Sample records for champagne

  1. Champagne Heat Pump (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.


    The term champagne heat pump denotes a developmental heat pump that exploits a cycle of absorption and desorption of carbon dioxide in an alcohol or other organic liquid. Whereas most heat pumps in common use in the United States are energized by mechanical compression, the champagne heat pump is energized by heating. The concept of heat pumps based on other absorption cycles energized by heat has been understood for years, but some of these heat pumps are outlawed in many areas because of the potential hazards posed by leakage of working fluids. For example, in the case of the water/ammonia cycle, there are potential hazards of toxicity and flammability. The organic-liquid/carbon dioxide absorption/desorption cycle of the champagne heat pump is similar to the water/ammonia cycle, but carbon dioxide is nontoxic and environmentally benign, and one can choose an alcohol or other organic liquid that is also relatively nontoxic and environmentally benign. Two candidate nonalcohol organic liquids are isobutyl acetate and amyl acetate. Although alcohols and many other organic liquids are flammable, they present little or no flammability hazard in the champagne heat pump because only the nonflammable carbon dioxide component of the refrigerant mixture is circulated to the evaporator and condenser heat exchangers, which are the only components of the heat pump in direct contact with air in habitable spaces.

  2. Do expert ratings or economic models explain champagne prices?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jan Børsen; Smith, Valdemar


    Champagne is bought with low frequency and many consumers most likely do not have or seek full information on the quality of champagne. Some consumers may rely on the reputation of particular brands, e.g. "Les Grandes Marques", some consumers choose to gain information from sensory ratings...... of champagne. The aim of this paper is to analyse the champagne prices on the Scandinavian markets by applying a hedonic price function in a comparative framework with minimal models using sensory ratings....

  3. Champagne – branding and marketing of a luxury product


    Santala, Laura


    This thesis will discuss the brand of champagne and its status as a luxury product. The aim is to find out how the luxury label might have affected the success of champagne and how it is marketed and branded. Champagne is one of the strongest brands in the wine industry throughout the history. It was branded already in the 19th century as the drink of the royals and today, is protected not by only the Comité Champagne, but also EU legislation. As a luxury product, champagne marketing rel...

  4. Evaporation of droplets in a Champagne wine aerosol (United States)

    Ghabache, Elisabeth; Liger-Belair, Gérard; Antkowiak, Arnaud; Séon, Thomas


    In a single glass of champagne about a million bubbles nucleate on the wall and rise towards the surface. When these bubbles reach the surface and rupture, they project a multitude of tiny droplets in the form of a particular aerosol holding a concentrate of wine aromas. Based on the model experiment of a single bubble bursting in idealized champagnes, the key features of the champagne aerosol are identified. In particular, we show that film drops, critical in sea spray for example, are here nonexistent. We then demonstrate that compared to a still wine, champagne fizz drastically enhances the transfer of liquid into the atmosphere. There, conditions on bubble radius and wine viscosity that optimize aerosol evaporation are provided. These results pave the way towards the fine tuning of flavor release during sparkling wine tasting, a major issue for the sparkling wine industry.

  5. The physics behind the fizz in champagne and sparkling wines (United States)

    Liger-Belair, G.


    Bubbles in a glass of champagne may seem like the acme of frivolity to most of people, but in fact they may rather be considered as a fantastic playground for any physicist. Actually, the so-called effervescence process, which enlivens champagne and sparkling wines tasting, is the result of the fine interplay between CO2 dissolved gas molecules, tiny air pockets trapped within microscopic particles during the pouring process, and some both glass and liquid properties. Results obtained concerning the various steps where the CO2 molecule plays a role (from its ingestion in the liquid phase during the fermentation process to its progressive release in the headspace above the tasting glass as bubbles collapse) are gathered and synthesized to propose a self-consistent and global overview of how gaseous and dissolved CO2 impact champagne and sparkling wine science. Physicochemical processes behind the nucleation, rise, and burst of gaseous CO2 bubbles found in glasses poured with champagne and sparkling wines are depicted. Those phenomena observed in close-up through high-speed photography are often visually appealing. I hope that your enjoyment of champagne will be enhanced after reading this fully illustrated review dedicated to the science hidden right under your nose each time you enjoy a glass of champagne.

  6. Understanding Consumer Preferences for Australian Sparkling Wine vs. French Champagne

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    Julie Culbert


    Full Text Available Sparkling wine represents a small but significant proportion of the Australian wine industry’s total production. Yet, Australia remains a significant importer of French Champagne. This study investigated consumer preferences for Australian sparkling wine vs. French Champagne and any compositional and/or sensorial bases for these preferences. A range of French and Australian sparkling wines were analyzed by MIR spectroscopy to determine if sparkling wines could be differentiated according to country of origin. A subset of wines, comprising two French Champagnes, a French sparkling wine and three Australian sparkling wines, were selected for (i descriptive analysis to characterize their sensory profiles and (ii acceptance tests to determine consumer liking (n = 95 Australian wine consumers. Significant differences were observed between liking scores; on average, the $70 French Champagne was liked least and the $12 Australian sparkling wine liked most, but segmentation (based on individual liking scores identified clusters comprising consumers with distinct wine preferences. Interestingly, when consumers were shown wine bottle labels, they considered French wines to be more expensive than Australian wines, demonstrating a clear country of origin influence.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Lukyanchuk


    Full Text Available The wine industry is now successfully solved the problem for the implementation of automation receiving points of grapes, crushing and pressing departments installation continuous fermentation work, blend tanks, production lines ordinary Madeira continuously working plants for ethyl alcohol installations champagne wine in continuous flow, etc. With the development of automation of technological progress productivity winemaking process develops in the following areas: organization of complex avtomatization sites grape processing with bulk transportation of the latter; improving the quality and durability of wines by the processing of a wide applying wine cold and heat, as well as technical and microbiological control most powerful automation equipment; the introduction of automated production processes of continuous technical champagne, sherry wine and cognac alcohol madery; the use of complex automation auxiliary production sites (boilers, air conditioners, refrigeration unitsand other.; complex avtomatization creation of enterprises, and sites manufactory bottling wines. In the wine industry developed more sophisticated schemes of automation and devices that enable the transition to integrated production automation, will create, are indicative automated enterprise serving for laboratories to study of the main problems of automation of production processes of winemaking.

  8. Kinetics of CO(2) fluxes outgassing from champagne glasses in tasting conditions: the role of temperature. (United States)

    Liger-Belair, Gérard; Villaume, Sandra; Cilindre, Clara; Jeandet, Philippe


    Measurements of CO(2) fluxes outgassing from a flute poured with a standard Champagne wine initially holding about 11 g L(-1) of dissolved CO(2) were presented, in tasting conditions, all along the first 10 min following the pouring process. Experiments were performed at three sets of temperature, namely, 4 degrees C, 12 degrees C, and 20 degrees C, respectively. It was demonstrated that the lower the champagne temperature, the lower CO(2) volume fluxes outgassing from the flute. Therefore, the lower the champagne temperature, the lower its progressive loss of dissolved CO(2) concentration with time, which constitutes the first analytical proof that low champagne temperatures prolong the drink's chill and helps retains its effervescence. A correlation was also proposed between CO(2) volume fluxes outgassing from the flute poured with champagne and its continuously decreasing dissolved CO(2) concentration. Finally, the contribution of effervescence to the global kinetics of CO(2) release was discussed and modeled by the use of results developed over recent years. The temperature dependence of the champagne viscosity was found to play a major role in the kinetics of CO(2) outgassing from a flute. On the basis of this bubbling model, the theoretical influence of champagne temperature on CO(2) volume fluxes outgassing from a flute was discussed and found to be in quite good accordance with our experimental results.

  9. Self-similar Champagne Flows in H II Regions (United States)

    Shu, Frank H.; Lizano, Susana; Galli, Daniele; Cantó, Jorge; Laughlin, Gregory


    We consider the idealized expansion of an initially self-gravitating, static, singular, isothermal cloud core. For t>=0, the gas is ionized and heated to a higher uniform temperature by the formation of a luminous but massless star in its center. The approximation that the mass and gravity of the central star are negligible for the subsequent motion of the H II region holds for distances r much greater than ~100 AU and for the massive cloud cores that give rise to high-mass stars. If the initial ionization and heating are approximated to occur instantaneously at t=0, then the subsequent flow (for r>>100 AU) caused by the resulting imbalance between self-gravity and thermal pressure is self-similar. Because of the steep density profile (ρ~r-2), pressure gradients produce a shock front that travels into the cloud, accelerating the gas to supersonic velocities in what has been called the ``champagne phase.'' The expansion of the inner region at t>0 is connected to the outer envelope of the now ionized cloud core through this shock, whose strength depends on the temperature of the H II gas. In particular, we find a modified Larson-Penston (L-P) type of solution as part of the linear sequence of self-similar champagne outflows. The modification involves the proper insertion of a shock and produces the right behavior at infinity (v-->0) for an outflow of finite duration, reconciling the long-standing conflict on the correct (inflow or outflow) interpretation for the original L-P solution. For realistic heating due to a massive young central star that ionizes and heats the gas to ~104 K, we show that even the self-gravity of the ionized gas of the massive molecular cloud core can be neglected. We then study the self-similar solutions of the expansion of H II regions embedded in molecular clouds characterized by more general power-law density distributions: ρ~r-n with 3/23. We show that this happens because the model includes an origin where the pressure driving the

  10. Champagne moments[Expections of the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Large Hadron Collider could bring CERN huge rewards - but there are risks too. Anyone who is not a particle physicist is likely to look on in envy at the massive sums being spent on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It has cost -1.8bn to build the machine's accelerator, which will whip protons in opposite directions around a 27 km-long underground ring before smashing them together at energies up to 14 TeV some billion times a second. The four giant detectors - including the two general-purpose experiments CMS and ATLAS - have swallowed up several more billion Euros. Then there is the new Grid computer system, which is meant to analyse the vast streams of data spewing out from thee detectors every second. The total bill? A cool - Euro6.3bn, give or take the odd bottle of champagne. (U.K.)

  11. Solution to the Generalized Champagne Problem on simultaneous stabilization of linear systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The well-known Generalized Champagne Problem on simultaneous stabilization of linear systems is solved by using complex analysis and Blondel's technique. We give a complete answer to the open problem proposed by Patel et al., which automatically includes the solution to the original Champagne Problem. Based on the recent development in automated inequality-type theorem proving, a new stabilizing controller design method is established. Our numerical examples significantly improve the relevant results in the literature.

  12. Flow analysis from PIV in engraved champagne tasting glasses: flute versus coupe (United States)

    Beaumont, Fabien; Liger-Belair, Gérard; Polidori, Guillaume


    Glass shape, and especially its open aperture, is suspected to play an important role as concerns the kinetics of CO2 and flavor release during champagne tasting. In recent years, much interest has been devoted to depict each and every parameter involved in the release of gaseous CO2 from glasses poured with champagne. One cannot understand the bubbling and aromatic exhalation events in champagne tasting, however, without studying the flow-mixing mechanisms inside the glass. Indeed, a key assumption is that a causal link may exist between flow structures created in the wine due to bubble motion and the process of CO2 release and flavor exhalation. In the present work, two quite emblematic types of champagne drinking vessels are studied. The particle image velocimetry technique has been used in order to reveal the velocity field of the liquid due to the ascending bubble-driven flow for both glasses poured with champagne. The contribution of glass shape on the flow patterns and CO2 release in both glasses are discussed by the use of experimental results. The results show that the continuous flow of ascending bubbles strongly modifies the mixing and convection conditions of the surrounding liquid medium whose behavior is strongly glass shape dependent.



    Wolikow, Serge


    Le vin effervescent de Champagne a rarement été étudié sous l’angle de l’oenotourisme pourtant nul n’ignore l’importance apportée par les Maisons de négoce à la communication sur leur image. Boisson distinctive fondée sur une innovation technologique, le Champagne a été l’objet d’un tourisme précoce mais limité mais fortement identifié autour de personnalités singulières, à la fois riches et puissantes. En ce sens, depuis les origines de ce vin, le voyage en Champagne consiste avant tout en u...

  14. Carbon dioxide and ethanol release from champagne glasses, under standard tasting conditions. (United States)

    Liger-Belair, Gérard; Beaumont, Fabien; Bourget, Marielle; Pron, Hervé; Parvitte, Bertrand; Zéninari, Virginie; Polidori, Guillaume; Cilindre, Clara


    A simple glass of champagne or sparkling wine may seem like the acme of frivolity to most people, but in fact, it may rather be considered as a fantastic playground for any fluid physicist or physicochemist. In this chapter, results obtained concerning various steps where the CO₂ molecule plays a role (from its ingestion in the liquid phase during the fermentation process to its progressive release in the headspace above the tasting glass) are gathered and synthesized to propose a self-consistent and global overview of how gaseous and dissolved CO₂ impact champagne and sparkling wine science. Some recent investigations, conducted through laser tomography techniques, on ascending bubbles and ascending-bubble-driven flow patterns found in champagne glasses are reported, which illustrate the fine interplay between ascending bubbles and the fluid around under standard tasting conditions. The simultaneous monitoring of gaseous CO₂ and ethanol in the headspace of both a flute and a coupe filled with champagne was reported, depending on whether or not the glass shows effervescence. Both gaseous CO₂ and ethanol were found to be enhanced by the presence of ascending bubbles, thus confirming the close link between ascending bubbles, ascending-bubble-driven flow patterns, and the release of gaseous CO₂ and volatile organic compounds.

  15. Missense mutation in exon 2 of SLC36A1 responsible for champagne dilution in horses.

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    Deborah Cook

    Full Text Available Champagne coat color in horses is controlled by a single, autosomal-dominant gene (CH. The phenotype produced by this gene is valued by many horse breeders, but can be difficult to distinguish from the effect produced by the Cream coat color dilution gene (CR. Three sires and their families segregating for CH were tested by genome scanning with microsatellite markers. The CH gene was mapped within a 6 cM region on horse chromosome 14 (LOD = 11.74 for theta = 0.00. Four candidate genes were identified within the region, namely SPARC [Secreted protein, acidic, cysteine-rich (osteonectin], SLC36A1 (Solute Carrier 36 family A1, SLC36A2 (Solute Carrier 36 family A2, and SLC36A3 (Solute Carrier 36 family A3. SLC36A3 was not expressed in skin tissue and therefore not considered further. The other three genes were sequenced in homozygotes for CH and homozygotes for the absence of the dilution allele (ch. SLC36A1 had a nucleotide substitution in exon 2 for horses with the champagne phenotype, which resulted in a transition from a threonine amino acid to an arginine amino acid (T63R. The association of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP with the champagne dilution phenotype was complete, as determined by the presence of the nucleotide variant among all 85 horses with the champagne dilution phenotype and its absence among all 97 horses without the champagne phenotype. This is the first description of a phenotype associated with the SLC36A1 gene.

  16. Sponge Cake or Champagne? Bubbles, Magmatic Degassing and Volcanic Eruptions (United States)

    Cashman, K.; Pioli, L.; Belien, I.; Wright, H.; Rust, A.


    Vesiculation is an unavoidable consequence of magma decompression; the extent to which bubbles travel with ascending magma or leave the system by separated or permeable flow will determine the nature of the ensuing eruption. Bubbles travel with the melt from which they exsolve if the rise time of bubbles through the melt (the 'drift velocity') is much less than the rise rate of the magma (sponge cake). This condition is most likely to be met in viscous melts (where bubble rise velocities are low) and in melts that experience rapid decompression (high ascent velocities). Under these conditions, bubble expansion within the melt continues until sufficient bubble expansion causes coalescence and the development of a permeable network. Typical pumice vesicularities of 70-80% and permeabilities of 10-12 m2 constrain this limit under conditions appropriate for subplinian to plinian eruptions (mass fluxes > 106 kg/s). Slower rise rates (and lower mass fluxes) that characterize effusive eruptions produce silicic lavas with a wider range of vesicularities. In general, permeability decreases with decreasing sample vesicularity as bubbles deform (as evidenced by anisotropy in permeability and electrical conductivity) and pore apertures diminish. Degassing efficiency (and resulting densification of magma within the conduit) under these conditions is determined by permeability and the time allowed for gas escape. Bubbles rise through the melt if the drift velocity exceeds the velocity of magma ascent (champagne). This condition is most easily met in volatile-rich, low viscosity (mafic) melts at low to moderate fluxes. At very low magma flux, magma eruption rate is determined by the extent to which magma is entrained and ejected by rising gases (strombolian eruptions); when bubbles are too small, or are rising too slowly, they may not break the surface at all, but instead may be concentrated in a near-surface layer (surface foam). As the magma flux increases, segregation of

  17. N,S,O-Heterocycles in Aged Champagne Reserve Wines and Correlation with Free Amino Acid Concentrations. (United States)

    Le Menn, Nicolas; Marchand, Stephanie; de Revel, Gilles; Demarville, Dominique; Laborde, Delphine; Marchal, Richard


    Champagne regulations allow winegrowers to stock still wines to compensate for quality shifts in vintages, mainly due to climate variations. According to their technical requirements and house style, Champagne producers use these stored wines in their blends to enhance complexity. The presence of lees and aging at low pH (2.95-3.15), as in Champagne wines, lead to several modifications in wine composition. These conditions, combined with extended aging, result in the required environment for the Maillard chemical reaction, involving aromatic molecules, including sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen heterocycles (such as thiazole, furan, and pyrazine derivatives), which may have a sensory impact on wine. Some aromatic heterocycles in 50 monovarietal wines aged from 1 to 27 years provided by Veuve Clicquot Ponsardin Champagne house were determined by the SPME-GC-MS method. The most interesting result highlighted a strong correlation between certain heterocycle concentrations and wine age. The second revealed a correlation between heterocyclic compound and free amino acid concentrations measured in the wines, suggesting that these compounds are potential aromatic precursors when wine is aged on lees and, thus, potential key compounds in the bouquet of aged Champagnes. The principal outcome of these assays was to reveal, for the first time, that aromatic heterocycle concentrations in Champagne base wines are correlated with wine age.

  18. Ultra-low-level measurements of 3H and 14C in wines and champagne (United States)

    Scherer, U. W.; Jacobi, M.; Castillo, J.; Förstel, D. H.

    Methods to measure low concentrations of tritium and radiocarbon in wine and champagne, respectively, have been tested by using liquid scintillation counting after chemical sample processing. It could be shown that tritium activity was too low to be measured by our standard low-level liquid scintillation counter, WALLAC Guardian 1414. Positive results could be achieved when using a WALLAC Quantulus. The methods will be established as standard methods to detect forgeries and to improve consumer safety.

  19. Effervescence in champagne and sparkling wines: From bubble bursting to droplet evaporation (United States)

    Séon, T.; Liger-Belair, G.


    When a bubble reaches an air-liquid interface, it ruptures, projecting a multitude of tiny droplets in the air. Across the oceans, an estimated 1018 to 1020 bubbles burst every second, and form the so called sea spray, a major player in earth's climate system. At a smaller scale, in a glass of champagne about a million bubbles nucleate on the wall, rise towards the surface and burst, giving birth to a particular aerosol that holds a concentrate of wine aromas. Based on the model experiment of a single bubble bursting in simple liquids, we depict each step of this effervescence, from bubble bursting to drop evaporation. In particular, we propose simple scaling laws for the jet velocity and the top drop size. We unravel experimentally the intricate roles of bubble shape, capillary waves, gravity, and liquid properties in the jet dynamics and the drop detachment. We demonstrate how damping action of viscosity produces faster and smaller droplets and more generally how liquid properties enable to control the bubble bursting aerosol characteristics. In this context, the particular case of Champagne wine aerosol is studied in details and the key features of this aerosol are identified. We demonstrate that compared to a still wine, champagne fizz drastically enhances the transfer of liquid into the atmosphere. Conditions on bubble radius and wine viscosity that optimize aerosol evaporation are provided. These results pave the way towards the fine tuning of aerosol characteristics and flavor release during sparkling wine tasting, a major issue of the sparkling wine industry.

  20. Nucléation, ascension et éclatement d'une bulle de champagne (United States)

    Liger-Belair, G.


    People have long been fascinated by bubbles and foams dynamics, and since the pioneering work of Leonardo da Vinci in the early 16th century, this subject has generated a huge bibliography. However, only quite recently, much interest was devoted to bubbles in Champagne wines and carbonated beverages. Since the time of the benedictine monk dom Pierre Perignon (1638-1715), champagne is the wine of celebration. This fame is largely linked to the elegance of its effervescence and foaming properties. In this book, the latest results about the chemical physics behind the bubbling properties of Champagne and sparkling wines are collected and fully illustrated. The first chapter is devoted to the history of champagne and to a presentation of the tools of the physical chemistry of interfaces needed for a whole comprehension of the book. Then, the three main steps of a fleeting champagne bubble's life are presented in chronological order, that is, the bubble nucleation on the glass wall (Chap.2), the bubble ascent and growth through the liquid matrix (Chap.3), and the bursting of bubbles at the liquid surface (Chap.4), which constitutes the most intriguing, functional, and visually appealing step. L'objectif général de ce travail consacré à l'étude des processus physicochimiques liés à l'effervescence des vins de Champagne était de décortiquer les différentes étapes de la vie d'une bulle de champagne en conditions réelles de consommation, dans une flûte. Nous résumons ci-après les principaux résultats obtenus pour chacune des étapes de la vie de la bulle, depuis sa naissance sur les parois d'une flûte, jusqu'à son éclatement en surface. Nucléation À l'aide d'une caméra rapide munie d'un objectif de microscope, nous avons pu mettre à mal une idée largement répandue. Ce ne sont pas les anfractuosités de la surface du verre ou de la flûte qui sont responsable de la nucléation hétérogène des bulles, mais des particules adsorbées sur les parois du

  1. [Louis Maurice Champagne and the "Ecole dentaire française"]. (United States)

    Rousseau, Claude


    The Royal Edict of Louis XIV had created a new category of practitioners, "The Teeth Experts", and at the dawn of the second half of the 19th century, France had no dental school nor specific legislation. The situation worsened when many American dentists settled in France. Thus the creating of the "Ecole dentaire de Paris" in 1880 constituted a significant event which was followed by the opening of the "Ecole Dentaire de France" in 1884 and of the "Ecole Dentaire Française" in 1896. Louis Maurice Champagne will be its director from 1926. At the St Ouen Jules Vallés Market, we fortuitously discovered a framed document containing three photographs of Louis Maurice Champagne's surgery located, 3 Place de la Madeleine in Paris. Thanks to his son and through various documents, we could trace the exceptional professional carrier of this practitioner who eventually bought the "Ecole Dentaire Française" from Dr Louis-Jules Rousseau. Then, we discuss the legal frame work of the 1892 law created the "Chirurgien-dentiste" diploma and we describe the scientific and practical teaching for the "Ecole dentaire française". The operating layout of the clinical rooms is presented by opposing the ergonomic aspect of the demonstration surgery of the director and the two large operative dentistry rooms used for students. We conclude by emphasizing Louis Maurice Champagne's determination to overcome adversity which was peculiar to him as a young orphan immigrant without resources. To solve the problem of the "Chirurgien Dentiste" statute considered by its promoters as a stage of transition towards fuller reforms, we present various projects like from Dr Hulin's. This practitioner presided the Dental Section of the Medical Council Order before being voted in the first President of the "Chirurgien Dentiste" National Council Order in 1945. In 1942 he was the first to advocate a legislation based on the independence of the dental profession, still in force nowadays.

  2. Chemical messages in 170-year-old champagne bottles from the Baltic Sea: Revealing tastes from the past. (United States)

    Jeandet, Philippe; Heinzmann, Silke S; Roullier-Gall, Chloé; Cilindre, Clara; Aron, Alissa; Deville, Marie Alice; Moritz, Franco; Karbowiak, Thomas; Demarville, Dominique; Brun, Cyril; Moreau, Fabienne; Michalke, Bernhard; Liger-Belair, Gérard; Witting, Michael; Lucio, Marianna; Steyer, Damien; Gougeon, Régis D; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe


    Archaeochemistry as the application of the most recent analytical techniques to ancient samples now provides an unprecedented understanding of human culture throughout history. In this paper, we report on a multiplatform analytical investigation of 170-y-old champagne bottles found in a shipwreck at the bottom of the Baltic Sea, which provides insight into winemaking practices used at the time. Organic spectroscopy-based nontargeted metabolomics and metallomics give access to the detailed composition of these wines, revealing, for instance, unexpected chemical characteristics in terms of small ion, sugar, and acid contents as well as markers of barrel aging and Maillard reaction products. The distinct aroma composition of these ancient champagne samples, first revealed during tasting sessions, was later confirmed using state-of-the-art aroma analysis techniques. After 170 y of deep sea aging in close-to-perfect conditions, these sleeping champagne bottles awoke to tell us a chapter of the story of winemaking and to reveal their extraordinary archaeometabolome and elemental diversity in the form of chemical signatures related to each individual step of champagne production.

  3. Monitoring gaseous CO2 and ethanol above champagne glasses: flute versus coupe, and the role of temperature.

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    Gérard Liger-Belair

    Full Text Available In champagne tasting, gaseous CO(2 and volatile organic compounds progressively invade the headspace above glasses, thus progressively modifying the chemical space perceived by the consumer. Simultaneous quantification of gaseous CO(2 and ethanol was monitored through micro-gas chromatography (μGC, all along the first 15 minutes following pouring, depending on whether a volume of 100 mL of champagne was served into a flute or into a coupe. The concentration of gaseous CO(2 was found to be significantly higher above the flute than above the coupe. Moreover, a recently developed gaseous CO(2 visualization technique based on infrared imaging was performed, thus confirming this tendency. The influence of champagne temperature was also tested. As could have been expected, lowering the temperature of champagne was found to decrease ethanol vapor concentrations in the headspace of a glass. Nevertheless, and quite surprisingly, this temperature decrease had no impact on the level of gaseous CO(2 found above the glass. Those results were discussed on the basis of a multiparameter model which describes fluxes of gaseous CO(2 escaping the liquid phase into the form of bubbles.

  4. Chemical messages in 170-year-old champagne bottles from the Baltic Sea: Revealing tastes from the past (United States)

    Jeandet, Philippe; Heinzmann, Silke S.; Roullier-Gall, Chloé; Cilindre, Clara; Aron, Alissa; Deville, Marie Alice; Moritz, Franco; Karbowiak, Thomas; Demarville, Dominique; Brun, Cyril; Moreau, Fabienne; Michalke, Bernhard; Liger-Belair, Gérard; Witting, Michael; Lucio, Marianna; Steyer, Damien; Gougeon, Régis D.; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe


    Archaeochemistry as the application of the most recent analytical techniques to ancient samples now provides an unprecedented understanding of human culture throughout history. In this paper, we report on a multiplatform analytical investigation of 170-y-old champagne bottles found in a shipwreck at the bottom of the Baltic Sea, which provides insight into winemaking practices used at the time. Organic spectroscopy-based nontargeted metabolomics and metallomics give access to the detailed composition of these wines, revealing, for instance, unexpected chemical characteristics in terms of small ion, sugar, and acid contents as well as markers of barrel aging and Maillard reaction products. The distinct aroma composition of these ancient champagne samples, first revealed during tasting sessions, was later confirmed using state-of-the-art aroma analysis techniques. After 170 y of deep sea aging in close-to-perfect conditions, these sleeping champagne bottles awoke to tell us a chapter of the story of winemaking and to reveal their extraordinary archaeometabolome and elemental diversity in the form of chemical signatures related to each individual step of champagne production. PMID:25897020

  5. Unraveling the evolving nature of gaseous and dissolved carbon dioxide in champagne wines: a state-of-the-art review, from the bottle to the tasting glass. (United States)

    Liger-Belair, Gérard; Polidori, Guillaume; Zéninari, Virginie


    In champagne and sparkling wine tasting, the concentration of dissolved CO(2) is indeed an analytical parameter of high importance since it directly impacts the four following sensory properties: (i) the frequency of bubble formation in the glass, (ii) the growth rate of rising bubbles, (iii) the mouth feel, and (iv) the nose of champagne, i.e., its so-called bouquet. In this state-of-the-art review, the evolving nature of the dissolved and gaseous CO(2) found in champagne wines is evidenced, from the bottle to the glass, through various analytical techniques. Results obtained concerning various steps where the CO(2) molecule plays a role (from its ingestion in the liquid phase during the fermentation process to its progressive release in the headspace above the tasting glass) are gathered and synthesized to propose a self-consistent and global overview of how gaseous and dissolved CO(2) impact champagne and sparkling wine science.

  6. La physique des bulles de champagne Une première approche des processus physico-chimiques liés à l'effervescence des vins de Champagne (United States)

    Liger-Belair, G.


    People have long been fascinated by bubbles and foams dynamics, and since the pioneering work of Leonardo da Vinci in the early 16th century, this subject has generated a huge bibliography. However, only very recently, much interest was devoted to bubbles in Champagne wines. Small bubbles rising through the liquid, as well as a bubble ring (the so-called collar) at the periphery of a flute poured with champagne are the hallmark of this traditionally festive wine, and even there is no scientific evidence yet to connect the quality of a champagne with its effervescence, people nevertheless often make a connection between them. Therefore, since the last few years, a better understanding of the numerous parameters involved in the bubbling process has become an important stake in the champagne research area. Otherwise, in addition to these strictly enological reasons, we also feel that the area of bubble dynamics could benefit from the simple but close observation of a glass poured with champagne. In this study, our first results concerning the close observation of the three main steps of a champagne bubble's life are presented, that is, the bubble nucleation on tiny particles stuck on the glass wall (Chap. 2), the bubble ascent through the liquid (Chap. 3), and the bursting of bubbles at the free surface, which constitutes the most intriguing and visually appealing step (Chap. 4). Our results were obtained in real consuming conditions, that is, in a classical crystal flute poured with a standard commercial champagne wine. Champagne bubble nucleation proved to be a fantastic everyday example to illustrate the non-classical heterogeneous bubble nucleation process in a weakly supersaturated liquid. Contrary to a generally accepted idea, nucleation sites are not located on irregularities of the glass itself. Most of nucleation sites are located on tiny hollow and roughly cylindrical exogenous fibres coming from the surrounding air or remaining from the wiping process

  7. Chemosensory characterization of Chardonnay and Pinot Noir base wines of Champagne. Two very different varieties for a common product. (United States)

    Herrero, Paula; Sáenz-Navajas, Pilar; Culleré, Laura; Ferreira, Vicente; Chatin, Amelie; Chaperon, Vincent; Litoux-Desrues, François; Escudero, Ana


    Five different methodologies were applied for the quantitative analysis of 86 volatile molecules in 32 Chardonnay and 30 Pinot Noir Champagne white base wines. Sensory characterization was carried out by descriptive analysis. Pinot Noir wines had more constitutive compounds while Chardonnay wines had more discriminant compounds. Only four compounds predominated in Chardonnay wines: 4-vinylphenol, guaiacol, sotolon and 4-methyl-4-mercapto-2-pentanone. Correlation studies and PLSR models were calculated with sensory and chemical variables. For Pinot Noir wines, they were not as revealing as for Chardonnay base wines. Sulfur-related compounds were suggested to be involved in tropical fruit, dried fruit and citric sensory notes. This family of compounds seemed to be responsible for discriminant sensory terms in Champagne base wines. Fermentative compounds (aromatic buffer) were found at significantly higher levels in Pinot Noir wines, which would explain the fact that these wines were more difficult to describe in comparison with Chardonnay base wines.

  8. Comparison of two landslide susceptibility assessments in the Champagne-Ardenne region (France) (United States)

    Den Eeckhaut, M. Van; Marre, A.; Poesen, J.


    The vineyards of the Montagne de Reims are mostly planted on steep south-oriented cuesta fronts receiving a maximum of sun radiation. Due to the location of the vineyards on steep hillslopes, the viticultural activity is threatened by slope failures. This study attempts to better understand the spatial patterns of landslide susceptibility in the Champagne-Ardenne region by comparing a heuristic (qualitative) and a statistical (quantitative) model in a 1120 km² study area. The heuristic landslide susceptibility model was adopted from the Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières, the GEGEAA - Reims University and the Comité Interprofessionnel du Vin de Champagne. In this model, expert knowledge of the region was used to assign weights to all slope classes and lithologies present in the area, but the final susceptibility map was never evaluated with the location of mapped landslides. For the statistical landslide susceptibility assessment, logistic regression was applied to a dataset of 291 'old' (Holocene) landslides. The robustness of the logistic regression model was evaluated and ROC curves were used for model calibration and validation. With regard to the variables assumed to be important environmental factors controlling landslides, the two models are in agreement. They both indicate that present and future landslides are mainly controlled by slope gradient and lithology. However, the comparison of the two landslide susceptibility maps through (1) an evaluation with the location of mapped 'old' landslides and through (2) a temporal validation with spatial data of 'recent' (1960-1999; n = 48) and 'very recent' (2000-2008; n = 46) landslides showed a better prediction capacity for the statistical model produced in this study compared to the heuristic model. In total, the statistically-derived landslide susceptibility map succeeded in correctly classifying 81.0% of the 'old' and 91.6% of the 'recent' and 'very recent' landslides. On the susceptibility map

  9. Capillary fringe and tritium and nitrogen tracing history in the Senonian chalk of Champagne; Frange capillaire et traces historiques du tritium et de l`azote dans la craie senonienne en Champagne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballif, J.L. [INRA station d`agronomie, 51 - Chalons-en-Champagne (France)


    In the middle of Champagne-Ardenne area, a chalky zone is located, directly on top of which lies the soil and in which the water table is relatively close the soil; which allows for capillary direction to the surface horizons and the renewal of water reserve. After the presentation of the hydrological characteristics, the total porosity of chalk, the pores distribution, the capillary attraction is shown by the hydrological comportment of the soil and the upper part of the unsaturated zone of chalk. In the homogeneous rock, the tritium and nitrogen transfers reveal the historical tracks. (authors) 18 refs.

  10. Microbial contributions to coupled arsenic and sulfur cycling in the acid-sulfide hot spring Champagne Pool, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin eHug


    Full Text Available Acid-sulfide hot springs are analogs of early Earth geothermal systems where microbial metal(loid resistance likely first evolved. Arsenic is a metalloid enriched in the acid-sulfide hot spring Champagne Pool (Waiotapu, New Zealand. Arsenic speciation in Champagne Pool follows reaction paths not yet fully understood with respect to biotic contributions and coupling to biogeochemical sulfur cycling. Here we present quantitative arsenic speciation from Champagne Pool, finding arsenite dominant in the pool, rim and outflow channel (55-75% total arsenic, and dithio- and trithioarsenates ubiquitously present as 18-25% total arsenic. In the outflow channel, dimethylmonothioarsenate comprised ≤9% total arsenic, while on the outflow terrace thioarsenates were present at 55% total arsenic. We also quantified sulfide, thiosulfate, sulfate and elemental sulfur, finding sulfide and sulfate as major species in the pool and outflow terrace, respectively. Elemental sulfur reached a maximum at the terrace. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes from metagenomic sequencing revealed the dominance of Sulfurihydrogenibium at all sites and an increased archaeal population at the rim and outflow channel. Several phylotypes were found closely related to known sulfur- and sulfide-oxidizers, as well as sulfur- and sulfate-reducers. Bioinformatic analysis revealed genes underpinning sulfur redox transformations, consistent with sulfur speciation data, and illustrating a microbial role in sulfur-dependent transformation of arsenite to thioarsenate. Metagenomic analysis also revealed genes encoding for arsenate reductase at all sites, reflecting the ubiquity of thioarsenate and a need for microbial arsenate resistance despite anoxic conditions. Absence of the arsenite oxidase gene, aio, at all sites suggests prioritization of arsenite detoxification over coupling to energy conservation. Finally, detection of methyl arsenic in the outflow channel, in conjunction with

  11. [Results and lessons after 10 years of universal neonatal hearing screening in the Champagne-Ardenne region of France]. (United States)

    Chays, André; Labrousse, Marc; Makeieff, Marc


    In France, universal newborn hearing screening has been mandatory since April23rd, 2012, but it began in the Champagne-Ardenne region on January 15th 2004. More than 99 % of 160 196 newborns have since been systematically screened in this region. Bilateral hearing impairment was thus identified in 116 infants when they were around 3.5 months old. Earlier diagnosis improves the outcome of deafness, which is only diagnosed around age 20 months without screening. The authors report their experience and the lessons learnt.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jubenot Marie-Noelle


    Full Text Available The market is a dynamic market in which the European Union plays a leading role as the main producer and exporter of vine products. In this area, four countries with strong agricultural and viticultural tradition dominate the market: France, Italy, Spain and Germany. But among the new eastern EU members, countries as Romania, with a favorable geography and climate and also a viticultural tradition, some may also play a more prominent role. Romania is part of the top 12 wine-producing countries, however Romania penalty to export large-scale production of wine. In contrast, France is the main producer and exporter of wine country. This situation is primarily due to the strategic choice of a very strong geographic labelisation of wine production and the emphasis on quality and even the excellence of its products, in particular thanks to a promotion policy. Two major non-exclusive solutions seem to emerge for Romania. On the one hand, it can copy to a certain extent the French solution by leveraging labelisation its wines. The French wine market is also the reference of the European Union in particular as regards the creation of the label: Appellation of Origin (PDO. The example of champagne is, in this context, remarkable. This product alone largely not only the volume and value of exports of wines, but also the volume and value of exports of all agricultural products. It can also try to increase its exports to emerging countries outside the European Union. Non-European areas are both a promise of growing opportunities in a context of economic crisis or post-crises and a threat to the European wine sector: in particular we think about America, Asia and Oceania. Indeed, the main third countries also wine producers are trying to increase their market share. This explains the new measures taken by the European authorities aimed at deep modernizing European wine sector.

  13. Changement climatique dans le vignoble de Champagne : Modélisation thermique à plusieurs échelles spatio-temporelles (1950-2100)


    Briche, Elodie


    Global climatic change has already consequences on viticulture worldwide and these modifications imply some questions about future. Evaluation of possible modifications in Champagne vineyard is necessary in terms of thermal extremes for vineyard as spring frost during budbreak and heat-waves. Indeed temperature influences phenological cycle and earlier phenological stages have already been observed. This vineyard is particularly interesting to study because of its northern location and thanks...

  14. Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of minimally processed 'Champagne' oranges (Citrus reticulata × Citrus sinensis in different packgings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana da Silva Agostini


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the level of minimal processing and modified atmosphere on the quality of 'Champagne' orange stored under refrigeration. The fruits were subjected to the following processing: a whole fruit without flavedo; b whole fruit without flavedo and albedo; and c segmented into wedges and packed as follows: uncoated packaging (control; polyethylene film; PVC film; gelatin-based edible films (3%; and polyesthyrene translucent plastic container with a lid. The minimally processed oranges were stored at 5 ± 1°C for 8 days and were subjected to physicochemical and microbiological analyses every two days. Greater weight loss occurred in fruits without flavedo and segmented, uncoated, and coated with the edible gelatin film During storage, there was a slight increase in Total Soluble Solids (TSS for the treatments with greater weight loss and reduction in acidity and ascorbic acid, regardless of the packaging type. The microbial counts did not exceed the acceptable limits in the treatments; however, higher counts were observed at the end of storage. The minimally processed fruit packed in lidded polystyrene containers and polyethylene and PVC films kept their overall fresh visual appearance with a few physicochemical and microbiological changes up to the 8th day of storage.

  15. Real-life interactions and the eight sources of information framework (8-SIF): a reply to Champagne-Lavau and Moreau (2013). (United States)

    Achim, Amélie M; Guitton, Matthieu J; Jackson, Philip L; Monetta, Laura


    In this response to the comment by Champagne-Lavau and Moreau (2013), we acknowledge the importance of ecological mentalizing assessments that allow direct interactions between the agent and the person to whom mental states are attributed. Furthermore, we clarify that our model, the 8 sources of information framework (8-SIF; Achim, Guitton, Jackson, Boutin, & Monetta, 2013), aims to document the sources of information on which mentalizing processes can act, rather than specifying the numerous affective and cognitive processes involved in mentalizing. We argue that the sources of information that can contribute to mentalizing judgments during real or realistic interactions are included in the 8-SIF. The interaction may have an impact on the amount of information from each source that is available to the agent, but gaining additional information from a given source does not change the type of information or its classification to a specific source in the 8-SIF. The point raised by Champagne-Lavau and Moreau calls for a new comprehensive model of social cognition that focuses on the mentalizing processes, which would nicely complement our model of the sources of information on which these processes can act, the 8-SIF.

  16. Observations on N.W. European Limestone grassland-vegetations I. Limestone grassland—vegetations in the central part of the French Jura, South of Champagnôle (Dept. Jura)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, J.H.


    In June, 1969, the author studied a number of limestone grassland-vegetations in the French Jura Mountains, South of Champagnôle, on the methods of the French-Swiss School of phytosociology. These vegetations can be assigned to the alliance Mesobromion Br.-Bl. & Moor 1938, and belong to the: A. Ping

  17. Champagne og naiv dekadence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold


    Portrætartikel om den amerikanske forfatter F. Scott Fitzgerald i anledningen af den danske udgivelse af De smukke og fortabte. Udgivelsesdato: 24. august......Portrætartikel om den amerikanske forfatter F. Scott Fitzgerald i anledningen af den danske udgivelse af De smukke og fortabte. Udgivelsesdato: 24. august...

  18. Factors affecting distribution and mobility of trace elements (Cu, Pb, Zn) in a perennial grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) in the Champagne region of France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopin, E.I.B. [GEGENA EA 3795, University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 2 esplanade Roland Garros, 51100 Reims (France)], E-mail:; Marin, B.; Mkoungafoko, R.; Rigaux, A. [GEGENA EA 3795, University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 2 esplanade Roland Garros, 51100 Reims (France); Hopgood, M.J. [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Delannoy, E.; Cances, B.; Laurain, M. [GEGENA EA 3795, University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 2 esplanade Roland Garros, 51100 Reims (France)


    Soil and Vitis vinifera L. (coarse and fine roots, leaves, berries) concentration and geochemical partitioning of Cu, Pb and Zn were determined in a contaminated calcareous Champagne plot to assess their mobility and transfer. Accumulation ratios in roots remained low (0.1-0.4 for Cu and Zn, <0.05 for Pb). Differences between elements resulted from vegetation uptake strategy and soil partitioning. Copper, significantly associated with the oxidisable fraction (27.8%), and Zn with the acid soluble fraction (33.3%), could be mobilised by rhizosphere acidification and oxidisation, unlike Pb, essentially contained in the reducible fraction (72.4%). Roots should not be considered as a whole since the more reactive fine roots showed higher accumulation ratios than coarse ones. More sensitive response of fine roots, lack of correlation between chemical extraction results and vegetation concentrations, and very limited translocation to aerial parts showed that fine root concentrations should be used when assessing bioavailability. - Soil Cu, Pb and Zn concentration and partitioning were combined to accumulation ratio to study the transfer of trace element from soil to Vitis vinifera L. roots and aerial parts in a contaminated vineyard plot.

  19. Uranium series geochemistry in aquifers: quantification of transport mechanisms of uranium and daughter products: the chalk aquifer (Champagne, France); Desequilibres des series de l'uranium dans les aquiferes: quantification des mecanismes de transport de l'uranium et de ses descendants: cas de l'aquifere de la craie (Champagne, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, A


    With the increase of contaminant flux of radionuclides in surface environment (soil, river, aquifer...), there is a need to understand and model the processes that control the distribution of uranium and its daughter products during transport within aquifers. We have used U-series disequilibria as an analogue for the transport of uranium and its daughter products in aquifer to understand such mechanisms. The measurements of uranium ({sup 234}U et {sup 238}U), thorium ({sup 230}Th et {sup 232}Th), {sup 226}Ra and {sup 222}Rn isotopes in the solid and liquid phases of the chalk aquifer in Champagne (East of France) allows us to understand the processes responsible for fractionation within the uranium decay chain. Fractionations are induced by physical and chemical properties of the elements (leaching, adsorption) but also by radioactive properties (recoil effect during {alpha}-decay). For the first time a comprehensive sampling of the solid phase has been performed, allowing quantifying mechanisms responsible for the long term evolution of the aquifer. A non steady state 1D model has been developed which takes into account leaching, adsorption processes as well as radioactive filiation and {alpha}-recoil effect. Retardation coefficients have been calculated for uranium, thorium and radium. The aquifer is characterised by a double porosity, and the contribution of fracture and matrix porosity on the water/rock interaction processes has been estimated. (author)

  20. News Particle Physics: ATLAS unveils mural at CERN Prize: Corti Trust invites essay entries Astrophysics: CERN holds cosmic-ray conference Researchers in Residence: Lord Winston returns to school Music: ATLAS scientists record physics music Conference: Champagne flows at Reims event Competition: Students triumph at physics olympiad Teaching: Physics proves popular in Japanese schools Forthcoming Events (United States)


    Particle Physics: ATLAS unveils mural at CERN Prize: Corti Trust invites essay entries Astrophysics: CERN holds cosmic-ray conference Researchers in Residence: Lord Winston returns to school Music: ATLAS scientists record physics music Conference: Champagne flows at Reims event Competition: Students triumph at physics olympiad Teaching: Physics proves popular in Japanese schools Forthcoming Events

  1. Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of minimally processed 'Champagne' oranges (Citrus reticulata × Citrus sinensis in different packgings Características físico-químicas e microbiológicas de laranjas 'Champagne' (Citrus reticulata x Citrus sinensis minimamente processadas em diferentes embala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana da Silva Agostini


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the level of minimal processing and modified atmosphere on the quality of 'Champagne' orange stored under refrigeration. The fruits were subjected to the following processing: a whole fruit without flavedo; b whole fruit without flavedo and albedo; and c segmented into wedges and packed as follows: uncoated packaging (control; polyethylene film; PVC film; gelatin-based edible films (3%; and polyesthyrene translucent plastic container with a lid. The minimally processed oranges were stored at 5 ± 1°C for 8 days and were subjected to physicochemical and microbiological analyses every two days. Greater weight loss occurred in fruits without flavedo and segmented, uncoated, and coated with the edible gelatin film During storage, there was a slight increase in Total Soluble Solids (TSS for the treatments with greater weight loss and reduction in acidity and ascorbic acid, regardless of the packaging type. The microbial counts did not exceed the acceptable limits in the treatments; however, higher counts were observed at the end of storage. The minimally processed fruit packed in lidded polystyrene containers and polyethylene and PVC films kept their overall fresh visual appearance with a few physicochemical and microbiological changes up to the 8th day of storage.Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar a influência do nível de processamento mínimo e atmosfera modificada na qualidade de laranja 'Champagne' minimamente processada armazenada sob refrigeração. Laranjas submetidas aos seguintes processos: a remoção do albedo; b remoção do albedo e flavedo; c segmentada em gomos, foram acondicionadas em embalagem sem revestimento (controle, com filme de polietileno, com filme de PVC, com revestimento comestível de gelatina a 3% e em pote plástico com tampa de poliestireno. O armazenamento dos frutos foi realizado a 5 ± 1 °C por oito dias, sendo submetidos a análises f

  2. Rare Arsenic-Antimony-Sulphide Bio-immobilization and Bacterial S-layer Preservation in Siliceous Sediments from Champagne Pool Hot-Spring, Waiotapu, New Zealand (United States)

    Phoenix, V. R.; Renaut, R. W.; Jones, B.; Ferris, F. G.


    Champagne Pool is a large (65 m diameter, 150 m deep) hot spring in the Waiotapu geothermal area of North Island, New Zealand. The spring discharges water of a mildly acid chloride type, with a pH of 5.2, a constant temperature of 75 oC and a silica concentration of 460 ppm. Siliceous sinter, loose sediments, and flocs suspended in the spring water are composed of opaline silica and metal-rich sulfides that contain many well-preserved, mineralized microbes. Detailed analysis by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry has shown that bacterial cell wall and capsular material is preserved by the immobilization of high levels of As (up to 33 wt%), Sb (up to 60 wt%), and S (up to 20 wt%) in the organic matrix. Significant precipitate formation is absent (and when present only small microcrysts form), suggesting much of the As-Sb-S has accumulated through adsorption processes. When extensive biomineral precipitates are present upon the cell wall, they are composed of Al rich amorphous silicates. This suggests a 2-step biomineralization process whereby As and Sb sulfur complexes are adsorbed onto the cell surface polymers first, followed by inorganically driven precipitation of the supersaturated amorphous silica phase. Despite the lack of detailed preservation, biomineralization commonly preserves S-layers, an ordered mosaic of proteins on the outer surface of the cell wall. These are the finest ultrastructural details thus far found preserved by hot-spring biomineralization. Preserved S-layers exhibited either a hexagonal (p6) or square (p4) lattice structure with unit-unit spacing of 9.7 +/- 1.6 nm. Because S-layer morphology varies considerably between species it can be used as a fingerprint to aid identification of microfossils. By considering both S-layer morphology and the hot-spring habitat (pH, Eh, temp etc) it is suggested the S-layers preserved here belong to Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum or Desulfotomaculum nigrifacans. To

  3. Champagne for the cryogenics teams

    CERN Multimedia


    Christmas has come early for the LHC as a complete sector of the cryogenic distribution line has been operating at 10 degrees Kelvin (-263°C) for the past two weeks, just a few degrees above the machine's nominal operating temperature.

  4. Changement climatique et viticulture en Champagne : du constat actuel aux prévisions du modèle ARPEGE-Climat sur l’évolution des températures pour le XXIe siècle 


    Gérard Beltrando; Elodie Briche


    Dans le vignoble de Champagne, le changement climatique, perceptible depuis la fin des années 1980, se manifeste par une tendance à la précocité des stades phénologiques et par une amélioration de la qualité des raisins vendangés. Mais cette évolution interpelle le milieu professionnel car, si elle se poursuit, elle pourrait devenir néfaste pour la qualité de la production de raisin (chaleur estivale trop importante, taux d’alcool élevé…). Afin d’apporter des éléments de réponse sur l’évoluti...

  5. Changement climatique et viticulture en Champagne : du constat actuel aux prévisions du modèle ARPEGE-Climat sur l’évolution des températures pour le XXIe siècle 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Beltrando


    Full Text Available Dans le vignoble de Champagne, le changement climatique, perceptible depuis la fin des années 1980, se manifeste par une tendance à la précocité des stades phénologiques et par une amélioration de la qualité des raisins vendangés. Mais cette évolution interpelle le milieu professionnel car, si elle se poursuit, elle pourrait devenir néfaste pour la qualité de la production de raisin (chaleur estivale trop importante, taux d’alcool élevé…. Afin d’apporter des éléments de réponse sur l’évolution des températures (moyennes et extrêmes quotidiens dans un contexte d’augmentation de la concentration en gaz à effet de serre, les données de température quotidiennes calculées par le modèle numérique ARPEGE-Climat (Retic de Météo-France sont validées par comparaison avec celles mesurées à Reims-Courcy sur la période 1950-2006. Puis, les simulations obtenues sur la période 2001-2100 par ce modèle sont analysées  pour les trois scénarios les plus couramment utilisés par l’IPCC [B1 (optimiste, A1B (intermédiaire, A2 (pessimiste]. Les résultats montrent une tendance non linéaire vers un réchauffement de l’air mais aussi une grande variabilité des températures d’un scénario à l’autre. A partir des années 2060, les modèles fournissent des prévisions de températures qui, auront  des répercussions majeures sur l’activité vitivinicole, surtout pour le scénario pessimiste (A2.In Champagne vineyard, Climate Change already observed since the end of 1980’s, showed by precocity of phenology as harvests and quality improvement of grapes. This temporal evolution calls out to wine growers because if this evolution continues, it could become harmful to grape production quality (summer heat waves, lack of water, high alcohol rate…. In the aim to find responses concerning temperature evolution (means and daily extremes in a context of  greenhouse concentration rise, daily temperature data

  6. Kuidas lugeda "Meeste domineerimist"? / Patrick Champagne ; tlk. Marek Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Champagne, Patrick


    Rets. rmt.: Bourdieu, Pierre. Meeste domineerimine. Tallinn, 2005. Kommenteerivad (lk. 12-14) Liina Lukas, Rein Ruutsoo (TLÜ õppejõud), Marina Grišakova, Aare Pilv, Airi-Alina Allaste, Raivo Vetik (TLÜ Õppejõud), Andres Härm, Voldemar Tomusk

  7. 朗松,王者之城的老号香槟%Lanson Champagne,please.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  8. Pabellón Pablo Picasso - Champagne s/Seine – Francia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayonne, P.


    Full Text Available This pavilion that is designed as a cultural sports and leisure time centre has the shape of 5,80 m high rectangular truncated pyramid. It consists of: ground floor with lobby, a great hall of the same height as the entire building, sports premises; a mezzanine floor with workshop and Ieisure time activity rooms. The structure is of reinforced concrete and consists of pillars that in their elevation have the shape of rectangular triangles whose hypotenuses that are situated on the outside, give the building its sloping form. The ceiling is formed by means of big box beams which rest on the pillars. The interior decoration is even in its smallest details made up by masonry elements which provide greater durability and resistance. Both on the outside as well as the inside the building is equipped with very elaborate lighting systems which create a vivid and attractive atmosphere. With this construction it has been demonstrated that even in smaller localities it is possible to achieve elegant public buildings within the framework of a reduced budget.Este pabellón, destinado a centro cultural, deportivo y de expansión, tiene la forma de un tronco de pirámide rectangular de 5,80 m de altura. Consta de: planta baja con hall, una gran sala que ocupa toda la altura del edificio, un local deportivo, y los aseos correspondientes; y una primera planta parcial que cuenta con un taller y diversos locales de esparcimiento. La estructura es de hormigón armado y está constituida por pilares que, en alzado, tienen la forma de triángulos rectángulos, cuyas hipotenusas, situadas en la parte exterior, originan la forma inclinada del edificio. El forjado de la cubierta lo forman grandes vigas cajón apoyadas sobre los pilares. La decoración interior se consigue, hasta en sus más pequeños detalles, mediante elementos de fábrica que la otorgan un carácter de duración y gran resistencia. El edificio dispone, tanto interior como exteriormente, de estudiados sistemas de iluminación que consiguen un ambiente muy animado y atractivo. Con esta construcción se demuestra que, incluso en pequeñas localidades, se pueden lograr notables edificios públicos con un presupuesto reducido.

  9. Copper mobilization affected by weather conditions in a stormwater detention system receiving runoff waters from vineyard soils (Champagne, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banas, D., E-mail: damien.banas@u-psud.f [Univ. Reims Champagne-Ardenne, Lab. Eco-Toxicologie, BP 1039, F-51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Univ. Nancy, UR-AFPA, INRA, 2 Av. Foret Haye, F-54505 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Marin, B., E-mail: beatrice.marin@univ-reims.f [Univ. Reims Champagne-Ardenne, EA3795 GEGENA, 2 Esplanade Roland Garros, F-51100 Reims (France); Skraber, S., E-mail: skraber@lippmann.l [Centre de Recherche Public, Gabriel Lippmann, Department of Environment and Agro-biotechnologies (EVA), 41 rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Chopin, E.I.B., E-mail: chopin@oakland.ed [Oakland University, Department of Chemistry, Rochester, MI 48309 (United States); Zanella, A., E-mail: augusto.zanella@unipd.i [Univ. Padova, Facolta di Agraria, Viale dell' Universita 16, I-35020 Legnaro (Italy)


    Copper, a priority substance on the EU-Water Framework Directive list, is widely used to protect grapevines against fungus diseases. Many vineyards being located on steep slopes, large amounts of Cu could be discharged in downstream systems by runoff water. The efficiency of stormwater detention basins to retain copper in a vineyard catchment was estimated. Suspended solids, dissolved (Cu{sub diss}) and total Cu (Cu{sub tot}) concentrations were monitored in runoff water, upstream, into and downstream from a detention pond. Mean Cu{sub tot} concentrations in entering water was 53.6 mug/L whereas it never exceeded 2.4 mug/L in seepage. Cu{sub tot} concentrations in basin water (>100 mug/L in 24% of the samples) exceeded LC{sub 50} values for several aquatic animals. Copper was principally sequestered by reduced compounds in the basin sediments (2/3 of Cu{sub tot}). Metal sequestration was reversible since sediment resuspension resulted in Cu remobilization. Wind velocity controlled resuspension, explained 70% of Cu{sub diss} variability and could help predicting Cu mobilization. - Copper in stormwater basin is efficiently retained but can be released during windy events or after dredging.

  10. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in water: proposition of a strategy and evaluation in Champagne-Ardenne Region, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Aubert


    Full Text Available Water is a vehicle for disseminating human and veterinary toxoplasmosis due to oocyst contamination. Several outbreaks of toxoplasmosis throughout the world have been related to contaminated drinking water. We have developed a method for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in water and we propose a strategy for the detection of multiple waterborne parasites, including Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia. Water samples were filtered to recover Toxoplasma oocysts and, after the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts by immunofluorescence, as recommended by French norm procedure NF T 90-455, the samples were purified on a sucrose density gradient. Detection of Toxoplasma was based on PCR amplification and mouse inoculation to determine the presence and infectivity of recovered oocysts. After experimental seeding assays, we determined that the PCR assay was more sensitive than the bioassay. This strategy was then applied to 482 environmental water samples collected since 2001. We detected Toxoplasma DNA in 37 environmental samples (7.7%, including public drinking water; however, none of them were positive by bioassay. This strategy efficiently detects Toxoplasma oocysts in water and may be suitable as a public health sentinel method. Alternative methods can be used in conjunction with this one to determine the infectivity of parasites that were detected by molecular methods.

  11. Bordeaux of Talca and Champagne of Mendoza: Appellations of Origin and identity contamination of wines in Argentina and Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Alberto Lacoste


    Full Text Available The development of Appellations of Origin (AO is one of the wines of outstanding wine industry in Argentina and Chile subjects. Given the strong trend towards concentration of the wine industry in these two countries, it is relevant to study the AO because they represent an appropriate mechanism to reduce the gap and enhance the possibilities of SMEs. Why AO not have developed in Argentina and Chile? This article examines the causes that inhibit the development of local AO in the regional viticulture.

  12. Champagne, Cognac, Rioja, Jerez and Vales dos Vinhedos: Conflicts between trademarks and geographical indications of wines and spirits in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Silva Barbosa Patrícia Maria


    Full Text Available The world wine trade generated around 30 billion Euros in 2015. The wine consumer appreciates attributes such as tradition, quality and distinctiveness, characteristics that are associated with the terroir. In this segment, trademarks and geographical indications (GI are relevant distinctive signs for the consumers' choice. Issues involving the protection of these signs have become increasingly stronger in the same proportion of the trade growth. Wine GIs hold a long tradition in the international scenario, particularly the European. In Brazil, the trademarks have a broader protection history, and the GIs were only acknowledged with the 1996 Industrial Property Law. Nevertheless, Brazil stands out as an emergent market for wines. The databank of the National Institute of Industrial Property (INPI-Brazil shows that 30% of all applications for GI protection are for wines and spirits. Such figures indicate the growing importance of the GI for the segment. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the applications for trademarks and GIs for wines and spirits, based on the INPI databank. For such, some foreign GIs have been chosen, for their historic and commercial importance, as well as one national GI, the first acknowledged in the segment. Among the results, several applications for trademarks from different applicants containing the searched terms have been found. From these results, it is believed that the coexistence and overlap of trademarks and GIs indicate the need for a review of the national legislation.

  13. La Fortification de Troyes en Champagne. Un grand chantier urbain Fin XVe–première moitié du XVIe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice Collet


    Full Text Available Composition du JuryMonsieur Patrick Boucheron, maître de conférence à l’Université de Paris I,Madame Odette Chapelot, maître de conférence à l’ÉHESS,Monsieur Jean Chapelot, directeur de recherche au CNRS (directeur de la thèse,Monsieur Nicolas Faucherre, professeur à l’Université de Nantes,Monsieur Etienne Hamon, professeur à l’Université de Picardie–Jules Verne,Monsieur Pierre Monnet, directeur d’études à l’ÉHESS.Thèse soutenue le 16 décembre 2010RésuméIl ne reste actuellement plus rien ou ...

  14. Petrophysical Properties of the Middle Jurassic Carbonates in the PICOREF Sector (South Champagne, Paris Basin, France Propriétés pétrophysiques du Dogger carbonaté dans le Secteur PICOREF (Sud Champagne, bassin de Paris, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmas J.


    Full Text Available This article, carried out as part of the PICOREF Project for the CO2 storage in the aquifers of the Paris Basin, presents an important petrophysical database from the numerous petroleum wells drilled in the PICOREF Sector (south-eastern part of the Paris Basin between 1953 and 2001. These core data concern the three saline carbonated aquifers of the Middle Jurassic: the Oolithe Blanche and the Comblanchien formations, Upper Bathonian age, and the Dalle Nacrée formation, Lower Callovian age, that would be used for the CO2 sequestration. Located at –1230 to –1750 m sub sea in the studied sector, these carbonate reservoirs which cumulative thickness is about 150 m, outcrop in the Burgundy region, at about 80 km south-eastern the Sector where they are exploited in several quarries. The analysis of the 6800 routine measurements (porosity and permeability gathered for this study allowed to improve the knowledge of the petrophysical properties. Special measurements (mercury injection tests allowed to characterize the porous medium. Cet article, réalisé dans le cadre du Projet PICOREF(1 pour le stockage de CO2 dans les aquifères du bassin parisien, présente une importante base de données pétrophysiques issues des nombreux puits pétroliers forés dans le Secteur PICOREF (sud-est du bassin parisien entre 1953 et 2001. Ces données concernent les trois aquifères salins du Dogger carbonaté susceptibles d’être utilisés pour séquestrer du CO2 : l’Oolithe Blanche et le Comblanchien, d’âge Bathonien supérieur, ainsi que la Dalle Nacrée d’âge Callovien inférieur. Recoupés à des altitudes de – 1230 à – 1750 m/mer dans le secteur étudié, ces réservoirs carbonatés, dont l’épaisseur cumulée est de 150 m environ, affleurent en Bourgogne, à 80 km au sud-est du « Secteur », où ils sont exploités dans plusieurs carrières. L’analyse des 6800 mesures classiques (porosité et perméabilité rassemblées ici a permis d’améliorer la connaissance des qualités pétrophysiques des réservoirs. Les mesures spéciales de porosimétrie mercure ont permis de caractériser le milieu poreux.

  15. Vendanges à Epernay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DominiqueMaitrot; 文芳


    Pour beaucoup d'étrangers, mēme si cela commence à changer, la France est le pays de la mode, des parfums et du champagne. Il se trouve que j'habite à Epernay, et que la ville se définit elle-mēme eomme la capitale du champagne: au coeur de la région qui s'appelle la Champagne,

  16. Inauguration of Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia


    On 5 February 1960, the Proton Synchrotron (PS) was formally inaugurated. The great Danish physicist, Niels Bohr, releases a bottle of champagne against a shielding block to launch the PS on its voyage in physics.

  17. Sediment transport and erosion in the Fourchon area of Lafourche parish. [south Louisiana (United States)

    Whitehurst, C. A.; Self, R. P.


    NASA aerial photography in the form of color infrared and color positive transparencies is used as an aid in evaluating the rate and effect of erosion and sediment transport in Bay Champagne Louisiana.

  18. Social and cultural activities

    CERN Multimedia


    Club news : Record Club, Ski Club, Dancing Club, Orienteering Club, CERN Women's Club, Concerts Club, Russian Cultural Circle, Yachting Club. Conference : Voyage au coeur d'une flûte de champagne. Exhibition.

  19. Social and cultural activities

    CERN Multimedia

    Clubs; Euroscience


    Club news: Cricket Club, Volleyball Club, Pétanque, Fitness Club, Concerts Club, CERN Women's Club. Café des sciences. Exhibition : Ladakh & Rupshu - Royaumes du silence. Conference : Voyage au coeur d'une flûte de champagne.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Hilton Beijing Wangfujing Showcasing an array of brunch favorites and international selections, complemented by a free flow of premium champagne, Beijing’s newest champagne brunch-"fizztastic"-offers a culinary discovery and hint of the forbidden at Penta Dining Haven, the fifth floor collection of restaurants and bars at Hilton Beijing Wangfujing every Sunday starting on September 13. Titillate the palate of your family and friends with the appetizing selection of brunch traditions

  1. Goal Analysis: Plan Recognition in Dialogue Systems (United States)


    explained matches more than one planfor in long-term memory. For example, the ques- tion: User: Do you know how to print a file on the imagen ? can be...Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 1977. Barbara J. Grosz. Focusing in dialog. In Proceedings of TINLAP-2. Urbana - Champagne, IL, 1978. Barbara Grosz and

  2. Taxonomic studies of the Penicillium glabrum complex and the description of a new species P. subericola

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreto, M. C.; Houbraken, J.; Samson, R. A.;


    A mycological survey of fungi, present in several stages of the manufacturing of cork discs for champagne stoppers in Portugal, was made. Sixty-nine strains belonging to the Glabra series of the genus Penicillium were isolated and subsequently grouped according to their partial β-tubulin gene seq...

  3. The Physics of Foams, Droplets and Bubbles (United States)

    Sarker, Dipak K.


    Foams or bubble dispersions are common to milkshakes, bread, champagne froth, shaving mousse, shampoo, crude oil extraction systems, upholstery packing and bubble wrap, whereas the term droplet is often synonymous with either a small drop of water or a drop of oil--a type of coarse dispersion. The latter are seen in butter and milk, household…

  4. Visionary Fuels Private Space Race

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CNN international; 魏蓝天


    @@ It was only the following day, after the thousands of cheering spectators had disappeared, after the jubilant speeches had dried up along with the champagne,as Diamandis was driving his father back to Los Angeles, that euphoria ②--and relief--swept over him.

  5. Current Approaches to Assessment in Self-Access Language Learning (United States)

    Reinders, Hayo; Lázaro, Noemí


    Assessment is generally seen as one of the key challenges in the field of self-access learning (Gardner & Miller, 1999; Champagne et al., 2001; Lai, 2001; Kinoshita Thomson, 1996). Many researchers and practitioners point to difficulties with assessing language gains in an environment in which variables cannot comprehensively be controlled…

  6. The LHC's Next Big Mystery (United States)

    Lincoln, Don


    When the sun rose over America on July 4, 2012, the world of science had radically changed. The Higgs boson had been discovered. Mind you, the press releases were more cautious than that, with "a new particle consistent with being the Higgs boson" being the carefully constructed phrase of the day. But, make no mistake, champagne corks…

  7. Approaches to a Successful Adult Education Program (United States)

    Petty, Tanjula; Thomas, Christine C.


    An estimated 40 million Americans adults live their lives deprived of prosperity, pleasures, and the rewards of lifelong learning (Comings & Cuban, 2007). With the economic, social, and technical changes in society, there are shifts in the labor market (Champagne, 1987). Many adults are having to set their sights on obtaining sufficient skills…

  8. 16 CFR 1507.11 - Party poppers. (United States)


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Party poppers. 1507.11 Section 1507.11... FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.11 Party poppers. Party poppers (also known by other names such as “Champagne Party Poppers,” and “Party Surprise Poppers,”) shall not contain more than 0.25 grains of...

  9. Understanding the Institutional Dimension of Inter-Agency Collaboration: The Basic Model (United States)


    analysis tries to explain why many people prefer to buy expensive Champagne instead of cheaper sparkling wine , even if they taste the same. This is...Judgment of Taste , (1984) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, as cited in Scott, Institutions and Organizations, p. 183. Brodeur, J-P. (1983

  10. Geographical Indications, "Terroir", and Socioeconomic and Ecological Sustainability: The Case of Tequila (United States)

    Bowen, Sarah; Zapata, Ana Valenzuela


    In this paper, we use the case of tequila to examine the potential for geographical indications (GIs) to contribute to socioeconomic and environmental sustainability. GIs are place-based names (e.g., Champagne, Roquefort) that convey the geographical origin, as well as the cultural and historical identity, of agricultural products. The GI for…

  11. Serious eye injuries caused by bottles containing carbonated drinks (United States)

    Kuhn, F; Mester, V; Morris, R; Dalma, J


    Aim: To analyse serious eye injuries caused by bottles containing pressurised drinks. Methods: Retrospective review of the databases of US, Hungarian, and Mexican eye injury registries. Results: In the combined database (12 889 injuries), 90 cases (0.7%) were caused by bottle tops or glass splinters. The incidence varied widely: 0.3% (United States), 3.1% (Hungary), and 0.9% (Mexico), as did the agent. Champagne bottle corks were responsible in 20% (United States), 71% (Hungary; p<0.0001), and 0% (Mexico). Most eyes improved, but 26% remained legally blind. Conclusions: The presence of warning labels on champagne bottles appears to reduce cork related eye injuries, as does using plastic bottles and caps. PMID:14693777

  12. Fractures of modern high nitrogen stainless steel cemented stems: cause, mechanism, and avoidance in 14 cases. (United States)

    Yates, Piers J; Quraishi, Nasir A; Kop, Allan; Howie, Donald W; Marx, Clare; Swarts, Eric


    We present 14 cases of fracture of modern, high-nitrogen, stainless steel stems. Our clinical and radiological data suggest that heavy patients with small stems and poor proximal support are at risk for fracturing their implants. "Champagne-glass" canals can lead to the use of smaller stems often placed in varus, which can lead to cantilever bending and fatigue failure in the distal half of the stem. Metallurgical assessment of the retrieved high-nitrogen, stainless steel stems reveals microstructural inconsistencies that may contribute to their failure. Based on our findings, careful consideration and attention to technique is required when using stainless steel stems in patients with high body mass index or high weight. Technique is particularly important in femurs with champagne-glass canals.

  13. Trusting ICT in Today’s Global Supply Chain - Understanding and Implementing Government and Industry Best Practices (United States)


    Box for SCRM Working Towards A Solution What is ICT? 2 Images extracted from a presentation on actual counterfeit IT products incidents...Champagne • Chocolate covered strawberries with cream • Music dockside for the excited ’soon to be owner’ and a small group of his 4 friends...China (Asustek or Liteon) l -4 • American-owned factory in Malaysia (Motorola) , Japanese company in Mexico , Malaysia, or China (Sanyo) , or South

  14. Happy New Year from Queensland, Australia.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Denise; Noblet


    I hope you enjoyed a magical celebration. I have had an exciting time here.In Australia, we celebrate New Year’s Eve with champagne and parties. At 10seconds to midnight, everyone stops to count in the new year at full volume, beforeshouting" Happy New Year", kissing the nearest person, and breaking into araucous (沙哑的) version of "Auld Lang Syne". Loud cheers resound in hotels,halls, nightclubs and backyards across the country.

  15. Spræng boblen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella

    Hvad har en dansk Justin Bieber look-a-like, Dovne Robert og frokostfrikadeller – eller mangel på samme – i landets børnehaver til fælles? De kan forstås og forklares med bobleteori. Bortset fra de af slagsen, der laves af sæbe eller findes i champagne, forbindes bobler typisk med situationer i...

  16. Looking Back,Looking Ahead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ No crystal glasses tinkling nor champagne corks popping, we silently cheered putting to bed the 52nd issue of Beijing Review, the last one for 2009. The past 52 weeks have fled in the twinkling of an eye, so swiftly that reporters were scratching their heads; while the editors' barking on a Thursday night to meet the publishing deadline for the first issue of the year seemed like it was only yesterday.

  17. Looking Back,Looking Ahead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    No crystal glasses tinkling nor champagne corks popping,we silently cheered putting to bed the 52nd issue of Beijing Review,the last one for 2009.The past 52 weeks have fled in the twinkling of an eye,so swiftly that reporters were scratching their heads;while the editors’ barking on a Thursday night to meet the publishing deadline for the first issue of the year seemed like it was only yesterday.

  18. JPRS Report, West Europe (United States)


    Rafael Pastor secured the return of Captain Pecina, the Spanish merchant seaman who was arrested in Nigeria for smuggling; he was the...a factor in Peugeot’s sales in Nigeria and the United States; but since they are rela- tively marginal, they will "have very little effect on our...tions. Alain Chevalier, the CEO of the new Louis Vuitton/Moet Hennessy affiliation (champagne, cognac, Christian Dior perfumes, fine leather

  19. Detoxification and color removal of Congo red by a novel Dietzia sp. (DTS26) – A microcosm approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SatheeshBabu, S.; Mohandass, C.; VijayRaj, A.S.; Dhale, M.A.

    organic dyes completely (Champagne and Ramsay, 2010).  Therefore biological treatments are recommended (O’Neill et al. 2000). Several studies have been reported for the decolorization of CR and other textile dyes by various microorganisms i.e., Rhizobium..., 2008). Although the various microorganisms are reported in degradation of various textile dyes in literature, the intermittent products are often toxic and carcinogenic. In recent years, a number of treatment methods have proven the removal of color...

  20. Foaming in stout beers


    Lee, W. T.; M. G. Devereux


    We review the differences between bubble formation in champagne and other carbonated drinks, and stout beers which contain a mixture of dissolved nitrogen and carbon dioxide. The presence of dissolved nitrogen in stout beers gives them a number of properties of interest to connoisseurs and physicists. These remarkable properties come at a price: stout beers do not foam spontaneously and special technology, such as the widgets used in cans, is needed to promote foaming. Nevertheless the same m...

  1. A Layered Social and Operational Network Analysis (United States)


    method for incorporating triad relationships, time, and location into social network studies. Utilizing the basic eigenvector centrality, the method...were carried out by two cooperating al-Qaeda cells against the US embassies in Nairobi, Kenya and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (Champagne, 2005). This...Abdullah Mohammed, Azzam (Suicide Bomber) • Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Cell: Fahad Mohammed Ally Msalam, Mustafa Mohammed Fadhil, Khalfan Khamis

  2. Structural alteration of cell wall pectins accompanies pea development in response to cold. (United States)

    Baldwin, Laëtitia; Domon, Jean-Marc; Klimek, John F; Fournet, Françoise; Sellier, Hélène; Gillet, Françoise; Pelloux, Jérôme; Lejeune-Hénaut, Isabelle; Carpita, Nicholas C; Rayon, Catherine


    Pea (Pisum sativum) cell wall metabolism in response to chilling was investigated in a frost-sensitive genotype 'Terese' and a frost-tolerant genotype 'Champagne'. Cell walls isolated from stipules of cold acclimated and non-acclimated plants showed that cold temperatures induce changes in polymers containing xylose, arabinose, galactose and galacturonic acid residues. In the tolerant cultivar Champagne, acclimation is accompanied by increases in homogalacturonan, xylogalacturonan and highly branched Rhamnogalacturonan I with branched and unbranched (1→5)-α-arabinans and (1→4)-β-galactans. In contrast, the sensitive cultivar Terese accumulates substantial amounts of (1→4)-β-xylans and glucuronoxylan, but not the pectins. Greater JIM7 labeling was observed in Champagne compared to Terese, indicating that cold acclimation also induces an increase in the degree of methylesterification of pectins. Significant decrease in polygalacturonase activities in both genotypes were observed at the end of cold acclimation. These data indicate a role for esterified pectins in cold tolerance. The possible functions for pectins and their associated arabinans and galactans in cold acclimation are discussed.

  3. The hydrodynamical models of the cometary compact H II region

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Feng-Yao; Li, Juan; Zhang, Jiang-Shui; Wang, Jun-Zhi


    We have developed a full numerical method to study the gas dynamics of cometary ultra-compact (UC) H II regions, and associated photodissociation regions (PDRs). The bow-shock and champagne-flow models with a $40.9/21.9 M_\\odot$ star are simulated. In the bow-shock models, the massive star is assumed to move through dense ($n=8000~cm^{-3}$) molecular material with a stellar velocity of $15~km~s^{-1}$. In the champagne-flow models, an exponential distribution of density with a scale height of 0.2 pc is assumed. The profiles of the [Ne II] 12.81\\mum and $H_2~S(2)$ lines from the ionized regions and PDRs are compared for two sets of models. In champagne-flow models, emission lines from the ionized gas clearly show the effect of acceleration along the direction toward the tail due to the density gradient. The kinematics of the molecular gas inside the dense shell is mainly due to the expansion of the H II region. However, in bow-shock models the ionized gas mainly moves in the same direction as the stellar motion...

  4. Integração universitária e inserção profissional: um estudo comparativo entre Portugal e França

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abudo Machude


    Full Text Available In this paper we seek to analyze the role of support services to integrate academic and vocational insertion. There were three services in three faculties of University of Porto (Portugal and a service of University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne (France. The results of this exercise showed differences in relation to the legal provisions which allowed the creation of support services to integrate academic and vocational insertion, despite their common principle, to assist students and graduates in the vocational guidance for academic success and rapid integration into the labor market.

  5. From One Library to Another: the New Robert de Sorbon Library of the University of Reims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine El Bekri-Dinoird


    Full Text Available The new Robert de Sorbon library opened its doors in September 2006. The county of Champagne Ardenne managed the planning of the new building. The project focused on a totally new way of running this library and affirmed its structural role on the campus. The ambition was to make the future library the reference centre of the university and a real support to education and research. This library is also one of the first libraries in France to adopt high environmental quality as a global approach.

  6. Cultivo hidropônico de lisianto para flor de corte em sistema de fluxo laminar de nutrientes Hydroponic growth of lisianthus as cut flower under nutrient film technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Alice Antonello Londero Backes


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características produtivas e comerciais do cultivo de quatro cultivares de lisianto (Eustoma grandiflorum em três soluções nutritivas em sistema de fluxo laminar de nutrientes (NFT. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 4x3, com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram compostos de quatro cultivares (Echo Champagne, Mariachi Pure White, Balboa Yellow e Ávila Blue Rim e três soluções nutritivas (Teste, Steiner modificada e Barbosa. O sistema NFT é uma alternativa viável para o cultivo de lisianto nas soluções Barbosa e Teste. A cultivar Echo Champagne foi superior quanto ao ciclo, período em produção, altura da haste floral, número de folhas, diâmetro de botão e produção de massa fresca e seca, enquanto a cultivar Mariachi Pure White se destacou quanto ao período em produção. A cultivar Ávila Blue Rim apresentou maior período de produção, número de flores e produção de massa de matéria fresca e seca, enquanto a cultivar Balboa Yellow apresentou maior período em produção e diâmetro de botão.The objective of this work was to evaluate yield and commercial traits of lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum flowers growth in nutrient film technique (NFT. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, in factorial scheme (4x3, with three replicates. The treatments were four cultivars (Echo Champagne, Mariachi Pure White, Balboa Yellow and Ávila Blue Rim and three nutrient solutions (Test, modified Steiner and Barbosa. The NFT system is a feasible alternative for the growth of lisianthus in Barbosa and Test solutions. The cultivar Echo Champagne was superior for cycle, length of production, height of flower stem, number of leaves, diameter of the bud flower and fresh and dry weight production, while the cultivar Mariachi Pure White was superior for length of production. The cultivar Ávila Blue Rim showed good length of production, number of flowers

  7. Epidemoligic Investigation of Health Effects in Air Force Personnel Following Exposure to Herbicides: Baseline Questionnaires (United States)


    your marital history. 18. Have you ever b.w- legally married! Yea.( 1l( -I (ASK Q.19) NO ...... -2 (SKIP TO Q.24) 19. How many times have you been... legally married? (WRITE IN NUMBER) Il ( times FIRST/ONLY MARRIAGE SECOND MARRIAGE THIRD MARRIAGE 20a. In what month and year 21a. In what month and year...os champagne -’ Comb ast ion ...... - .. 3 -- I 57. Have you ever tried smoking marihuana ? Ver ...... (12( -1 (ASK q.57&) No........... _ -2 (SKIP TO

  8. Environmental,and,genetic,factors,affecting,Saccharomyces+ cerevisiae,performance,during,second,fermentation


    Marti Raga, Maria


    El método tradicional utilizado en la producción de vinos espumosos (como el cava y el champagne) se caracteriza por una segunda fermentación que tiene lugar dentro de la botella. Esta segunda fermentación presenta unas características muy específicas como son un alto contenido de etanol, una presión de CO2 creciente, baja disponibilidad de nutrientes y baja temperatura. En esta tesis, se han analizado en primer lugar el efecto de factores ambientales sobre el desarrollo de la segunda ferment...

  9. ATLAS- lowering the muon small wheel

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Audiovisual Service


    ATLAS - the two muon small wheels lowered into the cavern Like briefly separated twin sisters, ATLAS’s small wheels were once again united at the experiment’s surface building at Point 1 on St Valentine’s Day. The lowering of the small wheels into the tunnel will mark the end of the installation of detector components for the experiment. At around 15.40 on Friday 29th February the ATLAS collaboration cracked open the champagne as the second of the small wheels was lowered into the cavern.

  10. 15 local climate-energy plans: regions and districts, local leaders of the struggle against climate change; 15 plans climat - energie territoriaux regions et departements, animateurs territoriaux de la lutte contre le changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report presents some general information, the sectors addressed by the Climate - Energy Plan, the approaches adopted, the plan elaboration process (organisation, participation and governance, diagnosis and challenges identification, communication actions), the actions and their follow-up, the success factors and the improvement opportunities of the Climate-energy Plans elaborated and adopted by different French regions (Alsace, Aquitaine, Basse-Normandie, Champagne-Ardenne, Franche-Comte, Haute-Normandie, Languedoc-Roussillon, Limousin, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Poitou-Charentes) and districts (Alpes Maritimes, Bas-Rhin, Eure, Seine-Maritime)

  11. Last piece of the puzzle for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Clare Ryan

    At around 15.40 on Friday 29th February the ATLAS collaboration cracked open the champagne as the second of the small wheels was lowered into the cavern. Each of ATLAS' small wheels are 9.3 metres in diameter and weigh 100 tonnes including the massive shielding elements. They are the final parts of ATLAS' muon spectrometer. The first piece of ATLAS was installed in 2003 and since then many detector elements have journeyed down the 100 metre shaft into the ATLAS underground cavern. This last piece completes this gigantic puzzle.

  12. Atmospheric Turbulence Measurements in Support of Adaptive Optics Technology (United States)


    Champagne, F. H., C. A. Friehe, J. C. LaRue, and J. C. Wyngaard. 1977. Flux measurements, flux estimation tecniques , and fine scale turbulence measurements...Dr. C. Giuliano 3011 MaLibu Canyon Road MaLibu, CA 90265 DL-3 Lockheed Missiles and Soace Co. Document Management ATTN: Dr. R. Lytetl 3251 Hanover...Laboratory ATTN: Dr. C. Primmerman P.O. Box 73 Lexington. MA 02173 Lockheed Missiles and Space Co. Document Management L556 Mail Station c/51-40 B586 P.O. Box

  13. EEG Source Reconstruction using Sparse Basis Function Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sofie Therese; Hansen, Lars Kai


    State of the art performance of 3D EEG imaging is based on reconstruction using spatial basis function representations. In this work we augment the Variational Garrote (VG) approach for sparse approximation to incorporate spatial basis functions. As VG handles the bias variance trade-off with cross......-validation this approach is more automated than competing approaches such as Multiple Sparse Priors (Friston et al., 2008) or Champagne (Wipf et al., 2010) that require manual selection of noise level and auxiliary signal free data, respectively. Finally, we propose an unbiased estimator of the reproducibility...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Dining for Leisure The Regent Beijing features four restaurants,including a bar and a lounge providing guests with a variety of culinary styles and the finest in dining environ- ments. The Bar & Grill The bar nestles in the north wall with high-quality French wines and champagne. In the south wall,large glass windows with fretwork lattice overlook Jinbaojie. The dining room’s rich wood-paneled surfaces and plush upholstery in muted neutral tones create the ideal environment to enjoy a palate of grilled seafood,meat and poultry selections.The Bar & Grill is a warm environment perfect for intimate dining.

  15. Where are the radioactive wastes in France? Brochure no 3; Ou sont les dechets radioactifs en France? Brochure no 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document is one of the 6 regional brochures which make the geographical inventory of radioactive wastes in France. For each region, a table lists the recorded sites and a regional map localizes those having a detailed descriptive file. These files mention the most important waste owners (medical, research, nuclear and military industries), the type of waste and the type of management. The polluted sites are also mentioned, even if they are already decontaminated. The volume no 3 concerns the Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Picardie, Champagne-Ardenne, Bourgogne, Alsace, Lorraine, Franche-Comte regions. (J.S.)

  16. EDH 'Millionaire' in PS Division

    CERN Multimedia


    Christmas cheer! Left to right: Gerard Lobeau receives a bottle of Champagne from Derek Mathieson and Jurgen De Jonghe in recognition of EDH's millionth document. At 14:33 on Monday 3 December a technician in PS division, Gerard Lobeau, unwittingly became part of an important event in the life of CERN's Electronic Document Handling system (EDH). While ordering some pieces of aluminum for one of the PS's 10Mhz RF cavities, he created EDH document number 1,000,000. To celebrate the event Derek Mathieson (EDH Project Leader) and Jurgen De Jonghe (Original EDH Project Leader) presented Mr Lobeau with a bottle of champagne. As with 93% of material requests, Mr Lobeau's order was delivered within 24 hours. 'I usually never win anything' said Mr Lobeau as he accepted his prize, 'I initially though there may have been a problem with EDH when the document number had so many zeros in it, and was then surprised to get a phone call from you a few minutes later.' The EDH team had been monitoring the EDH document number ...

  17. Walnut (Juglans regia L. – a natural source of healthy food ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weronika Borecka


    Full Text Available This paper presents an assessment of the quality of walnuts in regard of fat content and fatty acid profile. Nuts came from France (in Champagne and Poland (from Poznań and Grudziądz. Total fat was determined by Soxhlet method. Fatty acid profile was determined by gas chromatography. On the basis of cluster analysis it was demonstrated that there is a substantial similarity between the climatic conditions and the composition of fatty acids in walnuts. Nuts from the Champagne region and Grudziądz are in close conjunction. Bond distance was 1.87. Nuts collected from the region of Poznań are located within 2.93 of the other samples. The highest amount of fat contained the nuts from the area of France (F – 70.42%, while the nuts from Poland – lower (G – 68.42% and P – 67.12%. There were significant differences (p < 0.05 in the share of linolenic acid in nuts from Poznań in relation to the nuts from France and Grudziądz.

  18. "Atmospheric Measurements by Ultra-Light SpEctrometer" (AMULSE) dedicated to vertical profile measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4) under stratospheric balloons: instrumental development and field application. (United States)

    Maamary, Rabih; Joly, Lilian; Decarpenterie, Thomas; Cousin, Julien; Dumelié, Nicolas; Grouiez, Bruno; Albora, Grégory; Chauvin, Nicolas; Miftah-El-Khair, Zineb; Legain, Dominique; Tzanos, Diane; Barrié, Joel; Moulin, Eric; Ramonet, Michel; Bréon, François-Marie; Durry, Georges


    Human activities disrupt natural biogeochemical cycles such as the carbon and contribute to an increase in the concentrations of the greenhouse gases (carbone dioxide and methane) in the atmosphere. The current atmospheric transport modeling (the vertical trade) still represents an important source of uncertainty in the determination of regional flows of greenhouse gases, which means that a good knowledge of the vertical distribution of CO2 is necessary to (1) make the link between the ground measurements and spatial measurements that consider an integrated concentration over the entire column of the atmosphere, (2) validate and if possible improve CO2 transport model to make the link between surface emissions and observed concentration. The aim of this work is to develop a lightweight instrument (based on mid-infrared laser spectrometry principles) for in-situ measuring at high temporal/spatial resolution (5 Hz) the vertical profiles of the CO2 and the CH4 using balloons (meteorological and BSO at high precision levels (logistics flights. These laser spectrometers are built on recent instrumental developments. Several flights were successfully done in the region Champagne-Ardenne and in Canada recently. Aknowledgments: The authors acknowledge financial supports from CNES, CNRS défi instrumental and the region Champagne-Ardenne.

  19. Foaming in stout beers

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, W T


    We review the differences between bubble formation in champagne and other carbonated drinks, and stout beers which contain a mixture of dissolved nitrogen and carbon dioxide. The presence of dissolved nitrogen in stout beers gives them a number of properties of interest to connoisseurs and physicists. These remarkable properties come at a price: stout beers do not foam spontaneously and special technology, such as the widgets used in cans, is needed to promote foaming. Nevertheless the same mechanism, nucleation by gas pockets trapped in cellulose fibres, responsible for foaming in carbonated drinks is active in stout beers, but at an impractically slow rate. This gentle rate of bubble nucleation makes stout beers an excellent model system for the scientific investigation of the nucleation of gas bubbles. The equipment needed is very modest, putting such experiments within reach of undergraduate laboratories. Finally we consider the suggestion that a widget could be constructed by coating the inside of a beer...

  20. Gravity-capillary free-surface flows

    CERN Document Server

    Vanden-Broeck, Jean-Marc


    Free surface problems occur in many aspects of science and of everyday life such as the waves on a beach, bubbles rising in a glass of champagne, melting ice, pouring flows from a container and sails billowing in the wind. Consequently, the effect of surface tension on gravity-capillary flows continues to be a fertile field of research in applied mathematics and engineering. Concentrating on applications arising from fluid dynamics, Vanden-Broeck draws upon his years of experience in the field to address the many challenges involved in attempting to describe such flows mathematically. Whilst careful numerical techniques are implemented to solve the basic equations, an emphasis is placed upon the reader developing a deep understanding of the structure of the resulting solutions. The author also reviews relevant concepts in fluid mechanics to help readers from other scientific fields who are interested in free boundary problems.

  1. A study of sediment transport and erosion in the Fourchon area of south Louisiana (United States)

    Self, R. P.


    Aerial photography in the form of color infrared and color positive transparencies were used as aids in evaluating the rate and effect of erosion and sediment transport in Bay Champagne, a coastal marshland of Louisiana. Problems were found in the aerial photography method used. Vegetational differences do not always reflect sediment differences. Only areas containing different soils and sediments are easily defined with aerial photography. The shoreline erosion rate is 75 to 100 ft/yr. Areas which are undergoing erosion shift due to changes in wave refraction. In canals and channels with strong currents, erosion also occurs at a rapid rate. It is recommended that drainage patterns be studied carefully before breaches are made as man-made breaches could reverse drainage.

  2. IUE observations of high velocity gas towards the M16 nebula (United States)

    Welsh, B. Y.


    The star HD 168183, which is part of the giant H II region-molecular cloud complex of M16 (NGC 6611), has been observed at high resolution using the IUE satellite. High velocity interstellar absorption components have been detected at velocities of -83, -38 and +40 km s-1 and it is proposed that a stellar wind-driven shock-front, interacting with the ambient neutral interstellar gas, is responsible for such complex velocity structure. Strong absorption from five of the 12C16O UV molecular lines has also been detected and the present UV absorption line data seem consistent with radio observations of M16 in which the Tenorio-Tagle 'champagne' model has been invoked to explain the ionized and neutral gas outflows from the nebula.

  3. On the kinematics of h ii regions: yesterday, today, and tomorrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. O. Castañeda,


    Full Text Available El estudio de la cinem atica y din amica de las regiones H II nos provee de informaci on sobre las condiciones f sicas del gas, la interpretaci on de su espectro de emisi on y el intercambio de energ a mec anica entre las estrellas masivas y el gas ionizado. Discutimos en nuestra presentaci on el pasado, presente y futuro de la investigaci on en este campo. Cubrimos brevemente los avances te oricos y observacionales realizados durante las ultimas d ecadas, incluyendo el estudio de los efectos del medio circundante en la cinem atica, el llamado modelo de champagne, los movimientos supers onicos observados en regions H II gigantes, y los efectos de la turbulencia y virializaci on del gas. Finalmente discutimos como observaciones con espectr ografos Fabry-Perot, tanto en regiones individuales como en muestras completas de regiones en galaxias, puede llevarnos a una mejor comprensi on del estado f sico del gas.

  4. French vineyards provide information that opens ways for effective resistance management of Botrytis cinerea (grey mould). (United States)

    Walker, Anne-Sophie; Micoud, Annie; Rémuson, Florent; Grosman, Jacques; Gredt, Michel; Leroux, Pierre


    Resistance to fungicides is an evolutionary process resulting from the selection of advantageous genotypes in naturally diverse populations. Seven fungicide modes of action are authorised to control grey mould caused by Botrytis cinerea on grapevine in France, and five of them have encountered specific resistance, with variable frequencies in populations and possible consequences for field fungicide efficacy. Moreover, multidrug resistance is caused by fungicide efflux and allows a weak resistance towards six unrelated modes of action. Here, a review is given of the fungicide resistance status of B. cinerea in France, particularly in the vineyards of Champagne, which are the most affected. Recently developed resistance and recent findings concerning the associated resistance mechanisms are focused upon in particular. Finally, antiresistance strategies are presented, and examples of managed resistance are discussed in a more general manner with the aim of extending this knowledge to other crops and countries undergoing similar resistance problems.

  5. [S IV] in the NGC 5253 Supernebula: Ionized Gas Kinematics at High Resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Sara C; Turner, Jean L; Kruger, Andrew; Richter, Matt; Crosthwaite, Lucian P


    The nearby dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 5253 hosts a deeply embedded radio-infrared supernebula excited by thousands of O stars. We have observed this source in the 10.5{\\mu}m line of S+3 at 3.8 kms-1 spectral and 1.4" spatial resolution, using the high resolution spectrometer TEXES on the IRTF. The line profile cannot be fit well by a single Gaussian. The best simple fit describes the gas with two Gaussians, one near the galactic velocity with FWHM 33.6 km s-1 and another of similiar strength and FWHM 94 km s-1 centered \\sim20 km s-1 to the blue. This suggests a model for the supernebula in which gas flows towards us out of the molecular cloud, as in a "blister" or "champagne flow" or in the HII regions modelled by Zhu (2006).

  6. Nested shells reveal the rejuvenation of the Orion-Eridanus superbubble

    CERN Document Server

    Ochsendorf, B B; Bally, J; Tielens, A G G M


    The Orion-Eridanus superbubble is the prototypical superbubble due to its proximity and evolutionary state. Here, we provide a synthesis of recent observational data from WISE and Planck with archival data, allowing to draw a new and more complete picture on the history and evolution of the Orion-Eridanus region. We discuss the general morphological structures and observational characteristics of the superbubble, and derive quantitative properties of the gas- and dust inside Barnard's Loop. We reveal that Barnard's Loop is a complete bubble structure which, together with the lambda Ori region and other smaller-scale bubbles, expands within the Orion-Eridanus superbubble. We argue that the Orion-Eridanus superbubble is larger and more complex than previously thought, and that it can be viewed as a series of nested shells, superimposed along the line of sight. During the lifetime of the superbubble, HII region champagne flows and thermal evaporation of embedded clouds continuously mass-load the superbubble inte...

  7. Interfon

    CERN Document Server



       PORTES OUVERTES INTERFON Le mercredi 28 mars 2012 De 16h à 20h à St-Genis-Pouilly (Salle Jean Monnet) Venez commander du fioul à un tarif préférentiel. Venez commander des volailles de Bresse pour les fêtes de Pâques (livraison le 5 avril au Technoparc de 13h30 à 16h30) Venez déguster notre sélection de vins et de champagne. Venez rencontrer nos partenaires exposants qui proposeront des offres promotionnelles. BURDET : Miel. COMPTOIRS DES FERS : Plomberie, chauffage, sanitaire, carrelage. DECO 74 Barrisol : Plafonds suspendus, cloisons légères. E.L.M.Pro-pose : Menuiseries intérieures, extérieures,… LEFRANCOIS : Bureautique. NORDIQUE France : Saunas, hammams, spa, fitness. OPTIQUE DU LION. POINT S : Pneus. PRISME Conseil : Gestion patrimoine. SAVOIE CHEMINEES. 1,2,3 ISOLATION : Menuiseries int&eacu...

  8. Interfon

    CERN Multimedia



       PORTES OUVERTES INTERFON Le mercredi 28 mars 2012 De 16h à 20h à St-Genis-Pouilly (Salle Jean Monnet) Venez commander du fioul à un tarif préférentiel. Venez commander des volailles de Bresse pour les fêtes de Pâques (livraison le 5 avril au Technoparc de 13h30 à 16h30) Venez déguster notre sélection de vins et de champagne. Venez rencontrer nos partenaires exposants qui proposeront des offres promotionnelles. BURDET : Miel. COMPTOIRS DES FERS : Plomberie, chauffage, sanitaire, carrelage. DECO 74 Barrisol : Plafonds suspendus, cloisons légères. E.L.M.Pro-pose : Menuiseries intérieures, extérieures,… LAPEYRE & OZER : Charpente, zinguerie, maçonnerie. LEFRANCOIS : Bureautique. NORDIQUE France : Saunas, hammams, spa, fitness. OPTIQUE DU LION. PAGE - Chauffage. POINT S : Pneus. PRISME Conse...

  9. Evaluation of oilseed crop rotations with agro-environmental indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouzet André


    Full Text Available The European Common Agricultural Policy is shifting an increasing part of the subsidies to eco-conditionality. Henceforth, it becomes essential to evaluate the environmental effect of agricultural practices, and more generally performances of cropping and farming systems, in order to design and to develop more sustainable systems. This assessment is being implemented for the main cropping systems of some French regions, using environmental indicators. Eleven exposure indicators were chosen in order to represent a wide range of specific sustainability objectives dealing with water, soil, air, non-renewable resources, biodiversity, and landscape. The results present the sustainability assessment for the crop rotations of Champagne Berrichonne region in the Centre of France.

  10. Interfon

    CERN Multimedia



    Dès maintenant préparons les Fêtes … N’oubliez pas que notre Coopérative, comme chaque année, vous offre l’occasion de vous approvisionner en volailles de Bresse. Passez vos commandes dès maintenant : Chapons, dindes, poulets, poulardes, pintades, canards et canettes.   Il est impératif de remplir un Bon de commande. Les commandes seront enregistrées jusqu’au 15 décembre et seront livrées les 22 ou 23 décembre (l’information vous sera communiquée individuellement ultérieurement). La cave Interfon vous propose ses champagnes disponibles dès maintenant : Brut – Demi-sec – Rosé – Millésimé - Prestige – Blancs de blanc. N’attendez pas le dernier moment les retardataires pourraient ne pas êtr...

  11. Spectrofluorometric determination of histamine in wines and other alcoholic beverages. (United States)

    Vidal-Carou, M C; Izquierdo-Pulido, M L; Mariné-Font, A


    The spectrofluorometric determination of histamine in wines, other alcoholic beverages, and vinegars is described. Histamine is extracted with n-butanol, transferred to hydrochloric acid, and subjected to a condensation reaction with o-phthalaldehyde (OPT). The method was tested for sensitivity (0.03 ppm limit of detection and 0.08 ppm limit of determination), precision (6.4% CV for a content of 1.25 ppm and 19.5% CV for a content of 0.25 ppm), accuracy (97.1%), recovery (90.6-96.9%), and lack of interference by histidine. The method can be applied to wine, must, beer, champagne, cider, vermouth, and vinegar with satisfactory results.

  12. PT e PSDB na democracia de público brasileira : estratégias partidárias vitoriosas no novo jogo eleitoral


    Joyce Miranda Leão Martins


    PT e PSDB polarizam as eleições presidenciais brasileiras há 20 anos, as quais, estando dentro de uma "democracia de público" (tipo ideal descrito por Manin), são também disputas entre imagens públicas de lideranças. Esse novo jogo eleitoral, que ocorre devido a mutações no espaço público, passa por formar a opinião (Champagne, 1998) e é fundamental em democracias nas quais os meios de comunicação servem de mediadores entre o eleitor e a política. Este trabalho tem como objetivo compreender a...

  13. Changes in the prevalence of alcohol in rap music lyrics 1979-2009. (United States)

    Herd, Denise


    This study examines the prevalence and context of alcohol references in rap music lyrics from 1979 through 2009. Four hundred nine top-ranked rap music songs released were sampled from Billboard magazine rating charts. Songs were analyzed using systematic content analysis and were coded for alcohol beverage types and brand names, drinking behaviors, drinking contexts, attitudes towards alcohol, and consequences of drinking. Trends were analyzed using regression analyses. The results of the study reveal significant increases in the presence of alcohol in rap songs; a decline in negative attitudes towards alcohol; decreases in consequences attributed to alcohol; increases in the association of alcohol with glamour and wealth, drugs, and nightclubs; and increases in references to liquor and champagne.

  14. Radio and infrared recombination studies of the southern massive star-forming region G333.6-0.2

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiyoshi, T; Caswell, J L; Moore, T J T; Lumsden, S L; Aitken, D K; Roche, P F; Fujiyoshi, Takuya; Smith, Craig H.; Caswell, James L.; Moore, Toby J. T.; Lumsden, Stuart L.; Aitken, David K.; Roche, Patrick F.


    We present high spatial resolution radio and near-infrared hydrogen recombination line observations of the southern massive star-forming region G333.6-0.2. The 3.4-cm continuum peak is found slightly offset from the infrared source. The H90alpha spectra show for the first time a double peak profile at some positions. The complex velocity structure may be accounted for by champagne outflows, which may also explain the offset between the radio and infrared sources. The 2.17-um Brackett gamma image and H90alpha map are combined to construct an extinction map which shows a trend probably set by the blister nature of the HII region. The total number of Lyman continuum photons in the central 50-arcsec is estimated to be equivalent to that emitted by up to 19 O7V stars.

  15. Queneau, Perec, Duras : Trois manières de boire dans le roman français

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Montémont


    Full Text Available L’alcool et les alcools sont des thèmes étroitement associés au monde littéraire : si l’on en doutait, une recherche dans la base Frantext, qui comporte près de 3952 textes français et francophones, suffirait à nous en convaincre : une requête sur le lemme alcool ne ramène pas moins de 3338 occurrences. Si l’on élargit l’isotopie considérée, on trouve 23 372 occurrences de vin, 2953 mentions de bière, 1436 d’eau-de-vie, 834 de Champagne, 122 de cognac… ainsi que quelques dizaines de cuites, r...

  16. Caracterização de quartzo para obtenção de suas variedades gemológicas por irradiação gama e/ou tratamento térmico Quartz characterization to obtain its gemological varieties by means of gamma irradiation and/or heat treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ney Friedemann Drummond


    Full Text Available Apesar da grande produção de quartzo em Minas Gerais, pouco é conhecido sobre a influência do ambiente geológico na geração das variedades coloridas através de tratamento. Sabe-se que a irradiação gama, seguida ou não de aquecimento, conduz à formação de cores, tais como acontece com a ametista, prasiolita, green gold, beer, cognac, whisky e champagne. Amostras de ambientes hidrotermal e pegmatítico foram submetidas a ensaios por espectroscopia de absorção na região do infravermelho por transformada de Fourier (FTIR e irradiação gama seguida ou não de tratamento térmico. Os espectros obtidos por FTIR mostram bandas correlacionadas a elementos dopantes, os quais indicam o potencial da amostra pelo aparecimento de cor e permitem determinar as doses que serão aplicadas na irradiação gama e as temperaturas que serão utilizadas no tratamento térmico. Os resultados dos ensaios mostraram que quartzo de ambiente hidrotermal com valores anômalos de ferro, com banda FTIR a 3.585cm-1, fator fa > 3,3 e área entre 400 e 600u.a*cm-1, poderá desenvolver a cor violeta; quartzo com anomalias de lítio na estrutura do cristal derivado de núcleo de pegmatitos altamente diferenciados ricos em minerais de lítio apresentando banda FTIR a 3.485cm-1, fator fLi > 2,0 e irradiado com doses de 65 a 400kGy pode desenvolver cores amarelo-esverdeadas a acastanhadas. É possível concluir que ametista e prasiolita são produzidas de quartzo de ambiente hidrotermal, enquanto variedades gemológicas raras, tais como green gold, beer, cognac, whisky e champagne são produzidas de quartzo de pegmatitos altamente diferenciados, que contêm minerais de lítio.Despite the large production of quartz in Minas Gerais, little is known about the geological environment influence on the generation of colored varieties by treatment. It is known that gamma irradiation, followed or not by heating, leads to the generation of colors such as amethyst, prasiolite


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Western Beijing, Financial Street F’easter Easter"Bubbly Sunday"The infamous and decadent"Bubbly Sunday Brunch"with all the traditional Easter trimmings on Easter Sunday March 23. A chocolate ex- travaganza for all to behold,a mystifying magic show,live music,colored egg painting to keep the little ones occupied and even a visit from the Easter bunny. From 11:30 a.m. to 3:00 p.m.,prior reservations recommended please call 6629 7810.Subject to a 15-percent service charge. 338 yuan per person with free flow piper champagne,wine and brunch beverage bar. 268 yuan with unlimited soft drinks,juice and mocktails. 118 yuan kids below 12 years.

  18. Interfon

    CERN Multimedia


    2013-01-01   Rendez-vous sur notre site pour toutes les « News » Interfon « News »   Derniers rappels importants   Le mercredi 9 octobre 2013 Salle Jean Monnet à Saint-Genis-Pouilly de 16 h 00 à 20 h 00 Rencontrez nos partenaires. Venez nous rejoindre et découvrir nos fournisseurs autour d’un buffet campagnard. Commandez votre fioul au tarif spécial « Portes ouvertes », dégustez et commandez notre sélection de vins et champagnes. «Tarifs préférentiels » Offre promotionnelle Vitam’ Pour les visiteurs de notre Portes Ouvertes : – Pour + de 80 € de billets Vitam’ achetés*, recevez en cadeau 1 entrée au choix « Aquatique ou Escalade (enfant ou adulte) ou raquettes ». &ndas...

  19. Elaboration, analyse et modélisation mécanique numérique d’agro-composites à base de fibres courtes d’alfa


    El-Abbassi Fatima-ezzahra; Ayad Rezak; lamdouara Nouzha; Kebir H.; Sabhi Hamid; Buet Stephane; Assarar Mustapha


    Dans la présente étude, récemment réalisée au Laboratoire d’Ingénierie et Sciences des Matériaux, de l’Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, nous proposons de valoriser la plante végétale d’Alfa, sous forme de fibres courtes en vue de renforcer par extrusion dans une première étape, puis par injection, des matrices polymères, en l’occurrence le Polypropylène (PP). Une première étape consiste à élaborer, par traitement chimique et extraction, la fibre courte à utiliser comme renfort. Il s’en ...

  20. Ségrégations résidentielles et construction de parcours de formation 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Leclercq


    Full Text Available Cet article se propose de marquer certaines approches théoriques concernant les inégalités des chances au sein des sciences sociales, de voir la prévalence des approches surtout sociale où la question du territoire est souvent biaisée. Nous analyserons les moyens de la connaissance de cette réalité des inégalités des chances en regard des territoires, les moyens de la production statistique, par les approches du Cereq, notamment.  Nous montrerons comment cette question des choix de parcours et de lutte contre l’échec est abordée à l’échelle d’une université, en prenant l’exemple de certaines initiatives réalisées notamment en Champagne Ardenne montrant ainsi la complexité d’une connaissance objective.This article suggests marking certain theoretical approaches concerning the disparities of the chances. According to the disciplinary membership within the social sciences, to see especially social prevalencia the approaches where the question of the territory is often slanted. We shall analyze the means of the knowledge of this reality of the disparities of the chances compared to territories, the means of the statistical production, by the approaches of the Cereq.We shall show how this question of the choices of route and fight against the defeat is approached on the scale of a university, by taking the example of certain initiatives realized notably in Champagne Ardenne so showing the complexity of an objective knowledge.

  1. Identification and frequency of atmospheric circulation patterns causing spring frost in the northern French vineyards using the objective version of the Hess-Brezowsky classification (United States)

    Quénol, H.; Planchon, O.; Wahl, L.


    The possible impacts of climate change at small spatial scales are still very little known. The knowledge of the climate risks at small scales is yet essential for agricultural activities and productions like vine growing, because of their serious economic impacts. Because of their relatively high latitude, the vineyards of the northern Half of France are subjected to spring frost, which can cause serious damages e.g. in the Champagne area on April the 8th, 2003. A detailed study of the variability and frequency of spring frost events in four vineyards (Loire Valley, Champagne, Burgundy and Alsace) was carried out within the framework of the RICLIM-CNRS 2663 multidisciplinary Research Group "Climate Risks" and was supported by the research program TERVICLIM (ANR-JC07-194103) and by the MAIF Foundation (program about air-mass circulation dynamics and climate risks). The northern Half of France is included in the Cfb type of climate (according to the Köppen's classification) of northwestern and central Europe. However, the combined effects of the latitude, the continentality and the topography involve varied regional climates. Among the four studied wine-producing areas, the Loire Valley area is the warmest, the Champagne area is the coolest in summer, and eastern Burgundy and especially Alsace are the most subjected to the continentality effect (highest annual temperature oscillation and highest rainfall amounts in summer). Therefore, these areas are not equally subjected to the frost risk. Spring is a key season for the vine growing and during frost-producing weather patterns, northern France is subjected to a high spatial variability of temperature at regional and local scales. During the period 1960-2007, the number of spring frost day events was three times as high in Colmar (Alsace) than in Saumur (Loire Valley). Among the four wine-producing areas, Alsace records the most hard and frequent frosts in early spring, while the Champagne area records the latest

  2. Etudes amérindiennes : le poids des plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Serme


    Full Text Available L’article s’attache à exposer les initiatives culturelles et les débats actuels du monde amérindiens en Amérique du Nord. Trop souvent, les Indiens d’Amérique ont été enfermés dans leur histoire tragique et montrés comme des êtres dépendants et sans défense. Pourtant, des auteurs, des activistes, des professeurs et des chercheurs en sciences sociales amérindiens se sont depuis une quarantaine d’années employés à redéfinir leurs cultures. L’article explore en profondeur deux recueils d’essais amérindiens récents : Susan Lobo & Steve Talbot, eds. Native American Voices: A Reader. New York: Longman, 1998; Duane Champagne, ed. Contemporary Native American Cultural Issues. Walnut Creek : AltaMira Press, 1999. Le sujet est hautement sensible et politique, aussi j’aurai soin de rendre fidèlement compte des opinions exprimées par les auteurs tout en n’oubliant pas le contexte politique de la société dominante.This paper focuses on Native American cultural initiatives and current debates. Too often, North American Indians have been confined to their tragic history and shown as dependent and helpless. Yet Native American intellectuals and militants have been engaged in cultural re-definition in the last forty years. The paper will draw extensively from two recent collections of essays: Susan Lobo & Steve Talbot, eds. Native American Voices: A Reader. New York: Longman, 1998; Duane Champagne, ed. Contemporary Native American Cultural Issues. Walnut Creek: AltaMira Press, 1999. The subject is highly sensitive and political, therefore I will be careful to give both a faithful account of the authors’ views without ignoring the political context of the dominant society.El artículo presenta las iniciativas culturales y los debates actuales en el mundo amerindio de América del Norte. Muy a menudo, los Indios de América fueron encerrados en su historia trágica y descritos como seres dependientes e indefensos. Sin

  3. Concentração e conteúdo de nutrientes em lisianto, cultivado em hidroponia, em sistema NFT = Concentration and nutrient content in lisianthus grown in a hydroponic NFT system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Alice Antonello Londero Backes


    Full Text Available O diagnóstico nutricional é fundamental para determinar as exigências das plantas quanto aos nutrientes, de forma a se proceder a um manejo adequado, de acordo com a espécie. Assim, para determinar as concentrações e conteúdos nutricionais adequados à produção e qualidade de plantas de lisianto em cultivo hidropônico, instalou-se um experimento onde as plantas foram cultivadas em sistema NFT, em diferentes soluções nutritivas. O experimento foi conduzido, segundo delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 4x3, totalizando 12 tratamentos, com três repetições. Ostratamentos foram compostos de quatro cultivares (Echo Champagne, Mariachi Pure White, Balboa Yellow e Ávila Blue Rim e três soluções nutritivas (Teste, Steiner modificada e Barbosa. Foram avaliadas as concentrações e os conteúdos dos nutrientes nas folhas e conteúdos na parte aérea das plantas. As plantas cultivadas nas soluções Barbosa eTeste apresentaram resultados satisfatórios quanto às concentrações e aos conteúdos de nutrientes, enquanto a solução Steiner modificada produziu plantas com limitações nutricionais.The nutritional diagnosis is fundamental for determining plantnutrients, in order to correctly manage the nutritional requirements for each species. Thus, in order to determine the ideal nutrient amount and concentration for obtaining the best yield and quality of lisianthus grown hydroponically, an experiment was conducted inwhich the plants were grown under the NFT system in different nutrient solutions. The experiment was conducted according to a random block design arrangement in a 4x3 factorial scheme, totaling 12 treatments with three repetitions. The treatments werecomprised of four cultivars (Echo Champagne, Mariachi Pure White, Balboa Yellow and Ávila Blue Rim and three nutrient solutions (Test, modified Steiner and Barbosa. In the leaves, nutrient concentration and content were evaluated; in the aerial

  4. Molecules, dust, and protostars in NGC 3503

    CERN Document Server

    Duronea, N U; Romero, G A; Cappa, C E; Barbá, R; Bronfman, L


    We are presenting here a follow-up study of the molecular gas and dust in the environs of the star forming region NGC 3503. This study aims at dealing with the interaction of NGC 3503 with its parental molecular cloud, and also with the star formation in the region. To analyze the molecular gas we use CO(2-1), 13CO(2-1), C18O(2-1), and HCN(3-2) line data obtained with the APEX telescope. To study the distribution of the dust, we make use of images at 870 microns from the ATLASGAL survey and IRAC-GLIMPSE archival images. We use public 2MASS and WISE data to search for candidate YSOs in the region. The new APEX observations allowed the substructure of the molecular gas in the velocity range from -28 to -23 km/s to be imaged in detail. The morphology of the molecular gas close to the nebula, the location of the PDR, and the shape of radio continuum emission suggest that the ionized gas is expanding against its parental cloud, and confirm the "champagne flow" scenario. We have identified several molecular clumps ...

  5. Biotin-Avidin ELISA Detection of Grapevine Fanleaf Virus in the Vector Nematode Xiphinema index. (United States)

    Esmenjaud, D; Walter, B; Minot, J C; Voisin, R; Cornuet, P


    The value of biotin-avidin (B-A) ELISA for the detection of grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) in Xiphinema was estimated with field populations and greenhouse subpopulations. Samples consisted of increasing numbers of adults ranging from 1 to 64 in multiples of two. Tests with virus-free X. index populations reared on grapevine and fig plants as negative controls did not reveal a noticeable effect of the host plant. ELISA absorbances of virus-free X. index samples were greater than corresponding absorbances of X. pachtaicum samples. Differences occurred between two X. index field populations from GFLV-infected grapevines in Champagne and Languedoc. In most tests, 1-, 2-, 4-, and 8-nematode samples of virus-free and virus-infected populations, respectively, could not be separated. Consequently, B-A ELISA was not a reliable method for GFLV detection in samples of less than 10 X. index adults, but comparison of the absorbances obtained with increasing numbers may allow differentiation of the viral infectious potential of several populations.

  6. Bubbles for POPS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin


    At the beginning of May, the new power system of the PS (POPS) got its official send-off. Built around an array of static power converters, POPS is undergoing testing while waiting to be connected to the accelerator.   The team from the Electrical Power Converters Group (TE/EPC) is joined by the Director of Accelerators, the heads of the BE, TE and FI departments, CERN managers and Converteam representatives in a group portrait in front of three of the containers that house the capacitor banks of the PS's new power supply system, POPS. Starting in 2013, the PS’s power system will get a new lease of life. The new system, which goes by the charming acronym of POPS (Power for the PS), is currently undergoing tests, following its installation inside the accelerator ring. In a ceremony held on Thursday, 6 May Converteam, the company that manufactured this enormous power system, officially handed it over to CERN. The inauguration of POPS was well worth popping the champagne corks for. The ...

  7. A magnificent team effort

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    During the last weekend and this week, the LHC has accomplished many tasks: it first circulated two beams in opposite directions, then made them collide in the heart of the four giant detectors and finally slightly increased their energy. Virtual champagne for the hundreds of people working night and day to repair the machine, prepare it for the restart and finally operate it.   This shot of delighted operators with their eyes glued to screens showing the first circulating beams in the LHC was taken by the CERN Photolab and has been published in newspapers around the world.  The LHC is making the headlines of the world's press but the real emotion these days can be seen in the eyes of the machine operators in the CERN Control Centre (CCC) and has spread all around CERN. Of course, this is just the beginning and the LHC will have to accomplish more challenging tasks but these first moments were undoubtedly very intense, partly due to the fact that last year’s incident i...

  8. 20 years ago: first collisions (at LEP)

    CERN Multimedia


    It’s been 20 years since the first electron positron collision at LEP, and I have to confess to a little self-indulgence in my message this week. Back then I was a member of the OPAL collaboration, the first to see collisions at LEP just before midnight on 13 August 1989 and almost exactly one month after the first circulating beam. It was a historic moment, and the atmosphere in the OPAL control room, 100 metres underground, was one of anticipation and excitement. We reported back to the LEP control room, champagne duly arrived, and over the next few hours, all the experiments were recording data. The pilot run was as smooth as it could be, and within weeks we were announcing new physics. It’s interesting to contrast the start-up of LEP with that of the LHC. With the benefit of hindsight, LEP seems to have got going without a hitch, and indeed it was a smooth start. We circulated beam on 14 July, much to the joy of one of our host states, and it was just a month ...

  9. Discovery Monday 'Everyday physics: CERN in my kitchen?'

    CERN Document Server


    Using lasers in the ASACUSA experiment at CERN. As you start imagining menus for the festive season, the next Discovery Monday invites you to think about the physics behind the food you prepare. In fact you may be surprised to find science and technologies used at CERN in many of your dosmestic appliances! Be it the oven used to cook the turkey, the fridge that chills the champagne or the laser in the CD machine you use to play Christmas carols, discover the technologies that make them work and how these same technologies are also applied at CERN. In the case of the CD player, the subject is particularly topical as this year's Nobel Physics Prize was awarded for advances in lasers. Find out more about this and how lasers are used at CERN. In some cases, CERN is developing new technologies that may end up in future domestic appliances, such as the vacuum technology used for flat-screen televisions. After this festive Discovery Monday, join us for a taste of liquid nitrogen ice-cream or a cup of coffee (ma...

  10. The highly ionized, high velocity gas in NGC 6231

    CERN Document Server

    Massa, Derck


    It is well known that clusters of massive stars are influenced by the presence of strong winds, that they are sources of diffuse X-rays from shocked gas, and that this gas can be vented into the surrounding region or the halo through the champagne effect. However, the details of how these different environments interact and evolve are far from complete. This paper attributes the broad C IV 1500 absorption features (extending to -1900 \\kms) that are seen in the spectra of main sequence B stars in NGC 6231 to gas in the cluster environment and not the B stars themselves. It is shown that the presence of a WC star, WR 79, in the cluster makes this gas detectable because its wind enriches the cluster gas with carbon. Given the available data, it is not clear whether the absorbing gas is simply the far wind of WR 79 or a collective cluster wind enriched by carbon from the wind of WR 79. If it is simply due to the wind, then this wind must flow, unimpeded for more than 2 pc, suggesting that the inner region of the ...

  11. Golden Jubilee photos: The Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia


    Energy record Standing before the CERN personnel in the Main Auditorium on 25 November 1959, John Adams held not a bottle of champagne but a bottle of vodka. It had been presented to him a few months earlier during a visit to Dubna in the Soviet Union, where the world's most powerful accelerator had just been commissioned. He had been given strict instructions not to open the bottle until Dubna's energy record of 10 GeV had been broken. On 24 November, the record was smashed by CERN's brand new machine, the Proton Synchrotron, which accelerated protons at 24 GeV, over twice the energy of the Dubna machine. Before sending the empty bottle back to the Soviet Union, John Adams, who had headed the accelerator's construction, placed the recording of the signal in it as proof of the record. More than 40 years later, the PS is still going strong, delivering beams with particle densities a thousand times greater than when it first started operation. Over the years, other accelerators have grown up around it and the...

  12. EDMS - Reaching the Million Mark

    CERN Multimedia


    When Christophe Seith from the company Cegelec sat down to work on 14 May 2009 at 10:09 a.m. to create the EDMS document entitled "Rapport tournée PH semaine 20", little did he know that he would be the proud creator of the millionth EDMS document and the happy prize winner of a celebratory bottle of champagne to mark the occasion. In the run up to the creation of the millionth EDMS document the EDMS team had been closely monitoring the steady rise in the EDMS number generator, so as to ensure the switch from the six figured i.d. to seven figures would run smoothly and of course, to be able to congratulate the creator of the millionth EDMS document. From left to right: Stephan Petit (GS-ASE- EDS Section Leader), Christophe Delamare (GS- ASE Group Leader), Christophe Seith, creator of the millionth EDMS document, David Widegren, (GS-ASE- EPS Section Leader). The millionth EDMS document. For t...

  13. Workplace Safety: you've answered the right questions!

    CERN Multimedia

    The Safety Unit (BE Department)


    The World Day for Safety and Health at Work was a great success. A big thank you to everyone who took part and took the time to ask themselves the "right questions".   A large number of questionnaires were completed and we were happy to note that many among you had taken the opportunity to give serious thought to your own health and safety on a daily basis. In a few days' time, information on the hazards most frequently identified over the course of that day – and the methods of coping with them – will be posted on the BE Safety Unit's website. If you have any questions, please do not hesitate to contact us. The 15 winners of the tombola are: 1st prize (a FNAC gift voucher) Jean-Benoit Fouillat 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th prizes (a bottle of champagne): Maud Scheubel Pierre Juteau Sebastien Ceuterickx Joao Simoes From 6th to 15th prize (a box of chocolates): Antonio Mongelluzzo Francesco Castronuovo Christophe Boucly Marta Csatari Jacky Tonoli Remy Noulib...

  14. [Alcohol and the heart : Anecdotes on the history of a checkered relationship]. (United States)

    Lüderitz, B


    The cultural and natural scientific ambivalence of the heart and alcohol has long been the subject of philosophical, artistic, intellectual and emotional discussions, not uncommonly in a romanticizing manner. The indulgence of alcoholic beverages in moderation is contrasted by the inestimable risks and dangers of alcohol abuse with many cardiovascular implications, such as cardiac arrhythmia, cardiomyopathy and arterial hypertension. The inspirational mental effects of alcohol have been emphasized in many citations from Classical Antiquity through the Middle Ages and even in modern times. In addition to wine and beer many alcoholic drinks, such as Champagne, sparkling wines, whisky (or whiskey), brandy (Cognac) and fruit brandies have a nearly ritual culture of traditions and customs, without which social life would be unthinkable. The interplay between enjoyment and displeasure is emphasized in the year 2016 with the 500-year jubilee of the German purity requirements for beer with countless events, including the Bavarian State Exhibition 2016. Recently, evidence of a neuroprotective effect of alcohol was reported with an improvement of intellectual capacity, which could counteract the widely occurring dementia syndrome. Millions of people could profit from this effect.

  15. Gas kinematics in the H II regions G351.69-1.15 and G351.63-1.25 (United States)

    Veena, V. S.; Vig, S.; Tej, A.; Kantharia, N. G.; Ghosh, S. K.


    We probe the structure and kinematics of two neighbouring H II regions identified as cometary and bipolar, using radio recombination lines (RRLs). The H172α RRLs from these H II regions: G351.69-1.15 and G351.63-1.25, are mapped using Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope, India. We also detect carbon RRLs C172α towards both these regions. The hydrogen RRLs display the effects of pressure and dynamical broadening in the line profiles, with the dynamical broadening (∼15 km s-1) playing a major role in the observed profile of G351.69-1.15. We investigate the kinematics of molecular gas species towards this H II region from the Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz Pilot Survey. The molecular gas is mostly distributed towards the north and north-west of the cometary head. The molecular line profiles indicate signatures of turbulence and outflow in this region. The ionized gas at the cometary tail is blueshifted by ∼8 km s-1 with respect to the ambient molecular cloud, consistent with the earlier proposed champagne flow scenario. The relative velocity of ∼5 km s-1 between the northern and southern lobes of the bipolar H II region G351.63-1.25 is consistent with the premise that the bipolar morphology is a result of the expanding ionized lobes within a flat molecular cloud.

  16. Characterization of Active Dry Wine Yeast During Starter Culture (Pied de Cuve) Preparation for Sparkling Wine Production. (United States)

    Benucci, Ilaria; Liburdi, Katia; Cerreti, Martina; Esti, Marco


    The preparation of yeast starter culture (Pied de Cuve) for producing sparkling wine with the traditional method is a key factor for manufacturing a good Prise de mousse. In this paper, the evolution of total yeast population, its viability during Pied de Cuve preparation, and the pressure profile during the 2nd fermentation in 2 different base wines made from Bombino bianco and Chardonnay grapes were investigated using 4 different commercial active dried yeasts. The study proves that despite the initial differences observed throughout the acclimatization phase, all the tested strains showed similar results on either the total population (from 8.2 × 10(7) cells/mL to 1.3 × 10(8) cells/mL) or cellular viability (from 70% to 84%). Independently from the base wine tested, the kinetic of sugar consumption was faster during the gradual acclimatization to the alcoholic medium (phase II) and slower during the preparation of starter culture in active growth phase (phase III). During both of these phases Saccharomyces cerevisiae bayanus Vitilevure DV10(®) (Station œnotechnique de Champagne) proved to have a higher sugar consumption rate than the other strains. During the Prise de mousse, S. cerevisiae bayanus Lalvin EC-1118(®) (Lallemand) reached the maximum pressure increase within time in both base wines.

  17. The Molecular Cloud Associated with the HII Region RCW:34 (United States)

    Pagani, L.; Heydari-Malayeri, M.; Castets, A.


    We present millimetric multi-line observations of the molecular cloud associated with the H II region RCW 34. We believe we are able to present a coherent description of the cloud: a molecular bar on top of the H II region is divided into three elements: a dense, heated part situated in the post-shock trail, a cold, less dense part besides, left unperturbed and a diffuse component either in front of the dense parts or possibly mixed with them if the dense parts are clumpy. This diffuse component has a density of a few hundreds per cm-3, a temperature in the range 30-60 K and its opacity in 12CO is close to or less than unity. We show that this diffuse component, the existence of which is controversial, is the best explanation to the large 12CO (J: 1 → 0)/(J: 2 → 1) ratio we have observed. A simple-minded model is presented to approach its properties. The cloud is on top and partly in front of the H II region and can explain the 4.2 mag of visual extinction measured by one of us (Heydari-Malayeri 1988). The very high velocity flow detected in Hα by Heydari-Malayeri has no counterpart in radio but could be a direct visualisation of the so-called "Champagne effect" (Tonorio-Tagle 1979).

  18. The molecular cloud-H II region complexes associated with SH 90 and SH 235 (United States)

    Lafon, G.; Baudry, A.; de La Noe, J.; Deharveng, L.


    The Sharpless regions Sh 90 and Sh 235 are characterized on the basis of monochromatic photographs (at H-alpha, N III, and O III) and H-alpha photographic interferograms made at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence and of molecular-cloud maps (at 110.201 and 89.189 GHz) made at the Observatoire de Bordeaux. Sh 90, at a distance of 2.4 kpc, is found to have an evolved-H II-region shell structure, with ionized gas flowing both away from and toward a neutral molecular cloud with a mass of about 60,000 solar mass which lies partly in front of the H II region. Sh 235, at 1.6 kpc, has two extended 100,000-300,000-solar-mass neutral clouds which partly overlap. The northern cloud, identified at -20 km/s, is related to the optical nebula; the southern cloud (at -17 km/s) contains three compact H II regions (A, B, and C) and exhibits recent star-formation processes. The 'champagne' model of H II regions proposed by Tenorio-Tagle (1979) is considered applicable to Sh 90 and to Sh 235C.

  19. On the formation and expansion of H II regions (United States)

    Franco, Jose; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Bodenheimer, Peter


    The evolution of H II regions in spherical clouds with small, constant-density cores and power-law density distributions r exp -w outside the core is described analytically. It is found that there is a critical exponent above which the cloud becomes completely ionized. Its value in the formation phase depends on the initial conditions, but it has a well-defined value w(crit) = 3/2 during the expansion phase. For w less than w(crit), the radius of the H II region grows at a given rate, while neutral mass accumulates in the interphase between the ionization and shock fronts. For w = w(crit), the fronts move together without mass accumulation. Cases with w greater than w(crit) lead to the champagne phase: once the cloud is fully ionized, the expansion becomes supersonic. For self-gravitating disks without magnetic fields, the main features include a new 'variable-size' stage. The initial shape of the H II region has a critical point beyond which the disk becomes completely ionized.

  20. LHCb celebrates completion of its beam pipe

    CERN Multimedia


    Members of the LHCb collaboration and of the AT and TS Departments are ready to pop open the champagne bottles and celebrate the complete installation and commissioning of the LHCb experiment’s beam pipe. Members of the LHCb collaboration and of the AT and TS Departments gather near the newly completed beam pipe in the foreground. All four sections of LHCb’s beam pipe have been installed, interconnected, pumped down and baked out.. Three of the conical tubes are made of beryllium in order to minimize the level of background in the experiment, while the fourth and largest section is composed of stainless steel. The first of the beryllium sections, an important connection to the Vertex Locator vacuum vessel (VELO) was installed in August 2006 (see Bulletin No. 37/2006). One of the more challenging tasks was the installation of the longest (6 m) piece of beryllium beam pipe through the 2.4 m long RICH2 detector in January 2006. Deli...

  1. L’oggetto del desiderio nella poesia lirica: alcune considerazioni sulla sublimazione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Giusti


    Full Text Available Sublimation is an idea often used to give a psychoanalytic interpretation of artistic creativity. Focusing on the lyric speaker within the poem and considering the text as a mise-en-scène of poetic creation, the paper intends to investigate why sublimation could not be the right key to understanding the phenomenon. The subject’s dynamics, in modern poetry, show themselves as a continuous failure in the repeated attempt to possess the object. The speaker’s affective and cognitive desire is produced and constantly renewed by the impossibility of possessing the object (above all in its representation. But it is only in such a gap that the subject can exists. In order to feel desire, there should be an illusion of possession and representation. Subject and object create each other in lyric poem, and the former comes to coincide with the desire for the latter, it does not exist outside that desire.  Since lyric poetry shows itself as the unfolding of a subject that voices itself and is always involved in an object relation, it can be a privileged field of investigation for this kind of phenomena. Two poets will be taken into consideration: Thibaut de Champagne, a late trouvère who summons up the Provençal tradition, and Charles Baudelaire, one of the modern poets that have most deeply investigated the reality lack of sense.  

  2. Social Thresholds and their Translation into Social-ecological Management Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Krogman


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to provide a preliminary discussion of how to improve our conceptualization of social thresholds using (1 a more sociological analysis of social resilience, and (2 results from research carried out in collaboration with the Champagne and Aishihik First Nations of the Yukon Territory, Canada. Our sociological analysis of the concept of resilience begins with a review of the literature followed by placement of the concept in the domain of sociological theory to gain insight into its strengths and limitations. A new notion of social thresholds is proposed and case study research discussed to support the proposition. Our findings suggest that rather than view social thresholds as breakpoints between two regimes, as thresholds are typically conceived in the resilience literature, that they be viewed in terms of collectively recognized points that signify new experiences. Some examples of thresholds identified in our case study include power in decision making, level of healing from historical events, and a preference for small-scale development over large capital intensive projects.

  3. Ice in the Tropics: the Export of ‘Crystal Blocks of Yankee Coldness’ to India and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc W. Herold


    Full Text Available The Boston natural ice trade thrived during 1830-70 based upon Frederic Tudor’s idea of combining two useless products – natural winter ice in New England ponds and sawdust from Maine’s lumber mills. Tudor ice was exported extensively to the tropics from the West Indies to Brazil and the East Indies as well as to southern ports of the United States. In tropical ice ports, imported natural ice was a luxury product, e.g., serving to chill claret wines (Calcutta, champagne (Havana and Manaus, and mint juleps (New Orleans and Savannah and used in luxury hotels or at banquets. In the temperate United States, natural ice was employed to preserve foods (cold storage and to cool water (Americans’ peculiar love of ice water. In both temperate and tropical regions natural ice found some use for medicinal purposes (to calm fevers. With the invention of a new technology to manufacture artificial ice as part of the Industrial Revolution, the natural ice export trade dwindled as import substituting industrialization proceeded in the tropics. By the turn of the twentieth century, ice factories had been established in half a dozen Brazilian port cities. All that remained of the once extensive global trade in natural ice was a sailing ship which docked in Rio Janeiro at Christmas time laden with ice and apples from New England.

  4. Fully developed turbulence in slugs of pipe flows (United States)

    Cerbus, Rory; Liu, Chien-Chia; Sakakibara, Jun; Gioia, Gustavo; Chakraborty, Pinaki


    Despite over a century of research, transition to turbulence in pipe flows remains a mystery. In theory the flow remains laminar for arbitrarily large Reynolds number, Re. In practice, however, the flow transitions to turbulence at a finite Re whose value depends on the disturbance, natural or artificial, in the experimental setup. The flow remains in the transition state for a range of Re ~ 0 (1000) ; for larger Re the flow becomes fully developed. The transition state for Re > 3000 consists of axially segregated regions of laminar and turbulent patches. These turbulent patches, known as slugs, grow as they move downstream. Their lengths span anywhere between a few pipe diameters to the whole length of the pipe. Here we report Stereo Particle Image Velocimetry measurements in the cross-section of the slugs. Notwithstanding the continuous growth of the slugs, we find that the mean velocity and stress profiles in the slugs are indistinguishable from that of statistically-stationary fully-developed turbulent flows. Our results are independent of the length of the slugs. We contrast our results with the well-known work of Wygnanski & Champagne (1973), whose measurements, we argue, are insufficient to draw a clear conclusion regarding fully developed turbulence in slugs.

  5. Video News release: LHC Energy Record

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN video productions


    Geneva, 30 November 2009. CERN1’s Large Hadron Collider has today become the world’s highest energy particle accelerator, having accelerated its twin beams of protons to an energy of 1.18 TeV in the early hours of the morning. This exceeds the previous world record of 0.98 TeV, which had been held by the US Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory’s Tevatron collider since 2001. It marks another important milestone on the road to first physics at the LHC in 2010. “We are still coming to terms with just how smoothly the LHC commissioning is going,” said CERN Director General Rolf Heuer. “It is fantastic. However, we are continuing to take it step by step, and there is still a lot to do before we start physics in 2010. I’m keeping my champagne on ice until then.” These developments come just 10 days after the LHC restart, demonstrating the excellent performance of the machine. First beams were injected into the LHC on Friday 20 November. Over the following days, the machine’s operators circulated...

  6. Highlights : LHC sets new world record CERN Control Centre, 30 November 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions; Marion Viguier


    Geneva, 30 November 2009. CERN1’s Large Hadron Collider has today become the world’s highest energy particle accelerator, having accelerated its twin beams of protons to an energy of 1.18 TeV in the early hours of the morning. This exceeds the previous world record of 0.98 TeV, which had been held by the US Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory’s Tevatron collider since 2001. It marks another important milestone on the road to first physics at the LHC in 2010. “We are still coming to terms with just how smoothly the LHC commissioning is going,” said CERN Director General Rolf Heuer. “It is fantastic. However, we are continuing to take it step by step, and there is still a lot to do before we start physics in 2010. I’m keeping my champagne on ice until then.” These developments come just 10 days after the LHC restart, demonstrating the excellent performance of the machine. First beams were injected into the LHC on Friday 20 November. Over the following days, the machine’s operators circulated...

  7. The new wave of wine brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Breno Álvares de Faria


    Full Text Available Wine branding is a series of complex marketing propositions intended to sell wine as a ‘brand’ – a product marketed much more thanks to its individual name and image rather than to its original quality. Wine brands can be basically divided in two distinct groups: some have called them ‘benign’ (a.k.a ‘historic’ or ‘classical’ - as for Champagne and the Bordeaux châteaux, for ex. and ‘modern’ brands. ‘Modern’ wine brands are usually built upon a base of elastic supply (to maintain consistency and planned promotion, most are owned big multinational companies, are standardized and aimed at the international market taste and a determined price level, lacking in diversity and terroir tipicity. In this study, the author describes how these ‘modern brands’ are structured and what are their marketing tools, run through examples of successful wine brands, and describe about their ads and cons for international consumers.

  8. Development of Resources of Black Currant and Other Berries (III)%黑加仑等浆果资源开发(三)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The continuous introduction of blackcurrant and other berries resource development included production technology, formulation, process operating points and personal experience, as well as berry processing technology, trends and current situation of development in fruit wine, fresh raw juices, senior carbonated beverages, sparkling wine and a series of products, fruit juice beverage products, blackcurrant Petite Champagne, jelly, jam, fruit juice and other products.%连续介绍黑加仑等浆果资源开发:果酒、新鲜原果汁、高级碳酸饮料、汽酒及系列产品、果汁饮料系列产品、黑加仑小香槟、果冻、果酱、浓缩果汁等产品的生产技术、配方、工艺操作要点及个人体会,以及浆果加工新技术,发展趋势和我国开发现状。


    CERN Multimedia


    2012-01-01 ECHOS de notre Assemblée générale L’A.G. annuelle de la Coopérative s’est tenue le 26 juin dernier au cours de laquelle le président fit lecture du rapport moral de l’année 2011, soulignant une activité toujours très soutenue, notamment dans les domaines : de la vente du fuel domestique (2 800 m3 vendus) de la vente de nos vins et champagnes toujours en hausse un succès très encourageant avec Vitam’Parc de bon résultats chez Aviva, Veranco, Vaurs… Le bilan présenté laisse apparaître un montant négatif de 14 252 € au 31/12/2011, dû principalement à un mouvement de personnel inhabituel, qui plombe la masse salariale de notre Coopérative. Notons par ailleurs l’arrivée de nouveaux partenaires : ...

  10. Illegal Passive Smoking at Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François-Xavier Lesage


    Results. Ninety-five percent of a total group of 172 OP of Champagne county filled the postal questionnaire. More than 80% of OP's replies identified illegal PSW. The average prevalence of PSW exposure was 0.7% of the total working population. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS levels were considered between low and medium for most passive smokers (71%. Main features exposure to ETS at work for non-smokers was associated with female gender (69.5%, age between 40 and 49 years (41.2% and belonging to tertiary sector (75.6%. Environmental tobacco smoke exposures at work was firstly in the office for 49.7% of the subjects and secondly in the restroom for 18% of them. Main medical symptoms encountered by non-smokers were respiratory tractus irritation (81.7%. Eighty-three percent of OPs indicated solution to eradicate PSW. Illegal PSW is really weaker than fifteen years ago. However, the findings support a real ban on smoking in the workplace in order to protect all workers.

  11. Photoevaporation Flows in Blister HII Regions: I. Smooth Ionization Fronts and Application to the Orion Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Henney, W J; Garcia-Diaz, M T; Garcia-Diaz, Ma. T.


    We present hydrodynamical simulations of the photoevaporation of a cloud with large-scale density gradients, giving rise to an ionized, photoevaporation flow. The flow is found to be approximately steady during the large part of its evolution, during which it can resemble a "champagne flow" or a "globule flow" depending on the curvature of the ionization front. The distance from source to ionization front and the front curvature uniquely determine the structure of the flow, with the curvature depending on the steepness of the lateral density gradient in the neutral cloud. We compare these simulations with both new and existing observations of the Orion nebula and find that a model with a mildly convex ionization front can reproduce the profiles of emission measure, electron density, and mean line velocity for a variety of emitting ions on scales of 10^{17} to 10^{18} cm. The principal failure of our model is that we cannot explain the large observed widths of the [O I] 6300 Angstrom line that forms at the ion...

  12. Application of Infrared Thermography as a Diagnostic Tool of Knee Osteoarthritis (United States)

    Arfaoui, Ahlem; Bouzid, Mohamed Amine; Pron, Hervé; Taiar, Redha; Polidori, Guillaume

    This paper aimed to study the feasibility of application of infrared thermography to detect osteoarthritis of the knee and to compare the distribution of skin temperature between participants with osteoarthritis and those without pathology. All tests were conducted at LACM (Laboratory of Mechanical Stresses Analysis) and the gymnasium of the University of Reims Champagne Ardennes. IR thermography was performed using an IR camera. Ten participants with knee osteoarthritis and 12 reference healthy participants without OA participated in this study. Questionnaires were also used. The participants with osteoarthritis of the knee were selected on clinical examination and a series of radiographs. The level of pain was recorded by using a simple verbal scale (0-4). Infrared thermography reveals relevant disease by highlighting asymmetrical behavior in thermal color maps of both knees. Moreover, a linear evolution of skin temperature in the knee area versus time has been found whatever the participant group is in the first stage following a given effort. Results clearly show that the temperature can be regarded as a key parameter for evaluating pain. Thermal images of the knee were taken with an infrared camera. The study shows that with the advantage of being noninvasive and easily repeatable, IRT appears to be a useful tool to detect quantifiable patterns of surface temperatures and predict the singular thermal behavior of this pathology. It also seems that this non-intrusive technique enables to detect the early clinical manifestations of knee OA.

  13. Bio THELYS: A new sludge reduction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauzy, Julien; Cretenot, Didier; Patria, Lucie; Fernandes, Paulo; Sauvegrain, Patrick; Levasseur, Jean-Pierre


    New technologies for reducing the sludge production of municipal or industrial WWTP have been appeared during the last few years. One of these innovative processes, Bio THELYS, consists in enhancing the biodegradability of sludge by a stage of thermal hydrolysis. The hydrolysed sludge could then be sent upstream to a biological step either aerobic or anaerobic. The objective is to increase the global mineralisation of the pollution entering the WWTP in order to decrease the waste leaving it, i.e. mainly the sludge. A 2500 population equivalent prototype was installed on a WWTP, in Champagne - France. Thermal hydrolysis is carried out under a temperature of 150-185{sup o}C, a pressure of 10-15 bar with an hydraulic retention time of 30-60 minutes. Thermal hydrolysis is implemented on a secondary recycling loop on the biological basin. Trials started in 1999 and are still on operation. A close monitoring of the WWTP was set up focusing especially on sludge characteristics, treated water quality, yield of sludge production reduction and plant operation. Bio THELYS could achieve a reduction in sludge production up to 70% on the plant. (author)

  14. In situ measurements of H2O, CH4 and CO2 in the upper troposphere and the lower stratosphere (UT-LS) with the baloonborne picoSDLA and AMULSE tunable diode laser spectrometers during the 2014 and 2015 "Stratoscience" campaigns (United States)

    Miftah-El-Khair, Zineb; Joly, Lilian; Decarpenterie, Thomas; Cousin, Julien; Dumelié, Nicolas; Grouiez, Bruno; Albo, Grégory; Chauvin, Nicolas; Maamary, Rabih; Amarouche, Nadir; Durry, Georges


    H2O, CH4 and CO2 are major greenhouse gases with a strong impact on climate. The concentrations of CO2 and CH4 have dramatically increased since the beginning of the industrialization era due to anthropogenic activities, contributing thereby to the global warming. Anthropogenic activities as fossil fuels, ruminant, and biomass burning constitute the major sources of carbon dioxide and methane. The increase of H2O concentration in the stratosphere could cause a cooling of this atmospheric region, impacting the recovery of the ozone layer. Therefore, having information and data about the vertical distribution of H2O, CO2 and CH4 is very useful to improve our knowledge of the future of our climate. We have developed, with the help of French space agency (CNES) and CNRS, two laser diode sensors PicoSDLA and AMULSE devoted to the in situ measurements of H2O, CH4 and CO2 from balloon platforms. These instruments were operated from open stratospheric balloons in Timmins, CA, in August 2014 and 2015. We report and discuss the instrumental achievements of both sensors during these flights in the UT-LS. Aknowledgments: The authors acknowledge financial supports from CNES, CNRS and the region Champagne-Ardenne.

  15. Temperature and pH control on lipid composition of silica sinters from diverse hot springs in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. (United States)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Mountain, Bruce W; Stott, Matthew B; Hopmans, Ellen C; Pancost, Richard D


    Microbial adaptations to environmental extremes, including high temperature and low pH conditions typical of geothermal settings, are of interest in astrobiology and origin of life investigations. The lipid biomarkers preserved in silica deposits associated with six geothermal areas in the Taupo Volcanic Zone were investigated and variations in lipid composition as a function of temperature and pH were assessed. Lipid analyses reveal highly variable abundances and distributions, reflecting community composition as well as adaptations to extremes of pH and temperature. Biomarker profiles reveal three distinct microbial assemblages across the sites: the first in Champagne Pool and Loop Road, the second in Orakei Korako, Opaheke and Ngatamariki, and the third in Rotokawa. Similar lipid distributions are observed in sinters from physicochemically similar springs. Furthermore, correlation between lipid distributions and geothermal conditions is observed. The ratio of archaeol to bacterial diether abundance, bacterial diether average chain length, degree of GDGT cyclisation and C31 and C32 hopanoic acid indices typically increase with temperature. At lower pH, the ratio of archaeol to bacterial diethers, degree of GDGT cyclisation and C31 and C32 hopanoic acid indices are typically higher. No trends in fatty acid distributions with temperature or pH are evident, likely reflecting overprinting due to population influences.

  16. “If knowledge were light, there would be an aureole of light over CERN!”

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer


    On Tuesday, 8 October, CERN welcomed Jean de Toledo, aged 100 years and 1 month (as he is eager to point out). He is the president of the “Pharmacies principales de Genève” and has a passion for physics.   During his meeting with the Director-General, Jean de Toledo was given the LHC: the Large Hardon Collider book, which he made sure to have Rolf sign. He was born in Geneva in 1911, just when Rutherford was discovering the structure of the atom. Jean De Toledo says that it has been a long-standing dream of his to visit the Laboratory, to the construction of which he was a witness. “CERN is a fabulous place, and a great plus for Geneva,” he said in a discussion with CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer. Smiling and with a glass of champagne in his hand, he received a copy of the book LHC: the Large Hadron Collider and a “magic coffee mug”, whose secret was explained to him by the Director-General. “There is a prod...

  17. A Spitzer Space Telescope far-infrared spectral atlas of compact sources in the Magellanic Clouds. II. The Small Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    van Loon, Jacco Th; Gordon, Karl D; Sloan, G C; Engelbracht, C W


    We present 52-93 micron spectra, obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope, of luminous compact far-IR sources in the SMC. These comprise 9 Young Stellar Objects (YSOs), the compact HII region N81 and a similar object within N84, and two red supergiants (RSGs). The spectra of the sources in N81 (of which we also show the ISO-LWS spectrum between 50-170 micron) and N84 both display strong [OI] 63-micron and [OIII] 88-micron fine-structure line emission. We attribute these lines to strong shocks and photo-ionized gas, respectively, in a ``champagne flow'' scenario. The nitrogen content of these two HII regions is very low, definitely N/O<0.04 but possibly as low as N/O<0.01. Overall, the oxygen lines and dust continuum are weaker in star-forming objects in the SMC than in the LMC. We attribute this to the lower metallicity of the SMC compared to that of the LMC. Whilst the dust mass differs in proportion to metallicity, the oxygen mass differs less; both observations can be reconciled with higher densitie...


    CERN Multimedia


    2013-01-01 Rendez-vous sur notre site pour toutes les « News » Interfon Journée Portes ouvertes Le mercredi 9 octobre 2013 dès 16h00 Salle Jean Monnet à Saint-Genis-Pouilly Rencontrez nos partenaires Venez nous rejoindre et découvrir nos fournisseurs partenaires autour d’un buffet campagnard Commandez votre fioul au tarif spécial « Portes ouvertes » Dégustez et commandez notre sélection de vins et champagnes «Tarifs préférentiels» Nouveau partenaire Visages du Monde 31, Quai du Mont-Blanc 1211 – CH Genève Tél : 41 22 731 26 34 Voyagez autrement ! Voyage sur brochure ou sur mesure Sur simple présentation de votre carte de sociétaire, vous bénéficiez d’une remise de 2 % sur les produits brochures de nos partenaires : AD...

  19. Interfon

    CERN Multimedia



    Préparons les Fêtes… Commandez vos volailles de Noël à votre coopérative, qui vous propose comme chaque année les traditionnels  chapons de Bresse et dindes fermières. Mais aussi poulets, poulardes, pintades, canards et canettes : demandez nos tarifs dans nos secrétariats. Il est impératif de remplir un bon de commande qui sera pris en compte jusqu’au 12 décembre. Livraison le 23 décembre (l’information vous sera confirmée individuellement  ultérieurement).   Visitez notre cave où une sélection de vins vous est proposée : Lalande de Pomerol (2006), Visan, St Joseph, Gigondas, Vacqueyras, Pommard 1er cru (2002). Retrouvez notre sélection ainsi que les tarifs sur notre site internet. Nos champagnes : brut ou demi sec, rosé, millésim&eacut...

  20. The highly ionized, high-velocity gas in NGC 6231 (United States)

    Massa, Derck


    It is well known that clusters of massive stars are influenced by the presence of strong winds, that they are sources of diffuse X-rays from shocked gas, and that this gas can be vented into the surrounding region or the halo through the champagne effect. However, the details of how these different environments interact and evolve are far from complete. This paper attributes the broad C IVλλ1500 absorption features (extending to -1900 km s-1) that are seen in the spectra of main sequence B stars in NGC 6231 to gas in the cluster environment and not the B stars themselves. It is shown that the presence of a WC star, WR 79, in the cluster makes this gas detectable because its wind enriches the cluster gas with carbon. Given the available data, it is not clear whether the absorbing gas is simply the far wind of WR 79 or a collective cluster wind enriched by carbon from the wind of WR 79. If it is simply due to the wind, then this wind must flow, unimpeded for more than 2 pc, suggesting that the inner region of the cluster is nearly devoid of obstructing material. If it is actually a collective wind from the cluster, then we could be witnessing an important stage of galactic feedback. In either case, the observations provide a unique and significant piece to the puzzle of how massive, open clusters evolve.

  1. Gas Kinematics in the HII regions G351.69-1.15 and G351.63-1.25

    CERN Document Server

    Veena, V S; Tej, A; Kantharia, N G; Ghosh, S K


    We probe the structure and kinematics of two neighbouring H II regions identified as cometary and bipolar, using radio recombination lines (RRL). The H172{\\alpha} RRLs from these H II regions: G351.6-1.15 and G351.6-1.25, are mapped using GMRT, India. We also detect carbon RRLs C172{\\alpha} towards both these regions. The hydrogen RRLs display the effects of pressure and dynamical broadening in the line profiles, with the dynamical broadening (15 km/s) playing a major role in the observed profile of G351.6-1.15. We investigate the kinematics of molecular gas species towards this H II region from the MALT90 pilot survey. The molecular gas is mostly distributed towards the north and north-west of the cometary head. The molecular line profiles indicate signatures of turbulence and outflow in this region. The ionized gas at the cometary tail is blue shifted by 8 km/s with respect to the ambient molecular cloud, consistent with the earlier proposed champagne flow scenario. The relative velocity of 5 km/s between t...

  2. Testing begins on Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Katarina Anthony


    On 3 August 2012, the Linac4 radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) module was installed at the accelerator test-stand in Building 152. The site will be the module’s home for almost a year, as the linear accelerator enters the assembly and testing stage.   Final module assembly is carried out before installation in Building 152.  Over the next Long Shutdown (LS2), Linac4 will replace the current Linac2 linear accelerator as the first link in CERN’s accelerator chain. It will deliver particles at 160 MeV to the PS Booster, more than triple the energy currently delivered by Linac2. But before the accelerator team can pop the champagne, the various elements of Linac4 will be tested and re-tested in facilities across CERN. “The first Linac4 tests are currently underway, starting with the CERN-built RFQ,” says Carlo Rossi, a physicist in the RF Group of the Beams (BE) Department and the RFQ project coordinator. “It’s an extremely impre...

  3. Probing Pre-galactic Metal Enrichment with High-Redshift Gamma-Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, F Y; Greif, Thomas H; Stacy, Athena; Dai, Z G; Loeb, Abraham; Cheng, K S


    We explore high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) as promising tools to probe pre-galactic metal enrichment. We utilize the bright afterglow of a Pop III GRB exploding in a primordial dwarf galaxy as a luminous background source, and calculate the strength of metal absorption lines that are imprinted by the first heavy elements in the intergalactic medium (IGM). To derive the GRB absorption line diagnostics, we use an existing highly-resolved simulation of the formation of a first galaxy which is characterized by the onset of atomic hydrogen cooling in a halo with virial temperature >10^4 K. We explore the unusual circumburst environment inside the systems that hosted Pop III stars, modeling the density evolution with the self-similar solution for a champagne flow. For minihalos close to the cooling threshold, the circumburst density is roughly proportional to (1+z) with values of about a few cm^{-3}. In more massive halos, corresponding to the first galaxies, the density may be larger, n>100 cm^{-3}. The resu...

  4. Getting involved in research. (United States)

    Banner, Davina; Grant, Lyle G


    The need for quality nursing research to promote evidence-based practice and optimize patient care is well recognized. This is particularly pertinent in cardiovascular nursing, where cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide (World Health Organization, 2007). Across the spectrum of academic, clinical, and health care administration nursing roles, research remains fundamental to bridging theory, practice, and education (LoBiondo-Wood, Haber, Cameron, & Singh, 2009). Despite recognition of the importance of nursing research, the gap between research and practice continues to be an ongoing issue (Funk, Tornquist, & Champagne, 1995; Pettengill, Gillies, & Clark, 1994; Rizzuto, Bostrom, Suterm, & Chenitz, 1994; Rolfe, 1998). Nurses are appropriately situated to contribute to research that improves clinical outcomes and health service delivery. However, the majority of nurses in clinical practice do not have a significant research component structured into their nursing role. In this research column, the authors outline the importance of nurses being engaged in research and present some different levels of involvement that nurses may assume. A continuum of nursing research involvement includes asking researchable questions, being a savvy consumer of research evidence, finding your own level of research involvement, and aspiring to lead.

  5. LS1 Report: nearing the finish line

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony


    The LS1 team will be popping the champagne next week, on Tuesday 27 May, celebrating the completion of the consolidation of the splices in the framework of the SMACC project.   A technician works on one of the final shunts during LS1. "It has been a long journey into the heart of the LHC, tackling over 27,000 shunts*," says Luca Bottura, TE-MSC Group leader. "We are happy that the final train has, at last, reached its rest station, and look forward to sending it on many new adventures," confirm Frédéric Savary, TE-MSC Large Magnet Facility Section leader, and Jean-Philippe Tock, SMACC Project leader. Also in the LHC, pressure tests in Sector 1-2 - the third sector to be tackled - are almost complete. The temperature in Sector 6-7 is around 100K and it will be accessible again from next week. As for the SPS, all the LSS1 beam elements excluding one monitor are back in position. Vacuum teams are now ...

  6. Data-driven optimization of dynamic reconfigurable systems of systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, Conrad S.; Eddy, John P.


    This report documents the results of a Strategic Partnership (aka University Collaboration) LDRD program between Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champagne. The project is titled 'Data-Driven Optimization of Dynamic Reconfigurable Systems of Systems' and was conducted during FY 2009 and FY 2010. The purpose of this study was to determine and implement ways to incorporate real-time data mining and information discovery into existing Systems of Systems (SoS) modeling capabilities. Current SoS modeling is typically conducted in an iterative manner in which replications are carried out in order to quantify variation in the simulation results. The expense of many replications for large simulations, especially when considering the need for optimization, sensitivity analysis, and uncertainty quantification, can be prohibitive. In addition, extracting useful information from the resulting large datasets is a challenging task. This work demonstrates methods of identifying trends and other forms of information in datasets that can be used on a wide range of applications such as quantifying the strength of various inputs on outputs, identifying the sources of variation in the simulation, and potentially steering an optimization process for improved efficiency.

  7. Does white wine qualify for French paradox? Comparison of the cardioprotective effects of red and white wines and their constituents: resveratrol, tyrosol, and hydroxytyrosol. (United States)

    Dudley, Jocelyn I; Lekli, Istvan; Mukherjee, Subhendu; Das, Manika; Bertelli, Alberto A A; Das, Dipak K


    It is generally believed that the French paradox is related to the consumption of red wine and not other varieties of wine, including white wine or champagne. Some recent studies have indicated that white wine could also be as cardioprotective as red wine. The present investigation compares the cardioprotective abilities of red wine, white wine, and their principal cardioprotective constituents. Different groups of rats were gavaged with red wine, white wine, resveratrol, tyrosol, and hydroxytyrosol. Red wine and its constituent resveratrol and white wine and its constituents tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol all showed different degrees of cardioprotection as evidenced by their abilities to improve postischemic ventricular performance, reduce myocardial infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and reduce peroxide formation. It was discovered in this study that although each of the wines and their components increased the enzymatic activities of the mitochondrial complex (I-IV) and citrate synthase, which play very important roles in oxidative phosphorylation and ATP synthesis, some of the groups were more complex-specific in inducing the activity compared to the other groups. Cardioprotective ability was further confirmed by increased expression of phospho-Akt, Bcl-2, eNOS, iNOS, COX-1, COX-2, Trx-1, Trx-2, and HO-1. The results of this study suggest that white wine can provide cardioprotection similar to red wine if it is rich in tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol.

  8. Caffeic acid, tyrosol and p-coumaric acid are potent inhibitors of 5-S-cysteinyl-dopamine induced neurotoxicity. (United States)

    Vauzour, David; Corona, Giulia; Spencer, Jeremy P E


    Parkinson's disease is characterized by a progressive and selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Recent investigations have shown that conjugates such as the 5-S-cysteinyl-dopamine, possess strong neurotoxicity and may contribute to the underlying progression of the disease pathology. Although the neuroprotective actions of flavonoids are well reported, that of hydroxycinnamates and other phenolic acids is less established. We show that the hydroxycinnamates caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid, the hydroxyphenethyl alcohol, tyrosol, and a Champagne wine extract rich in these components protect neurons against injury induced by 5-S-cysteinyl-dopamine in vitro. The protection induced by these polyphenols was equal to or greater than that observed for the flavonoids, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and quercetin. For example, p-coumaric acid evoked significantly more protection at 1muM (64.0+/-3.1%) than both (-)-epicatechin (46.0+/-4.1%, p<0.05) and (+)-catechin (13.1+/-3.0%, p<0.001) at the same concentration. These data indicate that hydroxycinnamates, phenolic acids and phenolic alcohol are also capable of inducing neuroprotective effects to a similar extent to that seen with flavonoids.

  9. [Respiratory complications after transfusion]. (United States)

    Bernasinski, M; Mertes, P-M; Carlier, M; Dupont, H; Girard, M; Gette, S; Just, B; Malinovsky, J-M


    Respiratory complications of blood transfusion have several possible causes. Transfusion-Associated Circulatory Overload (TACO) is often the first mentioned. Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI), better defined since the consensus conference of Toronto in 2004, is rarely mentioned. French incidence is low. Non-hemolytic febrile reactions, allergies, infections and pulmonary embolism are also reported. The objective of this work was to determine the statistical importance of the different respiratory complications of blood transfusion. This work was conducted retrospectively on transfusion accidents in six health centers in Champagne-Ardenne, reported to Hemovigilance between 2000 and 2009 and having respiratory symptoms. The analysis of data was conducted by an expert committee. Eighty-three cases of respiratory complications are found (316,864 blood products). We have counted 26 TACO, 12 TRALI (only 6 cases were identified in the original investigation of Hemovigilance), 18 non-hemolytic febrile reactions, 16 cases of allergies, 5 transfusions transmitted bacterial infections and 2 pulmonary embolisms. Six new TRALI were diagnosed previously labeled TACO for 2 of them, allergy and infection in 2 other cases and diagnosis considered unknown for the last 2. Our study found an incidence of TRALI 2 times higher than that reported previously. Interpretation of the data by a multidisciplinary committee amended 20% of diagnoses. This study shows the imperfections of our system for reporting accidents of blood transfusion when a single observer analyses the medical records.

  10. Extracellular plant DNA in Geneva groundwater and traditional artesian drinking water fountains. (United States)

    Poté, John; Mavingui, Patrick; Navarro, Elisabeth; Rosselli, Walter; Wildi, Walter; Simonet, Pascal; Vogel, Timothy M


    DNA, as the signature of life, has been extensively studied in a wide range of environments. While DNA analysis has become central to work on natural gene exchange, forensic analyses, soil bioremediation, genetically modified organisms, exobiology, and palaeontology, fundamental questions about DNA resistance to degradation remain. This paper investigated on the presence of plant DNA in groundwater and artesian fountain (groundwater-fed) samples, which relates to the movement and persistence of DNA in the environment. The study was performed in the groundwater and in the fountains, which are considered as a traditional artesian drinking water in Geneva Champagne Basin. DNA from water samples was extracted, analysed and quantified. Plant gene sequences were detected using PCR amplification based on 18S rRNA gene primers specific for eukaryotes. Physicochemical parameters of water samples including temperature, pH, conductivity, organic matter, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total organic carbon (TOC) were measured throughout the study. The results revealed that important quantities of plant DNA can be found in the groundwater. PCR amplification based on 18S rDNA, cloning, RFLP analysis and sequencing demonstrated the presence of plant DNA including Vitis rupestris, Vitis berlandieri, Polygonum sp. Soltis, Boopis graminea, and Sinapis alba in the water samples. Our observations support the notion of plant DNA release, long-term persistence and movement in the unsaturated medium as well as in groundwater aquifers.

  11. [Hemorrhagic Adult Unilateral Moyamoya Disease with Multiple Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms: A Case Report]. (United States)

    Ozaki, Saya; Inoue, Akihiro; Miyazaki, Hajime; Onoue, Shinji; Ichikawa, Haruhisa; Fukumoto, Shinya; Iwata, Shinji; Kohno, Kanehisa


    Adult unilateral moyamoya disease with intracranial aneurysm is frequently reported in the literature, but there is much variation in its treatment. In this case report, we describe the time course and treatment regimen of a patient with moyamoya disease and review the literature regarding moyamoya disease with intracranial aneurysm. A 64-year-old man had untreated intracranial aneurysm and unilateral moyamoya disease for 10 years. He presented with sudden-onset right hemiparesis and aphasia due to a subcortical hemorrhage. He was admitted to the local neurosurgical unit, and upon resolution of symptoms, he was admitted to our hospital. A cerebral angiogram revealed the champagne bottleneck sign of the left carotid artery and obliteration of the top of the left intracranial carotid artery with a moyamoya phenomenon. Two unruptured intracranial aneurysms were identified in the anterior communicating artery(Acom A) and the right intracranial carotid artery(C3). We performed superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery anastomosis followed by aneurysmal neck clipping of the Acom A aneurysm. Postoperative imaging showed no new ischemic damage and improved cerebral blood flow. Although the patient experienced temporal worsening of aphasia, his function recovered a few months later and he was able to resume his normal daily life activities. The combination of direct bypass surgery and aneurysmal neck clipping might be a therapeutic option for hemorrhagic unilateral moyamoya disease with unruptured intracranial aneurysm.

  12. Elaboration, analyse et modélisation mécanique numérique d’agro-composites à base de fibres courtes d’alfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Abbassi Fatima-ezzahra


    Full Text Available Dans la présente étude, récemment réalisée au Laboratoire d’Ingénierie et Sciences des Matériaux, de l’Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, nous proposons de valoriser la plante végétale d’Alfa, sous forme de fibres courtes en vue de renforcer par extrusion dans une première étape, puis par injection, des matrices polymères, en l’occurrence le Polypropylène (PP. Une première étape consiste à élaborer, par traitement chimique et extraction, la fibre courte à utiliser comme renfort. Il s’en suit une extrusion de courte à utiliser comme renfort. Il s’en suit une extrusion de composés composites à base de matrice PP. L’objectif sera de développer par la suite une démarche Essai-Calcul, confrontant une caractérisation mécanique d’agrocomposites PP-Alfa injectés à deux types de modélisation comportementale, l’une micromécanique basée sur le modèle de Mori-Tanaka, et l’autre numérique utilisant une approche originale basée sur une technique dite de fibre projetée.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CL X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Bajo el Antiguo Régimen, existió un sistema de reproducción familiar específico de las ciudades. Esta es la conclusión que se puede sacar de las investigaciones realizadas hasta ahora sobre la transición demográfica en el medio urbano. Comparando Ginebra con Rouen, Alfred Perrenoud logró demostrar que la alta burguesía, tanto suiza como normanda, practicaba el control de la natalidad en 1650 (Perrenoud, 1990, y esto antes incluso que empezara a bajar seriamente la tasa de mortalidad (Bardet, 1990. Tanto en Rouen como en Ginebra, el control de la descendencia se extendió luego rápidamente al conjunto de la población, como lo demuestra la caída regular de la fecundidad. A estos dos principales modelos testigos del comportamiento innovador de algunas familias urbanas de Europa occidental en los siglos XVII y XVIII, cabe agregar el de Reims, ciudad de los Reyes de Francia ubicada en Champagne con 30.000 habitantes, famosa desde luego por sus vinos espumantes después de 1700, pero también por sus tejidos de lana. Bajo el Antiguo Régimen, existió un sistema de reproducción familiar específico de las ciudades. Esta es la

  14. Démonstration du procédé IFP de désulfuration des fumées de centrales Demonstration of the Ifp Stack-Gas Desulfurization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busson C.


    Full Text Available Les produits pétroliers et le charbon continueront à couvrir les besoins énergétiques pendant plusieurs décennies. La pollution par le SOZ, provenant de la combustion de ces combustibles fossiles, devient une préoccupation pour la population et les Pouvoirs publics. La désulfuration des fumées de combustion devrait, à plus ou moins longue échéance, se développer. L'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP, mettant à profit ses travaux dans le domaine de la désulfuration, a développé un procédé de traitement des fumées. L'IFP, en collaboration avec Électricité de France (EDF, a effectué en 1976 une opération de démonstration à une échelle pilote (30 MW dans la Centrale de Champagne-sur-Oise. Le procédé consiste à éliminer le S02 des fumées par lavage avec une solution ammoniacale, à produire du soufre à partir de la liqueur obtenue et à recycler l'ammoniaque dans l'étape de lavage. Après quelques modifications d'ordre technologique, l'unité de démonstration a fonctionné d'une manière continue pendant une période de trois mois, correspondant à l'objectif fixé. Les résultats obtenus permettent, actuellement, d'envisager une application de cette technique à une échelle de 250 MW. Oil and coal productswill continue to fulfill energy needs for several more decades. Pollution by SO2 coming from the combustion of such fossil fuels is becoming a preoccupation for the population and the public authorities. The desulfurization of combustion fumes should continue ta develop in the more or less long run. Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP has taken advantage of its research in the fixed of desulfurization to develop a stock-gas treating process. In collaboration with Électricite de Fronce (EDF, IFP carried out a demonsiration operation in 1976 on a pilot-plant scale (30MW in a power plant at Champagne-sur-Oise. The process consists in removing S02 from stock gases by scrubbing them with an ammonia solution

  15. Le vent des deux mondes. Enquête sur les princes iraniens de la Gaule romaine The Wind from Two Worlds. Research Note on Iranian Princes in Roman Gaul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Poly


    Full Text Available En 1754, Anquetil-Duperron partit pour les Indes avec l’appui de l’abbé Barthélémy, l’auteur du Voyage du jeune Anacharsis en Grèce. Il se lia avec des Zoroastriens qui lui firent connaître le Zend Avesta, publiant par la suite l’étude de ces textes qui lui valut de devenir membre de l’Institut. L’Occident était allé chercher au loin les paroles de Zarathoustra. Nul ne s’avisa que la prédication des deux mondes avait pu parvenir d’Iran jusqu’en Occident longtemps auparavant, quand finissait l’Empire de Rome. Témoins deux tombes du Ve siècle dont le matériel est de provenance orientale, l’une en Rhénanie, l’autre en Champagne, celles de deux officiers commandant des unités de cavalerie d’origine iranienne. Ces princes iraniens de Gaule n’étaient pas des émigrés sans attaches. Ils étaient établis à demeure dans le pays, vivant avec leurs hommes dans des cantons qui prirent parfois leurs noms, diffusant autour d’eux des éléments spécifiques de leur ancienne Weltanschauung. Ainsi se formait lentement, en mêlant divers apports, la culture des nations d’Europe occidentale.In 1754, Anquetil-Duperron sailed for India with the support of the Abbé Barthélémy, author of Young Anacharsis’ travel to Greece. He developed friendly relations with the Zoroastrians acquainted him with the Zend Avesta. On his return, he published a study of these texts which earned him membership in the French Academy.The West traveled far to learn the words of Zarathustra. Nobody had imagined that the predicationfrom the two worlds had come from Iran to Occident, much earlier, at the time of the declining Roman Empire. We take as testimonies of this fact two tombs dating back to the Vth century whose contents come from Orient, one in Rhineland and the second one in France’s Champagne region. These tombs belong to two officers who had been commanding cavalry units of Iranian origin. These Iranian princes from Gaul were

  16. Remediation of context-processing deficits in schizophrenia: preliminary data with ambiguous sentences

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    Besche-Richard C


    Full Text Available Chrystel Besche-Richard,1,2 Sarah Terrien,1 Marion Lesgourgues,3,4 Célia Béchiri-Payet,5 Fabien Gierski,1,3 Frédéric Limosin6–8 1Laboratory Cognition, Santé, Socialisation, University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne, France; 2Institut Universitaire de France, Paris, France; 3Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Pôle de Psychiatrie des Adultes, Reims, France; 4Service Universitaire de Médecine Préventive et de Promotion de la Santé, University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne, Reims, France; 5Etablissement Public de Santé mentale départemental de l’Aisne, Prémontré, France; 6Department of Adult and Geriatric Psychiatry, Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris, Ouest (Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Corentin-Celton, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France; 7Faculty of Medicine, University Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France; 8Psychiatry and Neurosciences Center, French National Institute of Health and Medical Research, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U894, Paris, France Background: Processing of contextual information is essential for the establishment of good interpersonal relations and communicational interactions. Nevertheless, it is known that schizophrenic patients present impairments in the processing of contextual information. The aim of this study is to explore the influence of the remediation of context processing in schizophrenic patients. Methods: Thirty-one schizophrenic patients and 28 matched healthy participants were included in this study. All participants were assessed on verbal knowledge (Mill-Hill test and depression intensity (Beck Depression Scale 21 items. Schizophrenic patients were also assessed on thought, language, and communication disorders (Thought, Language and Communication scale. All participants completed a disambiguation task with two different levels of contextualization (high or low context and a context-processing remediation task containing social scenarios that

  17. Análise da implantação de um programa com vistas à institucionalização da avaliação em uma Secretaria Estadual de Saúde Implementation analysis of an evaluation institutionalization program in a State health department

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    Cinthia Kalyne de Almeida Alves


    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar a implantação do Projeto de Fortalecimento da Capacidade Técnica em Monitoramento e Avaliação da Atenção Básica em uma Secretaria Estadual de Saúde e para tanto estima o grau de implantação do Programa e analisa a influência do contexto político-institucional. MÉTODOS: trata-se de uma pesquisa avaliativa do tipo análise de implantação que articula as concepções teóricas propostas por Denis e Champagne (1997 e Matus (1987; 1996. Estas concepções sustentam a análise e proporcionam um diálogo entre teorias do campo da avaliação e do planejamento. RESULTADOS: apontam 80% de implantação do projeto destacando-se as dimensões gestão técnico-financeira (91% e informação e comunicação (95%, todavia a dimensão integração alcançou apenas 56%. CONCLUSÕES: houve implantação satisfatória do Programa, corroborando para isto o Projeto de Governo e a Capacidade de Governo. Embora alcance certa Governabilidade, restrições foram identificadas pela insuficiente integração dos setores, dificuldades na relação com a secretaria da capital e mudanças eleitorais, que explicam a implantação parcial da Dimensão Integração das Práticas de Monitoramento e Avaliação.OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the implementation of the Strengthening of Technical Capacity in Monitoring and Evaluation Project at a State Department of Health and thereby assessing the degree to which the program has been introduced and the influence of the political and institutional context. METHODS: an evaluative implementation analysis study was carried out using the theoretical concepts proposed by Denis & Champagne (1997 and Matus (1987; 1996. These concepts form the basis of the analysis and allow for dialogue between theories of evaluation and planning. RESULTS: 80% of the project was found to have been implemented, 91% in the field of technical financial management, 95% in information and communications, and only 56% in the field of


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available La producción, importación y consumo de vinos experimentaron cambios significativos en el período que va entre la Independencia y la víspera de la Primera Guerra Mundial. En este trabajo se estudia la introducción de nuevas cepas y los cambios en las técnicas de vinificación desde mediados del siglo XIX. El desglose de las cifras de producción anual por provincia permite apreciar la difusión de las nuevas cepas, mientras que testimonios contemporáneos advierten sobre las diferencias en las calidades del producto. Las cifras de importación para los distintos tipos y envases de vinos reflejan estos cambios. La internación de tintos a granel experimenta una caída sistemática desde la década del 1870, no así el champaña que aún no se fabricaba en Chile. Más significativa es la creciente figuración de los vinos nacionales en los menús de los banquetes oficiales y sociales en el períodoThe production, imports and consumption of wine underwent significant changes in the years between Independence and the eve of the First World War. This article studies the introduction into Chile of new varieties of vines, and changes in winemaking techniques from the middle of the 19th century onwards. Annual production figures from the different provinces show the gradual penetration of the new varieties, and contemporary sources attest to the differences in the quality of the wines. Import figures for the different types of wine reflect these changes. Imports of plain red wines, though not for champagnes, show a steady decline from the 1870s. More tellingly, Chilean wines were increasingly served in official and social banquets during this period as indicated in the corresponding menus

  19. Light-toned salty soils and co-existing Si-rich species discovered by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit in Columbia Hills (United States)

    Wang, Alian; Bell, J.F.; Li, Ron; Johnson, J. R.; Farrand, W. H.; Cloutis, E.A.; Arvidson, R. E.; Crumpler, L.; Squyres, S. W.; McLennan, S.M.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Ruff, S.W.; Knudson, A.T.; Chen, Wei; Greenberger, R.


    Light-toned soils were exposed, through serendipitous excavations by Spirit Rover wheels, at eight locations in the Columbia Hills. Their occurrences were grouped into four types on the basis of geomorphic settings. At three major exposures, the light-toned soils are hydrous and sulfate-rich. The spatial distributions of distinct types of salty soils vary substantially: with centimeter-scaled heterogeneities at Paso Robles, Dead Sea, Shredded, and Champagne-Penny, a well-mixed nature for light-toned soils occurring near and at the summit of Husband Hill, and relatively homogeneous distributions in the two layers at the Tyrone site. Aeolian, fumarolic, and hydrothermal fluid processes are suggested to be responsible for the deposition, transportation, and accumulation of these light-toned soils. In addition, a change in Pancam spectra of Tyrone yellowish soils was observed after being exposed to current Martian surface conditions for 175 sols. This change is interpreted to be caused by the dehydration of ferric sulfates on the basis of laboratory simulations and suggests a relative humidity gradient beneath the surface. Si-rich nodules and soils were observed near the major exposures of S-rich soils. They possess a characteristic feature in Pancam visible near-infrared (Vis-NIR) spectra that may be diagnostic of hydrated species, and this spectral feature can be used to search for additional Si-rich species. The exposures of hydrated salty soils within various geomorphic settings imply the potential existence of hydrous minerals in similar settings over a much wider area. Hydrous sulfates represent one of the candidates that may contribute the high level of water equivalent hydrogen in equatorial regions detected by the Neutron Spectrometer on Mars Odyssey.

  20. The characterization of Helicobacter pylori DNA associated with ancient human remains recovered from a Canadian glacier.

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    Treena Swanston

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the stomach of nearly half of the world's population. Genotypic characterization of H. pylori strains involves the analysis of virulence-associated genes, such as vacA, which has multiple alleles. Previous phylogenetic analyses have revealed a connection between modern H. pylori strains and the movement of ancient human populations. In this study, H. pylori DNA was amplified from the stomach tissue of the Kwäday Dän Ts'ìnchi individual. This ancient individual was recovered from the Samuel Glacier in Tatshenshini-Alsek Park, British Columbia, Canada on the traditional territory of the Champagne and Aishihik First Nations and radiocarbon dated to a timeframe of approximately AD 1670 to 1850. This is the first ancient H. pylori strain to be characterized with vacA sequence data. The Tatshenshini H. pylori strain has a potential hybrid vacA m2a/m1d middle (m region allele and a vacA s2 signal (s region allele. A vacA s2 allele is more commonly identified with Western strains, and this suggests that European strains were present in northwestern Canada during the ancient individual's time. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the vacA m1d region of the ancient strain clusters with previously published novel Native American strains that are closely related to Asian strains. This indicates a past connection between the Kwäday Dän Ts'ìnchi individual and the ancestors who arrived in the New World thousands of years ago.

  1. Simultaneous stabilization of linear systems%线性系统的同时镇定问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关强; 何冠男; 王龙; 郁文生


    Simultaneous stabilization of linear systems is a fundamental issue in system and control theory, and is of theoretical, as well as practical, significance.Current theories and recent developments in the simultaneous stabilization of linear systems are discussed.Firstly, the substance of the simultaneous stabilization of linear systems, the basic research methods and the related results are reviewed.Some well-known problems, including the "champagne problem","Belgian chocolate problem" and "Whiskey problem" are analyzed from the perspectives of theoretical solution and controller design.Based on the development in automated inequality-type theorem proving, some original work on solving these open problems is also presented.Finally, possible future research directions for the simultaneous stabilization of linear systems are given.%线性系统的同时镇定问题,是系统与控制理论中的基本问题,有着广泛的理论意义和应用价值.本文介绍了线性系统同时镇定问题的研究现状和最新进展.首先回顾了同时镇定问题的研究内容、基本方法及相关结果.其次,从理论求解和控制器设计的角度对线性系统同时镇定研究中著名的"香槟问题","比利时巧克力问题"和"威士忌问题"进行了分析探讨,并基于不等式型定理机器证明理论,给出了线性系统同时镇定问题的相关工作.最后指出了对于同时镇定多个线性系统方面的若干研究方向.

  2. Turbulence in the ionized gas of the Orion nebula (United States)

    Arthur, S. J.; Medina, S.-N. X.; Henney, W. J.


    In order to study the nature, origin, and impact of turbulent velocity fluctuations in the ionized gas of the Orion nebula, we apply a variety of statistical techniques to observed velocity cubes. The cubes are derived from high resolving power (R ≈ 40 000) longslit spectroscopy of optical emission lines that span a range of ionizations. From velocity channel analysis (VCA), we find that the slope of the velocity power spectrum is consistent with predictions of Kolmogorov theory between scales of 8 and 22 arcsec (0.02 to 0.05 pc). The outer scale, which is the dominant scale of density fluctuations in the nebula, approximately coincides with the autocorrelation length of the velocity fluctuations that we determine from the second-order velocity structure function. We propose that this is the principal driving scale of the turbulence, which originates in the autocorrelation length of dense cores in the Orion molecular filament. By combining analysis of the non-thermal linewidths with the systematic trends of velocity centroid versus ionization, we find that the global champagne flow and smaller scale turbulence each contribute in equal measure to the total velocity dispersion, with respective root-mean-square widths of 4-5 km s-1. The turbulence is subsonic and can account for only one half of the derived variance in ionized density, with the remaining variance provided by density gradients in photoevaporation flows from globules and filaments. Intercomparison with results from simulations implies that the ionized gas is confined to a thick shell and does not fill the interior of the nebula.

  3. Qualitative comparison of soil erosion, runoff and infiltration coefficients using small portable rainfall simulators in Germany, Spain and France (United States)

    Rodrigo Comino, Jesús; Iserloh, Thomas; Morvan, Xavier; Malam Issa, Oumarou; Naisse, Christophe; Keesstra, Saskia; Cerdà, Artemi; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Arnáez, José; Lasanta, Teodoro; Concepción Ramos, María; José Marqués, María; Ruiz Colmenero, Marta; Bienes, Ramón; Damián Ruiz Sinoga, José; Seeger, Manuel; Ries, Johannes B.


    Small portable rainfall simulators are considered as a useful tool to analyze soil erosion processes in cultivated lands. European research groups of Spain (Valencia, Málaga, Lleida, Madrid and La Rioja), France (Reims) or Germany (Trier) have used different rainfall simulators (varying in drop size distribution and fall velocities, kinetic energy, plot forms and sizes, and field of application)to study soil loss, surface flow, runoff and infiltration coefficients in different experimental plots (Valencia, Montes de Málaga, Penedès, Campo Real and La Rioja in Spain, Champagne in France and Mosel-Ruwer valley in Germany). The measurements and experiments developed by these research teams give an overview of the variety in the methodologies with rainfall simulations in studying the problem of soil erosion and describing the erosion features in different climatic environments, management practices and soil types. The aim of this study is: i) to investigate where, how and why researchers from different wine-growing regions applied rainfall simulations with successful results as a tool to measure soil erosion processes; ii) to make a qualitative comparison about the general soil erosion processes in European terroirs; iii) to demonstrate the importance of the development a standard method for soil erosion processes in vineyards, using rainfall simulators; iv) and to analyze the key factors that should be taken into account to carry out rainfall simulations. The rainfall simulations in all cases allowed knowing the infiltration capacity and the susceptibility of the soil to be detached and to generate sediment loads to runoff. Despite using small plots, the experiments were useful to analyze the influence of soil cover to reduce soil erosion and to make comparison between different locations or the influence of different soil characteristics.

  4. Rapidly changing climatic conditions for wine grape growing in the Okanagan Valley region of British Columbia, Canada. (United States)

    Rayne, Sierra; Forest, Kaya


    A statistical analysis was conducted on long-term climate records for sites bordering Okanagan Lake in the Okanagan Valley viticultural region of British Columbia, Canada. Average wine grape growing season temperatures are increasing rapidly in the area over the post-1980 period at rates upwards of 7.0±1.3°C/century. Similar increases in the average dormant season temperature are evident. These temperature changes are likely some of the most extreme observed among the world's wine producing areas during the past few decades. Growing degree day base 10°C (GDD10) has increased by nearly 50% at some locations since the 1970s, resulting in major impacts on the corresponding climate classification for viticulture. If current climate trends continue, the southern and central portions of the region will likely enter Winkler region II within the next few decades, placing them in the same category as well-established warmer wine regions from France, Spain, Italy, and Australia. The large dormant season temperature increases over the last several decades have resulted in the area no longer being a cold season outlier when compared to most other cool-climate viticultural areas. Based on average growing season temperatures, the southern end of Okanagan Lake has moved out of the cool-climate viticultural classification and into the intermediate zone, while the central and northern regions are now at the cool/intermediate viticulture interface, similar to the historical positions of the Rhine Valley in Germany, northern Oregon in the United States, and the Loire Valley, Burgundy-Cote, Burgundy-Beaujolais, and Champagne appelations of France. The corresponding suitable grape species for the area have evolved into warmer region varietals during this time frame, having substantial economic impacts on producers. Increased temperatures are also expected to bring greater threats from agricultural pests, notably Pierce's disease from the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa.

  5. Flank instability assessment at Kick-'em-Jenny submarine volcano (Grenada, Lesser Antilles): a multidisciplinary approach using experiments and modeling (United States)

    Dondin, F. J.-Y.; Heap, M. J.; Robertson, R. E. A.; Dorville, J.-F. M.; Carey, S.


    Kick-'em-Jenny (KeJ)—located ca. 8 km north of the island of Grenada—is the only active submarine volcano of the Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arc. Previous investigations of KeJ revealed that it lies within a collapse scar inherited from a past flank instability episode. To assess the likelihood of future collapse, we employ here a combined laboratory and modeling approach. Lavas collected using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) provided samples to perform the first rock physical property measurements for the materials comprising the KeJ edifice. Uniaxial and triaxial deformation experiments showed that the dominant failure mode within the edifice host rock is brittle. Edifice fractures (such as those at Champagne Vent) will therefore assist the outgassing of the nearby magma-filled conduit, favoring effusive behavior. These laboratory data were then used as input parameters in models of slope stability. First, relative slope stability analysis revealed that the SW to N sector of the volcano displays a deficit of mass/volume with respect to a volcanoid (ideal 3D surface). Slope stability analysis using a limit equilibrium method (LEM) showed that KeJ is currently stable, since all values of stability factor or factor of safety (Fs) are greater than unity. The lowest values of Fs were found for the SW-NW sector of the volcano (the sector displaying a mass/volume deficit). Although currently stable, KeJ may become unstable in the future. Instability (severe reductions in Fs) could result, for example, from overpressurization due to the growth of a cryptodome. Our modeling has shown that instability-induced flank collapse will most likely initiate from the SW-NW sector of KeJ, therefore mobilizing a volume of at least ca. 0.7 km3. The mobilization of ca. 0.7 km3 of material is certainly capable of generating a tsunami that poses a significant hazard to the southern islands of the West Indies.

  6. Molecules, dust, and protostars in NGC 3503 (United States)

    Duronea, N. U.; Vasquez, J.; Romero, G. A.; Cappa, C. E.; Barbá, R.; Bronfman, L.


    Aims: We present here a follow-up study of the molecular gas and dust in the environs of the star forming region NGC 3503. This study aims at dealing with the interaction of the Hii region NGC 3503 with its parental molecular cloud, and also with the star formation in the region, that was possibly triggered by the expansion of the ionization front against the parental cloud. Methods: To analyze the molecular gas we use CO(J = 2 → 1), 13CO(J = 2 → 1), C18O(J = 2 → 1), and HCN(J = 3 → 2) line data obtained with the on-the-fly technique from the APEX telescope. To study the distribution of the dust, we make use of unpublished images at 870 μm from the ATLASGAL survey and IRAC-GLIMPSE archival images. We use public 2MASS and WISE data to search for infrared candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) in the region. Results: The new APEX observations allowed the substructure of the molecular gas in the velocity range from ~-28 km s-1 to -23 km s-1 to be imaged in detail. The morphology of the molecular gas close to the nebula, the location of the PDR, and the shape of radio continuum emission suggest that the ionized gas is expanding against its parental cloud, and confirm the champagne flow scenario. We have identified several molecular clumps and determined some of their physical and dynamical properties such as density, excitation temperature, mass, and line width. Clumps adjacent to the ionization front are expected to be affected by the Hii region, unlike those that are distant from it. We have compared the physical properties of the two kinds of clumps to investigate how the molecular gas has been affected by the Hii region. Clumps adjacent to the ionization fronts of NGC 3503 and/or the bright rimmed cloud SFO 62 have been heated and compressed by the ionized gas, but their line width is not different from those that are too distant from the ionization fronts. We identified several candidate YSOs in the region. Their spatial distribution suggests that stellar

  7. PREFACE: XV International Seminar on Physics and Chemistry of Solids (United States)

    Kotur, Bogdan; Brągiel, Piotr


    Centre Dokki, Cairo, Egypt), Jarosław Lewkowski (University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland), Jean Ebothe (University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne, France), Alain Gibaud (University du Maine, Le Mans, France), and Zbigniew Czapla (University of Wrocław, Wrocław, Poland). Finally, it is both our duty and pleasure to express our gratitude for the work done by the referees. Without their efforts many of the papers in this volume would not have been improved. Bogdan Kotur, LvivPiotr Brągiel, Częstochowa

  8. Investing in Cognac Producing Vineyards to Hedge Wealth While Receiving High Returns

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    Hakob Hakobyan


    Full Text Available The general trend over the last decade for investments has been moving towards emerging markets, where investors are promised high returns for risky investments. These kind of investments favor the brave and bold, but are frightening for the risk averse. In this paper I will be presenting the opportunities that an investment into cognac producing vineyards can offer. High return and relatively low risk investment opportunities that exists in France. Included in the paper will be examples of large investments made recently into the industry. I will analyze the trends in the market over the past 8 years for the prices of land, cognac itself and the ease of sales of such products. There will also be an in-depth explanation of why cognac is today’s least risky product to invest into, comparing it to the Champagne regions’ similar historic trends. The findings show that land prices have increased at an average of 10% while simultaneously the price of cognac, has grow at an average of 14%. This product also has a unique hedging opportunity for investors. In short, excluding the growth of cognac prices in general the product itself gains value the longer it is stored, by an average of 12%. In this industry there are 5 big players that compete with each other on quality and also access to future stocks. This reality gives an investor the unique ability to sign futures contracts for 100% of their production over a 5 year period (standard market contract. Similar contracts can be signed with cooperatives who manage the lands for the investor, making the investment hassle free. This allows for an assured projection of both costs and returns for an unprecedented length of time compared to any other industry today. In conclusion, cognac producing vineyards are an investment that can potentially bring high returns, while being able to hedge the investment and see capital gains over the course of time. There will be a final simulation of a 5 year

  9. Book Review: Chemistry in Theatre. Insufficiency, Phallacy or Both (United States)

    Sterken, Christiaan; Djerassi, Carl


    This book deals with the question of what role a play, or the theatre, can fulfill as an educational or pedagogic tool in the broad scope of science learning and education. The book contains the texts of two of the author's recent plays, viz. Insufficiency and Phallacy. Carl Djerassi is a writer and an emeritus professor of chemistry at Stanford University. He has published short stories, poetry, some novels and several "science-in-theatre" plays. Almost one fifth of this slim booklet is occupied by Djerassi's preface that is, in its own right, a most useful essay worth reading by any student of the exact sciences. Djerassi's point is that most of the modern science plays have a didactic component, and aim to illustrate - through the medium of theatre - what science or scientists are all about. To make such plays available to a broad audience, he advocates the production of readable books written in play format. The strong point of such plays is the dialogue format - as was already very well known by forerunners like Galileo Galilei with his Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, published in 1632. Djerassi does not tell what his characters do, but he emphasises how and why they do some specific thing. Insufficiency is about the chemistry of champagne bubbles (coined bubbleology, i.e., the science of champagne or beer bubbles), in a scientific academic context dealing with tenure and fashion. The story clearly shows how the life of a young tenure-seeking scientist develops under the strong interlock of forced - but also of voluntary - overwork that leads to tenure (in turn accompanied by an increase in material security). But it also mentions the self-imposed and seemingly unescapable treadmill of success and scientific achievement that comes with tenure. The play also deals with fashion in science via the simplistically coined term bubbleology, and the author shows that the actual implications of this "science" actually even reach to cosmology. The

  10. Microbial heterotrophy coupled to Fe-S-As cycling in a shallow-sea hydrothermal system (United States)

    Lu, G.; Amend, J.


    To date, there are only a few known heterotrophic arsenite oxidizers and arsenate reducers. They utilize organic compounds as their carbon source and/or as important electron donors in the transfer arsenic in high temperature environments. Arsenic in hydrothermal vent systems can be immobilized at low temperatures through (ad)sorption on iron oxide and other iron-bearing minerals. Interactions with sulfur species can also affect the redox state of arsenic species. A better understanding of microbially-catalyzed reactions involving carbon, arsenic, iron and sulfur would provide constraints on the mobility of arsenic in a wide variety of natural and engineered systems. The aim of this study is to establish links between microbial distribution and in situ Fe-S-As cycling processes in a shallow-sea hydrothermal vent system. We investigated three shallow-sea hydrothermal vents, Champagne Hot Spring (CHS), Soufriere Spring (SOU) and Portsmouth Spring (PM), located off the western coast of Dominica, Lesser Antilles. CHS and SOU are characterized by moderate temperatures (46oC and 55oC, respectively), and PM is substantially hotter (~90-111 oC). Two sediment cores (one close to and one far from the thermal source) were collected from CHS and from SOU. Porewaters in both background cores had low concentrations of arsenic (mostly As3+, to a lesser extent As5+, DMA, MMA) and ferrous iron. The arsenic concentrations (predominantly As3+) in the CHS high temperature core were 30-90 nM, tracking with dissolved iron. Similar to CHS, the arsenic concentration in the SOU high temperature core was dominated by As3+ and controlled by ferrous iron. However, the arsenic concentration at SOU is comparatively higher, up to 1.9 mM. At the hotter and deeper PM site, highly elevated arsenic levels (1-2.5 mM) were measured, values that are among the highest arsenic concentrations ever reported in a marine hydrothermal system. Several autotrophic and heterotrophic media at two pHs (5.5 and 8

  11. Evaluating the catching performance of aerodynamic rain gauges through field comparisons and CFD modelling (United States)

    Pollock, Michael; Colli, Matteo; Stagnaro, Mattia; Lanza, Luca; Quinn, Paul; Dutton, Mark; O'Donnell, Greg; Wilkinson, Mark; Black, Andrew; O'Connell, Enda


    Accurate rainfall measurement is a fundamental requirement in a broad range of applications including flood risk and water resource management. The most widely used method of measuring rainfall is the rain gauge, which is often also considered to be the most accurate. In the context of hydrological modelling, measurements from rain gauges are interpolated to produce an areal representation, which forms an important input to drive hydrological models and calibrate rainfall radars. In each stage of this process another layer of uncertainty is introduced. The initial measurement errors are propagated through the chain, compounding the overall uncertainty. This study looks at the fundamental source of error, in the rainfall measurement itself; and specifically addresses the largest of these, the systematic 'wind-induced' error. Snowfall is outside the scope. The shape of a precipitation gauge significantly affects its collection efficiency (CE), with respect to a reference measurement. This is due to the airflow around the gauge, which causes a deflection in the trajectories of the raindrops near the gauge orifice. Computational Fluid-Dynamic (CFD) simulations are used to evaluate the time-averaged airflows realized around the EML ARG100, EML SBS500 and EML Kalyx-RG rain gauges, when impacted by wind. These gauges have a similar aerodynamic profile - a shape comparable to that of a champagne flute - and they are used globally. The funnel diameter of each gauge, respectively, is 252mm, 254mm and 127mm. The SBS500 is used by the UK Met Office and the Scottish Environmental Protection Agency. Terms of comparison are provided by the results obtained for standard rain gauge shapes manufactured by Casella and OTT which, respectively, have a uniform and a tapered cylindrical shape. The simulations were executed for five different wind speeds; 2, 5, 7, 10 and 18 ms-1. Results indicate that aerodynamic gauges have a different impact on the time-averaged airflow patterns

  12. Getting ready for crops' adaptation to climate change in France ; two complementary experiences : what lessons can we draw from them ? (United States)

    de Noblet, Nathalie; Levrault, Frédéric; Caubel, Julie; Garcia de CortazarAtauri, Iñaki; Vivant, Anne-Charlotte; Wieruszeski, Sophie; Launay, Marie


    The french agriculture is a sector particularly concerned by climate change: the scale of the already observed impacts and the expected climatic evolutions prevent any hesitation on the necessity of an adaptation of agriculture. This assessment is simultaneously shared by the scientific, political as well as the economic communities. However, a generalized and organized movement of adaptation of agriculture has difficulty in emerging in France and maybe in other countries, while past decades have seen the development of research projects and publications on the adaptation to climate change. Two parallel initiatives have been run in France over the past 5 years, that happen to share the same name while not involving the same actors: an observatory of climate change and agriculture functioning (ORACLE: Observatoire Régional sur l'Agriculture et le Changement Climatique), and a nationally funded research project that explores with various tools risks and opportunities for agro-ecosystems in the future in France (ORACLE: Opportunities and Risks of Agrosystems & forests in response to CLimate, socio-economic and policy changEs in France). The Observatory is carrying on a regional analysis of historical trends of both climatic and agricultural variables. It has for ambition to help the agricultural world to better integrate the evolution of climate into its decision-making, for purposes of adaptation as well as mitigation. The observatory is run since year 2011 in the Poitou-Charentes region and is now being implemented in other regions in France (Aquitaine, Pays de la Loire, Champagne Ardennes, Normandie). The research project has looked into the impacts of various scenarios of climate change through the use of various techniques : mechanistic models (Calvet et al. 2013, Wu et al. 2016) and eco-climatic indicators (Caubel et al. 2015). Informations regarding risks and opportunities for large crops in France is in the process being assessed though those tools and

  13. The region of the Piedra Berroqueña: A potencial Global Heritage Stone Province. (United States)

    Freire-Lista, David Martin; Fort, Rafael


    The Piedra Berroqueña region occupies an area of approximately 4000 km2 in the Sierra de Guadarrama, Spanish Central System, the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. This region has provided most of the building granites used in Madrid and surrounding provinces. Traditional methods of cutting and carving stone have been preserved and it is easy to locate historic quarries in its landscape in addition to mechanized quarries with large reserves of this dimension stone that is exported worldwide in the form of blocks or slabs with different finishes. The Piedra Berroqueña has been used as a building stone since before the Romans. Petrophysical and durability characteristics have allowed to endure monuments as representative as The Royal Monastery of San Lorenzo del Escorial (1563-1584), del Sol Gate (1857-1862), Royal Palace (1738-1764), Alcalá Gate (1770-1778) or Prado Museum (1785-1808) in Madrid, Spain. Also the Piedra Berroqueña is part of most residential buildings and streets of this city, as well as modern buildings around the world, such as airport terminals in Athens, Cork, the British consulate in Hong Kong and headquarters of banks in Jakarta, among others. Piedra Berroqueña province is presented in this abstract, which has many granite quarries with common characteristics such as their grey tones and the presence of darker enclaves "Gabarros or negrones". In the Piedra Berroqueña province four main types of granite can be distinguish: Peraluminous granites; with biotite and occasional cordierite, whose most representative historic quarries are in Alpedrete, Colmenar Viejo, El Boalo, El Berrocal and Collado Mediano. Biotite granites with occasional amphibole are present in historic quarries in El Berrueco, Lozoyuela-Navas-Sieteiglesias and Pelayo de la Presa, among others. Currently exploited in Valdemanco and La Cabrera and marketed under the commercial names of Aurora Blanco, Blanco Berrocal, Crema Champagne, Blanco Castilla, Crema Cabrera, Blanco Perla

  14. 21. ATSR congress - Book of abstracts; 21eme congres de l'ATSR - Recueil des resumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    mass media (P. Champagne, INRA, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Paris)

  15. A Window on the Valencia of Jaume the Conqueror: A Five-Year Core Sample, 1264-1270

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burns, Robert I.


    champagne murcienne dans la perspective valencienne. Chaqu'un des centaines d'éléments qui composent ce panorama de cinq ans est accompagné par le numéro d'un document ou des documents de la troisième tome du Diplomatarium du roi Jaume en préparation. La structure et la dynamique de son nouveau royaume se découvrent dans les anecdotes, les commentaires brefs personnels et les narrations libres qui abondent dans ces documents remarquables et ses obiter dicta.

  16. Self-efficacy enhancing intervention increases light physical activity in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larson JL


    Full Text Available Janet L Larson,1,2 Margaret K Covey,2 Mary C Kapella,2 Charles G Alex,3,4 Edward McAuley,5 1Division of Acute, Critical and Long-Term Care Programs, School of Nursing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 2Department of Biobehavioral Health Science, College of Nursing, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, 3Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Edward Hines Jr VA Hospital, Hines, IL, 4Advocate Christ Medical Center, Oaklawn, IL, 5Department of Kinesiology and Community Health, College of Applied Health Sciences, University of Illinois Urbana-Champagne, Urbana, IL, USA Background: People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease lead sedentary lives and could benefit from increasing their physical activity. The purpose of this study was to determine if an exercise-specific self-efficacy enhancing intervention could increase physical activity and functional performance when delivered in the context of 4 months of upper body resistance training with a 12-month follow-up. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, subjects were assigned to: exercise-specific self-efficacy enhancing intervention with upper body resistance training (SE-UBR, health education with upper body resistance training (ED-UBR, or health education with gentle chair exercises (ED-Chair. Physical activity was measured with an accelerometer and functional performance was measured with the Functional Performance Inventory. Forty-nine people with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease completed 4 months of training and provided valid accelerometry data, and 34 also provided accelerometry data at 12 months of follow-up. The self-efficacy enhancing intervention emphasized meeting physical activity guidelines and increasing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Results: Differences were observed in light physical activity (LPA after 4 months of training, time by group interaction effect (P=0.045. The SE-UBR group increased time spent in

  17. Pour paraître à la cour : les habits de Marie-Fortunée d’Este, princesse de Conti (1731-1803 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Chatenet-Calyste


    Full Text Available Par son mariage en 1759 avec Louis-François-Joseph de Bourbon-Conti, Marie-Fortunée d’Este (1731-1803, fille du duc italien François III d’Este de Modène, devient princesse du sang en France. L’heureuse conservation de ses comptes permet d’étudier sa garde-robe et de réfléchir aux modalités du paraître vestimentaire à la cour de la fin du XVIIIe siècle. Tenir son rang à Versailles passe pour la princesse par des dépenses élevées, le port d’étoffes luxueuses et le choix de marchands réputés. Cette étude de cas invite au-delà à envisager la spécificité de l’apparence à la cour d’une princesse devenue en 1776 une épouse séparée au budget limité. Elle interroge également les contraintes physiques de l’habit de cour à la lumière des nouvelles valeurs de confort et de liberté, tout particulièrement pour une femme d’âge mûr et maladive qui ne paraît plus guère dans le monde aulique.To be received at court: the clothes of Mary Fortunate d'Este, Princess of Conti (1731-1803 - Aurélie Chatenet-Calyste is a French researcher and also teaches at the University of Champagne-Ardenne. After passing the French high-level competitive examination for recruitment of teachers in history (In French Agrégation, she has defended her thesis “A feminine and aristocratic consumption at the end of the 18th century : Marie-Fortunée d’Este, princesse de Conti” on November the 27 th at the University of Limoges. Her researches concern gender, consumption and court history. Her recent papers are « La femme, maîtresse de maison ? », Histoire, économie et société, 2009/4, p. 21-34 ; « Une princesse et son livret de comptes : Marie-Fortunée d’Este, princesse de Conti (1731-1803 », dans Entre mémoire et histoire : écriture ordinaire et émergence de l'individu, éd. par Nicole Lemaitre et Sylvie Mouysset (édition électronique, 134e Congrès national des sociétés historiques et scientifiques

  18. PREFACE: Liquid-solid interfaces: structure and dynamics from spectroscopy and simulations Liquid-solid interfaces: structure and dynamics from spectroscopy and simulations (United States)

    Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre; Sulpizi, Marialore


    Ishiyama, Hideaki Takahashi and Akihiro Morita A theoretical study of the sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy of the carbon tetrachloride/water interface Anthony J Green, Angela Perry, Preston B Moore and Brian Space Salt effects on water/hydrophobic liquid interfaces: a molecular dynamics study Chao Zhang and Paolo Carloni Density functional theory-based simulations of sum frequency generation spectra involving methyl stretching vibrations: effect of the molecular model on the deduced molecular orientation and comparison with an analytical approach F Cecchet, D Lis, Y Caudano, A A Mani, A Peremans, B Champagne and J Guthmuller Towards modelling the vibrational signatures of functionalized surfaces: carboxylic acids on H-Si(111) surfaces Conrard Giresse Tetsassi Feugmo, Benoît Champagne, Yves Caudano, Francesca Cecchet, Yves J Chabal and Vincent Liégeois

  19. The Voisey's Bay Ni-Cu-Co Sulfide Deposit,Labrador,Canada:Emplacement of Silicate and Sulfide-Laden Magmas into Spaces Created within a Structural Corridor%The Voisey's Bay Ni-Cu-Co Sulfide Deposit,Labrador, Canada: Emplacement of Silicate and Sulfide-Laden Magmas into Spaces Created within a Structural Corridor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter C.Lightfoot; Dawn Evans-Lamswood; Robert Wheeler


    ofsulfide-silicate melt that evolved with different R factors and in response to some variation in the degreeof evolution of the parental magma.S isotope and S/Se data coupled with geological evidence point to acrustal source for the sulfur,and the site of equilibration of mafic magma and crustal S is placed at depthin a sulfidic Tasiuyak Gneiss.The structural control on emplacement of small intrusions with transported sulfide is a feature foundin different nickel sulfide deposits around the world.Champagne glass-shaped openings in sub-verticalchonoliths are a common morphology for this deposit type (e.g.the Jinchuan,Huangshan,Huangshan-dong,Jingbulake,Limahe,Hong Qi Ling deposits in China,the Eagle deposits in the United States,and the Double Eagle deposit in Canada).Some of the structures of the Midcontinent Rift of North Amer-ica also host Ni-Cu-(PGE) deposits of this type (e.g.the Current Lake Complex in the Quetico Fault Zone in Ontario,Canada and the Tamarac mineralisation in the Great Lakes Structural Zone of the United States).Other major nickel deposits associated with flat structures adjacent to major mantle-penetrating structures include the Noril'sk,Noril'sk Ⅱ,Kharaelakh,NW Talnakh,and NE Talnakh Intrusions of the Noril'sk Region of Russia,the Kalatongke deposit in NW China,and Babel-Nebo in Western Australia.These deposits are all formed in mantle-penetrating structural conduits that link into the roots of large igneous provinces near the edges of old cratons.

  20. The Ketogenic and Atkins Diets Effect on Intractable Epilepsy: A Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahad GHAZAVI


    Switzerland. Int J Health Sci 1993;4:121-8.Aicardi J. Epilepsy in children. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2004. p. 38.4. Kossof EH. More fat and fewer seizures: dietary therapy ofepilepsy. Lancet Neurol 2004 Jul;3(7:415-20.Hassan AM, Keene DL, Whiting SE, Jacob PJ, Champagne JR, Humphreys P. Ketogenic diet in the treatment of refractory epilepsy in childhood. Pediatr. Neurol. 1999; 21: 548-552.Vining EP, Freeman JM, Ballaban-Gil K, Camfield CS, Camfield PR, Holmes GL et al. A multicenter study of the efficacy of the ketogenic diet. Arch Neurol 1998 Nov;55(11:1433-7.Nordli DR, Kuroda MM. Experience with the ketogen diet in infants. Pediatrics 2001 Jun; 108(1:129-33.Tonekaboni SH, Mostaghimi P, Mirmiran P, Abbaskhanian A, Abdollah GF, Ghofrani M, et al. Efficacy of Atkins diet as therapy for intractable epilepsy in children. Arch Iran Med 2010 Nov;13(6:492-7.Kossoff EH, Dorward JL. The modified Atkins diet. Epilepsia 2008 Nov;49 Suppl 8:37-41.Mirjavadi SAR, Tonekaboni SH, Ghazavi MR, Azarghashb E, Abdollah GF, Ghofrani M. Efficacy of ketogenic diet as a therapy for intractable epilepsy in children. Iran J Child Neurol 2010 Sep;4(2:27-36.Karimzadeh P, Tabarestani S, Mahvelati F, Tonekaboni SH, Ghofrani M. Intractable seizure disorfes; efficacy of the classic ketogenic diet. Iran J Child Neurol 2009 Jan; 3(1:15-20.Barzegar M, Ostad Rahimi AR, Eslampour Sh, Shabazi Sh. The Ketogenic diet for refractory epilepsy. Med J Tabriz Uni Med Sci Health Serv 2009;31:15-20.Lefevre F, Aronson N. Ketogenic diet for the treatment of refractory epilepsy in children: A systematic review of efficacy. Pediatrics 2000 Apr;105(4:105-9.Keene DL. A systematic review of the use of the ketogenic diet in childhood epilepsy. Pediatr Neurol 2006 Jul;35(1:1-5.Porta N, Vallee L, Boutry E, Fontaine M, Dessein AF, Joriot S, et al. Comparsion of seizure reduction and serum fatty acid levels after receiving the ketogenic and modified Atkins diet. Seizure 2009 Jun 18(5:359-64.

  1. Understanding the Effect of Na in Improving the Performance of CuInSe2 Based Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, Kevin D. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)


    Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin film photovoltaic technology is in the early stages of commercialization with an annual manufacturing capacity over 1 GW and has demonstrated the highest module efficiency of any of the thin film technologies. However there still is a lack of fundamental understanding of the relationship between the material properties and solar cell device operation. It is well known that the incorporation of a small amount of Na into the CIGS film during processing is essential for high efficiency devices. However, there are conflicting explanations for how Na behaves at the atomic scale. This report investigates how Na is incorporated into the CIGS device structure and evaluates the diffusion of Na into CIGS grain boundaries (GBs) and bulk crystallites. Participants: This project was carried out at the Institute of Energy Conversion at the University of Delaware, collaborating with the Rockett group at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champagne. Significant Findings: The significant outcomes of this project for each task include; Task 1.0: Effect of Na in Devices Fabricated on PVD Deposited CIGS; Na diffusion occurs through the Mo back contact via GBs driven by the presence of oxygen; Na reversibly compensates donor defects in CIGS GBs,Task 2.0: Na Incorporation in Single Crystal CIGS; and bulk Na diffusion proceeds rapidly such that grains are Na-saturated immediately following CIGS thin film manufacture. Industry Guidance: The presented results offer interesting concepts for modification of manufacturing processes of CIGS-based PV modules. Possible approaches to improve control of Na uptake and uniformly increase levels in CIGS films are highlighted for processes that employ either soda-lime glass or NaF as the Na source. Concepts include the potential of O2 or oxidative based treatments of Mo back contacts to improve Na diffusion through the metal film and increase Na uptake into the growing CIGS. This project has also offered

  2. Les terrains jurassiques du sondage de Couy (Cher, France. Leur analyse séquentielle détaillée à partir de la description des carottes et des courbes diagraphiques Jurassic Formations in the Couy Borehole (Cher Department, France. Their Detailed Sequential Analysis from the Core Sample Descriptions and Well-Logging Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gely J. P.


    influence of regional subsidence is superimposed on the successions of deposits, linked to sealevel changes. These two factors control the accomodation and the hydrodynamic conditions of the basin. Tectonic activity can obliterate the role of eustatism to the extent of preventing any deposit, and entire sedimentary sequences may then not be expressed locally, as is the case for the Humphriesianum zone in the Poitou and Berry regions. On the other hand, a speeding up of the subsidence of the Marty Trough occurred during the highstand interval in the Lotharingian (Sequence 3, causing the deposition of back basin clays, thus situating the maximum paleodepth exceptionally at the top of the sequence underneath a nonerosive discontinuity. A contrast can also be seen between the marly series of the Upper Pliensbachian, such as the Bathonian, and the condensed limestone series of the Lower and Middle Bajocian. The installation of the carbonate platform in the Aalenian-Lower Bajocian (platform with an accumulation of bioclast sands of the keep-up carbonate platformtype, Sarg, 1989, with already a first glimpse of the upermost Toarcian (micritic limestone platform with gryphites, of the catch-up carbonate platformtype, according to Sarg, 1989, was probably caused by a great slowing down of subsidence. The same pattern can be found in the regional Callovian with periods of erosion or nondeposition. We are led to highlight three periods of tectonic activity in the Couy area (Lotharingian, Aalenian-Bajocian, Callovian, which do not always correspond to the tendencies described in other paleogeographic domains, for example such as Champagne in the Middle Jurassic (Guillocheau, 1991. A sequential analysis of the Couy borehole has revealed 18 sequences in the Lower Jurassic and part of the Middle Jurassic. In the Lower Jurassic, 11 characterized sequences (the last one transiting into the MiddleJurassic are similar to the ones proposed by Haq et al. (1988 , which for Western Europe must

  3. Analyse séquentielle de l'Eocène et de l'Oligocène du bassin Parisien (France Sequence Analysis of the Eocene-Oligocene Paris Basin, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gely J. P.


    , can be detected on the shelf margin wedges and in the highstand prograding wedges. However, there are no real paleovalleys underneath the unconformities, but at most an irregular surface that usually bears witness not to continental erosion but to gullying linked to the ensuing transgression. Formations subjected to erosion during lowstand periods are often quite unconsolidated. The paleoreliefs built up during emersion were easily leveled by the ensuing transgression. Likewise, outside of the tectonically active areas in the basin during the Eocene and Oligocene (Pays de Bray, Orxois dome, Rémarde anticline, Meudon anticline, which sometimes form islands (Maps 2 to 18, transgressions occurred in the rest of the basin onflat surface or one with residual reliefs of decimetric size. Like in some current drainage systems, it can be supposed that the most deeply indented paleovalleys are situated near the shelf edge during lowstand, periods. This would imply their probable existence well west of the Paris Basin near the continental slope of the werstern English Channel. An analysis of the lithology of the different depositional systems within the sequences shows an alternation or coexistance of sandy or clayey clasting sedimentation and purely carbonate sedimentation. The origin of the Parisian Tertiary sandstones has been recognized as having come successively from former Mesozoic (A. Blondeau et al. , 1964 and Cenozoic (J. Riveline-Bauer, 1970; C. Lorenz et al. , 1984 sandy sources. The remobilization of these sources was mainly linked to the episodic uplifting of anticlines (Pays de Bray and Artois regions mainly and of basin edges, providing a source for coastal sedimentation with continental sandy or clayey influxes brought in by rivers in the South and the Champagne region (Maps 2 to 18. Thus, apart from the volume available for the sediments (accomodation, sequences succeeded one another in time while being dominated either by highly clastic formation or by

  4. Report about the Solar Eclipse on August 11, 1999 (United States)


    pix - 49k] [JPEG: 800 x 612 pix - 262k] [JPEG: 3039 x 1846 pix - 3.6M] Eclipse Photo by Philippe Duhoux Second "Diamond Ring" [JPEG: 400 x 301 pix - 34k] [JPEG: 800 x 601 pix - 163k] [JPEG: 2905 x 2181 pix - 2.0M] The Corona (Philippe Duhoux) "For the observation of the eclipse, I chose a field on a hill offering a wide view towards the western horizon and located about 10 kilometers north west of Garching." "While the partial phase was mostly cloudy, the sky went clear 3 minutes before the totality and remained so for about 15 minutes. Enough to enjoy the event!" "The images were taken on Agfa CT100 colour slide film with an Olympus OM-20 at the focus of a Maksutov telescope (f = 1000 mm, f/D = 10). The exposure times were automatically set by the camera. During the partial phase, I used an off-axis mask of 40 mm diameter with a mylar filter ND = 3.6, which I removed for the diamond rings and the corona." Note in particular the strong, detached protuberances to the right of the rim, particularly noticeable in the last photo. Eclipse Photo by Cyril Cavadore Totality [JPEG: 400 x 360 pix - 45k] [JPEG: 800 x 719 pix - 144k] [JPEG: 908 x 816 pix - 207k] The Corona (Cyril Cavadore) "We (C.Cavadore from ESO and L. Bernasconi and B. Gaillard from Obs. de la Cote d'Azur) took this photo in France at Vouzier (Champagne-Ardennes), between Reims and Nancy. A large blue opening developed in the sky at 10 o'clock and we decided to set up the telescope and the camera at that time. During the partial phase, a lot of clouds passed over, making it hard to focus properly. Nevertheless, 5 min before totality, a deep blue sky opened above us, allowing us to watch it and to take this picture. 5-10 Minutes after the totality, the sky was almost overcast up to the 4th contact". "The image was taken with a 2x2K (14 µm pixels) Thomson "homemade" CCD camera mounted on a CN212 Takahashi (200 mm diameter telescope) with a 1/10.000 neutral filter. The acquisition software set exposure time (2