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Sample records for champagne

  1. Do expert ratings or economic models explain champagne prices?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jan Børsen; Smith, Valdemar

    2008-01-01

    Champagne is bought with low frequency and many consumers most likely do not have or seek full information on the quality of champagne. Some consumers may rely on the reputation of particular brands, e.g. "Les Grandes Marques", some consumers choose to gain information from sensory ratings of cha...... champagne. The aim of this paper is to analyse the champagne prices on the Scandinavian markets by applying a hedonic price function in a comparative framework with minimal models using sensory ratings....

  2. Champagne – branding and marketing of a luxury product

    OpenAIRE

    Santala, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This thesis will discuss the brand of champagne and its status as a luxury product. The aim is to find out how the luxury label might have affected the success of champagne and how it is marketed and branded. Champagne is one of the strongest brands in the wine industry throughout the history. It was branded already in the 19th century as the drink of the royals and today, is protected not by only the Comité Champagne, but also EU legislation. As a luxury product, champagne marketing rel...

  3. Evaporation of droplets in a Champagne wine aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabache, Elisabeth; Liger-Belair, Gérard; Antkowiak, Arnaud; Séon, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In a single glass of champagne about a million bubbles nucleate on the wall and rise towards the surface. When these bubbles reach the surface and rupture, they project a multitude of tiny droplets in the form of a particular aerosol holding a concentrate of wine aromas. Based on the model experiment of a single bubble bursting in idealized champagnes, the key features of the champagne aerosol are identified. In particular, we show that film drops, critical in sea spray for example, are here nonexistent. We then demonstrate that compared to a still wine, champagne fizz drastically enhances the transfer of liquid into the atmosphere. There, conditions on bubble radius and wine viscosity that optimize aerosol evaporation are provided. These results pave the way towards the fine tuning of flavor release during sparkling wine tasting, a major issue for the sparkling wine industry. PMID:27125240

  4. Evaporation of droplets in a Champagne wine aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabache, Elisabeth; Liger-Belair, Gérard; Antkowiak, Arnaud; Séon, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    In a single glass of champagne about a million bubbles nucleate on the wall and rise towards the surface. When these bubbles reach the surface and rupture, they project a multitude of tiny droplets in the form of a particular aerosol holding a concentrate of wine aromas. Based on the model experiment of a single bubble bursting in idealized champagnes, the key features of the champagne aerosol are identified. In particular, we show that film drops, critical in sea spray for example, are here nonexistent. We then demonstrate that compared to a still wine, champagne fizz drastically enhances the transfer of liquid into the atmosphere. There, conditions on bubble radius and wine viscosity that optimize aerosol evaporation are provided. These results pave the way towards the fine tuning of flavor release during sparkling wine tasting, a major issue for the sparkling wine industry.

  5. The Financial Value of Champagne Houses in a Cobweb Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Declerck, Francis; Cloutier, L. Martin

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to simulate the corporate value of Champagne makers by taking into account the Champagne market evolution. These measurements are conducted by linking financial debt, performance and valuation to a vertical coordination model of production-consumption within a cobweb economy. The overall model uses the dynamic structure that underlies the strategic interactions amongst grape producers and wine makers. These segments coordinate grape production and trade by formin...

  6. The physics behind the fizz in champagne and sparkling wines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liger-Belair, G.

    2012-02-01

    Bubbles in a glass of champagne may seem like the acme of frivolity to most of people, but in fact they may rather be considered as a fantastic playground for any physicist. Actually, the so-called effervescence process, which enlivens champagne and sparkling wines tasting, is the result of the fine interplay between CO2 dissolved gas molecules, tiny air pockets trapped within microscopic particles during the pouring process, and some both glass and liquid properties. Results obtained concerning the various steps where the CO2 molecule plays a role (from its ingestion in the liquid phase during the fermentation process to its progressive release in the headspace above the tasting glass as bubbles collapse) are gathered and synthesized to propose a self-consistent and global overview of how gaseous and dissolved CO2 impact champagne and sparkling wine science. Physicochemical processes behind the nucleation, rise, and burst of gaseous CO2 bubbles found in glasses poured with champagne and sparkling wines are depicted. Those phenomena observed in close-up through high-speed photography are often visually appealing. I hope that your enjoyment of champagne will be enhanced after reading this fully illustrated review dedicated to the science hidden right under your nose each time you enjoy a glass of champagne.

  7. Modeling the Losses of Dissolved CO2 from Laser-Etched Champagne Glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liger-Belair, Gérard

    2016-04-21

    Under standard champagne tasting conditions, the complex interplay between the level of dissolved CO2 found in champagne, its temperature, the glass shape, and the bubbling rate definitely impacts champagne tasting by modifying the neuro-physicochemical mechanisms responsible for aroma release and flavor perception. On the basis of theoretical principles combining heterogeneous bubble nucleation, ascending bubble dynamics, and mass transfer equations, a global model is proposed, depending on various parameters of both the wine and the glass itself, which quantitatively provides the progressive losses of dissolved CO2 from laser-etched champagne glasses. The question of champagne temperature was closely examined, and its role on the modeled losses of dissolved CO2 was corroborated by a set of experimental data. PMID:27031022

  8. Performance Evaluation of the Champagne Source Reconstruction Algorithm on Simulated and Real M/EEG Data

    OpenAIRE

    Owen, Julia P.; Wipf, David P.; Attias, Hagai T.; Sekihara, Kensuke; Srikantan S. Nagarajan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present an extensive performance evaluation of a novel source localization algorithm, Champagne. It is derived in an empirical Bayesian framework that yields sparse solutions to the inverse problem. It is robust to correlated sources and learn the statistics of non-stimulus-evoked activity to suppress the effect of noise and interfering brain activity. We tested Champagne on both simulated and real M/EEG data. The source locations used for the simulated data were chosen to t...

  9. Positioning značky Champagne Taittinger na českém trhu a její vývoj

    OpenAIRE

    Leiss, David

    2008-01-01

    The essay is focused on the analysis of the position of the brand Champagne Taittinger on the Czech market. In theoretic part are explained basic concepts of marketing, marketing mix, the concept of brand positioning, targeting and segmentation. In the practical part is at first described the market of sparkling wines in the Czech Republic. In addition, there are introduced companies Champagne Taittinger and Bacchus Vins & Champagnes which is the exclusive importer of the brand Champagne Tait...

  10. Missense mutation in exon 2 of SLC36A1 responsible for champagne dilution in horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Cook

    Full Text Available Champagne coat color in horses is controlled by a single, autosomal-dominant gene (CH. The phenotype produced by this gene is valued by many horse breeders, but can be difficult to distinguish from the effect produced by the Cream coat color dilution gene (CR. Three sires and their families segregating for CH were tested by genome scanning with microsatellite markers. The CH gene was mapped within a 6 cM region on horse chromosome 14 (LOD = 11.74 for theta = 0.00. Four candidate genes were identified within the region, namely SPARC [Secreted protein, acidic, cysteine-rich (osteonectin], SLC36A1 (Solute Carrier 36 family A1, SLC36A2 (Solute Carrier 36 family A2, and SLC36A3 (Solute Carrier 36 family A3. SLC36A3 was not expressed in skin tissue and therefore not considered further. The other three genes were sequenced in homozygotes for CH and homozygotes for the absence of the dilution allele (ch. SLC36A1 had a nucleotide substitution in exon 2 for horses with the champagne phenotype, which resulted in a transition from a threonine amino acid to an arginine amino acid (T63R. The association of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP with the champagne dilution phenotype was complete, as determined by the presence of the nucleotide variant among all 85 horses with the champagne dilution phenotype and its absence among all 97 horses without the champagne phenotype. This is the first description of a phenotype associated with the SLC36A1 gene.

  11. Ultra-low-level measurements of 3H and 14C in wines and champagne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, U. W.; Jacobi, M.; Castillo, J.; Förstel, D. H.

    Methods to measure low concentrations of tritium and radiocarbon in wine and champagne, respectively, have been tested by using liquid scintillation counting after chemical sample processing. It could be shown that tritium activity was too low to be measured by our standard low-level liquid scintillation counter, WALLAC Guardian 1414. Positive results could be achieved when using a WALLAC Quantulus. The methods will be established as standard methods to detect forgeries and to improve consumer safety.

  12. Liquid Carbon Dioxide Venting at the Champagne Hydrothermal Site, NW Eifuku Volcano, Mariana Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, J.; Lilley, M.; Butterfield, D.; Evans, L.; Embley, R.; Olson, E.; Proskurowski, G.; Resing, J.; Roe, K.; Greene, R.; Lebon, G.

    2004-12-01

    In March/April 2004, submersible dives with the remotely-operated vehicle ROPOS discovered an unusual CO2-rich hydrothermal system near the summit of NW Eifuku, a submarine volcano located at 21.49° N, 144.04° E in the northern Mariana Arc. Although several sites of hydrothermal discharge were located on NW Eifuku, the most intense venting was found at 1600-m depth at the Champagne site, slightly west of the volcano summit. The Champagne site was found to be discharging two distinct fluids into the ocean: a) several small white chimneys were emitting milky 103° C gas-rich hydrothermal fluid with at least millimolar levels of H2S and b) cold (grapes. The film coating the droplets was assumed to be CO2 hydrate (or clathrate) which is known to form whenever liquid CO2 contacts water under these P,T conditions. Samples of the 103° C hydrothermal fluids were collected in special gas-tight titanium sampling bottles that were able to withstand the high internal pressures created by the dissolved gases. The Champagne hydrothermal fluids contained a surprising 2.3 moles/kg of CO2, an order of magnitude higher than any CO2 values previously reported for submarine hydrothermal fluids. The overall gas composition was 87% CO2, yielded δ 13C = -1.75 ‰ , much heavier than the -6.0 ‰ typical for carbon in MOR vent fluids. The C/3He ratio was ~2.2 x 1010, an order of magnitude higher than the average value of 2 x 109 found in MOR vent fluids. The δ 13C and C/3He values suggest a substantial contribution to the carbon from subducted carbonates rather than mantle carbon. The Champagne site is only the second locality where liquid CO2 has been observed venting into the deep sea (the other reported location is in the Okinawa Trough, see Sakai et al., 1990). Because of the presence of liquid CO2 in proximity to hydrothermal organisms, the Champagne site may prove to be a valuable natural laboratory for studying the effects of high CO2 concentrations on marine ecosystems.

  13. Nucléation, ascension et éclatement d'une bulle de champagne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liger-Belair, G.

    2006-03-01

    People have long been fascinated by bubbles and foams dynamics, and since the pioneering work of Leonardo da Vinci in the early 16th century, this subject has generated a huge bibliography. However, only quite recently, much interest was devoted to bubbles in Champagne wines and carbonated beverages. Since the time of the benedictine monk dom Pierre Perignon (1638-1715), champagne is the wine of celebration. This fame is largely linked to the elegance of its effervescence and foaming properties. In this book, the latest results about the chemical physics behind the bubbling properties of Champagne and sparkling wines are collected and fully illustrated. The first chapter is devoted to the history of champagne and to a presentation of the tools of the physical chemistry of interfaces needed for a whole comprehension of the book. Then, the three main steps of a fleeting champagne bubble's life are presented in chronological order, that is, the bubble nucleation on the glass wall (Chap.2), the bubble ascent and growth through the liquid matrix (Chap.3), and the bursting of bubbles at the liquid surface (Chap.4), which constitutes the most intriguing, functional, and visually appealing step. L'objectif général de ce travail consacré à l'étude des processus physicochimiques liés à l'effervescence des vins de Champagne était de décortiquer les différentes étapes de la vie d'une bulle de champagne en conditions réelles de consommation, dans une flûte. Nous résumons ci-après les principaux résultats obtenus pour chacune des étapes de la vie de la bulle, depuis sa naissance sur les parois d'une flûte, jusqu'à son éclatement en surface. Nucléation À l'aide d'une caméra rapide munie d'un objectif de microscope, nous avons pu mettre à mal une idée largement répandue. Ce ne sont pas les anfractuosités de la surface du verre ou de la flûte qui sont responsable de la nucléation hétérogène des bulles, mais des particules adsorbées sur les parois du

  14. Monitoring gaseous CO2 and ethanol above champagne glasses: flute versus coupe, and the role of temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Liger-Belair

    Full Text Available In champagne tasting, gaseous CO(2 and volatile organic compounds progressively invade the headspace above glasses, thus progressively modifying the chemical space perceived by the consumer. Simultaneous quantification of gaseous CO(2 and ethanol was monitored through micro-gas chromatography (μGC, all along the first 15 minutes following pouring, depending on whether a volume of 100 mL of champagne was served into a flute or into a coupe. The concentration of gaseous CO(2 was found to be significantly higher above the flute than above the coupe. Moreover, a recently developed gaseous CO(2 visualization technique based on infrared imaging was performed, thus confirming this tendency. The influence of champagne temperature was also tested. As could have been expected, lowering the temperature of champagne was found to decrease ethanol vapor concentrations in the headspace of a glass. Nevertheless, and quite surprisingly, this temperature decrease had no impact on the level of gaseous CO(2 found above the glass. Those results were discussed on the basis of a multiparameter model which describes fluxes of gaseous CO(2 escaping the liquid phase into the form of bubbles.

  15. Perception of the nuclear industry by general practitioner in Champagne-Ardennes (France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the case of a nuclear accident, the general practitioners should be the relay in the population information. In order to confront their knowledge and sensitivity with the nuclear industry problems, the authors have conducted an inquiry near to 144 general practitioners in Champagne-Ardennes area, in the immediate neighbourhood of nuclear facilities (CHOOZ, Nogent-sur-Seine, Gravelines) or not. Four subjects are studied: -their perception of the nuclear industry in the environment problems - their knowledge in nuclear physics - their knowledge about the nuclear power plant - their attitude in front of a radiation accident. The authors show that their education and knowledges about the nuclear industry is insufficient and propose several solutions in order to cope with these difficulties

  16. Champagne Flutes and Brandy Snifters: Modelling Protostellar Outflow-Cloud Chemical Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Rollins, Richard P; Williams, David A; Redman, Matt P

    2014-01-01

    A rich variety of molecular species has now been observed towards hot cores in star forming regions and in the interstellar medium. An increasing body of evidence from millimetre interferometers suggests that many of these form at the interface between protostellar outflows and their natal molecular clouds. However, current models have remained unable to explain the origin of the observational bias towards wide-angled "brandy snifter" shaped outflows over narrower "champagne flute" shapes in carbon monoxide imaging. Furthermore, these wide-angled systems exhibit unusually high abundances of the molecular ion HCO$^+$. We present results from a chemo-dynamic model of such regions where a rich chemistry arises naturally as a result of turbulent mixing between cold, dense molecular gas and the hot, ionized outflow material. The injecta drives a rich and rapid ion-neutral chemistry in qualitative and quantitative agreement with the observations. The observational bias towards wide-angled outflows is explained natu...

  17. La physique des bulles de champagne Une première approche des processus physico-chimiques liés à l'effervescence des vins de Champagne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liger-Belair, G.

    2002-07-01

    People have long been fascinated by bubbles and foams dynamics, and since the pioneering work of Leonardo da Vinci in the early 16th century, this subject has generated a huge bibliography. However, only very recently, much interest was devoted to bubbles in Champagne wines. Small bubbles rising through the liquid, as well as a bubble ring (the so-called collar) at the periphery of a flute poured with champagne are the hallmark of this traditionally festive wine, and even there is no scientific evidence yet to connect the quality of a champagne with its effervescence, people nevertheless often make a connection between them. Therefore, since the last few years, a better understanding of the numerous parameters involved in the bubbling process has become an important stake in the champagne research area. Otherwise, in addition to these strictly enological reasons, we also feel that the area of bubble dynamics could benefit from the simple but close observation of a glass poured with champagne. In this study, our first results concerning the close observation of the three main steps of a champagne bubble's life are presented, that is, the bubble nucleation on tiny particles stuck on the glass wall (Chap. 2), the bubble ascent through the liquid (Chap. 3), and the bursting of bubbles at the free surface, which constitutes the most intriguing and visually appealing step (Chap. 4). Our results were obtained in real consuming conditions, that is, in a classical crystal flute poured with a standard commercial champagne wine. Champagne bubble nucleation proved to be a fantastic everyday example to illustrate the non-classical heterogeneous bubble nucleation process in a weakly supersaturated liquid. Contrary to a generally accepted idea, nucleation sites are not located on irregularities of the glass itself. Most of nucleation sites are located on tiny hollow and roughly cylindrical exogenous fibres coming from the surrounding air or remaining from the wiping process

  18. Étude des propriétés biologiques des constituants des vins de Champagne

    OpenAIRE

    Vauzour, David

    2004-01-01

    Il a été observé dans le cadre d'enquêtes épidémiologiques tentant d'expliquer le « French Paradox » qu'une consommation modérée et journalière de vin permet d'abaisser quantitativement les risques d'apparition d'accidents cardiovasculaires et/ou de cancer. La communauté scientifique s'est particulièrement intéressée aux vins rouges ou blancs, mais les études portant sur le vin de Champagne sont rares. Partant du Champagne en bouteille, il s'est donc agi dans un premier temps de préparer troi...

  19. Chemosensory characterization of Chardonnay and Pinot Noir base wines of Champagne. Two very different varieties for a common product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Paula; Sáenz-Navajas, Pilar; Culleré, Laura; Ferreira, Vicente; Chatin, Amelie; Chaperon, Vincent; Litoux-Desrues, François; Escudero, Ana

    2016-09-15

    Five different methodologies were applied for the quantitative analysis of 86 volatile molecules in 32 Chardonnay and 30 Pinot Noir Champagne white base wines. Sensory characterization was carried out by descriptive analysis. Pinot Noir wines had more constitutive compounds while Chardonnay wines had more discriminant compounds. Only four compounds predominated in Chardonnay wines: 4-vinylphenol, guaiacol, sotolon and 4-methyl-4-mercapto-2-pentanone. Correlation studies and PLSR models were calculated with sensory and chemical variables. For Pinot Noir wines, they were not as revealing as for Chardonnay base wines. Sulfur-related compounds were suggested to be involved in tropical fruit, dried fruit and citric sensory notes. This family of compounds seemed to be responsible for discriminant sensory terms in Champagne base wines. Fermentative compounds (aromatic buffer) were found at significantly higher levels in Pinot Noir wines, which would explain the fact that these wines were more difficult to describe in comparison with Chardonnay base wines. PMID:27080902

  20. Natural oxygenation of Champagne wine during ageing on lees: A metabolomics picture of hormesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roullier-Gall, Chloé; Witting, Michael; Moritz, Franco; Gil, Ryan B; Goffette, Delphine; Valade, Michel; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Gougeon, Régis D

    2016-07-15

    The oxygenation of Champagne wine after 4 and 6years of aging on lees in bottle was investigated by FTICR-MS and UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Three levels of permeability were considered for the stoppers, ranging from 0.2 to 1.8mg/L/year of oxygen transfer rate. Our results confirmed a good repeatability of ultra-high resolution FTICR-MS, both in terms of m/z and coefficient of variation of peak intensities among biological replicates. Vintages appeared to be the most discriminated features, and metabolite annotations suggested that the oldest wines (2006) were characterized by a higher sensitivity towards oxygenation. Within each vintage, the oxygenation mechanisms appeared to be different for low and high ingresses of oxygen, in agreement with the hormesis character of wine oxygenation. In the particular case of single variety wines and for a given level of stopper permeability, our results also showed that variety discrimination could be easily achieved among wines. PMID:26948607

  1. Microbial contributions to coupled arsenic and sulfur cycling in the acid-sulfide hot spring Champagne Pool, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin eHug

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Acid-sulfide hot springs are analogs of early Earth geothermal systems where microbial metal(loid resistance likely first evolved. Arsenic is a metalloid enriched in the acid-sulfide hot spring Champagne Pool (Waiotapu, New Zealand. Arsenic speciation in Champagne Pool follows reaction paths not yet fully understood with respect to biotic contributions and coupling to biogeochemical sulfur cycling. Here we present quantitative arsenic speciation from Champagne Pool, finding arsenite dominant in the pool, rim and outflow channel (55-75% total arsenic, and dithio- and trithioarsenates ubiquitously present as 18-25% total arsenic. In the outflow channel, dimethylmonothioarsenate comprised ≤9% total arsenic, while on the outflow terrace thioarsenates were present at 55% total arsenic. We also quantified sulfide, thiosulfate, sulfate and elemental sulfur, finding sulfide and sulfate as major species in the pool and outflow terrace, respectively. Elemental sulfur reached a maximum at the terrace. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes from metagenomic sequencing revealed the dominance of Sulfurihydrogenibium at all sites and an increased archaeal population at the rim and outflow channel. Several phylotypes were found closely related to known sulfur- and sulfide-oxidizers, as well as sulfur- and sulfate-reducers. Bioinformatic analysis revealed genes underpinning sulfur redox transformations, consistent with sulfur speciation data, and illustrating a microbial role in sulfur-dependent transformation of arsenite to thioarsenate. Metagenomic analysis also revealed genes encoding for arsenate reductase at all sites, reflecting the ubiquity of thioarsenate and a need for microbial arsenate resistance despite anoxic conditions. Absence of the arsenite oxidase gene, aio, at all sites suggests prioritization of arsenite detoxification over coupling to energy conservation. Finally, detection of methyl arsenic in the outflow channel, in conjunction with

  2. HIGHLIGHTS OF ROMANIAN AND FRENCH WINE MARKETS: THE EXAMPLE OF FRENCH CHAMPAGNE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jubenot Marie-Noelle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The market is a dynamic market in which the European Union plays a leading role as the main producer and exporter of vine products. In this area, four countries with strong agricultural and viticultural tradition dominate the market: France, Italy, Spain and Germany. But among the new eastern EU members, countries as Romania, with a favorable geography and climate and also a viticultural tradition, some may also play a more prominent role. Romania is part of the top 12 wine-producing countries, however Romania penalty to export large-scale production of wine. In contrast, France is the main producer and exporter of wine country. This situation is primarily due to the strategic choice of a very strong geographic labelisation of wine production and the emphasis on quality and even the excellence of its products, in particular thanks to a promotion policy. Two major non-exclusive solutions seem to emerge for Romania. On the one hand, it can copy to a certain extent the French solution by leveraging labelisation its wines. The French wine market is also the reference of the European Union in particular as regards the creation of the label: Appellation of Origin (PDO. The example of champagne is, in this context, remarkable. This product alone largely not only the volume and value of exports of wines, but also the volume and value of exports of all agricultural products. It can also try to increase its exports to emerging countries outside the European Union. Non-European areas are both a promise of growing opportunities in a context of economic crisis or post-crises and a threat to the European wine sector: in particular we think about America, Asia and Oceania. Indeed, the main third countries also wine producers are trying to increase their market share. This explains the new measures taken by the European authorities aimed at deep modernizing European wine sector.

  3. Contribution of piezometric measurement to knowledge and management of low water levels: examples on the chalk aquifer in the Champagne Ardennes region

    OpenAIRE

    Stollsteiner, P.; Bessiere, H.; Nicolas, J.; Allier, D.; Berthet, O.

    2015-01-01

    This article is based on a BRGM study on piezometric indicators, threshold values of discharge and groundwater levels for the assessment of potentially-exploitable water resources of chalky watersheds. A method for estimating low water levels based on groundwater levels is presented from three examples representing chalk aquifers with different cycles: annual, combined and interannual. The first is located in Picardy and the two others in the Champagne-Ardennes region. Piezometers with...

  4. Uranium series geochemistry in aquifers: quantification of transport mechanisms of uranium and daughter products: the chalk aquifer (Champagne, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the increase of contaminant flux of radionuclides in surface environment (soil, river, aquifer...), there is a need to understand and model the processes that control the distribution of uranium and its daughter products during transport within aquifers. We have used U-series disequilibria as an analogue for the transport of uranium and its daughter products in aquifer to understand such mechanisms. The measurements of uranium (234U et 238U), thorium (230Th et 232Th), 226Ra and 222Rn isotopes in the solid and liquid phases of the chalk aquifer in Champagne (East of France) allows us to understand the processes responsible for fractionation within the uranium decay chain. Fractionations are induced by physical and chemical properties of the elements (leaching, adsorption) but also by radioactive properties (recoil effect during α-decay). For the first time a comprehensive sampling of the solid phase has been performed, allowing quantifying mechanisms responsible for the long term evolution of the aquifer. A non steady state 1D model has been developed which takes into account leaching, adsorption processes as well as radioactive filiation and α-recoil effect. Retardation coefficients have been calculated for uranium, thorium and radium. The aquifer is characterised by a double porosity, and the contribution of fracture and matrix porosity on the water/rock interaction processes has been estimated. (author)

  5. Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of minimally processed 'Champagne' oranges (Citrus reticulata × Citrus sinensis in different packgings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana da Silva Agostini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the level of minimal processing and modified atmosphere on the quality of 'Champagne' orange stored under refrigeration. The fruits were subjected to the following processing: a whole fruit without flavedo; b whole fruit without flavedo and albedo; and c segmented into wedges and packed as follows: uncoated packaging (control; polyethylene film; PVC film; gelatin-based edible films (3%; and polyesthyrene translucent plastic container with a lid. The minimally processed oranges were stored at 5 ± 1°C for 8 days and were subjected to physicochemical and microbiological analyses every two days. Greater weight loss occurred in fruits without flavedo and segmented, uncoated, and coated with the edible gelatin film During storage, there was a slight increase in Total Soluble Solids (TSS for the treatments with greater weight loss and reduction in acidity and ascorbic acid, regardless of the packaging type. The microbial counts did not exceed the acceptable limits in the treatments; however, higher counts were observed at the end of storage. The minimally processed fruit packed in lidded polystyrene containers and polyethylene and PVC films kept their overall fresh visual appearance with a few physicochemical and microbiological changes up to the 8th day of storage.

  6. Hervé Lanotte, Investissements publicitaires et choix contractuels d’approvisionnement : les clés d’une gouvernance « coopérative » dans la filière des vins de Champagne

    OpenAIRE

    Hervé Lanotte

    2011-01-01

    En partant d’un constat simple, l’importance des investissements publicitaires des maisons de Champagne (MC) dans la valorisation de l’Appellation d’origine contrôlée (AOC) Champagne, cette thèse développe une argumentation selon laquelle ces investissements seraient un des éléments explicatifs de stabilité et de réussite de la gouvernance au sein de cette filière. Les efforts publicitaires du négoce champenois, au-delà de leur aspect concurrentiel, s’inscrivent en réalité dans un dispositif ...

  7. Un jeu évolutionnaire d’innovation juridique : la construction d’un patrimoine juridique, l’A.O.C Champagne

    OpenAIRE

    Barrère, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Le texte interprète, au moyen d’une formalisation en termes de jeux évolutionnaires, la construction d’un patrimoine juridique, celui de l’appellation d’origine, construction qui organise une configuration particulière de droits de propriété industrielle largement favorable au secteur du Champagne. Il rend compte des choix stratégiques qui ont convergé vers la définition d’une stratégie concurrentielle particulière, la stratégie de segmentation du marché final par la qualité, fondée sur une s...

  8. Contribution of piezometric measurement to knowledge and management of low water levels: examples on the chalk aquifer in the Champagne Ardennes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollsteiner, P.; Bessiere, H.; Nicolas, J.; Allier, D.; Berthet, O.

    2015-04-01

    This article is based on a BRGM study on piezometric indicators, threshold values of discharge and groundwater levels for the assessment of potentially-exploitable water resources of chalky watersheds. A method for estimating low water levels based on groundwater levels is presented from three examples representing chalk aquifers with different cycles: annual, combined and interannual. The first is located in Picardy and the two others in the Champagne-Ardennes region. Piezometers with annual cycles, used in these examples, are supposed to be representative of the aquifer hydro-dynamics. Except for multi-annual systems, the analysis between discharge measurements at a hydrometric station and groundwater levels measured at a piezometer representative of the main aquifer, leads to relatively precise and satisfactory relationships within a chalky context. These relationships may be useful for monitoring, validation, extension or reconstruction of the low water flow data. On the one hand, they allow definition of the piezometric levels corresponding to the different alert thresholds of river discharges. On the other hand, they clarify the proportions of low surface water flow from runoff or drainage of the aquifer. Finally, these correlations give an assessment of the minimum flow for the coming weeks. However, these correlations cannot be used to optimize the value of the exploitable water resource because it seems to be difficult to integrate the value of the effective rainfall that could occur during the draining period. Moreover, in the case of multi-annual systems, the solution is to attempt a comprehensive system modelling and, if it is satisfactory, using the simulated values to get rid of parasites or running the model for forecasting purposes.

  9. Uranium series geochemistry in aquifers: quantification of transport mechanisms of uranium and daughter products: the chalk aquifer (Champagne, France); Desequilibres des series de l'uranium dans les aquiferes: quantification des mecanismes de transport de l'uranium et de ses descendants: cas de l'aquifere de la craie (Champagne, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, A

    2005-09-15

    With the increase of contaminant flux of radionuclides in surface environment (soil, river, aquifer...), there is a need to understand and model the processes that control the distribution of uranium and its daughter products during transport within aquifers. We have used U-series disequilibria as an analogue for the transport of uranium and its daughter products in aquifer to understand such mechanisms. The measurements of uranium ({sup 234}U et {sup 238}U), thorium ({sup 230}Th et {sup 232}Th), {sup 226}Ra and {sup 222}Rn isotopes in the solid and liquid phases of the chalk aquifer in Champagne (East of France) allows us to understand the processes responsible for fractionation within the uranium decay chain. Fractionations are induced by physical and chemical properties of the elements (leaching, adsorption) but also by radioactive properties (recoil effect during {alpha}-decay). For the first time a comprehensive sampling of the solid phase has been performed, allowing quantifying mechanisms responsible for the long term evolution of the aquifer. A non steady state 1D model has been developed which takes into account leaching, adsorption processes as well as radioactive filiation and {alpha}-recoil effect. Retardation coefficients have been calculated for uranium, thorium and radium. The aquifer is characterised by a double porosity, and the contribution of fracture and matrix porosity on the water/rock interaction processes has been estimated. (author)

  10. Hervé Lanotte, Investissements publicitaires et choix contractuels d’approvisionnement : les clés d’une gouvernance « coopérative » dans la filière des vins de Champagne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Lanotte

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En partant d’un constat simple, l’importance des investissements publicitaires des maisons de Champagne (MC dans la valorisation de l’Appellation d’origine contrôlée (AOC Champagne, cette thèse développe une argumentation selon laquelle ces investissements seraient un des éléments explicatifs de stabilité et de réussite de la gouvernance au sein de cette filière. Les efforts publicitaires du négoce champenois, au-delà de leur aspect concurrentiel, s’inscrivent en réalité dans un dispositif qui tente à garantir la réalisation des accords contractuels pluriannuels d’approvisionnement amont-aval mis en place au milieu du xxe siècle par l’interprofession. Sans pour autant nécessiter d’engagements explicites ou de partage des coûts publicitaires du vignoble à l’égard du négoce, cette stratégie autorise une dynamique collective interprofessionnelle qui assoit la coopération verticale. Pour justifier de cette conjecture, une lecture diachronique de la genèse de cette gouvernance locale et coopérative est proposée. Cette réinterprétation apporte un éclairage sur la complexité des dispositifs de garantie et sur le rôle majeur des investissements publicitaires du négoce. Nous menons ensuite une réflexion sur une taxonomie qui clarifie les formes publicitaires eu égard à leurs effets de débordement (externalités publicitaires et leur modalité de mise en œuvre. À ce stade, nous montrons en quoi la stratégie publicitaire des MC peut s’assimiler à une publicité coopérative. Nous concluons cette thèse par une modélisation de la coordination dyatique verticale qui rend compte du réel impact des investissements publicitaires dans les choix contractuels d’approvisionnement, choix qui caractérisent la singularité de la relation verticale champenoise.This thesis takes as its cue the simple observation that advertising investments by Champagne firms are key to upholding the Champagne PDO

  11. News Particle Physics: ATLAS unveils mural at CERN Prize: Corti Trust invites essay entries Astrophysics: CERN holds cosmic-ray conference Researchers in Residence: Lord Winston returns to school Music: ATLAS scientists record physics music Conference: Champagne flows at Reims event Competition: Students triumph at physics olympiad Teaching: Physics proves popular in Japanese schools Forthcoming Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Particle Physics: ATLAS unveils mural at CERN Prize: Corti Trust invites essay entries Astrophysics: CERN holds cosmic-ray conference Researchers in Residence: Lord Winston returns to school Music: ATLAS scientists record physics music Conference: Champagne flows at Reims event Competition: Students triumph at physics olympiad Teaching: Physics proves popular in Japanese schools Forthcoming Events

  12. Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of minimally processed 'Champagne' oranges (Citrus reticulata × Citrus sinensis in different packgings Características físico-químicas e microbiológicas de laranjas 'Champagne' (Citrus reticulata x Citrus sinensis minimamente processadas em diferentes embala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana da Silva Agostini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the level of minimal processing and modified atmosphere on the quality of 'Champagne' orange stored under refrigeration. The fruits were subjected to the following processing: a whole fruit without flavedo; b whole fruit without flavedo and albedo; and c segmented into wedges and packed as follows: uncoated packaging (control; polyethylene film; PVC film; gelatin-based edible films (3%; and polyesthyrene translucent plastic container with a lid. The minimally processed oranges were stored at 5 ± 1°C for 8 days and were subjected to physicochemical and microbiological analyses every two days. Greater weight loss occurred in fruits without flavedo and segmented, uncoated, and coated with the edible gelatin film During storage, there was a slight increase in Total Soluble Solids (TSS for the treatments with greater weight loss and reduction in acidity and ascorbic acid, regardless of the packaging type. The microbial counts did not exceed the acceptable limits in the treatments; however, higher counts were observed at the end of storage. The minimally processed fruit packed in lidded polystyrene containers and polyethylene and PVC films kept their overall fresh visual appearance with a few physicochemical and microbiological changes up to the 8th day of storage.Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar a influência do nível de processamento mínimo e atmosfera modificada na qualidade de laranja 'Champagne' minimamente processada armazenada sob refrigeração. Laranjas submetidas aos seguintes processos: a remoção do albedo; b remoção do albedo e flavedo; c segmentada em gomos, foram acondicionadas em embalagem sem revestimento (controle, com filme de polietileno, com filme de PVC, com revestimento comestível de gelatina a 3% e em pote plástico com tampa de poliestireno. O armazenamento dos frutos foi realizado a 5 ± 1 °C por oito dias, sendo submetidos a análises f

  13. Champagne for the cryogenics teams

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Christmas has come early for the LHC as a complete sector of the cryogenic distribution line has been operating at 10 degrees Kelvin (-263°C) for the past two weeks, just a few degrees above the machine's nominal operating temperature.

  14. Biotinidase deficiency and our champagne legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Barry

    2016-09-10

    Biotinidase is the enzyme that is necessary for the recycling of the vitamin, biotin. Biotinidase deficiency is an autosomal recessively inherited metabolic disorder. If untreated, individuals with biotinidase deficiency usually develop neurological and cutaneous symptoms that can result in coma or death. Symptomatic individuals can be markedly improved by treating them with pharmacological doses of biotin; however, some clinical features may be irreversible. Fortunately, essentially all symptoms can be prevented if treatment is initiated at birth or before the symptoms develop. Because of this, the disorder is currently screened for in newborns in all states in the United States and in many countries around the world. This is the story of one laboratory's work in bringing basic science research from the discovery of the disorder to its translation into clinical medicine and its impact on the individuals with the disorder and their families. PMID:26456103

  15. Changement climatique et viticulture en Champagne : du constat actuel aux prévisions du modèle ARPEGE-Climat sur l’évolution des températures pour le XXIe siècle 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Beltrando

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dans le vignoble de Champagne, le changement climatique, perceptible depuis la fin des années 1980, se manifeste par une tendance à la précocité des stades phénologiques et par une amélioration de la qualité des raisins vendangés. Mais cette évolution interpelle le milieu professionnel car, si elle se poursuit, elle pourrait devenir néfaste pour la qualité de la production de raisin (chaleur estivale trop importante, taux d’alcool élevé…. Afin d’apporter des éléments de réponse sur l’évolution des températures (moyennes et extrêmes quotidiens dans un contexte d’augmentation de la concentration en gaz à effet de serre, les données de température quotidiennes calculées par le modèle numérique ARPEGE-Climat (Retic de Météo-France sont validées par comparaison avec celles mesurées à Reims-Courcy sur la période 1950-2006. Puis, les simulations obtenues sur la période 2001-2100 par ce modèle sont analysées  pour les trois scénarios les plus couramment utilisés par l’IPCC [B1 (optimiste, A1B (intermédiaire, A2 (pessimiste]. Les résultats montrent une tendance non linéaire vers un réchauffement de l’air mais aussi une grande variabilité des températures d’un scénario à l’autre. A partir des années 2060, les modèles fournissent des prévisions de températures qui, auront  des répercussions majeures sur l’activité vitivinicole, surtout pour le scénario pessimiste (A2.In Champagne vineyard, Climate Change already observed since the end of 1980’s, showed by precocity of phenology as harvests and quality improvement of grapes. This temporal evolution calls out to wine growers because if this evolution continues, it could become harmful to grape production quality (summer heat waves, lack of water, high alcohol rate…. In the aim to find responses concerning temperature evolution (means and daily extremes in a context of  greenhouse concentration rise, daily temperature data

  16. Kuidas lugeda "Meeste domineerimist"? / Patrick Champagne ; tlk. Marek Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Champagne, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Rets. rmt.: Bourdieu, Pierre. Meeste domineerimine. Tallinn, 2005. Kommenteerivad (lk. 12-14) Liina Lukas, Rein Ruutsoo (TLÜ õppejõud), Marina Grišakova, Aare Pilv, Airi-Alina Allaste, Raivo Vetik (TLÜ Õppejõud), Andres Härm, Voldemar Tomusk

  17. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in water: proposition of a strategy and evaluation in Champagne-Ardenne Region, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, D; Villena, I

    2009-03-01

    Water is a vehicle for disseminating human and veterinary toxoplasmosis due to oocyst contamination. Several outbreaks of toxoplasmosis throughout the world have been related to contaminated drinking water. We have developed a method for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in water and we propose a strategy for the detection of multiple waterborne parasites, including Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia. Water samples were filtered to recover Toxoplasma oocysts and, after the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts by immunofluorescence, as recommended by French norm procedure NF T 90-455, the samples were purified on a sucrose density gradient. Detection of Toxoplasma was based on PCR amplification and mouse inoculation to determine the presence and infectivity of recovered oocysts. After experimental seeding assays, we determined that the PCR assay was more sensitive than the bioassay. This strategy was then applied to 482 environmental water samples collected since 2001. We detected Toxoplasma DNA in 37 environmental samples (7.7%), including public drinking water; however, none of them were positive by bioassay. This strategy efficiently detects Toxoplasma oocysts in water and may be suitable as a public health sentinel method. Alternative methods can be used in conjunction with this one to determine the infectivity of parasites that were detected by molecular methods. PMID:19430655

  18. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in water: proposition of a strategy and evaluation in Champagne-Ardenne Region, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Aubert

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Water is a vehicle for disseminating human and veterinary toxoplasmosis due to oocyst contamination. Several outbreaks of toxoplasmosis throughout the world have been related to contaminated drinking water. We have developed a method for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in water and we propose a strategy for the detection of multiple waterborne parasites, including Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia. Water samples were filtered to recover Toxoplasma oocysts and, after the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts by immunofluorescence, as recommended by French norm procedure NF T 90-455, the samples were purified on a sucrose density gradient. Detection of Toxoplasma was based on PCR amplification and mouse inoculation to determine the presence and infectivity of recovered oocysts. After experimental seeding assays, we determined that the PCR assay was more sensitive than the bioassay. This strategy was then applied to 482 environmental water samples collected since 2001. We detected Toxoplasma DNA in 37 environmental samples (7.7%, including public drinking water; however, none of them were positive by bioassay. This strategy efficiently detects Toxoplasma oocysts in water and may be suitable as a public health sentinel method. Alternative methods can be used in conjunction with this one to determine the infectivity of parasites that were detected by molecular methods.

  19. Bordeaux of Talca and Champagne of Mendoza: Appellations of Origin and identity contamination of wines in Argentina and Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Alberto Lacoste

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of Appellations of Origin (AO is one of the wines of outstanding wine industry in Argentina and Chile subjects. Given the strong trend towards concentration of the wine industry in these two countries, it is relevant to study the AO because they represent an appropriate mechanism to reduce the gap and enhance the possibilities of SMEs. Why AO not have developed in Argentina and Chile? This article examines the causes that inhibit the development of local AO in the regional viticulture.

  20. Copper mobilization affected by weather conditions in a stormwater detention system receiving runoff waters from vineyard soils (Champagne, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copper, a priority substance on the EU-Water Framework Directive list, is widely used to protect grapevines against fungus diseases. Many vineyards being located on steep slopes, large amounts of Cu could be discharged in downstream systems by runoff water. The efficiency of stormwater detention basins to retain copper in a vineyard catchment was estimated. Suspended solids, dissolved (Cudiss) and total Cu (Cutot) concentrations were monitored in runoff water, upstream, into and downstream from a detention pond. Mean Cutot concentrations in entering water was 53.6 μg/L whereas it never exceeded 2.4 μg/L in seepage. Cutot concentrations in basin water (>100 μg/L in 24% of the samples) exceeded LC50 values for several aquatic animals. Copper was principally sequestered by reduced compounds in the basin sediments (2/3 of Cutot). Metal sequestration was reversible since sediment resuspension resulted in Cu remobilization. Wind velocity controlled resuspension, explained 70% of Cudiss variability and could help predicting Cu mobilization. - Copper in stormwater basin is efficiently retained but can be released during windy events or after dredging.

  1. Titan Aeromony and Climate Workshop, , held 27-29 June, 2016 in Reimes, Champagne-Ardenne, France. Online at http://planeto.univ-reims.fr/tac/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bézard, Bruno; Lavvas, Panayotis; Rannou, Pascal; Sotin, Christophe; Strobel, Darrell; West, Robert A.; Yelle, Roger

    2016-06-01

    The observations of the Cassini spacecraft since 2004 revealed that Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, has an active climate cycle with a cloud cover related to the large scale atmospheric circulation, lakes of methane and hyrdrocarbons with variable depth, a dried fluvial system witnessing a past wetter climate, dunes, and deep changes in the weather and atmospheric structure as Titan went through the North Spring equinox. Moreover, the upper atmosphere is now considered the cradle of complex chemistry leading to aerosol formation, as well as the manifestation place of atmospheric waves. However, as the Cassini mission comes to its end, many fundamental questions remain unresolved... The objective of the workshop is to bring together international experts from different fields of Titan's research in order to have an overview of the current understanding, and to determine the remaining salient scientific issues and the actions that could be implemented to address them. PhD students and post-doc researchers are welcomed to present their studies. This conference aims to be a brainstorming event leaving abundant time for discussion during oral and poster presentations. Main Topics: - Atmospheric seasonal cycles and coupling with dynamics. - Composition and photochemistry of the atmosphere. - Formation and evolution of aerosols and their role in the atmosphere. - Spectroscopy, optical properties, and radiative transfer modeling of the atmosphere. - Surface composition, liquid reservoirs and interaction with atmosphere. - Evolution of the atmosphere. - Titan after Cassini, open questions and the path forward.

  2. The new competition of the international wine market and its consequences on french producers' strategies : cace company : Champagne Fleury Domaine de la Garelle

    OpenAIRE

    Morgane, Blettery

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation is to examine the possible strategies adoptable by the French wine producers to face the new international competitors that have themselves applied efficient and aggressive marketing strategies to set up into the international wine market. With this analyse will be shown how two French companies have adapted or not to the changes, by adopting a different approach of the market. The theoretical part focus on how improving the French producers' competitiveness, by e...

  3. Petrophysical Properties of the Middle Jurassic Carbonates in the PICOREF Sector (South Champagne, Paris Basin, France Propriétés pétrophysiques du Dogger carbonaté dans le Secteur PICOREF (Sud Champagne, bassin de Paris, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmas J.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article, carried out as part of the PICOREF Project for the CO2 storage in the aquifers of the Paris Basin, presents an important petrophysical database from the numerous petroleum wells drilled in the PICOREF Sector (south-eastern part of the Paris Basin between 1953 and 2001. These core data concern the three saline carbonated aquifers of the Middle Jurassic: the Oolithe Blanche and the Comblanchien formations, Upper Bathonian age, and the Dalle Nacrée formation, Lower Callovian age, that would be used for the CO2 sequestration. Located at –1230 to –1750 m sub sea in the studied sector, these carbonate reservoirs which cumulative thickness is about 150 m, outcrop in the Burgundy region, at about 80 km south-eastern the Sector where they are exploited in several quarries. The analysis of the 6800 routine measurements (porosity and permeability gathered for this study allowed to improve the knowledge of the petrophysical properties. Special measurements (mercury injection tests allowed to characterize the porous medium. Cet article, réalisé dans le cadre du Projet PICOREF(1 pour le stockage de CO2 dans les aquifères du bassin parisien, présente une importante base de données pétrophysiques issues des nombreux puits pétroliers forés dans le Secteur PICOREF (sud-est du bassin parisien entre 1953 et 2001. Ces données concernent les trois aquifères salins du Dogger carbonaté susceptibles d’être utilisés pour séquestrer du CO2 : l’Oolithe Blanche et le Comblanchien, d’âge Bathonien supérieur, ainsi que la Dalle Nacrée d’âge Callovien inférieur. Recoupés à des altitudes de – 1230 à – 1750 m/mer dans le secteur étudié, ces réservoirs carbonatés, dont l’épaisseur cumulée est de 150 m environ, affleurent en Bourgogne, à 80 km au sud-est du « Secteur », où ils sont exploités dans plusieurs carrières. L’analyse des 6800 mesures classiques (porosité et perméabilité rassemblées ici a permis d’améliorer la connaissance des qualités pétrophysiques des réservoirs. Les mesures spéciales de porosimétrie mercure ont permis de caractériser le milieu poreux.

  4. Preliminary opinion on the authorization file on water dismissal and drawing by the Aube storage centre. Study performed by the CRIIRAD laboratory on the request by the CEDRA and with the financial support of the Champagne-Ardenne regional Council; Avis preliminaire sur le dossier de demande d'autorisation de rejets et de prelevement d'eau du centre de stockage de l'Aube. Etude effectuee par le laboratoire de la CRIIRAD a la demande du CEDRA et avec le soutien financier du Conseil Regional Champagne-Ardenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This document reports a critical analysis of the public inquiry file presented by the ANDRA to support its authorization requests of water releases and drawing about the Aube storage centre. After some generalities about this storage site, the report outlines that this site releases contaminated effluents in the storm basin without any authorization. It also outlines uncertainties in the radionuclide inventory. Then it describes and reports the liquid effluent management and characterization, formulates some remarks about liquid and atmospheric dismissal authorization requests, and about the dose assessment for residents (radiation level, exposure due to waste transport)

  5. Social and cultural activities

    CERN Document Server

    Clubs; Euroscience

    2008-01-01

    Club news: Cricket Club, Volleyball Club, Pétanque, Fitness Club, Concerts Club, CERN Women's Club. Café des sciences. Exhibition : Ladakh & Rupshu - Royaumes du silence. Conference : Voyage au coeur d'une flûte de champagne.

  6. Social and cultural activities

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Club news : Record Club, Ski Club, Dancing Club, Orienteering Club, CERN Women's Club, Concerts Club, Russian Cultural Circle, Yachting Club. Conference : Voyage au coeur d'une flûte de champagne. Exhibition.

  7. HOTEL INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Hilton Beijing Wangfujing Showcasing an array of brunch favorites and international selections, complemented by a free flow of premium champagne, Beijing’s newest champagne brunch-"fizztastic"-offers a culinary discovery and hint of the forbidden at Penta Dining Haven, the fifth floor collection of restaurants and bars at Hilton Beijing Wangfujing every Sunday starting on September 13. Titillate the palate of your family and friends with the appetizing selection of brunch traditions

  8. Animace kultury pití šampaňského v ČR na příkladu firmy Vinotéka Praha s.r.o.

    OpenAIRE

    Dejmková, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is focused on culture of drinking champagne animation in the Czech Republic. As an example, in which the animation will be demonstrated has been chosen Vinotéka Praha s.r.o.. The theoretical part defines animation and its processes, their origin and types. It also describes champagne and explains why it is necessary to understand it as luxury product. The second part sets out the relationship of animation and Vinotéka Praha s.r.o.. The aim of this work is to prove and define the a...

  9. WW1 Allies Flags Fans

    OpenAIRE

    Biger, Pierre-Henri

    2014-01-01

    International audience Several hand fans are decorated with flags of the main Allied countries during WW1. They show the entry of the United States into the war, and the departure of Russia. So these feminine utensils (and advertising items, for instance here for Champagne Eugene Clicquot) play their role in theWar effort.

  10. Assessing Vital Signs: Applying Two Participatory Evaluation Frameworks to the Evaluation of a College of Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Susan C.; Magilvy, Joan K.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation research has been in progress to clarify the concept of participatory evaluation and to assess its impact. Recently, two theoretical frameworks have been offered--Daigneault and Jacob's participatory evaluation measurement index and Champagne and Smits' model of practical participatory evaluation. In this case report, we apply these…

  11. Approaches to a Successful Adult Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Tanjula; Thomas, Christine C.

    2014-01-01

    An estimated 40 million Americans adults live their lives deprived of prosperity, pleasures, and the rewards of lifelong learning (Comings & Cuban, 2007). With the economic, social, and technical changes in society, there are shifts in the labor market (Champagne, 1987). Many adults are having to set their sights on obtaining sufficient skills…

  12. La sexualidad como arma política: cine homosexual subversivo en España en los años setenta y ochenta

    OpenAIRE

    Berzosa Camacho, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Tesis doctoral inédita cotutelada por la Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne y la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Departamento de Historia y Teoría del Arte. Fecha de lectura: 02-11-2012

  13. Répertoire Mayol - Dix chansons nouvelles

    OpenAIRE

    Mayol Éditions, .

    2011-01-01

    Répertoire Mayol - Dix chansons nouvelles - Mayol Éditions [?]. Photo Mayol non signée - Catalogue recto [exemplaire sans cotage - sans adresse - exemplaire 4 p. contient deux chansons (incomplet?) - sans date, Verso publicité Champagne. Inconnu BNF.

  14. The LHC's Next Big Mystery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Don

    2015-01-01

    When the sun rose over America on July 4, 2012, the world of science had radically changed. The Higgs boson had been discovered. Mind you, the press releases were more cautious than that, with "a new particle consistent with being the Higgs boson" being the carefully constructed phrase of the day. But, make no mistake, champagne corks…

  15. Sport and Children's Spirituality: An Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Micheline Wyn

    2013-01-01

    The benefits of sport and physical activity are endorsed by a number of professionals as a means of improving children's health and their sense of well-being, and their unity with the natural world, other people and the Transcendent. For children, sport is a spiritual source of joy and wonder. Using Champagne's "spiritual modes of being", my…

  16. 7 CFR 457.138 - Grape crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... not damage due to insufficient or improper application of pest control measures; (4) Plant disease, but not damage due to insufficient or improper application of disease control measures; (5) Wildlife... harvested before normal maturity or for a special use (such as Champagne or Botrytis-affected grapes),...

  17. Visionary Fuels Private Space Race

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CNN international; 魏蓝天

    2004-01-01

    @@ It was only the following day, after the thousands of cheering spectators had disappeared, after the jubilant speeches had dried up along with the champagne,as Diamandis was driving his father back to Los Angeles, that euphoria ②--and relief--swept over him.

  18. 40 CFR 63.2192 - What definitions apply to this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Responsible official means responsible official as defined in 40 CFR 70.2. Specialty yeast includes but is not limited to yeast produced for use in wine, champagne, whiskey, and beer. Within-concentration batch means... defined in the Clean Air Act, in 40 CFR 63.2, the General Provisions of this part, and in this section...

  19. Les Champenois à Versailles : artistes, littéraires et musiciens champenois à la cour sous Louis XIV, Louis XV et Louis XVI

    OpenAIRE

    Adamczak, Alicia; Adamczak, Audrey; Bohnert, Céline; Boyer, Jean-Claude; Brême, Dominique; Gevrey, Françoise; Joulie, Françoise; Maral, Alexandre; Porot, Bertrand; Préaud, Maxime; Rickert, Yvonne; Ziegler, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    La Champagne, avec ses composantes septentrionale et méridionale, se situait, sous l’Ancien Régime, entre l’Île-de-France et la Lorraine, alors région frontière. Tout en gardant une importance économique et stratégique forte, la Champagne était structurellement liée au siège du pouvoir, Versailles, ne serait-ce que comme premier contact avec la France des souverains étrangers – germaniques ou transalpins – rejoignant la cour, ou par le rôle éminent de Reims, ville des sacres. À quel point la ...

  20. Yeast adapted to wine: nitrogen compounds released during induced autolysis in a model wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, L; Charpentier, M; Charpentier, C; Feuillat, M; Chassagne, D

    2002-09-01

    As important as the blend of base wines before bottling, one of the most important steps in the champagne-making process is the long ageing on lees. Two yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae MC001 and MC002, used in champagne wine production, were allowed to autolyse. After 8 days of autolysis, active dry yeasts adapted to wine released 1.7- to 1.8-fold more nitrogen compounds than nonadapted active dry yeast. The nitrogen content (total, proteins, peptides and amino) present in autolysates was measured for yeasts adapted to wine. The composition of free amino acids and amino acids constituting peptides showed no difference between the two strains of yeast used. Studies of intracellular proteolytic activity and release of peptides showed no correlation between these two phenomena. These results indicate that yeasts adapted to wine give results similar to those that occur in wine during ageing. PMID:12242635

  1. Foaming in stout beers

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, W T; Devereux, M. G.

    2011-01-01

    We review the differences between bubble formation in champagne and other carbonated drinks, and stout beers which contain a mixture of dissolved nitrogen and carbon dioxide. The presence of dissolved nitrogen in stout beers gives them a number of properties of interest to connoisseurs and physicists. These remarkable properties come at a price: stout beers do not foam spontaneously and special technology, such as the widgets used in cans, is needed to promote foaming. Nevertheless the same m...

  2. EFFECT OF NITROGEN AND VITAMIN SUPPLEMENTS ON THE PROCESS OF ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Гураль, Л. С.; Ткаченко, O. Б.; Древова, С. С.

    2014-01-01

    In winemaking and viticulture, the nitrogen content in grapes and wort is a determining factor for the metabolism of yeast during an alcoholic fermentation and plays an important role in the formation of physiochemical and foamy properties of champagne wine materials and organoleptic profile of sparkling wines. The article presents the results of a study on the effect of nitrogen and vitamin fertilizing "Aktiferm" and "Aktiferm Organic" on the dynamics of yeast biomass, the pH of the medium, ...

  3. Alcoholic beverages produced by alcoholic fermentation but not by distillation are powerful stimulants of gastric acid secretion in humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Teyssen, S; Lenzing, T; González-Calero, G; Korn, A.; Riepl, R. L.; Singer, M V

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of commonly ingested alcoholic beverages on gastric acid output and release of gastrin in humans is unknown. AIM AND METHODS: In 16 healthy humans the effect of some commonly ingested alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation plus distillation (for example, whisky, cognac, calvados, armagnac, and rum) or by alcoholic fermentation (beer, wine, champagne, martini, and sherry) on gastric acid output and release of gastrin was studied. Gastric acid output was determined ...

  4. 泰亭哲成FIFA指定香槟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    法国著名香槟生产商泰亭哲(Taittinger)与国际足联(FIFA)签订协议,正式成为FIFA官方指定香槟。通常,香槟都是奢侈运动冠军挥洒的胜利之水,如凯歌香槟(Champagne Veuve Clicquot)与马球的情缘,

  5. REPAS DANSANT DE L'AMICALE DES POMPIERS DU CERN - French version only

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Le 6 décembre 2002, à l'occasion de la Sainte Barbe, à partir de 20 h., au restaurant no2 (DSR), bâtiment 504 Prix du repas 25 CHF Orchestre Rudy Ache et sa chanteuse Monique Bar à champagne Vestiaire Tickets en vente auprès de l'Amicale des Pompiers du CERN, renseignements au 76655, email : anne.laure.leglise@cern.ch

  6. Ocular injuries from flying bottle caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseka, C

    1993-12-01

    Three cases of serious eye injury are described from flying metal caps of carbonated drink bottles. The injuries occurred while attempting to open the bottle in an unconventional and dangerous way. Though injuries from flying bottle caps have been described before, they have occurred when the bottle exploded. This is the first report of eye injuries caused by bottle caps while opening and are similar to the injuries caused by champagne corks. PMID:8143337

  7. EDF and nuclear information of health professions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author presents EDF politics and all actions in matter of nuclear information of physicians, veterinaries, pharmacists (iodine problems), nurses by means of conferences, post-university training, special days, visits of nuclear plants and SCPRI, documentation delivery (books, booklets, journals), publication of articles in medical and veterinary journals, participation at Euromedecine Conference and inquiries near to physicians in Orne Champagne-Ardennes, Provence-Cote d'Azur, veterinaries and pharmacists in Isere. A balance of all actions is given

  8. Confrontation of geophysical survey, soil studies and excavation data to evidence tillage erosion

    OpenAIRE

    Querrien, Armelle; Moulin, Joël; Tabbagh, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Three different surveys have been performed at Monbaron in the Champagne Berrichonne region to the southof Levroux (Indre, France). The first survey (1992), using the square array resistivity method, aimed to identify the presence of buried archaeological features, mainly ditches. The second one (1996), corresponding to a test of a new multi-depth instrument, aimed both to assess its abilities and to increase the extent of the surveyed area. The preservation of buried features, observed by co...

  9. Cooperation and conflicts : institutional innovation in France's wine markets, 1870-1911

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, James

    2005-01-01

    Very different commodity chains had been established over the centuries in France to produce and sell wines as diverse as champagne, fine old clarets, or ordinary table wines. The major shortages caused by the vine disease phylloxera after 1875 forced merchants to search for new sources of supply, often in foreign countries or through the production of artificial wines. When domestic production revived, however, the recovery was not accompanied by a noticeable reduction in these new supplies,...

  10. The dynamical evolution of an HII region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radio aperture synthesis observations combined with single dish measurements of a large sample (77) of HII regions allow one to test the applicability of models of star formation and HII region evolution. Strong evidence is found in support of the 'champagne flow' model of HII region evolution. There is no strong statistical evidence in support of the theory of successive star formation proposed by Elmegreen and Lada although there are several individual cases which do support it. This discrepancy is also discussed. (Auth.)

  11. The hydrodynamical models of the cometary compact H II region

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Feng-Yao; Li, Juan; Zhang, Jiang-Shui; Wang, Jun-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a full numerical method to study the gas dynamics of cometary ultra-compact (UC) H II regions, and associated photodissociation regions (PDRs). The bow-shock and champagne-flow models with a $40.9/21.9 M_\\odot$ star are simulated. In the bow-shock models, the massive star is assumed to move through dense ($n=8000~cm^{-3}$) molecular material with a stellar velocity of $15~km~s^{-1}$. In the champagne-flow models, an exponential distribution of density with a scale height of 0.2 pc is assumed. The profiles of the [Ne II] 12.81\\mum and $H_2~S(2)$ lines from the ionized regions and PDRs are compared for two sets of models. In champagne-flow models, emission lines from the ionized gas clearly show the effect of acceleration along the direction toward the tail due to the density gradient. The kinematics of the molecular gas inside the dense shell is mainly due to the expansion of the H II region. However, in bow-shock models the ionized gas mainly moves in the same direction as the stellar motion...

  12. Remediation of context-processing deficits in schizophrenia: preliminary data with ambiguous sentences

    OpenAIRE

    Besche-Richard C; Terrien S; Lesgourgues M; Béchiri-Payet C; Gierski F; Limosin F

    2014-01-01

    Chrystel Besche-Richard,1,2 Sarah Terrien,1 Marion Lesgourgues,3,4 Célia Béchiri-Payet,5 Fabien Gierski,1,3 Frédéric Limosin6–8 1Laboratory Cognition, Santé, Socialisation, University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne, France; 2Institut Universitaire de France, Paris, France; 3Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Pôle de Psychiatrie des Adultes, Reims, France; 4Service Universitaire de Médecine Préventive et de Promotion de la Santé, ...

  13. Where are the radioactive wastes in France? Brochure no 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is one of the 6 regional brochures which make the geographical inventory of radioactive wastes in France. For each region, a table lists the recorded sites and a regional map localizes those having a detailed descriptive file. These files mention the most important waste owners (medical, research, nuclear and military industries), the type of waste and the type of management. The polluted sites are also mentioned, even if they are already decontaminated. The volume no 3 concerns the Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Picardie, Champagne-Ardenne, Bourgogne, Alsace, Lorraine, Franche-Comte regions. (J.S.)

  14. Last piece of the puzzle for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Clare Ryan

    At around 15.40 on Friday 29th February the ATLAS collaboration cracked open the champagne as the second of the small wheels was lowered into the cavern. Each of ATLAS' small wheels are 9.3 metres in diameter and weigh 100 tonnes including the massive shielding elements. They are the final parts of ATLAS' muon spectrometer. The first piece of ATLAS was installed in 2003 and since then many detector elements have journeyed down the 100 metre shaft into the ATLAS underground cavern. This last piece completes this gigantic puzzle.

  15. Cancer mortality and incidence survey around the Aube's low- and medium-activity radioactive waste storage site; Etude de mortalite et d'incidence des cancers autour du site de stockage de dechets radioactifs de faible et de moyenne activite de l'Aube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This report presents the main results of a survey performed in 2010 to describe the health status of the population around the Aube's low- and medium-activity radioactive waste storage site. The aim of this survey was to determine whether the frequencies of death and hospitalization on account of cancer are different for this population (15 km around the site) with respect to two reference populations (the population of the Champagne-Ardennes region and the French metropolitan population). Results of mortality, hospitalization, and lung cancer are presented under the form of maps and tables giving global data or data for males, females, adults, or children

  16. Die Verwaltungsgliederung der Großregion SaarLorLux

    OpenAIRE

    Helfer, Malte

    2011-01-01

    Die Großregion (2008: 65 398 km², 11,4 Mio. Einwohner) ist administrativ nicht homogen gegliedert. Bereits ihre einzelnen Teilräume haben einen unterschiedlichen Status: Das Großherzogtum Luxemburg ist ein souveräner Staat, Wallonien ist eine belgische Region, Lothringen war bis 2015 eine französische Region, ist seit dem 1.1.2016 Teil der neuen Region Alsace Champagne-Ardenne Lorraine (ACAL), Rheinland-Pfalz und Saarland sind deutsche Bundesländer. Die Größe und Einwohnerzahl der Gemei...

  17. Tableaux

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    1. LES HOMMES D’ARMES CHAMPENOIS DANS LES COMPAGNIES DIRIGEES PAR UN GRAND NOBLE DE LA PROVINCE (1500-1521) 2. LES HOMMES D’ARMES CHAMPENOIS DANS LES COMPAGNIES DIRIGEES PAR UN GRAND NOBLE DE LA PROVINCE (1521-1560) 3. LES HOMMES D’ARMES CHAMPENOIS DANS LES COMPAGNIES COMMANDÉES PAR CLAUDE DE GUISE (1515-1528) 4. LES HOMMES D’ARMES CHAMPENOIS DANS LES COMPAGNIES COMMANDÉES PAR LE COMTE DE RETHEL (1518-1523) 5. LES VASSAUX DES LA MARCK DANS LEURS TROUPES ORIGINAIRES DE CHAMPAGNE (1500-1560...

  18. ATLAS- lowering the muon small wheel

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    ATLAS - the two muon small wheels lowered into the cavern Like briefly separated twin sisters, ATLAS’s small wheels were once again united at the experiment’s surface building at Point 1 on St Valentine’s Day. The lowering of the small wheels into the tunnel will mark the end of the installation of detector components for the experiment. At around 15.40 on Friday 29th February the ATLAS collaboration cracked open the champagne as the second of the small wheels was lowered into the cavern.

  19. Where are the radioactive wastes in France? Brochure no 3; Ou sont les dechets radioactifs en France? Brochure no 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document is one of the 6 regional brochures which make the geographical inventory of radioactive wastes in France. For each region, a table lists the recorded sites and a regional map localizes those having a detailed descriptive file. These files mention the most important waste owners (medical, research, nuclear and military industries), the type of waste and the type of management. The polluted sites are also mentioned, even if they are already decontaminated. The volume no 3 concerns the Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Picardie, Champagne-Ardenne, Bourgogne, Alsace, Lorraine, Franche-Comte regions. (J.S.)

  20. 15 local climate-energy plans: regions and districts, local leaders of the struggle against climate change; 15 plans climat - energie territoriaux regions et departements, animateurs territoriaux de la lutte contre le changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This report presents some general information, the sectors addressed by the Climate - Energy Plan, the approaches adopted, the plan elaboration process (organisation, participation and governance, diagnosis and challenges identification, communication actions), the actions and their follow-up, the success factors and the improvement opportunities of the Climate-energy Plans elaborated and adopted by different French regions (Alsace, Aquitaine, Basse-Normandie, Champagne-Ardenne, Franche-Comte, Haute-Normandie, Languedoc-Roussillon, Limousin, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Poitou-Charentes) and districts (Alpes Maritimes, Bas-Rhin, Eure, Seine-Maritime)

  1. Cancer mortality and incidence survey around the Aube's low- and medium-activity radioactive waste storage site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the main results of a survey performed in 2010 to describe the health status of the population around the Aube's low- and medium-activity radioactive waste storage site. The aim of this survey was to determine whether the frequencies of death and hospitalization on account of cancer are different for this population (15 km around the site) with respect to two reference populations (the population of the Champagne-Ardennes region and the French metropolitan population). Results of mortality, hospitalization, and lung cancer are presented under the form of maps and tables giving global data or data for males, females, adults, or children

  2. Molar Pregnancy in the Emergency Department

    OpenAIRE

    Masterson, Lori; Chan, Shu B.; Bluhm, Bryan

    2009-01-01

    A 15-year-old female presented to the emergency department with complaints of vaginal bleeding. She was pale, anxious, cool and clammy with tachycardic, thready peripheral pulses and hemoglobin of 2.4g/dL. Her abdomen was gravid appearing, approximately early to mid-second trimester in size. Pelvic examination revealed 2 cm open cervical os with spontaneous discharge of blood, clots and a copious amount of champagne-colored grapelike spongy material. After 2L boluses of normal saline and two ...

  3. Cultivo hidropônico de lisianto para flor de corte em sistema de fluxo laminar de nutrientes Hydroponic growth of lisianthus as cut flower under nutrient film technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Alice Antonello Londero Backes

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características produtivas e comerciais do cultivo de quatro cultivares de lisianto (Eustoma grandiflorum em três soluções nutritivas em sistema de fluxo laminar de nutrientes (NFT. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 4x3, com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram compostos de quatro cultivares (Echo Champagne, Mariachi Pure White, Balboa Yellow e Ávila Blue Rim e três soluções nutritivas (Teste, Steiner modificada e Barbosa. O sistema NFT é uma alternativa viável para o cultivo de lisianto nas soluções Barbosa e Teste. A cultivar Echo Champagne foi superior quanto ao ciclo, período em produção, altura da haste floral, número de folhas, diâmetro de botão e produção de massa fresca e seca, enquanto a cultivar Mariachi Pure White se destacou quanto ao período em produção. A cultivar Ávila Blue Rim apresentou maior período de produção, número de flores e produção de massa de matéria fresca e seca, enquanto a cultivar Balboa Yellow apresentou maior período em produção e diâmetro de botão.The objective of this work was to evaluate yield and commercial traits of lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum flowers growth in nutrient film technique (NFT. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, in factorial scheme (4x3, with three replicates. The treatments were four cultivars (Echo Champagne, Mariachi Pure White, Balboa Yellow and Ávila Blue Rim and three nutrient solutions (Test, modified Steiner and Barbosa. The NFT system is a feasible alternative for the growth of lisianthus in Barbosa and Test solutions. The cultivar Echo Champagne was superior for cycle, length of production, height of flower stem, number of leaves, diameter of the bud flower and fresh and dry weight production, while the cultivar Mariachi Pure White was superior for length of production. The cultivar Ávila Blue Rim showed good length of production, number of flowers

  4. Synthèse et filtrage robuste de la commande pour des système manufacturiers sûrs de fonctionnement

    OpenAIRE

    Marangé, Pascale

    2008-01-01

    Le Conseil Régional de Champagne-Ardenne porte un intérêt particulier aux formations supérieures professionnalisantes en sciences et techniques. Dans ce cadre, il a été proposé de permettre l'utilisation de Systèmes Automatisés de Production (SAP) par des apprenants. Les travaux présentés dans cette thèse portent sur la conception de la commande de systèmes manufacturiers par des automaticiens au niveau de compétence variable, pouvant aller du novice jusqu'à l'expert. L'utilisation de Parties...

  5. EDH 'Millionaire' in PS Division

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Christmas cheer! Left to right: Gerard Lobeau receives a bottle of Champagne from Derek Mathieson and Jurgen De Jonghe in recognition of EDH's millionth document. At 14:33 on Monday 3 December a technician in PS division, Gerard Lobeau, unwittingly became part of an important event in the life of CERN's Electronic Document Handling system (EDH). While ordering some pieces of aluminum for one of the PS's 10Mhz RF cavities, he created EDH document number 1,000,000. To celebrate the event Derek Mathieson (EDH Project Leader) and Jurgen De Jonghe (Original EDH Project Leader) presented Mr Lobeau with a bottle of champagne. As with 93% of material requests, Mr Lobeau's order was delivered within 24 hours. 'I usually never win anything' said Mr Lobeau as he accepted his prize, 'I initially though there may have been a problem with EDH when the document number had so many zeros in it, and was then surprised to get a phone call from you a few minutes later.' The EDH team had been monitoring the EDH document number ...

  6. "Atmospheric Measurements by Ultra-Light SpEctrometer" (AMULSE) dedicated to vertical profile measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4) under stratospheric balloons: instrumental development and field application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maamary, Rabih; Joly, Lilian; Decarpenterie, Thomas; Cousin, Julien; Dumelié, Nicolas; Grouiez, Bruno; Albora, Grégory; Chauvin, Nicolas; Miftah-El-Khair, Zineb; Legain, Dominique; Tzanos, Diane; Barrié, Joel; Moulin, Eric; Ramonet, Michel; Bréon, François-Marie; Durry, Georges

    2016-04-01

    Human activities disrupt natural biogeochemical cycles such as the carbon and contribute to an increase in the concentrations of the greenhouse gases (carbone dioxide and methane) in the atmosphere. The current atmospheric transport modeling (the vertical trade) still represents an important source of uncertainty in the determination of regional flows of greenhouse gases, which means that a good knowledge of the vertical distribution of CO2 is necessary to (1) make the link between the ground measurements and spatial measurements that consider an integrated concentration over the entire column of the atmosphere, (2) validate and if possible improve CO2 transport model to make the link between surface emissions and observed concentration. The aim of this work is to develop a lightweight instrument (based on mid-infrared laser spectrometry principles) for in-situ measuring at high temporal/spatial resolution (5 Hz) the vertical profiles of the CO2 and the CH4 using balloons (meteorological and BSO at high precision levels (logistics flights. These laser spectrometers are built on recent instrumental developments. Several flights were successfully done in the region Champagne-Ardenne and in Canada recently. Aknowledgments: The authors acknowledge financial supports from CNES, CNRS défi instrumental and the region Champagne-Ardenne.

  7. "Atmospheric Measurements by Ultra-Light SpEctrometer" (AMULSE) dedicated to vertical profile measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4) under stratospheric balloons: instrumental development and field application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maamary, Rabih; Joly, Lilian; Decarpenterie, Thomas; Cousin, Julien; Dumelié, Nicolas; Grouiez, Bruno; Albora, Grégory; Chauvin, Nicolas; Miftah-El-Khair, Zineb; Legain, Dominique; Tzanos, Diane; Barrié, Joel; Moulin, Eric; Ramonet, Michel; Bréon, François-Marie; Durry, Georges

    2016-04-01

    Human activities disrupt natural biogeochemical cycles such as the carbon and contribute to an increase in the concentrations of the greenhouse gases (carbone dioxide and methane) in the atmosphere. The current atmospheric transport modeling (the vertical trade) still represents an important source of uncertainty in the determination of regional flows of greenhouse gases, which means that a good knowledge of the vertical distribution of CO2 is necessary to (1) make the link between the ground measurements and spatial measurements that consider an integrated concentration over the entire column of the atmosphere, (2) validate and if possible improve CO2 transport model to make the link between surface emissions and observed concentration. The aim of this work is to develop a lightweight instrument (based on mid-infrared laser spectrometry principles) for in-situ measuring at high temporal/spatial resolution (5 Hz) the vertical profiles of the CO2 and the CH4 using balloons (meteorological and BSO at high precision levels (authorizations, costs and logistics flights. These laser spectrometers are built on recent instrumental developments. Several flights were successfully done in the region Champagne-Ardenne and in Canada recently. Aknowledgments: The authors acknowledge financial supports from CNES, CNRS défi instrumental and the region Champagne-Ardenne.

  8. Identification and frequency of atmospheric circulation patterns causing spring frost in the northern French vineyards using the objective version of the Hess-Brezowsky classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quénol, H.; Planchon, O.; Wahl, L.

    2009-04-01

    The possible impacts of climate change at small spatial scales are still very little known. The knowledge of the climate risks at small scales is yet essential for agricultural activities and productions like vine growing, because of their serious economic impacts. Because of their relatively high latitude, the vineyards of the northern Half of France are subjected to spring frost, which can cause serious damages e.g. in the Champagne area on April the 8th, 2003. A detailed study of the variability and frequency of spring frost events in four vineyards (Loire Valley, Champagne, Burgundy and Alsace) was carried out within the framework of the RICLIM-CNRS 2663 multidisciplinary Research Group "Climate Risks" and was supported by the research program TERVICLIM (ANR-JC07-194103) and by the MAIF Foundation (program about air-mass circulation dynamics and climate risks). The northern Half of France is included in the Cfb type of climate (according to the Köppen's classification) of northwestern and central Europe. However, the combined effects of the latitude, the continentality and the topography involve varied regional climates. Among the four studied wine-producing areas, the Loire Valley area is the warmest, the Champagne area is the coolest in summer, and eastern Burgundy and especially Alsace are the most subjected to the continentality effect (highest annual temperature oscillation and highest rainfall amounts in summer). Therefore, these areas are not equally subjected to the frost risk. Spring is a key season for the vine growing and during frost-producing weather patterns, northern France is subjected to a high spatial variability of temperature at regional and local scales. During the period 1960-2007, the number of spring frost day events was three times as high in Colmar (Alsace) than in Saumur (Loire Valley). Among the four wine-producing areas, Alsace records the most hard and frequent frosts in early spring, while the Champagne area records the latest

  9. Observations of the Ionized, Neutral, and Molecular Components Associated with an Expanding H II Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrón, Mayra E.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Lizano, Susana

    2001-10-01

    We present H92α, HI 21 cm, NH3 (1, 1) and NH3 (2, 2) lines and radio continuum observations toward the compact HII region G111.61+0.37, located in the region Sharpless 159. The dense molecular gas (traced by the ammonia lines) in the vicinity of G111.61+0.37 is distributed in clumps indicating considerable inhomogeneity in the molecular gas. A warm (Trot=47 K) ammonia clump is located just in front of the head of the cometary HII region. The photodissociated region associated to this compact HII region was detected in the HI 21 cm line. The neutral region is extended in the direction opposite to the dense molecular gas. The velocity distribution of the neutral gas suggests that the HI region is expanding in a champagne flow resembling that of the HII region, although with much lower velocities.

  10. Evaluation of the reproductive performance of eight rabbit breeds on experimental farms

    OpenAIRE

    Bolet, Gérard; Brun, Jean-Michel; Lechevestrier, Sophie; LOPEZ, Marina; Boucher, Samuel

    2004-01-01

    Évaluation des performances de reproduction de 8 races de lapin en élevages expérimentaux. Les performances de reproduction de 544 lapines de 8 races ont été évaluées en présence d'une souche témoin (INRA 9077) dans 3 élevages expérimentaux, dont un en insémination artificielle. Les fondateurs provenaient de 110 élevages, français, suisses et italiens. Par ordre décroissant de poids à la saillie, ces races sont : Argenté de Champagne, INRA 9077, Chamois de Thuringe, Blanc de Vienne, Fauve de ...

  11. Queneau, Perec, Duras : Trois manières de boire dans le roman français

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Montémont

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available L’alcool et les alcools sont des thèmes étroitement associés au monde littéraire : si l’on en doutait, une recherche dans la base Frantext, qui comporte près de 3952 textes français et francophones, suffirait à nous en convaincre : une requête sur le lemme alcool ne ramène pas moins de 3338 occurrences. Si l’on élargit l’isotopie considérée, on trouve 23 372 occurrences de vin, 2953 mentions de bière, 1436 d’eau-de-vie, 834 de Champagne, 122 de cognac… ainsi que quelques dizaines de cuites, r...

  12. Foaming in stout beers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W. T.; Devereux, M. G.

    2011-10-01

    We review the differences between bubble formation in champagne and other carbonated drinks, and stout beers which contain a mixture of dissolved nitrogen and carbon dioxide. The presence of dissolved nitrogen in stout beers gives them several properties of interest to connoisseurs and physicists. These remarkable properties come at a price: stout beers do not foam spontaneously and special technology, such as the widgets used in cans, is needed to promote foaming. Nevertheless, the same mechanism, nucleation by gas pockets trapped in cellulose fibers, responsible for foaming in carbonated drinks is active in stout beers, but at an impractically slow rate. This gentle rate of bubble nucleation makes stout beers an excellent model system for investigating the nucleation of gas bubbles. The equipment needed is modest, putting such experiments within reach of undergraduate laboratories. We also consider the suggestion that a widget could be constructed by coating the inside of a beer can with cellulose fibers.

  13. HOTEL INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Western Beijing, Financial Street F’easter Easter"Bubbly Sunday"The infamous and decadent"Bubbly Sunday Brunch"with all the traditional Easter trimmings on Easter Sunday March 23. A chocolate ex- travaganza for all to behold,a mystifying magic show,live music,colored egg painting to keep the little ones occupied and even a visit from the Easter bunny. From 11:30 a.m. to 3:00 p.m.,prior reservations recommended please call 6629 7810.Subject to a 15-percent service charge. 338 yuan per person with free flow piper champagne,wine and brunch beverage bar. 268 yuan with unlimited soft drinks,juice and mocktails. 118 yuan kids below 12 years.

  14. Foaming in stout beers

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, W T

    2011-01-01

    We review the differences between bubble formation in champagne and other carbonated drinks, and stout beers which contain a mixture of dissolved nitrogen and carbon dioxide. The presence of dissolved nitrogen in stout beers gives them a number of properties of interest to connoisseurs and physicists. These remarkable properties come at a price: stout beers do not foam spontaneously and special technology, such as the widgets used in cans, is needed to promote foaming. Nevertheless the same mechanism, nucleation by gas pockets trapped in cellulose fibres, responsible for foaming in carbonated drinks is active in stout beers, but at an impractically slow rate. This gentle rate of bubble nucleation makes stout beers an excellent model system for the scientific investigation of the nucleation of gas bubbles. The equipment needed is very modest, putting such experiments within reach of undergraduate laboratories. Finally we consider the suggestion that a widget could be constructed by coating the inside of a beer...

  15. Higher-Order Mixed Finite Element Methods for Time Domain Electromagnetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D; Stowell, M; Koning, J; Rieben, R; Fisher, A; Champagne, N; Madsen, N

    2004-02-06

    This is the final report for LDRD 01-ERD-005. The Principal Investigator was Niel Madsen of the Defense Sciences Engineering Division (DSED). Collaborators included Daniel White, Joe Koning and Nathan Champagne of DSED, Mark Stowell of Center for Applications Development and Software Engineering (CADSE), and Ph.D. students Rob Rieben and Aaron Fisher at the UC Davis Department of Applied Science. It should be noted that the students were partially supported by the LLNL Student-Employee Graduate Research Fellow program. We begin with an Introduction which provides background and motivation for this research effort. Section II contains high-level description of our Approach, and Section III summarizes our key research Accomplishments. A description of the Software deliverables is provided in Section IV, and Section V includes simulation Validation and Results. It should be noted we do not get into the mathematical details in this report, rather these can be found in our publications which are listed in Section III.

  16. Interfon

    CERN Multimedia

    Interfon

    2012-01-01

       PORTES OUVERTES INTERFON Le mercredi 28 mars 2012 De 16h à 20h à St-Genis-Pouilly (Salle Jean Monnet) Venez commander du fioul à un tarif préférentiel. Venez commander des volailles de Bresse pour les fêtes de Pâques (livraison le 5 avril au Technoparc de 13h30 à 16h30) Venez déguster notre sélection de vins et de champagne. Venez rencontrer nos partenaires exposants qui proposeront des offres promotionnelles. BURDET : Miel. COMPTOIRS DES FERS : Plomberie, chauffage, sanitaire, carrelage. DECO 74 Barrisol : Plafonds suspendus, cloisons légères. E.L.M.Pro-pose : Menuiseries intérieures, extérieures,… LEFRANCOIS : Bureautique. NORDIQUE France : Saunas, hammams, spa, fitness. OPTIQUE DU LION. POINT S : Pneus. PRISME Conseil : Gestion patrimoine. SAVOIE CHEMINEES. 1,2,3 ISOLATION : Menuiseries int&eacu...

  17. Interfon

    CERN Document Server

    Interfon

    2013-01-01

    www.interfon.fr   Rendez-vous sur notre site pour toutes les « News » Interfon « News »   Derniers rappels importants   Le mercredi 9 octobre 2013 Salle Jean Monnet à Saint-Genis-Pouilly de 16 h 00 à 20 h 00 Rencontrez nos partenaires. Venez nous rejoindre et découvrir nos fournisseurs autour d’un buffet campagnard. Commandez votre fioul au tarif spécial « Portes ouvertes », dégustez et commandez notre sélection de vins et champagnes. «Tarifs préférentiels » Offre promotionnelle Vitam’ Pour les visiteurs de notre Portes Ouvertes : – Pour + de 80 € de billets Vitam’ achetés*, recevez en cadeau 1 entrée au choix « Aquatique ou Escalade (enfant ou adulte) ou raquettes ». &ndas...

  18. [The pharmacopoeia of Father Morin in 1864].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnemain, Bruno

    2016-03-01

    The "pharmacopoeia or collection of divine remedies found in the documents of an old rural priest after his death" is a publication of nearly 400 pages including a long list of diseases with their associated treatments, followed by several recipes for the day to day life (such as: how to preserve wine, how to produce Champagne's wine, recipes for filler paste, etc.). A last part, very unique, is dedicated to evil spells, i.e. to diseases that do not have natural explanations and for which Saint Benoit's medal works wonders, according to the author. This pharmacopoeia of 1864 is a typical example of "incoherent collection" mentioned by Tardieu in 1862 concerning clergy and pharmacy. It is, from that point of view, the archetype that pharmacists wanted to see disappearing after the law of germinal year XI (1803), but that persisted until the beginning of the XXth century: the illegal practice of pharmacy by priests and nuns. PMID:27281931

  19. Evaluation of oilseed crop rotations with agro-environmental indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouzet André

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Common Agricultural Policy is shifting an increasing part of the subsidies to eco-conditionality. Henceforth, it becomes essential to evaluate the environmental effect of agricultural practices, and more generally performances of cropping and farming systems, in order to design and to develop more sustainable systems. This assessment is being implemented for the main cropping systems of some French regions, using environmental indicators. Eleven exposure indicators were chosen in order to represent a wide range of specific sustainability objectives dealing with water, soil, air, non-renewable resources, biodiversity, and landscape. The results present the sustainability assessment for the crop rotations of Champagne Berrichonne region in the Centre of France.

  20. Changes in the prevalence of alcohol in rap music lyrics 1979-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herd, Denise

    2014-02-01

    This study examines the prevalence and context of alcohol references in rap music lyrics from 1979 through 2009. Four hundred nine top-ranked rap music songs released were sampled from Billboard magazine rating charts. Songs were analyzed using systematic content analysis and were coded for alcohol beverage types and brand names, drinking behaviors, drinking contexts, attitudes towards alcohol, and consequences of drinking. Trends were analyzed using regression analyses. The results of the study reveal significant increases in the presence of alcohol in rap songs; a decline in negative attitudes towards alcohol; decreases in consequences attributed to alcohol; increases in the association of alcohol with glamour and wealth, drugs, and nightclubs; and increases in references to liquor and champagne. PMID:24093523

  1. Interfon

    CERN Multimedia

    Interfon

    2010-01-01

    Dès maintenant préparons les Fêtes … N’oubliez pas que notre Coopérative, comme chaque année, vous offre l’occasion de vous approvisionner en volailles de Bresse. Passez vos commandes dès maintenant : Chapons, dindes, poulets, poulardes, pintades, canards et canettes.   Il est impératif de remplir un Bon de commande. Les commandes seront enregistrées jusqu’au 15 décembre et seront livrées les 22 ou 23 décembre (l’information vous sera communiquée individuellement ultérieurement). La cave Interfon vous propose ses champagnes disponibles dès maintenant : Brut – Demi-sec – Rosé – Millésimé - Prestige – Blancs de blanc. N’attendez pas le dernier moment les retardataires pourraient ne pas êtr...

  2. On the kinematics of h ii regions: yesterday, today, and tomorrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. O. Castañeda,

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de la cinem atica y din amica de las regiones H II nos provee de informaci on sobre las condiciones f sicas del gas, la interpretaci on de su espectro de emisi on y el intercambio de energ a mec anica entre las estrellas masivas y el gas ionizado. Discutimos en nuestra presentaci on el pasado, presente y futuro de la investigaci on en este campo. Cubrimos brevemente los avances te oricos y observacionales realizados durante las ultimas d ecadas, incluyendo el estudio de los efectos del medio circundante en la cinem atica, el llamado modelo de champagne, los movimientos supers onicos observados en regions H II gigantes, y los efectos de la turbulencia y virializaci on del gas. Finalmente discutimos como observaciones con espectr ografos Fabry-Perot, tanto en regiones individuales como en muestras completas de regiones en galaxias, puede llevarnos a una mejor comprensi on del estado f sico del gas.

  3. Spectrofluorometric determination of histamine in wines and other alcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Carou, M C; Izquierdo-Pulido, M L; Mariné-Font, A

    1989-01-01

    The spectrofluorometric determination of histamine in wines, other alcoholic beverages, and vinegars is described. Histamine is extracted with n-butanol, transferred to hydrochloric acid, and subjected to a condensation reaction with o-phthalaldehyde (OPT). The method was tested for sensitivity (0.03 ppm limit of detection and 0.08 ppm limit of determination), precision (6.4% CV for a content of 1.25 ppm and 19.5% CV for a content of 0.25 ppm), accuracy (97.1%), recovery (90.6-96.9%), and lack of interference by histidine. The method can be applied to wine, must, beer, champagne, cider, vermouth, and vinegar with satisfactory results. PMID:2745359

  4. Nested shells reveal the rejuvenation of the Orion-Eridanus superbubble

    CERN Document Server

    Ochsendorf, B B; Bally, J; Tielens, A G G M

    2015-01-01

    The Orion-Eridanus superbubble is the prototypical superbubble due to its proximity and evolutionary state. Here, we provide a synthesis of recent observational data from WISE and Planck with archival data, allowing to draw a new and more complete picture on the history and evolution of the Orion-Eridanus region. We discuss the general morphological structures and observational characteristics of the superbubble, and derive quantitative properties of the gas- and dust inside Barnard's Loop. We reveal that Barnard's Loop is a complete bubble structure which, together with the lambda Ori region and other smaller-scale bubbles, expands within the Orion-Eridanus superbubble. We argue that the Orion-Eridanus superbubble is larger and more complex than previously thought, and that it can be viewed as a series of nested shells, superimposed along the line of sight. During the lifetime of the superbubble, HII region champagne flows and thermal evaporation of embedded clouds continuously mass-load the superbubble inte...

  5. 英文经典歌曲赏析——Casablanca(卡萨布兰卡)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈春枝

    2015-01-01

    I fell in love with you watching Casablanca当我们观看《卡萨布兰卡》时,我爱上了你。Back row of the drive-in show in the flickering light闪烁的灯光下,我们坐在汽车可开进来的露天电影院的后排。Popcorn and cokes beneath the stars在满天星星下,爆米花和可乐became champagne and caviar就像香槟酒和鱼子酱一样,Making love on a long hot sunlnler’s night在漫长的夏日夜晚互相温存。I thought you fell in love with me watching Casablanca当我们观看《卡萨布兰卡》时,我感

  6. Radio and infrared recombination studies of the southern massive star-forming region G333.6-0.2

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiyoshi, T; Caswell, J L; Moore, T J T; Lumsden, S L; Aitken, D K; Roche, P F; Fujiyoshi, Takuya; Smith, Craig H.; Caswell, James L.; Moore, Toby J. T.; Lumsden, Stuart L.; Aitken, David K.; Roche, Patrick F.

    2006-01-01

    We present high spatial resolution radio and near-infrared hydrogen recombination line observations of the southern massive star-forming region G333.6-0.2. The 3.4-cm continuum peak is found slightly offset from the infrared source. The H90alpha spectra show for the first time a double peak profile at some positions. The complex velocity structure may be accounted for by champagne outflows, which may also explain the offset between the radio and infrared sources. The 2.17-um Brackett gamma image and H90alpha map are combined to construct an extinction map which shows a trend probably set by the blister nature of the HII region. The total number of Lyman continuum photons in the central 50-arcsec is estimated to be equivalent to that emitted by up to 19 O7V stars.

  7. [S IV] in the NGC 5253 Supernebula: Ionized Gas Kinematics at High Resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Sara C; Turner, Jean L; Kruger, Andrew; Richter, Matt; Crosthwaite, Lucian P

    2012-01-01

    The nearby dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 5253 hosts a deeply embedded radio-infrared supernebula excited by thousands of O stars. We have observed this source in the 10.5{\\mu}m line of S+3 at 3.8 kms-1 spectral and 1.4" spatial resolution, using the high resolution spectrometer TEXES on the IRTF. The line profile cannot be fit well by a single Gaussian. The best simple fit describes the gas with two Gaussians, one near the galactic velocity with FWHM 33.6 km s-1 and another of similiar strength and FWHM 94 km s-1 centered \\sim20 km s-1 to the blue. This suggests a model for the supernebula in which gas flows towards us out of the molecular cloud, as in a "blister" or "champagne flow" or in the HII regions modelled by Zhu (2006).

  8. Gilles Feyel (dir.), Dictionnaire de la presse française pendant la Révolution 1789-1799, volume 2

    OpenAIRE

    Wauters, Éric

    2014-01-01

    À simplement parcourir le Dictionnaire de la presse française pendant la Révolution, on mesure déjà le chemin parcouru depuis un quart de siècle dans la connaissance de la presse départementale de l’ère révolutionnaire, grâce à la persévérance de Gilles Feyel, maître d’œuvre de cette ambitieuse enquête lancée par l’Institut Français de Presse (Paris II) et de cette collection dont le deuxième tome est consacré aux départements des régions Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Picardie, Champagne-Ardenne et Auv...

  9. Wozzeck ou la déréliction

    OpenAIRE

    Coste, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Wozzeck, opéra d’Alban Berg sur un texte de Georg Büchner, est créé à Berlin le 14 décembre, à l’extrême fin de l’année fétiche 1925. Mais, quand on aborde ce chef d’œuvre de l’art lyrique du xxe siècle, il faut oublier l’atmosphère des Années folles, les belles femmes longilignes, les sportives en jupe blanche et les soirées au champagne. Wozzeck est en effet l’un des opéras les plus sombres de toute l’histoire de la musique. Comment ne pas se laisser hanter par une pareille histoire ? Le pa...

  10. Glycaemic control of Type 1 diabetes in clinical practice early in the 21st century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKnight, J A; Wild, S H; Lamb, M J E;

    2015-01-01

    diabetes from the following countries (or regions): Western Australia, Austria, Denmark, England, Champagne-Ardenne (France), Germany, Epirus, Thessaly and Thessaloniki (Greece), Galway (Ireland), several Italian regions, Latvia, Rotterdam (The Netherlands), Otago (New Zealand), Norway, Northern Ireland......AIMS: Improving glycaemic control in people with Type 1 diabetes is known to reduce complications. Our aim was to compare glycaemic control among people with Type 1 diabetes using data gathered in regional or national registries. METHODS: Data were obtained for children and/or adults with Type 1...... of people using insulin pumps varied between the 12 sources with data available. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that there are substantial variations in glycaemic control among people with Type 1 diabetes between the data sources and that there is room for improvement in all populations, especially...

  11. [S IV] IN THE NGC 5253 SUPERNEBULA: IONIZED GAS KINEMATICS AT HIGH RESOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nearby dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 5253 hosts a deeply embedded radio-infrared supernebula excited by thousands of O stars. We have observed this source in the 10.5 μm line of S+3 at 3.8 km s–1 spectral and 1.''4 spatial resolution, using the high-resolution spectrometer TEXES on the IRTF. The line profile cannot be fit well by a single Gaussian. The best simple fit describes the gas with two Gaussians, one near the galactic velocity with FWHM 33.6 km s–1 and another of similar strength and FWHM 94 km s–1 centered ∼20 km s–1 to the blue. This suggests a model for the supernebula in which gas flows toward us out of the molecular cloud, as in a 'blister' or 'champagne flow' or in the H II regions modelled by Zhu.

  12. Water, carbon and nitrogen cycling in a rendzina soil cropped with winter oilseed rape: the Châlons Oilseed Rape Database

    OpenAIRE

    Gosse, G.; Cellier, Pierre; Denoroy, P.; Gabrielle, B.; P. Laville; Leviel, B.; Justes, E; Nicolardot, B.; Mary, B.; Recous, S.; Germon, J. C.; Hénault, Catherine; Leech, P.K.

    1999-01-01

    La base de données CORD (Châlons Oilseed Rape Database) archive les résultats d’une expérience intensive conduite en région Champagne sur la dynamique des flux d’eau, de carbone et d’azote dans un système sol-plante, à l’échelle de la parcelle agricole. L’expérience a débuté au semis d’une culture de colza (Brassica napus L.) en septembre 1994, et a duré jusqu’à la récolte de celui-ci en juillet 1995. Trois traitements azotés, ainsi qu’un témoin en sol nu ont été suivis, et le sol était une r...

  13. Rose Duroux et Stéphanie Urdician (éds., Les Antigones contemporaines (de 1945 à nos jours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Salgues

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available L'épais volume de 474 pages que nous livrent R. Duroux et S. Urdician est d'une grande richesse, ne serait-ce que par la multiplicité de ses composantes : 26 articles scientifiques introduits par la convaincante présentation des deux éditrices, mais aussi deux entretiens avec des créatrices (Jeanne Champagne, metteur en scène et Anne Théron, auteur et metteur en scène et enfin la traduction inédite de Perdition. Exercice sur Antigone, pièce de la dramaturge portugaise Hélia Correia (1988 ac...

  14. Interfon

    CERN Multimedia

    Interfon

    2012-01-01

       PORTES OUVERTES INTERFON Le mercredi 28 mars 2012 De 16h à 20h à St-Genis-Pouilly (Salle Jean Monnet) Venez commander du fioul à un tarif préférentiel. Venez commander des volailles de Bresse pour les fêtes de Pâques (livraison le 5 avril au Technoparc de 13h30 à 16h30) Venez déguster notre sélection de vins et de champagne. Venez rencontrer nos partenaires exposants qui proposeront des offres promotionnelles. BURDET : Miel. COMPTOIRS DES FERS : Plomberie, chauffage, sanitaire, carrelage. DECO 74 Barrisol : Plafonds suspendus, cloisons légères. E.L.M.Pro-pose : Menuiseries intérieures, extérieures,… LAPEYRE & OZER : Charpente, zinguerie, maçonnerie. LEFRANCOIS : Bureautique. NORDIQUE France : Saunas, hammams, spa, fitness. OPTIQUE DU LION. PAGE - Chauffage. POINT S : Pneus. PRISME Conse...

  15. Centre de recherche en histoire de l'innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Williot, Jean-Pierre

    2002-01-01

    30 novembre 2001 Claire DESBOIS, doctorante à l'Université Paris IV Moët et Chandon : Champagne et innovation 7 décembre 2001 (17h-19h) Yves BOUVIER, doctorant à l'Université Paris IV De la Compagnie générale d'électricité à Alcatel-Alsthom. Stratégies, hommes et structures d'un groupe de haute-technologie (1898-1992) 14 décembre 2001 Tristan GASTON-BRETON, historien-consultant Lesieur et l'innovation 18 janvier 2002 Martin BRUEGEL, INRA La normalisation du marché des conserv...

  16. On the Physics of Fizziness: Viscosity Shelters Self-Similar Collapse in Bubble Bursting

    CERN Document Server

    Ghabache, Elisabeth; Josserand, Christophe; Seon, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Either at the champagne glass or at the oceanic scales, the tiny capillary bubbles covering a free surface burst in ejecting myriads of airborne droplets, key mediators in the gaseous exchange between the liquid and its surroundings. Focusing on the bubble bursting jet, prelude for these aerosols, we propose a simple scaling for the jet velocity and we unravel experimentally the intricate roles of bubble shape, capillary waves and viscosity in the jet formation. We demonstrate that capillary waves always evolve into a self-similar focusing wave, but are also responsible for the breakdown of self-similarity. By its smoothing action on these hindering ripples, viscosity is shown to unexpectedly promote thinner and faster jets. These results prompt the question of the possible critical role of liquid temperature in aerosol production.

  17. Radiocarbon 14C differentiation of sparkling and carbonated wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific 14C-activities, percent of modern 14C-activity, and calculated percent of fermentation CO2 are presented for CO2 contained in commercial sparkling wines, labeled as champagne or produced by the bulk (charmat) process. These data are given for the production years 1976-1982. The survey encompassed effervescent wines produced in Spain, Italy, West Germany, California, and New York. Addition of synthetic CO2 to approximately 40 samples represented as sparkling wines was indicated by low 14C-activities of CO2 in these wines. Data for 14C-activity were also presented for the ethanol distilled from sparkling wines for the years 1977-1980. In all cases, the 14C-activity of ethanol was appropriate to the year of vintage

  18. Resources and energy: an economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, F.E.

    1983-01-01

    Two long core chapters on oil and on nonfuel minerals, along with an exposition of the econometrics of primary commodities, give the reader a basic insight into the economic techniques and their uses. There are also chapters on coal, gas, and uranium, which include an overview of the Soviet energy sector and the Australian coal industry. The book introduces oil refining, petrochemicals, futures markets, inventories, capital costs, tin, stock-flow models, and other topics not usually handled in most economics text and reference books. There is also a short survey of iron and steel. The book concludes with the note that attempts to check inflation by monetary means in the presence of the kind of consumer and corporate debt that exists today is begging for catastrophe. Monetarism, like champagne, is good for pleasure, but very bad for business. 210 references, 47 figures, 41 tables.

  19. Ségrégations résidentielles et construction de parcours de formation 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Leclercq

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Cet article se propose de marquer certaines approches théoriques concernant les inégalités des chances au sein des sciences sociales, de voir la prévalence des approches surtout sociale où la question du territoire est souvent biaisée. Nous analyserons les moyens de la connaissance de cette réalité des inégalités des chances en regard des territoires, les moyens de la production statistique, par les approches du Cereq, notamment.  Nous montrerons comment cette question des choix de parcours et de lutte contre l’échec est abordée à l’échelle d’une université, en prenant l’exemple de certaines initiatives réalisées notamment en Champagne Ardenne montrant ainsi la complexité d’une connaissance objective.This article suggests marking certain theoretical approaches concerning the disparities of the chances. According to the disciplinary membership within the social sciences, to see especially social prevalencia the approaches where the question of the territory is often slanted. We shall analyze the means of the knowledge of this reality of the disparities of the chances compared to territories, the means of the statistical production, by the approaches of the Cereq.We shall show how this question of the choices of route and fight against the defeat is approached on the scale of a university, by taking the example of certain initiatives realized notably in Champagne Ardenne so showing the complexity of an objective knowledge.

  20. Etudes amérindiennes : le poids des plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Serme

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available L’article s’attache à exposer les initiatives culturelles et les débats actuels du monde amérindiens en Amérique du Nord. Trop souvent, les Indiens d’Amérique ont été enfermés dans leur histoire tragique et montrés comme des êtres dépendants et sans défense. Pourtant, des auteurs, des activistes, des professeurs et des chercheurs en sciences sociales amérindiens se sont depuis une quarantaine d’années employés à redéfinir leurs cultures. L’article explore en profondeur deux recueils d’essais amérindiens récents : Susan Lobo & Steve Talbot, eds. Native American Voices: A Reader. New York: Longman, 1998; Duane Champagne, ed. Contemporary Native American Cultural Issues. Walnut Creek : AltaMira Press, 1999. Le sujet est hautement sensible et politique, aussi j’aurai soin de rendre fidèlement compte des opinions exprimées par les auteurs tout en n’oubliant pas le contexte politique de la société dominante.This paper focuses on Native American cultural initiatives and current debates. Too often, North American Indians have been confined to their tragic history and shown as dependent and helpless. Yet Native American intellectuals and militants have been engaged in cultural re-definition in the last forty years. The paper will draw extensively from two recent collections of essays: Susan Lobo & Steve Talbot, eds. Native American Voices: A Reader. New York: Longman, 1998; Duane Champagne, ed. Contemporary Native American Cultural Issues. Walnut Creek: AltaMira Press, 1999. The subject is highly sensitive and political, therefore I will be careful to give both a faithful account of the authors’ views without ignoring the political context of the dominant society.El artículo presenta las iniciativas culturales y los debates actuales en el mundo amerindio de América del Norte. Muy a menudo, los Indios de América fueron encerrados en su historia trágica y descritos como seres dependientes e indefensos. Sin

  1. Concentração e conteúdo de nutrientes em lisianto, cultivado em hidroponia, em sistema NFT = Concentration and nutrient content in lisianthus grown in a hydroponic NFT system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Alice Antonello Londero Backes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O diagnóstico nutricional é fundamental para determinar as exigências das plantas quanto aos nutrientes, de forma a se proceder a um manejo adequado, de acordo com a espécie. Assim, para determinar as concentrações e conteúdos nutricionais adequados à produção e qualidade de plantas de lisianto em cultivo hidropônico, instalou-se um experimento onde as plantas foram cultivadas em sistema NFT, em diferentes soluções nutritivas. O experimento foi conduzido, segundo delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 4x3, totalizando 12 tratamentos, com três repetições. Ostratamentos foram compostos de quatro cultivares (Echo Champagne, Mariachi Pure White, Balboa Yellow e Ávila Blue Rim e três soluções nutritivas (Teste, Steiner modificada e Barbosa. Foram avaliadas as concentrações e os conteúdos dos nutrientes nas folhas e conteúdos na parte aérea das plantas. As plantas cultivadas nas soluções Barbosa eTeste apresentaram resultados satisfatórios quanto às concentrações e aos conteúdos de nutrientes, enquanto a solução Steiner modificada produziu plantas com limitações nutricionais.The nutritional diagnosis is fundamental for determining plantnutrients, in order to correctly manage the nutritional requirements for each species. Thus, in order to determine the ideal nutrient amount and concentration for obtaining the best yield and quality of lisianthus grown hydroponically, an experiment was conducted inwhich the plants were grown under the NFT system in different nutrient solutions. The experiment was conducted according to a random block design arrangement in a 4x3 factorial scheme, totaling 12 treatments with three repetitions. The treatments werecomprised of four cultivars (Echo Champagne, Mariachi Pure White, Balboa Yellow and Ávila Blue Rim and three nutrient solutions (Test, modified Steiner and Barbosa. In the leaves, nutrient concentration and content were evaluated; in the aerial

  2. “If knowledge were light, there would be an aureole of light over CERN!”

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    On Tuesday, 8 October, CERN welcomed Jean de Toledo, aged 100 years and 1 month (as he is eager to point out). He is the president of the “Pharmacies principales de Genève” and has a passion for physics.   During his meeting with the Director-General, Jean de Toledo was given the LHC: the Large Hardon Collider book, which he made sure to have Rolf sign. He was born in Geneva in 1911, just when Rutherford was discovering the structure of the atom. Jean De Toledo says that it has been a long-standing dream of his to visit the Laboratory, to the construction of which he was a witness. “CERN is a fabulous place, and a great plus for Geneva,” he said in a discussion with CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer. Smiling and with a glass of champagne in his hand, he received a copy of the book LHC: the Large Hadron Collider and a “magic coffee mug”, whose secret was explained to him by the Director-General. “There is a prod...

  3. Data-driven optimization of dynamic reconfigurable systems of systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, Conrad S.; Eddy, John P.

    2010-11-01

    This report documents the results of a Strategic Partnership (aka University Collaboration) LDRD program between Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champagne. The project is titled 'Data-Driven Optimization of Dynamic Reconfigurable Systems of Systems' and was conducted during FY 2009 and FY 2010. The purpose of this study was to determine and implement ways to incorporate real-time data mining and information discovery into existing Systems of Systems (SoS) modeling capabilities. Current SoS modeling is typically conducted in an iterative manner in which replications are carried out in order to quantify variation in the simulation results. The expense of many replications for large simulations, especially when considering the need for optimization, sensitivity analysis, and uncertainty quantification, can be prohibitive. In addition, extracting useful information from the resulting large datasets is a challenging task. This work demonstrates methods of identifying trends and other forms of information in datasets that can be used on a wide range of applications such as quantifying the strength of various inputs on outputs, identifying the sources of variation in the simulation, and potentially steering an optimization process for improved efficiency.

  4. A magnificent team effort

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    During the last weekend and this week, the LHC has accomplished many tasks: it first circulated two beams in opposite directions, then made them collide in the heart of the four giant detectors and finally slightly increased their energy. Virtual champagne for the hundreds of people working night and day to repair the machine, prepare it for the restart and finally operate it.   This shot of delighted operators with their eyes glued to screens showing the first circulating beams in the LHC was taken by the CERN Photolab and has been published in newspapers around the world.  The LHC is making the headlines of the world's press but the real emotion these days can be seen in the eyes of the machine operators in the CERN Control Centre (CCC) and has spread all around CERN. Of course, this is just the beginning and the LHC will have to accomplish more challenging tasks but these first moments were undoubtedly very intense, partly due to the fact that last year’s incident i...

  5. Workplace Safety: you've answered the right questions!

    CERN Multimedia

    The Safety Unit (BE Department)

    2011-01-01

    The World Day for Safety and Health at Work was a great success. A big thank you to everyone who took part and took the time to ask themselves the "right questions".   A large number of questionnaires were completed and we were happy to note that many among you had taken the opportunity to give serious thought to your own health and safety on a daily basis. In a few days' time, information on the hazards most frequently identified over the course of that day – and the methods of coping with them – will be posted on the BE Safety Unit's website. If you have any questions, please do not hesitate to contact us. The 15 winners of the tombola are: 1st prize (a FNAC gift voucher) Jean-Benoit Fouillat 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th prizes (a bottle of champagne): Maud Scheubel Pierre Juteau Sebastien Ceuterickx Joao Simoes From 6th to 15th prize (a box of chocolates): Antonio Mongelluzzo Francesco Castronuovo Christophe Boucly Marta Csatari Jacky Tonoli Remy Noulib...

  6. Golden Jubilee photos: The Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Energy record Standing before the CERN personnel in the Main Auditorium on 25 November 1959, John Adams held not a bottle of champagne but a bottle of vodka. It had been presented to him a few months earlier during a visit to Dubna in the Soviet Union, where the world's most powerful accelerator had just been commissioned. He had been given strict instructions not to open the bottle until Dubna's energy record of 10 GeV had been broken. On 24 November, the record was smashed by CERN's brand new machine, the Proton Synchrotron, which accelerated protons at 24 GeV, over twice the energy of the Dubna machine. Before sending the empty bottle back to the Soviet Union, John Adams, who had headed the accelerator's construction, placed the recording of the signal in it as proof of the record. More than 40 years later, the PS is still going strong, delivering beams with particle densities a thousand times greater than when it first started operation. Over the years, other accelerators have grown up around it and the...

  7. Bubbles for POPS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    At the beginning of May, the new power system of the PS (POPS) got its official send-off. Built around an array of static power converters, POPS is undergoing testing while waiting to be connected to the accelerator.   The team from the Electrical Power Converters Group (TE/EPC) is joined by the Director of Accelerators, the heads of the BE, TE and FI departments, CERN managers and Converteam representatives in a group portrait in front of three of the containers that house the capacitor banks of the PS's new power supply system, POPS. Starting in 2013, the PS’s power system will get a new lease of life. The new system, which goes by the charming acronym of POPS (Power for the PS), is currently undergoing tests, following its installation inside the accelerator ring. In a ceremony held on Thursday, 6 May Converteam, the company that manufactured this enormous power system, officially handed it over to CERN. The inauguration of POPS was well worth popping the champagne corks for. The ...

  8. EDMS - Reaching the Million Mark

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    When Christophe Seith from the company Cegelec sat down to work on 14 May 2009 at 10:09 a.m. to create the EDMS document entitled "Rapport tournée PH semaine 20", little did he know that he would be the proud creator of the millionth EDMS document and the happy prize winner of a celebratory bottle of champagne to mark the occasion. In the run up to the creation of the millionth EDMS document the EDMS team had been closely monitoring the steady rise in the EDMS number generator, so as to ensure the switch from the six figured i.d. to seven figures would run smoothly and of course, to be able to congratulate the creator of the millionth EDMS document. From left to right: Stephan Petit (GS-ASE- EDS Section Leader), Christophe Delamare (GS- ASE Group Leader), Christophe Seith, creator of the millionth EDMS document, David Widegren, (GS-ASE- EPS Section Leader). The millionth EDMS document. For t...

  9. Interfon

    CERN Multimedia

    Interfon

    2011-01-01

    Préparons les Fêtes… Commandez vos volailles de Noël à votre coopérative, qui vous propose comme chaque année les traditionnels  chapons de Bresse et dindes fermières. Mais aussi poulets, poulardes, pintades, canards et canettes : demandez nos tarifs dans nos secrétariats. Il est impératif de remplir un bon de commande qui sera pris en compte jusqu’au 12 décembre. Livraison le 23 décembre (l’information vous sera confirmée individuellement  ultérieurement).   Visitez notre cave où une sélection de vins vous est proposée : Lalande de Pomerol (2006), Visan, St Joseph, Gigondas, Vacqueyras, Pommard 1er cru (2002). Retrouvez notre sélection ainsi que les tarifs sur notre site internet. Nos champagnes : brut ou demi sec, rosé, millésim&eacut...

  10. Total Hip Arthroplasty Using the S-ROM-A Prosthesis for Anatomically Difficult Asian Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Hozumi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The S-ROM-A prosthesis has been designed for the Asian proximal femur with a small deformed shape and narrow canal. In this study, the clinical and radiological results using the S-ROM-A prosthesis for Japanese patients with severe deformity due to dysplasia and excessive posterior pelvic tilt were examined. Methods. 94 hips were followed up for a mean of 55 months, with a mean age at surgery of 61 years. The primary diagnoses were 94 coxarthritis cases, including 51 dysplasia and 37 primary OA, 1 avascular necrosis, 2 traumatic arthritis, and 3 Perthes disease. Thirty-one hips had been treated with osteotomy of the hip joints. Preoperative intramedullary canal shapes were stovepipe in 23 hips, normal in 51 hips, and champagne-flute in 5 hips. The maximum pelvic inclination angle was 56°. Results. The mean JOA score improved from 46 points preoperatively to 80 points at final follow-up. On radiological evaluation of the fixation of the implants according to the Engh classification, 92 (97% hips were classified as “bone ingrown fixation.” Conclusion. In primary THA, using the S-ROM-A prosthesis for Asian patients with proximal femoral deformity, even after osteotomy and with posterior pelvic tilt, provided good short- to midterm results.

  11. Discovery Monday 'Everyday physics: CERN in my kitchen?'

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Using lasers in the ASACUSA experiment at CERN. As you start imagining menus for the festive season, the next Discovery Monday invites you to think about the physics behind the food you prepare. In fact you may be surprised to find science and technologies used at CERN in many of your dosmestic appliances! Be it the oven used to cook the turkey, the fridge that chills the champagne or the laser in the CD machine you use to play Christmas carols, discover the technologies that make them work and how these same technologies are also applied at CERN. In the case of the CD player, the subject is particularly topical as this year's Nobel Physics Prize was awarded for advances in lasers. Find out more about this and how lasers are used at CERN. In some cases, CERN is developing new technologies that may end up in future domestic appliances, such as the vacuum technology used for flat-screen televisions. After this festive Discovery Monday, join us for a taste of liquid nitrogen ice-cream or a cup of coffee (ma...

  12. Elaboration, analyse et modélisation mécanique numérique d’agro-composites à base de fibres courtes d’alfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Abbassi Fatima-ezzahra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Dans la présente étude, récemment réalisée au Laboratoire d’Ingénierie et Sciences des Matériaux, de l’Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, nous proposons de valoriser la plante végétale d’Alfa, sous forme de fibres courtes en vue de renforcer par extrusion dans une première étape, puis par injection, des matrices polymères, en l’occurrence le Polypropylène (PP. Une première étape consiste à élaborer, par traitement chimique et extraction, la fibre courte à utiliser comme renfort. Il s’en suit une extrusion de courte à utiliser comme renfort. Il s’en suit une extrusion de composés composites à base de matrice PP. L’objectif sera de développer par la suite une démarche Essai-Calcul, confrontant une caractérisation mécanique d’agrocomposites PP-Alfa injectés à deux types de modélisation comportementale, l’une micromécanique basée sur le modèle de Mori-Tanaka, et l’autre numérique utilisant une approche originale basée sur une technique dite de fibre projetée.

  13. Photoevaporation Flows in Blister HII Regions: I. Smooth Ionization Fronts and Application to the Orion Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Henney, W J; Garcia-Diaz, M T; Garcia-Diaz, Ma. T.

    2005-01-01

    We present hydrodynamical simulations of the photoevaporation of a cloud with large-scale density gradients, giving rise to an ionized, photoevaporation flow. The flow is found to be approximately steady during the large part of its evolution, during which it can resemble a "champagne flow" or a "globule flow" depending on the curvature of the ionization front. The distance from source to ionization front and the front curvature uniquely determine the structure of the flow, with the curvature depending on the steepness of the lateral density gradient in the neutral cloud. We compare these simulations with both new and existing observations of the Orion nebula and find that a model with a mildly convex ionization front can reproduce the profiles of emission measure, electron density, and mean line velocity for a variety of emitting ions on scales of 10^{17} to 10^{18} cm. The principal failure of our model is that we cannot explain the large observed widths of the [O I] 6300 Angstrom line that forms at the ion...

  14. INTERFON

    CERN Multimedia

    Interfon

    2012-01-01

    www.interfon.fr ECHOS de notre Assemblée générale L’A.G. annuelle de la Coopérative s’est tenue le 26 juin dernier au cours de laquelle le président fit lecture du rapport moral de l’année 2011, soulignant une activité toujours très soutenue, notamment dans les domaines : de la vente du fuel domestique (2 800 m3 vendus) de la vente de nos vins et champagnes toujours en hausse un succès très encourageant avec Vitam’Parc de bon résultats chez Aviva, Veranco, Vaurs… Le bilan présenté laisse apparaître un montant négatif de 14 252 € au 31/12/2011, dû principalement à un mouvement de personnel inhabituel, qui plombe la masse salariale de notre Coopérative. Notons par ailleurs l’arrivée de nouveaux partenaires : ...

  15. In situ measurements of H2O, CH4 and CO2 in the upper troposphere and the lower stratosphere (UT-LS) with the baloonborne picoSDLA and AMULSE tunable diode laser spectrometers during the 2014 and 2015 "Stratoscience" campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miftah-El-Khair, Zineb; Joly, Lilian; Decarpenterie, Thomas; Cousin, Julien; Dumelié, Nicolas; Grouiez, Bruno; Albo, Grégory; Chauvin, Nicolas; Maamary, Rabih; Amarouche, Nadir; Durry, Georges

    2016-04-01

    H2O, CH4 and CO2 are major greenhouse gases with a strong impact on climate. The concentrations of CO2 and CH4 have dramatically increased since the beginning of the industrialization era due to anthropogenic activities, contributing thereby to the global warming. Anthropogenic activities as fossil fuels, ruminant, and biomass burning constitute the major sources of carbon dioxide and methane. The increase of H2O concentration in the stratosphere could cause a cooling of this atmospheric region, impacting the recovery of the ozone layer. Therefore, having information and data about the vertical distribution of H2O, CO2 and CH4 is very useful to improve our knowledge of the future of our climate. We have developed, with the help of French space agency (CNES) and CNRS, two laser diode sensors PicoSDLA and AMULSE devoted to the in situ measurements of H2O, CH4 and CO2 from balloon platforms. These instruments were operated from open stratospheric balloons in Timmins, CA, in August 2014 and 2015. We report and discuss the instrumental achievements of both sensors during these flights in the UT-LS. Aknowledgments: The authors acknowledge financial supports from CNES, CNRS and the region Champagne-Ardenne.

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of the Hybrid Clay- Based Material Montmorillonite-Melanoidin: A Potential Soil Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V Vilas; B Matthiasch; J Huth; J Kratz; S Rubert de la Rosa; P Michel; T Schäfer

    2011-12-31

    The study of the interactions among metals, minerals, and humic substances is essential in understanding the migration of inorganic pollutants in the geosphere. A considerable amount of organic matter in the environment is associated with clay minerals. To understand the role of organic matter in the environment and its association with clay minerals, a hybrid clay-based material (HCM), montmorillonite (STx-1)-melanoidin, was prepared from L-tyrosine and L-glutamic acid by the Maillard reaction. The HCM was characterized by elemental analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM), and thermal analysis. The presence of organic materials on the surface was confirmed by XPS and STXM. The STXM results showed the presence of organic spots on the surface of the STx-1 and the characterization of the functional groups present in those spots. Thermal analysis confirmed the existence of organic materials in the montmorillonite interlayer, indicating the formation of a composite of melanoidin and montmorillonite. The melanoidin appeared to be located partially between the layers of montmorillonite and partially at the surface, forming a structure that resembles the way a cork sits on the top of a champagne bottle.

  17. LHCb celebrates completion of its beam pipe

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Members of the LHCb collaboration and of the AT and TS Departments are ready to pop open the champagne bottles and celebrate the complete installation and commissioning of the LHCb experiment’s beam pipe. Members of the LHCb collaboration and of the AT and TS Departments gather near the newly completed beam pipe in the foreground. All four sections of LHCb’s beam pipe have been installed, interconnected, pumped down and baked out.. Three of the conical tubes are made of beryllium in order to minimize the level of background in the experiment, while the fourth and largest section is composed of stainless steel. The first of the beryllium sections, an important connection to the Vertex Locator vacuum vessel (VELO) was installed in August 2006 (see Bulletin No. 37/2006). One of the more challenging tasks was the installation of the longest (6 m) piece of beryllium beam pipe through the 2.4 m long RICH2 detector in January 2006. Deli...

  18. World-Wide Experience with SRF Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The speaker will review and analyze the performance of existing SRF facilities in the world, addressing issues of usage and availability for different customers (HEP research, material sciences, ADS). Lessons learned should be summarized for proposed future facilities (ILC, Project X, Muon Collider). The first use of superconducting cavities for accelerating beams was at HEPL, Stanford University in the early sixties. Rather quickly, other laboratories followed suit, notably the University of Illinois at Champagne, Urbana and Cornell University. There were two main uses, which still persist today. The first is to provide accelerated particles as an injector or for fixed target experiments. The second is to maintain circulating beams, either for synchrotron light sources or for colliding beam experiments. Given the differing requirements, these two uses led to rather different implementations and, in particular, different average operating gradients. A second difference in the implementation is the speed of the particle being accelerated. Electrons are sufficiently relativistic at low beam energies (> ∼ 5 MeV) that cavities designed for relativistic beams can also function acceptably at low energy. This is not the case for protons or ion accelerators so, until recently, copper cavities were used to cover the first ∼ 100 MeV. Superconducting cavities are now also being proposed to cover this energy range as well using a series of superconducting cavities, each of which is matched to the particle velocity.

  19. A VLT spectroscopic study of the ultracompact HII region G29.96-0.02

    CERN Document Server

    Martín-Hernández, N L; Kaper, L; Tielens, A G G M; Hanson, M M

    2003-01-01

    A high quality, medium-resolution K-band spectrum has been obtained of the ultracompact HII region G29.96-0.02 with the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The slit was positioned along the symmetry axis of the cometary shaped nebula. Besides the spectrum of the embedded ionizing O star, the long-slit observation revealed the rich emission-line spectrum produced by the ionized nebula with sub-arcsec spatial resolution. The nebular spectrum includes Br$\\gamma$, several helium emission lines and a molecular hydrogen line. A detailed analysis is presented of the variation in strength, velocity and width of the nebular emission lines along the slit. The results are consistent with previous observations, but the much better spatial resolution allows a critical evaluation of models explaining the cometary shape of the nebula. Our observations support neither the wind bow shock model nor the champagne flow model. The measured line ratios of the nebular hydrogen and helium lines are compared to predictions from case B recomb...

  20. Highlights : LHC sets new world record CERN Control Centre, 30 November 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions; Marion Viguier

    2009-01-01

    Geneva, 30 November 2009. CERN1’s Large Hadron Collider has today become the world’s highest energy particle accelerator, having accelerated its twin beams of protons to an energy of 1.18 TeV in the early hours of the morning. This exceeds the previous world record of 0.98 TeV, which had been held by the US Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory’s Tevatron collider since 2001. It marks another important milestone on the road to first physics at the LHC in 2010. “We are still coming to terms with just how smoothly the LHC commissioning is going,” said CERN Director General Rolf Heuer. “It is fantastic. However, we are continuing to take it step by step, and there is still a lot to do before we start physics in 2010. I’m keeping my champagne on ice until then.” These developments come just 10 days after the LHC restart, demonstrating the excellent performance of the machine. First beams were injected into the LHC on Friday 20 November. Over the following days, the machine’s operators circulated...

  1. Video News release: LHC Energy Record

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN video productions

    2009-01-01

    Geneva, 30 November 2009. CERN1’s Large Hadron Collider has today become the world’s highest energy particle accelerator, having accelerated its twin beams of protons to an energy of 1.18 TeV in the early hours of the morning. This exceeds the previous world record of 0.98 TeV, which had been held by the US Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory’s Tevatron collider since 2001. It marks another important milestone on the road to first physics at the LHC in 2010. “We are still coming to terms with just how smoothly the LHC commissioning is going,” said CERN Director General Rolf Heuer. “It is fantastic. However, we are continuing to take it step by step, and there is still a lot to do before we start physics in 2010. I’m keeping my champagne on ice until then.” These developments come just 10 days after the LHC restart, demonstrating the excellent performance of the machine. First beams were injected into the LHC on Friday 20 November. Over the following days, the machine’s operators circulated...

  2. A Spitzer Space Telescope far-infrared spectral atlas of compact sources in the Magellanic Clouds. II. The Small Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    van Loon, Jacco Th; Gordon, Karl D; Sloan, G C; Engelbracht, C W

    2010-01-01

    We present 52-93 micron spectra, obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope, of luminous compact far-IR sources in the SMC. These comprise 9 Young Stellar Objects (YSOs), the compact HII region N81 and a similar object within N84, and two red supergiants (RSGs). The spectra of the sources in N81 (of which we also show the ISO-LWS spectrum between 50-170 micron) and N84 both display strong [OI] 63-micron and [OIII] 88-micron fine-structure line emission. We attribute these lines to strong shocks and photo-ionized gas, respectively, in a ``champagne flow'' scenario. The nitrogen content of these two HII regions is very low, definitely N/O<0.04 but possibly as low as N/O<0.01. Overall, the oxygen lines and dust continuum are weaker in star-forming objects in the SMC than in the LMC. We attribute this to the lower metallicity of the SMC compared to that of the LMC. Whilst the dust mass differs in proportion to metallicity, the oxygen mass differs less; both observations can be reconciled with higher densitie...

  3. 20 years ago: first collisions (at LEP)

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    It’s been 20 years since the first electron positron collision at LEP, and I have to confess to a little self-indulgence in my message this week. Back then I was a member of the OPAL collaboration, the first to see collisions at LEP just before midnight on 13 August 1989 and almost exactly one month after the first circulating beam. It was a historic moment, and the atmosphere in the OPAL control room, 100 metres underground, was one of anticipation and excitement. We reported back to the LEP control room, champagne duly arrived, and over the next few hours, all the experiments were recording data. The pilot run was as smooth as it could be, and within weeks we were announcing new physics. It’s interesting to contrast the start-up of LEP with that of the LHC. With the benefit of hindsight, LEP seems to have got going without a hitch, and indeed it was a smooth start. We circulated beam on 14 July, much to the joy of one of our host states, and it was just a month ...

  4. Using temporary dye marks to estimate ungulate population abundance in southwest Yukon, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy M. Hegel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the protocols of two mark-resight abundance surveys, using temporary dye-marks, for the Aishihik woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou and wood bison (Bison bison athabascae populations (herds in the southwest Yukon Territory, Canada. We also provide recommendations based on experiences from these surveys for biologists and managers considering this approach. The Aishihik woodland caribou herd was the focus of intensive management in the 1990s aimed at recovering the herd. Following recovery activities, a target size of 2000 animals was determined and the Champagne-Aishihik Traditional Territory Community-Based Wildlife Management Plan recommended an estimate of the herd’s size be completed before the year 2013. We used an aerial mark-resight approach to estimate the herd’s size in March 2009. Caribou (n = 59 were marked from a helicopter with temporary dye, delivered via a CO2-powered rifle. Two independent resighting sessions were subsequently carried out via helicopter. The herd was estimated at 2044 animals (90% CI: 1768 – 2420 with an overall resighting rate of 0.47. The mean annual growth rate (λ of the herd from 1997 – 2009 was 1.05 (SE = 0.01. The Aishihik wood bison herd was estimated at 1151 (90% CI: 998 – 1355. Our study suggests that ungulates temporarily marked with dye can be successfully used to obtain statistically sound population estimates.

  5. Ice in the Tropics: the Export of ‘Crystal Blocks of Yankee Coldness’ to India and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc W. Herold

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Boston natural ice trade thrived during 1830-70 based upon Frederic Tudor’s idea of combining two useless products – natural winter ice in New England ponds and sawdust from Maine’s lumber mills. Tudor ice was exported extensively to the tropics from the West Indies to Brazil and the East Indies as well as to southern ports of the United States. In tropical ice ports, imported natural ice was a luxury product, e.g., serving to chill claret wines (Calcutta, champagne (Havana and Manaus, and mint juleps (New Orleans and Savannah and used in luxury hotels or at banquets. In the temperate United States, natural ice was employed to preserve foods (cold storage and to cool water (Americans’ peculiar love of ice water. In both temperate and tropical regions natural ice found some use for medicinal purposes (to calm fevers. With the invention of a new technology to manufacture artificial ice as part of the Industrial Revolution, the natural ice export trade dwindled as import substituting industrialization proceeded in the tropics. By the turn of the twentieth century, ice factories had been established in half a dozen Brazilian port cities. All that remained of the once extensive global trade in natural ice was a sailing ship which docked in Rio Janeiro at Christmas time laden with ice and apples from New England.

  6. Molecules, dust, and protostars in NGC 3503

    CERN Document Server

    Duronea, N U; Romero, G A; Cappa, C E; Barbá, R; Bronfman, L

    2014-01-01

    We are presenting here a follow-up study of the molecular gas and dust in the environs of the star forming region NGC 3503. This study aims at dealing with the interaction of NGC 3503 with its parental molecular cloud, and also with the star formation in the region. To analyze the molecular gas we use CO(2-1), 13CO(2-1), C18O(2-1), and HCN(3-2) line data obtained with the APEX telescope. To study the distribution of the dust, we make use of images at 870 microns from the ATLASGAL survey and IRAC-GLIMPSE archival images. We use public 2MASS and WISE data to search for candidate YSOs in the region. The new APEX observations allowed the substructure of the molecular gas in the velocity range from -28 to -23 km/s to be imaged in detail. The morphology of the molecular gas close to the nebula, the location of the PDR, and the shape of radio continuum emission suggest that the ionized gas is expanding against its parental cloud, and confirm the "champagne flow" scenario. We have identified several molecular clumps ...

  7. In situ Raman-based measurements of high dissolved methane concentrations in hydrate-rich ocean sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Hester, Keith C.; Ussler, William; Walz, Peter M.; Peltzer, Edward T.; Brewer, Peter G.

    2011-04-01

    Ocean sediment dissolved CH4 concentrations are of interest for possible climate-driven venting from sea floor hydrate decomposition, for supporting the large-scale microbial anaerobic oxidation of CH4 that holds the oceanic CH4 budget in balance, and for environmental issues of the oil and gas industry. Analyses of CH4 from recovered cores near vent locations typically show a maximum of ˜1 mM, close to the 1 atmosphere equilibrium value. We show from novel in situ measurement with a Raman-based probe that geochemically coherent profiles of dissolved CH4 occur rising to 30 mM (pCH4 = 3 MPa) or an excess pressure ˜3× greater than CO2 in a bottle of champagne. Normalization of the CH4 Raman ν1 peak to the ubiquitous water ν2 bending peak provides a fundamental internal calibration. Very large losses of CH4 and fractions of other gases (CO2, H2S) must typically occur from recovered cores at gas rich sites. The new data are consistent with observations of microbial biomass and observed CH4 oxidation rates at hydrate rich sites and support estimates of a greatly expanded near surface oceanic pore water CH4 reservoir.

  8. LS1 Report: nearing the finish line

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The LS1 team will be popping the champagne next week, on Tuesday 27 May, celebrating the completion of the consolidation of the splices in the framework of the SMACC project.   A technician works on one of the final shunts during LS1. "It has been a long journey into the heart of the LHC, tackling over 27,000 shunts*," says Luca Bottura, TE-MSC Group leader. "We are happy that the final train has, at last, reached its rest station, and look forward to sending it on many new adventures," confirm Frédéric Savary, TE-MSC Large Magnet Facility Section leader, and Jean-Philippe Tock, SMACC Project leader. Also in the LHC, pressure tests in Sector 1-2 - the third sector to be tackled - are almost complete. The temperature in Sector 6-7 is around 100K and it will be accessible again from next week. As for the SPS, all the LSS1 beam elements excluding one monitor are back in position. Vacuum teams are now ...

  9. INTERFON

    CERN Multimedia

    Interfon

    2013-01-01

    www.interfon.fr Rendez-vous sur notre site pour toutes les « News » Interfon Journée Portes ouvertes Le mercredi 9 octobre 2013 dès 16h00 Salle Jean Monnet à Saint-Genis-Pouilly Rencontrez nos partenaires Venez nous rejoindre et découvrir nos fournisseurs partenaires autour d’un buffet campagnard Commandez votre fioul au tarif spécial « Portes ouvertes » Dégustez et commandez notre sélection de vins et champagnes «Tarifs préférentiels» Nouveau partenaire Visages du Monde 31, Quai du Mont-Blanc 1211 – CH Genève Tél : 41 22 731 26 34 www.vdmtravel.ch Voyagez autrement ! Voyage sur brochure ou sur mesure Sur simple présentation de votre carte de sociétaire, vous bénéficiez d’une remise de 2 % sur les produits brochures de nos partenaires : AD...

  10. Structure of W3(OH) from Very High Spectral Resolution Observations of 5 Centimeter OH Masers

    CERN Document Server

    Fish, Vincent L

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies of methanol and ground-state OH masers at very high spectral resolution have shed new light on small-scale maser processes. The nearby source W3(OH), which contains numerous bright masers in several different transitions, provides an excellent laboratory for high spectral resolution techniques. We present a model of W3(OH) based on EVN observations of the rotationally-excited 6030 and 6035 MHz OH masers taken at 0.024 km/s spectral resolution. The 6.0 GHz masers are becoming brighter with time and show evidence for tangential proper motions. We confirm the existence of a region of magnetic field oriented toward the observer to the southeast and find another such region to the northeast in W3(OH), near the champagne flow. The 6.0 GHz masers trace the inner edge of a counterclockwise rotating torus feature. Masers at 6030 MHz are usually a factor of a few weaker than at 6035 MHz but trace the same material. Velocity gradients of nearby Zeeman components are much more closely correlated than in th...

  11. Testing begins on Linac4

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    On 3 August 2012, the Linac4 radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) module was installed at the accelerator test-stand in Building 152. The site will be the module’s home for almost a year, as the linear accelerator enters the assembly and testing stage.   Final module assembly is carried out before installation in Building 152.  Over the next Long Shutdown (LS2), Linac4 will replace the current Linac2 linear accelerator as the first link in CERN’s accelerator chain. It will deliver particles at 160 MeV to the PS Booster, more than triple the energy currently delivered by Linac2. But before the accelerator team can pop the champagne, the various elements of Linac4 will be tested and re-tested in facilities across CERN. “The first Linac4 tests are currently underway, starting with the CERN-built RFQ,” says Carlo Rossi, a physicist in the RF Group of the Beams (BE) Department and the RFQ project coordinator. “It’s an extremely impre...

  12. Remediation of context-processing deficits in schizophrenia: preliminary data with ambiguous sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besche-Richard C

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrystel Besche-Richard,1,2 Sarah Terrien,1 Marion Lesgourgues,3,4 Célia Béchiri-Payet,5 Fabien Gierski,1,3 Frédéric Limosin6–8 1Laboratory Cognition, Santé, Socialisation, University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne, France; 2Institut Universitaire de France, Paris, France; 3Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Pôle de Psychiatrie des Adultes, Reims, France; 4Service Universitaire de Médecine Préventive et de Promotion de la Santé, University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne, Reims, France; 5Etablissement Public de Santé mentale départemental de l’Aisne, Prémontré, France; 6Department of Adult and Geriatric Psychiatry, Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris, Ouest (Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Corentin-Celton, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France; 7Faculty of Medicine, University Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France; 8Psychiatry and Neurosciences Center, French National Institute of Health and Medical Research, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U894, Paris, France Background: Processing of contextual information is essential for the establishment of good interpersonal relations and communicational interactions. Nevertheless, it is known that schizophrenic patients present impairments in the processing of contextual information. The aim of this study is to explore the influence of the remediation of context processing in schizophrenic patients. Methods: Thirty-one schizophrenic patients and 28 matched healthy participants were included in this study. All participants were assessed on verbal knowledge (Mill-Hill test and depression intensity (Beck Depression Scale 21 items. Schizophrenic patients were also assessed on thought, language, and communication disorders (Thought, Language and Communication scale. All participants completed a disambiguation task with two different levels of contextualization (high or low context and a context-processing remediation task containing social scenarios that

  13. Risques de gel accru liés à la présence d’ouvrages linéaires en remblai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Quenol

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Sur un coteau, le remblai d’un ouvrage de transport, en créant un obstacle à l’écoulement naturel de l’air froid superficiel, favorise la formation d’un lac d’air froid. Au printemps, cet obstacle peut accroître le risque de gel dommageable pour les cultures qui sont vulnérables à cet aléa (vigne, arbres fruitiers…. A partir de mesures météorologiques aux échelles fines, réalisées lors des nuits froides de type « radiatives » (vent faible et ciel clair et en simulant le remblai sur une longueur conséquente par l’intermédiaire d’un bâche, il est possible d’évaluer grossièrement le différentiel thermique que va constituer cet ouvrage. Une autre méthode, basée sur la simulation de l’ouvrage en remblai, dans un SIG, et d’une validation sur le terrain aboutit à des résultats proches. Les exemples présentés ici proviennent d’études réalisées ces dernières années sur les remblais des lignes à grande vitesse du TGV Est européen (dans le vignoble de Champagne et du TGV Méditerranée (dans les terroirs arboricoles de la basse vallée de la Durance. Les résultats montrent des différences de températures de plusieurs degrés et aussi une stagnation plus longue de l’air froid superficiel en amont du remblai, ce qui peut provoquer la destruction des jeunes bourgeons. Devant l’importance des problèmes prévisibles, le Maître d’ouvrage a proposé des aménagements afin de réduire au mieux ce risque supplémentaire.By radiativ weather (weak wind and clear sky, an embankment located in below slope level generates an obstacle with the natural flow of the cold air and it develops the formation of cold air lake. In spring, this obstacle can increase the frost risk for the vulnerable cultures (vine, fruit trees.... Weather measurements on fine scales and embankment simulation (with a plastic cover or in a GIS permit to evaluate the temperature difference after the embankment implantation. The

  14. BAJA DE LA FECUNDIDAD Y FAMILIA URBANA EN REIMS EN EL SIGLO XVIII (1760-1802

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTOINETTE FAUVE-CHAMOUX

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CL X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Bajo el Antiguo Régimen, existió un sistema de reproducción familiar específico de las ciudades. Esta es la conclusión que se puede sacar de las investigaciones realizadas hasta ahora sobre la transición demográfica en el medio urbano. Comparando Ginebra con Rouen, Alfred Perrenoud logró demostrar que la alta burguesía, tanto suiza como normanda, practicaba el control de la natalidad en 1650 (Perrenoud, 1990, y esto antes incluso que empezara a bajar seriamente la tasa de mortalidad (Bardet, 1990. Tanto en Rouen como en Ginebra, el control de la descendencia se extendió luego rápidamente al conjunto de la población, como lo demuestra la caída regular de la fecundidad. A estos dos principales modelos testigos del comportamiento innovador de algunas familias urbanas de Europa occidental en los siglos XVII y XVIII, cabe agregar el de Reims, ciudad de los Reyes de Francia ubicada en Champagne con 30.000 habitantes, famosa desde luego por sus vinos espumantes después de 1700, pero también por sus tejidos de lana. Bajo el Antiguo Régimen, existió un sistema de reproducción familiar específico de las ciudades. Esta es la

  15. Le vent des deux mondes. Enquête sur les princes iraniens de la Gaule romaine The Wind from Two Worlds. Research Note on Iranian Princes in Roman Gaul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Poly

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En 1754, Anquetil-Duperron partit pour les Indes avec l’appui de l’abbé Barthélémy, l’auteur du Voyage du jeune Anacharsis en Grèce. Il se lia avec des Zoroastriens qui lui firent connaître le Zend Avesta, publiant par la suite l’étude de ces textes qui lui valut de devenir membre de l’Institut. L’Occident était allé chercher au loin les paroles de Zarathoustra. Nul ne s’avisa que la prédication des deux mondes avait pu parvenir d’Iran jusqu’en Occident longtemps auparavant, quand finissait l’Empire de Rome. Témoins deux tombes du Ve siècle dont le matériel est de provenance orientale, l’une en Rhénanie, l’autre en Champagne, celles de deux officiers commandant des unités de cavalerie d’origine iranienne. Ces princes iraniens de Gaule n’étaient pas des émigrés sans attaches. Ils étaient établis à demeure dans le pays, vivant avec leurs hommes dans des cantons qui prirent parfois leurs noms, diffusant autour d’eux des éléments spécifiques de leur ancienne Weltanschauung. Ainsi se formait lentement, en mêlant divers apports, la culture des nations d’Europe occidentale.In 1754, Anquetil-Duperron sailed for India with the support of the Abbé Barthélémy, author of Young Anacharsis’ travel to Greece. He developed friendly relations with the Zoroastrians acquainted him with the Zend Avesta. On his return, he published a study of these texts which earned him membership in the French Academy.The West traveled far to learn the words of Zarathustra. Nobody had imagined that the predicationfrom the two worlds had come from Iran to Occident, much earlier, at the time of the declining Roman Empire. We take as testimonies of this fact two tombs dating back to the Vth century whose contents come from Orient, one in Rhineland and the second one in France’s Champagne region. These tombs belong to two officers who had been commanding cavalry units of Iranian origin. These Iranian princes from Gaul were

  16. Démonstration du procédé IFP de désulfuration des fumées de centrales Demonstration of the Ifp Stack-Gas Desulfurization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busson C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les produits pétroliers et le charbon continueront à couvrir les besoins énergétiques pendant plusieurs décennies. La pollution par le SOZ, provenant de la combustion de ces combustibles fossiles, devient une préoccupation pour la population et les Pouvoirs publics. La désulfuration des fumées de combustion devrait, à plus ou moins longue échéance, se développer. L'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP, mettant à profit ses travaux dans le domaine de la désulfuration, a développé un procédé de traitement des fumées. L'IFP, en collaboration avec Électricité de France (EDF, a effectué en 1976 une opération de démonstration à une échelle pilote (30 MW dans la Centrale de Champagne-sur-Oise. Le procédé consiste à éliminer le S02 des fumées par lavage avec une solution ammoniacale, à produire du soufre à partir de la liqueur obtenue et à recycler l'ammoniaque dans l'étape de lavage. Après quelques modifications d'ordre technologique, l'unité de démonstration a fonctionné d'une manière continue pendant une période de trois mois, correspondant à l'objectif fixé. Les résultats obtenus permettent, actuellement, d'envisager une application de cette technique à une échelle de 250 MW. Oil and coal productswill continue to fulfill energy needs for several more decades. Pollution by SO2 coming from the combustion of such fossil fuels is becoming a preoccupation for the population and the public authorities. The desulfurization of combustion fumes should continue ta develop in the more or less long run. Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP has taken advantage of its research in the fixed of desulfurization to develop a stock-gas treating process. In collaboration with Électricite de Fronce (EDF, IFP carried out a demonsiration operation in 1976 on a pilot-plant scale (30MW in a power plant at Champagne-sur-Oise. The process consists in removing S02 from stock gases by scrubbing them with an ammonia solution

  17. Qualitative comparison of soil erosion, runoff and infiltration coefficients using small portable rainfall simulators in Germany, Spain and France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo Comino, Jesús; Iserloh, Thomas; Morvan, Xavier; Malam Issa, Oumarou; Naisse, Christophe; Keesstra, Saskia; Cerdà, Artemi; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Arnáez, José; Lasanta, Teodoro; Concepción Ramos, María; José Marqués, María; Ruiz Colmenero, Marta; Bienes, Ramón; Damián Ruiz Sinoga, José; Seeger, Manuel; Ries, Johannes B.

    2016-04-01

    Small portable rainfall simulators are considered as a useful tool to analyze soil erosion processes in cultivated lands. European research groups of Spain (Valencia, Málaga, Lleida, Madrid and La Rioja), France (Reims) or Germany (Trier) have used different rainfall simulators (varying in drop size distribution and fall velocities, kinetic energy, plot forms and sizes, and field of application)to study soil loss, surface flow, runoff and infiltration coefficients in different experimental plots (Valencia, Montes de Málaga, Penedès, Campo Real and La Rioja in Spain, Champagne in France and Mosel-Ruwer valley in Germany). The measurements and experiments developed by these research teams give an overview of the variety in the methodologies with rainfall simulations in studying the problem of soil erosion and describing the erosion features in different climatic environments, management practices and soil types. The aim of this study is: i) to investigate where, how and why researchers from different wine-growing regions applied rainfall simulations with successful results as a tool to measure soil erosion processes; ii) to make a qualitative comparison about the general soil erosion processes in European terroirs; iii) to demonstrate the importance of the development a standard method for soil erosion processes in vineyards, using rainfall simulators; iv) and to analyze the key factors that should be taken into account to carry out rainfall simulations. The rainfall simulations in all cases allowed knowing the infiltration capacity and the susceptibility of the soil to be detached and to generate sediment loads to runoff. Despite using small plots, the experiments were useful to analyze the influence of soil cover to reduce soil erosion and to make comparison between different locations or the influence of different soil characteristics.

  18. The characterization of Helicobacter pylori DNA associated with ancient human remains recovered from a Canadian glacier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treena Swanston

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the stomach of nearly half of the world's population. Genotypic characterization of H. pylori strains involves the analysis of virulence-associated genes, such as vacA, which has multiple alleles. Previous phylogenetic analyses have revealed a connection between modern H. pylori strains and the movement of ancient human populations. In this study, H. pylori DNA was amplified from the stomach tissue of the Kwäday Dän Ts'ìnchi individual. This ancient individual was recovered from the Samuel Glacier in Tatshenshini-Alsek Park, British Columbia, Canada on the traditional territory of the Champagne and Aishihik First Nations and radiocarbon dated to a timeframe of approximately AD 1670 to 1850. This is the first ancient H. pylori strain to be characterized with vacA sequence data. The Tatshenshini H. pylori strain has a potential hybrid vacA m2a/m1d middle (m region allele and a vacA s2 signal (s region allele. A vacA s2 allele is more commonly identified with Western strains, and this suggests that European strains were present in northwestern Canada during the ancient individual's time. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the vacA m1d region of the ancient strain clusters with previously published novel Native American strains that are closely related to Asian strains. This indicates a past connection between the Kwäday Dän Ts'ìnchi individual and the ancestors who arrived in the New World thousands of years ago.

  19. Portrayal of Alcohol Intoxication on YouTube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Brian A.; Colditz, Jason B.; Pang, Kevin C.; Jackson, Kristina M.

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to characterize the content of leading YouTube videos related to alcohol intoxication and to examine factors associated with alcohol intoxication in videos that were assessed positively by viewers. Methods We systematically captured the 70 most relevant and popular videos on YouTube related to alcohol intoxication. We employed an iterative process to codebook development which resulted in 42 codes in 6 categories: video characteristics, character socio-demographics, alcohol depiction, degree of alcohol use, characteristics associated with alcohol, and consequences of alcohol. Results There were a total of 333,246,875 views for all videos combined. While 89% of videos involved males, only 49% involved females. The videos had a median of 1646 (IQR 300-22,969) “like” designations and 33 (IQR 14-1,261) “dislike” designations each. Liquor was most frequently represented, followed by beer and then wine/champagne. Nearly one-half (44%) of videos contained a brand reference. Humor was juxtaposed with alcohol use in 79% of videos, and motor vehicle use was present in 24%. There were significantly more likes per dislike, indicating more positive sentiment, when there was representation of liquor (29.1 vs. 11.4, p = .008), brand references (32.1 vs. 19.2, p = .04), and/or physical attractiveness (67.5 vs. 17.8, p brand-name reference. While these videos commonly juxtapose alcohol intoxication with characteristics such as humor and attractiveness, they infrequently depict negative clinical outcomes. The popularity of this site may provide an opportunity for public health intervention. PMID:25703135

  20. The geometry of the bone structure associated with total hip arthroplasty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yang

    Full Text Available Close adaptation of the prosthesis to the bone is the key to achieving optimal stability and fixation for total hip arthroplasty (THA. However, there have been no adequate studies of bone morphology, especially in different races. The aim of this study was to analyze the geometry of the acetabulum and proximal femur of people from South China, based on three-dimensional reconstruction, and to detect differences between different population subsets. CT scans were performed on 80 healthy volunteers (160 hips from South China, comprising 40 males (80 hips and 40 females (80 hips. The images were imported into Mimics 10.01 to perform 3D reconstruction. THA-associated anatomical parameters were measured and compared with other published data. In comparison with published data, it seemed that people from South China have smaller acetabular abduction angle, larger acetabular supro-inferior diameter, larger neck-shaft angle, smaller offset, thinner femoral shaft and more proximal isthmus, which needed to be further confirmed. There were significant differences between the genders in most parameters. As significant differences in canal flare index (CFI and distal canal flare index (DCFI were found between genders, it was concluded the most significant differences lay in the isthmus of the femur. Among the femora, according to Noble's classification we identified more normal types and fewer stovepipe and champagne-flute types than expected from the literature, indicating that uncemented prostheses would be suitable for most people from South China. Our findings reveal that simply choosing the smallest of a series of prostheses would not necessarily provide a good fit, due to the different trends from the proximal to the distal part of the femur. Significant variation exists in THA-associated anatomy between genders and population subsets. It is therefore imperative that each patient receives individual consideration rather than assuming all patients have

  1. Preparation of the multidimensional two-phase flow analysis code for nuclear reactor safety regulation in Japan nuclear energy safety organization (JNES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadashi Morii; Fumio Kasahara [Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization, 4-3-20, Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0001 (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: It is desirable that many nuclear reactor safety problems, such as DNB, CHF, ECCS bypass, and SG tube vibration, are resolved by using the two-phase CFD tools, which simulate the complex two-phase flows with a finer space and time resolution than that used in the present system codes such as RELAP, TRAC, CATHARE, and ATHLET. Using such tools as part of a safety demonstration may bring better understanding of physical situations, more confidence in calculated results, and an estimation of safety margins. Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) have started the project to prepare the two-phase CFD tool in 2004. The project includes the following three steps. (1) Compare the CFD codes available in JNES and select the optimum one, (2) Execute verification and validation studies for the selected code, (3) Apply the selected code to nuclear reactor safety problems. The VESUVIUS, ACE-3D, CHAMPAGNE, and FLUENT code having ability to simulate 3D two-phase flows are available in JNES so far. The 3D shape and temperature profile of a vapor jet injected in almost saturated water pool have been calculated by using those four codes and calculated results have been compared one another in order to select the optimum one. Since a 3D two-phase CFD calculation needs to solve many equations and treat strong interactions among those equations suitably in a lot of grids, fast running and high stability in numerical algorithm are the most important target for selection of the codes. Simple procedure for modification of the code to apply a wide variety of two-phase flows appeared in nuclear reactor safety is another important target. Of course small discrepancy between calculated results and test data is important factor for selection. (authors)

  2. Conference on wind energy development and biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on wind energy development and biodiversity. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 90 participants exchanged views on the existing regulatory systems for nature protection in a wind energy context in both countries. In particular, birds fauna and chiropters protection were in the center of the debates. The question of wind energy development in a forest environment was addressed as well. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - The development of onshore wind farms and the French environmental Code (Arnaud Gossement); 2 - Wind energy development priority - recent advances in environmental regulation (Lionel Prevors); 3 - environmental legislation and wind power deployment in Germany: An overview (Paul-Bastian Nagel); 4 - Avifauna and wind energy plants - To bring the expansion of wind energy in line with environmental issues (Iris Otto) 5 - environmental impact study in France and Germany: what challenges and what bird fauna specificities? (Fabrice Gourat); 6 - How to take into account the chiropters' aspect in authorization procedures? Regional scale experience feedback: the Champagne-Ardenne case (Nicolas Sornin-Petit); 7 - France and Germany - a comparison of bat monitoring experience (Volker Kelm, Yannick Beucher); 8 - Bat-friendly operation algorithms: reducing bat fatalities at wind turbines in central Europe (Oliver Behr); 9 - Wind energy use in forests? specifics from an environmental planning perspective (Sonja Rosenthal); 10 - expansion of wind energy in the Bavarian State Forest (Reinhard Strobl); 11 - Environmental impact assessment and environmental follow-up study for the forest wind farms: experience feedback (Sonia Kozlowski); 12 - German aviation light regulations - German aviation light regulations. Case study: eno 92 at wind farm Schoenerlinde (Thomas Herrholz); 13 - Welcome to

  3. Turbulence in the Ionized Gas of the Orion Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, S. J.; Medina, S.-N. X.; Henney, W. J.

    2016-08-01

    In order to study the nature, origin, and impact of turbulent velocity fluctuations in the ionized gas of the Orion Nebula, we apply a variety of statistical techniques to observed velocity cubes. The cubes are derived from high resolving power (R ≈ 40 000) longslit spectroscopy of optical emission lines that span a range of ionizations. From Velocity Channel Analysis (VCA), we find that the slope of the velocity power spectrum is consistent with predictions of Kolmogorov theory between scales of 8 and 22 arcsec (0.02 to 0.05 pc). The outer scale, which is the dominant scale of density fluctuations in the nebula, approximately coincides with the autocorrelation length of the velocity fluctuations that we determine from the second order velocity structure function. We propose that this is the principal driving scale of the turbulence, which originates in the autocorrelation length of dense cores in the Orion molecular filament. By combining analysis of the non-thermal line widths with the systematic trends of velocity centroid versus ionization, we find that the global champagne flow and smaller scale turbulence each contribute in equal measure to the total velocity dispersion, with respective root-mean-square widths of 4-5 km s-1. The turbulence is subsonic and can account for only one half of the derived variance in ionized density, with the remaining variance provided by density gradients in photoevaporation flows from globules and filaments. Intercomparison with results from simulations implies that the ionized gas is confined to a thick shell and does not fill the interior of the nebula.

  4. [Gas chromatographic study of odor and flavor components of dry wine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelényi, M; Tóth, A; Szabó, M T

    1976-01-01

    6, 12 and 18 months after bottling, 1 sample of the primary wine, 2 samples of tank-fermented sparkling wines (taken at different production phases, i.e., during and after the second fermentation) and 3 samples of bottle-fermented raw champagne were analysed for aroma and flavour components. The samples were extracted with ether-pentane (2:1) and analysed by gas chromatography. 21 components were detected, 9 of which were identified (isopropanol, n-propanol, isobutanol, n-butanol, isopentanol, heptanal, n-hexanal, n-heptanol, isooctanol). There were marked qualitative and quantitative differences in composition between the aroma and flavour components of the primary wine sample and the sparkling wines sample taken during the main phase of the tank-fermenting process. This is essentially attributable to the fermenting activities of the yeasts. On the contrary, the aroma and flavour components of the primary wine sample agreed in quality with those of the sparkling wines sample taken at the end of tank-fermentation. It is concluded from these findings that greater amounts of new components do not form during the second fermentation. On the other hand, aroma and flavour components already present in the primary wine came to the fore by the quantitative increase of certain bouquet components. The comparison of the samples of bottle-fermented sparkling wines revealed, irrespective of slight changes, a clear-cut developmental trend. During the aging process, the contents of isopentanol and of a still unidentified component decreased, whereas those of isobutanol, isopropanol, heptanol and a still unidentified component increased markedly. It is stated that differences in the fermenting process manifest themselves mainly by the ratios of the components. The bouquet components were almost similar for both fermenting processes. PMID:950986

  5. 法国马铃薯产业分析%Analysis on French Potato Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾凡逵; 刘刚

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, French potato production is down by 10%from 2011 because of a stable acreage combined with a lower yield. The latter is due to poor weather conditions throughout the growing season, especially a very wet early summer which boosted mildew disease. Quality is reported to be below average with more smal sized potatoes. French production of potato is concentrated in the northern (Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Picardie, Champagne-Ardenne, Centre and Haute-Normandie). This paper reviewed the development of French potato industry, including the potato harvest area and production, and the potato processing, fresh potato consumption and foreign trade were also discussed.%  2012年,法国马铃薯产量相对2011年减产10%,虽然种植面积相当,但单产下降了。产量下降的原因主要是由于马铃薯生长季节的不良气候,特别是初夏潮湿的天气导致霉病比较严重。2012年法国马铃薯品质低于前几年的平均水平,小马铃薯居多。法国马铃薯主产区集中在北部(北部-加莱海峡、皮卡第、香槟-阿登、中央和上诺曼底)。本文对法国马铃薯产业进行了分析,包括马铃薯种植面积、产量,并且对马铃薯加工业、家庭消费新鲜马铃薯的情况及法国马铃薯对外贸易进行了讨论。

  6. Rapidly changing climatic conditions for wine grape growing in the Okanagan Valley region of British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayne, Sierra; Forest, Kaya

    2016-06-15

    A statistical analysis was conducted on long-term climate records for sites bordering Okanagan Lake in the Okanagan Valley viticultural region of British Columbia, Canada. Average wine grape growing season temperatures are increasing rapidly in the area over the post-1980 period at rates upwards of 7.0±1.3°C/century. Similar increases in the average dormant season temperature are evident. These temperature changes are likely some of the most extreme observed among the world's wine producing areas during the past few decades. Growing degree day base 10°C (GDD10) has increased by nearly 50% at some locations since the 1970s, resulting in major impacts on the corresponding climate classification for viticulture. If current climate trends continue, the southern and central portions of the region will likely enter Winkler region II within the next few decades, placing them in the same category as well-established warmer wine regions from France, Spain, Italy, and Australia. The large dormant season temperature increases over the last several decades have resulted in the area no longer being a cold season outlier when compared to most other cool-climate viticultural areas. Based on average growing season temperatures, the southern end of Okanagan Lake has moved out of the cool-climate viticultural classification and into the intermediate zone, while the central and northern regions are now at the cool/intermediate viticulture interface, similar to the historical positions of the Rhine Valley in Germany, northern Oregon in the United States, and the Loire Valley, Burgundy-Cote, Burgundy-Beaujolais, and Champagne appelations of France. The corresponding suitable grape species for the area have evolved into warmer region varietals during this time frame, having substantial economic impacts on producers. Increased temperatures are also expected to bring greater threats from agricultural pests, notably Pierce's disease from the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. PMID:26971218

  7. Star formation towards the southern cometary H II region IRAS 17256-3631

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veena, V. S.; Vig, S.; Tej, A.; Varricatt, W. P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Chandrasekhar, T.; Ashok, N. M.

    2016-03-01

    IRAS 17256-3631 is a southern Galactic massive star-forming region located at a distance of 2 kpc. In this paper, we present a multiwavelength investigation of the embedded cluster, the H II region, as well as the parent cloud. Radio images at 325, 610 and 1372 MHz were obtained using Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope, India while the near-infrared imaging and spectroscopy were carried out using United Kingdom Infrared Telescope and Mt. Abu Infrared Telescope, India. The near-infrared K-band image reveals the presence of a partially embedded infrared cluster. The spectral features of the brightest star in the cluster, IRS-1, spectroscopically agree with a late O or early B star and could be the driving source of this region. Filamentary H2 emission detected towards the outer envelope indicates the presence of highly excited gas. The parent cloud is investigated at far-infrared to millimetre wavelengths and 18 dust clumps have been identified. The spectral energy distributions of these clumps have been fitted as modified blackbodies and the best-fitting peak temperatures are found to range from 14 to 33 K, while the column densities vary from 0.7 to 8.5 × 1022 cm-2. The radio maps show a cometary morphology for the distribution of ionized gas that is density bounded towards the north-west and ionization bounded towards the south-east. This morphology is better explained with the champagne flow model as compared to the bow-shock model. Using observations at near-, mid- and far-infrared, submillimetre and radio wavelengths, we examine the evolutionary stages of various clumps.

  8. What do preschoolers know about alcohol? Evidence from the electronic Appropriate Beverage Task (eABT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Le Mével, Lydie; Zucker, Robert A

    2016-10-01

    While much is known about alcohol use in adolescence and beyond, factors leading to such behaviors are rooted much earlier in life. To investigate what preschoolers (aged three to six) know about alcohol and adult alcohol use, we developed an electronic version (eABT) of the Appropriate Beverage Task (Zucker, Kincaid, Fitzgerald, & Bingham, 1995). Drawings of adults and children in 11 everyday scenarios and 12 photos of different beverages were shown on a touchscreen computer to 301 three- to six-year-olds (49.5% girls) from 37 preschools and seven nurseries in French-speaking Switzerland. First, the children assigned a beverage to each individual in each drawing, and then were asked if the beverage contained alcohol and if they knew its name. The results revealed that 68.1% correctly classified beer, white wine, red wine and champagne as alcoholic beverages, while 46.4% knew the beverages by name, compared to 83.2% and 73.1% for non-alcoholic beverages. Alcoholic beverages were assigned more often to men (42.2%) than to women (28.7%) or to children (12.7%), and more often to adults at a party (39.4%) than to those playing outdoors (34.7%). In conclusion, children as young as three often have some beverage-specific knowledge. From the age of four onwards, they begin to know that alcoholic beverages contain alcohol. Children aged six and over tend to have some knowledge of adult drinking norms, i.e. who is drinking and in what circumstances. PMID:27240210

  9. VINOS EN CHILE DESDE LA INDEPENDENCIA HASTA EL FIN DE LA BELLE ÉPOQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN RICARDO COUYOUMDJIAN

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La producción, importación y consumo de vinos experimentaron cambios significativos en el período que va entre la Independencia y la víspera de la Primera Guerra Mundial. En este trabajo se estudia la introducción de nuevas cepas y los cambios en las técnicas de vinificación desde mediados del siglo XIX. El desglose de las cifras de producción anual por provincia permite apreciar la difusión de las nuevas cepas, mientras que testimonios contemporáneos advierten sobre las diferencias en las calidades del producto. Las cifras de importación para los distintos tipos y envases de vinos reflejan estos cambios. La internación de tintos a granel experimenta una caída sistemática desde la década del 1870, no así el champaña que aún no se fabricaba en Chile. Más significativa es la creciente figuración de los vinos nacionales en los menús de los banquetes oficiales y sociales en el períodoThe production, imports and consumption of wine underwent significant changes in the years between Independence and the eve of the First World War. This article studies the introduction into Chile of new varieties of vines, and changes in winemaking techniques from the middle of the 19th century onwards. Annual production figures from the different provinces show the gradual penetration of the new varieties, and contemporary sources attest to the differences in the quality of the wines. Import figures for the different types of wine reflect these changes. Imports of plain red wines, though not for champagnes, show a steady decline from the 1870s. More tellingly, Chilean wines were increasingly served in official and social banquets during this period as indicated in the corresponding menus

  10. Etude Climat no. 36 'Regional Climate - Air - Energy Plans: a tool for guiding the energy and climate transition in French regions'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Reports' offer in-depth analyses on a given subject. This issue addresses the following points: The Regional Climate-Air-Energy Plan (SRCAE - Schema Regional Climat-Air-Energie) was introduced by the Grenelle II legislation. The Plans are co-authored by the State through its decentralised services and the 'Conseil Regionaux' (regional councils) with the objective to guide climate and energy policy in the 26 French regions through to 2020 and 2050. Starting from an assessment of regional greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the SRCAE establishes energy transition scenarios based on the sectoral and structural guidelines that constitute the principal framework of the regional strategy. This report offers a detailed analysis of the strategies chosen by the various Regions for a successful transition to low-carbon energy sources, via the study of eleven SRCAEs that were opened to public consultation before the end of July 2012 (Alsace, Aquitaine, Auvergne, Bourgogne, Centre, Champagne-Ardenne, Ile-de-France, Midi-Pyrenees, Nord-Pas de Calais, Picardie and Rhone-Alpes regions). The wide range of methodologies used by the Regions, both to draw up their inventories of GHG emissions and for their scenarios, means that a quantitative comparison between regions or against the national objectives is not possible. Nevertheless, the report establishes a typology of regions and identifies policies that are common to all regions and those chosen in response to local characteristics. Certain guidelines could be applied by other regions of the same type, or could feed into discussions at national level. The report also indicates that the SRCAEs go beyond the competencies of the Regions, highlighting the role of local, national and European decision-making in the success of a regional energy transition. Particular attention was paid to the building and transport sectors, often identified as having the largest potential for reducing

  11. Soil Erosion Processes in European Vineyards: A Qualitative Comparison of Rainfall Simulation Measurements in Germany, Spain and France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Rodrigo Comino

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Small portable rainfall simulators are considered a useful tool to analyze soil erosion processes in cultivated lands. European research groups in Spain (Valencia, Málaga, Lleida, Madrid and La Rioja, France (Reims and Germany (Trier have used different rainfall simulators (varying in drop size distribution and fall velocities, kinetic energy, plot forms and sizes, and field of application to study soil loss, surface flow, runoff and infiltration coefficients in different experimental plots (Valencia, Montes de Málaga, Penedès, Campo Real and La Rioja in Spain, Champagne in France and Mosel-Ruwer valley in Germany. The measurements and experiments developed by these research teams give an overview of the variety of methodologies used in rainfall simulations to study the problem of soil erosion and describe the erosion features in different climatic environments, management practices and soil types. The aims of this study are: (i to investigate where, how and why researchers from different wine-growing regions applied rainfall simulations with successful results as a tool to measure soil erosion processes; (ii to make a qualitative comparison about the general soil erosion processes in European terroirs; (iii to demonstrate the importance of the development of standard method for measurement of soil erosion processes in vineyards, using rainfall simulators; and (iv and to analyze the key factors that should be taken into account to carry out rainfall simulations. The rainfall simulations in all cases allowed infiltration capacity, susceptibility of the soil to detachment and generation of sediment loads to runoff to be determined. Despite using small plots, the experiments were useful to analyze the influence of soil cover to reduce soil erosion, to make comparisons between different locations, and to evaluate the influence of different soil characteristics. The comparative analysis of the studies performed in different study areas points out

  12. Collaborative Research: Dynamics of Electrostatic Solitary Waves on Current Layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, Jolene S.

    2012-10-31

    The research carried out under the subject grant has provided insight into the generation of Electrostatic Solitary Waves (ESWs), which are nonlinear structures observed in space plasma data. These ESWs, appearing as pulses in the electric field time series data, represent the presence of several hundred meters to kilometer size positive potential structures, similar to champagne bubbles, where the electrons have been depleted, and which travel along Earth's magnetic field lines. The laboratory experiments carried out at the UCLA LAPD under the grant allowed us the opportunity to change various plasma and field conditions within the plasma device, and experiment with injection of suprathermal electron beams, in order to create ESWs. This then allowed us to determine the most likely method of generation of the ESWs. By comparing the properties of the ESWs observed in the LAPD to those observed in space and the plasma and field conditions under which those ESWs were observed in both locations, we were able to evaluate various ESW generation mechanisms. The findings of the laboratory experiments are that ESWs are generated through a lower hybrid instability. The ESWs observed in Earth's auroral current regions have similar characteristics to those generated by the laboratory when referenced to basic plasma and field characteristics, leading us to the conclusion that the lower hybrid drift instability is certainly a possibility for generation of the ESWs, at least in the auroral (northern/southern lights) regions. Due to space instrumentation insufficiencies and the limitations on telemetry, and thus poor time resolution, it is not possible to determine absolutely what generates these bubbles in space, but the laboratory experiments and supporting simulations have helped us to further our understanding of the processes under which they are generated. The public benefits from the findings of this research because the research is focused on current layers

  13. A Spitzer Space Telescope Far-infrared Spectral Atlas of Compact Sources in the Magellanic Clouds. II. The Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Jacco Th.; Oliveira, Joana M.; Gordon, Karl D.; Sloan, G. C.; Engelbracht, C. W.

    2010-04-01

    We present far-infrared spectra, λ = 52-93 μm, obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope in the spectral energy distribution mode of its Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer instrument, of a selection of luminous compact far-infrared sources in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). These comprise nine young stellar objects (YSOs), the compact H II region N 81 and a similar object within N 84, and two red supergiants (RSGs). We use the spectra to constrain the presence and temperature of cool dust and the excitation conditions within the neutral and ionized gas, in the circumstellar environments and interfaces with the surrounding interstellar medium. We compare these results with those obtained in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The spectra of the sources in N 81 (of which we also show the Infrared Space Observatory-Long-wavelength Spectrograph spectrum between 50 and 170 μm) and N 84 both display strong [O I] λ63 μm and [O III] λ88 μm fine-structure line emission. We attribute these lines to strong shocks and photo-ionized gas, respectively, in a "champagne flow" scenario. The nitrogen content of these two H II regions is very low, definitely N(N)/N(O) electric effect to heat the gas is found to be indistinguishable to that measured in the same manner in the LMC, ≈0.1%-0.3%. This may result from higher cloud-core densities, or smaller grains, in the SMC. The dust associated with the two RSGs in our SMC sample is cool, and we argue that it is swept-up interstellar dust, or formed (or grew) within the bow-shock, rather than dust produced in these metal-poor RSGs themselves. Strong emission from crystalline water-ice is detected in at least one YSO. The spectra constitute a valuable resource for the planning and interpretation of observations with the Herschel Space Observatory and the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy.

  14. Analysis of the FASSST rotational spectrum of NCNCS in view of quantum monodromy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnewisser, Brenda P; Winnewisser, Manfred; Medvedev, Ivan R; De Lucia, Frank C; Ross, Stephen C; Koput, Jacek

    2010-08-01

    Quantum monodromy has a strong impact on the ro-vibrational energy levels of chain molecules whose bending potential energy function has the form of the bottom of a champagne bottle (i.e. with a hump or punt) around the linear configuration. NCNCS, cyanogen iso-thiocyanate, is a particularly good example of such a molecule and clearly exhibits a distinctive monodromy-induced dislocation of the energy level pattern at the bending-rotation energy at the top of the potential energy hump. Indeed, NCNCS [B. P. Winnewisser et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 2005, 95, 243002] and the water molecule [N. F. Zobov et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 2005, 414, 193-197] were the first two molecules for which experimental confirmation of quantum monodromy was obtained. We used the fast scan sub-millimetre spectroscopic technique (FASSST) to extend the measurements and spectral analysis to pure rotational transitions (end-over-end) in bending vibrational states lying well above the monodromy point. The analysis of 9204 lines assigned to 7 vibrational states, presented here, shows that the topological properties of the bending potential function are mapped onto every aspect of the ro-vibrational energy levels involving excitation of the quasi-linear bending vibration. In order to model the large amplitude dynamics of such a molecular system, and also to achieve some insight beyond satisfactory parameters for reproducing the spectrum, we used the generalized semi-rigid bender (GSRB) Hamiltonian, which is described in some detail. This Hamiltonian provides a good description of the energy levels over the seven bending states observed, coming close to experimental accuracy. Due to high J values of the measured rotational transitions (Jdipole moment components. High level ab initio calculations not only provided the molecular equilibrium structure of NCNCS, but also the electric dipole moment components mu(a) and mu(b) as functions of the large-amplitude bending coordinate. Calculated expectation

  15. A Brief Summary of Numerical Studies of Gas Dynamics of Cometary Compact H II Regions%彗状致密H II 区的动力学模拟研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱逢尧; 朱青峰

    2014-01-01

    Observational studies show that there are some gas clouds which are commonly denser than interstellar medium. They are called as“molecular clouds”. Massive stars are formed in these dense molecular clouds, because compact and ultracompact H II regions can form. Theoretically, a Str¨omgren sphere will form if a new massive star with ionizing radiation is born in a uniform medium. However, observations at radio frequencies and infrared radiation show that there are few spherical H II regions. The surveys for compact and ultracompact H II regions in molecular clouds show that part of these embedded H II regions have a cometary morphology. Other observations demonstrate that shells around H II regions are related to star formation, and different morphologies might make a different influence on the evolution results. As quite a lot of non-spherically cometary-shaped compact H II regions were observed in recent years, some researchers have established a number of hydrodynamic models in order to explain the causes of these phenomena. These efforts are helpful in understanding the evolution of compact H II regions and the formation of massive stars. In this article we present the numerical models and calculation methods of cometary-shaped compact H II regions, the contrast between champagne models and bow shock models, and the future development of the field.%研究表明,在新形成大质量恒星辐射的影响下,分子云中会形成高密度的H II 区。近年来观测到一些非球对称彗星状致密H II 区,学者们为了解释这类目标的产生,先后建立了一系列H II 区动力学模型。这些工作有利于进一步认识致密H II 区的形成和演化及大质量恒星的形成。这里介绍了彗星状致密H II 区的模型模拟和计算方法方面的研究进展,阐述了香槟流和弓形激波两种解释模型的异同,以及该领域未来的发展方向。

  16. Book Review: Chemistry in Theatre. Insufficiency, Phallacy or Both

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterken, Christiaan; Djerassi, Carl

    2012-11-01

    This book deals with the question of what role a play, or the theatre, can fulfill as an educational or pedagogic tool in the broad scope of science learning and education. The book contains the texts of two of the author's recent plays, viz. Insufficiency and Phallacy. Carl Djerassi is a writer and an emeritus professor of chemistry at Stanford University. He has published short stories, poetry, some novels and several "science-in-theatre" plays. Almost one fifth of this slim booklet is occupied by Djerassi's preface that is, in its own right, a most useful essay worth reading by any student of the exact sciences. Djerassi's point is that most of the modern science plays have a didactic component, and aim to illustrate - through the medium of theatre - what science or scientists are all about. To make such plays available to a broad audience, he advocates the production of readable books written in play format. The strong point of such plays is the dialogue format - as was already very well known by forerunners like Galileo Galilei with his Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, published in 1632. Djerassi does not tell what his characters do, but he emphasises how and why they do some specific thing. Insufficiency is about the chemistry of champagne bubbles (coined bubbleology, i.e., the science of champagne or beer bubbles), in a scientific academic context dealing with tenure and fashion. The story clearly shows how the life of a young tenure-seeking scientist develops under the strong interlock of forced - but also of voluntary - overwork that leads to tenure (in turn accompanied by an increase in material security). But it also mentions the self-imposed and seemingly unescapable treadmill of success and scientific achievement that comes with tenure. The play also deals with fashion in science via the simplistically coined term bubbleology, and the author shows that the actual implications of this "science" actually even reach to cosmology. The

  17. Pour paraître à la cour : les habits de Marie-Fortunée d’Este, princesse de Conti (1731-1803 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Chatenet-Calyste

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Par son mariage en 1759 avec Louis-François-Joseph de Bourbon-Conti, Marie-Fortunée d’Este (1731-1803, fille du duc italien François III d’Este de Modène, devient princesse du sang en France. L’heureuse conservation de ses comptes permet d’étudier sa garde-robe et de réfléchir aux modalités du paraître vestimentaire à la cour de la fin du XVIIIe siècle. Tenir son rang à Versailles passe pour la princesse par des dépenses élevées, le port d’étoffes luxueuses et le choix de marchands réputés. Cette étude de cas invite au-delà à envisager la spécificité de l’apparence à la cour d’une princesse devenue en 1776 une épouse séparée au budget limité. Elle interroge également les contraintes physiques de l’habit de cour à la lumière des nouvelles valeurs de confort et de liberté, tout particulièrement pour une femme d’âge mûr et maladive qui ne paraît plus guère dans le monde aulique.To be received at court: the clothes of Mary Fortunate d'Este, Princess of Conti (1731-1803 - Aurélie Chatenet-Calyste is a French researcher and also teaches at the University of Champagne-Ardenne. After passing the French high-level competitive examination for recruitment of teachers in history (In French Agrégation, she has defended her thesis “A feminine and aristocratic consumption at the end of the 18th century : Marie-Fortunée d’Este, princesse de Conti” on November the 27 th at the University of Limoges. Her researches concern gender, consumption and court history. Her recent papers are « La femme, maîtresse de maison ? », Histoire, économie et société, 2009/4, p. 21-34 ; « Une princesse et son livret de comptes : Marie-Fortunée d’Este, princesse de Conti (1731-1803 », dans Entre mémoire et histoire : écriture ordinaire et émergence de l'individu, éd. par Nicole Lemaitre et Sylvie Mouysset (édition électronique, 134e Congrès national des sociétés historiques et scientifiques

  18. Getting ready for crops' adaptation to climate change in France ; two complementary experiences : what lessons can we draw from them ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Noblet, Nathalie; Levrault, Frédéric; Caubel, Julie; Garcia de CortazarAtauri, Iñaki; Vivant, Anne-Charlotte; Wieruszeski, Sophie; Launay, Marie

    2016-04-01

    The french agriculture is a sector particularly concerned by climate change: the scale of the already observed impacts and the expected climatic evolutions prevent any hesitation on the necessity of an adaptation of agriculture. This assessment is simultaneously shared by the scientific, political as well as the economic communities. However, a generalized and organized movement of adaptation of agriculture has difficulty in emerging in France and maybe in other countries, while past decades have seen the development of research projects and publications on the adaptation to climate change. Two parallel initiatives have been run in France over the past 5 years, that happen to share the same name while not involving the same actors: an observatory of climate change and agriculture functioning (ORACLE: Observatoire Régional sur l'Agriculture et le Changement Climatique), and a nationally funded research project that explores with various tools risks and opportunities for agro-ecosystems in the future in France (ORACLE: Opportunities and Risks of Agrosystems & forests in response to CLimate, socio-economic and policy changEs in France). The Observatory is carrying on a regional analysis of historical trends of both climatic and agricultural variables. It has for ambition to help the agricultural world to better integrate the evolution of climate into its decision-making, for purposes of adaptation as well as mitigation. The observatory is run since year 2011 in the Poitou-Charentes region and is now being implemented in other regions in France (Aquitaine, Pays de la Loire, Champagne Ardennes, Normandie). The research project has looked into the impacts of various scenarios of climate change through the use of various techniques : mechanistic models (Calvet et al. 2013, Wu et al. 2016) and eco-climatic indicators (Caubel et al. 2015). Informations regarding risks and opportunities for large crops in France is in the process being assessed though those tools and

  19. Using of acoustic technologies for detection of explosives in gas, liquid and solid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    contained acoustic radiator and detector, with probe selection of diagnostic material. That is why at first the acoustic passports will be obtained for all types of explosives and their data bank will be formed. This bank will included C (ω,T), α (ω,T) and ρ (ω,T) dependences, which will identify a presence and a specific type of explosive. We propose the universal system, that may be quickly adapted for search and diagnostics of different types of matter, including a qualitative and quantitative analysis of their few main components. This system may be realized in the development of devices, that used the acoustic techniques. The principles of system function is discussed. The practical realization of this method on example of image of alcohol beverage type. The presented 2a and 3D diagrams for system of ethyl alcohol-sugar-water solutions proved the possibilities of our technique for the operative and reliable diagnostic. The similar technique we successfully used in the development and the application of new devices for monitoring and measurements of alcohol and sugar concentrations in industrial flood plains of vodka, brandies, liqueurs, wines and champagnes at Russian plants. The principle advantages and disadvantages of the proposed technique, including the special engineering and design elements of the devices for diagnostic of explosives are under consideration. It is noticed, that this technique may be used for detection of solid and liquid explosives in grounds and in another solid materials, in water and gas mediums and we recommend to use it as the special monitoring method for very important large objects, such as dams of uranium tailing storages in Tyan-Shan Mountains

  20. Evaluating the catching performance of aerodynamic rain gauges through field comparisons and CFD modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Michael; Colli, Matteo; Stagnaro, Mattia; Lanza, Luca; Quinn, Paul; Dutton, Mark; O'Donnell, Greg; Wilkinson, Mark; Black, Andrew; O'Connell, Enda

    2016-04-01

    Accurate rainfall measurement is a fundamental requirement in a broad range of applications including flood risk and water resource management. The most widely used method of measuring rainfall is the rain gauge, which is often also considered to be the most accurate. In the context of hydrological modelling, measurements from rain gauges are interpolated to produce an areal representation, which forms an important input to drive hydrological models and calibrate rainfall radars. In each stage of this process another layer of uncertainty is introduced. The initial measurement errors are propagated through the chain, compounding the overall uncertainty. This study looks at the fundamental source of error, in the rainfall measurement itself; and specifically addresses the largest of these, the systematic 'wind-induced' error. Snowfall is outside the scope. The shape of a precipitation gauge significantly affects its collection efficiency (CE), with respect to a reference measurement. This is due to the airflow around the gauge, which causes a deflection in the trajectories of the raindrops near the gauge orifice. Computational Fluid-Dynamic (CFD) simulations are used to evaluate the time-averaged airflows realized around the EML ARG100, EML SBS500 and EML Kalyx-RG rain gauges, when impacted by wind. These gauges have a similar aerodynamic profile - a shape comparable to that of a champagne flute - and they are used globally. The funnel diameter of each gauge, respectively, is 252mm, 254mm and 127mm. The SBS500 is used by the UK Met Office and the Scottish Environmental Protection Agency. Terms of comparison are provided by the results obtained for standard rain gauge shapes manufactured by Casella and OTT which, respectively, have a uniform and a tapered cylindrical shape. The simulations were executed for five different wind speeds; 2, 5, 7, 10 and 18 ms-1. Results indicate that aerodynamic gauges have a different impact on the time-averaged airflow patterns

  1. NOGENT, just another power plant - but so close to Paris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    54 PWR type production units are today operating in France. Between 1980 and 1981, 11 units were under construction including both Nogent PWR-1300 units. The increasing consumption in the lie de France region in the early eighties affected the choice of the site so close to Paris on the banks of the Seine, not more than 95 km from Notre Dame Cathedral. In February 1975, the Champagne-Ardenne Regional Council gave a favourable opinion to installation of a nuclear power plant in the Marne or Seine valley. The location of the plant thus offered an economic opportunity to a region in which second homes were growing at the expense of primary residences. The Nogent plant is not the only one to be situated close to a city. One of the major concerns was related to the fact that the power plant was located on the banks of the river supplying Paris with drinking water. The plant has a geographical location whose political and media implications are Parisian, and thus national. Therefore, the plant was equipped with a public information centre which opened on 1st January 1988, and which in general receives some 20 000 visitors annually. It is located outside the controlled areas of the plant and access is free to all visitors. It gives a permanent exhibition on nuclear power and the Nogent plant in particular. Its auditorium can seat 120 for conferences and films on all subjects concerning nuclear power. The construction of the Information Centre cost 6 million francs. The visitors mainly come from the Paris region : many teachers bring their classes to find out about our installations. The EDF Divisions bring many notable visitors : foreign ministers, captains of industry, and any foreign nuclear company on an information visit to France. The opposition to Nogent comes mainly from Paris, in 1979 of a Committee for nuclear alternatives called Stop-Nogent was established. 1982,1983,1984 and 1985 were marked by strong action and local disputes, reported in the press (sabotage

  2. The region of the Piedra Berroqueña: A potencial Global Heritage Stone Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire-Lista, David Martin; Fort, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    The Piedra Berroqueña region occupies an area of approximately 4000 km2 in the Sierra de Guadarrama, Spanish Central System, the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. This region has provided most of the building granites used in Madrid and surrounding provinces. Traditional methods of cutting and carving stone have been preserved and it is easy to locate historic quarries in its landscape in addition to mechanized quarries with large reserves of this dimension stone that is exported worldwide in the form of blocks or slabs with different finishes. The Piedra Berroqueña has been used as a building stone since before the Romans. Petrophysical and durability characteristics have allowed to endure monuments as representative as The Royal Monastery of San Lorenzo del Escorial (1563-1584), del Sol Gate (1857-1862), Royal Palace (1738-1764), Alcalá Gate (1770-1778) or Prado Museum (1785-1808) in Madrid, Spain. Also the Piedra Berroqueña is part of most residential buildings and streets of this city, as well as modern buildings around the world, such as airport terminals in Athens, Cork, the British consulate in Hong Kong and headquarters of banks in Jakarta, among others. Piedra Berroqueña province is presented in this abstract, which has many granite quarries with common characteristics such as their grey tones and the presence of darker enclaves "Gabarros or negrones". In the Piedra Berroqueña province four main types of granite can be distinguish: Peraluminous granites; with biotite and occasional cordierite, whose most representative historic quarries are in Alpedrete, Colmenar Viejo, El Boalo, El Berrocal and Collado Mediano. Biotite granites with occasional amphibole are present in historic quarries in El Berrueco, Lozoyuela-Navas-Sieteiglesias and Pelayo de la Presa, among others. Currently exploited in Valdemanco and La Cabrera and marketed under the commercial names of Aurora Blanco, Blanco Berrocal, Crema Champagne, Blanco Castilla, Crema Cabrera, Blanco Perla

  3. Self-efficacy enhancing intervention increases light physical activity in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larson JL

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Janet L Larson,1,2 Margaret K Covey,2 Mary C Kapella,2 Charles G Alex,3,4 Edward McAuley,5 1Division of Acute, Critical and Long-Term Care Programs, School of Nursing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 2Department of Biobehavioral Health Science, College of Nursing, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, 3Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Edward Hines Jr VA Hospital, Hines, IL, 4Advocate Christ Medical Center, Oaklawn, IL, 5Department of Kinesiology and Community Health, College of Applied Health Sciences, University of Illinois Urbana-Champagne, Urbana, IL, USA Background: People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease lead sedentary lives and could benefit from increasing their physical activity. The purpose of this study was to determine if an exercise-specific self-efficacy enhancing intervention could increase physical activity and functional performance when delivered in the context of 4 months of upper body resistance training with a 12-month follow-up. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, subjects were assigned to: exercise-specific self-efficacy enhancing intervention with upper body resistance training (SE-UBR, health education with upper body resistance training (ED-UBR, or health education with gentle chair exercises (ED-Chair. Physical activity was measured with an accelerometer and functional performance was measured with the Functional Performance Inventory. Forty-nine people with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease completed 4 months of training and provided valid accelerometry data, and 34 also provided accelerometry data at 12 months of follow-up. The self-efficacy enhancing intervention emphasized meeting physical activity guidelines and increasing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Results: Differences were observed in light physical activity (LPA after 4 months of training, time by group interaction effect (P=0.045. The SE-UBR group increased time spent in

  4. Microbial heterotrophy coupled to Fe-S-As cycling in a shallow-sea hydrothermal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, G.; Amend, J.

    2013-12-01

    To date, there are only a few known heterotrophic arsenite oxidizers and arsenate reducers. They utilize organic compounds as their carbon source and/or as important electron donors in the transfer arsenic in high temperature environments. Arsenic in hydrothermal vent systems can be immobilized at low temperatures through (ad)sorption on iron oxide and other iron-bearing minerals. Interactions with sulfur species can also affect the redox state of arsenic species. A better understanding of microbially-catalyzed reactions involving carbon, arsenic, iron and sulfur would provide constraints on the mobility of arsenic in a wide variety of natural and engineered systems. The aim of this study is to establish links between microbial distribution and in situ Fe-S-As cycling processes in a shallow-sea hydrothermal vent system. We investigated three shallow-sea hydrothermal vents, Champagne Hot Spring (CHS), Soufriere Spring (SOU) and Portsmouth Spring (PM), located off the western coast of Dominica, Lesser Antilles. CHS and SOU are characterized by moderate temperatures (46oC and 55oC, respectively), and PM is substantially hotter (~90-111 oC). Two sediment cores (one close to and one far from the thermal source) were collected from CHS and from SOU. Porewaters in both background cores had low concentrations of arsenic (mostly As3+, to a lesser extent As5+, DMA, MMA) and ferrous iron. The arsenic concentrations (predominantly As3+) in the CHS high temperature core were 30-90 nM, tracking with dissolved iron. Similar to CHS, the arsenic concentration in the SOU high temperature core was dominated by As3+ and controlled by ferrous iron. However, the arsenic concentration at SOU is comparatively higher, up to 1.9 mM. At the hotter and deeper PM site, highly elevated arsenic levels (1-2.5 mM) were measured, values that are among the highest arsenic concentrations ever reported in a marine hydrothermal system. Several autotrophic and heterotrophic media at two pHs (5.5 and 8

  5. A Window on the Valencia of Jaume the Conqueror: A Five-Year Core Sample, 1264-1270

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burns, Robert I.

    1996-12-01

    champagne murcienne dans la perspective valencienne. Chaqu'un des centaines d'éléments qui composent ce panorama de cinq ans est accompagné par le numéro d'un document ou des documents de la troisième tome du Diplomatarium du roi Jaume en préparation. La structure et la dynamique de son nouveau royaume se découvrent dans les anecdotes, les commentaires brefs personnels et les narrations libres qui abondent dans ces documents remarquables et ses obiter dicta.

  6. PREFACE: Liquid-solid interfaces: structure and dynamics from spectroscopy and simulations Liquid-solid interfaces: structure and dynamics from spectroscopy and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre; Sulpizi, Marialore

    2012-03-01

    Ishiyama, Hideaki Takahashi and Akihiro Morita A theoretical study of the sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy of the carbon tetrachloride/water interface Anthony J Green, Angela Perry, Preston B Moore and Brian Space Salt effects on water/hydrophobic liquid interfaces: a molecular dynamics study Chao Zhang and Paolo Carloni Density functional theory-based simulations of sum frequency generation spectra involving methyl stretching vibrations: effect of the molecular model on the deduced molecular orientation and comparison with an analytical approach F Cecchet, D Lis, Y Caudano, A A Mani, A Peremans, B Champagne and J Guthmuller Towards modelling the vibrational signatures of functionalized surfaces: carboxylic acids on H-Si(111) surfaces Conrard Giresse Tetsassi Feugmo, Benoît Champagne, Yves Caudano, Francesca Cecchet, Yves J Chabal and Vincent Liégeois

  7. Results from the geological surveys carried out in the Bure laboratory's drifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. After the government's authorization to build and operate an underground laboratory, Andra started the investigation works in November 99 on the Meuse/Haute-Marne URL site. The Meuse/Haute-Marne URL is located at the border of the Champagne-Ardenne and Lorraine regions, on the township of Bure in the Callovo-Oxfordian clay-rich rock. At this place, the layer is about 135 m-thick and lies at a depth of 417 m to 552 m. The construction of the underground installations started in August 2000 with the sinking of the main shaft and the first phase of diggings was completed on the 27 April 2006 when it linked up with the south drift of the laboratory. The laboratory consists in two vertical shafts crossing the 505-m thick sedimentary cover and two levels of experimental drifts dug in Callovo-Oxfordian formation. The first experimental drift dug at -445 m with a drill-and-blast method with steps of 2.4 m. The technical and experimental drifts at the main level (-490 m of depth) were dug with a hydraulic stone crusher. The aims of the geological surveys carried out during the drifts digging are to observe the lateral variation of the lithology, if there is one, to confirm the absence of fault and the geometry of the argillites formation. These works should also allow to characterize the natural or inducted fracturing (EDZ - Excavation Damaged Zone) induced by the digging by a sedimentary and structural follow-up. The EDZ characterization has been established from the geological survey of the drift face and sidewalls carried out from 1 to 5 meters in the drifts, and completed by the structural analysis of the cores of the boreholes drilled for the experimentations' equipments. After the safe keeping of the front, the geological team goes down to carry out the survey which consists in a lithologic and sedimentary mapping, a structural survey for the understanding of joints distribution and EDZ characterization, and

  8. The Ketogenic and Atkins Diets Effect on Intractable Epilepsy: A Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahad GHAZAVI

    2014-07-01

    Switzerland. Int J Health Sci 1993;4:121-8.Aicardi J. Epilepsy in children. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2004. p. 38.4. Kossof EH. More fat and fewer seizures: dietary therapy ofepilepsy. Lancet Neurol 2004 Jul;3(7:415-20.Hassan AM, Keene DL, Whiting SE, Jacob PJ, Champagne JR, Humphreys P. Ketogenic diet in the treatment of refractory epilepsy in childhood. Pediatr. Neurol. 1999; 21: 548-552.Vining EP, Freeman JM, Ballaban-Gil K, Camfield CS, Camfield PR, Holmes GL et al. A multicenter study of the efficacy of the ketogenic diet. Arch Neurol 1998 Nov;55(11:1433-7.Nordli DR, Kuroda MM. Experience with the ketogen diet in infants. Pediatrics 2001 Jun; 108(1:129-33.Tonekaboni SH, Mostaghimi P, Mirmiran P, Abbaskhanian A, Abdollah GF, Ghofrani M, et al. Efficacy of Atkins diet as therapy for intractable epilepsy in children. Arch Iran Med 2010 Nov;13(6:492-7.Kossoff EH, Dorward JL. The modified Atkins diet. Epilepsia 2008 Nov;49 Suppl 8:37-41.Mirjavadi SAR, Tonekaboni SH, Ghazavi MR, Azarghashb E, Abdollah GF, Ghofrani M. Efficacy of ketogenic diet as a therapy for intractable epilepsy in children. Iran J Child Neurol 2010 Sep;4(2:27-36.Karimzadeh P, Tabarestani S, Mahvelati F, Tonekaboni SH, Ghofrani M. Intractable seizure disorfes; efficacy of the classic ketogenic diet. Iran J Child Neurol 2009 Jan; 3(1:15-20.Barzegar M, Ostad Rahimi AR, Eslampour Sh, Shabazi Sh. The Ketogenic diet for refractory epilepsy. Med J Tabriz Uni Med Sci Health Serv 2009;31:15-20.Lefevre F, Aronson N. Ketogenic diet for the treatment of refractory epilepsy in children: A systematic review of efficacy. Pediatrics 2000 Apr;105(4:105-9.Keene DL. A systematic review of the use of the ketogenic diet in childhood epilepsy. Pediatr Neurol 2006 Jul;35(1:1-5.Porta N, Vallee L, Boutry E, Fontaine M, Dessein AF, Joriot S, et al. Comparsion of seizure reduction and serum fatty acid levels after receiving the ketogenic and modified Atkins diet. Seizure 2009 Jun 18(5:359-64.

  9. Analyse séquentielle de l'Eocène et de l'Oligocène du bassin Parisien (France Sequence Analysis of the Eocene-Oligocene Paris Basin, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gely J. P.

    2006-11-01

    , can be detected on the shelf margin wedges and in the highstand prograding wedges. However, there are no real paleovalleys underneath the unconformities, but at most an irregular surface that usually bears witness not to continental erosion but to gullying linked to the ensuing transgression. Formations subjected to erosion during lowstand periods are often quite unconsolidated. The paleoreliefs built up during emersion were easily leveled by the ensuing transgression. Likewise, outside of the tectonically active areas in the basin during the Eocene and Oligocene (Pays de Bray, Orxois dome, Rémarde anticline, Meudon anticline, which sometimes form islands (Maps 2 to 18, transgressions occurred in the rest of the basin onflat surface or one with residual reliefs of decimetric size. Like in some current drainage systems, it can be supposed that the most deeply indented paleovalleys are situated near the shelf edge during lowstand, periods. This would imply their probable existence well west of the Paris Basin near the continental slope of the werstern English Channel. An analysis of the lithology of the different depositional systems within the sequences shows an alternation or coexistance of sandy or clayey clasting sedimentation and purely carbonate sedimentation. The origin of the Parisian Tertiary sandstones has been recognized as having come successively from former Mesozoic (A. Blondeau et al. , 1964 and Cenozoic (J. Riveline-Bauer, 1970; C. Lorenz et al. , 1984 sandy sources. The remobilization of these sources was mainly linked to the episodic uplifting of anticlines (Pays de Bray and Artois regions mainly and of basin edges, providing a source for coastal sedimentation with continental sandy or clayey influxes brought in by rivers in the South and the Champagne region (Maps 2 to 18. Thus, apart from the volume available for the sediments (accomodation, sequences succeeded one another in time while being dominated either by highly clastic formation or by

  10. Les terrains jurassiques du sondage de Couy (Cher, France. Leur analyse séquentielle détaillée à partir de la description des carottes et des courbes diagraphiques Jurassic Formations in the Couy Borehole (Cher Department, France. Their Detailed Sequential Analysis from the Core Sample Descriptions and Well-Logging Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gely J. P.

    2006-11-01

    influence of regional subsidence is superimposed on the successions of deposits, linked to sealevel changes. These two factors control the accomodation and the hydrodynamic conditions of the basin. Tectonic activity can obliterate the role of eustatism to the extent of preventing any deposit, and entire sedimentary sequences may then not be expressed locally, as is the case for the Humphriesianum zone in the Poitou and Berry regions. On the other hand, a speeding up of the subsidence of the Marty Trough occurred during the highstand interval in the Lotharingian (Sequence 3, causing the deposition of back basin clays, thus situating the maximum paleodepth exceptionally at the top of the sequence underneath a nonerosive discontinuity. A contrast can also be seen between the marly series of the Upper Pliensbachian, such as the Bathonian, and the condensed limestone series of the Lower and Middle Bajocian. The installation of the carbonate platform in the Aalenian-Lower Bajocian (platform with an accumulation of bioclast sands of the keep-up carbonate platformtype, Sarg, 1989, with already a first glimpse of the upermost Toarcian (micritic limestone platform with gryphites, of the catch-up carbonate platformtype, according to Sarg, 1989, was probably caused by a great slowing down of subsidence. The same pattern can be found in the regional Callovian with periods of erosion or nondeposition. We are led to highlight three periods of tectonic activity in the Couy area (Lotharingian, Aalenian-Bajocian, Callovian, which do not always correspond to the tendencies described in other paleogeographic domains, for example such as Champagne in the Middle Jurassic (Guillocheau, 1991. A sequential analysis of the Couy borehole has revealed 18 sequences in the Lower Jurassic and part of the Middle Jurassic. In the Lower Jurassic, 11 characterized sequences (the last one transiting into the MiddleJurassic are similar to the ones proposed by Haq et al. (1988 , which for Western Europe must