty cycle optimization studies for ICWC on JET-ILW need further consideration. The accessible reservoir by H{sub 2}-ICWC at ITER half field conditions on the JET-ILW preloaded by D{sub 2} tokamak operation is estimated to be 7.3 × 10{sup 22} hydrogenic atoms, and may be exchanged within 400 s of cumulated ICWC discharge time.

  18. Electron-cyclotron plasma startup in the GDT experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Yakovlev, D V; Gospodchikov, E D; Solomakhin, A L; Savkin, V Ya; Bagryansky, P A

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports on a new plasma startup scenario in the Gas Dynamic Trap (GDT) magnetic mirror device. The primary 5 MW neutral beam injection (NBI) plasma heating system fires into a sufficiently dense plasma target ("seed plasma"), which is commonly supplied by an arc plasma generator. In the reported experiments, a different approach to seed plasma generation is explored. One of the channels of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating system is used to ionize the neutral gas and build up the density of plasma to a level suitable for NBI capture. After a short transition (about 1 ms) the discharge becomes essentially similar to a standard one initiated by the plasma gun. The paper presents the discharge scenario and experimental data on the seed plasma evolution during ECR heating, along with the dependencies on incident microwave power, magnetic configuration and pressure of a neutral gas. The characteristics of consequent high-power NBI discharge are studied and differences to the conventional sce...

  19. ATLAS 10 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source upgrade project

    CERN Document Server

    Moehs, D P; Pardo, R C; Xie, D

    2000-01-01

    A major upgrade of the first ATLAS 10 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source, which began operations in 1987, is in the planning and procurement phase. The new design will convert the old two-stage source into a single-stage source with an electron donor disk and high gradient magnetic field that preserves radial access for solid material feeds and pumping of the plasma chamber. The new magnetic-field profile allows for the possibility of a second ECR zone at a frequency of 14 GHz. An open hexapole configuration, using a high-energy-product Nd-Fe-B magnet material, having an inner diameter of 8.8 cm and pole gaps of 2.4 cm, has been adopted. Models indicate that the field strengths at the chamber wall, 4 cm in radius, will be 9.3 kG along the magnet poles and 5.6 kG along the pole gaps. The individual magnet bars will be housed in austenitic stainless steel, allowing the magnet housing within the aluminum plasma chamber to be used as a water channel for direct cooling of the magnets. Eight solenoid...

  20. Polarization of electron cyclotron emission spectra in LHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vries, P.C. de; Nagayama, Y.; Kawahata, K.; Inagaki, S.; Sasao, H. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Nagasaki, K.

    1999-07-01

    Electron cyclotron emission (ECE) can be used to determine the electron temperature profile in magnetized plasmas. The complex structure of the magnetic field configuration in the Large Helical Device (LHD), which has a large shear, complicates the analysis of the ECE spectrum. In a sheared magnetic field the propagation of X and O-mode polarization through the plasma are coupled, causing mode conversion and polarization rotation. Mode scrambling is also caused by wall reflections. In this report, this mode conversion in LHD is numerically analyzed. It was found that at low density mode conversion scrambles the ECE spectra. However, at higher density (n{sub eo} > 1.0{center_dot}10{sup 19} m{sup -3}) the polarization mode is found to rotate with the sheared magnetic field, yielding only a negligible mode conversion. Wall reflections are found to depolarize the ECE spectrum. Notwithstanding the LHD magnetic configuration, it is shown that temperature profiles could be revealed from the ECE spectra. (author)

  1. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry: a primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, A G; Hendrickson, C L; Jackson, G S

    1998-01-01

    This review offers an introduction to the principles and generic applications of FT-ICR mass spectrometry, directed to readers with no prior experience with the technique. We are able to explain the fundamental FT-ICR phenomena from a simplified theoretical treatment of ion behavior in idealized magnetic and electric fields. The effects of trapping voltage, trap size and shape, and other nonidealities are manifested mainly as perturbations that preserve the idealized ion behavior modified by appropriate numerical correction factors. Topics include: effect of ion mass, charge, magnetic field, and trapping voltage on ion cyclotron frequency; excitation and detection of ICR signals; mass calibration; mass resolving power and mass accuracy; upper mass limit(s); dynamic range; detection limit, strategies for mass and energy selection for MSn; ion axialization, cooling, and remeasurement; and means for guiding externally formed ions into the ion trap. The relation of FT-ICR MS to other types of Fourier transform spectroscopy and to the Paul (quadrupole) ion trap is described. The article concludes with selected applications, an appendix listing accurate fundamental constants needed for ultrahigh-precision analysis, and an annotated list of selected reviews and primary source publications that describe in further detail various FT-ICR MS techniques and applications.

  2. ATLAS 10 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source upgrade project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moehs, D. P. [Argonne National Laboratory, Physics Division, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Vondrasek, R. [Argonne National Laboratory, Physics Division, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Pardo, R. C. [Argonne National Laboratory, Physics Division, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Xie, D. [Berkeley Ion Equipment Inc., Santa Clara, California 95054 (United States)

    2000-02-01

    A major upgrade of the first ATLAS 10 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source, which began operations in 1987, is in the planning and procurement phase. The new design will convert the old two-stage source into a single-stage source with an electron donor disk and high gradient magnetic field that preserves radial access for solid material feeds and pumping of the plasma chamber. The new magnetic-field profile allows for the possibility of a second ECR zone at a frequency of 14 GHz. An open hexapole configuration, using a high-energy-product Nd-Fe-B magnet material, having an inner diameter of 8.8 cm and pole gaps of 2.4 cm, has been adopted. Models indicate that the field strengths at the chamber wall, 4 cm in radius, will be 9.3 kG along the magnet poles and 5.6 kG along the pole gaps. The individual magnet bars will be housed in austenitic stainless steel, allowing the magnet housing within the aluminum plasma chamber to be used as a water channel for direct cooling of the magnets. Eight solenoid coils from the existing ECR will be enclosed in an iron yoke to produce the axial mirror. Based on a current of 500 A, the final model predicts a minimum B field of 3 kG with injection and extraction mirror ratios of 4.4 and 2.9, respectively. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  3. Electron cyclotron emission measurements at the stellarator TJ-K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sichardt, Gabriel; Ramisch, Mirko [Institut fuer Grenzflaechenverfahrenstechnik und Plasmatechnologie, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany); Koehn, Alf [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Electron temperature (T{sub e}) measurements in the magnetised plasmas of the stellarator TJ-K are currently performed by means of Langmuir probes. The use of these probes is restricted to relatively low temperatures and the measurement of temperature profiles requires the acquisition of the local current-voltage characteristics which limits strongly the sampling rate. As an alternative, T{sub e} can be measured using the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) that is generated by the gyration of electrons in magnetised plasmas. Magnetic field gradients in the plasma lead to a spatial distribution of emission frequencies and thus the measured intensity at a given frequency can be related to its point of origin. The T{sub e} dependence of the intensity then leads to a temperature profile along the line of sight for Maxwellian velocity distributions. A diagnostic system for T{sub e} measurements using ECE is currently being set up at TJ-K. When non-thermal electrons are present the emission spectrum changes dramatically. Therefore, the ECE can also be used to investigate the contribution of fast electrons to previously observed toroidal net currents in TJ-K. Simulations are used to examine the role of electron drift orbits in generating these currents.

  4. A Michelson Interferometer for Electron Cyclotron Emission Measurements on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Stefan, Schmuck; Zhao, Hailin; John, Fessey; Paul, Trimble; Liu, Xiang; Zhu, Zeying; Zang, Qing; Hu, Liqun

    2016-12-01

    A Michelson interferometer, on loan from EFDA-JET (Culham, United Kingdom) has recently been commissioned on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST, ASIPP, Hefei, China). Following a successful in-situ absolute calibration the instrument is able to measure the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) spectrum, from 80 GHz to 350 GHz in extraordinary mode (X-mode) polarization, with high accuracy. This allows the independent determination of the electron temperature profile from observation of the second harmonic ECE and the possible identification of non-Maxwellian features by comparing higher harmonic emission with numerical simulations. The in-situ calibration results are presented together with the initial measured temperature profiles. These measurements are then discussed and compared with other independent temperature profile measurements. This paper also describes the main hardware features of the diagnostic and the associated commissioning test results. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11405211, 11275233), and the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB106002, 2015GB101000), and the RCUK Energy Programme (No. EP/I501045), partly supported by the JSPS-NRF-NSFC A3 Foresight Program in the Field of Plasma Physics (NSFC: No. 11261140328)

  5. Maryland University sectored isochronous cyclotron (MUSIC): Progress report No. 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1967-01-10

    The past quarter has seen further progress in the solution of the problem of achieving a cyclotron which meets or exceeds the performance requirements. The magnet system, with the exception of the trim coils and their supplies, is all on order or about to be ordered, and a high confidence level exists that the system will meet all requirements. The rf system studies, nearly complete, have indicated that the solution chosen will meet the frequency requirements and will be within the power expected. The center studies, complete in the first phase, have resulted in a preliminary center design of the electrostatic focusing system and a design of the magnetic center which provides the required axial focusing. A high degree of cooperation on the center study programs between the U of M and CSF has efficiently yielded these results. The overall schedule continues to be maintained, and the program is expected to be completed on the 37-month schedule. For better control and greater visibility on schedule progress, two reference points have been selected as more immediate objectives. These are 17 July 1967 for the start of the magnet testing program and 2 October 1967 as the start of the rf high power tests. Each task involved is being analyzed with these dates in mind, and they appear to be reasonable.

  6. Electron cyclotron resonance heating in a short cylindrical plasma system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vipin K Yadav; D Bora

    2004-09-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma is produced and studied in a small cylindrical system. Microwave power is delivered by a CW magnetron at 2.45 GHz in TE10 mode and launched radially to have extraordinary (X) wave in plasma. The axial magnetic field required for ECR in the system is such that the first two ECR surfaces ( = 875.0 G and = 437.5 G) reside in the system. ECR plasma is produced with hydrogen with typical plasma density e as 3.2 × 1010 cm-3 and plasma temperature e between 9 and 15 eV. Various cut-off and resonance positions are identified in the plasma system. ECR heating (ECRH) of the plasma is observed experimentally. This heating is because of the mode conversion of X-wave to electron Bernstein wave (EBW) at the upper hybrid resonance (UHR) layer. The power mode conversion efficiency is estimated to be 0.85 for this system. The experimental results are presented in this paper.

  7. Electron-cyclotron heating in the Constance 2 mirror experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauel, Michael E.

    1982-09-01

    Electron cyclotron heating of a highly-ionized plasma in mirror geometry is investigated. The experimental diagnosis of the electron energy distribution and the comparison of the results of this diagnosis with a two dimensional, time-dependent Fokker-Planck simulation are accomplished in four steps. (1) First, the power balance of the heated and unheated Constance 2 plasma is analyzed experimentally. It is concluded that the heated electrons escape the mirror at a rate dominated by a combination of the influx of cool electrons from outside the mirror and the increased loss rate of the ions. (2) The microwave parameters at the resonance zones are then calculated by cold-plasma ray tracing. High N/sub parallel/ waves are launched and for these waves, strong first-pass absorption is predicted. The absorption strength is qualitatively checked in the experiment by surrounding the plasma with non-reflecting liners. (3) A simplified quasilinear theory including the effect of N/sub parallel/ is developed to model the electrons. An analytic expression is derived for the RF-induced pump-out of the magnetically-confined warm electrons. Results of the Fokker-Planck simulations show the development of the electron energy distribution for several plasma conditions and verify the scaling of the analytic expression for RF-induced diffusion into the loss cone. (4) Sample x-ray and endloss data are presented, and the overall comparison between the simulation and experiment is discussed. The x-ray signals indicate that, for greater RF power, the hot electrondensity increases more rapidly than its temperature. The time history of the endloss data, illustrating RF-enhancement, suggests the predicted scaling for warm-electron pump-out. Finally, a comparison between the measured and predicted energy distribution shows that the bulk, warm and hot components of the heated Constance 2 electrons are indeed reproduced by the simulation.

  8. Modeling whistler wave generation regimes in magnetospheric cyclotron maser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Pasmanik

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerical analysis of the model for cyclotron instability in the Earth's magnetosphere is performed. This model, based on the self-consistent set of equations of quasi-linear plasma theory, describes different regimes of wave generation and related energetic particle precipitation. As the source of free energy the injection of energetic electrons with transverse anisotropic distribution function to the interaction region is considered. A parametric study of the model is performed. The main attention is paid to the analysis of generation regimes for different characteristics of energetic electron source, such as the shape of pitch angle distributions and its intensity. Two mechanisms of removal of energetic electrons from a generation region are considered, one is due to the particle precipitation through the loss cone and another one is related to the magnetic drift of energetic particles.

    It was confirmed that two main regimes occur in this system in the presence of a constant particle source, in the case of precipitation losses. At small source intensity relaxation oscillations were found, whose parameters are in good agreement with simplified analytical theory developed earlier. At a larger source intensity, transition to a periodic generation occurs. In the case of drift losses the regime of self-sustained periodic generation regime is realized for source intensity higher than some threshold. The dependencies of repetition period and dynamic spectrum shape on the source parameters were studied in detail. In addition to simple periodic regimes, those with more complex spectral forms were found. In particular, alteration of spikes with different spectral shape can take place. It was also shown that quasi-stationary generation at the low-frequency band can coexist with periodic modulation at higher frequencies.

    On the basis of the results obtained, the model for explanation of

  9. Heating and Current Drive by Electron Cyclotron Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, R.

    2003-10-01

    The physics model of electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and current drive (ECCD) is becoming well validated through systematic comparisons of theory and experiment. Work has shown that ECCD can be highly localized and robustly controlled, leading to applications including stabilization of MHD instabilities like neoclassical tearing modes, control and sustainment of desired profiles of current density and plasma pressure, and studies of localized transport. These physics applications and the study of the basic physics of ECH and ECCD were enabled by the advent of the gyrotron in the 1980s and of the diamond window for megawatt gyrotrons in the 1990s. The experimental work stimulated a broad base of theory based on first principles which is encapsulated in linear ray tracing codes and fully relativistic quasilinear Fokker-Planck codes. Recent experiments use measurements of the local poloidal magnetic field through the motional Stark effect to determine the magnitude and profile of the locally driven current. The subtle balance between wave-induced diffusion and Coulomb relaxation in velocity space provides an understanding of the effects of trapping of current-carrying electrons in the magnetic well, an effect which can be used to advantage. Strong quasilinear effects and radial transport of electrons which may broaden the driven current profile have also been observed under some conditions and appear to be consistent with theory, but in large devices these are usually insignificant. Additional advantages of ECH compared with other rf heating methods are that the antenna can be far removed from the plasma and the power density can be very high. The agreement of theory and experiment, the broad base of established applications, and the technical advantages of ECH support the application of ECH in next-step tokamaks and stellarators.

  10. The beam commissioning of BRIF and future cyclotron development at CIAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianjue; Yang, Jianjun

    2016-06-01

    As an upgrade project of the existing HI-13 tandem accelerator facility, the Beijing Radioactive Ion-beam Facility (BRIF) is being constructed in China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). This project consists of an 100 MeV proton compact cyclotron, a two-stage ISOL system, a superconducting linac booster and various experimental terminals. The beam commissioning of the cyclotron was launched by the end of 2013 and on July 4, 2014 the first 100 MeV proton beam was received on a temporary target which was positioned at the outlet of the cyclotron. The beam current was stably maintained at above 25 μA for about 9 h on July 25, 2014 and the cyclotron is now ready for providing CW proton beam on target-source for RIB production. The beam current is expected to be increased to 200-500 μA in the coming years. The installation of the ISOL system is finished and the stable ion beam test shows it can reach a mass resolution better than 10,000. It is expected to generate dozens of RIB by 100 MeV proton beam. In addition, this paper also introduces the recent progress of the pre-study of an 800 MeV, 3-4 MW separate-sector proton cyclotron, which is aimed to provide high power proton beam for various applications, such as neutron and neutrino physics, proton radiography and nuclear data measurement and ADS system.

  11. Ion beam driven resonant ion-cyclotron instability in a magnetized dusty plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, Ved; Vijayshri [School of Sciences, Indira Gandhi National Open University, Maidan Garhi, New Delhi 110 068 (India); Sharma, Suresh C. [Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Shahbad Daulatpur, Bawana Road, Delhi 110 042 (India); Gupta, Ruby [Department of Physics, Swami Shraddhanand College, University of Delhi, Alipur, Delhi 110 036 (India)

    2014-03-15

    Electrostatic ion cyclotron waves are excited by axial ion beam in a dusty plasma via Cerenkov and slow cyclotron interaction. The dispersion relation of the instability is derived in the presence of positively/negatively charged dust grains. The minimum beam velocity needed for the excitation is estimated for different values of relative density of negatively charged dust grains. It is shown that the minimum beam velocity needed for excitation increases as the charge density carried by dust increases. Temperature of electrons and ions, charge and mass of dust grains, external static magnetic field and finite boundary of dusty plasma significantly modify the dispersion properties of these waves and play a crucial role in the growth of resonant ion cyclotron instability. The ion cyclotron modes with phase velocity comparable to the beam velocity possess a large growth rate. The maximum value of growth rate increases with the beam density and scales as the one-third power of the beam density in Cerenkov interaction and is proportional to the square root of beam density in slow cyclotron interaction.

  12. Predictive ion source control using artificial neural network for RFT-30 cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Young Bae, E-mail: ybkong@kaeri.re.kr; Hur, Min Goo; Lee, Eun Je; Park, Jeong Hoon; Park, Yong Dae; Yang, Seung Dae

    2016-01-11

    An RFT-30 cyclotron is a 30 MeV proton accelerator for radioisotope production and fundamental research. The ion source of the RFT-30 cyclotron creates plasma from hydrogen gas and transports an ion beam into the center region of the cyclotron. Ion source control is used to search source parameters for best quality of the ion beam. Ion source control in a real system is a difficult and time consuming task, and the operator should search the source parameters by manipulating the cyclotron directly. In this paper, we propose an artificial neural network based predictive control approach for the RFT-30 ion source. The proposed approach constructs the ion source model by using an artificial neural network and finds the optimized parameters with the simulated annealing algorithm. To analyze the performance of the proposed approach, we evaluated the simulations with the experimental data of the ion source. The performance results show that the proposed approach can provide an efficient way to analyze and control the ion source of the RFT-30 cyclotron.

  13. On the origin of cyclotron lines in the spectra of X-ray pulsars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtukov A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclotron resonance scattering features are observed in the spectra of some X-ray pulsars and show significant changes in the line energy with the pulsar luminosity. In a case of bright sources, the line centroid energy is anti-correlated with the luminosity. Such a behaviour is often associated with the onset and growth of the accretion column, which is believed to be the origin of the observed emission and the cyclotron lines. However, this scenario inevitably implies large gradient of the magnetic field strength within the line-forming region, and it makes the formation of the observed line-like features problematic. Moreover, the observed variation of the cyclotron line energy is much smaller than could be anticipated for the corresponding luminosity changes. We argue that a more physically realistic situation is that the cyclotron line forms when the radiation emitted by the accretion column is reflected from the neutron star surface. The idea is based on the facts that a substantial part of column luminosity is intercepted by the neutron star surface and the reflected radiation should contain absorption features. The reflection model is developed and applied to explain the observed variations of the cyclotron line energy in a bright X-ray pulsar V 0332+53 over a wide range of luminosities.

  14. Support vector machine based fault detection approach for RFT-30 cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Young Bae; Lee, Eun Je; Hur, Min Goo; Park, Jeong Hoon; Park, Yong Dae; Yang, Seung Dae

    2016-10-01

    An RFT-30 is a 30 MeV cyclotron used for radioisotope applications and radiopharmaceutical researches. The RFT-30 cyclotron is highly complex and includes many signals for control and monitoring of the system. It is quite difficult to detect and monitor the system failure in real time. Moreover, continuous monitoring of the system is hard and time-consuming work for human operators. In this paper, we propose a support vector machine (SVM) based fault detection approach for the RFT-30 cyclotron. The proposed approach performs SVM learning with training samples to construct the classification model. To compensate the system complexity due to the large-scale accelerator, we utilize the principal component analysis (PCA) for transformation of the original data. After training procedure, the proposed approach detects the system faults in real time. We analyzed the performance of the proposed approach utilizing the experimental data of the RFT-30 cyclotron. The performance results show that the proposed SVM approach can provide an efficient way to control the cyclotron system.

  15. Central region design for a 10 MeV internal ion source cyclotron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Bin; LIU Kai-Feng; FENG Yi-Zhang; FAN Ming-Wu

    2009-01-01

    Internal ion sources are widely adopted in commercial cyclotrons used for short-life isotopes produc-tion. Without beam manipulation provided by the external beam injection line, the central region of this type of cyclotron is more sensitive and should be carefully designed. A design study and beam dynamics simulation for the central region of a 10 MeV compact cyclotron is presented. The OPERA3D/TOSCA code was used to calculate the electric field from a parameterized three dimensional (3D) central region model. With iterative structure optimizations of the central region, the beam centering and vertical focusing is well controlled, and the RF phase acceptance is around 25° A c++ code for beam simulation in the central region was developed and tested.

  16. Ensemble Simulations of Proton Heating in the Solar Wind via Turbulence and Ion Cyclotron Resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Cranmer, Steven R

    2014-01-01

    Protons in the solar corona and heliosphere exhibit anisotropic velocity distributions, violation of magnetic moment conservation, and a general lack of thermal equilibrium with the other particle species. There is no agreement about the identity of the physical processes that energize non-Maxwellian protons in the solar wind, but a traditional favorite has been the dissipation of ion cyclotron resonant Alfven waves. This paper presents kinetic models of how ion cyclotron waves heat protons on their journey from the corona to interplanetary space. It also derives a wide range of new solutions for the relevant dispersion relations, marginal stability boundaries, and nonresonant velocity-space diffusion rates. A phenomenological model containing both cyclotron damping and turbulent cascade is constructed to explain the suppression of proton heating at low alpha-proton differential flow speeds. These effects are implemented in a large-scale model of proton thermal evolution from the corona to 1 AU. A Monte Carlo...

  17. Excitation of ion-cyclotron harmonic waves in lower-hybrid heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalon, E.

    1981-06-01

    The parametric excitation of ion-cyclotron waves by a lower-hybrid pump field is studied in the assumption that the magnitude of the pump is constant. The spatial amplification factor is given as a function of the wavenumber mismatch as produced by the plasma density gradient, and of the linear damping rates of the excited ion-cyclotron and sideband waves. The analysis is applied to plasma edge parameters relevant to the JFT2 heating experiment. It is found that ion-cyclotron harmonic modes are excited depending on pump frequency and plasma density. These modes are shown to have finite damping rates. The parallel refractive indices n1z of the excited sideband fields are found to be always larger than that of the driven pump field. Transition to quasi-mode decay occurs either by decreasing the pump frequency or by increasing the applied RF-power.

  18. The study of acceptance and the transmission efficiency of separated sector cyclotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiaoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the study of the transversal and longitudinal acceptance and the transmission efficiency in the injection, acceleration, and extraction systems in the separated sector cyclotron of the heavy ion research facility in Lanzhou, China. The study of cyclotron acceptance is done for 238U36+ with energy of 97 MeV/u and for 70Zn10+ with energy of 5.62 MeV/u under the theoretical isochronous and real magnetic field distribution. From the simulation results it can be seen that the transmission efficiency and the acceptances of separated sector cyclotron can be improved by redesign the curvature of MSI3 deflector or by introducing the magnet shim in MSI3 deflector region to change the distribution of the inner magnetic field. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI-171018

  19. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides. Comprehensive progress report, February 1, 1990--January 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, S.M. Finn, R.D.

    1992-08-04

    This report describes the author`s continuing long term goal of promoting nuclear medicine applications by improving the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The program has 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry /Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. An essential strategy is as follows: novel radionuclides and radiotracers developed in the Radiochemistry/Cyclotron section under the DOE grant during the 1989--1992 grant period, will be employed in the Pharmacology and Immunology sections of the DOE grant during the 1992--1995 grant period. The development of novel radionuclides and tracers is of course useful in and of itself, but their utility is greatly enhanced by the interaction with the immunology and pharmacology components of the program.

  20. Production parameters of the therapeutic 105Rh radionuclide using medium energy cyclotron

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mayeen Uddin Khandaker; Kwangsoo Kim; Guinyun Kim

    2012-08-01

    Production cross-sections of the therapeutic 105Rh radionuclide from proton-induced reactions on natural palladium target were measured using stacked-foil activation technique combined with high resolution -ray spectrometry at the MC50 cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. Note that cyclotron production of the 105Rh radionuclide from natural palladium target was measured here for the first time. Results are compared with the theoretical values obtained using the model codes TALYS and ALICE-IPPE. Thick target integral yields for the investigated 105Rh radionuclide were deduced from the threshold energy to 40 MeV. Measured data of the 105Rh radionuclide are important because of its potential applications in nuclear medicine and/or therapeutic purposes. Optimal production circumstances for the therapeutic 105Rh radionuclide using a cyclotron are discussed elaborately.

  1. Design and Experimental Study of the External H~- Ion Source for a 10 MeV Medical Cyclotron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A 10 MeV medical cyclotron has been designed by the BRIF Division at CIAE, for which the H- beam is axially injected to the machine. To satisfy the requirement for the cyclotron with H- ion source, a compact multicusp H- ion source has

  2. Cyclotron resonance of figure-of-eight orbits in a type-II Weyl semimetal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshino, Mikito

    2016-07-01

    We study the cyclotron resonance in the electron-hole joint Fermi surface of a type-II Weyl semimetal. In magnetic field, the electron and hole pockets touching at the Weyl node are hybridized to form quantized Landau levels corresponding to semiclassical 8-shaped orbits. We calculate the dynamical conductivities for the electric fields oscillating in x and y directions and find that the resonant frequencies in x and y differ by a factor of two, reflecting the figure-of-eight electron motion in real space. The peculiar anisotropy in the cyclotron resonance serves as a unique characteristic of the dumbbell-like Fermi surface.

  3. Beam Loss by Lorentz Stripping in a 100 MeV Compact H~- Cyclotron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Larry; Root

    2002-01-01

    The success of TRIUMF’s ISAC facility demonstrates that a 500 MeV 100 μ A H cyclotron is agood choice for the driver stage of an ISOL type RIB facility. As a result, China Institute of AtomicEnergy is proposing the construction of a 75~100 MeV 200~500μA H~- cyclotron as an upgrade to theBeijing Tandem Laboratory. This would be a multiple user facility, which would include a RIB target

  4. The electrostatic ion-cyclotron instability-a two-dimensional potential relaxation instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popa, G.; Schrittwieser, R.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens;

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation shows that the electrostatic ion-cyclotron instability, driven by an electron current to a positively biased collector, is accompanied by strong coherent two-dimensional fluctuations of the plasma potential in front of the collector. These results suggest that this i......An experimental investigation shows that the electrostatic ion-cyclotron instability, driven by an electron current to a positively biased collector, is accompanied by strong coherent two-dimensional fluctuations of the plasma potential in front of the collector. These results suggest...

  5. Development of an 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source at RCNP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorita, Tetsuhiko; Hatanaka, Kichiji; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Kibayashi, Mitsuru; Morinobu, Shunpei; Okamura, Hiroyuki; Tamii, Atsushi

    2008-02-01

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source has recently been developed and installed in order to extend the variety and the intensity of ions at the RCNP coupled cyclotron facility. Production of several ions such as O, N, Ar, Kr, etc., is now under development and some of them have already been used for user experiments. For example, highly charged heavy ion beams like (86)Kr(21+,23+) and intense (16)O(5+,6+) and (15)N(6+) ion beams have been provided for experiments. The metal ion from volatile compounds method for boron ions has been developed as well.

  6. Purification of cyclotron-produced {sup 203}Pb for labeling Herceptin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garmestani, Kayhan [Radioimmune and Inorganic Chemistry Section, Radiation Oncology Branch, NCI, Bethesda, MD 20892-1002 (United States); Milenic, Diane E. [Radioimmune and Inorganic Chemistry Section, Radiation Oncology Branch, NCI, Bethesda, MD 20892-1002 (United States); Brady, Erik D. [Radioimmune and Inorganic Chemistry Section, Radiation Oncology Branch, NCI, Bethesda, MD 20892-1002 (United States); Plascjak, Paul S. [PET Department, Clinical Center, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892-1002 (United States); Brechbiel, Martin W. [Radioimmune and Inorganic Chemistry Section, Radiation Oncology Branch, NCI, Bethesda, MD 20892-1002 (United States)]. E-mail: martinwb@mail.nih.gov

    2005-04-01

    A simple and rapid procedure was developed for the purification of cyclotron-produced {sup 203}Pb via the {sup 203}Tl(d,2n) {sup 203}Pb reaction. A Pb(II) selective ion-exchange resin, with commercial name Pb Resin from Eichrom Technologies, Inc., was used to purify {sup 203}Pb from the cyclotron-irradiated Tl target with excellent recovery of the enriched Tl target material. The purified {sup 203}Pb was used to radiolabel the monoclonal antibody Herceptin. The in vitro and in vivo properties of the {sup 203}Pb radioimmunoconjugate were evaluated.

  7. First results of electron cyclotron emission measurements at the GDT magnetic mirror

    CERN Document Server

    Shalashov, A G; Gospodchikov, E D; Lubyako, L V; Yakovlev, D V; Bagryansky, P A

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of experiments on electron cyclotron emission (ECE) measurements at the fundamental harmonic recently performed at the axially symmetric magnetic mirror device GDT (Budker Institute, Novosibirsk). New ECE diagnostics is installed to facilitate the successful electron cyclotron resonance heating experiment and operates in the vicinity of the heating frequency of 54.5 GHz. Besides expected emission of thermal electrons, a clearly resolved non-thermal ECE is observed indicating the presence of suprathermal electrons driven by high-power microwave heating. The particulars of plasma emission are studied experimentally in a broad range of discharge scenarios.

  8. Cyclotron resonance in InAs/GaSb heterostructure in inclined magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Greshnov, A A; Vasilev, Yu B; Suchalkin, S D; Meltser, B Y; Ivanov, S V; Kopev, P S

    2002-01-01

    The mechanism of splitting the cyclotron resonance line in the InAs/GaSb heterostructure in the inclined magnetic field is experimentally and theoretically studied. It is shown that the electrons and holes mixing in leads to the anticrossing Landau levels and consequently to the cyclotron resonance line splitting. Splitting in the case of the inclined magnetic field was not observed which is explained by damping the electrons and holes states mixing in on the account of originating the additional barrier for the electrons and holes by availability of the magnetic field longitudinal constituent

  9. Nonlinear sub-cyclotron resonance as a formation mechanism for gaps in banded chorus

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Xiangrong; Dong, Chuanfei; Gary, S Peter

    2015-01-01

    An interesting characteristic of magnetospheric chorus is the presence of a frequency gap at $\\omega \\simeq 0.5\\Omega_e$, where $\\Omega_e$ is the electron cyclotron angular frequency. Recent chorus observations sometimes show additional gaps near $0.3\\Omega_e$ and $0.6\\Omega_e$. Here we present a novel nonlinear mechanism for the formation of these gaps using Hamiltonian theory and test-particle simulations in a homogeneous, magnetized, collisionless plasma. We find that an oblique whistler wave with frequency at a fraction of the electron cyclotron frequency can resonate with electrons, leading to effective energy exchange between the wave and particles.

  10. Cyclotron resonance in two-dimensional electron system with self-organized antidots

    CERN Document Server

    Suchalkin, S D; Zundel, M; Nachtwei, G; Klitzing, K V; Eberl, K

    2001-01-01

    The data on the experimental study on the cyclotron resonance in the two-dimensional electron system with the random scattering potential, conditioned by the massif of the AlInAs self-organized quantum islands, formed in the AlGaAs/GaAs heterotransition plane, are presented. The sharp narrowing of the cyclotron resonance with increase in the magnetic field, explained by the charge scattering peculiarities in the given potential is established. The obtained results suggest the strongly correlated electron state in the strong magnetic fields by the carriers concentrations lesser than the antidots concentrations

  11. Biomedical research with cyclotron produced radionuclides. Progress report, October 1, 1977--September 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, J.S.; Benua, R.S.; Tilbury, R.S.; Bigler, R.E.

    1978-09-30

    Progress is reported on biomedical studies using cyclotron-produced /sup 18/F, /sup 15/O, /sup 11/C, /sup 13/N, /sup 52/Fe, /sup 38/K, /sup 206/Bi, /sup 73/Se, /sup 53/Co, and /sup 43/K. The following research projects are described: tumor detection and diagnosis; neurological studies; radiopharmaceutical development; /sup 38/K as an indicator of blood flow to the myocardium; dosimetry for internally deposited isotopes in animals and man; cyclotron development; positron tomographic imaging with the TOKIM System; and review of positron emission transaxial tomograph instruments. (HLW)

  12. Ordinary-mode fundamental electron cyclotron resonance absorption and emission in the Princeton Large Torus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efthimion, P.C.; Arunasalam, V.; Hosea, J.C.

    1979-11-01

    Fundamental electron cyclotron resonance damping for 4 mm waves with ordinary polarization is measured for propagation along the major radius traversing the midplane of the plasma in the Princeton Large Torus (PLT). Optical depths obtained from the data are in good agreement with those predicted by the relativistic hot plasma theory. Near blackbody emission over much of the plasma midplane is obtained and, in conjunction with the damping measurements, indicates that the vessel reflectivity is high. The practical use of ordinary mode fundamental electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) in existing and future toroidal devices is supported by these results.

  13. New Cyclotron Targetry to Enhance F-18 clinical Position Emission Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Michael Doster

    2008-12-19

    This project proposes to develop cyclotron targets that produce F-18 for clinical Positron Emission Tomography (PET) at significantly higher rates than that available from current targetry. This production rate of 18F is directly proportional to the beam current. Higher beam currents would result in increased 18F production but would be accompanied by higher heat loads to the target. The beam power available in most commercial cyclotrons exceeds the heat removal capacity of current target technology by a factor of two to four, significantly limiting the production rate of Fluorine-18.

  14. Solid targets for production of radioisotopes with cyclotron; Blancos solidos para produccion de radioisotopos con ciclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes G, L.; Balcazar G, M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Direccion de Investigacion Tecnologica, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The design of targets for production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals of cyclotron to medical applications requires a detailed analysis of several variables such as: cyclotron operation conditions, choice of used materials as target and their physicochemical characteristics, activity calculation, the yielding of each radioisotope by irradiation, the competition of nuclear reactions in function of the projectiles energy and the collision processes amongst others. The objective of this work is to determine the equations for the calculation for yielding of solid targets at the end of the proton irradiation. (Author)

  15. Space Charge Limits in the Dae$\\delta$alus DIC Compact Cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Baartman, Rick

    2016-01-01

    The Dae$\\delta$alus DIC compact cyclotron is proposed to achieve an extracted current of 5 mA of singly-charged hydrogen molecules, even though unlike other compact cyclotrons, the extraction is not by stripping. The authors of the proposal consistently use perveance as a scaling argument that such high current is possible. The argument is shown to be incorrect and a realistic limit is calculated. This limit is likely about 0.2 mA and certainly no higher than 0.5 mA.

  16. Kinetic instabilities in pulsed operation mode of a 14 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarvainen, O., E-mail: olli.tarvainen@jyu.fi; Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H.; Komppula, J.; Kronholm, R.; Laulainen, J. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, 40500 Jyväskylä (Finland); Izotov, I.; Mansfeld, D. [Institute of Applied Physics, RAS, 46 Ul‘yanova St., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Skalyga, V. [Institute of Applied Physics, RAS, 46 Ul‘yanova St., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (UNN), 23 Gagarina St., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    The occurrence of kinetic plasma instabilities is studied in pulsed operation mode of a 14 GHz A-electron cyclotron resonance type electron cyclotron resonance ion source. It is shown that the temporal delay between the plasma breakdown and the appearance of the instabilities is on the order of 10-100 ms. The most important parameters affecting the delay are magnetic field strength and neutral gas pressure. It is demonstrated that kinetic instabilities limit the high charge state ion beam production in the unstable operating regime.

  17. High harmonics of the cyclotron resonance in a weak magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramada, A.; Raikh, M. E.

    1998-03-01

    Harmonics of the cyclotron resonance have their origin in the disorder-induced mixing of the Landau levels which leads to the violation of the Kohn theorem. In a strong magnetic field, ω_cτ>> 1, (ωc is the cyclotron frequency and τ is the relaxation time) the amplitudes of the harmonics, σ^n, fall off rapidly^1 with the number n: σ^n∝ n-2. We have studied theoretically the opposite case, ω_cτPhys. Soc. Japan, 38, 989 (1975). 2. M. A. Zudov, R. R. Du, J. A. Simmons, J. L. Reno, preprint cond-mat/9711149.

  18. Field structure and electron life times in the MEFISTO electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodendorfer, M. [EPFL - Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland); University of Berne, Institute of Physics, Space Research and Planetary Sciences, Siedlerstrasse 5, 3012 Berne (Switzerland)], E-mail: michael.bodendorfer@space.unibe.ch; Altwegg, K. [University of Berne, Institute of Physics, Space Research and Planetary Sciences, Siedlerstrasse 5, 3012 Berne (Switzerland); Shea, H. [EPFL - Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Wurz, P. [University of Berne, Institute of Physics, Space Research and Planetary Sciences, Siedlerstrasse 5, 3012 Berne (Switzerland)

    2008-03-15

    The complex magnetic field of the permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source MEFISTO located at the University of Berne has been numerically simulated. For the first time the magnetized volume qualified for electron cyclotron resonance at 2.45 GHz and 87.5 mT has been analyzed in highly detailed 3D simulations with unprecedented resolution. New results were obtained from the numerical simulation of 25,211 electron trajectories. The evident characteristic ion sputtering trident of hexapole confined ECR ion sources has been identified with the field and electron trajectory distribution. Furthermore, unexpected long electron trajectory lifetimes were found.

  19. Field structure and electron life times in the MEFISTO electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodendorfer, M.; Altwegg, K.; Shea, H.; Wurz, P.

    2008-03-01

    The complex magnetic field of the permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source MEFISTO located at the University of Berne has been numerically simulated. For the first time the magnetized volume qualified for electron cyclotron resonance at 2.45 GHz and 87.5 mT has been analyzed in highly detailed 3D simulations with unprecedented resolution. New results were obtained from the numerical simulation of 25,211 electron trajectories. The evident characteristic ion sputtering trident of hexapole confined ECR ion sources has been identified with the field and electron trajectory distribution. Furthermore, unexpected long electron trajectory lifetimes were found.

  20. Field structure and electron life times in the MEFISTO Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source

    CERN Document Server

    Bodendorfer, Michael; Shea, Herbert; Wurz, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The complex magnetic field of the permanent-magnet electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source MEFISTO located at the University of Bern have been numerically simulated. For the first time the magnetized volume qualified for electron cyclotron resonance at 2.45 GHz and 87.5 mT has been analyzed in highly detailed 3D simulations with unprecedented resolution. New results were obtained from the numerical simulation of 25211 electron trajectories. The evident characteristic ion sputtering trident of hexapole confined ECR sources has been identified with the field and electron trajectory distribution. Furthermore, unexpected long electron trajectory lifetimes were found.

  1. Second-harmonic ion cyclotron resonance heating scenarios of Aditya tokamak plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Asim Kumar Chattopadhyay; S V Kulkarni; R Srinivasan; Aditya Team

    2015-10-01

    Plasma heating with the fast magnetosonic waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) is one of the auxiliary heating schemes of Aditya tokamak. Numerical simulation of second-harmonic resonance heating scenarios in low-temperature, low-density Aditya plasma has been carried out for fast magnetosonic wave absorption in ICRF range, using full-wave ion cyclotron heating code TORIC combined with Fokker–Planck quasilinear solver SSFPQL and the results are explained. In such low-temperature, low-density plasma, ion absorption for second-harmonic resonance heating is less but significant amount of direct electron heating is observed.

  2. Magnetic signatures of ion cyclotron waves during Cassini's high-inclination orbits of Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Zachary; Simon, Sven

    2017-02-01

    Based on magnetic field data from Cassini's high-inclination orbits of Saturn (radius RS = 60 , 268 km), we analyze the latitudinal distribution of ion cyclotron waves in the giant planet's magnetosphere. Our survey takes into account magnetic field data from all high-inclination orbits between 2004 and 2015. We analyze the dependency of the occurrence rate and amplitude of the ion cyclotron waves on radial distance ρ to Saturn's rotation axis, vertical distance z to Saturn's equatorial plane, and magnetic latitude λ. The occurrence rate of ion cyclotron waves is approximately 100% in Saturn's equatorial plane between the orbits of Enceladus and Dione and decreases to 50% at altitudes of | z | ≈ 0.6RS . Ion cyclotron waves were detected up to | z | = 2.0RS . The occurrence rate displays strong, non-monotonic variations with respect to ρ, z, and λ. The vertical amplitude profile of the waves exhibits an M-like pattern with two distinct peaks near z = ± 0.3RS and the central minimum at z=0. Compared to earlier observations, we find this M-like structure to be inflated in±z direction by a factor of three. The available magnetic field data provides only weak evidence for a local impact of Enceladus and Dione on the ion cyclotron wave field. Using the observed Doppler shift of the ion cyclotron wave frequency during Cassini's high-inclination orbits, we demonstrate the existence of a narrow band of bidirectional wave propagation. This band is centered around Saturn's equatorial plane and possesses a half-width of | z | = 0.15RS , which agrees well with the vertical scale height of Saturn's neutral cloud. To the north of this band, all ion cyclotron waves propagate towards the north (z > 0); and to the south, all waves propagate towards the south (z < 0). In companion with our previous study (Meeks et al., 2016), this survey provides the complete three-dimensional picture of the ion cyclotron wave field between the orbits of Enceladus and Rhea during the Cassini

  3. Effects of Magnetic Shear on Ion-Cyclotron Modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, Gurudas

    Effects of Magnetic Shear on electrostatic Ion -Bernstein Modes (IBM) are examined. Shear affects the mode structure in 3 principal ways: (i) Local effect, (ii) Global effect and (iii) Orbital effect. The role of shear at the above three levels is investigated for IBM in general and in the context of parametric instability of two Ion-Bernstein modes by a magnetosonic wave in a multispecies plasma in particular. An improved marginal stability criterion is presented at Local and Global levels and the region where the Orbital effects are influential is defined and discussed. An electron drift relative to the ions is introduced parallel to the external magnetic field giving rise to Current Driven Ion Cyclotron Instability (CDICI). An improved theory of CDICI in a sheared magnetic field is given. For temperature ratios (tau) = T(,i)/T(,e) > .25, the imaginary part of the local dispersion relation, (as a function of k(,(PARLL)) (('x)), the local parallel wavevector), can be approximated by a parabola, while for weaker (tau) it can be approximated by a pair of straight lines; in each case a second order differential equation is solved for complex roots, (omega). Growth rates ((gamma)/(OMEGA)), are plotted against the square of the normalized pependicular wavevector ((TURN)b) for various values of shear, temperature ratios and electron drift strengths. The main effect of shear is to localize this instability in x-space around some x(,0) such that k(,(PARLL))('0) = ('s)k(,y)x(,0), (('s) being inverse shear length), corresponds to the ((gamma)/(OMEGA))(,max) in the absence of shear. Shear also reduces the growth rate in general: however, ((gamma)/(OMEGA)) for the b values away from the value corresponding to the maximum growth rate are affected more than those which are closer, thereby making the instability more coherent in b. Operator methods employing the Vlasov operator to obtain orbits and velocities in external magnetic fields are studied. Particle orbits and

  4. Narrow heavy-hole cyclotron resonances split by the cubic Rashba spin-orbit interaction in strained germanium quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Failla, M.; Myronov, M.; Morrison, C.; Leadley, D. R.; Lloyd-Hughes, J.

    2015-07-01

    The spin-orbit interaction was found to split the cyclotron resonance of heavy holes confined in high-mobility, compressively strained germanium quantum wells. The interference between coherent spin-split cyclotron resonances was tracked on picosecond time scales using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Analysis in the time domain, or using a time-frequency decomposition based on the Gabor-Morlet wavelet, was necessary when the difference between cyclotron frequencies was comparable to the linewidth. The cubic Rashba spin-orbit coefficient β was determined via two methods: (i) the magnetic-field dependence of the cyclotron frequencies, and (ii) the spin-resolved subband densities. An enhanced β and spin polarization was created by tailoring the strain to enhance the spin-orbit interaction. The amplitude modulation of the narrow, interfering cyclotron resonances is a signature of spin coherences persisting for more than 10 ps.

  5. Electromagnetic waves near the proton cyclotron frequency in the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Lan; Alexander, Robert; Wicks, Robert; Stevens, Michael; Figueroa-Vinas, Adolfo; Russell, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Strong narrow-band electromagnetic waves around the proton cyclotron frequency have been found sporadically in the solar wind throughout the inner heliosphere. They are nearly-circularly polarized and propagate close to the magnetic field. Electromagnetic waves near the proton cyclotron frequency can be ion cyclotron waves or magnetosonic waves. They can play an important role in modulating the solar wind ion distribution, and contribute to the heating and acceleration of solar wind. Since the waves are left-hand or right-hand polarized in the spacecraft frame with similar characteristics, they are probably due to Doppler shift of a same type of waves, or there could be a mixture of waves with intrinsically different polarizations. Through the assistance of audification, we have studied the long-lasting low frequency wave events in 2005 using high-cadence magnetic field data from the Wind mission. The Solar Wind Experiment team of the Wind mission has provided the temperature anisotropies for core protons, beam protons, and alpha particles, as well as the beam drift for selected cases. We conduct wave dispersion analysis using these ion moments to examine if these waves can be explained by ion cyclotron anisotropy instability or ion beam instability related to the solar wind inhomogeneities.

  6. Advanced launcher design options for electron cyclotron current drive on ITER based on remote steering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graswinckel, M. R.; Bongers, W. A.; M.R. de Baar,; van den Berg, M. A.; Denisov, G.; Donne, A. J. H.; Elzendoorn, B. S. Q.; Goede, A. P. H.; Heidinger, R.; Kuzikov, S.; Kruijt, O. G.; Kruizinga, B.; Moro, A.; Poli, E.; Ronden, D. M. S.; Saibene, G.; Thoen, D. J.; Verhoeven, A. G. A.

    2008-01-01

    Electron cyclotron current drive will become the main scheme on ITER for the stabilization of neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) and the control of sawtooth oscillations. The effectiveness of this scheme forms the basis for the requirements of the ITER Upper Port Launcher. These requirements include

  7. Design and installation of the electron cyclotron wave system for the TCV tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, T.P.; Alberti, S.; Henderson, M.A.; Pochelon, A.; Tran, M.Q. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP)

    1996-10-01

    The design of a combined 82.7 GHz and 118 GHz, 4.5 MW, 2.0 s electron cyclotron wave (ECW) system for heating and current drive on TCV is described. Low and high power test results of the RF source, transmission line and launching antenna are presented. (author) 3 figs., 5 refs.

  8. Tomsk Polytechnic University cyclotron as a source for neutron based cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisin, V. A. [Cancer Research Institute, 5 Kooperativny St., Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenina av., Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Bogdanov, A. V.; Golovkov, V. M.; Sukhikh, L. G.; Verigin, D. A., E-mail: verigin@tpu.ru [Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenina av., Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Musabaeva, L. I. [Cancer Research Institute, 5 Kooperativny St., Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-15

    In this paper we present our cyclotron based neutron source with average energy 6.3 MeV generated during the 13.6 MeV deuterons interactions with beryllium target, neutron field dosimetry, and dosimetry of attendant gamma fields. We also present application of our neutron source for cancer treatment.

  9. Fast Ion Induced Shearing of 2D Alfven Eigenmodes Measured by Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tobias, B. J.; Classen, I.G.J.; Domier, C.W.; Heidbrink, W. W.; N C Luhmann Jr.,; Nazikian, R.; Park, H. K.; Spong, D. A.; VanZeeland, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Two-dimensional images of electron temperature perturbations are obtained with electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) on the DIII-D tokamak and compared to Alfven eigenmode structures obtained by numerical modeling using both ideal MHD and hybrid MHD-gyrofluid codes. While many features of the o

  10. Simulation on the electronic wave packet cyclotron motion in a Weyl semimetal slab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Haibo; Zhu, Mingfeng; Jiang, Liwei; Zheng, Yisong

    2017-04-20

    We perform a numerical simulation on the time evolution of an electronic wave packet in a Weyl semimetal (WSM) slab driven by a magnetic field. We find that the evolution trajectory of the wave packet depends sensitively on its initial spin state. Only with initial spin state identical to that of the Fermi arc state at the surface it localized, does the wave packet evolution demonstrate the characteristic cyclotron orbit of WSM previously predicted from a semiclassical viewpoint. By analyzing the eigen-expansion of the electronic wave packet, we find the chiral Landau levels (LLs) of the WSM slab, as ingredients of the wave packet, to be responsible for establishing the characteristic WSM cyclotron orbit. In contrast, the nonchiral LLs contribute irregular oscillations to the wave packet evolution, going against the formation of a well-defined cyclotron orbit. In addition, the tilted magnetic field does not affect the motion of the electronic wave packet along the Fermi arcs in the momentum space. It does, however, alter the evolution trajectory of the electronic wave packet in real space and spin space. Finally, the energy disalignment of the Weyl nodes results in a 3D cyclotron orbit in real space.

  11. Determining Contents of Five Impurities in Cyclotron- Produced ~(64)Cu Solution by Emission Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    64Cu ( β+=17%, β-=39%, IEC=43%) is an important emerging biomedical radionuclide, which is useful for PET as well as a promising radiotherapy agent for the treatment of cancer. It can be produced on a small biomedical cyclotron utilizing 64Ni(p, n)64Cu nuclear reaction.

  12. Dispersion equations for field-aligned cyclotron waves in axisymmetric magnetospheric plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Grishanov

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we derive the dispersion equations for field-aligned cyclotron waves in two-dimensional (2-D magnetospheric plasmas with anisotropic temperature. Two magnetic field configurations are considered with dipole and circular magnetic field lines. The main contribution of the trapped particles to the transverse dielectric permittivity is estimated by solving the linearized Vlasov equation for their perturbed distribution functions, accounting for the cyclotron and bounce resonances, neglecting the drift effects, and assuming the weak connection of the left-hand and right-hand polarized waves. Both the bi-Maxwellian and bi-Lorentzian distribution functions are considered to model the ring current ions and electrons in the dipole magnetosphere. A numerical code has been developed to analyze the dispersion characteristics of electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves in an electron-proton magnetospheric plasma with circular magnetic field lines, assuming that the steady-state distribution function of the energetic protons is bi-Maxwellian. As in the uniform magnetic field case, the growth rate of the proton-cyclotron instability (PCI in the 2-D magnetospheric plasmas is defined by the contribution of the energetic ions/protons to the imaginary part of the transverse permittivity elements. We demonstrate that the PCI growth rate in the 2-D axisymmetric plasmasphere can be significantly smaller than that for the straight magnetic field case with the same macroscopic bulk parameters.

  13. Closure of the single fluid magnetohydrodynamic equations in presence of electron cyclotron current drive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.; Pratt, J.

    2014-01-01

    In the presence of electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD), the Ohm's law of single fluid magnetohydrodynamics is modified as E + v × B = η(J – J EC). This paper presents a new closure relation for the EC driven current density appearing in this modified Ohm's law. The new relation faithfu

  14. Commissioning of electron cyclotron emission imaging instrument on the DIII-D tokamak and first data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tobias, B.; Domier, C.W.; Liang, T.; Kong, X.; Yu, L.; Yun, G. S.; Park, H. K.; Classen, I.G.J.; Boom, J. E.; Donne, A. J. H.; Munsat, T.; Nazikian, R.; Van Zeeland, M.; Boivin, R. L.; N C Luhmann Jr.,

    2010-01-01

    A new electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic has been commissioned on the DIII-D tokamak. Dual detector arrays provide simultaneous two-dimensional images of T-e fluctuations over radially distinct and reconfigurable regions, each with both vertical and radial zoom capability. A total of 320

  15. Design Study of Superconducting Coil of 230 MeV Superconducting Cyclotron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Chuan; YIN; Meng; ZHANG; Su-ping; LI; Ming; CUI; Tao; LIN; Jun; LV; Yin-long; GE; Tao; YIN; Zhi-guo; ZHANG; Tian-jue

    2015-01-01

    The superconducting coil system of CYCIAE-230superconducting proton cyclotron consists of two coil windings,cryostat,GM coolers,and the liquid helium condenser(Fig.1),along with multiple thermometers,pressure gauges,liquid level gauges,load cells,a vacuum pump,a

  16. Distorted cyclotron line profile in Cep X-4 as observed by NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürst, F.; Pottschmidt, K.; Miyasaka, H.;

    2015-01-01

    a powerlaw with a Fermi-Dirac cutoff at high energies. Cep X-4 has a very strong cyclotron resonant scattering feature (CRSF) around 30 keV. A simple absorption-like line with a Gaussian optical depth or a pseudo-Lorentzian profile both fail to describe the shape of the CRSF accurately, leaving significant...

  17. Cyclotron laboratory of the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonev, D.; Goutev, N.; Georgiev, L. S.

    2016-06-01

    An accelerator laboratory is presently under construction in Sofia at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The laboratory will use a TR24 type of cyclotron, which provides a possibility to accelerate a proton beam with an energy of 15 to 24 MeV and current of up to 0.4 mA. An accelerator with such parameters allows to produce a large variety of radioisotopes for development of radiopharmaceuticals. The most common radioisotopes that could be produced with such a cyclotron are PET isotopes like: 11C, 13N, 15O, 18F, 124I, 64Cu, 68Ge/68Ga, and SPECT isotopes like: 123I, 111In, 67Ga, 57Co, 99m Tc. Our aim is to use the cyclotron facility for research in the fields of radiopharmacy, radiochemistry, radiobiology, nuclear physics, solid state physics, applied research, new materials and for education in all these fields including nuclear energy. The building of the laboratory will be constructed nearby the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy and the cyclotron together with all the equipment needed will be installed there.

  18. Design study of a 9 MeV compact cyclotron system for PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byeong-No; Shin, Seung-Wook; Song, Hoseung; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Chai, Jong-Seo

    2013-06-01

    A cyclotron is an accelerator which can be applied to both cancer diagnosis and treatment. Among commercially sold cyclotrons, the major energy is used for positron emission tomography (PET) ranges from 10 to 20 MeV. In this research, 9 MeV compact cyclotron for PET was designed. The research was conducted on the response cross section and the yield for the energy distribution to decide the design features. Also, it was determined the specifications on the basis of the fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG) maximum dose. The machine, which has a 20 uA beam current, is designed to be installed in small-to-medium-sized hospitals in local cities because of its relatively light weight (6 tons). This compact cyclotron, which provides 9-MeV proton beams, is composed of a azimuthally varying field (AVF) electromagnet, 83-MHz RF systems with a 20 kW amplifier, a panning ion gauge (PIG) type ion-source for negative hydrogen, and a double-stage high-vacuum system. The basic model design was done by using 3-D CAD program, CATIA and all the field calculations were performed using commercial electromagnetic field analysis code, OPERA-3D TOSCA. From this research, we expect a time reduction for FDG production, a decrease of radioactive exposure for workers, and an equipment cost reduction.

  19. Electron cyclotron emission measurements on JET: Michelson interferometer, new absolute calibration, and determination of electron temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmuck, S.; Fessey, J.; Gerbaud, T.; Alper, B.; Beurskens, M. N. A.; de la Luna, E.; Sirinelli, A.; Zerbini, M.

    2012-01-01

    At the fusion experiment JET, a Michelson interferometer is used to measure the spectrum of the electron cyclotron emission in the spectral range 70-500 GHz. The interferometer is absolutely calibrated using the hot/cold technique and, in consequence, the spatial profile of the plasma electron tempe

  20. Buncher Power Source Monitoring System of 100 MeV Cyclotron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI; Jun-yi; FU; Xiao-liang; GUO; Juan-juan; ZHANG; Yi-wang; CAO; Xue-long; YIN; Zhi-guo; JI; Bin

    2015-01-01

    The 100MeV cyclotron provides 70-100MeV and 200μA proton beam,which can be used in astrophysics,medical,defense,energy and other fields.Buncher system can enhance the beam intensity and expand the scope of application of the accelerator.Buncher system is one part of the

  1. Neutron Beams from Deuteron Breakup at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahan, M.A.; Ahle, L.; Bleuel, D.L.; Bernstein, L.; Braquest, B.R.; Cerny, J.; Heilbronn, L.H.; Jewett, C.C.; Thompson, I.; Wilson, B.

    2007-07-31

    Accelerator-based neutron sources offer many advantages, in particular tunability of the neutron beam in energy and width to match the needs of the application. Using a recently constructed neutron beam line at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at LBNL, tunable high-intensity sources of quasi-monoenergetic and broad spectrum neutrons from deuteron breakup are under development for a variety of applications.

  2. Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry. Development of instrumentation, data aquisition software and processing methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbu, I.M.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes, the use of a Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron (FTICR) mass spectrometer in the study of biological samples with, imaging mass spectrometry (MS). To achieve this goal experiments were performed on an in-house modified FTICR-MS instrument (for which special acquisition software w

  3. 3-Dimensional Simulations of Multipacting Effects in RF Cavities of CYCIAE-100 Cyclotron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Chuan; JI; Bin; LI; Peng-zhan; YIN; Zhi-guo; LEI; Yu; XING; Jian-sheng; ZHANG; Tian-jue

    2013-01-01

    Multipacting phenomena have been observed in various RF structures of accelerators.The multipacting appearing in high-Q RF cavities of cyclotrons,are the well known examples that how disturbing these phenomenon could be during commissioning.The seed electrons will impact the cavity surface,produce new electrons.Under certain conditions(material and geometry of the RF structure,

  4. Stability of electrostatic ion cyclotron waves in a multi-ion plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M J Kurian; S Jyothi; S K Leju; Molly Isaac; Chandu Venugopal; G Renuka

    2009-12-01

    We have studied the stability of the electrostatic ion cyclotron wave in a plasma consisting of isotropic hydrogen ions (+) and temperature-anisotropic positively (+) and negatively (−) charged oxygen ions, with the electrons drifting parallel to the magnetic field. Analytical expressions have been derived for the frequency and growth/damping rate of ion cyclotron waves around the first harmonic of both hydrogen and oxygen ion gyrofrequencies. We find that the frequencies and growth/damping rates are dependent on the densities and temperatures of all species of ions. A detailed numerical study, for parameters relevant to comet Halley, shows that the growth rate is dependent on the magnitude of the frequency. The ion cyclotron waves are driven by the electron drift parallel to the magnetic field; the temperature anisotropy of the oxygen ions only slightly enhance the growth rates for small values of temperature anisotropies. A simple explanation, in terms of wave exponentiation times, is offered for the absence of electrostatic ion cyclotron waves in the multi-ion plasma of comet Halley.

  5. Status of the PHOENIX electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder at ISOLDE, CERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Charles; Cederkall, Joakim; Delahaye, Pierre; Kester, Oliver; Lamy, Thierry; Marie-Jeanne, Mélanie

    2008-02-01

    We report here on the last progresses made with the PHOENIX electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder test bench at ISOLDE. Recently, an experiment was performed to test the trapping of (61)Fe daughter nuclides from the decay of (61)Mn nuclides. Preliminary results are given.

  6. LIBO - boosting medical cyclotron facilities for cancer therapy Exhibition LEPFest 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Length : Energy boost : From 62 to 200 MeVAccelerating gradient : 10 MeV/metreAccelerating frequency : 3 GHz Collaboration : CERN, INFN and University of Milan, INFN and University of Naples and TERA foundation Prototype test in 2001 : SC cyclotron Catania

  7. Isotopic anomaly for carbon ions in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drentje, A. G.; Kitagawa, A.; Muramatsu, M.

    2010-01-01

    In many experiments methods were applied to increase the highly charged ion output from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source; the gas-mixing method is still generally being applied. The dominant role of the masses of the ions in the gas-mixture was apparent. Two basically differing mechanisms

  8. Techniques and mechanisms applied in electron cyclotron resonance sources for highly charged ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drentje, AG

    2003-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are delivering beams of highly charged ions for a wide range of applications in many laboratories. For more than two decades, the development of these ion sources has been to a large extent an intuitive and experimental enterprise. Much effort has been spent

  9. An overview of control system for the ITER electron cyclotron system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purohit, D.; Bigelow, T.; Billava, D.; Bonicelli, T.; Caughman, J.; Darbos, C.; Denisov, G.; Gandini, F.; Gassmann, T.; Henderson, M.; Journeux, J. Y.; Kajiwara, K.; Kobayashi, N.; Nazare, C.; Oda, Y.; Omori, T.; Rao, S. L.; Rasmussen, D.; Ronden, D.; Saibene, G.; Sakamoto, K.; Sartori, F.; Takahashi, K.; Temkin, R.

    2011-01-01

    The ITER electron cyclotron (EC) system having capability of up to 26 MW generated power at 170 GHz is being procured by 5 domestic agencies via 10 procurement arrangements. This implies diverse types of equipment and complex interface management. It also places a challenge on control system archite

  10. Observations of rotation in JET plasmas with electron heating by ion cyclotron resonance heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellsten, T.; Johnson, T. J.; Van Eester, D.; Lerche, E.; Lin, Y.; Mayoral, M. L.; Ongena, J.; Calabro, G.; Crombe, K.; Frigione, D.; Giroud, C.; Lennholm, M.; Mantica, P.; Nave, M. F. F.; Naulin, V.; Sozzi, C.; Studholme, W.; Tala, T.; Versloot, T.

    2012-01-01

    The rotation of L-mode plasmas in the JET tokamak heated by waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) damped on electrons, is reported. The plasma in the core is found to rotate in the counter-current direction with a high shear and in the outer part of the plasma with an almost constan

  11. Electron cyclotron heating and current drive in toroidal geometry. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritz, A.H.

    1991-11-01

    The Principal Investigator has continued to work on problems associated both with the deposition and with the emission of electron cyclotron power in toroidal plasmas. We have investigated the use of electron cyclotron resonance heating for bringing compact tokamaks (BPX) to ignition-like parameters. This requires that we continue to refine the modeling capability of the TORCH code linked with the BALDUR 1 {1/2} D transport code. Using this computational tool, we have examined the dependence of ignition on heating and transport employing both theoretical (multi-mode) and empirically based transport models. The work on current drive focused on the suppression of tearing modes near the q = 2 surface and sawteeth near the q = 1 surface. Electron cyclotron current drive in CIT near the q =2 surface was evaluated for a launch scenario where electron cyclotron power was launched near the equatorial plane. The work on suppression of sawteeth has been oriented toward understanding the suppression that has been observed in a number of tokamaks, in particular, in the WT-3 tokamak in Kyoto. To evaluate the changes in current profile (shear) near the q =1 surface, simulations have been carried out using the linked BALDUR-TORCH code. We consider effects on shear resulting both from wave-induced current as well as from changes in conductivity associated with changes in local temperature. Abstracts and a paper relating to this work is included in Appendix A.

  12. Geometric analysis of phase bunching in the central region of cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyawaki, Nobumasa, E-mail: miyawaki.nobumasa@jaea.go.jp [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Fukuda, Mitsuhiro [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, 10-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Kurashima, Satoshi; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Okumura, Susumu [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Arakawa, Kazuo [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, Gunma University, 3-39-22 Showa-Machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Kamiya, Tomihiro [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    An optimum condition for realizing phase bunching in the central region of a cyclotron was quantitatively clarified by a simplified geometric trajectory analysis of charged particles from the first to the second acceleration gap. The phase bunching performance was evaluated for a general case of a cyclotron. The phase difference of incident particles at the second acceleration gap depends on the combination of four parameters: the acceleration harmonic number h, the span angle θ{sub D} of the dee electrode, the span angle θ{sub F} from the first to the second acceleration gap, the ratio R{sub V} of the peak acceleration voltage between the cyclotron and ion source. Optimum values of θ{sub F} for phase bunching were limited by the relationship between h and θ{sub D}, which is 90°/h+θ{sub D}/2≤θ{sub F}≤180°/h+θ{sub D}/2, and sin θ{sub F}>0. The phase difference with respect to the reference particle at the second acceleration gap is minimized for voltage-ratios between two and four for an initial phase difference within 40 RF degrees. Although the slope of the first acceleration gap contributes to the RF phase at which the particles reach the second acceleration gap, phase bunching was not affected. An orbit simulation of the AVF cyclotron at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency verifies the evaluation based on geometric analysis.

  13. Alfvenic behavior of alpha particle driven ion cyclotron emission in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cauffman, S.; Majeski, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States); McClements, K.G. [UKAEA Government Division, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom). Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association] [and others

    1995-07-01

    Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) has been observed during D-T discharges in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), using rf probes located near the top and bottom of the vacuum vessel. Harmonics of the alpha cyclotron frequency ({Omega}{sub {alpha}}) evaluated at the outer midplane plasma edge are observed at the onset of the beam injection phase of TFTR supershots, and persist for approximately 100-250 ms. These results are in contrast with observations of ICE in JET, in which harmonics of {Omega}{sub {alpha}} evolve with the alpha population in the plasma edge. Such differences are believed to be due to the fact that newly-born fusion alpha particles are super-Alfvenic near the edge of JET plasmas, while they are sub-Alfvenic near the edge of TFTR supershot plasmas. In TFTR discharges with edge densities such that newly-born alpha particles are super-Alfvenic, alpha cyclotron harmonics are observed to persist. These results are in qualitative agreement with numerical calculations of growth rates due to the magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability.

  14. Radiologic assessment of a self-shield with boron-containing water for a compact medical cyclotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horitsugi, Genki; Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Eto, Akihisa; Iwamoto, Yasuo; Hashimoto, Hiromi; Hamada, Seiki; Obara, Satoshi; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Hatazawa, Jun

    2012-07-01

    The cyclotron at our hospital has a self-shield of boron-containing water. The amount of induced radioactivity in the boron-containing water shield of a compact medical cyclotron has not yet been reported. In this study, we measured the photon and neutron dose rates outside the self-shield during cyclotron operation. We estimated the induced radioactivities of the boron-containing water used for the self-shield and then measured them. We estimated the activation of concrete outside the self-shield in the cyclotron laboratory. The thermal neutron flux during cyclotron operation was estimated to be 4.72 × 10(2) cm(-2) s(-1), and the activation of concrete in a cyclotron laboratory was about three orders of magnitude lower than the clearance level of RS-G-1.7 (IAEA). The activity concentration of the boron-containing water did not exceed the concentration limit for radioactive isotopes in drainage in Japan and the exemption level for Basic Safety Standards. Consequently, the boron-containing water is treatable as non-radioactive waste. Neutrons were effectively shielded by the self-shield during cyclotron operation.

  15. Production of high intensity {sup 48}Ca for the 88-Inch Cyclotron and other updates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez, J. Y.; Hodgkinson, A.; Lyneis, C. M., E-mail: jybenitez@lbl.gov; Strohmeier, M.; Thullier, T.; Todd, D.; Xie, D. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Franzen, K. Y. [Mevion Medical Systems, 300 Foster St., Littleton, Massachusetts 01460 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Recently the Versatile ECR for NUclear Science (VENUS) ion source was engaged in a 60-day long campaign to deliver high intensity {sup 48}Ca{sup 11+} beam to the 88-Inch Cyclotron. As the first long term use of VENUS for multi-week heavy-element research, new methods were developed to maximize oven to target efficiency. First, the tuning parameters of VENUS for injection into the cyclotron proved to be very different than those used to tune VENUS for maximum beam output of the desired charge state immediately following its bending magnet. Second, helium with no oxygen support gas was used to maximize the efficiency. The performance of VENUS and its low temperature oven used to produce the stable requested 75 eμA of {sup 48}Ca{sup 11+} beam current was impressive. The consumption of {sup 48}Ca in VENUS using the low temperature oven was checked roughly weekly, and was found to be on average 0.27 mg/h with an ionization efficiency into the 11+ charge state of 5.0%. No degradation in performance was noted over time. In addition, with the successful operation of VENUS the 88-Inch cyclotron was able to extract a record 2 pμA of {sup 48}Ca{sup 11+}, with a VENUS output beam current of 219 eμA. The paper describes the characteristics of the VENUS tune used for maximum transport efficiency into the cyclotron as well as ongoing efforts to improve the transport efficiency from VENUS into the cyclotron. In addition, we briefly present details regarding the recent successful repair of the cryostat vacuum system.

  16. Production of high intensity 48Ca for the 88-Inch Cyclotron and other updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, J. Y.; Franzen, K. Y.; Hodgkinson, A.; Lyneis, C. M.; Strohmeier, M.; Thullier, T.; Todd, D.; Xie, D.

    2014-02-01

    Recently the Versatile ECR for NUclear Science (VENUS) ion source was engaged in a 60-day long campaign to deliver high intensity 48Ca11+ beam to the 88-Inch Cyclotron. As the first long term use of VENUS for multi-week heavy-element research, new methods were developed to maximize oven to target efficiency. First, the tuning parameters of VENUS for injection into the cyclotron proved to be very different than those used to tune VENUS for maximum beam output of the desired charge state immediately following its bending magnet. Second, helium with no oxygen support gas was used to maximize the efficiency. The performance of VENUS and its low temperature oven used to produce the stable requested 75 eμA of 48Ca11+ beam current was impressive. The consumption of 48Ca in VENUS using the low temperature oven was checked roughly weekly, and was found to be on average 0.27 mg/h with an ionization efficiency into the 11+ charge state of 5.0%. No degradation in performance was noted over time. In addition, with the successful operation of VENUS the 88-Inch cyclotron was able to extract a record 2 pμA of 48Ca11+, with a VENUS output beam current of 219 eμA. The paper describes the characteristics of the VENUS tune used for maximum transport efficiency into the cyclotron as well as ongoing efforts to improve the transport efficiency from VENUS into the cyclotron. In addition, we briefly present details regarding the recent successful repair of the cryostat vacuum system.

  17. Discovery of Cyclotron Resonance Features in the Soft Gamma Repeater SGR 1806-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Alaa I.; Safi-Harb, Samar; Swank, Jean H.; Parke, William; Zane, Silvia; Turolla, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    We report evidence of cyclotron resonance features from the Soft Gamma Repeater SGR 1806-20 in outburst, detected with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer in the spectrum of a long, complex precursor that preceded a strong burst. The features consist of a narrow 5.0 keV absorption line with modulation near its second and third harmonics (at 11.2 keV and 17.5 keV respectively). The line features are transient and are detected in the harder part of the precursor. The 5.0 keV feature is strong, with an equivalent width of approx. 500 eV and a narrow width of less than 0.4 keV. Interpreting the features as electron cyclotron lines in the context of accretion models leads to a large mass-radius ratio (M/R greater than 0.3 solar mass/km) that is inconsistent with neutron stars or that requires a low (5-7) x 10(exp 11) G magnetic field that is unlikely for SGRs. The line widths are also narrow compared with those of electron cyclotron resonances observed so far in X-ray pulsars. In the magnetar picture, the features are plausibly explained as ion cyclotron resonances in an ultra-strong magnetic field that have recently been predicted from magnetar candidates. In this view, the 5.0 keV feature is consistent with a proton cyclotron fundamental whose energy and width are close to model predictions. The line energy would correspond to a surface magnetic field of 1.0 x 10(exp 15) G for SGR 1806-20, in good agreement with that inferred from the spin-down measure in the source.

  18. A comprehensive analysis of ion cyclotron waves in the equatorial magnetosphere of Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Zachary; Simon, Sven; Kabanovic, Slawa

    2016-09-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of ion cyclotron waves in the equatorial magnetosphere of Saturn, considering all magnetic field data collected during the Cassini era (totaling to over 4 years of data from the equatorial plane). This dataset includes eight targeted flybys of Enceladus, three targeted flybys of Dione, and three targeted flybys of Rhea. Because all remaining orbits of Cassini are high-inclination, our study provides the complete map of ion cyclotron waves in Saturn's equatorial magnetosphere during the Cassini era. We provide catalogs of the radial and longitudinal dependencies of the occurrence rate and amplitude of the ion cyclotron fundamental and first harmonic wave modes. The fundamental wave mode is omnipresent between the orbits of Enceladus and Dione and evenly distributed across all Local Times. The occurrence rate of the fundamental mode displays a Fermi-Dirac-like profile with respect to radial distance from Saturn. Detection of the first harmonic mode is a rare event occurring in only 0.49% of measurements taken and always in conjunction with the fundamental mode. We also search for a dependency of the ion cyclotron wave field on the orbital positions of the icy moons Enceladus, Dione, and Rhea. On magnetospheric length scales, the wave field is independent of the moons' orbital positions. For Enceladus, we analyze wave amplitude profiles of seven close flybys (E9, E12, E13, E14, E17, E18, and E19), which occurred during the studied trajectory segments, to look for any local effects of Enceladan plume variability on the wave field. We find that even in the close vicinity of Enceladus, the wave amplitudes display no discernible dependency on Enceladus' angular distance to its orbital apocenter. Thus, the correlation between plume activity and angular distance to apocenter proposed by Hedman et al. (2013) does not leave a clearly distinguishable imprint in the ion cyclotron wave field.

  19. General Electric PETtrace cyclotron as a neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosko, Andrey

    This research investigates the use of a PETtrace cyclotron produced by General Electric (GE) as a neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The GE PETtrace was chosen for this investigation because this type of cyclotron is popular among nuclear pharmacies and clinics in many countries; it is compact and reliable; it produces protons with energies high enough to produce neutrons with appropriate energy and fluence rate for BNCT and it does not require significant changes in design to provide neutrons. In particular, the standard PETtrace 18O target is considered. The cyclotron efficiency may be significantly increased if unused neutrons produced during radioisotopes production could be utilized for other medical modalities such as BNCT at the same time. The resulting dose from the radiation emitted from the target is evaluated using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP at several depths in a brain phantom for different scattering geometries. Four different moderating materials of various thicknesses were considered: light water, carbon, heavy water, arid Fluental(TM). The fluence rate tally was used to calculate photon and neutron dose, by applying fluence rate-to-dose conversion factors. Fifteen different geometries were considered and a 30-cm thick heavy water moderator was chosen as the most suitable for BNCT with the GE PETtrace cyclotron. According to the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) protocol, the maximum dose to the normal brain is set to 12.5 RBEGy, which for the conditions of using a heavy water moderator, assuming a 60 muA beam current, would be reached with a treatment time of 258 min. Results showed that using a PETtrace cyclotron in this configuration provides a therapeutic ratio of about 2.4 for depths up to 4 cm inside a brain phantom. Further increase of beam current proposed by GE should significantly improve the beam quality or the treatment time and allow treating tumors at greater depths.

  20. Cyclotron resonance in InAs/AlSb quantum wells in magnetic fields up to 45 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spirin, K. E., E-mail: spirink@ipmras.ru; Krishtopenko, S. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Sadofyev, Yu. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Drachenko, O. [Laboratoire National des Champs Magn’etiques Intenses (France); Helm, M. [Forschungszentrum Dresden–Rossendorf, Dresden High-Magnetic-Field Laboratory and Institute of Ion-Beam Physics and Materials Research (Germany); Teppe, F.; Knap, W. [GIS-TERALAB Universite Montpellier II, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR CNRS 5221 (L2C) (France); Gavrilenko, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Electron cyclotron resonance in InAs/AlSb heterostructures with quantum wells of various widths in pulsed magnetic fields up to 45 T are investigated. Our experimental cyclotron energies are in satisfactory agreement with the results of theoretical calculations performed using the eight-band kp Hamiltonian. The shift of the cyclotron resonance (CR) line, which corresponds to the transition from the lowest Landau level to the low magnetic-field region, is found upon varying the electron concentration due to the negative persistent photoconductivity effect. It is shown that the observed shift of the CR lines is associated with the finite width of the density of states at the Landau levels.

  1. Radiologic assessment of a self-shield with boron-containing water for a compact medical cyclotron

    OpenAIRE

    Horitsugi, Genki; Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Eto, Akihisa; Iwamoto, Yasuo; Hashimoto, Hiromi; Hamada, Seiki; Obara, Satoshi; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Hatazawa, Jun

    2012-01-01

    The cyclotron at our hospital has a self-shield of boron-containing water. The amount of induced radioactivity in the boron-containing water shield of a compact medical cyclotron has not yet been reported. In this study, we measured the photon and neutron dose rates outside the self-shield during cyclotron operation. We estimated the induced radioactivities of the boron-containing water used for the self-shield and then measured them. We estimated the activation of concrete outside the self-s...

  2. Analysis and suppression of RF radiation from the PSI 590 MeV cyclotron Flat Top Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogue, N. J.; Stingelin, L.; Adelmann, A.

    2016-08-01

    The Flat Top Cavity, located in the PSI HIPA Ring Cyclotron leaks RF power of several kilo Watts into the cyclotron's vacuum space causing several complications. A detailed electromagnetic model was created and simulations performed to analyze the mechanisms by which power is leaking out of the Flat Top Cavity. The tolerances needed to limit the leaked power in future iterations of the Flat Top cavity are reported. Comparison of the model to measurements are described as well as two potential methods to limit power leakage. These studies will have direct impact on future RF cavity designs for cyclotrons as power levels increase and higher RF fields are required.

  3. Two-stream cyclotron radiative instabilities due to the marginally mirror-trapped fraction for fustion alphas in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arunasalam, V.

    1995-07-01

    It is shown here that the marginally mirror-trapped fraction of the newly-born fusion alpha particles in the deuterium-tritium (DT) reaction dominated tokamak plasmas can induce a two-stream cyclotron radiative instability for the fast Alfven waves propagating near the harmonics of the alpha particle cyclotron frequency {omega}{sub c{alpha}}. This can explain both the experimentally observed time behavior and the spatially localized origin of the fusion product ion cyclotron emission (ICE) in TFTR at frequencies {omega} {approx} m{omega}{sub c{alpha}}.

  4. Comparative study of ion cyclotron waves at Mars, Venus and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, H. Y.; Russell, C. T.; Zhang, T. L.; Blanco-Cano, X.

    2011-08-01

    Ion cyclotron waves are generated in the solar wind when it picks up freshly ionized planetary exospheric ions. These waves grow from the free energy of the highly anisotropic distribution of fresh pickup ions, and are observed in the spacecraft frame with left-handed polarization and a wave frequency near the ion's gyrofrequency. At Mars and Venus and in the Earth's polar cusp, the solar wind directly interacts with the planetary exospheres. Ion cyclotron waves with many similar properties are observed in these diverse plasma environments. The ion cyclotron waves at Mars indicate its hydrogen exosphere to be extensive and asymmetric in the direction of the interplanetary electric field. The production of fast neutrals plays an important role in forming an extended exosphere in the shape and size observed. At Venus, the region of exospheric proton cyclotron wave production may be restricted to the magnetosheath. The waves observed in the solar wind at Venus appear to be largely produced by the solar-wind-Venus interaction, with some waves at higher frequencies formed near the Sun and carried outward by the solar wind to Venus. These waves have some similarity to the expected properties of exospherically produced proton pickup waves but are characterized by magnetic connection to the bow shock or by a lack of correlation with local solar wind properties respectively. Any confusion of solar derived waves with exospherically derived ion pickup waves is not an issue at Mars because the solar-produced waves are generally at much higher frequencies than the local pickup waves and the solar waves should be mostly absorbed when convected to Mars distance as the proton cyclotron frequency in the plasma frame approaches the frequency of the solar-produced waves. In the Earth's polar cusp, the wave properties of ion cyclotron waves are quite variable. Spatial gradients in the magnetic field may cause this variation as the background field changes between the regions in which

  5. Observation of increased ion cyclotron resonance signal duration through electric field perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Nathan K; Bruce, James E

    2005-09-15

    Ion motion in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) is complex and the subject of ongoing theoretical and experimental studies. Two predominant pathways for the loss of ICR signals are thought to include damping of cyclotron motion, in which ions lose kinetic energy and radially damp toward the center of the ICR cell, and dephasing of ion coherence, in which ions of like cyclotron frequency become distributed out of phase at similar cyclotron radii. Both mechanisms result in the loss of induced ion image current in FTICR-MS measurements and are normally inseparable during time-domain signal analysis. For conventional ICR measurements which take advantage of ion ensembles, maximization of the ion population size and density can produce the desired effect of increasing phase coherence of ions during cyclotron motion. However, this approach also presents the risk of coalescence of ion packets of similar frequencies. In general, ICR researchers in the past have lacked the tools necessary to distinguish or independently control dephasing and damping mechanisms for ICR signal loss. Nonetheless, the ability to impart greater phase coherence of ions in ICR measurements will allow significant advances in FTICR-MS research by improving the current understanding of ICR signal loss contributions of dephasing and damping of ion ensembles, increasing overall time-domain signal length, and possibly, resulting in more routine ultrahigh resolution measurements. The results presented here demonstrate the ability to employ a high density electron beam to perturb electric fields within the ICR cell during detection of cyclotron motion, in an approach we call electron-promoted ion coherence (EPIC). As such, EPIC reduces ICR signal degradation through loss of phase coherence, and much longer time-domain signals can be obtained. Our results demonstrate that time-domain signals can be extended by more than a factor of 4 with the implementation of EPIC, as

  6. Applications of ion cyclotron-resonance to stable isotope separation; Les applications de la resonance cyclotron ionique a la separation des isotopes stables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louvet, P.; Metayer, L. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. des Procedes d`Enrichissement

    1994-12-31

    The principles and the technological basic concepts of the ion cyclotron-resonance process applied to the separation of metallic isotopes which mass ranges from 40 to 200 for medical and nuclear applications, are reviewed. The CEA (France) has developed a prototype plant, ERIC; first results showing high separation factors allow to consider higher production in the future. A modular code has been developed (RICAN) in order to assess the technic-economical feasibility of the process for various isotopes; examples of calculated results (costs and production) for calcium 48 and gadolinium 157 production are presented. 4 figs., 1 tab., 4 refs.

  7. Isotopic separation through ion cyclotron-resonance: results from the ERIC experiment; La separation isotopique par resonance cyclotron ionique: resultats obtenus avec l`experience ERIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compant la Fontaine, A.; Louvet, P. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. des Procedes d`Enrichissement

    1994-12-31

    Stable isotope separation by the means of ion cyclotron-resonance is studied at CEA since 1981. Results from the ERIC experiments are of two types: parameter measurements which help characterizing the plasma and optimizing the process, and isotopic separation results. For example, the selective feature of isotope heating was verified in the cases of zinc and calcium using an electrostatic analyzer. The separation factors of various elements (calcium, zinc, barium, chromium...) are depending on the mass relative difference of the isotopes to be separated, difference which must be large compared to the magnetic field inhomogeneities and the Doppler broadening. 2 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs.

  8. On the application of electron cyclotron emission imaging to the validation of theoretical models of magnetohydrodynamic activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tobias, B. J.; Boivin, R. L.; Boom, J. E.; Classen, I.G.J.; Domier, C.W.; Donne, A. J. H.; Heidbrink, W. W.; N C Luhmann Jr.,; Munsat, T.; Muscatello, C. M.; Nazikian, R.; Park, H. K.; Spong, D. A.; Turnbull, A. D.; VanZeeland, M. A.; Yun, G. S.

    2011-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) imaging of electron temperature perturbations provides a powerful constraint for validating theoretical models describing magnetohydrodynamic plasma behavior. In observation of Alfven wave induced temperature fluctuations, electron cyclotron emission imaging provides unambiguous

  9. Cyclotron lines in X-ray pulsars as a probe of relativistic plasmas in superstrong magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Dal Fiume, D; Masetti, N; Orlandini, M; Palazzi, E; Del Sordo, S; Santangelo, A; Segreto, A; Oosterbroek, T; Parmar, A N; Frontera, Filippo; Masetti, Nicola; Orlandini, Mauro; Palazzi, Eliana; Sordo, Stefano Del; Santangelo, Andrea; Segreto, Alberto; Oosterbroek, Tim; Parmar, Arvind N.

    2000-01-01

    The systematic search for the presence of cyclotron lines in the spectra ofaccreting X-ray pulsars is being carried on with the BeppoSAX satellite sincethe beginning of the mission. These highly successful observations allowed thedetection of cyclotron lines in many of the accreting X-ray pulsars observed.Some correlations between the different measured parameters were found. Wepresent these correlations and discuss them in the framework of the currenttheoretical scenario for the X-ray emission from these sources.

  10. Observation of quasi-periodic frequency sweeping in electron cyclotron emission of nonequilibrium mirror-confined plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Viktorov, M E; Mansfeld, D A; Golubev, S V

    2016-01-01

    Chirping frequency patterns have been observed in the electron cyclotron emission from strongly nonequilibrium plasma confined in a table-top mirror magnetic trap. Such patterns are typical for the formation of nonlinear phase space structures in a proximity of the wave-particle resonances of a kinetically unstable plasma, also known as the "holes and clumps" mechanism. Our data provides the first experimental evidence for acting of this mechanism in the electron cyclotron frequency domain.

  11. Ion-Cyclotron Instability in Current-Carrying Lorentzian (Kappa) and Maxwellian Plasmas with Anisotropic Temperatures: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    in the solar wind and in many space plasmas often exhibit non - Maxwellian suprathermal tails that decrease as a power-law of the velocity.1 Such...AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2011-0164 TR-2011-0164 ION-CYCLOTRON INSTABILITY IN CURRENT- CARRYING LORENTZIAN (KAPPA) AND MAXWELLIAN PLASMAS...1 Oct 2007 – 9 Sep 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ion-Cyclotron Instability in Current-Carrying Lorentzian (Kappa) and Maxwellian Plasmas 5a. CONTRACT

  12. Initial experience with an 11 MeV self-shielded medical cyclotron on operation and radiation safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pant G

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A self-shielded medical cyclotron (11 MeV was commissioned at our center, to produce positron emitters, namely, 18 F, 15 O, 13 N and 11 C for positron emission tomography (PET imaging. Presently the cyclotron has been exclusively used for the production of 18 F - for 18 F-FDG imaging. The operational parameters which influence the yield of 18 F - production were monitored. The radiation levels in the cyclotron and radiochemistry laboratory were also monitored to assess the radiation safety status in the facility. The target material, 18 O water, is bombarded with proton beam from the cyclotron to produce 18 F - ion that is used for the synthesis of 18 F-FDG. The operational parameters which influence the yield of 18 F - were observed during 292 production runs out of a total of more than 400 runs. The radiation dose levels were also measured in the facility at various locations during cyclotron production runs and in the radiochemistry laboratory during 18 F-FDG syntheses. It was observed that rinsing the target after delivery increased the number of production runs in a given target, as well as resulted in a better correlation between the duration of bombardment and the end of bombardment 18 F - activity with absolutely clean target after being rebuilt. The radiation levels in the cyclotron and radiochemistry laboratory were observed to be well within prescribed limits with safe work practice.

  13. Design of the shielding wall of a cyclotron room and the activation interpretation using the Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, D. G.; Kim, J. M.; Kim, J. H.

    2017-01-01

    Medical cyclotron is mainly a facility used for producing radiopharmaceutical products, which secondarily generate high energy radiation when producing a radiopharmaceutical product. In this study, the intention is that the reductions in spatial dose rate for the radiation generated when cyclotron is operated and the absorbed dose rate, according to the width of shielding wall, will be analyzed. The simulation planned targetry and protons of 16.5 MeV, 60μA through a Monte Carlo simulation, and as a result of the simulation, it has been found through an analysis that a concrete shielding wall of 200 cm is needed, according to the absorbed dose rate of the shielding wall thickness of cyclotron, and the concrete gives an external exposure level of 1 μSv/hr after 19 years of cyclotron operation as it is activated by the nuclear reaction of cyclotron. When taking into account the mechanical life span of cyclotron, it is deemed necessary to develop additional shielding and a low activation material.

  14. MM-wave cyclotron auto-resonance maser for plasma heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceccuzzi, S.; Ravera, G. L.; Tuccillo, A. A. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044, Frascati, Roma (Italy); Dattoli, G.; Di Palma, E.; Doria, A.; Gallerano, G. P.; Giovenale, E.; Spassovsky, I.; Surrenti, V. [ENEA UTAPRAD, C.R. Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044, Frascati, Roma (Italy); Mirizzi, F. [Consorzio CREATE, Via Claudio 21, 80125, Napoli (Italy)

    2014-02-12

    Heating and Current Drive systems are of outstanding relevance in fusion plasmas, magnetically confined in tokamak devices, as they provide the tools to reach, sustain and control burning conditions. Heating systems based on the electron cyclotron resonance (ECRH) have been extensively exploited on past and present machines DEMO, and the future reactor will require high frequencies. Therefore, high power (≥1MW) RF sources with output frequency in the 200 - 300 GHz range would be necessary. A promising source is the so called Cyclotron Auto-Resonance Maser (CARM). Preliminary results of the conceptual design of a CARM device for plasma heating, carried out at ENEA-Frascati will be presented together with the planned R and D development.

  15. Magnet tests and status of the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance source SERSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciavola, G.; Gammino, S.; Cafici, M.; Castro, M.; Chines, F.; Marletta, S. [INFN-Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud, Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy); Alessandria, F. [INFN-LASA, Via F.lli Cervi 201, 20090 Segrate (Midway Islands) (Italy); Bourg, F.; Briand, P.; Melin, G.; Lagnier, R.; Seyfert, P. [CEA-Departement de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee, Centre detudes Nucleaires de Grenoble, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Gaggero, G.; Losasso, M.; Penco, R. [ANSALDO-GIE, Via N. Lorenzi 8, 16152 Genova (Italy)

    1996-03-01

    At Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud a superconducting 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) source will be used as injector for the K-800 superconducting cyclotron. The original project of its magnetic system has been upgraded by taking into account the results of the high B mode operation of the 6.4 GHz SC-ECRIS at MSU-NSCL and now the mirror field may achieve 2.7 T, which is much higher than the confining field of any other ECR source. The magnet design will allow us to operate in a wide range of magnetic configurations making it easy to tune the source. The status of the project will be outlined and the preliminary results of the tests of the superconducting magnets will be described. A brief description of the tests to be carried out on the source during the first period of operation on the test bench in Grenoble follows. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Results of RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with 28 GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higurashi, Y; Ohnishi, J; Nakagawa, T; Haba, H; Tamura, M; Aihara, T; Fujimaki, M; Komiyama, M; Uchiyama, A; Kamigaito, O

    2012-02-01

    We measured the beam intensity of highly charged heavy ions and x-ray heat load for RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with 28 GHz microwaves under the various conditions. The beam intensity of Xe(20+) became maximum at B(min) ∼ 0.65 T, which was ∼65% of the magnetic field strength of electron cyclotron resonance (B(ECR)) for 28 GHz microwaves. We observed that the heat load of x-ray increased with decreasing gas pressure and field gradient at resonance zone. It seems that the beam intensity of highly charged heavy ions with 28 GHz is higher than that with 18 GHz at same RF power.

  17. Studies on a Q/A selector for the SECRAL electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Sun, L. T.; Feng, Y. C.; Fang, X.; Lu, W.; Zhang, W. H.; Cao, Y.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.

    2014-08-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are widely used in heavy ion accelerators in the world because they are capable of producing high current beams of highly charged ions. However, the design of the Q/A selector system for these devices is challenging, because it must have a sufficient ion resolution while controlling the beam emittance growth. Moreover, this system has to be matched for a wide range of ion beam species with different intensities. In this paper, research on the Q/A selector system at the SECRAL (Superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou) platform both in experiment and simulation is presented. Based on this study, a new Q/A selector system has been designed for SECRAL II. The features of the new design including beam simulations are also presented.

  18. MM-wave cyclotron auto-resonance maser for plasma heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccuzzi, S.; Dattoli, G.; Di Palma, E.; Doria, A.; Gallerano, G. P.; Giovenale, E.; Mirizzi, F.; Spassovsky, I.; Ravera, G. L.; Surrenti, V.; Tuccillo, A. A.

    2014-02-01

    Heating and Current Drive systems are of outstanding relevance in fusion plasmas, magnetically confined in tokamak devices, as they provide the tools to reach, sustain and control burning conditions. Heating systems based on the electron cyclotron resonance (ECRH) have been extensively exploited on past and present machines DEMO, and the future reactor will require high frequencies. Therefore, high power (≥1MW) RF sources with output frequency in the 200 - 300 GHz range would be necessary. A promising source is the so called Cyclotron Auto-Resonance Maser (CARM). Preliminary results of the conceptual design of a CARM device for plasma heating, carried out at ENEA-Frascati will be presented together with the planned R&D development.

  19. Kinetic Alfv\\'{e}n turbulence below and above ion-cyclotron frequency

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, J S; Wu, D J; Yu, M Y

    2015-01-01

    Alfv\\'{e}nic turbulent cascade perpendicular and parallel to the background magnetic field is studied accounting for anisotropic dispersive effects and turbulent intermittency. The perpendicular dispersion and intermittency make the perpendicular-wavenumber magnetic spectra steeper and speed up production of high ion-cyclotron frequencies by the turbulent cascade. On the contrary, the parallel dispersion makes the spectra flatter and decelerate the frequency cascade above the ion-cyclotron frequency. Competition of the above factors results in spectral indices distributed in the interval [-2,-3], where -2 is the index of high-frequency space-filling turbulence, and -3 is the index of low-frequency intermittent turbulence formed by tube-like fluctuations. Spectra of fully intermittent turbulence fill a narrower range of spectral indices [-7/3,-3], which almost coincides with the range of indexes measured in the solar wind. This suggests that the kinetic-scale turbulent spectra are shaped mainly by dispersion a...

  20. Medium to large scale radioisotope production for targeted radiotherapy using a small PET cyclotron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisgaard, Helge; Jensen, Mikael; Elema, Dennis Ringkjøbing

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the use of radionuclides in targeted cancer therapy has increased. In this study we have developed a high-current solid target system and demonstrated that by the use of a typical low-energy medical cyclotron, it is possible to produce tens of GBq's of many unconventional radionuc......In recent years the use of radionuclides in targeted cancer therapy has increased. In this study we have developed a high-current solid target system and demonstrated that by the use of a typical low-energy medical cyclotron, it is possible to produce tens of GBq's of many unconventional...... radionuclides relevant for cancer therapy such as 64Cu and 119Sb locally at the hospitals....

  1. Potential of ion cyclotron resonance frequency current drive via fast waves in DEMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakov, Ye O.; Van Eester, D.; Wauters, T.; Lerche, E.; Ongena, J.

    2015-02-01

    For the continuous operation of future tokamak-reactors like DEMO, non-inductively driven toroidal plasma current is needed. Bootstrap current, due to the pressure gradient, and current driven by auxiliary heating systems are currently considered as the two main options. This paper addresses the current drive (CD) potential of the ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) heating system in DEMO-like plasmas. Fast wave CD scenarios are evaluated for both the standard midplane launch and an alternative case of exciting the waves from the top of the machine. Optimal ICRF frequencies and parallel wave numbers are identified to maximize the CD efficiency. Limitations of the high frequency ICRF CD operation are discussed. A simplified analytical method to estimate the fast wave CD efficiency is presented, complemented with the discussion of its dependencies on plasma parameters. The calculated CD efficiency for the ICRF system is shown to be similar to those for the negative neutral beam injection and electron cyclotron resonance heating.

  2. A preliminary study of a negative hydrogen PIG-type ion source for the compact cyclotron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhen; LONG Ji-Dong; DONG Pan; WANG Tao; WEI Tao; HE Xiao-Zhong; ZHANG Kai-Zhi; SHI Jin-Shui

    2012-01-01

    A Penning ion gauge (PIG)-type ion source has been used for the generation of negative hydrogen ions (H-) as the internal ion source of the compact cyclotron.The discharge characteristics of the ion source are systematically studied for hydrogen operation at different discharge currents and gas flow rates on the prototype cyclotron.The preliminary study results for the low DC voltage H- extraction measurements are presented in this paper.The H- beam current is measured by the order of magnitude from several tens to hundreds of microamperes at different parameter conditions.The discussion and analysis for the experimental results are good for improving the design and working stability of the ion source.

  3. Proton and He2+ Temperature Anisotropies in the Solar Wind Driven by Ion Cyclotron Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quan-Ming Lu; Shui Wang

    2005-01-01

    We carried out one-dimensional hybrid simulations of resonant scattering of protons and He2+ ions by ion cyclotron waves in an initially homogeneous,collisionless and magnetized plasma. The initial ion cyclotron waves have a power spectrum and propagate both outward and inward. Due to the resonant interaction with the protons and He2+ ions, the wave power will be depleted in the resonance region. Both the protons and He2+ ions can be resonantly heated in the direction perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field and leading to anisotropic velocity distributions, with the anisotropy higher for the He2+ ions than for the protons.At the same time, the anisotropies of the protons and He2+ ions are inversely correlated with the plasma β||p = 87πnpkBT||p/B20, consistent with the prediction of the quasilinear theory (QLT).

  4. Vortex Dynamics and Shear-Layer Instability in High-Intensity Cyclotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerfon, Antoine J.

    2016-04-01

    We show that the space-charge dynamics of high-intensity beams in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field in cyclotrons is described by the two-dimensional Euler equations for an incompressible fluid. This analogy with fluid dynamics gives a unified and intuitive framework to explain the beam spiraling and beam breakup behavior observed in experiments and in simulations. Specifically, we demonstrate that beam breakup is the result of a classical instability occurring in fluids subject to a sheared flow. We give scaling laws for the instability and predict the nonlinear evolution of beams subject to it. Our work suggests that cyclotrons may be uniquely suited for the experimental study of shear layers and vortex distributions that are not achievable in Penning-Malmberg traps.

  5. Proton Cyclotron Waves Upstream from Mars: Observations from Mars Global Surveyor

    CERN Document Server

    Romanelli, Norberto; Gomez, Daniel; Mazelle, Christian; Delva, Magda

    2013-01-01

    We present a study on the properties of electromagnetic plasma waves in the region upstream of the Martian bow shock, detected by the magnetometer and electron reflectometer (MAG / ER) onboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft during the period known as Science Phasing Orbits (SPO). The frequency of these waves, measured in the MGS reference frame (SC), is close to the local proton cyclotron frequency. Minimum variance analysis (MVA) shows that these 'proton cyclotron frequency' waves (PCWs) are characterized - in the SC frame - by a left-hand, elliptical polarization and propagate almost parallel to the background magnetic field. They also have a small degree of compressibility and an amplitude that decreases with the increase of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) cone angle and radial distance from the planet. The latter result supports the idea that the source of these waves is Mars. In addition, we find that these waves are not associated with the foreshock . Empirical evidence and theoretica...

  6. Kinetic simulation of the electron-cyclotron maser instability: effect of a finite source size

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsov, A A

    2012-01-01

    The electron-cyclotron maser instability is widespread in the Universe, producing, e.g., radio emission of the magnetized planets and cool substellar objects. Diagnosing the parameters of astrophysical radio sources requires comprehensive nonlinear simulations of the radiation process. We simulate the electron-cyclotron maser instability in a very low-beta plasma. The model used takes into account the radiation escape from the source region and the particle flow through this region. We developed a kinetic code to simulate the time evolution of an electron distribution in a radio emission source. The model includes the terms describing the particle injection to and escape from the emission source region. The spatial escape of the emission from the source is taken into account by using a finite amplification time. The unstable electron distribution of the horseshoe type is considered. A number of simulations were performed for different parameter sets typical of the magnetospheres of planets and ultracool dwarf...

  7. Sensitive test for ion-cyclotron resonant heating in the solar wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Justin C; Maruca, Bennett A; Stevens, Michael L; Zaslavsky, Arnaud

    2013-03-01

    Plasma carrying a spectrum of counterpropagating field-aligned ion-cyclotron waves can strongly and preferentially heat ions through a stochastic Fermi mechanism. Such a process has been proposed to explain the extreme temperatures, temperature anisotropies, and speeds of ions in the solar corona and solar wind. We quantify how differential flow between ion species results in a Doppler shift in the wave spectrum that can prevent this strong heating. Two critical values of differential flow are derived for strong heating of the core and tail of a given ion distribution function. Our comparison of these predictions to observations from the Wind spacecraft reveals excellent agreement. Solar wind helium that meets the condition for strong core heating is nearly 7 times hotter than hydrogen on average. Ion-cyclotron resonance contributes to heating in the solar wind, and there is a close link between heating, differential flow, and temperature anisotropy.

  8. Electron Cyclotron Current Drive at High Electron Temperature on DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, C. C.; Austin, M. E.; Harvey, R. W.; Lohr, J.; Luce, T. C.; Makowski, M. A.; Prater, R.

    2007-09-01

    Experiments on DIII-D have measured the electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) efficiency for co- and counter-injection in low density plasmas with radiation temperatures from electron cyclotron emission (ECE) above 20 keV. The radiation temperature is generally higher than the Thomson scattering temperature, indicating that there is a significant population of non-thermal electrons. The experimental ECCD profile measured with motional Stark effect (MSE) polarimetry is found to agree with quasi-linear theory except for the highest power density cases (QEC/ne2≫1). Radial transport of the energetic electrons with diffusion coefficients of ˜0.4 m2/s is needed to model the broadened ECCD profile at high power density.

  9. Vacuum Ultraviolet Photodissociation and Fourier Transform-Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FT-ICR) Mass Spectrometry: Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jared B; Robinson, Errol W; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana

    2016-03-15

    We revisited the implementation of 193 nm ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD) within the ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) cell of a Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. UVPD performance characteristics were examined in the context of recent developments in the understanding of UVPD and in-cell tandem mass spectrometry. Efficient UVPD and photo-ECD of a model peptide and proteins within the ICR cell of a FT-ICR mass spectrometer are accomplished through appropriate modulation of laser pulse timing, relative to ion magnetron motion and the potential applied to an ion optical element upon which photons impinge. It is shown that UVPD yields efficient and extensive fragmentation, resulting in excellent sequence coverage for model peptide and protein cations.

  10. Study of the neutron field in the vicinity of an unshielded PET cyclotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, R; Iñiguez, M P; Martí-Climent, J M; Peñuelas, I; Vega-Carrillo, H R; Barquero, R

    2005-11-01

    The neutron field in the proximity of an unshielded PET cyclotron was investigated during 18F radioisotope production with an 18 MeV proton beam. Thermoluminescent detector (TLD) models TLD600 and TLD700 as well as Bonner moderating spheres were irradiated at different positions inside the vault room where the cyclotron is located to determine the thermal neutron flux, neutron spectrum and dose equivalent. Furthermore, from a combination of measurements and Monte Carlo simulations the neutron source intensity at the target was estimated. The resulting intensity is in good agreement with the IAEA recommendations. Neutron doses derived from the measured spectra were found to vary between 7 and 320 mSv per 1 microA h of proton-integrated current. Finally, gamma doses were determined from TLD700 readings and amounted to around 10% of the neutron doses.

  11. Cyclotron instability in the afterglow mode of minimum-B ECRIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izotov, I., E-mail: izotov@ipfran.ru; Mansfeld, D. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS), 46 Ul’yanova St., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H.; Komppula, J.; Kronholm, R.; Laulainen, J.; Tarvainen, O. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaskyla, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), 40500 Jyvaskyla (Finland); Skalyga, V. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS), 46 Ul’yanova St., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (UNN), 23 Gagarina St., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    It was shown recently that cyclotron instability in non-equilibrium plasma of a minimum-B electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) causes perturbation of the extracted ion current and generation of strong bursts of bremsstrahlung emission, which limit the performance of the ion source. The present work is devoted to the dynamic regimes of plasma instability in ECRIS operated in pulsed mode. Instability develops in decaying plasma shortly after heating microwaves are switched off and manifests itself in the form of powerful pulses of electromagnetic emission associated with precipitation of high energy electrons. Time-resolved measurements of microwave emission bursts are presented. It was found that even in various gases (helium and oxygen were studied) and at different values of magnetic field and heating power, the dynamic spectra demonstrate common features: decreasing frequency within a single burst as well as from one burst to another.

  12. Studies on a Q/A selector for the SECRAL electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Sun, L T; Feng, Y C; Fang, X; Lu, W; Zhang, W H; Cao, Y; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W

    2014-08-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are widely used in heavy ion accelerators in the world because they are capable of producing high current beams of highly charged ions. However, the design of the Q/A selector system for these devices is challenging, because it must have a sufficient ion resolution while controlling the beam emittance growth. Moreover, this system has to be matched for a wide range of ion beam species with different intensities. In this paper, research on the Q/A selector system at the SECRAL (Superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou) platform both in experiment and simulation is presented. Based on this study, a new Q/A selector system has been designed for SECRAL II. The features of the new design including beam simulations are also presented.

  13. Two Rare Magnetic Cataclysmic Variables with Extreme Cyclotron Features Identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Szkody, P; Schmidt, G; Hall, P B; Margon, B; Miceli, A; Subba-Rao, M; Frith, W J; Harris, H; Szkody, Paula; Anderson, Scott F.; Schmidt, Gary; Hall, Patrick B.; Margon, Bruce; Miceli, Antonino; Rao, Mark Subba; Frith, James; Harris, Hugh

    2003-01-01

    Two newly identified magnetic cataclysmic variables discovered in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), SDSSJ155331.12+551614.5 and SDSSJ132411.57+032050.5, have spectra showing highly prominent, narrow, strongly polarized cyclotron humps with amplitudes that vary on orbital periods of 4.39 and 2.6 hrs, respectively. In the former, the spacing of the humps indicates the 3rd and 4th harmonics in a magnetic field of ~60 MG. The narrowness of the cyclotron features and the lack of strong emission lines imply very low temperature plasmas and very low accretion rates, so that the accreting area is heated by particle collisions rather than accretion shocks. The detection of rare systems like these exemplifies the ability of the SDSS to find the lowest accretion rate close binaries.

  14. Van Allen Probes observations of oxygen cyclotron harmonic waves in the inner magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usanova, M. E.; Malaspina, D. M.; Jaynes, A. N.; Bruder, R. J.; Mann, I. R.; Wygant, J. R.; Ergun, R. E.

    2016-09-01

    Waves with frequencies in the vicinity of the oxygen cyclotron frequency and its harmonics have been regularly observed on the Van Allen Probes satellites during geomagnetic storms. We focus on properties of these waves and present events from the main phase of two storms on 1 November 2012 and 17 March 2013 and associated dropouts of a few MeV electron fluxes. They are electromagnetic, in the frequency range ~0.5 to several Hz, and amplitude ~0.1 to a few nT in magnetic and ~0.1 to a few mV/m in electric field, with both the wave velocity and the Poynting vector directed almost parallel to the background magnetic field. These properties are very similar to those of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves, which are believed to contribute to loss of ring current ions and radiation belt electrons and therefore can be also important for inner magnetosphere dynamics.

  15. Advancements in electron cyclotron emission imaging demonstrated by the TEXTOR ECEI diagnostic upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobias, B.; Kong, X.; Liang, T.; Spear, A.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. Jr. [University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Classen, I. G. J.; Boom, J. E.; Pol, M. J. van de; Jaspers, R.; Donne, A. J. H. [Association EURATOM-FOM, FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Park, H. K. [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Munsat, T. [University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    A new TEXTOR electron cyclotron emission imaging system has been developed and employed, providing a diagnostic with new features and enhanced capabilities when compared to the legacy system it replaces. Optical coupling to the plasma has been completely redesigned, making use of new minilens arrays for reduced optical aberration and providing the new feature of vertical zoom, whereby the vertical coverage is now remotely adjustable on a shot-by-shot basis from 20-35 cm. Other innovations, such as the implementation of stacked quasioptical planar notch filters, allow for the diagnostic to be operated without interruption or degradation in performance during electron cyclotron resonance heating. Successful commissioning of the new diagnostic and a demonstration of the improved capabilities are presented in this paper, along with a discussion of the new technologies employed.

  16. Cyclotron-produced radioisotopes and their clinical use at the Austin PET Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tochon-Danguy, H.J. [Centre for PET, Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre

    1997-12-31

    A Centre for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) has been established within the Department of Nuclear Medicine at the Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre in Melbourne. PET is a non-invasive technique based on the use of biologically relevant compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18. The basic equipment consists of a medical cyclotron (10 MeV proton and 5 MeV deuteron), six lead-shielded hot cells with associated radiochemistry facilities and a whole body PET scanner. During its first five years of operation, the Melbourne PET Centre, has pursued a strong radiolabelling development program, leading to an ambitious clinical program in neurology, oncology and cardiology. This presentation will describe the basic principles of the PET technique and review the cyclotron-produced radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals. Radiolabelling development programs and clinical applications are also addressed. 30 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  17. The smooth cyclotron line in Her X-1 as seen with NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuerst, Felix; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Staubert, Ruediger;

    2013-01-01

    Her X-1, one of the brightest and best studied X-ray binaries, shows a cyclotron resonant scattering feature (CRSF) near 37 keV. This makes it an ideal target for detailed study with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), taking advantage of its excellent hard X-ray spectral resoluti...... in the hot corona of the accretion disk. The average, luminosity-corrected CRSF energy is lower than in past observations and follows a secular decline. The excellent data quality of NuSTAR provides the best constraint on the CRSF energy to date.......Her X-1, one of the brightest and best studied X-ray binaries, shows a cyclotron resonant scattering feature (CRSF) near 37 keV. This makes it an ideal target for detailed study with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), taking advantage of its excellent hard X-ray spectral resolution...

  18. The smooth cyclotron line in her x-1 as seen with nuclear spectroscopic telescope array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuerst, Felix; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Staubert, Ruediger;

    2013-01-01

    Her X-1, one of the brightest and best studied X-ray binaries, shows a cyclotron resonant scattering feature (CRSF) near 37 keV. This makes it an ideal target for detailed study with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), taking advantage of its excellent hard X-ray spectral resoluti...... in the hot corona of the accretion disk. The average, luminosity-corrected CRSF energy is lower than in past observations and follows a secular decline. The excellent data quality of NuSTAR provides the best constraint on the CRSF energy to date.......Her X-1, one of the brightest and best studied X-ray binaries, shows a cyclotron resonant scattering feature (CRSF) near 37 keV. This makes it an ideal target for detailed study with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), taking advantage of its excellent hard X-ray spectral resolution...

  19. Concept of Powerful Multistage Coaxial Cyclotron for Pulsed and Continuous Beam Production

    CERN Document Server

    Tumanyan, A R; Guiragossian, Z G T; Akopov, N Z

    1999-01-01

    The concept of large-radius multistage coaxial cyclotrons having separated orbits is described, to generate proton beams of 120-2000 MeV energy at tens of GW pulsed and hundreds of MW in continuous beam power operation. Accelerated beam losses must be less than 0.1 W/m for the intercepted average beam power linear density. The concept is inherently configured to actively compensate the longitudinal and transverse space charge expansion in beam bunches. These are based on (1) actively varying the bunch acceleration equilibrium phase while maintaining isochronism, independently for each cyclotron turns; (2) independently changing the acceleration voltage for each turn together with orbit corrections that preserve isochronism; (3) independently changing the transverse betatron oscillation tune shift, to assure non-resonant operation. Also, (4) sextupole lenses are included to compensate for chromaticity effects. Moreover, the concept is based on optimum uses of practical successful results so far achieved in bea...

  20. Preliminary Design Study of High-Power H2+ Cyclotrons for the DAEdALUS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Calabretta, L; Gammino, S; Rifuggiato, D; Ciavola, G; Maggiore, M; Piazza, L A C; Alonso, J R; Barletta, W A; Calanna, A; Conrad, J M

    2011-01-01

    This report provides a first design for H2+ accelerators as the DAEdALUS neutrino sources. A description of all aspects of the system, from the ion source to the extracted beam, is provided. The analysis provides a first proof of principle of a full cyclotron system which can provide the necessary beam power for the CP violation search proposed by the DAEdALUS Collaboration.

  1. A relativistic model of electron cyclotron current drive efficiency in tokamak plasmas

    OpenAIRE

    Lin-Liu Y.R.; Hu Y.J.; Hu Y.M.

    2012-01-01

    A fully relativistic model of electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) efficiency based on the adjoint function techniques is considered. Numerical calculations of the current drive efficiency in a tokamak by using the variational approach are performed. A fully relativistic extension of the variational principle with the modified basis functions for the Spitzer function with momentum conservation in the electron-electron collision is described in general tokamak geometry. The model developed ...

  2. Experimental Research on the Laser Cyclotron Auto-Resonance Accelerator “LACARA”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, T C

    2008-11-11

    The Laser Cyclotron Auto-Resonant Accelerator LACARA has successfully operated this year. Results are summarized, an interpretation of operating data is provided in the body of the report, and recommendations are made how the experiment should be carried forward. The Appendix A contains a description of the LACARA apparatus, currently installed at the Accelerator Test Facility, Brookhaven National Laboratory. This report summarizes the project, extending over three grant-years.

  3. RF current drive by electron cyclotron waves in the presence of magnetic islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva Rosa, P.; Giruzzi, G

    1999-11-01

    The influence of the presence of magnetic islands, and the consequent modification of the tokamak magnetic surface topology, on electron current drive is analyzed. To this end, a new 3D Fokker-Planck code has been developed, taking into account the modifications of the magnetic equilibrium topology owing to the presence of the islands. Significant differences between electron cyclotron current drive efficiency with and without island inside the plasma are found, particularly in the case of interaction with locked modes. (authors)

  4. The hydraulic lifting system for the main magnets of CYCIAE-30 cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao Zhen Lu; Chen Rong Fan; Chu Cheng Jie

    2002-01-01

    The oil-line structure, control system and their working principles of the hydraulic lifting system for the main magnets of CYCIAE-30 cyclotron are introduced. The six years practice proves that the specification of the system matches the requirements: the oil cylinder maximum stroke of 850 mm, the eight slot positioning dowels repositioning accuracy of +-0.01 mm, the two oil cylinders moving in step accuracy of 5-10 mm. The system is safe, reliable and easy to be operated

  5. Design and Installation of a 10 MeV Small Medical Cyclotron Electrical System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI; Hong-ru; GE; Tao; WU; Long-cheng; LI; Zheng-guo; LIU; Geng-shou

    2012-01-01

    <正>The electrical and pneumatic system of the 10 MeV small medical cyclotron is to provide safe and reliable power supply and relay protection to ensure the stable operation of equipments as well as personnel safety. Based on the equipment installation and operation status of the machine, the computational load of electrical system is designed to be 130 kW. The load grade is three-level, which adopts three-phase

  6. Design of a superconducting beam transport channel and beam dynamics for a strong-focusing cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgley, Karie Elizabeth

    There is an increasing interest in high power proton accelerators for use as neutron and muon sources, accelerator driven systems (ADS) for nuclear waste transmutation, high energy physics, medical physics, nuclear physics, and medical isotope production. Accelerating high current beams has a number of challenges; including avoiding harmful resonance crossing, space charge effects and, specific to cyclotrons, sufficient turn separation at injection and extraction. The Accelerator Research Laboratory at Texas A&M University is developing a high-power strong-focusing cyclotron with two main technologies to overcome these challenges. The first is a superconducting RF cavity to provide the energy gain required for fully separated turns. The second is the use of superconducting beam transport channels within the sectors of the cyclotron to provide strong-focusing with alternating focusing and defocusing quadrupoles. A method has been developed to find the equilibrium spiral orbit through the cyclotron which maintains isochronicity. The isochronous spiral orbit was then used to perform full linear optics calculations. The strengths of the quadrupoles were adjusted to hold the horizontal and vertical betatron tunes constant per turn to avoid resonance crossing. Particle tracking was performed with a modified MAD-X-PTC code and Synergia to provide a framework for future space charge studies. Magnetic modeling was performed on a 2D cross section of the beam transport channel. The wire locations were adjusted to reduce the higher order multipoles and a good field region was obtained at 70% of the beam pipe aperture with multipoles less than 10-4 . The 2D model was also used to determine the required current density needed to produce the quadrupole gradients. MgB2 superconducting wire was chosen as it meets all the field and current requirements and can operate at a reduced cryogenic cost. A winding mandrel was also designed and fabricated which minimized the bend radius for

  7. Use of maze in cyclotron hoppers; Utilizacao de labirinto em bunker de ciclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Fernando A.; Alves, Juliano S.; Fochesatto, Cintia; Cerioli, Luciane; Borges, Joao Alfredo; Gonzalez, Delfin; Silva, Daniel C., E-mail: fernandofernandes@biofarmaco.com.br [Delfin Farmacos e Derivados (Biofarmaco Marcadores Moleculares), Lauro de Freitas, BA (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Introduction: the increasing number of cyclotrons in Brazil due to constitutional amendment 49 /06 that enabled the production of radiopharmaceuticals with a short half - life by private companies. The radionuclides used for PET - CT require production centers near or within the diagnostic centers. In order to minimize maintenance and operating risks, gaining efficiency, our facility was the first in Brazil to use the access to a cyclotron bunker via maze, rather than armored door stopper type. Materials: the design calculations were based on the Monte Carlo method (MCNP5 - Monte Carlo N-Particletransportcode version 5). At the ends of the labyrinth are installed a door of polyethylene, for thermalization of neutrons, and other of wood for limiting access. Both legs of the maze have wall thickness of 100cm. In inspection Brazilian CNEN realize measures of dose rate for neutrons and gamma 9 points: 7 around the bunker, 1 over the bunker and 1 in the exhaust with the cyclotron operating with maximum load, double beam of 50uA for 2 hours. After commissioning were carried out around the bunker, the following measures: cumulative dose in three months with dosimeters for neutron rate dose with a gas proportional detector type filled with {sup 3}He and polyethylene neutron moderator and dose rate with a Geiger - Mueller detector for gamma radiation. Readings with neutron detectors were classified as background radiation and dose rates were always below the limits established in standard EN 3.01, and the calculation of the predicted regardless of the intensity of irradiation inside the bunker. Conclusion: the use of labyrinths as a way to access the bunkers cyclotron has been shown to be effective as the radiation shielding and efficient by allowing quick and easy access, virtually eliminating the maintenance.

  8. Cyclotron resonances of ions with obliquely propagating waves in coronal holes and the fast solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollweg, Joseph V.; Markovskii, S. A.

    2002-06-01

    There is a growing consensus that cyclotron resonances play important roles in heating protons and ions in coronal holes where the fast solar wind originates and throughout interplanetary space as well. Most work on cyclotron resonant interactions has concentrated on the special, but unrealistic, case of propagation along the ambient magnetic field, B0, because of the great simplification it gives. This paper offers a physical discussion of how the cyclotron resonances behave when the waves propagate obliquely to B0. We show how resonances at harmonics of the cyclotron frequency come about, and how the physics can be different depending on whether E⊥ is in or perpendicular to the plane containing k and B0 (k is wave vector, and E⊥ is the component of the wave electric field perpendicular to B0). If E⊥ is in the k-B0 plane, the resonances are analogous to the Landau resonance and arise because the particle tends to stay in phase with the wave during the part of its orbit when it is interacting most strongly with E⊥. If E⊥ is perpendicular to the k-B0 plane, then the resonances depend on the fact that the particle is at different positions during the parts of its orbit when it is interacting most strongly with E⊥. Our main results are our refid="df10" type="formula">equations (10), refid="df11" type="formula">(11), and refid="df13" type="formula">(13) for the secular rate of energy gain (or loss) by a resonant particle and the unfamiliar result that ions can resonate with a purely right-hand circularly polarized wave if the propagation is oblique. We conclude with some speculations about the origin of highly obliquely propagating ion resonant waves in the corona and solar wind. We point out that there are a number of instabilities that may generate such waves locally in the corona and solar wind.

  9. Development of electron cyclotron emission imaging system on Large Helical Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwahara, D.; Tsuji-Iio, S. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Nagayama, Y.; Yoshinaga, T.; Tsuchiya, H.; Sugito, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Yamaguchi, S. [Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Kogi, Y. [Fukuoka Institute of Technology, 3-30-1 Wajiro-Higashi, Fukuoka 811-0295 (Japan); Akaki, K.; Mase, A. [KASTEC, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-Koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    A combined system of microwave imaging reflectometry and electron cyclotron emission (ECE) imaging has been developed for the Large Helical Device. This system includes a wide-band two-dimensional horn-antenna mixer array (HMA). The HMA consists of horn antennas, waveguides, mixers, and intermediate frequency circuits. The frequency response of the HMA is between 50 and 110 GHz. The ECE signal is selected using a 95 GHz local oscillator and a 93 GHz high-pass filter.

  10. Note: Production of a mercury beam with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondrasek, R; Pardo, R; Scott, R

    2013-11-01

    An electron cyclotron resonance ion source has been utilized to produce mercury beams with intensities of 4.5 eμA of (202)Hg(29+) and 3.0 eμA of (202)Hg(31+) from natural abundance mercury metal. The production technique relies on the evaporation of liquid mercury into the source plasma vacuum region and utilizes elemental mercury instead of a volatile organic compound as the neutral feed material.

  11. Preparation of Ga/Ni Solid Target for Cyclotron-produced 68Ge by Electrodeposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN; Yi-jia; FU; Hong-yu; LUO; Wen-bo; DENG; Xue-song; LIU; Yu-ping; LI; Guang; XU; Hong-wei; WANG; Gang

    2013-01-01

    68Ga is mainly used for preparation of the 68Ge-68Ga generator and the calibration of Positron Emission Computed Tomography.The low melting point of the target material in the production reaction69Ga(p,2n)68Ge has limited the availability of 68Ga.In order to use the existing industrial cyclotron hardware to produce 68Ga,a method of electrodepositing gallium-nickel alloy was set up in this study.

  12. R&D of the Fluoroscopes of 100 MeV Cyclotron Beam Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN; Meng; GUAN; Feng-ping; XIE; Huai-dong; ZHENG; Xia; XING; Jian-sheng; LV; Yin-long

    2013-01-01

    Beijing Radioactive Ion-beam Facility(BRIF)consists of a 100 MeV H-cyclotron CYCIAE-100and nine beam lines.All the beam lines provide the channels of the proton beam or the neutron beam to the terminal of physics experiment.There are many beam diagnosis monitors distributing along the beam lines,including,Faraday cups,beam position monitors,fluoroscopes,collimators,emittance measurement

  13. Installation and Test of 100 MeV Cyclotron Safety Interlock System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU; Shi-gang; SONG; Guo-fang; LI; Zhen-guo; WANG; Feng; LV; Yin-long; XING; Jian-sheng; CAI; Hong-ru; YIN; Zhi-guo; WU; Long-cheng; XIE; Huai-dong; GE; Tao; CAO; Lei; FU; Xiao-liang; WEN; Li-peng

    2013-01-01

    The safety system is an important part of BRIF project,which will play a key role for protection of staff,and equipments.100 MeV cyclotron will deliver proton beam of 200μA with energy of 100 MeV.Radiation caused by beam loss will be occurred when the machine running or commissioning,which is hazard to staff and device,so a set of interlock system is designed for protecting people and apparatus.

  14. Advances in intense beams, beam delivery, targetry, and radiochemistry at advanced cyclotron systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.R. [Advanced Cyclotron Systems Inc., 7851 Alderbridge Way, Richmond, BC, V6X 2A4 (Canada)]. E-mail: djohnson@advancedcyclotron.com; Watt, R. [Advanced Cyclotron Systems Inc., 7851 Alderbridge Way, Richmond, BC, V6X 2A4 (Canada); Kovac, B. [Advanced Cyclotron Systems Inc., 7851 Alderbridge Way, Richmond, BC, V6X 2A4 (Canada); Zyuzin, A. [Advanced Cyclotron Systems Inc., 7851 Alderbridge Way, Richmond, BC, V6X 2A4 (Canada); Van Lier, E. [Advanced Cyclotron Systems Inc., 7851 Alderbridge Way, Richmond, BC, V6X 2A4 (Canada); Erdman, K.L. [Advanced Cyclotron Systems Inc., 7851 Alderbridge Way, Richmond, BC, V6X 2A4 (Canada); Gyles, Wm. [Advanced Cyclotron Systems Inc., 7851 Alderbridge Way, Richmond, BC, V6X 2A4 (Canada); Sabaiduc, V. [Advanced Cyclotron Systems Inc., 7851 Alderbridge Way, Richmond, BC, V6X 2A4 (Canada); McQuarrie, S.A. [Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Wilson, J. [Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Backhouse, C. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Gelbart, Wm. [Advanced System Design, C22, S6, RR1, Garden Bay, BC, V0N 1S0 (Canada); Kuo, T. [4654 N. Larwin Ave., Concorde, CA 94521 United States (United States)

    2007-08-15

    The increasing demand for radionuclides for PET and SPECT has resulted in ACSI system improvements starting from the cyclotron and proceeding to the Radiochemistry Modules. With more TR30 cyclotrons installed and operating at full capacity, emphasis has been placed on improving the operational components to reduce both the incidence of failure and subsequent maintenance time. A cyclotron system has been developed that meets the needs of a regional radiopharmacy that supplies both positron and single photon emitters that would not otherwise be available. This new system has been named the TR24. In order to deal with some of the challenges of high currents, a method has been developed for passivating the entrance window foil during high current irradiation of a water target used to produce F-18. A method has been developed for passivating the entrance window foil to reduce unwanted chemical species that interfere with radiopharmaceutical production. Preliminary results for novel radioiodine production technique using the TR19/9 are also discussed.

  15. Development of the RF cavity for the SKKUCY-9 compact cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Seungwook; Lee, Jongchul [Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, 2066, Seobu-Ro, Jangan-Gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); LEE, Byeong-No [Radiation Equipment Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 111, Daedeok-daero 989 Beon-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Donghyup; Namgoong, Ho [College of Information & Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 2066, Seobu-Ro, Jangan-Gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Chai, Jongseo, E-mail: jschai@skku.edu [College of Information & Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 2066, Seobu-Ro, Jangan-Gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-21

    A 9 MeV compact cyclotron, named SKKUCY-9, for a radiopharmaceutical compound especially fludeoxyglucose (FDG) production for a positron emission tomography (PET) machine was developed at Sungkyunkwan University. H{sup −} ions which are produced from a Penning Ionization Gauge(PIG) ion source, travel through a normal conducting radio frequency (RF) cavity which operates at 83.2 MHz for an acceleration and electro-magnet for a beam focusing until the ions acquire energy of about 9 MeV. For installation at a small local hospital, our SKKUCY-9 cyclotron is developed to be compact and light-weight, comparable to conventional medical purpose cyclotrons. For compactness, we adapted a deep valley and large angle hill type for the electro-magnet design. Normally a RF cavity is installed inside of the empty space of the magnet valley region, which is extremely small in our case. We faced problems such as difficulties of installing the RF cavity, low Q-value. Despite of those difficulties, a compact RF cavity and its system including a RF power coupler to feed amplified RF power to the RF cavity and a fine tuner to compensate RF frequency variations was successfully developed and tested.

  16. Proton Cyclotron Instability Threshold Condition of Suprathermal Protons by Kappa Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Fuliang; ZHOU Qinghua; HE Huiyong; TANG Lijun; FANG Jiayuan

    2007-01-01

    Observation has clearly shown that natural space plasmas generally possess a pronounced non-Maxwellian high-energy tail distribution that can be well modeled by a kappa distribution. In this study we investigate the proton cyclotron wave instability driven by the temperature anisotropy (T⊥/T||>1) of suprathermal protons modeled with a typical kappa distribution in the magnetosheath. It is found that as in the case for a regular bi-Maxwellian, the suprathermal proton temperature anisotropy is subject to the threshold condition of this proton cyclotron instability and the instability threshold condition satisfies a general form T⊥/T|| - 1 = S/βα||, with a very narrow range of the fitting parameters: 0.40 ≤ α ≤ 0.45, and a relatively sensitive variation 0.27 ≤ S ≤ 0.65, over 0.01 < β|| < 10. Furthermore, the difference in threshold conditions between the kappa distribution and the bi-Maxwellian distribution is found to be small for a relatively strong growth but becomes relatively obvious for a weak wave growth. The results may provide a deeper insight into the physics of this instability threshold for the proton cyclotron waves.

  17. Electron Cloud Cyclotron Resonances in the Presence of a Short-bunch-length Relativistic Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celata, C.M.; Furman, Miguel A.; Vay, J.-L.; Yu, Jennifer W.

    2008-09-02

    Computer simulations using the 2D code"POSINST" were used to study the formation of the electron cloud in the wiggler section of the positron damping ring of the International Linear Collider. In order to simulate an x-y slice of the wiggler (i.e., a slice perpendicular to the beam velocity), each simulation assumed a constant vertical magnetic field. At values of the magnetic field where the cyclotron frequency was an integral multiple of the bunch frequency, and where the field strength was less than approximately 0.6 T, equilibrium average electron densities were up to three times the density found at other neighboring field values. Effects of this resonance between the bunch and cyclotron frequency are expected to be non-negligible when the beam bunch length is much less than the product of the electron cyclotron period and the beam velocity, for a beam moving at v~;;c. Details of the dynamics of the resonance are described.

  18. Fast neutrons set the pace. [Radiobiological investigations with fast neutrons at the CSIR cyclotron in Pretoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hough, J.H.; Slabbert, J.P. (Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria (South Africa). National Accelerator Centre)

    1985-01-01

    Radiobiological investigations with fast neutrons have been initiated at the CSIR cyclotron in Pretoria. It was proposed some years ago to create a neutron therapy facility using the CSIR cyclotron. Neutrons are classified as high linear energy transfer (LET) particles. Biological damage occurring in tissue is a direct function of the LET of the incident radiation. To quantify the biological effects of different types of radiation on mammalian cells, several procedures and concepts have evolved from radiobiological research. Probably the most significant laboratory techniques developed, were the derivation of cell survival curves which are obtained by determining the number of cell colonies that have survived a certain radiation dose. A semi-logarithmic plot of surviving fraction versus the absorbed dose yields the survival curve. Dose modifying factors such as the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the radiation can be quantified in terms of this relationship. A radiobiological programme has to be undertaken before patients can receive neutron therapy at the CSIR cyclotron. The article is a discussion of this programme.

  19. Simulation of Electron Behavior in PIG Ion Source for 9MeV Cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Ghergherehchi, Mitra; Yeon, Yeong- Heum; Chai, Jong- Seo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on a PIG source for producing intense H-ions inside a 9MeV cyclotron. The properties of the PIG ion source were simulated for a variety of electric field distributions and magnetic field strengths using CST Particle Studio. After analyzing secondary electron emission (SEE) as a function of both magnetic and electric field strengths, we found that for the modeled PIG geometry a magnetic field strength of 0.2 T provided the best results in term of number of secondary electrons. Furthermore, at 0.2 T the number of secondary electrons proved to be greatest regardless of the cathode potential. Also the modified PIG ion source with quartz insulation tubes was tested in KIRAMS-13 cyclotron by varying gas flow rate and arc current, respectively. The capacity of the designed ion source was also demonstrated by producing plasma inside the constructed 9MeV cyclotron. As a result, the ion source is verified to be capable to produce intense H- beam and high ion beam current for the desired 9 MeV cy...

  20. Magnetic fields and beam optics studies of a 250 MeV superconducting proton radiotherapy cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong-Won [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, 809 Madu-dong, Koyang, Kyonggi (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jwkim@ncc.re.kr

    2007-11-21

    A 250 MeV superconducting cyclotron for the proton radiation therapy was designed at the Michigan State University (MSU) for use at the Paul Scherrer Institut. This work was based on the conceptual design carried out at the MSU in 1994. The previous design was refined to finalize the magnet configuration and to optimally arrange cyclotron elements for the actual construction. The spiral angle of the pole was reduced, the new hill-edges and valley shims being introduced. The magnetic fields were highly isochronized using a least square fitting routine involving a schematic shimming scheme. The resulting reference field was adequate for the elaborate study of beam optics. The optics simulation predicted that extraction efficiency of above 80% was achievable for a beam with the initial phase width of 20{sup o}. The vertical deflector was investigated located in the central region to control the beam intensity with tracking of beam phase spaces. Some measurement results for the constructed cyclotron were found in a good agreement with those of the optics study.

  1. Cyclotron mode frequencies and resonant absorption in multi-species ion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affolter, M.; Anderegg, F.; Dubin, D. H. E.; Driscoll, C. F. [Department of Physics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Cyclotron mode frequencies are studied on trapped rigid-rotor multi-species ion plasmas. Collective effects and radial electric fields shift the mode frequencies away from the “bare” cyclotron frequencies 2πF{sub c}{sup (s)}≡(q{sub s}B/M{sub s}c) for each species s. These frequency shifts are measured on the distinct cyclotron modes (m=0,1, and 2) with cos(mθ) azimuthal dependence. We find that for radially uniform plasmas the frequency shifts corroborate a simple theory expression, in which collective effects enter only through the E × B rotation frequency f{sub E} and the species fraction δ{sub s}. The m = 1 center-of-mass mode is in agreement with a simple “clump” model. Additionally, ultra-cold ion plasmas exhibit centrifugal separation by mass, and additional frequency shifts are observed, in agreement with a more general theory.

  2. Excitation of Alfven Cyclotron Instability by charged fusion products in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorelenkov, N.N.; Cheng, C.Z.

    1994-08-01

    The spectrum of ion cyclotron emission (ICE) observed in tokamak experiments shows narrow peaks at multiples of the edge cyclotron frequency of background ions. A possible mechanism of ICE based on the fast Alfven Cyclotron Instability (ACI) resonantly excited by high energy charged products ({alpha}-particles or protons) is studied here. The two-dimensional ACI eigenmode structure and eigenfrequency are obtained in the large tokamak aspect ratio limit. The ACI is excited via wave-particle resonances in phase space by tapping the fast ion velocity space free energy. The instability growth rates are computed perturbatively from the perturbed fast particle distribution function, which is obtained by integrating the high frequency gyrokinetic equation along the particle orbit. Numerical examples of ACI growth rates are presented for TFTR plasmas. The fast ion distribution function is assumed to be singular in pitch angle near the plasma edge. The results are employed to understand the ICE in Deuterium-Deuterium (DD) and Deuterium-tritium (DT) tokamak experiments.

  3. Progress in theory and simulation of ion cyclotron emission from magnetic confinement fusion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dendy, Richard; Chapman, Ben; Chapman, Sandra; Cook, James; Reman, Bernard; McClements, Ken; Carbajal, Leopoldo

    2016-10-01

    Suprathermal ion cyclotron emission (ICE) is detected from all large tokamak and stellarator plasmas. Its frequency spectrum has narrow peaks at sequential cyclotron harmonics of the energetic ion population (fusion-born or neutral beam-injected) at the outer edge of the plasma. ICE was the first collective radiative instability driven by confined fusion-born ions observed in deuterium-tritium plasmas in JET and TFTR, and the magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability is the most likely emission mechanism. Contemporary ICE measurements are taken at very high sampling rates from the LHD stellarator and from the conventional aspect ratio KSTAR tokamak. A correspondingly advanced modelling capability for the ICE emission mechanism has been developed using 1D3V PIC and hybrid-PIC codes, supplemented by analytical theory. These kinetic codes simulate the self-consistent full orbit dynamics of energetic and thermal ions, together with the electric and magnetic fields and the electrons. We report recent progress in theory and simulation that addresses: the scaling of ICE intensity with energetic particle density; the transition between super-Alfvénic and sub-Alfvénic regimes for the collectively radiating particles; and the rapid time evolution that is seen for some ICE measurements. This work was supported in part by the RCUK Energy Programme [Grant Number EP/I501045] and by Euratom.

  4. 5-minute Solar Oscillations and Ion Cyclotron Waves in the Solar Wind

    CERN Document Server

    Guglielmi, Anatol; Dovbnya, Boris

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper we study impact of the photospheric 5-minute oscillations on the ion cyclotron waves in the solar wind. We proceed from the assumption that the ion cyclotron waves in solar wind are experiencing modulation with a characteristic period of 5 minutes under the influence of Alfven waves driven by photospheric motions. The theory presented in our paper predicts a deep frequency modulation of the ion cyclotron waves. The frequency modulation is expected mainly from variations in orientation of the IMF lines. In turn, the variations in orientation are caused by the Alfven waves, propagating from the Sun. To test the theoretical predictions we have analyzed records of the ultra-low-frequency (ULF) geoelectromagnetic waves in order to find the permanent quasi-monochromatic oscillations of natural origin in the Pc1-2 frequency band (0.1-5 Hz), the carrier frequency of which varies with time in a wide range. As a result we found the so-called "serpentine emission" (SE), which was observed in Antarct...

  5. Resonant cyclotron acceleration of particles by a time periodic singular flux tube

    CERN Document Server

    Asch, Joachim; Stovicek, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    We study the dynamics of a classical nonrelativistic charged particle moving on a punctured plane under the influence of a homogeneous magnetic field and driven by a periodically time-dependent singular flux tube through the hole. We observe an effect of resonance of the flux and cyclotron frequencies. The particle is accelerated to arbitrarily high energies even by a flux of small field strength which is not necessarily encircled by the cyclotron orbit; the cyclotron orbits blow up and the particle oscillates between the hole and infinity. We support this observation by an analytic study of an approximation for small amplitudes of the flux which is obtained with the aid of averaging methods. This way we derive asymptotic formulas that are afterwards shown to represent a good description of the accelerated motion even for fluxes which are not necessarily small. More precisely, we argue that the leading asymptotic terms may be regarded as approximate solutions of the original system in the asymptotic domain as...

  6. Ion cyclotron waves near comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crary, F. J.; Dols, V. J.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Espley, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    On October 19, 2014, comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) passed approximately 135,000 km from Mars. Previously,we predicted the amplitude of ion cyclotron waves which might be observed during the Siding Spring encounter. Ioncyclotron waves have been observed both in the vicinity of comets and of Mars. These waves are generated by theionization of neutrals in the flowing solar wind, which produces an unstable ring-beam velocity distribution. We estimated that, for a production rate of 2x1028 s-1, ion cyclotron wave with amplitudes over 0.1 nT would be present within ‡5 hours (1.2 million km) of closest approach. We will compare the actual observations made by the MAVEN spacecraft with these predictions. The spacecraft was close to or downstream of the martian bow shock, which complicates the interpretation of the data. Taking thisinto account, we will describe the observations and their implications for wave activity and cometary neutral production. We also present updated hybrid simulations of ion cyclotron wave generation. The simulations use our best estimate of solar wind conditions at the time of the encounter and a variable injection of 18 AMU pickup ions, at a rates consistent a model of the cometary neutrals.

  7. Ion-cyclotron instability in plasmas described by product-bi-kappa distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, M. S. dos; Ziebell, L. F., E-mail: luiz.ziebell@ufrgs.br; Gaelzer, R., E-mail: rudi.gaelzer@ufrgs.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Caixa Postal 15051, CEP: 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2015-12-15

    The dispersion relation for parallel propagating waves in the ion-cyclotron branch is investigated numerically by considering that the velocity distribution of the ion population is a function of type product-bi-kappa. We investigate the effects of the non-thermal features and of the anisotropy associated with this type of distribution on the ion-cyclotron instability, as well as the influence of different forms of the electron distribution, by considering Maxwellian distributions, bi-kappa distributions, and product-bi-kappa distributions. The cases of ions described by either Maxwellian or bi-kappa distributions are also considered, for comparison. The results of the numerical analysis show that the increase in the non-thermal character associated with the anisotropic kappa distributions for ions contributes to enhance the instability as compared to that obtained in the Maxwellian case, in magnitude and in wave number range, with more significant enhancement for the case of ion product-bi-kappa distributions than for the case of ion bi-kappa distributions. It is also shown that the ion-cyclotron instability is decreased if the electrons are described by product-bi-kappa distributions, while electrons described by bi-kappa distributions lead to growth rates which are very similar to those obtained considering a Maxwellian distribution for the electron population.

  8. Energy transfer between energetic ring current H(+) and O(+) by electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Richard M.; Horne, Richard B.

    1994-01-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in the frequency range below the helium gyrofrequency can be excited in the equatorial region of the outer magnetosphere by cyclotron resonant instability with anisotropic ring current H(+) ions. As the unducted waves propagate to higher latitudes, the wave normal should become highly inclined to the ambient magnetic field. Under such conditions, wave energy can be absorbed by cyclotron resonant interactions with ambient O(+), leading to ion heating perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. Resonant wave absorption peaks in the vicinity of the bi-ion frequency and the second harmonic of the O(+) gyrofrequrency. This absorption should mainly occur at latitudes between 10 deg and 30 deg along auroral field lines (L is greater than or equal to 7) in the postnoon sector. The concomitant ion heating perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field can contribute to the isotropization and geomagnetic trapping of collapsed O(+) ion conics (or beams) that originate from a low-altitude ionospheric source region. During geomagnetic storms when the O(+) content of the magnetosphere is significantly enhanced, the absorption of EMIC waves should become more efficient, and it may contribute to the observed acceleration of O(+) ions of ionospheric origin up to ring current energies.

  9. EVIDENCE OF LANDAU AND CYCLOTRON RESONANCE BETWEEN PROTONS AND KINETIC WAVES IN SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jiansen; Wang, Linghua; Tu, Chuanyi; Zong, Qiugang [School of Earth and Space Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Marsch, Eckart, E-mail: jshept@gmail.com [Institute for Experimental and Applied Physics, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, D-24118 Kiel (Germany)

    2015-02-20

    The wave–particle interaction processes occurring in the solar wind provide crucial information to understand the wave dissipation and simultaneous particle heating in plasma turbulence. One requires observations of both wave fluctuations and particle kinetics near the dissipation range, which have, however, not yet been analyzed simultaneously. Here we show new evidence of wave–particle interactions by combining the diagnosis of wave modes with the analysis of particle kinetics on the basis of measurements from the WIND spacecraft with a high cadence of about 3 s. Solar wind protons appear to be highly dynamic in their velocity distribution consisting of varying anisotropic core and beam components. The basic scenario of solar wind proton heating through wave–particle interaction is suggested to be the following. Left-handed cyclotron resonance occurs continuously, and is evident from the observed proton core velocity distribution and the concurrent quasi-parallel left-handed Alfvén cyclotron waves. Landau and right-handed cyclotron resonances are persistent and indicated by the observed drifting anisotropic beam and the simultaneous quasi-perpendicular right-handed kinetic Alfvén waves in a general sense. The persistence of non-gyrotropic proton distributions may cast new light on the nature of the interaction between particles and waves near and beyond the proton gyro-frequency.

  10. Production of electron cyclotron resonance plasma by using multifrequencies microwaves and active beam profile control on a large bore electron cyclotron resonance ion source with permanent magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yushi; Watanabe, Takeyoshi; Matsui, Yuuki; Hirai, Yoshiaki; Kutsumi, Osamu; Sakamoto, Naoki; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2010-02-01

    A new concept on magnetic field with all magnets on plasma production and confinement has been proposed to enhance efficiency of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma for broad and dense ion beam source under the low pressure. The magnetic field configuration is constructed by a pair of magnets assembly, i.e., comb-shaped magnet which cylindrically surrounds the plasma chamber. The resonance zones corresponding to the fundamental ECR for 2.45 GHz and 11-13 GHz frequencies are constructed at different positions. The profiles of the plasma parameters in the ECR ion source are different from each frequency of microwave. Large bore extractor is set at the opposite side against the microwave feeds. It is found that differences of their profiles also appear at those of ion beam profiles. We conducted to launch simultaneously multiplex frequencies microwaves controlled individually, and tried to control the profiles of the plasma parameters and then those of extracted ion beam.

  11. Cyclotron resonant scattering feature simulations. I. Thermally averaged cyclotron scattering cross sections, mean free photon-path tables, and electron momentum sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarm, F -W; Falkner, S; Pottschmidt, K; Wolff, M T; Becker, P A; Sokolova-Lapa, E; Klochkov, D; Ferrigno, C; Fuerst, F; Hemphill, P B; Marcu-Cheatham, D M; Dauser, T; Wilms, J

    2016-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonant scattering features (CRSFs) are observed as absorption-like lines in the spectra of X-ray pulsars. A significant fraction of the computing time for Monte Carlo simulations of these quantum mechanical features is spent on the calculation of the mean free path for each individual photon before scattering, since it involves a complex numerical integration over the scattering cross section and the (thermal) velocity distribution of the scattering electrons. We aim to numerically calculate interpolation tables which can be used in CRSF simulations to sample the mean free path of the scattering photon and the momentum of the scattering electron. The tables also contain all the information required for sampling the scattering electron's final spin. The tables were calculated using an adaptive Simpson integration scheme. The energy and angle grids were refined until a prescribed accuracy is reached. The tables are used by our simulation code to produce artificial CRSF spectra. The electron...

  12. Cyclotron resonant scattering feature simulations. I. Thermally averaged cyclotron scattering cross sections, mean free photon-path tables, and electron momentum sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarm, F.-W.; Schönherr, G.; Falkner, S.; Pottschmidt, K.; Wolff, M. T.; Becker, P. A.; Sokolova-Lapa, E.; Klochkov, D.; Ferrigno, C.; Fürst, F.; Hemphill, P. B.; Marcu-Cheatham, D. M.; Dauser, T.; Wilms, J.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Electron cyclotron resonant scattering features (CRSFs) are observed as absorption-like lines in the spectra of X-ray pulsars. A significant fraction of the computing time for Monte Carlo simulations of these quantum mechanical features is spent on the calculation of the mean free path for each individual photon before scattering, since it involves a complex numerical integration over the scattering cross section and the (thermal) velocity distribution of the scattering electrons. Aims: We aim to numerically calculate interpolation tables which can be used in CRSF simulations to sample the mean free path of the scattering photon and the momentum of the scattering electron. The tables also contain all the information required for sampling the scattering electron's final spin. Methods: The tables were calculated using an adaptive Simpson integration scheme. The energy and angle grids were refined until a prescribed accuracy is reached. The tables are used by our simulation code to produce artificial CRSF spectra. The electron momenta sampled during these simulations were analyzed and justified using theoretically determined boundaries. Results: We present a complete set of tables suited for mean free path calculations of Monte Carlo simulations of the cyclotron scattering process for conditions expected in typical X-ray pulsar accretion columns (0.01 ≤ B/Bcrit ≤ 0.12, where Bcrit = 4.413 × 1013 G, and 3 keV ≤ kBT ≤ 15 keV). The sampling of the tables is chosen such that the results have an estimated relative error of at most 1/15 for all points in the grid. The tables are available online (see link in footnote, page 1). The electronic tables described here are available at http://www.sternwarte.uni-erlangen.de/research/cyclo

  13. Proton Heating by Pick-up Ion Driven Cyclotron Waves in the Outer Heliosphere: Hybrid Expanding Box Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellinger, Petr; Trávníček, Pavel M.

    2016-11-01

    Using a one-dimensional hybrid expanding box model, we investigate properties of the solar wind in the outer heliosphere. We assume a proton-electron plasma with a strictly transverse ambient magnetic field and, aside from the expansion, we take into account the influence of a continuous injection of cold pick-up protons through the charge-exchange process between the solar wind protons and hydrogen of interstellar origin. The injected cold pick-up protons form a ring distribution function, which rapidly becomes unstable, and generate Alfvén cyclotron waves. The Alfvén cyclotron waves scatter pick-up protons to a spherical shell distribution function that thickens over that time owing to the expansion-driven cooling. The Alfvén cyclotron waves heat solar wind protons in the perpendicular direction (with respect to the ambient magnetic field) through cyclotron resonance. At later times, the Alfvén cyclotron waves become parametrically unstable and the generated ion-acoustic waves heat protons in the parallel direction through Landau resonance. The resulting heating of the solar wind protons is efficient on the expansion timescale.

  14. Experimental observation of acoustic emissions generated by a pulsed proton beam from a hospital-based clinical cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Kevin C.; Solberg, Timothy D.; Avery, Stephen, E-mail: Stephen.Avery@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Vander Stappen, François; Janssens, Guillaume; Prieels, Damien [Ion Beam Applications SA, Louvain-la-Neuve 1348 (Belgium); Bawiec, Christopher R.; Lewin, Peter A. [School of Biomedical Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Sehgal, Chandra M. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: To measure the acoustic signal generated by a pulsed proton spill from a hospital-based clinical cyclotron. Methods: An electronic function generator modulated the IBA C230 isochronous cyclotron to create a pulsed proton beam. The acoustic emissions generated by the proton beam were measured in water using a hydrophone. The acoustic measurements were repeated with increasing proton current and increasing distance between detector and beam. Results: The cyclotron generated proton spills with rise times of 18 μs and a maximum measured instantaneous proton current of 790 nA. Acoustic emissions generated by the proton energy deposition were measured to be on the order of mPa. The origin of the acoustic wave was identified as the proton beam based on the correlation between acoustic emission arrival time and distance between the hydrophone and proton beam. The acoustic frequency spectrum peaked at 10 kHz, and the acoustic pressure amplitude increased monotonically with increasing proton current. Conclusions: The authors report the first observation of acoustic emissions generated by a proton beam from a hospital-based clinical cyclotron. When modulated by an electronic function generator, the cyclotron is capable of creating proton spills with fast rise times (18 μs) and high instantaneous currents (790 nA). Measurements of the proton-generated acoustic emissions in a clinical setting may provide a method for in vivo proton range verification and patient monitoring.

  15. Proton heating by pick-up ion driven cyclotron waves in the outer heliosphere: Hybrid expanding box simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Hellinger, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Using one-dimensional hybrid expanding box model we investigate properties of the solar wind in the outer heliosphere. We assume a proton-electron plasma with a strictly transverse ambient magnetic field and, beside the expansion, we take into account influence of a continuous injection of cold pick-up protons through the charge-exchange process between the solar wind protons and hydrogen of interstellar origin. The injected cold pick-up protons form a ring distribution function that rapidly becomes unstable and generate Alfv\\'en cyclotron waves. The Alfv\\'en cyclotron waves scatter pick-up protons to a spherical shell distribution function that thickens over that time owing to the expansion-driven cooling. The Alf\\'ven cyclotron waves heat solar wind protons in the perpendicular direction (with respect to the ambient magnetic field) through the cyclotron resonance. At later times, the Alfv\\'en cyclotron waves become parametrically unstable and the generated ion acoustic waves heat protons in the parallel dir...

  16. Feasibility study on epithermal neutron field for cyclotron-based boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonai, Shunsuke; Aoki, Takao; Nakamura, Takashi; Yashima, Hiroshi; Baba, Mamoru; Yokobori, Hitoshi; Tahara, Yoshihisa

    2003-08-01

    To realize the accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) at the Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center of Tohoku University, the feasibility of a cyclotron-based BNCT was evaluated. This study focuses on optimizing the epithermal neutron field with an energy spectrum and intensity suitable for BNCT for various combinations of neutron-producing reactions and moderator materials. Neutrons emitted at 90 degrees from a thick (stopping-length) Ta target, bombarded by 50 MeV protons of 300 microA beam current, were selected as a neutron source, based on the measurement of angular distributions and neutron energy spectra. As assembly composed of iron, AlF3/Al/6LiF, and lead was chosen as moderators, based on the simulation trials using the MCNPX code. The depth dose distributions in a cylindrical phantom, calculated with the MCNPX code, showed that, within 1 h of therapeutic time, the best moderator assembly, which is 30-cm-thick iron, 39-cm-thick AlF3/Al/6LiF, and 1-cm-thick lead, provides an epithermal neutron flux of 0.7 x 10(9) [n cm(-2) s(-1)]. This results in a tumor dose of 20.9 Gy-eq at a depth of 8 cm in the phantom, which is 6.4 Gy-eq higher than that of the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor at the equivalent condition of maximum normal tissue tolerance. The beam power of the cyclotron is 15 kW, which is much lower than other accelerator-based BNCT proposals.

  17. Effective dose to immuno-PET patients due to metastable impurities in cyclotron produced zirconium-89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfuraih, Abdulrahman; Alzimami, Khalid; Ma, Andy K.; Alghamdi, Ali; Al Jammaz, Ibrahim

    2014-11-01

    Immuno-PET is a nuclear medicine technique that combines positron emission tommography (PET) with radio-labeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for tumor characterization and therapy. Zirconium-89 (89Zr) is an emerging radionuclide for immuno-PET imaging. Its long half-life (78.4 h) gives ample time for the production, the administering and the patient uptake of the tagged radiopharmaceutical. Furthermore, the nuclides will remain in the tumor cells after the mAbs are catabolized so that time series studies are possible without incurring further administration of radiopharmarceuticals. 89Zr can be produced in medical cyclotrons by bombarding an yttrium-89 (89Y) target with a proton beam through the 89Y(p,n)89Zr reaction. In this study, we estimated the effective dose to the head and neck cancer patients undergoing 89Zr-based immune-PET procedures. The production of 89Zr and the impurities from proton irradiation of the 89Y target in a cyclotron was calculated with the Monte Carlo code MCNPX and the nuclear reaction code TALYS. The cumulated activities of the Zr isotopes were derived from real patient data in literature and the effective doses were estimated using the MIRD specific absorbed fraction formalism. The estimated effective dose from 89Zr is 0.5±0.2 mSv/MBq. The highest organ dose is 1.8±0.2 mSv/MBq in the liver. These values are in agreement with those reported in literature. The effective dose from 89mZr is about 0.2-0.3% of the 89Zr dose in the worst case. Since the ratio of 89mZr to 89Zr depends on the cooling time as well as the irradiation details, contaminant dose estimation is an important aspect in optimizing the cyclotron irradiation geometry, energy and time.

  18. Numerical Simulations of Nonlinear Dynamics of Electron Cyclotron Maser with a Straight Beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Ling-Bao; HOU Zhi-Ling

    2011-01-01

    An electron cyclotron maser based on anomalous Doppler effect (ADECM) with an initially axial beam velocity is considered,and the nonlinear equation of beam-wave interaction is presented.With the numerical methods,the nonlinear dynamics of the ADECM is investigated.It is shown that the saturated interaction efficiency of the ADECM approaches 90% and the interaction length for the saturated efficiency spans about 5-20cm.The results may be of importance for designing a compact device in applications in microwave generations or microwave heating of ceramic laminates.In the late 1950s,the theoretical studies on the instability of electron cyclotron maser based on normal Doppler effect (NDECM) were performed almost simultaneously by Gaponov,[1] Twiss,[2] and Schneider.[3] Their discoveries have resulted in the most successful fast-wave devices such as the gyrotron and variants.[4,5] The possible applications of microwaves span a wide range of technologies such as in thermonuclear fusion energy,charged particle accelerations,radar systems,and processing of advanced ceramics.[6-16]%An electron cyclotron maser based on anomalous Doppler effect (ADECM) with an initially axial beam velocity is considered, and the nonlinear equation of beam-wave interaction is presented. With the numerical methods, the nonlinear dynamics of the ADECM is investigated. It is shown that the saturated interaction efficiency of the ADECM approaches 90% and the interaction length for the saturated efficiency spans about 5-20 cm. The results may be of importance for designing a compact device in applications in microwave generations or microwave heating of ceramic laminates.

  19. Electron acceleration at Jupiter: input from cyclotron-resonant interaction with whistler-mode chorus waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Woodfield

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Jupiter has the most intense radiation belts of all the outer planets. It is not yet known how electrons can be accelerated to energies of 10 MeV or more. It has been suggested that cyclotron-resonant wave-particle interactions by chorus waves could accelerate electrons to a few MeV near the orbit of Io. Here we use the chorus wave intensities observed by the Galileo spacecraft to calculate the changes in electron flux as a result of pitch angle and energy diffusion. We show that, when the bandwidth of the waves and its variation with L are taken into account, pitch angle and energy diffusion due to chorus waves is a factor of 8 larger at L-shells greater than 10 than previously shown. We have used the latitudinal wave intensity profile from Galileo data to model the time evolution of the electron flux using the British Antarctic Survey Radiation Belt (BAS model. This profile confines intense chorus waves near the magnetic equator with a peak intensity at ∼5° latitude. Electron fluxes in the BAS model increase by an order of magnitude for energies around 3 MeV. Extending our results to L = 14 shows that cyclotron-resonant interactions with chorus waves are equally important for electron acceleration beyond L = 10. These results suggest that there is significant electron acceleration by cyclotron-resonant interactions at Jupiter contributing to the creation of Jupiter's radiation belts and also increasing the range of L-shells over which this mechanism should be considered.

  20. NuSTAR discovery of a luminosity dependent cyclotron line energy in Vela X-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuerst, Felix; Pottschmidt, Katja; Wilms, Joern;

    2014-01-01

    observation, covering almost one order of magnitude in flux. These observations allow, for the first time ever, investigations on kilo-second time-scales of how the centroid energies of cyclotron resonant scattering features (CRSFs) depend on flux for a persistent HMXB. We find that the line energy...... of the line energies is variable with time and deviates significantly from 2.0, also a possible consequence of photon spawning, which changes the shape of the line. During the second observation, Vela X-1 showed a short off-state in which the power-law softened and a cut-off was no longer measurable...

  1. New approach in design of efficient low level RF circuit for 10 MeV cyclotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M S Sharifi Asadi Malafeh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The electric field in cavity accelerates charged particles and magnetic field of magnets changes the direction of these particles in cyclotrons. In order to establish the electric field inside the cavity, a noiseless radio frequency (RF signal should be generated, amplified and sent to cavity. The resonant frequency of the cavity could be changed by temperature variation. Variation of resonant frequency will cause reflected power from the cavity. in this work the low level RF circuits with task of signal generation, phase and frequency Adjustment, cavity resonant frequency Adjustment, protection of the RF set from the reflected power and stability of RF system was designed

  2. Design of the Eelectron Cyclotron Resonance Heating Transmission System for HL-2A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周俊; 刘永

    2004-01-01

    HL-2A will be equipped with a 75 GHz/1 MW/1s electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) system. The paper describes the design of the transmission system, which is made up of a transmission line, an equatorial launcher and a measureing system. The paper describes in detail the design of main components of the system such as, waveguides, ellipsoidal surface mirrors, chemical vapor (CVD) diamond window, steering mirror, and new directional coupler with a k-spectrometer. The newly-designed launcher can make the beam steer poloidally to deposit energy in different locations.

  3. Destabilization of fast particle stabilized sawteeth in ASDEX Upgrade with electron cyclotron current drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Igochine, V.; Chapman, I.T.; Bobkov, V.;

    2011-01-01

    It is often observed that large sawteeth trigger the neoclassical tearing mode well below the usual threshold for this instability. At the same time, fast particles in the plasma core stabilize sawteeth and provide these large crashes. The paper presents results of first experiments in ASDEX...... Upgrade for destabilization of fast particle stabilized sawteeth with electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD). It is shown that moderate ECCD from a single gyrotron is able to destabilize the fast particle stabilized sawteeth. A reduction in sawtooth period by about 40% was achieved in first experiments...

  4. The effect of electron holes on cyclotron maser emission driven by horseshoe distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, G Q; Feng, H Q; Wu, D J

    2016-01-01

    This Brief Communication presents a quantitative investigation for the effect of electron holes on electron-cyclotron maser (ECM) driven by horseshoe distributions. The investigation is based on an integrated distribution function for the horseshoe distributions with electron holes. Results show that the presence of electron holes can significantly enhance the ECM growth rate by 2-3 times in a very narrow waveband. The present study suggests that these electron holes probably are responsible for some fine structures of radiations, such as narrowband events in auroral kilometric radiation and solar microwave spikes.

  5. The effect of electron holes on cyclotron maser emission driven by horseshoe distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, G. Q.; Chu, Y. H.; Feng, H. Q.; Wu, D. J.

    2016-11-01

    This Brief Communication presents a quantitative investigation for the effect of electron holes on electron-cyclotron maser (ECM) driven by horseshoe distributions. The investigation is based on an integrated distribution function for the horseshoe distributions with electron holes. Results show that the presence of electron holes can significantly enhance the ECM growth rate by 2-3 times in a very narrow waveband. The present study suggests that these electron holes probably are responsible for some fine structures of radiations, such as narrowband events in auroral kilometric radiation and solar microwave spikes.

  6. Status of the Bio-Nano electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Toyo University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, T., E-mail: uchida-t@toyo.jp [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, Kawagoe 350-8585 (Japan); Minezaki, H.; Ishihara, S. [Graduate School of Engineering, Toyo University, Kawagoe 350-8585 (Japan); Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Drentje, A. G. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Rácz, R.; Biri, S. [Institute for Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Asaji, T. [Oshima National College of Maritime Technology, Yamaguchi 742-2193 (Japan); Kato, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Yoshida, Y. [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, Kawagoe 350-8585 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Toyo University, Kawagoe 350-8585 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    In the paper, the material science experiments, carried out recently using the Bio-Nano electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) at Toyo University, are reported. We have investigated several methods to synthesize endohedral C{sub 60} using ion-ion and ion-molecule collision reaction in the ECRIS. Because of the simplicity of the configuration, we can install a large choice of additional equipment in the ECRIS. The Bio-Nano ECRIS is suitable not only to test the materials production but also to test technical developments to improve or understand the performance of an ECRIS.

  7. Dual array 3D electron cyclotron emission imaging at ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Classen, I. G. J., E-mail: I.G.J.Classen@differ.nl; Bogomolov, A. V. [FOM-Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. [Department of Applied Science, University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Suttrop, W.; Boom, J. E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Tobias, B. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Donné, A. J. H. [FOM-Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2014-11-15

    In a major upgrade, the (2D) electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic (ECEI) at ASDEX Upgrade has been equipped with a second detector array, observing a different toroidal position in the plasma, to enable quasi-3D measurements of the electron temperature. The new system will measure a total of 288 channels, in two 2D arrays, toroidally separated by 40 cm. The two detector arrays observe the plasma through the same vacuum window, both under a slight toroidal angle. The majority of the field lines are observed by both arrays simultaneously, thereby enabling a direct measurement of the 3D properties of plasma instabilities like edge localized mode filaments.

  8. Modelling third harmonic ion cyclotron acceleration of deuterium beams for JET fusion product studies experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, M.; Johnson, T.; Dumont, R.

    2016-01-01

    Recent JET experiments have been dedicated to the studies of fusion reactions between deuterium (D) and Helium-3 (3He) ions using neutral beam injection (NBI) in synergy with third harmonic ion cyclotron radio-frequency heating (ICRH) of the beam. This scenario generates a fast ion deuterium tail...... enhancing DD and D3He fusion reactions. Modelling and measuring the fast deuterium tail accurately is essential for quantifying the fusion products. This paper presents the modelling of the D distribution function resulting from the NBI+ICRF heating scheme, reinforced by a comparison with dedicated JET fast...

  9. The Neutron Emission Ratio Observer NERO at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jorge; Hosmer, Paul; Lorusso, Giuseppe; Santi, Peter; Del Santo, Marcelo; Herlitzius, Clemens; Kratz, Karl-Ludwig; Montes, Fernando; Schatz, Hendrik; Schertz, Florian; Schnorrenberger, Linda; Smith, Karl; Wiescher, Michael

    2009-10-01

    The new neutron counter NERO (Neutron Emission Ratio Observer) was built at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) for measuring Pn values of neutron-rich nuclei produced as fast fragmentation beams. The design was motivated by the requirement of being coupled to the NSCL beta counting system, so that β-decay particles and neutrons emitted from implanted nuclei can be measured simultaneously, while keeping a high efficiency. The detector's performance and main features will be discussed, as well as recent measurements done at NSCL for astrophysical studies of the r-process.

  10. Preliminary results of ion trajectory tracking in the acceleration region of the VINCY cyclotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Anđelija Ž.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In an accelerating region of a cyclotron, an ion makes a large number of turns; thus, its n the Runge-Kutta method of the fourth order with the adaptive time step has been developed. The accuracy requirement is simultaneously set on position and momentum calculation. Magnetic fields used as inputs, have been evaluated in terms of the radial fluctuations of the orbital frequency, i.e. their isochronisms. Ion trajectory tracking has been performed for the following four test beams: H-, H+3, 4He+, He+, and 40Ar6+.

  11. Fast Ion Induced Shearing of 2D Alfven Eigenmodes Measured by Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobias, Ben [University of California, Davis; Classen, I.G.J. [FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Nieuwegein, The Netherlands; Domier, C. W. [University of California, Davis; Heidbrink, W. [University of California, Irvine; Luhmann, N.C. [University of California, Davis; Nazikian, Raffi [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Park, H.K. [Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, Republic of Korea; Spong, Donald A [ORNL; Van Zeeland, Michael [General Atomics

    2011-01-01

    Two-dimensional images of electron temperature perturbations are obtained with electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) on the DIII-D tokamak and compared to Alfven eigenmode structures obtained by numerical modeling using both ideal MHD and hybrid MHD-gyrofluid codes. While many features of the observations are found to be in excellent agreement with simulations using an ideal MHD code (NOVA), other characteristics distinctly reveal the influence of fast ions on the mode structures. These features are found to be well described by the nonperturbative hybrid MHD-gyrofluid model TAEFL.

  12. Preliminary Analysis of the Hysteresis Phenomenon in Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ming-Hai; HU Xi-Wei; YU Guo-Yang; WU Qin-Chong; PAN Yuan

    2001-01-01

    The hysteresis phenomenon in electron cyclotron resonance plasma has been investigated theoretically by solvingthe equations of the density and energy balance of electrons and by taking the effects of several collisions suchas ionization and recombination into account. The results show that multiple steady states in experimentalmeasurements can be characterized by considering the fact that the energy balance function has three differentreal roots in certain regions of parameters. One root represents a saddle point and other roots represent stablepoints, that is, the system is bistable. The effects of ionization and the energy transformation due to the collisionsbetween the electron and neutral gas are also discussed.

  13. Role of quantum heat bath and confinement in the low-temperature thermodynamics of cyclotron motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Malay; Dattagupta, Sushanta

    2010-04-01

    In this Brief Report we show how the low-temperature thermodynamics of the dissipative motion of an electron in a magnetic field is sensitive to the nature of the spectral density function, J(omega), of the quantum heat bath. In all cases of couplings considered here the free energy and the entropy of the cyclotron motion of the electron fall off to zero as power law in conformity with the third law of thermodynamics. The power of the power law however depends on the nature of J(omega). We also separately discuss the influence of confinement.

  14. Beta decay studies of r-process nuclei at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, J; Arndt, O; Becerril, A; Elliot, T; Estrade, A; Galaviz, D; Hennrich, S; Hosmer, P; Kessler, R; Kratz, K L; Lorusso, G; Mantica, P F; Matos, M; Montes, F; Santi, P; Pfeiffer, B; Quinn, M; Schatz, H; Schertz, F; Schnorrenberger, L; Smith, E; Tomlin, B E; Walters, W; Wöhr, A

    2009-01-01

    The impact of nuclear physics on astrophysical r-process models is discussed, emphasizing the importance of beta-decay properties of neutron-rich nuclei. Several r-process motivated beta-decay experiments performed at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory are presented. The experiments include the measurement of beta-decay half-lives and neutron emission probabilities of nuclei in regions around Ni-78; Se-90; Zr-106 and Rh-120, as well as spectroscopic studies of Pd-120. A summary on the different experimental techniques employed, data analysis, results and impact on model calculations is presented.

  15. The design, construction, and commissioning of a multi-use cyclotron facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, S.; Hutcheson, M.; Schick-Martin, D. [Saskatchewan Centre for Cyclotron Sciences, Saskatchewan (Canada); Dalzell, M.; Alexander, N. [Sylvia Fedoruk Canadian Centre for Nuclear Innovation, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    The Sylvia Fedoruk Canadian Centre for Nuclear Innovation in Saskatchewan is in the process of commissioning the Saskatchewan Centre for Cyclotron Sciences that is to be used for both academic research and commercial radiopharmaceutical production. The hybrid nature of this facility comes with unique challenges in satisfying both the rigid demands of pharmaceutical production while providing the necessary flexibility for academic research. In order to meet these competing demands, the Fedoruk Centre has assembled a distinct combination of skill sets and areas of expertise to operate a facility with an interdisciplinary focus. (author)

  16. Intake risk and dose evaluation methods for workers in radiochemistry labs of a medical cyclotron facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandrino, Riccardo; del Vecchio, Antonella; Savi, Annarita; Todde, Sergio; Belloli, Sara

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the risks and doses for the internal contamination of the radiochemistry staff in a high workload medical cyclotron facility. The doses from internal contamination derive from the inhalation of radioactive gas leakage from the cells by personnel involved in the synthesis processes and are calculated from urine sample measurements. Various models are considered for the calculation of the effective committed dose from the analysis of these urine samples, and the results are compared with data obtained from local environmental measurement of the radioactivity released inside the lab.

  17. Dust-cyclotron and dust-lower-hybrid modes in self-gravitating magnetized dusty plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Banerjee; M N Alam; A A Mamun

    2003-07-01

    Theoretical investigation has been made on two different ultra-low-frequency electrostatic modes, namely, dust-cyclotron mode and dust-lower-hybrid mode, propagating perpendicular to the external magnetic field, in a self-gravitating magnetized two-fluid dusty plasma system. It has been shown that the effect of the self-gravitational force, acting on both dust grains and ions, significantly modifies the dispersion properties of these two electrostatic modes. The implications of these results to some space and astrophysical dusty plasma systems, especially to planetary ring-systems and cometary tails, are briefly mentioned.

  18. Scattering of diffracting beams of electron cyclotron waves by random density fluctuations in inhomogeneous plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Hannes; Maj, Omar; Poli, Emanuele

    2015-03-01

    The physics and first results of the new WKBeam code for electron cyclotron beams in tokamak plasmas are presented. This code is developed on the basis of a kinetic radiative transfer model which is general enough to account for the effects of diffraction and density fluctuations on the beam. Our preliminary numerical results show a significant broadening of the power deposition profile in ITER due to scattering from random density fluctuations at the plasma edge, while such scattering effects are found to be negligible in medium-size tokamaks like ASDEX upgrade.

  19. Bio-Nano ECRIS: an electron cyclotron resonance ion source for new materials production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, T; Minezaki, H; Tanaka, K; Muramatsu, M; Asaji, T; Kato, Y; Kitagawa, A; Biri, S; Yoshida, Y

    2010-02-01

    We developed an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for new materials production on nanoscale. Our main target is the endohedral fullerenes, which have potential in medical care, biotechnology, and nanotechnology. In particular, iron-encapsulated fullerene can be applied as a contrast material for magnetic resonance imaging or microwave heat therapy. Thus, our new ECRIS is named the Bio-Nano ECRIS. In this article, the recent progress of the development of the Bio-Nano ECRIS is reported: (i) iron ion beam production using induction heating oven and (ii) optimization of singly charged C(60) ion beam production.

  20. Status of the Bio-Nano electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Toyo University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, T; Minezaki, H; Ishihara, S; Muramatsu, M; Rácz, R; Asaji, T; Kitagawa, A; Kato, Y; Biri, S; Drentje, A G; Yoshida, Y

    2014-02-01

    In the paper, the material science experiments, carried out recently using the Bio-Nano electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) at Toyo University, are reported. We have investigated several methods to synthesize endohedral C60 using ion-ion and ion-molecule collision reaction in the ECRIS. Because of the simplicity of the configuration, we can install a large choice of additional equipment in the ECRIS. The Bio-Nano ECRIS is suitable not only to test the materials production but also to test technical developments to improve or understand the performance of an ECRIS.

  1. Strong Coupling of the Cyclotron Motion of Surface Electrons on Liquid Helium to a Microwave Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurakhimov, L. V.; Yamashiro, R.; Badrutdinov, A. O.; Konstantinov, D.

    2016-07-01

    The strong coupling regime is observed in a system of two-dimensional electrons whose cyclotron motion is coupled to an electromagnetic mode in a Fabry-Perot cavity resonator. Rabi splitting of eigenfrequencies of the coupled motion is observed both in the cavity reflection spectrum and ac current of the electrons, the latter probed by measuring their bolometric photoresponse. Despite the fact that similar observations of Rabi splitting in many-particle systems have been described as a quantum-mechanical effect, we show that the observed splitting can be explained completely by a model based on classical electrodynamics.

  2. A simple and efficient method of nickel electrodeposition for the cyclotron production of (64)Cu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique-Arias, Juan C; Avila-Rodriguez, Miguel A

    2014-07-01

    Nickel targets for the cyclotron production of (64)Cu were prepared by electrodeposition on a gold backing from nickel chloride solutions using boric acid as buffer. Parameters studied were nickel chloride and boric acid concentration, temperature and current density. All plating conditions studied were successful obtaining efficiencies of approximately 90% in 2-3 h, reaching almost quantitative plating (>97%) in 10-20 h depending on the current density. All plated targets withstood proton irradiations up to 40 µA for 2 h. Recovered nickel was successfully recycled and reused with an overall efficiency >95%.

  3. Design of a new electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Oshima National College of Maritime Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaji, T., E-mail: asaji@oshima-k.ac.jp; Hirabara, N.; Izumihara, T.; Nakamizu, T.; Ohba, T.; Nakamura, T.; Furuse, M. [Oshima National College of Maritime Technology (OCMT), 1091-1 Komatsu, Suo-oshima, Yamaguchi 742-2193 (Japan); Hitobo, T. [Tateyama Machine Co., Ltd., 30 Shimonoban, Toyama 930-1305 (Japan); Kato, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    A new electron cyclotron resonance ion/plasma source has been designed and will be built at Oshima National College of Maritime Technology by early 2014. We have developed an ion source that allows the control of the plasma parameters over a wide range of electron temperatures for material research. A minimum-B magnetic field composed of axial mirror fields and radial cusp fields was designed using mainly Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets. The axial magnetic field can be varied by three solenoid coils. The apparatus has 2.45 GHz magnetron and 2.5–6.0 GHz solid-state microwave sources.

  4. Direct injection into the IsoDAR Cyclotron using a RFQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axani, Spencer; IsoDAR Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Beginning in the 1970s, the use of Radio Frequency Quadrupoles (RFQs) has been pervasive in linear accelerators in order to accelerate, bunch, and separate ion species. Current research suggests this may be an ideal way to inject a low energy H2+ beam axially into a cyclotron. The IsoDAR (Isotope Decay At Rest) experiment aims to implement this injection system in order to achieve higher Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) efficiencies and ultimately construct a novel compact neutrino factory to test the hypothesis of sterile neutrinos. This talk will focus on the research and development needed to implement a RFQ into the IsoDAR experiment.

  5. A preliminary study of the electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the RAON injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, I. S.; Kim, Y.; Choi, S. J.; Heo, J. I.; Jin, H. C.; Park, B. S.

    2016-09-01

    We have built and tested an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source for the Rare Isotope Accelerator of Newness (RAON) injector. Fully superconducting magnets were developed for the ECR ion source. First, an oxygen plasma was ignited, and a preliminary highly-charged oxygen beam was extracted. Next, a 100 μA beam current of oxygen 5+ was extracted when a 1 kW microwave power was injected using a 28 GHz gyrotron. Finally, an off-site test facility was proposed to test the components of the injector by using heavy-ion beams generated by the ECR ion source.

  6. Highly charged ion X-rays from Electron-Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Indelicato, Paul; Boucard, S.; Covita, D. S.; Gotta, D.; Gruber, A; Hirtl, A.; Fuhrmann, H.; Le Bigot, E.-O.; Schlesser, S.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Simons, L.M.; Stingelin, L.; Trassinelli, Martino; Veloso, J.; Wasser, A.

    2006-01-01

    Radiation from the highly-charged ions contained in the plasma of Electron-Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources constitutes a very bright source of X-rays. Because the ions have a relatively low kinetic energy ($\\approx 1$~eV) transitions can be very narrow, containing only small Doppler broadening. We describe preliminary accurate measurements of two and three-electron ions with $Z=16$--18. We show how these measurement can test sensitively many-body relativistic calculations or can be used as X-...

  7. Millimeter-wave radiometer diagnostics of harmonic electron cyclotron emission in the Levitated Dipole Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woskov, P P; Kesner, J; Garnier, D T; Mauel, M E

    2010-10-01

    A 110/137 GHz radiometer pair with collimated antenna pattern is being used to diagnose optically thin harmonic electron cyclotron emission from hot electrons in LDX. Signal levels of 0.1-1 keV and 110/137 ratios of 2-4 stationary with ECRH power have been observed. The large plasma core magnetic field gradient causes all relevant harmonics to be simultaneously viewed over a angle(k,B) angular range of 0°-90° representing a unique geometry for interpretation of ECE in terms of hot electron temperature and density.

  8. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides. Progress report, February 1987--September 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, S.M.

    1989-12-31

    This report is divided into six sections, each section dealing with a separate aspect of the program. The six sections are entitled (1) In Vivo Measurement of Amino Acid Transport and Protein Synthesis, (2) Angiogenesis in Human Gliomas: Correlations with Blood Flow and Transport of C-11 AIB, (3) Use of F-18 Fluoropyrimidines for Design and Evaluation of Regional and Systemic Chemotherapeutic Strategies in Human Adenocarcinomas of the Gastrointestinal Tract, (4) Enzymatic Synthesis of Metabolites Labeled with N-13 or C-11, (5) Synthesis of Amino Acids Labeled with C-11, and (6) Instrumentation: Cyclotron and Imaging Systems.

  9. Coupled operation of the Oak Ridge isochronous cyclotron and the 25 MV tandem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, R.S.; Ball, J.B.; Beckers, R.M.; Cleary, T.P.; Hudson, E.D.; Ludemann, C.A.; Martin, J.A.; Milner, W.T.; Mosko, S.W.; Ziegler, N.F.

    1981-01-01

    Coupled operation of the 25 MV tandem and the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC) was achieved on January 27, 1981. A beam of 38 MeV /sup 16/O/sup 2 +/ was injected into ORIC, stripped to 8/sup +/ and accelerated to 324 MeV. Shortly afterwards, the energy was increased to the maximum design value of 25 MeV/amu (400 MeV). A spectrum taken of the scattering of this beam from a thin /sup 208/Pb target in the broad range spectrograh exhibited a resolution of 115 keV (FWHM). Performance of the system was in close agreement with that predicted from calculations.

  10. Theoretical analysis of the EAST 4-strap ion cyclotron range of frequency antenna with variational theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-Hui; Zhang, Xin-Jun; Zhao, Yan-Ping; Qin, Cheng-Ming; Chen, Zhao; Yang, Lei; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2016-08-01

    A variational principle code which can calculate self-consistently currents on the conductors is used to assess the coupling characteristic of the EAST 4-strap ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) antenna. Taking into account two layers of antenna conductors without lateral frame but with slab geometry, the antenna impedances as a function of frequency and the structure of RF field excited inside the plasma in various phasing cases are discussed in this paper. Project supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program, China (Grant No. 2015GB101001) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11375236 and 11375235).

  11. Theoretical analysis of ion cyclotron range of frequency antenna array for HT-7U

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xin-Jun; Qin Cheng-Ming; Zhao Yan-Ping

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers the coupling analysis of phased antenna array designed to excite fast wave in the ion cyclotron range of frequency. The coupling of the antenna is calculated in slab geometry. The coupling code based on the variational principle gives the self-consistent current flowing in the antenna, this method has been extended so that it can be applied to a phased antenna array. As an example, this paper analyses the coupling prosperities of a 2×2phased antenna array. It gives the optimum geometry of antenna array. The fields excited at plasma surface are found to more or less correspond to the antenna current phasing.

  12. Production of a highly charged uranium ion beam with RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higurashi, Y.; Ohnishi, J.; Nakagawa, T.; Haba, H.; Fujimaki, M.; Komiyama, M.; Kamigaito, O. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tamura, M.; Aihara, T.; Uchiyama, A. [SHI Accelerator Service Ltd., 1-17-6 Osaki, Shinagawa, Tokyo 141-0032 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    A highly charged uranium (U) ion beam is produced from the RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source using 18 and 28 GHz microwaves. The sputtering method is used to produce this U ion beam. The beam intensity is strongly dependent on the rod position and sputtering voltage. We observe that the emittance of U{sup 35+} for 28 GHz microwaves is almost the same as that for 18 GHz microwaves. It seems that the beam intensity of U ions produced using 28 GHz microwaves is higher than that produced using 18 GHz microwaves at the same Radio Frequency (RF) power.

  13. Development of DRAGON electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Institute of Modern Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, W; Xie, D Z; Zhang, X Z; Xiong, B; Ruan, L; Sha, S; Zhang, W H; Cao, Y; Lin, S H; Guo, J W; Fang, X; Guo, X H; Li, X X; Ma, H Y; Yang, Y; Wu, Q; Zhao, H Y; Ma, B H; Wang, H; Zhu, Y H; Feng, Y C; Li, J Y; Li, J Q; Sun, L T; Zhao, H W

    2012-02-01

    A new room temperature electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source, DRAGON, is under construction at IMP. DRAGON is designed to operate at microwaves of frequencies of 14.5-18 GHz. Its axial solenoid coils are cooled with evaporative medium to provide an axial magnetic mirror field of 2.5 T at the injection and 1.4 T at the extraction, respectively. In comparison to other conventional room temperature ECR ion sources, DRAGON has so far the largest bore plasma chamber of inner diameter of 126 mm with maximum radial fields of 1.4-1.5 T produced by a non-Halbach permanent sextupole magnet.

  14. Fullerene-rare gas mixed plasmas in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Asaji, T; Uchida, T; Minezaki, H; Ishihara, S; Racz, R; Muramatsu, M; Biri, S; Kitagawa, A; Kato, Y; Yoshida, Y

    2015-01-01

    A synthesis technology of endohedral fullerenes such as Fe@C60 has developed with an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. The production of N@C60 was reported. However, the yield was quite low, since most fullerene molecules were broken in the ECR plasma. We have adopted gas-mixing techniques in order to cool the plasma and then reduce fullerene dissociation. Mass spectra of ion beams extracted from fullerene-He, Ar or Xe mixed plasmas were observed with a Faraday cup. From the results, the He gas mixing technique is effective against fullerene destruction.

  15. Note: Upgrade of electron cyclotron emission imaging system and preliminary results on HL-2A tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, M., E-mail: jiangm@swip.ac.cn; Shi, Z. B.; Zhong, W. L.; Chen, W.; Liu, Z. T.; Ding, X. T.; Yang, Q. W.; Zhang, B. Y.; Shi, P. W.; Liu, Y.; Fu, B. Z.; Xu, Y. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041 (China); Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Yang, Z. C. [School of Physics and Chemistry, Xihua University, Chengdu 610039 (China)

    2015-07-15

    The electron cyclotron emission imaging system on the HL-2A tokamak has been upgraded to 24 (poloidally) × 16 (radially) channels based on the previous 24 × 8 array. The measurement region can be flexibly shifted due to the independence of the two local oscillator sources, and the field of view can be adjusted easily by changing the position of the zoom lenses. The temporal resolution is about 2.5 μs and the achievable spatial resolution is 1 cm. After laboratory calibration, it was installed on HL-2A tokamak in 2014, and the local 2D mode structures of MHD activities were obtained for the first time.

  16. Plasma diagnostics in TFTR using emission of cyclotron radiation at arbitrary frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fidone, I.; Giruzzi, G.; Taylor, G.

    1995-07-01

    Emission of cyclotron radiation at arbitrary wave frequency for diagnostic purposes is discussed. It is shown that the radiation spectrum at arbitrary frequencies is more informative than the first few harmonics and it is suited for diagnosis of superthermal electrons without any {open_quotes}ad hoc{close_quotes} value of the wall reflection coefficient. Thermal radiation from TFTR is investigated and it is shown that the bulk and the tail of the electron momentum distribution during strong neutral beam injection is a Maxwellian with a single temperature in all ranges of electron energies.

  17. PIC Simulations of Continuously Driven Mirror and Ion Cyclotron Instabilities in High Beta Astrophysical and Heliospheric Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Riquelme, Mario; Verscharen, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We use particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations to study the nonlinear evolution of ion velocity space instabilities in an idealized problem in which a background velocity shear continuously amplifies the magnetic field. We simulate the astrophysically relevant regime where the shear timescale is long compared to the ion cyclotron period, and the plasma beta is ~ 1-100. The background field amplification in our calculation is meant to mimic processes such as turbulent fluctuations or MHD-scale instabilities. The field amplification continuously drives a pressure anisotropy with the perpendicular pressure larger than the parallel pressure, and the plasma becomes unstable to the mirror and ion cyclotron instabilities. In all cases, the nonlinear state is dominated by the mirror instability, not the ion cyclotron instability, and the plasma pressure anisotropy saturates near the threshold for the linear mirror instability. The magnetic field fluctuations initially undergo exponential growth but saturate in a secular p...

  18. Comparison of Moderate to High Ion Cyclotron Absorption on Energetic Ions in NSTX and DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burby, J.; Pinsker, R. I.; Choi, M.

    2009-11-01

    Strong absorption of fast waves (FWs) on injected deuterons at ion cyclotron harmonic numbers in the 4-10 range is observed on both DIII-D and NSTX. The results from fast ion Dα spectroscopic measurements from the two devices differ significantly: deposition on fast ions peaks near the cyclotron harmonic layer closest to the magnetic axis in the conventional-aspect-ratio DIII-D, while results from the low-aspect-ratio NSTX show a broader deposition profile [1]. One root of the difference stems from the absorbing fast ions sampling more harmonic layers in NSTX than in DIII-D. We investigate cyclotron absorption in cases with multiple harmonic layers within a single ion gyroradius and related phenomena numerically and analytically by examining the response of individual charged particles to rf fields in various field configurations. 8pt [1] M. Podesta et al., RF Power in Plasmas (Proc.18th Top. Conf., Gent, Belgium, 2009), to be published.

  19. Radio frequency cavity analysis, measurement, and calibration of absolute Dee voltage for K-500 superconducting cyclotron at VECC, Kolkata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Sumit; Seth, Sudeshna; Mandal, Aditya; Paul, Saikat; Duttagupta, Anjan

    2013-02-01

    Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre has commissioned a K-500 superconducting cyclotron for various types of nuclear physics experiments. The 3-phase radio-frequency system of superconducting cyclotron has been developed in the frequency range 9-27 MHz with amplitude and phase stability of 100 ppm and ±0.20, respectively. The analysis of the RF cavity has been carried out using 3D Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio code and various RF parameters and accelerating voltages ("Dee" voltage) are calculated from simulation. During the RF system commissioning, measurement of different RF parameters has been done and absolute Dee voltage has been calibrated using a CdTe X-ray detector along with its accessories and known X-ray source. The present paper discusses about the measured data and the simulation result.

  20. Instability of field-aligned electron-cyclotron waves in a magnetic mirror plasma with anisotropic temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishanov, N. I.; Azarenkov, N. A.

    2016-08-01

    > Dispersion characteristics have been analysed for field-aligned electron-cyclotron waves (also known as right-hand polarized waves, extraordinary waves or whistlers) in a cylindrical magnetic mirror plasma including electrons with anisotropic temperature. It is shown that the instability of these waves is possible only in the range below the minimal electron-cyclotron frequency, which is much lower than the gyrotron frequency used for electron-cyclotron resonance power input into the plasma, under the condition where the perpendicular temperature of the resonant electrons is larger than their parallel temperature. The growth rates of whistler instability in the two magnetized plasma models, where the stationary magnetic field is either uniform or has a non-uniform magnetic mirror configuration, are compared.

  1. Benchmarking of electron cyclotron heating and current drive codes on ITER scenarios within the European Integrated Tokamak Modelling framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peysson Y.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH and electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD are used to heat the plasma, to tailor the current profiles and to achieve different operating regimes of tokamak plasmas. Plasmas with ECRH/ECCD are characterized by non-thermal electrons, which cannot be described by a Maxwellian distribution. Non-thermal electrons are also generated during MHD activity, like sawteeth crashes. Quantifying the non-thermal electron distribution is therefore a key for understanding EC heated fusion plasmas. For this purpose a vertical electron cyclotron emission (V-ECE diagnostic is being installed at TCV. The diagnostic layout, the calibration, the analysis technique for data interpretation, the physics potentials and limitations are discussed.

  2. High intensity proton beam transportation through fringe field of 70 MeV compact cyclotron to beam line targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xu, E-mail: emmazhang103@gmail.com [China Institute of Atomic Energy (China); Li, Ming; Wei, Sumin; Xing, Jiansheng; Hu, Yueming [China Institute of Atomic Energy (China); Johnson, Richard R.; Piazza, Leandro; Ryjkov, Vladimir [BEST Cyclotron Inc (Canada)

    2016-06-01

    From the stripping points, the high intensity proton beam of a compact cyclotron travels through the fringe field area of the machine to the combination magnet. Starting from there the beams with various energy is transferred to the switching magnet for distribution to the beam line targets. In the design of the extraction and transport system for the compact proton cyclotron facilities, such as the 70 MeV in France and the 100 MeV in China, the space charge effect as the beam crosses the fringe field has not been previously considered; neither has the impact on transverse beam envelope coupled from the longitudinal direction. Those have been concerned much more with the higher beam-power because of the beam loss problem. In this paper, based on the mapping data of 70 MeV cyclotron including the fringe field by BEST Cyclotron Inc (BEST) and combination magnet field by China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), the beam extraction and transport are investigated for the 70 MeV cyclotron used on the SPES project at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (INFN–LNL). The study includes the space charge effect and longitudinal and transverse coupling mentioned above, as well as the matching of beam optics using the beam line for medical isotope production as an example. In addition, the designs of the ±45° switching magnets and the 60° bending magnet for the extracted beam with the energy from 35 MeV to 70 MeV have been made. Parts of the construction and field measurements of those magnets have been done as well. The current result shows that, the design considers the complexity of the compact cyclotron extraction area and fits the requirements of the extraction and transport for high intensity proton beam, especially at mA intensity levels.

  3. High intensity proton beam transportation through fringe field of 70 MeV compact cyclotron to beam line targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Li, Ming; Wei, Sumin; Xing, Jiansheng; Hu, Yueming; Johnson, Richard R.; Piazza, Leandro; Ryjkov, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    From the stripping points, the high intensity proton beam of a compact cyclotron travels through the fringe field area of the machine to the combination magnet. Starting from there the beams with various energy is transferred to the switching magnet for distribution to the beam line targets. In the design of the extraction and transport system for the compact proton cyclotron facilities, such as the 70 MeV in France and the 100 MeV in China, the space charge effect as the beam crosses the fringe field has not been previously considered; neither has the impact on transverse beam envelope coupled from the longitudinal direction. Those have been concerned much more with the higher beam-power because of the beam loss problem. In this paper, based on the mapping data of 70 MeV cyclotron including the fringe field by BEST Cyclotron Inc (BEST) and combination magnet field by China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), the beam extraction and transport are investigated for the 70 MeV cyclotron used on the SPES project at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (INFN-LNL). The study includes the space charge effect and longitudinal and transverse coupling mentioned above, as well as the matching of beam optics using the beam line for medical isotope production as an example. In addition, the designs of the ±45° switching magnets and the 60° bending magnet for the extracted beam with the energy from 35 MeV to 70 MeV have been made. Parts of the construction and field measurements of those magnets have been done as well. The current result shows that, the design considers the complexity of the compact cyclotron extraction area and fits the requirements of the extraction and transport for high intensity proton beam, especially at mA intensity levels.

  4. Accelerator Science and Technology in Canada -- From the Microtron to TRIUMF, Superconducting Cyclotrons and the Canadian Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, M. K.; Laxdal, R. E.

    As elsewhere, accelerators in Canada have evolved from modest beginnings to major facilities such as TRIUMF (currently with the highest-power driver for rare isotope beam production) and the third generation Canadian Light Source. Highlights along the way include construction of the first microtron, the first racetrack microtron and the first superconducting cyclotron (to which list might have been added the first pulse stretcher ring, had it been funded sooner). This article will summarize the history of accelerators in Canada, documenting both the successes and the near-misses. Besides the research accelerators, a thriving commercial sector has developed, manufacturing small cyclotrons and linacs, beam line components and superconducting rf cavities.

  5. Accelerator Science and Technology in Canada — From the Microtron to TRIUMF, Superconducting Cyclotrons and the Canadian Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, M. K.; Laxdal, R. E.

    As elsewhere, accelerators in Canada have evolved from modest beginnings to major facilities such as TRIUMF (currently with the highest-power driver for rare isotope beam production) and the third generation Canadian Light Source. Highlights along the way include construction of the first microtron, the first racetrack microtron and the first superconducting cyclotron (to which list might have been added the first pulse stretcher ring, had it been funded sooner). This article will summarize the history of accelerators in Canada, documenting both the successes and the near-misses. Besides the research accelerators, a thriving commercial sector has developed, manufacturing small cyclotrons and linacs, beam line components and superconducting rf cavities.

  6. Diagnostic assessment to estimate and minimize neutron dose rates received by occupationally exposed individuals at cyclotron facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reina, L.C. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Caixa Postal 68550, Cidade Universitaria, CEP: 21941-906 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: reina@ien.gov.br; Silva, A.X. [PEN/COPPE-DNC/Escola Politecnica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitaria, CEP: 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Suita, J.C.; Souza, M.I.S. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Caixa Postal 68550, Cidade Universitaria, CEP: 21941-906 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Facure, A. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear Rua General Severiano, 90-Botafogo, CEP: 22290-901 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Silva, J.C.P.; Furlanetto, J.A.D. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Caixa Postal 68550, Cidade Universitaria, CEP: 21941-906 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rebello, W. [Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Ministerio da Defesa Praca General Tiburcio, 80-Praia Vermelha, CEP: 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    Since 2003, radiopharmaceuticals for medical diagnostic purposes have been produced at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, in Brazil, using two cyclotron accelerators - CV-28 and RDS111. As a result of the ever increasing production, a diagnostic assessment to reduce neutron dose rates received by occupationally exposed individuals during irradiation processes has been developed. The purpose of this work is to present this assessment, which is currently being applied to both the Fluorine and Iodine targets of CV-28 and RDS111 cyclotron accelerators.

  7. Study of ion beam transport from the SECRAL electron cyclotron resonance ion source at the Institute of Modern Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Y; Lu, W; Zhang, W H; Sha, S; Yang, Y; Ma, B H; Wang, H; Zhu, Y H; Guo, J W; Fang, X; Lin, S H; Li, X X; Feng, Y C; Li, J Y; Zhao, H Y; Ma, H Y; Zhang, X Z; Guo, X H; Wu, Q; Sun, L T; Zhao, H W; Xie, D Z

    2012-02-01

    Ion beam transport from the Superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) electron cyclotron resonance ion source was studied at the Institute of Modern Physics during 2010. Particle-in-cell simulations and experimental results have shown that both space charge and magnetic aberrations lead to a larger beam envelope and emittance growth. In the existing SECRAL extraction beam line, it has been shown that raising the solenoid lens magnetic field reduces aberrations in the subsequent dipole and results in lower emittance. Detailed beam emittance measurements are presented in this paper.

  8. A real-time positron monitor for the estimation of stack effluent releases from PET medical cyclotron facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Bhaskar

    2002-12-01

    Large activities of short-lived positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals are routinely manufactured by modern Medical Cyclotron facilities for positron emission tomography (PET) applications. During radiochemical processing, a substantial fraction of the volatile positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals are released into the atmosphere. An inexpensive, fast response positron detector using a simple positron-annihilation chamber has been developed for real-time assessment of the stack release of positron emitting effluents at the Australian National Medical Cyclotron. The positron detector was calibrated by using a 3.0 ml (1.50 MBq) aliquot of 18FDG and interfaced to an industrial standard datalogger for the real-time acquisition of stack release data.

  9. Theoretical and experimental study of cyclotronic waves in a fusion plasma; Etude theorique et experimentale des ondes cyclotroniques electroniques dans un plasma de fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vezard, D.

    1994-12-20

    This thesis presents a study concerning cyclotronic waves in a plasma. It starts with an illustration of the elementary interaction between electromagnetic waves and matter.It shows that electrons from tokamak absorbs waves at cyclotronic frequency. Cyclotronic waves are studied by solving the dispersion relation in plasma; it concerns polarisation, absorption, dispersion, extinction. Then, classical theories are reminded in order to speak about decoupled electrons and their interactions. Absorption and emission properties of cyclotronic waves by electrons from a queue are described. After that, cyclotronic waves propagation is studied taking into account resonance. The last part of this thesis is dedicated to the electronic distribution function that is made by a wave spectra at a inferior hybrid frequency. (TEC). 129 refs., 75 figs.

  10. Cyclotron production of {sup 64}Cu by deuteron irradiation of {sup 64}Zn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, K. [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, TP 500, I-21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,) (Italy)]. E-mail: kamel.abbas@jrc.it; Kozempel, J. [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, TP 500, I-21020 Ispra (VA) (Italy); Charles University Prague, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic and Nuclear Chemistry, 128 43 Prague (Czech Republic); Bonardi, M. [LASA, Radiochemistry Laboratory, University and INFN, via F.lli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate (MI) (Italy); Groppi, F. [LASA, Radiochemistry Laboratory, University and INFN, via F.lli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate (MI) (Italy); Alfarano, A. [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, TP 500, I-21020 Ispra (VA) (Italy); Holzwarth, U. [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, TP 500, I-21020 Ispra (VA) (Italy); Simonelli, F. [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, TP 500, I-21020 Ispra (VA) (Italy); Hofman, H. [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, TP 500, I-21020 Ispra (VA) (Italy); Horstmann, W. [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, TP 500, I-21020 Ispra (VA) (Italy); Menapace, E. [ENEA, Applied Physics Division, Bologna (Italy); Leseticky, L. [Charles University Prague, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic and Nuclear Chemistry, 128 43 Prague (Czech Republic); Gibson, N. [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, TP 500, I-21020 Ispra (VA) (Italy)

    2006-09-15

    The short-lived (12.7 h half-life) {sup 64}Cu radioisotope is both a {beta} {sup +} and a {beta} {sup -} emitter. This property makes {sup 64}Cu a promising candidate for novel medical applications, since it can be used simultaneously for therapeutic application of radiolabelled biomolecules and for diagnosis with PET. Following previous work on {sup 64}Cu production by deuteron irradiation of natural zinc, we report here the production of this radioisotope by deuteron irradiation of enriched {sup 64}Zn. In addition, yields of other radioisotopes such as {sup 61}Cu, {sup 67}Cu, {sup 65}Zn, {sup 69m}Zn, {sup 66}Ga and {sup 67}Ga, which were co-produced in this process, were also measured. The evaporation code ALICE-91 and the transport code SRIM 2003 were used to determine the excitation functions and the stopping power, respectively. All the nuclear reactions yielding the above-mentioned radioisotopes were taken into account in the calculations both for the natural and enriched Zn targets. The experimental and calculated yields were shown to be in reasonable agreement. The work was carried out at the Scanditronix MC-40 Cyclotron of the Institute for Health and Consumer Protection of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (Ispra site, Italy). The irradiations were carried out with 19.5 MeV deuterons, the maximum deuteron energy obtainable with the MC-40 cyclotron.

  11. Simulations of Beam Quality in a 13 MeV PET Cyclotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pramudita

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Simulation of the trajectories of negative hydrogen ion (H− beam in a 13 MeV PET cyclotron (DECY-13 were carried out by using the Runge-Kutta (RK4 approximation method and Scilab 5.4.1. The magnetic and electric fields were calculated using Opera-3d/TOSCA softwares at 1 mm resolution. The cyclotron is of a fourth-harmonics type, meaning that the acceleration occurs four times per cycle, with a radiofrequency (RF field of 77.66 MHz frequency and 40 kV amplitude. The calculations and simulations show that the maximum distance between the ion source and the puller is about 6 mm, while the maximum width of the beam at 13 MeV is about 10 mm, and the initial phase between the RF field and the beam ranges from -10° to 10°, with a yield of about 10% of the beam from the ion source getting accelerated to 13 MeV.

  12. A strong-focusing 800 MeV cyclotron for high-current applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogue, N.; Assadi, S.; Badgley, K.; Comeaux, J.; Kellams, J.; McInturff, A.; McIntyre, P.; Sattarov, A.

    2013-04-01

    A superconducting strong-focusing cyclotron (SFC) is being developed for high-current applications. It incorporates four innovations. Superconducting quarter-wave cavities are used to provide >20 MV/turn acceleration. The orbit separation is thereby opened so that bunch-bunch interactions between successive orbits are eliminated. Quadrapole focusing channels are incorporated within the sectors so that alternating-gradient strong-focusing transport is maintained throughout. Dipole windings on the inner and outer orbits provide enhanced control for injection and extraction of bunches. Finally each sector magnet is configured as a flux-coupled stack of independent apertures, so that any desired number of independent cyclotrons can be integrated within a common footprint. Preliminary simulations indicate that each SFC should be capable of accelerating 10 mA CW to 800 MeV with very low loss and >50% energy efficiency. A primary motivation for SFC is as a proton driver for accelerator-driven subcritical fission in a molten salt core. The cores are fueled solely with the transuranics from spent nuclear fuel from a conventional nuclear power plant. The beams from one SFC stack would destroy all of the transuranics and long-lived fission products that are produced by a GWe reactor [1]. This capability offers the opportunity to close the nuclear fuel cycle and provide a path to green nuclear energy.

  13. Cyclotron Production of (99m)Tc using (100)Mo2C targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Vernal N; Mebrahtu, Efrem; Lapi, Suzanne E

    2013-10-01

    An investigative study of the (100)Mo (p,2n)(99m)Tc reaction on a medical cyclotron using (100)Mo2C is reported. This is the first report of this compound being used as a target for this reaction. (100)Mo2C, a refractory carbide with high thermal conductivity, properties which underscore its use on a cyclotron, was synthesized using (100)MoO3. Its ease of oxidation back to (100)MoO3 under air at elevated temperatures facilitates the use of thermo-chromatography, a high temperature gas phase separation technique for the separation and isolation of (99m)Tc. Activity yields for (99m)Tc averaged 84% of the calculated theoretical yields. Additionally, the percent recovery of MoO3, the precursor for Mo2C, was consistently high at 85% ensuring a good life cycle for this target material. The produced (99m)Tc was radio-chemically pure and easily labeled MDP for imaging purposes.

  14. Measurement of the Beam Size and Emittance for the CRC Cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sae Hoon; Kim, Yu Seok [Dongguk University, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The purpose of the present study was to confirm beam property for regional Cyclotron Research Center (CRC) installed at Chosun University Hospital. The regional CRC has been developed to produce radioisotope for positron emission tomography (PET). The original radioisotope production cyclotron had a large beam size, which need to be reduced by collimator. In order to construct the proton-induced X-ray emission and proton-induced gamma-ray emission (PIXE-PIGE) beam line, ion beam will be transported to PIXE-PIGE chamber that we have identified the beam size decreased by collimator and beam emittance. There are several methods to measure the emittace, such as the slit and collector method, the pepper-pot method, and the quad scan method. These methods use a slit and monitor to measure the beam profiles, which depend on the field gradient of the quadrupole magnet. In this study, we did not use magnet and monitor. The emittance calculation based on simulated data by previously proven program is approached to consider various methods. Beam emittance was calculated in two methods. The two methods were classical method and ion beam position with divergence method. We found that the beam sizes of x, y-direction are reduced very well

  15. Wave solutions of ion cyclotron heated plasmas with self-consistent velocity distributions in a tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungpyo; Wright, John; Bonoli, Paul; Harvey, Robert

    2015-11-01

    We describe a numerical model for the propagation and absorption of ion cyclotron waves in a tokamak with a non-Maxwellian velocity space distribution function. The non-Maxwellian distribution is calculated by solving Maxwell's equations and the Fokker-Plank equation self-consistently. This approach will be useful to interpret measurements of minority hydrogen tail formation during ICRF heating experiments in Alcator C-Mod. To couple the Maxwell equation solver with Fokker-Plank equation solver, the quasilinear diffusion coefficients for the fundamental ion cyclotron absorption and the first harmonic absorption are calculated. In a previous study, the all-orders spectral algorithm wave solver (AORSA) was coupled with the Fokker-Plank code (CQL3D) to find the self-consistent non-Maxwellian distribution. We derive the modified quasilinear diffusion coefficients for the finite Larmor radius (FLR) approximation using a significantly faster wave solver (TORIC) following the approach by Jaeger. The coupled TORIC-CQL3D model will be compared against results from AORSA-CQL3D in order to verify the accuracy of the reduced FLR physics in TORIC. Work supported by US Department of Energy Contract No. DE-FC02-01ER54648.

  16. Theoretical study of electromagnetic electron cyclotron waves in the presence of AC field in Uranian magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, R. S.; Kaur, Rajbir

    2015-10-01

    Electromagnetic electron cyclotron (EMEC) waves with temperature anisotropy in the magnetosphere of Uranus have been studied in present work. EMEC waves are investigated using method of characteristic solution by kinetic approach, in presence of AC field. In 1986, Voyager 2 encounter with Uranus revealed that magnetosphere of Uranus exhibit non-Maxwellian high-energy tail distribution. So, the dispersion relation, real frequency and growth rate are evaluated using Lorentzian Kappa distribution function. Effect of temperature anisotropy, AC frequency and number density of particles is found. The study is also extended to oblique propagation of EMEC waves in presence and absence of AC field. Through comprehensive mathematical analysis it is found that when EMEC wave propagates parallel to intrinsic magnetic field of Uranus, its growth is more enhanced than in case of oblique propagation. Results are also discussed in context to magnetosphere of Earth and also gives theoretical explanation to existence of high energetic particles observed by Voyager 2 in the magnetosphere of Uranus. The results can present a further insight into the nature of electron-cyclotron instability condition for the whistler mode waves in the outer radiation belts of Uranus or other space plasmas.

  17. Major results of the electron cyclotron heating experiment in the PDX tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsuan, H.; Bol, K.; Bowen, N.; Boyd, D.; Cavallo, A.; Dimits, A.; Doane, J.; Elder, G.; Goldman, M.; Grek, B.

    1984-07-01

    Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) experiments on PDX have been carried out with two 60 GHz pulsed gyrotrons each yielding up to approximately 100 kW. The ECH system used two waveguide runs each about 30 meters long. One run included 5 bends and the other, 7 bends. Predetermined waveguide modes were transmitted. The electron cyclotron waves were launched in narrow beams from both the high field and the low field sides of the plasma torus. The major new physics results are: (1) efficient central electron heating for both ohmic and neutral beam heated target plasmas; (2) alteration of MHD behavior using ECH; (3) identification of the trapped electron population with ECH; and (4) signature of velocity-space time evolution during ECH. In the best heating results obtained, Thomson scattering data indicated a central temperature increase from less than or equal to 1.5 keV to greater than or equal to 2.5 keV. This occurred with an average density of about 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -3/ and approximately 80 kW outside-launch ordinary-mode heating.

  18. New Evidence For Proton Cyclotron Resonance In a Magnetar Strength Field From SGR 1806-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parke, William; Ibrahim, Alaa I.; Swank, Jean H.

    2002-01-01

    A great deal of evidence has recently been gathered in favor of the picture that Soft Gamma Repeaters and Anomalous X-Ray Pulsars are powered by ultra-strong magnetic fields (B greater than 10(exp 14) G; i.e. magnetars). Nevertheless, present determination of the magnetic field in such magnetar candidates has been indirect and model dependent. A key prediction concerning magnetars is the detection of ion cyclotron resonance features, which would offer a decisive diagnostic of the field strength. Here we present the detection of a 5 keV absorption feature in a variety of bursts from the Soft Gamma Repeater SGR 1806-20, confirming our initial discovery and establishing the presence of the feature in the source's burst spectra. The line feature is well explained as proton cyclotron resonance in an ultra-strong magnetic field, offering a direct measurement of SGR 1806-20's magnetic field (B approx. 10(exp 15) G) and a clear evidence of a magnetar. Together with the source's spin-down rate, the feature also provides the first measurement of the gravitational redshift, mass and radius of a magnetar.

  19. Ion cyclotron emission calculations using a 2D full wave numerical code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batchelor, D.B.; Jaeger, E.F.; Colestock, P.L.

    1987-01-01

    Measurement of radiation in the HF band due to cyclotron emission by energetic ions produced by fusion reactions or neutral beam injection promises to be a useful diagnostic on the large devices which are entering the reactor regime of operation. A number of complications make the modelling and interpretation of such measurements difficult using conventional geometrical optics methods. In particular, the long wavelength and lack of high directivity of antennas in this frequency regime make observation of a single path across the plasma into a viewing dump impractical. Pickup antennas effectively see the whole plasma and wall reflection effects are important. The 2D full wave ICHR code has been modified to calculate wave fields due to a distribution of energetic ions in tokamak geometry. The radiation is modeled as due to an ensemble of localized source currents distributed in space. The spatial structure of the coherent wave field is then calculated including cyclotron harmonic damping as compared to the usual procedure of incoherently summing powers of individual radiators. This method has the advantage that phase information from localized radiating currents is globally retained so the directivity of the pickup antennas is correctly represented. Also, standing waves and wall reflections are automatically included.

  20. Ion cyclotron emission calculations using a 2D full wave numerical code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batchelor, D.B.; Jaeger, E.F.; Colestock, P.L.

    1987-09-01

    Measurement of radiation in the HF band due to cyclotron emission by energetic ions produced by fusion reactions or neutral beam injection promises to be a useful diagnostic on large devices which are entering the reactor regime of operation. A number of complications make the modelling and interpretation of such measurements difficult using conventional geometrical optics methods. In particular the long wavelength and lack of high directivity of antennas in this frequency regime make observation of a single path across the plasma into a viewing dump impractical. Pickup antennas effectively see the whole plasma and wall reflection effects are important. We have modified our 2D full wave ICRH code/sup 2/ to calculate wave fields due to a distribution of energetic ions in tokamak geometry. The radiation is modeled as due to an ensemble of localized source currents distributed in space. The spatial structure of the coherent wave field is then calculated including cyclotron harmonic damping as compared to the usual procedure of incoherently summing powers of individual radiators. This method has the advantage that phase information from localized radiating currents is globally retained so the directivity of the pickup antennas is correctly represented. Also standing waves and wall reflections are automatically included.

  1. Ion cyclotron emission calculations using a 2D full wave numerical code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, D. B.; Jaeger, E. F.; Colestock, P. L.

    1987-09-01

    Measurement of radiation in the HF band due to cyclotron emission by energetic ions produced by fusion reactions or neutral beam injection promises to be a useful diagnostic on large devices which are entering the reactor regime of operation. A number of complications make the modelling and interpretation of such measurements difficult using conventional geometrical optics methods. In particular the long wavelength and lack of high directivity of antennas in this frequency regime make observation of a single path across the plasma into a viewing dump impractical. Pickup antennas effectively see the whole plasma and wall reflection effects are important. We have modified our 2D full wave ICRH code2 to calculate wave fields due to a distribution of energetic ions in tokamak geometry. The radiation is modeled as due to an ensemble of localized source currents distributed in space. The spatial structure of the coherent wave field is then calculated including cyclotron harmonic damping as compared to the usual procedure of incoherently summing powers of individual radiators. This method has the advantage that phase information from localized radiating currents is globally retained so the directivity of the pickup antennas is correctly represented. Also standing waves and wall reflections are automatically included.

  2. Enhanced Physicochemical and Biological Properties of Ion-Implanted Titanium Using Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csaba Hegedűs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface properties of metallic implants play an important role in their clinical success. Improving upon the inherent shortcomings of Ti implants, such as poor bioactivity, is imperative for achieving clinical use. In this study, we have developed a Ti implant modified with Ca or dual Ca + Si ions on the surface using an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS. The physicochemical and biological properties of ion-implanted Ti surfaces were analyzed using various analytical techniques, such as surface analyses, potentiodynamic polarization and cell culture. Experimental results indicated that a rough morphology was observed on the Ti substrate surface modified by ECRIS plasma ions. The in vitro electrochemical measurement results also indicated that the Ca + Si ion-implanted surface had a more beneficial and desired behavior than the pristine Ti substrate. Compared to the pristine Ti substrate, all ion-implanted samples had a lower hemolysis ratio. MG63 cells cultured on the high Ca and dual Ca + Si ion-implanted surfaces revealed significantly greater cell viability in comparison to the pristine Ti substrate. In conclusion, surface modification by electron cyclotron resonance Ca and Si ion sources could be an effective method for Ti implants.

  3. ``Pheudo-cyclotron'' radiation of non-relativistic particles in small-scale magnetic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Brett; Ford, Alex; Medvedev, Mikhail V.

    2014-03-01

    Plasma turbulence in some astrophysical objects (e.g., weakly magnetized collisionless shocks in GRBs and SN) has small-scale magnetic field fluctuations. We study spectral characteristics of radiation produced by particles moving in such turbulence. It was shown earlier that relativistic particles produce jitter radiation, which spectral characteristics are markedly different from synchrotron radiation. Here we study radiation produced by non-relativistic particles. In the case of a homogeneous fields, such radiation is cyclotron and its spectrum consists of just a single harmonic at the cyclotron frequency. However, in the sub-Larmor-scale turbulence, the radiation spectrum is much reacher and reflects statistical properties of the underlying magnetic field. We present both analytical estimates and results of ab initio numerical simulations. We also show that particle propagation in such turbulence is diffusive and evaluate the diffusion coefficient. We demonstrate that the diffusion coefficient correlates with some spectral parameters. These results can be very valuable for remote diagnostics of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. Supported by grant DOE grant DE-FG02-07ER54940 and NSF grant AST-1209665.

  4. Progress in research, April 1, 1992--March 31, 1993, Texas A and M University Cyclotron Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-07-01

    This Institute annual report for the period 1 April 1992--31 March 1993 covers a period which has seen the initial runs of three new spectrometers which constitute a major portion of the new detection capabilities developed for this facility. These devices are the Proton Spectrometer (PSP), the Mass Achromat Recoil Mass Spectrometer (MARS), and the Multipole dipole Multipole (MDM) Particle Spectrometer. These devices are now available to pursue the studies of Gamow Teller states, reactions of astrophysical interest, and giant resonance studies for which they were constructed, as well as for other experiments. A beam analysis system which will deliver high resolution beams to the MDM spectrometer is currently under construction. With the completion of these spectrometer projects, the facility emphasis is now focused on the development of the full capabilities of the K500 cyclotron and on the research program. During the report period, the ECR-K500 cyclotron combination operated 5,849 hours. Theoretical work reported in this document ranges from nuclear structure calculations using the IBM-2 model to calculations of kaon production and the in-medium properties of the rho and phi mesons, the latter as a probe of the QCD phase transition. Nuclear dynamics and exotic shapes and fragmentation modes of hot nuclei are also addressed. In atomic physics, new measurements of x-ray emission from highly ionized ions, of molecular dissociation and of surface interactions are reported.

  5. Enhancement of beam pulse controllability for a single-pulse formation system of a cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurashima, Satoshi, E-mail: kurashima.satoshi@jaea.go.jp; Miyawaki, Nobumasa; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Okumura, Susumu [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Taguchi, Mitsumasa [Quantum Beam Science Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Fukuda, Mitsuhiro [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, 10-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    The single-pulse formation technique using a beam chopping system consisting of two types of high-voltage beam kickers was improved to enhance the quality and intensity of the single-pulse beam with a pulse interval over 1 μs at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency cyclotron facility. A contamination rate of neighboring beam bunches in the single-pulse beam was reduced to less than 0.1%. Long-term purification of the single pulse beam was guaranteed by the well-controlled magnetic field stabilization system for the cyclotron magnet. Reduction of the multi-turn extraction number for suppressing the neighboring beam bunch contamination was achieved by restriction of a beam phase width and precise optimization of a particle acceleration phase. In addition, the single-pulse beam intensity was increased by a factor of two or more by a combination of two types of beam bunchers using sinusoidal and saw-tooth voltage waveforms. Provision of the high quality intense single-pulse beam contributed to improve the accuracy of experiments for investigation of scintillation light time-profile and for neutron energy measurement by a time-of-flight method.

  6. Cyclotron line models for the x-ray pulsar A0535+26

    CERN Document Server

    Araya-Gochez, R A

    1996-01-01

    The spectrum of the transient X-ray binary pulsar A0535+26 obtained by OSSE in February 1994 shows an absorption feature at 110 keV but does not confirm a feature at around 55 keV, as previously reported by other instruments. If the 110 keV feature is due to cyclotron scattering at the first harmonic, then the magnetic field required is about 10^{13} Gauss, the highest observed in an X-ray pulsar. Conversely, if this strong feature is a second harmonic and the line formation process is such that an extremely weak fundamental results at \\simeq 55 keV, the estimate of the field strength is halved. We present results of detailed cyclotron line transfer models from two source geometries to explore the theoretical contraints on the line shapes in this source. It is found that while a fundamental harmonic line at \\sim 55 keV may be partially filled-in by angle redistribution in cylindrical geometries, the required viewing angles give a second harmonic line shape inconsistent with the observation. Interpretation of ...

  7. Design of a second cyclotron harmonic gyrotron oscillator with photonic band-gap cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Gaofeng; Chen Xiaoan; Tang Changjian, E-mail: angelchen765@163.com [College of Physical Science and Technology of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2011-07-27

    A photonic band-gap cavity (PBGC) gyrotron with a frequency of about 98 GHz is designed. Theoretical analyses and numerical calculations are made for the PBGC operating at fundamental and second cyclotron harmonic with a TE{sub 34} waveguide mode to demonstrate the beam-wave interaction. The results show that mode competition is successfully eliminated in the PBGC using mode selectivity and choosing the appropriate operating parameters. As a result, the second harmonic PBGC gyrotron operating at TE{sub 34} mode achieves a higher output efficiency than that of the fundamental. It is also demonstrated that, in the case of the chosen parameters for TE{sub 34} waveguide mode, the use of PBG structure in the second harmonic gyrotron brings about not only a lower operating B-field but also a weaker mode competition. The results show that the high-order electromagnetic mode can be developed to interact with the high cyclotron harmonic using the selectivity of the PBGC, which gives an encouraging outlook for the development of high-harmonic gyrotrons.

  8. Direct Technetium radiopharmaceuticals production using a 30MeV Cyclotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kamali Dehgan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of the study: Technetium-99m is the major radionuclide used in the world and mainly is provided by fission product. However extensive research has been conducted on the use of accelerators for production of 99mTc. This investigation reports the production of 99mTc radioisotope using cyclotrons followed by the preparation, quality control and biodistribution studies of four major Tc-radiopharmaceuticals. Methods: The high purity molybdenum natural target (130mg/cm2 was irradiated in a Cyclone 30 accelerator using 160 µA of 25 MeV proton beam energy for 1000 µA-h. After dissolution, the technetium radionuclides were extracted using methyl ethyl ketone (MEK followed by preparation of Tc-MIBI, Tc-DTPA, Tc-DMSA and Tc-phytate as radiopharmaceutical samples. Results: The results of quality controls and animal biodistribution studies showed successful production of Tc radionuclides (including 99mTc in the bombarded target and subsequent labelling of the kit with Tc. Conclusion: The developed high power Mo target if constructed using enriched 100Mo, could be a practical method for large-scale production of 99mTc and promising as an alternative to fission product 99Mo-99mTc generators for local applications near cyclotron facilities.

  9. Beam tracking simulation in the central region of a 13 MeV PET cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggraita, Pramudita; Santosa, Budi; Taufik, Mulyani, Emy; Diah, Frida Iswinning

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports the trajectories simulation of proton beam in the central region of a 13 MeV PET cyclotron, operating with negative proton beam (for easier beam extraction using a stripper foil), 40 kV peak accelerating dee voltage at fourth harmonic frequency of 77.88 MHz, and average magnetic field of 1.275 T. The central region covers fields of 240mm × 240mm × 30mm size at 1mm resolution. The calculation was also done at finer 0.25mm resolution covering fields of 30mm × 30mm × 4mm size to see the effects of 0.55mm horizontal width of the ion source window and the halted trajectories of positive proton beam. The simulations show up to 7 turns of orbital trajectories, reaching about 1 MeV of beam energy. The distribution of accelerating electric fields and magnetic fields inside the cyclotron were calculated in 3 dimension using Opera3D code and Tosca modules for static magnetic and electric fields. The trajectory simulation was carried out using Scilab 5.3.3 code.

  10. Electron cyclotron emission measurements on JET: Michelson interferometer, new absolute calibration, and determination of electron temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuck, S; Fessey, J; Gerbaud, T; Alper, B; Beurskens, M N A; de la Luna, E; Sirinelli, A; Zerbini, M

    2012-12-01

    At the fusion experiment JET, a Michelson interferometer is used to measure the spectrum of the electron cyclotron emission in the spectral range 70-500 GHz. The interferometer is absolutely calibrated using the hot/cold technique and, in consequence, the spatial profile of the plasma electron temperature is determined from the measurements. The current state of the interferometer hardware, the calibration setup, and the analysis technique for calibration and plasma operation are described. A new, full-system, absolute calibration employing continuous data acquisition has been performed recently and the calibration method and results are presented. The noise level in the measurement is very low and as a result the electron cyclotron emission spectrum and thus the spatial profile of the electron temperature are determined to within ±5% and in the most relevant region to within ±2%. The new calibration shows that the absolute response of the system has decreased by about 15% compared to that measured previously and possible reasons for this change are presented. Temperature profiles measured with the Michelson interferometer are compared with profiles measured independently using Thomson scattering diagnostics, which have also been recently refurbished and recalibrated, and agreement within experimental uncertainties is obtained.

  11. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides. Comprehensive progress report, February 1, 1992--July 15, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, S.M.; Finn, R.D.

    1995-07-17

    This research continues the long term goals of promoting nuclear medicine applications by improving the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis, treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. This program fits into the nuclear medicine component of DOE`s mission, which is aimed at enhancing the beneficial applications of radiation, radionuclides, and stable isotopes in the diagnosis, study and treatment of human diseases. The grant includes 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry/Cyclotron; Pharmacology/Immunology; and Imaging Physics. An essential strategy is as follows: novel radionuclides and radiotracers developed in the Radiochemistry/Section under the DOE grant during the 1992--1995 will be employed in the Pharmacology/Immunology component in the period 1996--1999. Imaging Physics resolves relevant imaging related physics issues that arise during the experimentation that results. In addition to the basic research mission, this project also provides a basis for training of research scientists in radiochemistry, immunology, bioengineering and imaging physics.

  12. Long-term change in the cyclotron line energy in Her X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staubert, Rüdiger

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the long-term evolution in the centroid energy of the Cyclotron Resonance Scattering Feature (CRSF) in the spectrum of the binary X-ray pulsar Her X-1. After the discovery in 1976 by the MPE/AIT balloon telescope HEXE, the line feature was confirmed by several other instruments, establishing the centroid energy at around 35 keV, thereby providing the first direct measure of the B-filed strength of a neutron star at a few 10^12 Gauss. Between 1991 and 1993 an upward jump by ~7 keV occurred, first noted by BATSE and soon confirmed by RXTE and Beppo/SAX. Since then a systematic effort to monitor the cyclotron line energy E_cyc with all available instruments has led to two further discoveries: 1) E_cyc correlates positively with the X-ray luminosity (this feature is now found in four more binary X-ray pulsars). 2) Over the last 20 years the (flux normalized) E_cyc in Her X-1 has decayed by ~5 keV, down to 36.5 keV in August 2015. Her X-1 is the first and so far the only source showing such a variation. We will discuss possible physical scenarios relevant for accretion mounds/columns on highly magnetized neutron stars.

  13. Preparation of Ga/Ni Solid Target for Cyclotron-Produced 68Ge by Electrodeposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHEN Yi-jia1,2;FU Hong-yu1;LUO Wen-bo1;DENG Xue-song1;LIU Yu-ping1;LI Guang1;XU Hong-wei1,2;WANG Gang1

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Germanium 68 is mainly used for preparation of the 68Ge-68Ga generator and the calibration of positron emission computed tomography. The low melting point of the target material in the production reaction 69Ga (p, 2n 68Ge has limited the availability of Ge-68. In order to use the existing industrial cyclotron hardware to produce Germanium 68, the method of electrodepositing gallium-nickel alloy was set up in this study. Acidic requirements were met through the preparation of the gallium-nickel alloy targets and by optimizing the plating bath composition and electrodepositing conditions, finally confirmed by adjustment of the electro-deposition process, and preparation of the gallium-nickel alloy targets with a gallium content of 75%. After three time irradiation tests, the process was certified to produce targets of Germanium 68. This process is user-friendly, the preparation of the targets is of stable quality, and it can be applied to the cyclotron production of Germanium 68.

  14. Low-noise heterodyne receiver for electron cyclotron emission imaging and microwave imaging reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, B.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C.; Luo, C.; Mamidanna, M.; Phan, T.; Pham, A.-V.; Wang, Y.

    2016-11-01

    The critical component enabling electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) and microwave imaging reflectometry (MIR) to resolve 2D and 3D electron temperature and density perturbations is the heterodyne imaging array that collects and downconverts radiated emission and/or reflected signals (50-150 GHz) to an intermediate frequency (IF) band (e.g. 0.1-18 GHz) that can be transmitted by a shielded coaxial cable for further filtering and detection. New circuitry has been developed for this task, integrating gallium arsenide (GaAs) monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) mounted on a liquid crystal polymer (LCP) substrate. The improved topology significantly increases electromagnetic shielding from out-of-band interference, leads to 10× improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio, and dramatic cost savings through integration. The current design, optimized for reflectometry and edge radiometry on mid-sized tokamaks, has demonstrated >20 dB conversion gain in upper V-band (60-75 GHz). Implementation of the circuit in a multi-channel electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) array will improve the diagnosis of edge-localized modes and fluctuations of the high-confinement, or H-mode, pedestal.

  15. Nonlinear electron acoustic cyclotron waves in presence of uniform magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Manjistha; Khan, Manoranjan [Department of Instrumentation Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Ghosh, Samiran [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Calcutta, 92, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India); Roychoudhury, Rajkumar [Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata 700 108 (India); Chakrabarti, Nikhil [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

    2013-04-15

    Nonlinear electron acoustic cyclotron waves (EACW) are studied in a quasineutral plasma in presence of uniform magnetic field. The fluid model is used to describe the dynamics of two temperature electron species in a stationary charge neutral inhomogeneous background. In long wavelength limit, it is shown that the linear electron acoustic wave is modified by the uniform magnetic field similar to that of electrostatic ion cyclotron wave. Nonlinear equations for these waves are solved by using Lagrangian variables. Results show that the spatial solitary wave-like structures are formed due to nonlinearities and dispersions. These structures transiently grow to larger amplitude unless dispersive effect is actively operative and able to arrest this growth. We have found that the wave dispersion originated from the equilibrium inhomogeneity through collective effect and is responsible for spatiotemporal structures. Weak dispersion is not able to stop the wave collapse and singular structures of EACW are formed. Relevance of the results in the context of laboratory and space plasmas is discussed.

  16. NuSTAR Discovery of a Cyclotron Line in KS 1947+300

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furst, Felix; Pottschmidt, Katja; Wilms, Jorn; Kennea, Jamie; Bachetti, Matteo; Bellm, Eric; Boggs, Steven E.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Hailey, Charles J.; Harrison, Fiona; Stern, Daniel; Tomsick, John A.; Walton, Dominic J.; Zhang, William

    2014-01-01

    We present a spectral analysis of three simultaneous Nuclear Spectroscopy Telescope Array and Swift/XRT observations of the transient Be-neutron star binary KS 1947+300 taken during its outburst in 2013/2014. These broadband observations were supported by Swift/XRTmonitoring snapshots every three days, which we use to study the evolution of the spectrum over the outburst.We find strong changes of the power-law photon index, which shows a weak trend of softening with increasing X-ray flux. The neutron star shows very strong pulsations with a period of P ˜ [almost equal to] 18.8 s. The 0.8-79 keV broadband spectrum can be described by a power law with an exponential cutoff and a blackbody component at low energies. During the second observation we detect a cyclotron resonant scattering feature at 12.5 keV, which is absent in the phase-averaged spectra of observations 1 and 3. Pulse phase-resolved spectroscopy reveals that the strength of the feature changes strongly with pulse phase and is most prominent during the broad minimum of the pulse profile. At the same phases the line also becomes visible in the first and third observation at the same energy. This discovery implies that KS 1947+300 has a magnetic field strength of B ˜ [almost equal to] 1.1 × 1012(1 + z) G, which is at the lower end of known cyclotron line sources.

  17. Simulation of a Compact Neutron Source with 13MeV Cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong ho; Lee, Seung Wook [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Myung Kook; Hur, Min Goo; Kim, GTae Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this presentation, we calculated neutron flux and neutron energy spectrum in 13MeV Cyclotron. Additionally, we found suitable design of target, metal layer and cooling system. We could find an opportunity about neutron radiography system by using cyclotron. For neutron radiography, fast neutron have to shift thermal range. We need to study this direction. Monte Carlo code is not almighty, so we need to refer to this data. This presentation can be first step to prove to operate KIRAMS-13 in Pusan National University. Proton accelerator is valuable for neutron generator for neutron generator. This paper is aim to verify possibility to get neutron from KIRAMS-13, which is located in Pusan national university and optimize neutron target. To get nice quality of neutrons, it is necessary to study neutron flux and neutron energy spectrum. In order to get neutronic data, the simulation is conducted by using Monte Carlo method with Geant4 code. Regarding target design, which is consist of Beryllium target, metal layer and cooling system, simulation is conducted below many different combinations.

  18. The design and construction of a pulsed beam generation system based on high intensity cyclotron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In order to perform the studies on a pulsed beam generation system based on a high intensity cyclotron, a test beam line with a pulsed beam generation for a 10 MeV compact cyclotron (CYCIAE-10) has been designed and constructed at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). A 70 MHz continuous H- beam can be pulsed to the pulse length of less than 10 ns with a repetition rate of 4.4 MHz. The sine waveform with a frequency of 2.2 MHz is adopted for the chopper and a mesh structure with single drift and dual gaps is used for the 70 MHz buncher. A helical resonator is designed and constructed based on simulations and experiments on the RF matching for the chopper. A helical inductance loop that is exceptionally large of its kind and equipped with water cooling for the resonator has been successfully wound and a 500 W solid RF amplifier has been manufactured. A special measuring device has been designed, which can be used to measure both the DC beam and the pulsed beam. The required pulsed beam was obtained after pulsed beam tuning.

  19. Detection of fundamental and first harmonic cyclotron line in X-ray pulsar Cep X-4

    CERN Document Server

    Jaisawal, Gaurava K

    2016-01-01

    We report the broad-band spectral properties of the X-ray pulsar Cep X-4 by using a Suzaku observation in 2014 July. The 0.8-70 keV spectrum was found to be well described by three continuum models - Negative and Positive power-law with Exponential cutoff (NPEX), high energy cutoff power-law and CompTT models. Additional components such as a cyclotron line at $\\sim$28 keV and two Gaussian components for iron lines at 6.4 and 6.9 keV were required in the spectral fitting. Apart from these, an additional absorption feature at $\\sim$45 keV was clearly detected in residuals obtained from the spectral fitting. This additional feature at $\\sim$45 keV was clearly seen in phase-resolved spectra of the pulsar. We identified this feature as the first harmonic of the fundamental cyclotron line at $\\sim$28 keV. The ratio between the first harmonic and fundamental line energies (1.7) was found to be in disagreement with the conventional factor of 2, indicating that the heights of line forming regions are different or view...

  20. A solvent-extraction module for cyclotron production of high-purity technetium-99m.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Petra; Boschi, Alessandra; Cicoria, Gianfranco; Uccelli, Licia; Pasquali, Micòl; Duatti, Adriano; Pupillo, Gaia; Marengo, Mario; Loriggiola, Massimo; Esposito, Juan

    2016-12-01

    The design and fabrication of a fully-automated, remotely controlled module for the extraction and purification of technetium-99m (Tc-99m), produced by proton bombardment of enriched Mo-100 molybdenum metallic targets in a low-energy medical cyclotron, is here described. After dissolution of the irradiated solid target in hydrogen peroxide, Tc-99m was obtained under the chemical form of (99m)TcO4(-), in high radionuclidic and radiochemical purity, by solvent extraction with methyl ethyl ketone (MEK). The extraction process was accomplished inside a glass column-shaped vial especially designed to allow for an easy automation of the whole procedure. Recovery yields were always >90% of the loaded activity. The final pertechnetate saline solution Na(99m)TcO4, purified using the automated module here described, is within the Pharmacopoeia quality control parameters and is therefore a valid alternative to generator-produced (99m)Tc. The resulting automated module is cost-effective and easily replicable for in-house production of high-purity Tc-99m by cyclotrons.

  1. The electron-cyclotron maser instability as a source of plasma radiation. [Solar radio bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winglee, R. M.; Dulk, G. A.

    1986-01-01

    The generation of continuum bursts from the sun at dm and m wavelengths (in particular, type IV bursts) via the electron-cyclotron-maser instability is examined. The maser instability can be driven by an electron distribution with either a loss-cone anisotropy or a peak at large pitch angles. For omega(p)/Omega(e) much greater than 1, the maser emission is produced by electrons interacting through a harmonic (cyclotron) resonance and is electrostatic, being in the upper hybrid mode at frequencies approximately equal to omega(p). Coalescence processes are required to convert the electrostatic waves into transverse radiation which can escape from the source region. Whether the resultant spectrum is nearly a smooth continuum or has a zebra-stripe pattern (both of which occur in type IV bursts) depends on the form of the electron distribution, inhomogeneities in the density and magnetic field, and whether the maser reaches saturation. For at least the case of some type IV dm bursts with fine structure, comparison with observations seems to indicate that the electrons producing the emission are more likely to have a loss-cone distribution, and that the maser instability is not at saturation.

  2. Development of electron cyclotron emission imaging system on the HL-2A tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, M.; Shi, Z. B.; Liu, Z. T.; Ding, X. T.; Li, J.; Zhong, W. L.; Chen, W.; Che, Y. L.; Fu, B. Z.; Cui, Z. Y.; Sun, P.; Liu, Y.; Yang, Q. W.; Duan, X. R. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P. O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041 (China); Che, S.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. Jr.; Hu, X.; Spear, A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    A 2D electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) system has been developed for measurement of electron temperature fluctuations in the HL-2A tokamak. It is comprised of a front-end 24 channel heterodyne imaging array with a tunable RF range spanning 75–110 GHz, and a set of back-end ECEI electronics that together generate 24 × 8 = 192 channel images of the 2nd harmonic X-mode electron cyclotron emission from the HL-2A plasma. The simulated performance of the local oscillator (LO) optics and radio frequency (RF) optics is presented, together with the laboratory characterization results. The Gaussian beams from the LO optics are observed to properly cover the entire detector array. The ECE signals from the plasma are mixed with the LO signal in the array box, then delivered to the electronics system by low-loss microwave cables, and finally to the digitizers. The ECEI system can achieve temporal resolutions of ∼μs, and spatial resolutions of 1 cm (radially) and 2 cm (poloidally)

  3. The development of a room temperature electron cyclotron resonance ion source (Lanzhou electron cyclotron resonance ion source No. 4) with evaporative cooling technology at Institute of Modern Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, W., E-mail: luwang@impcas.ac.cn; Sun, L. T.; Qian, C.; Feng, Y. C.; Ma, H. Y.; Zhang, X. Z.; Ma, B. H.; Zhao, H. W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 73000 (China); Guo, J. W.; Fang, X.; Yang, Y. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 73000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xiong, B.; Guo, S. Q.; Ruan, L. [Institute of Electrical Engineering, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-04-15

    LECR4 (Lanzhou electron cyclotron resonance ion source No. 4) has been successfully constructed at IMP and has also been connected with the Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) and Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) systems. These source magnet coils are cooled through evaporative cooling technology, which is the first attempt with an ECR ion source in the world. The maximum mirror field is 2.5 T (with iron plug) and the effective plasma chamber volume is 1.2 l. It was designed to be operated at 18 GHz and aimed to produce intense multiple charge state heavy ion beams for the linear injector project SSC-Linac at IMP. In February 2014, the first analyzed beam at 18 GHz was extracted. During about three months’ commissioning, some outstanding results have been achieved, such as 1.97 emA of O{sup 6+}, 1.7 emA of Ar{sup 8+}, 1.07 emA of Ar{sup 9+}, and 118 euA of Bi{sup 28+}. The source has also successfully delivered O{sup 5+} and Ar{sup 8+} ion beams for RFQ commissioning in April 2014. This paper will give a brief overview of the design of LECR4. Then, the latest results of this source at 18 GHz will be presented.

  4. The development of a room temperature electron cyclotron resonance ion source (Lanzhou electron cyclotron resonance ion source No. 4) with evaporative cooling technology at Institute of Modern Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, W; Sun, L T; Qian, C; Guo, J W; Fang, X; Feng, Y C; Yang, Y; Ma, H Y; Zhang, X Z; Ma, B H; Xiong, B; Guo, S Q; Ruan, L; Zhao, H W

    2015-04-01

    LECR4 (Lanzhou electron cyclotron resonance ion source No. 4) has been successfully constructed at IMP and has also been connected with the Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) and Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) systems. These source magnet coils are cooled through evaporative cooling technology, which is the first attempt with an ECR ion source in the world. The maximum mirror field is 2.5 T (with iron plug) and the effective plasma chamber volume is 1.2 l. It was designed to be operated at 18 GHz and aimed to produce intense multiple charge state heavy ion beams for the linear injector project SSC-Linac at IMP. In February 2014, the first analyzed beam at 18 GHz was extracted. During about three months' commissioning, some outstanding results have been achieved, such as 1.97 emA of O(6+), 1.7 emA of Ar(8+), 1.07 emA of Ar(9+), and 118 euA of Bi(28+). The source has also successfully delivered O(5+) and Ar(8+) ion beams for RFQ commissioning in April 2014. This paper will give a brief overview of the design of LECR4. Then, the latest results of this source at 18 GHz will be presented.

  5. Metal impurity transport control in JET H-mode plasmas with central ion cyclotron radiofrequency power injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valisa, M.; Carraro, L.; Predebon, I.

    2011-01-01

    The scan of ion cyclotron resonant heating (ICRH) power has been used to systematically study the pump out effect of central electron heating on impurities such as Ni and Mo in H-mode low collisionality discharges in JET. The transport parameters of Ni and Mo have been measured by introducing a t...

  6. Nonlinear fundamental and harmonic cyclotron resonant scattering of radiation belt ultrarelativistic electrons by oblique monochromatic EMIC waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Geng; Su, Zhenpeng; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Zhang, Min; Wang, Shui

    2017-02-01

    Cyclotron resonant scattering by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves has been considered to be responsible for the rapid loss of radiation belt high-energy electrons. For parallel-propagating EMIC waves, the nonlinear character of cyclotron resonance has been revealed in recent studies. Here we present the first study on the nonlinear fundamental and harmonic cyclotron resonant scattering of radiation belt ultrarelativistic electrons by oblique EMIC waves on the basis of test particle simulations. Higher wave obliquity produces stronger nonlinearity of harmonic resonances but weaker nonlinearity of fundamental resonance. Compared to the quasi-linear prediction, these nonlinear resonances yield a more rapid loss of electrons over a wider pitch angle range. In the quasi-linear regime, the ultrarelativistic electrons are lost in the equatorial pitch angle range αeq87.5° at ψ = 20° and 40°. At the resonant pitch angles αeq<75°, the difference between quasi-linear and nonlinear loss timescales tends to decrease with the wave normal angle increasing. At ψ = 0° and 20°, the nonlinear electron loss timescale is 10% shorter than the quasi-linear prediction; at ψ = 40°, the difference in loss timescales is reduced to <5%.

  7. Identification and Angular Distribution of Residual Radionuclides Detected on the Wall of BATAN’s Cyclotron Cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kambali

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Detection and measurement of radiation sources around BATAN’s cyclotron facilities in Serpong are required as an early step to avoid radiation impacts on the radiation employees who work with the cyclotron. In this paper, radiation emitted from the wall of the CS-30 cyclotron cave are detected and measured using an NaI(Tl detector coupled with a pocket multichannel analyzer (MCA at a counting time of 30 minutes for each sampling point on the wall. The sampling points were in the directions of within ±150o with respect to the incoming proton beams, and the measurements were conducted at heights between 1.2 m and 1.8 m off the floor for every sampling point. The experimental results indicate that Co-60 and Cs-134 detected on the cyclotron cave wall are major radionuclides that contribute to the emitted gamma radiation. The distribution of the gamma ray intensities given off by Co-60 and Cs-134 depend on the angle and position of the sampling points. In general the highest gamma ray rates can be found in the area around 0o relative to the incoming proton beams. In addition, no other radioactive sources are significantly detected on the wall. The maximum exposure measured on the wall surface was much less than the permissible occupational exposure for radiation workers and general public.

  8. Evaluating secondary neutron doses of a refined shielded design for a medical cyclotron using the TLD approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jye-Bin; Tseng, Hsien-Chun; Liu, Wen-Shan; Lin, Ding-Bang; Hsieh, Teng-San; Chen, Chien-Yi

    2013-11-01

    An increasing number of cyclotrons at medical centers in Taiwan have been installed to generate radiopharmaceutical products. An operating cyclotron generates immense amounts of secondary neutrons from reactions such the 18O(p, n)18F, used in the production of FDG. This intense radiation can be hazardous to public health, particularly to medical personnel. To increase the yield of 18F-FDG from 4200 GBq in 2005 to 48,600 GBq in 2011, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital (CSMUH) has prolonged irradiation time without changing the target or target current to meet requirements regarding the production 18F. The CSMUH has redesigned the CTI Radioisotope Delivery System shield. The lack of data for a possible secondary neutron doses has increased due to newly designed cyclotron rooms. This work aims to evaluate secondary neutron doses at a CTI cyclotron center using a thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD-600). Two-dimensional neutron doses were mapped and indicated that neutron doses were high as neutrons leaked through self-shielded blocks and through the L-shaped concrete shield in vault rooms. These neutron doses varied markedly among locations close to the H218O target. The Monte Carlo simulation and minimum detectable dose are also discussed and demonstrated the reliability of using the TLD-600 approach. Findings can be adopted by medical centers to identify radioactive hot spots and develop radiation protection.

  9. High field side measurements of non-thermal electron cyclotron emission on TCV plasmas with ECH and ECCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, P.; Alberti, S.; Coda, S.; Weisen, H.; Nikkola, P.; Klimanov, I

    2002-07-01

    Measurements of electron cyclotron emission from the high field side of the TCV tokamak have been made on plasmas heated by second and third harmonic X-mode Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) and Electron Cyclotron Current Drive (ECCD). Suprathermal Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE), up to a factor of 6 in excess of thermal emission, is detected in the presence of second harmonic X-mode (X2) ECCD and of third harmonic X-mode (X3) ECH. The measured ECE spectra are modelled using a bi-Maxwellian describing the bulk and the suprathermal electron populations. Suprathermal temperatures between 10-50keV and densities in the range 1. 10{sup 1}7 -6. 10{sup 1}8m{sup -3} are obtained, and correspond to 3 -15 bulk temperatures and 1% -20% bulk densities. Good agreement between ECE suprathermal temperatures and energetic photon temperatures, measured by a hard X-ray camera, is found. For optically thin X3 Low Field Side (LFS) injection in presence of X2 CO-ECCD, the suprathermal population partly explains the discrepancy between global and first pass absorption measurements. (author)

  10. Development of a PET cyclotron based irradiation setup for proton radiobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghithan, Sharif; Crespo, Paulo; do Carmo, S. J. C.; Ferreira Marques, Rui; Fraga, F. A. F.; Simões, Hugo; Alves, Francisco; Rachinhas, P. J. B. M.

    2015-02-01

    An out-of-yoke irradiation setup using the proton beam from a cyclotron that ordinary produces radioisotopes for positron emission tomography (PET) has been developed, characterized, calibrated and validated. The current from a 20 μm thick aluminum transmission foil is readout by home-made transimpedance electronics, providing online dose information. The main monitoring variables, delivered in real-time, include beam current, integrated charge and dose rate. Hence the dose and integrated current delivered at a given instant to an experimental setup can be computer-controlled with a shutter. In this work, we report on experimental results and Geant4 simulations of a setup which exploits for the first time the 18 MeV proton beam from a PET cyclotron to irradiate a selected region of a target using the developed irradiation system. By using this system, we are able to deliver a homogeneous beam on targets with 18 mm diameter, allowing to achieve the controlled irradiation of cell cultures located in biological multi-well dishes of 16 mm diameter. We found that the magnetic field applied inside the cyclotron plays a major role for achieving the referred to homogeneity. The quasi-Gaussian curve obtained by scanning the magnet current and measuring the corresponding dose rate must be measured before any irradiation procedure, with the shutter closed. At the optimum magnet current, which corresponds to the center of the Gaussian, a homogenous dose is observed over the whole target area. Making use of a rotating disk with a slit of 0.5 mm at a radius of 150 mm, we could measure dose rates on target ranging from 500 mGy/s down to 5 mGy/s. For validating the developed irradiation setup, several Gafchromic® EBT2 films were exposed to different values of dose. The absolute dose in the irradiated films were assessed in the 2D film dosimetry system of the Department of Radiotherapy of Coimbra University Hospital Center with a precision better than 2%. In the future, we plan

  11. A prediction model for the radiation safety management behavior of medical cyclotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Ji Hye; Han, Eun Ok [Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ssang Tae [CareCamp Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    This study attempted to provide reference materials for improving the behavior level in radiation safety managements by drawing a prediction model that affects the radiation safety management behavior because the radiation safety management of medical Cyclotrons, which can be used to produce radioisotopes, is an important factor that protects radiation caused diseases not only for radiological operators but average users. In addition, this study obtained follows results through the investigation applied from January 2 to January 30, 2008 for the radiation safety managers employed in 24 authorized organizations, which have already installed Cyclotrons, through applying a specific form of questionnaire in which the validity was guaranteed by reference study, site investigation, and focus discussion by related experts. The radiation safety management were configured as seven steps: step 1 is a production preparation step, step 2 is an RI production step, step 3 is a synthesis step, step 4 is a distribution step, step 5 is a quality control step, step 6 is a carriage container packing step, and step 7 is a transportation step. It was recognized that the distribution step was the most exposed as 15 subjects (62.5%), the items of 'the sanction and permission related works' and 'the guarantee of installation facilities and production equipment' were the most difficult as 9 subjects (37.5%), and in the trouble steps in such exposure, the item of 'the synthesis and distribution' steps were 4 times, respectively (30.8%). In the score of the behavior level in radiation safety managements, the minimum and maximum scores were 2.42 and 4.00, respectively, and the average score was 3.46 {+-} 0.47 out of 4. Prosperity and well-being programs in the behavior and job in radiation safety managements (r=0.529) represented a significant correlation statistically. In the drawing of a prediction model based on the factors that affected the behavior in

  12. Accurate Monte Carlo modeling of cyclotrons for optimization of shielding and activation calculations in the biomedical field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infantino, Angelo; Marengo, Mario; Baschetti, Serafina; Cicoria, Gianfranco; Longo Vaschetto, Vittorio; Lucconi, Giulia; Massucci, Piera; Vichi, Sara; Zagni, Federico; Mostacci, Domiziano

    2015-11-01

    Biomedical cyclotrons for production of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) radionuclides and radiotherapy with hadrons or ions are widely diffused and established in hospitals as well as in industrial facilities and research sites. Guidelines for site planning and installation, as well as for radiation protection assessment, are given in a number of international documents; however, these well-established guides typically offer analytic methods of calculation of both shielding and materials activation, in approximate or idealized geometry set up. The availability of Monte Carlo codes with accurate and up-to-date libraries for transport and interactions of neutrons and charged particles at energies below 250 MeV, together with the continuously increasing power of nowadays computers, makes systematic use of simulations with realistic geometries possible, yielding equipment and site specific evaluation of the source terms, shielding requirements and all quantities relevant to radiation protection. In this work, the well-known Monte Carlo code FLUKA was used to simulate two representative models of cyclotron for PET radionuclides production, including their targetry; and one type of proton therapy cyclotron including the energy selection system. Simulations yield estimates of various quantities of radiological interest, including the effective dose distribution around the equipment, the effective number of neutron produced per incident proton and the activation of target materials, the structure of the cyclotron, the energy degrader, the vault walls and the soil. The model was validated against experimental measurements and comparison with well-established reference data. Neutron ambient dose equivalent H*(10) was measured around a GE PETtrace cyclotron: an average ratio between experimental measurement and simulations of 0.99±0.07 was found. Saturation yield of 18F, produced by the well-known 18O(p,n)18F reaction, was calculated and compared with the IAEA recommended

  13. Current drive with combined electron cyclotron wave and high harmonic fast wave in tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J. C.; Gong, X. Y.; Dong, J. Q.; Wang, J.; Zhang, N.; Zheng, P. W.; Yin, C. Y.

    2016-12-01

    The current driven by combined electron cyclotron wave (ECW) and high harmonic fast wave is investigated using the GENRAY/CQL3D package. It is shown that no significant synergetic current is found in a range of cases with a combined ECW and fast wave (FW). This result is consistent with a previous study [Harvey et al., in Proceedings of IAEA TCM on Fast Wave Current Drive in Reactor Scale Tokamaks (Synergy and Complimentarily with LHCD and ECRH), Arles, France, IAEA, Vienna, 1991]. However, a positive synergy effect does appear with the FW in the lower hybrid range of frequencies. This positive synergy effect can be explained using a picture of the electron distribution function induced by the ECW and a very high harmonic fast wave (helicon). The dependence of the synergy effect on the radial position of the power deposition, the wave power, the wave frequency, and the parallel refractive index is also analyzed, both numerically and physically.

  14. Proton heating and beam formation via parametrically unstable Alfven-cyclotron waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsch, Eckart; Araneda, Jaime; -Vinas, Adolfo F.

    Vlasov theory and one-dimensional hybrid simulations are used to study the effects that compressible fluctuations driven by parametric instabilities of Alfvén/cyclotron waves have on proe ton velocity distributions. Field-aligned proton beams are generated during the saturation phase of the wave-particle interaction, with a drift speed which is slightly greater than the Alfvén speed and is maintained until the end of the simulation. The main part of the dise tribution becomes anisotropic due to phase mixing as is typically observed in the velocity distributions measured in the fast solar wind. We identify the key instabilities and also find that even in the parameter regime, where fluid theory appears to be appropriate, strong kinetic effects still prevail.

  15. A new and simple calibration-independent method for measuring the beam energy of a cyclotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Katherine; Jensen, Mikael; Thisgaard, Helge; Publicover, Julia; Lapi, Suzanne; McQuarrie, Steve A; Ruth, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    This work recommends a new and simple-to-perform method for measuring the beam energy of an accelerator. The proposed method requires the irradiation of two monitor foils interspaced by an energy degrader. The primary advantage of the proposed method, which makes this method unique from previous energy evaluation strategies that employ the use of monitor foils, is that this method is independent of the detector efficiency calibration. This method was evaluated by performing proton activation of (nat)Cu foils using both a cyclotron and a tandem Van de Graaff accelerator. The monitor foil activities were read using a dose calibrator set to an arbitrary calibration setting. Excellent agreement was noted between the nominal and measured proton energies.

  16. A new and simple calibration-independent method for measuring the beam energy of a cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, Katherine, E-mail: kgagnon1@ualberta.c [Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton PET Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Jensen, Mikael; Thisgaard, Helge [Hevesy Laboratory, Risoe-DTU, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Publicover, Julia; Lapi, Suzanne [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); McQuarrie, Steve A. [Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton PET Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Ruth, Thomas J. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada)

    2011-01-15

    This work recommends a new and simple-to-perform method for measuring the beam energy of an accelerator. The proposed method requires the irradiation of two monitor foils interspaced by an energy degrader. The primary advantage of the proposed method, which makes this method unique from previous energy evaluation strategies that employ the use of monitor foils, is that this method is independent of the detector efficiency calibration. This method was evaluated by performing proton activation of {sup nat}Cu foils using both a cyclotron and a tandem Van de Graaff accelerator. The monitor foil activities were read using a dose calibrator set to an arbitrary calibration setting. Excellent agreement was noted between the nominal and measured proton energies.

  17. Specific features of reactor or cyclotron {alpha}-particles irradiated beryllium microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khomutov, A.M. [A.A.Bochvar All-Russia Research Inst. of Inorganic Materials (VNIINM), Moscow (Russian Federation); Gromov, B.F.; Karabanov, V.N. [and others

    1998-01-01

    Studies were carried out into microstructure changes accompanying helium swelling of Be reactor neutron irradiated at 450degC or {alpha}-particles implanted in cyclotron to reach the same volume accumulation of He (6-8 ncm{sup 3} He/cm{sup 3} Be). The microstructures of reactor irradiated and implanted samples were compared after vacuum anneal at 600-800degC up to 50h. The irradiated samples revealed the etchability along the grain boundaries in zones formed by adequately large equilibrium helium pores. The width of the zones increased with the annealing time and after 50h reached 30{mu}. Depleted areas 2-3{mu} dia were observed in some regions of near grain boundary zones. The roles of grain boundaries and manufacturing pores as vacancies` sources and helium sinks are considered. (author)

  18. Microwave power coupling with electron cyclotron resonance plasma using Langmuir probe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Jain; V K Senecha; P A Naik; P R Hannurkar; S C Joshi

    2013-07-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma was produced at 2.45 GHz using 200 – 750 W microwave power. The plasma was produced from argon gas at a pressure of 2 × 10−4 mbar. Three water-cooled solenoid coils were used to satisfy the ECR resonant conditions inside the plasma chamber. The basic parameters of plasma, such as electron density, electron temperature, floating potential, and plasma potential, were evaluated using the current–voltage curve using a Langmuir probe. The effect of microwave power coupling to the plasma was studied by varying the microwave power. It was observed that the optimum coupling to the plasma was obtained for ∼ 600 W microwave power with an average electron density of ∼ 6 × 1011 cm−3 and average electron temperature of ∼ 9 eV.

  19. Turbulent transport of MeV range cyclotron heated minorities as compared to alpha particles

    CERN Document Server

    Pusztai, István; Kazakov, Yevgen O; Fülöp, Tünde

    2016-01-01

    We study the turbulent transport of an ion cyclotron resonance heated (ICRH), MeV range minority ion species in tokamak plasmas. Such highly energetic minorities, which can be produced in the three ion minority heating scheme [Ye. O. Kazakov et al. (2015) Nucl. Fusion 55, 032001], have been proposed to be used to experimentally study the confinement properties of fast ions without the generation of fusion alphas. We compare the turbulent transport properties of ICRH ions with that of fusion born alpha particles. Our results indicate that care must be taken when conclusions are drawn from experimental results: While the effect of turbulence on these particles is similar in terms of transport coefficients, differences in their distribution functions - ultimately their generation processes - make the resulting turbulent fluxes different.

  20. The preliminary tests of the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source DECRIS-SC2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, A; Bekhterev, V; Bogomolov, S; Drobin, V; Loginov, V; Lebedev, A; Yazvitsky, N; Yakovlev, B

    2012-02-01

    A new compact version of the "liquid He-free" superconducting ECR ion source, to be used as an injector of highly charged heavy ions for the MC-400 cyclotron, is designed and built at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions in collaboration with the Laboratory of High Energy Physics of JINR. The axial magnetic field of the source is created by the superconducting magnet and the NdFeB hexapole is used for the radial plasma confinement. The microwave frequency of 14 GHz is used for ECR plasma heating. During the first tests, the source shows a good enough performance for the production of medium charge state ions. In this paper, we will present the design parameters and the preliminary results with gaseous ions.