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Sample records for chamomile oil application

  1. Effect of German chamomile oil application on alleviating atopic dermatitis-like immune alterations in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon-Hee; Heo, Yong; Kim, Young-Chul

    2010-03-01

    Historically, German chamomile (GC) oil has been used for treatment of skin disorders. BALB/c mice were sensitized twice a week with 100 microL of 1% 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and challenged twice the following week with 100 microL of 0.2% DNCB for atopic dermatitis induction. Thereafter, 3% GC oil was applied daily (70 microL, 6 times week) on the dorsal skin for 4 weeks. Saline or jojoba oil was used for the control mice. Blood was collected after second DNCB challenge, and at 2 and 4 weeks after initiating oil application. Serum IgE levels were significantly lowered in the GC oil application group at the end of the 4-week application period. The GC oil application for 4 weeks resulted in reduction in serum IgG1 level compared with that after 2-week application. The GC oil application group showed a significantly lower serum histamine level than the control group 2 weeks after oil application. Scratching frequency of the GC oil application group was significantly lower than either control groups. This study is to demonstrate GC oil's immunoregulatory potential for alleviating atopic dermatitis through influencing of Th2 cell activation.

  2. The Evaluation of Exogenous Application of Salicylic Acid on Physiological Characteristics, Proline and Essential Oil Content of Chamomile (Matricaria chamomila L. under Normal and Heat Stress Conditions

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    Mojtaba Ghasemi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of exogenous application of salicylic acid concentrations on the physiological and biochemical traits and essential oil content of chamomile under normal and heat stress conditions as induced by delayed sowing. The experiments were conducted during 2011–2012 as a factorial using a randomized complete block design with three replications, in a very hot region. The factors included five salicylic acid concentrations (0 (control, 1, 10, 25 and 100 mg·L−1 and three chamomile cultivars (Bushehr, Bona, Bodegold. The seeds of chamomile were sown on two different sowing dates including an optimum planting date and a late planting date. The physiological traits (plant height, capitol diameter, 1000 grain weight, fresh and dried flower weight, total chlorophyll, proline and essential oil content were investigated. Analysis of variance showed that the effect of the environmental conditions (normal and heat stress was significant on all physiological and biochemical traits with the exception of the essential oil content. The heat stress decreased physiological traits and total chlorophyll in comparison with the normal conditions but it had no significant effect on the essential oil content. Findings indicated that the application of exogenous salicylic acid improves essential oil content in chamomile cultivars under environmental heat stress conditions.

  3. Effects of soil and foliar applications of iron and zinc on flowering and essential oil of chamomile at greenhouse conditions

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    Yousef NASIRI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of soil and foliar applications of iron (Fe and zinc (Zn on flowering, flower yield and essential oil production of German chamomile a pot experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions at the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran in 2012. The experiment was arranged as completely randomized design with 12 treatments and three replications. Treatments were as follow: T1: control – without Fe or Zn fertilizers, T2: 30 mg FeSO4.7H2O kg-1 dry soil, T3: 22 mg ZnSO4.7H2O kg-1 dry soil, T4: 30 mg FeSO4.7H2O + 22 mg ZnSO4.7H2O kg-1 dry soil, T5: foliar spraying of FeSO4.7H2O (3.5 g L-1, T6: foliar spraying of FeSO4.7H2O (7.0 g L-1, T7: foliar spraying of ZnSO4.7H2O (2.5 g L-1, T8: foliar spraying of ZnSO4.7H2O (5.0 g L-1, T9: T5+T7, T10: T5+T8, T11: T6+T7, T12: T6+T8. The foliar spraying was done two times during the growing period. The results revealed that the flower number, flower yield, essential oil content and essential oil yield were significantly increased by soil and foliar applications of Fe + Zn, compared with the control (untreated. The highest flower number (477 plant-1, flower yield (11.6 g pot-1, essential oil content (0.88 % and essential oil yield (119 mg pot-1 were recorded for the soil application of Fe + Zn (T4 by 58, 68, 21.4 and 105 % increment compared to the control, respectively. Foliar application of Fe + Zn (T12 was placed at the next rank; however this treatment had no significant difference with the soil application of Fe + Zn (T4. Other treatments did not show significant differences with the control. Generally, the results showed that soil or foliar application of Fe + Zn can be effective on increase or improve of quantity and quality of chamomile yield. Moreover, use of foliar application as a low cost method especially in areas with alkaline or calcareous soils can be recommended.

  4. Steam distillation extraction kinetics regression models to predict essential oil yield, composition, and bioactivity of chamomile oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) is one of the most widely spread and used medicinal and essential oil crop in the world. Chamomile essential oil is extracted via steam distillation of the inflorescences (flowers). In this study, distillation time (DT) was found to be a crucial determinant of yi...

  5. Control of Tetranychus urticae Koch by extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abd El-Moneim MR Afify; Fatma S Ali; Turky AF

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the acaricidal activity of extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus against Tetranychus urticae (T. urticae) Koch. Methods: Extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus with different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0% and 4.0%) were used to control T. urticae Koch. Results: The results showed that chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) represented the most potent efficient acaricidal agent against Tetranychus followed by marjoram (Marjorana hortensis) and Eucalyptus. The LC50 values of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus for adults were 0.65, 1.84 and 2.18, respectively and for eggs 1.17, 6.26 and 7.33, respectively. Activities of enzymes including glutathione-S-transferase, esterase (α-esterase and α-esterase) and alkaline phosphatase in susceptible mites were determined and activities of enzymes involved in the resistance of acaricides were proved. Protease enzyme was significantly decreased at LC50 of both chamomile and marjoram compared with positive control. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) proved that the major compositions of Chamomilla recutita are α-bisabolol oxide A (35.251%), and trans-α-farersene (7.758%), while the main components of Marjorana hortensis are terpinene-4-ol (23.860%),p-cymene (23.404%) and sabinene (10.904%). Conclusions: It can be concluded that extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus possess acaricidal activity against T.urticae.

  6. Effects of chlorhexidine, essential oils and herbal medicines (Salvia, Chamomile, Calendula) on human fibroblast in vitro.

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    Wyganowska-Swiatkowska, Marzena; Urbaniak, Paulina; Szkaradkiewicz, Anna; Jankun, Jerzy; Kotwicka, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Antiseptic rinses have been successfully used in inflammatory states of the gums and oral cavity mucosa. Antibacterial effects of chlorhexidine, essential oils and some herbs are well documented. Reaction of host tissue to these substances has much poorer documentation. The aim of the study was to analyse the influence of chlorhexidine (CHX), essential oil (EO: thymol, 0.064%; eucalyptol, 0.092%; methyl salicylate, 0.060%; menthol, 0.042%) mouth rinses and salvia, chamomile and calendula brews on fibroblast biology in vitro. The human fibroblast CCD16 line cells were cultured in incubation media which contained the examined substances. After 24 and 48 hours, the cell morphology, relative growth and apoptosis were evaluated. Exposure of fibroblasts to CHX, EO or salvia caused various changes in cell morphology. Cells cultured for 48 hours with CHX revealed a noticeably elongated shape of while cells cultured in high EO concentration or with salvia were considerably smaller and contracted with fewer projections. Chlorhexidine, EO and salvia reduced the fibroblast proliferation rate and stimulated cell death. Both reactions to EO were dose dependent. Cells exposure to chamomile or calendula brews did not change morphology or proliferation of fibroblasts. The results of this in vitro study showed that in contrast to chamomile and calendula, the brews of EO, CHX or salvia had a negative influence on fibroblast biology.

  7. Composition and Bioactivities of an (E)-β-Farnesene Chemotype of Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) Essential Oil from Nepal.

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    Satyal, Prabodh; Shrestha, Samon; Setzer, William N

    2015-08-01

    The essential oil of Matricaria chamomilla, collected from Nepal, was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major components in Nepalese chamomile oil were (E)-β-famesene (42.2%), α-bisabolol oxide A (22.3%), (E,E)-α-famesene (8.3%), cis-bicycloether (5.0%), α-bisabolol oxide B (4.5%), and α-bisabolone oxide A (4.0%). A cluster analysis based on the chemical compositions of 48 samples of chamomile oil reported in the literature has revealed seven chemotypes, and the oil from Nepal represents the (E)-β-farnesene chemotype. The chamomile oil was screened for antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger, and toxicity toward MCF-7 breast tumor cells, Artemia salina, Chaoborus plumicornis, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Drosophila melanogaster.

  8. The organ-specific expression of terpene synthase genes contributes to the terpene hydrocarbon composition of chamomile essential oils

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    Irmisch Sandra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The essential oil of chamomile, one of the oldest and agronomically most important medicinal plant species in Europe, has significant antiphlogistic, spasmolytic and antimicrobial activities. It is rich in chamazulene, a pharmaceutically active compound spontaneously formed during steam distillation from the sesquiterpene lactone matricine. Chamomile oil also contains sesquiterpene alcohols and hydrocarbons which are produced by the action of terpene synthases (TPS, the key enzymes in constructing terpene carbon skeletons. Results Here, we present the identification and characterization of five TPS enzymes contributing to terpene biosynthesis in chamomile (Matricaria recutita. Four of these enzymes were exclusively expressed in above-ground organs and produced the common terpene hydrocarbons (−-(E-β-caryophyllene (MrTPS1, (+-germacrene A (MrTPS3, (E-β-ocimene (MrTPS4 and (−-germacrene D (MrTPS5. A fifth TPS, the multiproduct enzyme MrTPS2, was mainly expressed in roots and formed several Asteraceae-specific tricyclic sesquiterpenes with (−-α-isocomene being the major product. The TPS transcript accumulation patterns in different organs of chamomile were consistent with the abundance of the corresponding TPS products isolated from these organs suggesting that the spatial regulation of TPS gene expression qualitatively contribute to terpene composition. Conclusions The terpene synthases characterized in this study are involved in the organ-specific formation of essential oils in chamomile. While the products of MrTPS1, MrTPS2, MrTPS4 and MrTPS5 accumulate in the oils without further chemical alterations, (+-germacrene A produced by MrTPS3 accumulates only in trace amounts, indicating that it is converted into another compound like matricine. Thus, MrTPS3, but also the other TPS genes, are good markers for further breeding of chamomile cultivars rich in pharmaceutically active essential oils.

  9. Increase of Chamazulene and α-Bisabolol Contents of the Essential Oil of German Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) Using Salicylic Acid Treatments under Normal and Heat Stress Conditions.

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    Ghasemi, Mojtaba; Babaeian Jelodar, Nadali; Modarresi, Mohammad; Bagheri, Nadali; Jamali, Abbas

    2016-08-27

    The chamazulene and α-(-)-bisabolol contents and quality of the chamomile oil are affected by genetic background and environmental conditions. Salicylic acid (SA), as a signaling molecule, plays a significant role in the plant physiological processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical profile, quantity, and improve the essential oil quality as a consequence of the increase of chamazulene and α-(-)-bisabol using salicylic acid under normal and heat stress conditions by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The factorial experiments were carried out during the 2011-2012 hot season using a randomized complete block design with three replications. The factors include four salicylic acid concentrations (0 (control), 10, 25 and 100 mg·L(-1)), and three chamomile cultivars (Bushehr, Bona, Bodegold) were sown on two different planting dates under field conditions. Fourteen compounds were identified from the extracted oil of the samples treated with salicylic acid under normal and heat stress conditions. The major identified oil compositions from chamomile cultivars treated with salicylic acid were chamazulene, α-(-)-bisabolol, bisabolone oxide, β-farnesene, en-yn-dicycloether, and bisabolol oxide A and B. Analysis of variance showed that the simple effects (environmental conditions, cultivar and salicylic acid) and their interaction were significant on all identified compounds, but the environmental conditions had no significant effect on bisabolol oxide A. The greatest amount of chamazulene obtained was 6.66% at the concentration of 10 mg·L(-1) SA for the Bona cultivar under heat stress conditions, whereas the highest α-(-)-bisabolol amount attained was 3.41% at the concentration of 100 mg·L(-1) SA for the Bona cultivar under normal conditions. The results demonstrated that the application of exogenous salicylic acid increases the quantity and essential oil quality as a consequence of the increase of chamazulene and

  10. Irrigation and organic fertilization on the production of essential oil and flavonoid in chamomile

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    Catariny C. Aleman

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The therapeutic efficacy of herbal medicines and pesticides has increased the need to define cultivation parameters for medicinal plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the production of essential oil and flavonoids of chamomile under irrigation levels and organic fertilizer doses. The experiment was conducted in the experimental area of the Campus II of the University of Western São Paulo, in the city of Presidente Prudente, SP, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized block in triple factorial (6 x 2 x 3, corresponding to irrigation depths (150, 100, 75, 50, 25 and 0% of the reference evapotranspiration (ETo, organic fertilizers (poultry manure and cattle manure and the fertilizer doses (0, 3 and 5 kg m-2, with four replicates. The following variables were evaluated: capitulum dry matter, and content and yield of essential oil and flavonoids. For the tested conditions, it is recommended to use 5 kg m-2 poultry manure and water depth equivalent to 150% ETo for the production of essential oil and flavonoid.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L. and feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.

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    Z Izadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: The essential oil of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L. and feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L. are frequently used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of the essential oils of chamomile and chamomile and feverfew. Methods: This experimental study was conducted in 2012 at Hamedan University of Medical Sciences. Essential oils of two medicinal plants species including chamomile and feverfew were obtained by hydrodistillation their constituents were analyzed by GC and GC/MS using retention indices and fragmentation patterns. The antimicrobial effects (MIC and MBC of the essential oils were assessed on a number of microorganisms including gram positive and gram negative bacteria by microdilution technique. The interaction of plant essential oils against microorganisms through differential inhibition index was also evaluated. Data were analyzed by Duncan's multiple range test statistic Results: The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the oils were 0.22-4 and 0.09-1 mg/mlfor chamomile and feverfew respectively. Moreover, the combination of the plants essential oils confirmed synergistic against L. monocytogenes, B. subtilis and B. cereus and additive activities against S. aureus, E. coli and S. typhimorium. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the application of these essential oils is recommended in combination as an efficients and complementary method for controlling microorganisms. Key words: Chamomile, Feverfew, Antimicrobial Effect

  12. Evalution of Drought Stress Effect on Growth, Yield, Essential Oil and Chamazulene Percentage of Three Chamomile (Matricaria recutita L. Cultivars in Khuzestan Condition

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    R Farhoudi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of drought stress on growth, photosynthesis, essential oil yield and chamazulene percentage of three chamomile (Matricaria recutita L. cultivars in Islamic Azad University, Shoshtar Branch was studied. The experimental design was split-plot based on randomized complete blocke design (RCBD with 4 replications. Main plots consisted of drought stress levels including control (90% field capacity, medium stress(75% field capacity and hard stress (55%field capacity and sub-plots included 3 chamomile cultivars (Presov, Bodgold and Sherazi. Results showed that drought stress had significant effect on photosynthesis, plant height, organic solute concentration, flower yield, essential oil and chamazulene percentage of chamomile cultivars. Medium stress level did not impose significant effect on essential oil yield of chamomile cultivars compared to control. Under highest drought stress level, Presov and Bodgold cultivars had highest flower yield (123.4 and 121 g/m2, essential oil yield (0.159 and 0.163 g/m2 and chamazulene percentage (4.81 and 5.71.

  13. Roman chamomile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of appetite, and intestinal gas (flatulence) due to mental stress. Women use it for morning sickness and ... a painkiller. In foods and beverages, the essential oil and extract are used as flavor components. In ...

  14. Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.): An overview.

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    Singh, Ompal; Khanam, Zakia; Misra, Neelam; Srivastava, Manoj Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) is a well-known medicinal plant species from the Asteraceae family often referred to as the "star among medicinal species." Nowadays it is a highly favored and much used medicinal plant in folk and traditional medicine. Its multitherapeutic, cosmetic, and nutritional values have been established through years of traditional and scientific use and research. Chamomile has an established domestic (Indian) and international market, which is increasing day by day. The plant available in the market many a times is adulterated and substituted by close relatives of chamomile. This article briefly reviews the medicinal uses along with botany and cultivation techniques. Since chamomile is a rich source of natural products, details on chemical constituents of essential oil and plant parts as well as their pharmacological properties are included. Furthermore, particular emphasis is given to the biochemistry, biotechnology, market demand, and trade of the plant. This is an attempt to compile and document information on different aspects of chamomile and highlight the need for research and development.

  15. Antioxidant activity of alcohol extracts of chamomile flowers, anise seeds and dill seeds in two vegetable oils and two animal fats

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    Al-Ismail, Khalid

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of alcohol extracts of chamomile flowers (CFE, anise seeds (ASE and dill seeds (DSE in corn oil, soybean oil, beef tallow and anhydrous butter fat (ABF was investigated during storage at 65ºC. The extent of oxidation was followed by peroxide value (PV. In addition, reducing power of these extracts was determined. Alcohol extracts of these plants at 3 g kg-1 were more effective as antioxidant than BHA (0.2 g kg-1 in corn and soybean oils, while they were less effective in beef tallow and ABF. CFE was more effective in retarding fat oxidation in corn and soybean oil than ASE and DSE, which both showed similar activity. However, in beef tallow and ABF all extracts showed similar activities. On the other hand, the reducing power of these extracts showed different behavior. CFE, which was the most active as antioxidant among the extracts showed the lowest reducing power. Furthermore, ASE and DSE, which exhibited similar antioxidant activity, the former has lower reducing activity than the latter, indicating that the antioxidant activity didn’t correlate linearly with the reducing power of these extracts.Se investigó la actividad antioxidante de extractos alcohólicos de flores de camomila (CFE, semillas de anís (ASD y eneldo (DSE en aceites de maíz y soja, sebo y grasa de mantequilla anhidra (ABF, almacenados a 65ºC. El seguimiento de la oxidación se realizó mediante el índice de peróxidos. Además, se determinó el poder reductor de los mismos. La actividad antioxidante de los extractos alcohólicos de estas plantas (3 g k -1 resultó más eficaz que la del BHA (0.2 g kg-1, en cambio, resultaron menos eficaces en el sebo y ABF. El extracto de manzanilla resultó ser mejor antioxidante para los aceites de maíz y soja que los extractos ASE y DSE, ambos mostraron una actividad similar. Sin embargo, en el sebo y la ABF todos los extractos revelaron una actividad antioxidante parecida. El poder reductor de

  16. Identification of wild chamomile species and secondary metabolites in Bushehr province

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    Mohammad Amin Kohanmoo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chamomile is medicinal and hygienic plants which have anti -inflammatory and anti-spasmodic characteristics. Its secondary metabolites (and etc. were varied by biodiversity and environmental effect. There is little information about the wild chamomile in natural habitats of the Bushehr province. In this study, different chamomile species were selected for essential oil content and active substances. Material and methods: In this field study, several samples of chamomile from different natural habitats were collected and screened for extraction of essential oil and secondary metabolites. The essential oil and methanolic extract were prepared by water distillation liquid and flask reflux condenser stirrer, respectively these were determined by the United States and Iran pharmacopeia methods. Essential oil and methanolic extract were analyzed by GC/Mass and HPLC devices, respectively. Results: Four species, Anthemis pseudocotula, Anthemis austro-iranica, Matricaria recotita and Matricaria aurea were indicated based on screening methods. Matricaria species was observed to have essential oil and beneficiary secondary metabolites, but were not observed to be present in Anthemis species. Results of the chemical analysis showed that, Matricaria species contained Essential oil (0.6 %, Apigenin 7-Glycoside (0.62%, Chamazulen (5.5% and other substances such as derivatives of Bisabolole , Bisaboleneand Farenzene. Conclusion: Two species of wild chamomiles, Matricaria recotita and Matricaria aurea, were found in Bushehr province containing significant amount of essential oil and secondary metabolites such as Chamazulen, -αBisabolole and Apigenin. Thus these species can be cultivated for commercial proposes.

  17. Effect of foliar application of methyl jasmonate on flavonol-O-glycoside and some agronomic and morphological indices of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L. under salinity stress conditions

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    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Jasmonate is a plant regulator that plays an essential role in signaling pathway and triggering the expression of plant defense-genes in response to abiotic stresses. Hence, the effect of methyl jasmonate on quantity and quality of chamomile flowers under salinity stress was investigated with a factorial experiment, based on a randomized complete blocks design with three replications, in the research greenhouse of University of Zanjan. Five concentrations of Methyl jasmonate (0, 75, 150, 225 and 300 µM was sprayed on chamomile plants which were growing under different concentrations of NaCl (2, 6, 10 and 14 dS/m. Results showed that the effects of methyl jasmonate and salinity were significant on all the traits. The highest values for plant height, total dry matter per pot, number and flower dry weight per pot and Flavonol-O-glycoside were obtained at 75 µM methyl jasmonate and salinity level of 6 dS/m. Flower yield and the amount of Flavonol-O-glycoside were decreased by increasing the salinity and methyl jasmonate concentrations over 6 dS/m and 75 µM, respectively. A significant positive correlation was revealed among all traits and dry weight of flower. Also, Flavonol-o-glycoside showed a positive and significant relationship with total dry matter per pot and flower dry weight. In general, concentration of 75 µM methyl jasmonate and salinity of 6 dS/m increased Flavonol-O-glycoside production of chamomile.

  18. A review of the bioactivity and potential health benefits of chamomile tea (Matricaria recutita L.).

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    McKay, Diane L; Blumberg, Jeffrey B

    2006-07-01

    Chamomile (Matricaria recutita L., Chamomilla recutita L., Matricaria chamomilla) is one of the most popular single ingredient herbal teas, or tisanes. Chamomile tea, brewed from dried flower heads, has been used traditionally for medicinal purposes. Evidence-based information regarding the bioactivity of this herb is presented. The main constituents of the flowers include several phenolic compounds, primarily the flavonoids apigenin, quercetin, patuletin, luteolin and their glucosides. The principal components of the essential oil extracted from the flowers are the terpenoids alpha-bisabolol and its oxides and azulenes, including chamazulene. Chamomile has moderate antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, and significant antiplatelet activity in vitro. Animal model studies indicate potent antiinflammatory action, some antimutagenic and cholesterol-lowering activities, as well as antispasmotic and anxiolytic effects. However, human studies are limited, and clinical trials examining the purported sedative properties of chamomile tea are absent. Adverse reactions to chamomile, consumed as a tisane or applied topically, have been reported among those with allergies to other plants in the daisy family, i.e. Asteraceae or Compositae.

  19. Effect of mechanical weeding on wild chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) populations in winter wheat crop (Triticum aestivum L.).

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    Jaunard, D; Bizoux, J P; Monty, A; Henriet, F; De Proft, M; Vancutsem, F; Mahy, G; Bodson, B

    2012-01-01

    Currently, economic, agronomic and environmental concerns lead to reduce the use of herbicides. Mechanical weeding can help to reach this objective. Dynamics and biology of wild chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) populations were assessed as well as dynamic of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for four level of application of a weeder-harrow (0, 1, 2, 3 treatment(s)). After each treatment, an effect of mechanical weeding on wild chamomile density was observed. Density of wild chamomile decreased significantly with intensification of mechanical weeding. A third treatment allowed eliminating late emerged plants.

  20. Rapid evaluation and comparison of natural products and antioxidant activity in calendula, feverfew, and German chamomile extracts.

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    Agatonovic-Kustrin, Snezana; Babazadeh Ortakand, Davoud; Morton, David W; Yusof, Ahmad P

    2015-03-13

    The present study describes a simple high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for the simultaneous quantification of apigenin, chamazulene, bisabolol and the use of DPPH free radical as a post-chromatographic derivatization agent to compare the free radical scavenging activities of these components in leaf and flower head extracts from feverfew, German chamomile and marigold from the Asteraceae family. Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) leaves have been traditionally used in the treatment of migraine with parthenolide being the main bioactive compound. However, due to similar flowers, feverfew is sometimes mistaken for the German chamomile (Matricaria recutita). Bisabolol and chamazulene are the main components in chamomile essential oil. Marigold (Calendula officinalis) was included in the study for comparison, as it belongs to the same family. Parthenolide was found to be present in all leaf extracts but was not detected in calendula flower extract. Chamazulene and bisabolol were found to be present in higher concentrations in chamomile and Calendula flowers. Apigenin was detected and quantified only in chamomile extracts (highest concentration in flower head extracts). Antioxidant activity in sample extracts was compared by superimposing the chromatograms obtained after post-chromatographic derivatization with DPPH and post-chromatographic derivatization with anisaldehyde. It was found that extracts from chamomile flower heads and leaves have the most prominent antioxidant activity, with bisabolol and chamazulene being the most effective antioxidants.

  1. A mixture of chamomile and star anise has anti-motility and antidiarrheal activities in mice

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    Alfonso Díaz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhea is a serious public health problem in Mexico and other countries. A widely used alternative in the treatment of diarrhea is the use of herbal medicines. Infusions of chamomile and star anise possess anti-inflammatory and antimotility properties that could help alleviate gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the mixture of chamomile and star anise infusions on gastrointestinal activity in mice. A gastrointestinal assessment of the mixture of chamomile and star anise was carried out in mice, and the percentage of advance of administered activated carbon through the intestinal tract of the animals was measured. Furthermore, the diarrhea model was induced with castor oil. The infusions were prepared using a mix with a 50:50 ratio of the herbs, and were administered at Mix-10, 20, 40 and 80 (mg/kg orally. The results indicate that Mix-40 and Mix-80 decreased the completion percentage of the activated carbon, delayed the appearance of diarrhea and decreased the number of evacuations in comparison with the control group. This suggests that the combination of chamomile and star anise can be used as an alternative antidiarrheal treatment.

  2. Identification of a compound isolated from German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) with dermal sensitization potential.

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    Avonto, Cristina; Rua, Diego; Lasonkar, Pradeep B; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2017-03-01

    German chamomile is one of the most popular herbal ingredients used in cosmetics and personal care products. Allergic skin reactions following topical application of German chamomile have been occasionally reported, although it is not fully understood which of the chemical constituents is responsible for this adverse effect. In the present work, three candidate sensitizers were isolated from German chamomile based on activity-guided fractionation of chamomile extracts tested using the in vitro KeratinoSens™ assay. The compounds were identified as the polyacetylene tonghaosu (1), and both trans- and cis-glucomethoxycinnamic acids (2 and 3). These three compounds were classified as non- to weakly reactive using in chemico methods; however, aged tonghaosu was found to be more reactive when compared to freshly isolated tonghaosu. The polyacetylene (1) constituent was determined to be chemically unstable, generating a small electrophilic spirolactone, 1,6-dioxaspiro[4.4]non-3-en-2-one (4), upon aging. This small lactone (4) was strongly reactive in both in chemico HTS- and NMR-DCYA methods and further confirmed as a potential skin sensitizer by Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA).

  3. Essential oil yield and chemical composition of chamomile [Chamomilla recutita (L. Rauschert] under drying air temperature of 70º C/ Rendimento e composição química do óleo essencial da camomila [Chamomilla recutita (L. Rauschert] submetida à secagem à 70º C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Cezar Paglia

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The drying process under 70º C was periodically monitored, in Campo Largo-PR, in “CHAMEL Ind. e Com. de Produtos Naturais LTDA.”, in the 2004 harvest. Simultaneously to the drying, the substances dragged by the steam of water were recovered by condensation. The hydrodistillation and GC-MS analyses were done in the UFPR Laboratories. A randomized experimental design was used, through polynomials regressions (P£0,01. The reduction of the water content and chamomile essential oil was progressive during the drying process; the reduction of the tenor of essential oil of the chamomile happens in the beginning of the drying; was possible to recover the substances volatilized during under 70º C drying temperature; the aromatic water (condensed composition was: artemisia ketona, bisabolol oxide B, alpha-bisabolol, bisabolene oxide, bisabolol oxide A; the essential oil components concentration of the chamomile, except for the alpha-pinene, were just numerically altered, without peculiar behavior in relation to the conditions of drying time.Com o objetivo de avaliar o rendimento e a composição química do óleo essencial de camomila, monitorouse periodicamente o processo de secagem em camada fixa à 70º C, realizada no município de Campo Largo – PR, num secador da “CHAMEL Ind. e Com. de Produtos Naturais LTDA.”, na safra de 2004. Simultaneamente à secagem, as substâncias arrastadas pelo vapor d’água foram recuperadas por condensação. As determinações analíticas foram realizadas nos Laboratórios de Fitoquímica e de Análises de Combustíveis Automotivos - LACAUT, por meio da hidrodestilação e cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas. Os dados foram avaliados por meio de regressões polinomiais (P£0,01. A redução do teor de água da camomila foi progressiva durante o processo de secagem; a redução do teor de óleo essencial da camomila ocorreu no início da secagem; é possível recuperar as subst

  4. Chamomile an Adjunctive Herbal Remedy for Rheumatoid Arthritis Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Gharakhani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most frequently consumed herbal remedies available today is the chamomile preparations prepared from Matricaria chamomilla (MC. The medicinal preparations of MC are composed of several classes of biological active compounds with inhibitory effects on inflammation including essential oil and flavonoids. Apigenin, quercetin and luteolin are the major flavonoids of MC which exhibit their anti-inflammatory effects through different mechanisms. Apigenin exhibits anti-inflammatory activity via inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines production, whilst luteolin suppresses production of nitric oxide (NO, prostaglandin E2 and expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 all of which are associated with inflammatory responses. However, there are also some additional components of the MC preparations which have a role on the anti-inflammatory actions of the plant through other pathways. The mentioned mechanisms are in reference with the authors' concept that MC would be of value in alleviating inflammation and pain in rheumatoid arthritis. Keywords: Essential oil; flavonoids; Matricaria chamomilla; polyphenols; rheumatoid arthritis

  5. A systematic review study of therapeutic effects of Matricaria recuitta chamomile (chamomile)

    OpenAIRE

    Miraj, Sepide; Alesaeidi, Samira

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Matricaria recuitta chamomilla is a plant that grows and is cultivated in some parts of Iran. The aim of this study was to overview the therapeutic effects of this valuable plant. This systematic review was aimed to introduce Matricaria recuitta chamomile, its chemical compounds, and its traditional usages. Methods This review article was carried out by searching studies in PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, and IranMedex databases. The initial search strategy identified about 87 r...

  6. Fast quality assessment of German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) by headspace solid-phase microextraction: influence of flower development stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafieiolhossaini, Mohammad; Adams, An; Sodaeizadeh, Hamid; Van Damme, Patrick; De Kimpe, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    For an adequate quality evaluation of aromatic plants grown under different conditions, a rapid, simple and sensitive method for the analysis of volatile constituents is indispensable. The main objective of the present study was to compare fast screening of German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) by means of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) with conventional isolation of the essential oil (steam distillation-solvent extraction (SDSE)) for the differentiation of chamomile essential oil constituents. Flowers were harvested at two distinct development stages: stage I, when ligulate flowers start to develop and tubular flowers are still closed, and stage II, when tubular flowers are partially to completely opened. Dried chamomile flowers at two development stages were extracted by means of both SDSE and HS-SPME, followed by GC-MS analysis. Among 30 compounds detected, (E)-beta-farnesene (49%), artemisia ketone (10%) and germacrene D (9%) were the predominant volatile components in the HS-SPME-extract, while alpha-bisabolol oxide A (42%), chamazulene (21%) and (Z)-spiroether (8%) were the main essential oil constituents among the 13 compounds obtained by SDSE. After statistical analysis of the data, both techniques enabled the same conclusion: (E)-beta-farnesene was the only compound which showed significant differences between the two flower development stages. These results suggest that HS-SPME-GC-MS can be used as a sensitive technique for the rapid screening and quality assessment of M. chamomilla.

  7. Yield and chemical composition of essential oil of the chamomile [Chamomilla recutita (L. Raeuchert] extracted for steam distillation/ Rendimento e composição química do óleo essencial da camomila [Chamomilla recutita (L. Rauschert] extraído por arraste de vapor d’água, em escala comercial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Cezar Paglia

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The distillation process was periodically monitored, on Campo Largo-PR, in “CHAMEL Ind. e Com. De Produtos Naturais LTDA.”, in the 2005 harvest. The hydrodistillation and GC-MS analyses were done in the UFPR Laboratories. The obtained data indicate that the chamomile essential oil extracted through the distiller model used presented low quality. Great part of the essential oil, besides their main components, it was being lost with the hidrolato. In the distillation process the periodic evaluation of quality and efficiency indicators is indispensable to establish appropriate operational conditions.Com o objetivo de avaliar o rendimento e a composição química do óleo essencial de camomila submetida a um sistema de extração por arraste de vapor, em escala comercial, monitorou-se periodicamente o processo realizado, no município de Campo Largo – PR, num modelo utilizado pela “CHAMEL Ind. E Com. de Produtos Naturais Ltda.”, na safra de 2005. As determinações analíticas foram realizadas em laboratórios da UFPR, por meio da hidrodestilação e cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas. Os dados obtidos indicam que o óleo essencial da camomila extraído por meio do modelo de destilador utilizado apresentou qualidade aquém das expectativas. Grande parte do óleo essencial, inclusive seus principais componentes, estava sendo perdida junto ao hidrolato. No processo de destilação o monitoramento periódico de indicadores de qualidade e de eficiência é imprescindível para estabelecer condições adequadas de operacionalização.

  8. Chemical Analysis and Biological Activity of Jordanian Chamomile Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal Hassan Al Bahtiti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Jordanian chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla has been researched more thoroughly to evaluate its useful properties. It is investigated and found that Jordanian chamomile is rich in phenolic compounds, with beneficial biological activities. By applying the most promising HPLC method, the content of total phenolics in methanolic extract was determined according to the Folin-Clocalteu procedure, and was found (GAE>20 mg/g. The flavonoid types were found as flavones and flavonolos.The minimum inhibitory concentration values for methanolic extracts of Jordanian chamomile were determined for different kinds of bacteria. The extracts have activity against Staphylococcus aurous, candida albicans, Esherichia Coli, Betula pubescens and Pinus sylvestris. The activity has been observed to be due to the tannins and a pigenin present in the extract. To utilize these significant sources of natural compounds, further characterization of phenolic composition is needed.

  9. Avaliação de germoplasma de camomila e densidade de semeadura na produção e composição do óleo essencial Evaluation of germplasm and seeding rate over the production and composition of chamomile essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderlei do Amaral

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo de camomila na região Sul do Brasil tem sido realizado utilizando-se como material genético a cultivar Mandirituba. Apesar da produção de capítulos florais e teor de óleos essenciais apresentado por esta cultivar ser considerado satisfatório, tem sido observada nas regiões produtoras a ocorrência de problemas fitossanitários que resultam em perdas significativas da produção. Este trabalho teve como objetivos comparar materiais genéticos de camomila provenientes da Holanda, Dinamarca e Mandirituba, e avaliar o efeito de diferentes densidades de semeadura no desenvolvimento das plantas, produção de capítulos, rendimento e qualidade do óleo essencial da cultivar Mandirituba, atualmente cultivada na região. Os experimentos foram conduzidos no município de Piraquara (PR. A extração do óleo essencial foi realizada por hidrodestilação em aparelho tipo Clevenger e a determinação da composição do óleo foi feita por cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada ao espectrômetro de massa (GC/MS. Os materiais genéticos provenientes da Holanda e de Mandirituba apresentaram maior produção de biomassa seca de capítulos, em relação ao material genético da Dinamarca. A cultivar Mandirituba apresentou o maior rendimento de óleo essencial (4,71 mL g-1 ms, sendo também superior em relação à produtividade de óleo essencial (2,40 L ha-1. Os materiais procedentes da Dinamarca e de Mandirituba apresentaram composição do óleo essencial semelhantes. A densidade de plantio de 1,0 kg ha-1 da cultivar Mandirituba resultou em melhor desenvolvimento das plantas e maior produção de óleo essencial. Quantidades superiores a 3,0 kg ha-1 de sementes não resultaram em maior densidade de plantas tendo em vista a alta competição e percentual de plântulas mortas.The cultivar Mandirituba is the only genetic material for chamomile cultivation in southern Brazil. Besides the limitations regarding floral buds and the yield of

  10. Salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate enhance drought tolerance in chamomile plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarli Hossein

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The dried flowers of chamomile contain many terpenoids and flavonoids contributing to its medicinal properties. Salicylic acid (SA and methyl jasmonate (MeJA have antioxidant properties and function as direct radical scavengers. Two Matricaria chamomilla cultivars (Bodgold and Hungary breed seeds were used in this study to investigate the effects of exogenous application of SA and MeJA on protection against drought stress as well as on changes of malone dialdehyde (MDA and electrolyte leakage index (ELI, and the fluctuation of proline and soluble sugars content in the leaves under drought stress. Methods: The experiment was conducted in a factorial design based on randomized complete blocks with three replicates. Chamomile plants were treated by two levels of drought stress as well as two different levels of MeJA (i.e., 0.0 and 100 μM and SA (i.e., 0.0 and 0.5 mM solutions. Results: There was a dramatic drought induced increase in the MDA content (128% and ELI (49% in the leaves. Deleterious effect of drought stress was more severe in untreated plants than in treated ones. Treatments with SA and MeJA significantly improved drought tolerance in chamomile plants. These treatments effectively maintained membrane integrity, thereby retarding electrolyte leakage and membrane lipid peroxidation (MDA. Treatments with SA and MeJA were also effective in enhancing the antioxidant concentrations of proline and soluble sugars. Conclusion: The production of these antioxidants could have been part of a defence system against drought damage, reducing MDA and ELI and maintaining membrane stability.

  11. Enhanced Oil Recovery with Application of Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khusainova, Alsu

    Enzymes have recently been reported as effective enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents. Both laboratory and field tests demonstrated significant increase in the ultimate oil production. Up to16% of additional oil was produced in the laboratory conditions and up to 269 barrels of additional oil per day...... were recovered in the field applications. The following mechanisms were claimed to be responsible for the enhancement of the oil production due to enzymes: wettability improvement of the rock surface; formation of the emulsions; reduction of oil viscosity; and removal of high molecular weight paraffins....... However, the positive effect of enzymes on oil recovery is not that obvious. In most of the studies commercial enzyme products composed of enzymes, surfactants and stabilisers were used. Application of such samples makes it difficult to assign a positive EOR effect to a certain compound, as several...

  12. Presence of Clostridium botulinum spores in Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile) and its relationship with infant botulism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, María I; Lúquez, Carolina; de Jong, Laura I T; Fernández, Rafael A

    2008-02-10

    Nowadays, infant botulism is the most important form of human botulism in some countries. This illness affects infants younger than 52 weeks of age. The infection occurs in the intestinal tract; therefore, ingestion of Clostridium botulinum spores with food is proposed. In some countries, people use chamomile tea as a household remedy for intestinal colics and given this tea to infants. Chamomile can be contaminated with C. botulinum and could be a vehicle of its spores. Our aim was to study the prevalence and spore-load of C. botulinum in chamomile. We analysed 200 samples; the 7.5% of them were contaminated with botulinum spores. However, prevalence of these spores was significantly higher in chamomile sold by weight in herbal stores (unwrapped chamomile) than prevalence in chamomile sold in tea bags (p=0.0055). The spore-load detected in all positive samples was 0.3-0.4 spores per gram of chamomile. We identified C. botulinum types A, B, and F in the 53.3%, 6.7%, and 13.3%, respectively. Chamomile (principally, unwrapped chamomile) is a potencial vehicle of C. botulinum spores, and ingestion of chamomile tea could represent a risk for infant botulism.

  13. Growth, biochemical components and ion content of Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L. under salinity stress and iron deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Heidari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of salinity and iron deficiency on growth, proline, carbohydrate and ion content in Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L. was evaluated in controlled environment. Salinity treatment was 0, 50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl in nutrient solution and iron (Fe treatment was F0 = the same nutrient solution without Fe and F1 = standard nutrient solution containing 100 μM Fe (Fe-sufficient medium. Results indicated that increasing salinity from 0 to 150 mM, decreased fresh weight of shoot (76.3% and increased of root fresh weight (53.8%. However, application of Fe to the nutrient solution significantly increased fresh weight of root and shoot. A two-way ANOVA indicated a significant main effect of salinity and iron on the proline and soluble carbohydrate contents in plant leaves. Salinity significantly increased proline and soluble carbohydrate in leaves. Maximum proline and carbohydrate content in leaves of chamomile plants were obtained at salinity and iron deficiency treatments. Salinity treatment significantly increased Na+ concentration of plants, whereas potassium concentration of plants in shoot (37.6% and root (46.1% decreased. Salinity also decreased Fe content in root and shoot of chamomile plants. By application Fe into nutrient solution, Na+ concentration in shoot and root decreased but K+ and Fe content in root and shoot increased.

  14. Comparison of antioxidant activity between two species of chamomiles produced in Xinjiang by TLC-bioautography%薄层生物自显影技术比较新疆2种洋甘菊抗氧化活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩松林; 李新霞; 勉强辉; 兰卫; 刘岩

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To compare the antioxidant active components from two species of chamomile-matricaria and Roman chamomile produced in Xinjiang.Method:The TLC-bioautography was used,with 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical as the experimental model.The peak areas of various antioxidant components were obtained by TLC-scanning for analyzing antioxidant active components contained in volatile oil extracts and flavone extracts from the two species of chamomiles.The total peak area was taken as the indicator for comparing the antioxidant capacities of the two types of extracts,and comparing them with the total antioxidant activity of flavone extracts of the two species of chamomiles.Result:According to the result of TLC-bioautography in volatile oil extracts from the two species of chamomiles,volatile oil extracts from chamomile showed four white antioxidant spots,including en-yne-dicycloether,and volatile oil extracts from Roman chamomile showed only one white antioxidant spot.The TLC-scanning result showed that the peak area of antioxidant spots of volatile oil extracts from chamomile was significantly larger than that of volatile oil extracts from Roman chamomile.According to the test on the antioxidant activity of the two species of chamomiles with ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry,the concentration of chamomile after scavenging 50% of DPPH radicals was 0.66 g · L-1,whereas the figure for Roman chamomile was 0.33 g · L-1 According to the result of TLC-bioautography in flavone extracts from the two species of chamomiles,flavone extracts from chamomile showed seven yellowish antioxidant spots,including apigenin and apigenin-7-glucoside,and flavone extracts of Roman chamomile showed eight yellowish antioxidant spots,including apigenin and apigenin-7-glucoside.The TLC-scanning results showed that the peak area of antioxidant spots of flavone extracts from Roman chamomile was significantly larger than that of flavone extracts from chamomile

  15. Validation of a RP-HPLC-DAD Method for Chamomile (Matricaria recutita Preparations and Assessment of the Marker, Apigenin-7-glucoside, Safety and Anti-Inflammatory Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Galeti Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chamomile is a medicinal plant, which presents several biological effects, especially the anti-inflammatory effect. One of the compounds related to this effect is apigenin, a flavonoid that is mostly found in its glycosylated form, apigenin-7-glucoside (APG, in natural sources. However, the affectivity and safety of this glycoside have not been well explored for topical application. In this context, the aim of this work was to develop and validate a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC-DAD method to quantify APG in chamomile preparations. Additionally, the safety and the anti-inflammatory potential of this flavonoid were verified. The RP-HPLC-DAD method was developed and validated with linearity at 24.0–36.0 μg/mL range (r=0.9994. Intra- and interday precision (RSD were 0.27–2.66% and accuracy was 98.27–101.21%. The validated method was applied in the analysis of chamomile flower heads, glycolic extract, and Kamillen cream, supporting the method application in the quality control of chamomile preparations. Furthermore, the APG safety was assessed by MTT cytotoxicity assay and mutagenic protocols and the anti-inflammatory activity was confirmed by a diminished TNF-α production showed by mice macrophages treated with APG following LPS treatment.

  16. Influence of harvester type and harvesting time on quality of harvested chamomile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajić Miloš B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the result of studying effects of mechanical chamomile harvesting on yield and quality of harvested chamomile. Chamomile (Chamomilla recutita (L Rausch. was harvested at three time intervals (T1 - 240 days, T2 - 250 days and T3 - 260 days after sowing by three conceptually different harvesters. The results achieved indicate that the harvester type significantly influences quality of harvested chamomile, whereas it is not influenced by chamomile harvesting time. Quality of harvested chamomile was classified into four categories, and it was observed that the greater number of rotations of a picking device increased the content of the first category of quality. The harvester A achieved 54.79% of the first category of quality in respect to the harvester B achieving 50.26% and the harvester C with 42.93%. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31051

  17. Chamomile Mouth Rinse Effects on Mucositis Reduction After Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talaipour AR

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years many patients have been received radiotherapy for head and neck tumors and"na large number of them have been survived for some years."nThe side effects of radiotherapy in oral region are mucositis, ulcers, fungal and viral infections and"nsalivary glands dysfunction. Among these, mucositis is the most important one."nA randomized double blind clinical trial was performed in radiotherapy department of Tehran Imam"nKhomeini Hospital to determine chamomile mouth rinse effects on mucositis after radiotherapy."nThe patients are selected randomly from those with oral oropharyngeal or nasopharyngeal cancers."nData showed that chamomile administration could decrease mucositis rate significantly,

  18. Palm oil and palm olein frying applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Razali

    2005-01-01

    Several million tones of palm oil and palm olein are used annually in the world for frying. This paper will discuss their frying performances in three major applications - industrial production of potato chips/crisps, industrial production of pre-fried frozen French fries and in fast food outlets. In the first study, about four tones of potato chips were continuously fried 8 hours a day and five days a week. The palm olein used (with proper management) performed well and was still in excellent condition and usable at the end of the trial. This was reflected in its low free fatty acid (FFA) content of around 0.23%, peroxide value of 4 meq/kg, anisidine value of 16, low polar and polymer contents of 10% and 2%, respectively, induction period (OSI) of 21 hours and high content of tocopehrols and tocotrienols of 530 ppm even after >1900 hours. In the second study in which an average 12 tones pre-fried frozen French fries were continuously fried a day for 5 days a week, palm oil performed excellently as reflected by its low FFA of 0.34%, food oil sensor reading of 1.1, low polar and polymer contents of 17% and 2.8%, respectively, over the 12 days of trial. In the third study in which palm shortening, palm oil and palm olein were simultaneously used to intermittently fry chicken parts in the laboratory simulating the conditions in fast food outlets, the three frying oils also performed very satisfactorily as reflected by their reasonably low FFA of 180 degrees C, and polar and polymer contents of <25% and <6%, respectively, after 5 days of consecutive frying. All the quality indicators did not exceed the maximum discard points for frying oils/fats in the three applications, while the fried food product was well accepted by the in-house train sensory panel using a-nine point hedonic score.

  19. Evaluation of proline, chlorophyll, soluble sugar content and uptake of nutrients in the German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) under drought stress and organic fertilizer treatments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amin Salehi; Hamidreza Tasdighi; Majid Gholamhoseini

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of drought stress and organic fertilizer on German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) nutrient uptake, leaf chlorophyll content and os-motic adjustment under field conditions. Methods: This experiment was carried out through a randomized complete block design with a split factorial arrangement of treatments in three replications. The main plots were subjected to the following irrigation treatments: irrigation after 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 mm evaporation from Class A pan. The sub-plots were treated with three vermi-compost doses (0, 5 and 10 t/ha). Results: Although drought stress reduced the nutrient percentages in the shoots, appli-cation of vermicompost enhanced the nutrient percentages, particularly when the plants were subjected to moderate to severe drought stress conditions. Moreover, the results of this study showed that the interaction between irrigation treatments and vermicompost rates on leaf chlorophyll content was significant. Comparison between the combined treatments indicated that under normal irrigation and moderate drought stress conditions chamomile plants received 5 and 10 t/ha vermicompost showed significantly higher leaf chlorophyll content comparing to the control treatment. Conclusions: Totally, organic fertilization by vermicompost could partly alleviate the effect of drought stress on chamomile by increasing N, P and K uptake and leaf soluble sugar, especially in stressed treatments.

  20. A mixture of chamomile and star anise has anti-motility and antidiarrheal activities in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Díaz; Izel Vargas-Perez; Lidia Aguilar-Cruz; Roberto Calva-Rodríguez; Samuel Treviño; Berenice Venegas; Irma Rosalía Contreras-Mora

    2014-01-01

    Diarrhea is a serious public health problem in Mexico and other countries. A widely used alternative in the treatment of diarrhea is the use of herbal medicines. Infusions of chamomile and star anise possess anti-inflammatory and antimotility properties that could help alleviate gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the mixture of chamomile and star anise infusions on gastrointestinal activity in mice. A gastrointestinal assessment of the mixture of ...

  1. Comparison the effects of nitric oxide and spermidin pretreatment on alleviation of salt stress in chamomile plant (Matricaria recutita L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazelian Nasrin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress is an important environmental stress that produces reactive oxygen species in plants and causes oxidative injuries. In this investigation, salt stress reduced the shoot and root length, while increased the content of malondealdehyde, Hydrogen peroxide, and the activity of Ascorbate peroxidase andguaiacol peroxidase. Pretreatment of chamomile plants under salt stress with sodium nitroprussideand Spermidin caused enhancement of growth parameters and reduction of malondealdehyde and Hydrogen peroxide content. Pretreatment of plants with sodium nitroprusside remarkably increased Ascorbate peroxidase activity, while Spermidin pre-treatment significantly increased guaiacol peroxidase activity. Application of sodium nitroprusside or Spermidin with Methylene blue which is known to block cyclic guanosine monophosphate signaling pathway, reduced the protective effects of sodium nitroprussideand Spermidin in plants under salinity condition. The result of this study indicated that Methylene blue could partially and entirely abolish the protective effect of Nitric oxide on some physiological parameter. Methylene blue also has could reduce the alleviation effect of Spermidin on some of parameters in chamomile plant under salt stress, so with comparing the results of this study it seems that Spermidin probably acts through Nitric oxide pathway, but the use of 2-4- carboxyphenyl- 4,4,5,5- tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide is better to prove.

  2. Skin-effect down hole electric heater for heavy oil and high wax content oil applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Chenglin; Wang, Hui; Liu, Yanhua [Liaoning Huafu Petroleum High-Tech Co., Ltd. (China); Xiao, Jon H; Klotz, Eric [ANDMIR Environmental Group Canada Inc. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    With the increased production of oil and the depletion of conventional reserves, operators have started to exploit heavy oil and high wax content oil. Adequate production of such oils is difficult to achieve due to viscosity increase and mobility decrease during lifting as a result of heat loss. The down-hole electric heater has been developed to resolve these issues with the application of skin-effect electric heating technology. The aim of this paper is to present how this technology improves the production of heavy oil and waxy oil. Applications of the technology to wells in Chinese oilfields are studied. Results proved the technology to be efficient while being based on a simple process and operating in an easy and safe manner. This paper showed that the down-hole electric heater is a breakthrough technology, resolving the issues encountered in the heavy oil and waxy oil exploitation field, with broad application prospects.

  3. Biological activities of chamomile (Matricaria chamomile) flowers' extract against the survival and egg laying of the cattle fever tick (Acari Ixodidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, the potential of acaricidal activity of chamomile flowers' extract was studied against engorged Rhipicephalus annulatus tick under laboratory condition. For this purpose, the engorged females of Rhipicephalus annulatus were exposed to two-fold serial dilutions of chamomile flowers' extract (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 4.0% and 8.0%) using "dipping method" in vitro. The engorged ticks were immersed in different plant dilutions (five ticks for each dilution) for 1 min and they were immediately incubated in separate Petri dishes for each replicate at 26 ℃ and 80% relative humidity. Mortality rate for each treatment was recorded 5 d after incubation.The mortality rate caused by different dilutions of chamomile flowers' extract ranged from 6.67% to 26.7%, whereas no mortality was recorded for non-treated control group. The mass of produced eggs varied from 0.23 g (in 8.0% solution) to 0.58 g (in control), with no statistical differences between the treatments and control (P>0.05). Also the chamomile flowers' extract in highest concentration used (8.0%) caused 46.67% failure in egg laying in engorged females while no failure was observed for non-treated control group. Macroscopic observations indicated that in effective concentrations of plant (4.0% and 8.0%), patchy hemorrhagic swelling appeared on the skin of treated ticks. The results presented for the first time in this study imply that chamomile may be considered as a promising plant for biocontrol of cattle fever tick disease in the field condition.

  4. Evaluation of the Effects of Chamomill Mouthrinse on Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sahba

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS is one of the most common diseases affecting the oral mucosa. Many topical and systemic medications used to treat RAS have adverse local and systemic effects. Chamomill (kamillosan has been shown to be an effective drug, without any noticeable side effects.Purpose: The aim of present study was to assess the efficacy of a chamomill mouthrinse on RAS in comparison with a placebo mouthrinse.Materials and Methods: The study was designed as a double blind randomized placebo controlled clinical trial with participation of 50 patients diagnosed with RAS.They were randomly divided into two groups: 26 patients forming the test group,received chamomill mouthrinse and 24 patients constituting the control group received aplacebo rinse. All subjects were instructed to use the solutions three times a day until complete resolution of the lesions. Treatment outcome was assessed on days 3 and 5 and at the exact healing time. The ability of the solution to control the pain and burning sensation and the diameter of the ulcers was evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using the χ2 and unpaired t test for comparison between the two groups.Results: The chamomill group showed a significant reduction in the time required for controlling the pain and burning sensation (P<0.01. Ulcer diameter and healing time were also decreased (P<0.01.Conclusion: Chamomill mouthrinse was effective in the treatment of RAS without producing adverse effect.

  5. Integrated management of wild chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) populations by tillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaunard, D; Monty, A; Henriet, F; De Proft, M; Mahy, G; Bodson, B

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, environmental, health and economic concerns encourage reviewing our weed management in agriculture. Integrated pest management is one key element in the development of weed management strategies less dependent from herbicides. To reach this goal, impact of different methods of tillage (Combinations of stubble cultivator and moldboard plow) on biology and dynamic of wild chamomile populations was studied in experimental plots of experimental farm of Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech. In summer 2012, wild chamomile densities were significantly lower in plots tilled with a moldboard plow. The use of a stubble cultivator did not significantly affect M. chamomilla density. In addition, we found higher wheat yields in plowed plots, indicating that the decrease in M. chamomilla densities reduces competition for wheat. These results show well long run impact of plowing and his effect on densities of wild chamomile and the seedbank.

  6. Effect of the ultrasound-assisted preliminary maceration on the efficiency of the essential oil distillation from selected herbal raw materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Radosław; Kowalska, Grażyna; Jamroz, Jerzy; Nawrocka, Agnieszka; Metyk, Damian

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the study was the estimation of the ultrasound-assisted preliminary maceration effect on the efficiency of essential oil distillation and on its qualitative and quantitative composition. The experiment included analyses on three herbal materials, i.e. peppermint leaves (Mentha piperita L.), marjoram herb (Origanum majorana L.), and chamomile flowers (Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert). The study showed that the application of preliminary water maceration of raw material, augmented with ultrasounds, had a statistically significant increasing effect on the amount of oil distilled, in the case of mint leaf from 1.32% to 1.46% v/w, and in the case of marjoram herb from 1.13% to 1.27% v/w. In the case of chamomile flowers no significant effect of ultrasound on the amount of oil obtained was observed. Generally, comparing the composition of essential oils obtained in the experiments with the requirements of the relevant standards no unfavourable effect of the distillation augmenting techniques applied was noted. Therefore, it should be expected that the studied distillates of volatile fractions will have the desired biological activity.

  7. Residual Effect of Chemical and Animal Fertilizers and Compost on Yield, YieldComponents, Physiological Characteristics and Essential Oil Content of Matricaria chamomilla L. under Drought Stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    a Ahmadian

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The residual effect of inorganic and organic fertilizers on growth and yield of plants is one of the important problems in nutrition. This study was conducted to determine the residual effect of different fertilizers on yield, yield components, physiological parameters and essential oil percentage of Matricaria chamomilla under drought stress. A split plot arrangement based on randomized completely block design (RCBD with three replication was conducted in 2009, at the University of Zabol. Treatments included W1 (non stress, W2 (75% FC and W3 (50% FC as main plot and three types of residual’s fertilizers: F1 (non fertilizer, F2 (chemical fertilizer, F3 (manure fertilizer and F4 (compost as sub plot. Results showed that water stress at W3 treatment reduced dry flower yield. Low water stress increased essential oil percentage and the highest oil was obtained in W2. In this experiment, free proline and total soluble carbohydrate concentration were increased under water stress. The residual’s manure and compost enhanced flower yield, percentage and yield of essential oil of chamomile at the second year. At a glance, animal manure application and light water stress (75% FC was recommended to obtain best quantitative and qualitative yield. Keywords: Water Stress, Fertilizer, Carbohydrate, Proline, Chamomile

  8. Applicability of spectral indices on thickness identification of oil slick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yanfei; Shen, Yonglin; Chen, Qihao; Liu, Xiuguo

    2016-10-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing technology has played a vital role in the identification and monitoring of oil spill events, and amount of spectral indices have been developed. In this paper, the applicability of six frequently-used indices is analyzed, and a combination of spectral indices in aids of support vector machine (SVM) algorithm is used to identify the oil slicks and corresponding thickness. The six spectral indices are spectral rotation (SR), spectral absorption depth (HI), band ratio of blue and green (BG), band ratio of BG and shortwave infrared index (BGN), 555nm and 645nm normalized by the blue band index (NB) and spectral slope (ND). The experimental study is conducted in the Gulf of Mexico oil spill zone, with Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) hyperspectral imagery captured in May 17, 2010. The results show that SR index is the best in all six indices, which can effectively distinguish the thickness of the oil slick and identify it from seawater; HI index and ND index can obviously distinguish oil slick thickness; BG, BGN and NB are more suitable to identify oil slick from seawater. With the comparison among different kernel functions of SVM, the classify accuracy show that the polynomial and RBF kernel functions have the best effect on the separation of oil slick thickness and the relatively pure seawater. The applicability of spectral indices of oil slick and the method of oil film thickness identification will in aids of oil/gas exploration and oil spill monitoring.

  9. Applications of Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE of Palm Oil and Oil from Natural Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Omar Ab Kadir

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, which has received much interest in its use and further development for industrial applications, is a method that offers some advantages over conventional methods, especially for the palm oil industry. SC-CO2 refers to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE that uses carbon dioxide (CO2 as a solvent which is a nontoxic, inexpensive, nonflammable, and nonpolluting supercritical fluid solvent for the extraction of natural products. Almost 100% oil can be extracted and it is regarded as safe, with organic solvent-free extracts having superior organoleptic profiles. The palm oil industry is one of the major industries in Malaysia that provides a major contribution to the national income. Malaysia is the second largest palm oil and palm kernel oil producer in the World. This paper reviews advances in applications of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction of oils from natural sources, in particular palm oil, minor constituents in palm oil, producing fractionated, refined, bleached, and deodorized palm oil, palm kernel oil and purified fatty acid fractions commendable for downstream uses as in toiletries and confectionaries.

  10. Applications of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of palm oil and oil from natural sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, Mohammed Jahurul Haque; Sarker, Mohammed Zaidul Islam; Ferdosh, Sahena; Manap, Mohd Yazid Abdul; Ab Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik; Ab Kadir, Mohd Omar

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), which has received much interest in its use and further development for industrial applications, is a method that offers some advantages over conventional methods, especially for the palm oil industry. SC-CO₂ refers to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) that uses carbon dioxide (CO₂) as a solvent which is a nontoxic, inexpensive, nonflammable, and nonpolluting supercritical fluid solvent for the extraction of natural products. Almost 100% oil can be extracted and it is regarded as safe, with organic solvent-free extracts having superior organoleptic profiles. The palm oil industry is one of the major industries in Malaysia that provides a major contribution to the national income. Malaysia is the second largest palm oil and palm kernel oil producer in the World. This paper reviews advances in applications of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO₂) extraction of oils from natural sources, in particular palm oil, minor constituents in palm oil, producing fractionated, refined, bleached, and deodorized palm oil, palm kernel oil and purified fatty acid fractions commendable for downstream uses as in toiletries and confectionaries.

  11. Improved antioxidative and cytotoxic activities of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) florets fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum KCCM 11613P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Hye; Bae, Won-Young; Eom, Su-Jin; Kim, Kee-Tae; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    Antioxidative and cytotoxic effects of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum were investigated to improve their biofunctional activities. Total polyphenol (TP) content was measured by the Folin-Denis method, and the antioxidant activities were assessed by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and β-carotene bleaching method. AGS, HeLa, LoVo, MCF-7, and MRC-5 (normal) cells were used to examine the cytotoxic effects by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay. The TP content of fermented chamomile reduced from 21.75 to 18.76 mg gallic acid equivalent (mg GAE)/g, but the DPPH radical capturing activity of fermented chamomile was found to be 11.1% higher than that of nonfermented chamomile after 72 h of fermentation. Following the β-carotene bleaching, the antioxidative effect decreased because of a reduction in pH during fermentation. Additionally, chamomile fermented for 72 h showed a cytotoxic effect of about 95% against cancer cells at 12.7 mg solid/ml of broth, but MRC-5 cells were significantly less sensitive against fermented chamomile samples. These results suggest that the fermentation of chamomile could be applied to develop natural antioxidative and anticancer products.

  12. Improved antioxidative and cytotoxic activities of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) florets fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum KCCM 11613P*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Hye; Bae, Won-Young; Eom, Su-Jin; Kim, Kee-Tae; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Antioxidative and cytotoxic effects of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum were investigated to improve their biofunctional activities. Total polyphenol (TP) content was measured by the Folin-Denis method, and the antioxidant activities were assessed by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and β-carotene bleaching method. AGS, HeLa, LoVo, MCF-7, and MRC-5 (normal) cells were used to examine the cytotoxic effects by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay. The TP content of fermented chamomile reduced from 21.75 to 18.76 mg gallic acid equivalent (mg GAE)/g, but the DPPH radical capturing activity of fermented chamomile was found to be 11.1% higher than that of nonfermented chamomile after 72 h of fermentation. Following the β-carotene bleaching, the antioxidative effect decreased because of a reduction in pH during fermentation. Additionally, chamomile fermented for 72 h showed a cytotoxic effect of about 95% against cancer cells at 12.7 mg solid/ml of broth, but MRC-5 cells were significantly less sensitive against fermented chamomile samples. These results suggest that the fermentation of chamomile could be applied to develop natural antioxidative and anticancer products. PMID:28124843

  13. Cars of the Future—Powered by Poison? Prehistoric Beverage Choices; Health Benefits of Chamomile

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Angela G.

    2005-04-01

    This Report from Other Journals: Research Advances surveys articles of interest to chemists that have been recently published in other science journals. Topics surveyed include a report on a new approach to hydrogen fuel cells; findings about alcoholic beverages from 7000 B.C. that have been subjected to modern analyses; and research that supports claims regarding chamomile's medicinal properties.

  14. The coumarin herniarin as a sensitizer in German chamomile [Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert, Compositae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Otkjaer, Aksel; Andersen, Klaus E

    2010-01-01

    (7-methoxycoumarin), which is one of the possible coumarin allergens in chamomile. PATIENTS/MATERIALS/METHODS: Between 1991 and 2009, selected patients with known or suspected Compositae contact allergy were patch tested with herniarin 1% petrolatum. RESULTS: Among 36 patients tested, there was one...

  15. Cottage cheeses functionalized with fennel and chamomile extracts: comparative performance between free and microencapsulated forms

    OpenAIRE

    Caleja, Cristina; Ribeiro, Andreia; BARROS, LILLIAN; Barreira, João C. M.; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Barreiro, M.F; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2016-01-01

    Globally, there is a trend for healthy food products, preferably incorporating natural bioactive ingredients, replacing synthetic additives. From previous screening studies, extracts of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel) and Matricaria recutita L. (chamomile) maintained nutritional properties and improved the antioxidant activity of cottage cheese. Nevertheless, this effect was limited to 7 days. Accordingly, aqueous extracts of these plants were microencapsulated in alginate and incorporated ...

  16. Comparison of the Effects of Chamomile and Calendula Ointments on Diaper Rash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Afshari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diaper Rash is a common skin disorder in the infancy that makes infants and their parents anxious and nervous. Due to the high prevalence of dermatitis and its complications in addition to adverse effects of chemical drugs, herbal therapy is an appropriate solution. Aim: Comparison of the effects of Chamomile and Calendula ointments on severity of Diaper Rash. Methods: This double-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted on 90 infants under one year who were hospitalized in Sabalan Hospital of Ardebil. The infants were treated by Chamomile and Calendula ointments for one week. The severity of dermatitis was evaluated on days one, 3 and 7.  In order to assess the severity of dermatitis, the checklist of Diaper Rash five-point scale was used. Data were analyzed by software SPSS version 14 using chi-square, ANOVA, T-Test. Results: The age in the Chamomile group was (8. 8 ± 2.3 and in Calendula group was (9.0± 2.4 months. The severity of dermatitis in Chamomile group before treatment was 1.6 ± 0.5, on the third day 0.8 ± 0.4, and on the seventh day zero (p

  17. Treatment of emulsified oils by electrocoagulation: pulsed voltage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Ayten; Bakirci, Busra

    2015-01-01

    The effect of pulsed voltage application on energy consumption during electrocoagulation was investigated. Three voltage profiles having the same arithmetic average with respect to time were applied to the electrodes. The specific energy consumption for these profiles were evaluated and analyzed together with oil removal efficiencies. The effects of applied voltages, electrode materials, electrode configurations, and pH on oil removal efficiency were determined. Electrocoagulation experiments were performed by using synthetic and real wastewater samples. The pulsed voltages saved energy during the electrocoagulation process. In continuous operation, energy saving was as high as 48%. Aluminum electrodes used for the treatment of emulsified oils resulted in higher oil removal efficiencies in comparison with stainless steel and iron electrodes. When the electrodes gap was less than 1 cm, higher oil removal efficiencies were obtained. The highest oil removal efficiencies were 95% and 35% for the batch and continuous operating modes, respectively.

  18. Experimental Study of Castor Oil Based Lubricant for Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Suhane,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oils due to their better natural propertiescan be used as an alternative to reduce the dependency on the conventional lubricants. With the depletion of conventional resources at faster pace, need of hour is to approach the safer alternatives for ensuring the availability of such resources for longer periods with lesser harm to the mankind and sorroundings.This workevaluates the prospects of Castor oil based lubricant for automotive applications in contrast to the available commercial servo gear oil. Experimentation has been performed on four ball tester set up.Material used is carbon steel balls. Refined castor and mahua oils are blended in fixed ratios and subjected to friction and wear tests. Experimentation reveals that castor mahua oil blend possess immense potential in contrast to servo gear oil due to good wear reducing traits apart from environmental benefits.

  19. Applications of Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) of Palm Oil and Oil from Natural Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Omar Ab Kadir; Sahena Ferdosh; Mohd Yazid Abdul Manap; Nik Norulaini Nik Ab Rahman; Mohammed Jahurul Haque Akanda; Mohammed Zaidul Islam Sarker

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), which has received much interest in its use and further development for industrial applications, is a method that offers some advantages over conventional methods, especially for the palm oil industry. SC-CO2 refers to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) that uses carbon dioxide (CO2) as a solvent which is a nontoxic, inexpensive, nonflammable, and nonpolluting supercritical fluid solvent for the extraction of natural products. Almost 100% oil can be ext...

  20. Engineered soy oils for new value added applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phuong T.

    Soybean oil is an abundant annually renewable resource. It is composed of triglycerides with long chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The presence of unsaturated fatty acids allows for chemical modification to introduce new functionalities to soybean oil. A portfolio of chemically modified soy oil with suitable functional groups has been designed and engineered to serve as the starting material in applications such as polyamides, polyesters, polyurethanes, composites, and lubricants. Anhydride, hydroxyl, and silicone functionalities were introduced to soy oil. Anhydride functionality was introduced using a single-step free radical initiated process, and the chemically modified soy oils were evaluated for potential applications as a composite and lubricant. Hydroxyl functionalities were introduced in a single-step catalytic ozonolysis process recently developed in our labs, which proceeds rapidly and efficiently at room temperature without solvent. The transformed soy oil was used to successfully prepare bio-lubricants with good thermal/oxidative stability and bio-plastics such as polyamides, polyesters, and polyurethanes. A new class of organic-inorganic hybrid materials was prepared by curing vinyltrimethoxysilane functionalized soy oil. This hybrid material could have potential as biobased sealant through a moisture initiated room temperature cure. These new classes of soy-based materials are competitive both in cost and performance to petroleum based materials, but offer the advantage of being biobased.

  1. SUPERTARGET: Applications software for oil refinery retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, S.; Patela, E.

    1987-01-01

    Pinch Technology has recently delivered radically new procedures for process retrofit. Software appropriate to these techniques is implemented in SUPERTARGET. It is now possible to predict, ahead of design, targets for energy savings, capital investment, and payback. The procedures account for how poorly the existing design is being used. This paper shows the techniques performed in an actual oil refinery retrofit using SUPERTARGET.

  2. The Effect of Chamomile Cream on Episiotomy Pain in Primiparous Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradmehr, Maryam; Azhari, Sedigheh; Ahmadi, Sedigheh; Azmoude, Elham

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Episiotomy is a surgical incision made in the perineum to enlarge it. Perineal pain is the most common complaint of mothers after episiotomy. Chamomile extract has been proposed as a sedative in traditional medicine. This study was conducted to assess the effect of chamomile cream on the pain after episiotomy. Methods: This triple blind clinical trial was performed on 114 eligible women at Ommolbanin Hospital in Mashhad, Iran in 2014.They were randomly assigned to two groups using random blocks. After delivery, mothers in the intervention group used 0.5 g of prescribed chamomile while the control group used placebo cream on the stitch twice a day lasting ten days. Episiotomy pain was evaluated before intervention and 12 hours after episiotomy repair and also on the first, seventh, tenth and fourteenth day after delivery by McGill pain questionnaire. Data was analyzed by SPSS ver.13. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups before the intervention, 12 hours and the first day after delivery. However, a significant difference was found on the seventh, tenth and fourteenth day after delivery. McGill mean (SD) score on the seventh, tenth and fourteenth in experimental group was 11.36 (5.04), 4.44 (3.43) and 7.16 (4.10) respectively. It was reported 14.88 (7.34), 7.41(4.92) and 9.96 (4.81) in placebo group, respectively. Conclusion: Chamomile cream can be used to reduce episiotomy pain in Primiparous us women. PMID:28299294

  3. First results of investigations into causes of diseases of cultivated chamomile (Matricaria recutita L. in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gärber, Ute

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Diseases on cultivated chamomile have occurred in Germany since 2007, which have severely been affecting the crop yields. The causes of damage are very complex and have not been identified yet. Additionally to the damage in the stems caused by larvae, fungal pathogens are of relevance. Tests of the Julius Kühn-Institute first revealed that a new, not yet identified fungus is pathogenic to chamomile. Symptoms observed in infection tests like chlorosis, browning and black coloration of stems and leaflets were identical to those in the field. The fungus sporulated on diseased plant parts under the conditions of climatic chamber (20 °C to 22 °C and 12 hours of light, 122 μmol from 17 days after inoculation (dai and could be reisolated on agar plates. The identification, biology and epidemiology of the fungus as well as the specific harmful effect and interaction with other harmful factors, especially animal pests, are being studied presently in a project funded by the Agency for Renewable Resources (Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe, FNR. The goal is to develop sustainable plant protection concepts based on the knowledge about the pathogens to enable a stable cultivation of chamomile in Germany.

  4. Variability of total flavonoid and mucilage content of wild growing chamomile (Matricaria recutita L. populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosztola, Beáta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During our investigation 50 wild growing chamomile populations’ active substance content, among them total flavonoid content and swelling index referring to mucilage content were examined in 2009 in the main chamomile collection areas of Hungary. Swelling index was determined according to the general and specified descriptions of Althaeae folium monograph of European Pharmacopoeia, while total flavonoid content was measured by the method described in the monograph of Crataegi folium cum flore. The 50 Hungarian wild growing chamomile populations proved to be very heterogeneous in terms of the examined features. The swelling index of their flower drug samples changed between 15.8 and 80.8 and their total flavonoid content varied from 0.94 to 2.28 %. Significant correlation was also found between meteorological conditions and evaluated characteristics: there was medium strong positive correlation between spring total heat unit (sum of daily 10 °C higher average temperatures of the period lasted from 1st of March, 2009 until the day before flower collection as well as total heat unit of 10 days before harvest and swelling index (r = 0.50-0.56, furthermore medium strong negative connection could be seen between total heat units and total flavonoid content (r = -0.60-0.65. Based on these findings it can be ascertained that raising temperature affects the mucilage accumulation positively, however, it has a negative effect on the amount of flavonoids.

  5. Synthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoate from palm oil and some new applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudesh, Kumar; Bhubalan, Kesaven; Chuah, Jo-Ann; Kek, Yik-Kang; Kamilah, Hanisah; Sridewi, Nanthini; Lee, Yan-Fen

    2011-03-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a potential substitute for some petrochemical-based plastics. This biodegradable plastic is derived from microbial fermentation using various carbon substrates. Since carbon source has been identified as one of the major cost-absorbing factors in PHA production, cheap and renewable substrates are currently being investigated as substitutes for existing sugar-based feedstock. Plant oils have been found to result in high-yield PHA production. Malaysia, being the world's second largest producer of palm oil, is able to ensure continuous supply of palm oil products for sustainable PHA production. The biosynthesis and characterization of various types of PHA using palm oil products have been described in detail in this review. Besides, by-products and waste stream from palm oil industry have also demonstrated promising results as carbon sources for PHA biosynthesis. Some new applications in cosmetic and wastewater treatment show the diversity of PHA usage. With proper management practices and efficient milling processes, it may be possible to supply enough palm oil-based raw materials for human consumption and other biotechnological applications such as production of PHA in a sustainable manner.

  6. 40 CFR 454.50 - Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... essential oils subcategory. 454.50 Section 454.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Essential Oils Subcategory § 454.50 Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the manufacture of essential oils....

  7. Current and Future Nanotech Applications in the Oil Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cocuzza Matteo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Nanotech applications in the oil industry are not completely new: nanoparticles have been successfully used in drilling muds for the past 50 years. Only recently all the other key areas of the oil industry, such as exploration, primary and assisted production, monitoring, refining and distribution, are approaching nanotechnologies as the potential Philosopher's stone for facing critical issues related to remote locations (such as ultra-deep water and artic environments, harsh conditions (high-temperature and high-pressure formations, non-conventional reservoirs (heavy oils, tight gas, tar sands. The general aim is to bridge the gap between the oil industry and nanotechnology community using various initiatives such as consortia between oil and service companies and nanotechnology excellence centres, networking communities, workshops and conferences and even dedicated research units inside some oil companies. Quite surprisingly, even if a lot of discussion is taking place, no substantial research on these topics is currently being undertaken around the world by the petroleum industry. A very different attitude is demonstrated by other industries and the advances they achieved are outstanding. Approach: This study provides an overview of the most interesting nanotechnology applications and critically highlights the potential benefits that could come from transposing the same-or adapted-solutions to the oil industry. Results/Conclusion: As extensively illustrated, some technologies which are already available off-the-shelf can offer real improvements in dealing with some specific issues of the oil industry. Other technologies can require further elaboration before direct use, but their potential is enormous.

  8. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity in vitro of chamomile flowers, coneflower herbs, peppermint leaves and thyme herbs – a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malm Anna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, several studies have been undertaken so as to develop more effective therapeutic approaches towards eradicating Helicobacter pylori. Among these is phytotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity in vitro of the plant extracts obtained from common herbs cultivated in the Lubelszczyzna region against the reference strain H. pylori ATCC 43504. Among these are thyme herbs, chamomile flowers, peppermint leaves and coneflower herbs. Herein, it was found that the MIC values of the assayed extracts were as follows: the extracts from coneflower herbs showed anti-H. pylori activity with MIC = 31.3-125 μg/ml; the extracts from chamomile flowers demonstrated MIC = 31.3-62.5 μg/ ml; the extracts from peppermint leaves had MIC = 15.6-250 μg/ml; and the extracts from thyme herbs revealed MIC = 15.6-62.5 μg/ml, depending on the solvent used. The most active were the extracts obtained with ethyl acetate or ethanol alcohol absolute 99.8%. These showing MIC within the range of 15.6-62.5 μg/ml, while the lowest activity was observed in case of the extract obtained with 70% aqueous ethanol. This last showing MIC within the range of 62.5-250 μg/ml. The MIC values of essential oil components were 15.6 μg/ml for bisabolol and menthol or 31.3 μg/ml for thymol. The obtained data indicate that the assayed herbs possessed promising anti-H. pylori bioactivity.

  9. Physicochemical properties and potential food applications of Moringa oleifera seed oil blended with other vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollah, Sarafhana; Abdulkarim, Sabo Muhammad; Ahmad, Siti Hajar; Khoramnia, Anahita; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Blends (30:70, 50:50 and 70:30 w/w) of Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO) with palm olein (PO), palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and virgin coconut oil (VCO) were prepared. To determine the physicochemical properties of the blends, the iodine value (IV), saponication value (SV), fatty acid (FA) composition, triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal behaviour (DSC) and solid fat content (SFC) tests were analysed. The incorporation of high oleic acid (81.73%) MoO into the blends resulted in the reduction of palmitic acid content of PO and PS from 36.38% to 17.17% and 54.66% to 14.39% and lauric acid content of PKO and VCO from 50.63% to 17.70% and 51.26% to 26.05% respectively while oleic acid and degree of unsaturation were increased in all blends. Changes in the FA composition and TAG profile have significantly affected the thermal behavior and solid fat content of the oil blends. In MoO/PO blends the melting temperature of MoO decreased while, in MoO/PS, MoO/PKO and MoO/VCO blends, it increased indicating produce of zero-trans harder oil blends without use of partial hydrogenation. The spreadability of PS, PKO and VCO in low temperatures was also increased due to incorporation of MoO. The melting point of PS significantly decreased in MoO/PS blends which proved to be suitable for high oleic bakery shortening and confectionary shortening formulation. The finding appears that blending of MoO with other vegetable oils would enable the initial properties of the oils to be modified or altered and provide functional and nutritional attributes for usage in various food applications, increasing the possibilities for the commercial use of these oils.

  10. Industrial and utility applications coal-oil mixture data index. [Oil-fired systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-05-01

    The seriousness of the present and projected national energy picture dictated the adoption of several approaches by the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop alternate fuel sources as a means of curtailing our present dependence on imported oil. One approach, which offers near term potential for reducing the domestic consumption rate of natural gas and oil, is the application of coal-oil mixture (COM) combustion technology. The idea of burning coal and oil in the form of a mixture has been around for some time and is not viewed by DOE, in any degree, as the solution to our domestic energy problem. However, it is viewed as a near-term retrofit coal utilization technology with a high degree of application potential to existing oil fired systems. In view of this, DOE has undertaken several demonstration and support-research projects to further define existing COM technical uncertainties. The purpose of this manual is to present a comprehensive technical description and status of each project, both informative and practical with respect to the diverse data requirements.

  11. Some advances in crude oil rheology and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张劲军; 柳歆

    2008-01-01

    Waxy crude oil exhibits complex shear-and-thermal-history-dependent non-Newtonian behaviors.In the past 10 years,driven by the petroleum industry,crude oil rheology has been an active field.Studies on crude oil rheology have been passing a way from simply relying on rheological measurements,through quantitative experimental simulation of shear and thermal history effects in pipelining,to recent development of correlation between flow properties and shear and thermal history.Currently,the study is toward quantitative inquiry of relations between the rheological behaviors and micro-structures of wax crystals as well as oil compositions.Advances achieved by the author’ team are summarized,including simulation of the thermal and shear history effects,correlations and computation of flow properties,fractal characterization of morphology and structure of wax crystals,relations of rheological behaviors to fractal dimension and oil compositions,and the most successful example of the application of rheology in crude oil pipelining.Future studies are prospected.

  12. Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarra, Michele; Mannucci, Carmen; Delbò, Marisa; Calapai, Gioacchino

    2015-01-01

    Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau, also known as "Bergamot," is a plant belonging to the Rutaceae family, defined as a hybrid of bitter orange and lemon. It is an endemic plant of the Calabria region (Italy). Bergamot fruit is primarily used for the extraction of its essential oil (bergamot essential oil: BEO), employed in perfume, cosmetics, food, and confections. The aim of this review was to collect recent data from the literature on C. bergamia essential oil and, through a critical analysis, focus on safety and the beneficial effects on human health. Clinical studies on the therapeutic applications of BEO exclusively focus on the field of aromatherapy, suggesting that its use can be useful for reducing anxiety and stress.

  13. Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele eNavarra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau, also known as Bergamot, is a plant belonging to the Rutaceae family, defined as a hybrid of bitter orange and lemon. It is an endemic plant of the Calabria region (Italy. Bergamot fruit is primarily used for the extraction of its essential oil (bergamot essential oil: BEO, employed in perfume, cosmetics, food and confections.The aim of this review was to collect recent data from the literature on Citrus bergamia essential oil and, through a critical analysis, focus on safety and the beneficial effects on human health. Clinical studies on the therapeutic applications of BEO exclusively focus on the field of aromatherapy, suggesting that its use can be useful for reducing anxiety and stress.

  14. Application of vegetable oils in the treatment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, C L; Gan, S; Ng, H K

    2010-05-15

    A brief review is conducted on the application of vegetable oils in the treatment of PAH-contaminated soils. Three main scopes of treatment strategies are discussed in this work including soil washing by oil, integrated oil-biological treatment and integrated oil-non-biological treatment. For each of these, the arguments supporting vegetable oil application, the applied treatment techniques and their efficiencies, associated factors, as well as the feasibility of the techniques are detailed. Additionally, oil regeneration, the environmental impacts of oil residues in soil and comparison with other commonly employed techniques are also discussed.

  15. Clinical cross-reactivity between Artemisia vulgaris and Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre Morín, F; Sánchez Machín, I; García Robaina, J C; Fernández-Caldas, E; Sánchez Triviño, M

    2001-01-01

    Artemisia vulgaris is a common weed and an important source of allergens on the subtropical island of Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. It pollinates mainly from July to September, although, due to some local climatic conditions, it may flower throughout the year. Cross-reactivity with hazelnut, kiwi, birch, several Compositae (Ambrosia, Chrysanthemum, Matricaria, Solidago) and grass allergens has been suggested. Few studies have addressed the issue of in vivo cross-reactivity between A. vulgaris and Matricaria chamomilla. The objective of this study was to perform conjunctival and bronchial challenges with A. vulgaris and M. chamomilla and oral challenge with chamomile in 24 patients with asthma and/or rhinitis sensitized primarily to A. vulgaris. Skin prick tests with M. chamomilla were positive in 21 patients. Eighteen patients had a positive conjunctival provocation test with a A. vulgaris pollen extract and 13 patients had a positive conjunctival provocation test with a M. chamomilla pollen extract. Bronchial provocation tests with A. vulgaris were positive in 15 patients and with M. chamomilla pollen in another 16 individuals. Oral provocation tests, conducted with a commercial chamomile infusion were positive in 13 patients. Nine of these individuals were skin test positive to food allergens and 17 to others pollens of the Compositae family. This study confirms a high degree of in vivo cross-reactivity between A. vulgaris and M. chamomilla. Sensitization to A. vulgaris seems to be a primary risk factor for experiencing symptoms after the ingestion of chamomile infusions. Based on the results of bronchial provocation tests, M. chamomilla pollen could be a relevant inhalant allergen.

  16. Vegetable oils as hydraulic fluids for agricultural applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, G.; Igartua, A.; Fernandez-Diaz, B.; Urquiola, F.; Vivanco, S.; Arguizoniz, R.

    2011-07-01

    The formulation of environmentally friendly lubricants following the criterion of the European EcoLabel is expensive owing to the lack of technological development in this area. The present work deals with the development of lubricant formulations from vegetable oils, in particular using high oleic sunflower oil as base fluid. These new biolubricants have to perform as good as the reference lubricants used in the real application (an agricultural tractor) but with the additional condition and value of their biodegradability without toxicity. Formulation development has been performed by Verkol Lubricantes, involving the selection of the base oil and the design of the additive package. The investigation performed by Tekniker in the laboratory has covered different aspects, characterizing the most important physicochemical properties of the lubricants, including their behavior at low temperatures and their resistance to oxidation. The ribological properties of the new biolubricants have also been studied, analyzing their ability to protect the interacting surface from wear, as well as the level of friction generated during sliding. Moreover, the compatibility of the new formulated oil with all the seals present in the real application has been taken into consideration. The selected lubricant is now being tested in agricultural machinery from AGRIA. (Author).

  17. Distinct mechanisms of relaxation to bioactive components from chamomile species in porcine isolated blood vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R.E., E-mail: Richard.roberts@nottingham.ac.uk; Allen, S.; Chang, A.P.Y.; Henderson, H.; Hobson, G.C.; Karania, B.; Morgan, K.N.; Pek, A.S.Y.; Raghvani, K.; Shee, C.Y.; Shikotra, J.; Street, E.; Abbas, Z.; Ellis, K.; Heer, J.K.; Alexander, S.P.H., E-mail: steve.alexander@nottingham.ac.uk

    2013-11-01

    German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), a widely-used herbal medicine, has been reported to have a wide range of biological effects, including smooth muscle relaxation. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of representative compounds from chamomile (apigenin, luteolin, (−)-α-bisabolol, farnesene, umbelliferone; 3–30 μM) on vascular tone using porcine coronary and splenic arteries mounted for isometric tension recording in isolated tissue baths and precontracted with the thromboxane-mimetic U46619. Apigenin, luteolin, and (−)-α-bisabolol produced slow, concentration-dependent relaxations in both the coronary and splenic arteries that were not blocked by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase or potassium channels. Removal of extracellular calcium inhibited the relaxations to all three compounds, and these compounds also inhibited calcium re-addition-evoked contractions, indicating that the relaxation response may be mediated through inhibition of calcium influx. Apigenin and luteolin, but not (−)-α-bisabolol, enhanced the relaxation to the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside, indicating that apigenin and luteolin may act to regulate cyclic GMP levels. Umbelliferone produced a rapid, transient relaxation in the splenic artery, but not the coronary artery, that was inhibited by L-NAME and removal of the endothelium, suggesting an influence on nitric oxide production. Farnesene, at concentrations up to 30 μM, was without effect in either blood vessel. In conclusion, hydroxylated compounds (apigenin, luteolin and (−)-α-bisabolol) found in chamomile all caused a slow relaxation of isolated blood vessels through an effect on calcium influx. Umbelliferone, on the other hand, produced a rapid, transient relaxation dependent upon release of nitric oxide from the endothelium. - Highlights: • Apigenin, luteolin, and (-)-α-bisabolol are present in chamomile. • They produced slow, concentration-dependent relaxations in arteries. • These

  18. The Application of BP Neural Network In Oil-Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ying ZHANG

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the situation that many techniques of production performance analysis acquire lots of data and are expensive considering the computational and human resources, and their applications are limited, this paper puts forward a new method to analyze the production performance of oil-field based on the BP neural network. It builds a dataset with some available measured data such as well logs and production history, then, builds a field-wide production model by neural network technique, a model will be used to predict. The technique is verified, which shows that the predicted results are consistent with the maximum error of rate of oil production lower than 7% and maximum error of rate of water production lower than 5%, having certain application and research value.  

  19. Antidiabetic effects of chamomile flowers extract in obese mice through transcriptional stimulation of nutrient sensors of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Weidner

    Full Text Available Given the significant increases in the incidence of metabolic diseases, efficient strategies for preventing and treating of these common disorders are urgently needed. This includes the development of phytopharmaceutical products or functional foods to prevent or cure metabolic diseases. Plant extracts from edible biomaterial provide a potential resource of structurally diverse molecules that can synergistically interfere with complex disorders. In this study we describe the safe application of ethanolic chamomile (Matricaria recutita flowers extract (CFE for the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes and associated disorders. We show in vitro that this extract activates in particular nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ and its isotypes. In a cellular context, in human primary adipocytes CFE administration (300 µg/ml led to specific expression of target genes of PPARγ, whereas in human hepatocytes CFE-induced we detected expression changes of genes that were regulated by PPARα. In vivo treatment of insulin-resistant high-fat diet (HFD-fed C57BL/6 mice with CFE (200 mg/kg/d for 6 weeks considerably reduced insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, plasma triacylglycerol, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA and LDL/VLDL cholesterol. Co-feeding of lean C57BL/6 mice a HFD with 200 mg/kg/d CFE for 20 weeks showed effective prevention of fatty liver formation and hepatic inflammation, indicating additionally hepatoprotective effects of the extract. Moreover, CFE treatment did not reveal side effects, which have otherwise been associated with strong synthetic PPAR-targeting molecules, such as weight gain, liver disorders, hemodilution or bone cell turnover. Taken together, modulation of PPARs and other factors by chamomile flowers extract has the potential to prevent or treat type 2 diabetes and related disorders.

  20. Spiroethers of German chamomile inhibit production of aflatoxin G and trichothecene mycotoxin by inhibiting cytochrome P450 monooxygenases involved in their biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinari, Tomoya; Yaguchi, Atsushi; Takahashi-Ando, Naoko; Kimura, Makoto; Takahashi, Haruo; Nakajima, Takashi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Sakuda, Shohei

    2008-07-01

    The essential oil of German chamomile showed specific inhibition toward aflatoxin G(1) (AFG(1)) production, and (E)- and (Z)-spiroethers were isolated as the active compounds from the oil. The (E)- and (Z)-spiroethers inhibited AFG(1) production of Aspergillus parasiticus with inhibitory concentration 50% (IC(50)) values of 2.8 and 20.8 microM, respectively, without inhibiting fungal growth. Results of an O-methylsterigmatocystin (OMST) conversion study indicated that the spiroethers specifically inhibited the OMST to AFG(1) pathway. A cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, CYPA, is known as an essential enzyme for this pathway. Because CYPA has homology with TRI4, a key enzyme catalyzing early steps in the biosynthesis of trichothecenes, the inhibitory actions of the two spiroethers against TRI4 reactions and 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) production were tested. (E)- and (Z)-spiroethers inhibited the enzymatic activity of TRI4 dose-dependently and interfered with 3-ADON production by Fusarium graminearum, with IC(50) values of 27.1 and 103 microM, respectively. Our results suggest that the spiroethers inhibited AFG(1) and 3-ADON production by inhibiting CYPA and TRI4, respectively.

  1. Effects of essential oils from herbal plants and citrus fruits on DNA polymerase inhibitory, cancer cell growth inhibitory, antiallergic, and antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitoshi, Mai; Kuriyama, Isoko; Nakayama, Hiroto; Miyazato, Hironari; Sugimoto, Keiichiro; Kobayashi, Yuko; Jippo, Tomoko; Kanazawa, Kazuki; Yoshida, Hiromi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2012-11-14

    In this study, the biological activity of 20 essential oils (EOs) from herbal plants and citrus fruits were investigated in terms of mammalian DNA polymerase (pol) inhibitory activity, cancer cell (human colon carcinoma, HCT116) growth inhibitory activity, antiallergic activity, as anti-β-hexosaminidase release activity in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells treated with calcium ionophore A23187, and antioxidant activity by a lipophilic-oxygen radical absorbance capacity method. These EOs showed patterns of inhibition of pol α, a DNA replicative pol, similar to their cancer cell growth inhibitory activity, and their inhibitory activity on pol λ, a DNA repair/recombination pol, by the EOs showed correlation with anti-β-hexosaminidase release activity. Among these EOs, chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) was the strongest inhibitor of pols α and λ and showed significant effects on both cancer cell growth and mast cell degranulation. On the basis of these results, chamomile EO can be recommended as a potentially useful, bioactive candidate for therapeutic applications.

  2. CHAMOMILE PRODUCTION USING SUPPLEMENTARY IRRIGATION AND ORGANIC FERTILIZATION IN SANDY SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CATARINY CABRAL ALEMAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of medicinal plants in the herbal medicine of Brazilian Health System has intensified production and the need for developing efficient agricultural techniques that promote greater productivity of these species. The objective of this work was to evaluate the chamomile production at field conditions as a function of irrigation depths and organic fertilizer rates. The experiment was conducted in the Universidade do Oeste Paulista (Campus II experimental area, in Presidente Prudente, São Paulo State, Brazil. A triple factorial experimental design was used, consisting of irrigation rates (150, 100, 75, 50, 25 and 0% of the reference evapotranspiration - ETo, organic manure types (poultry and cattle manure and manure rates (0, 3 and 5 kg m-2, with four replications. The capitula production per plant, capitula dry weight and yield per water input (water use efficiency were evaluated. The supplementary irrigation combined with organic manure fertilization provided the highest capitula yield for chamomile crop in the Presidente Prudente region. The combination of poultry manure at rate of 5 kg m-2 with water depth equal to 150% of the ETo resulted in higher average values of capitula fresh and dry weight and water use efficiency.

  3. Effect of chamomile supplements to feeding doses on antimicrobial parameters in poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Jakubcova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to a ban of use of antibiotic growth promoters in the poultry industry it is necessary to look for alternative solutions. The use of some herbs showing antimicrobial effects can be one of such alternatives. In this experiment, effects of three different concentrations of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla extract, (0.3%; 0.6% and 1.2% in feeding doses on the microbial population in the gastrointestinal tract of growing broiler chickens were studied. The main attention was paid to the population of Clostridium perfringens and to numbers of coliform microbes. Clostridia were cultivated under anaerobic conditions at 46 °C on the Tryptone Sulfite Neomycin (TSN agar for a period of 24 hours. Coliform microbes were grown on the violet red bile lactose (VRBL agar at 37 °C for a period of 24 hours. The experiment lasted 39 days and involved 80 chicks that were slaughtered in the course of their growth period at the age of 18, 25, 32 and 39 days; there were 5 chicks in each group. The obtained results indicated that increasing doses of chamomile in the feeding ration decreased numbers of coliform microbes in the digestive tract of chicks and also reduced the population of C. perfingens.

  4. Chromatographic method for determination of the free amino acid content of chamomile flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the free amino acid contents of chamomile flowers using reverse-phase high-performance column chromatography preceded by pre-column derivatization with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC, and to determine the reliability of this method. Materials and Methods: Derivatization with reconstituted AQC was used to prepare the samples and standards for injection into the chromatography column. The peaks were analyzed by fluorescence detection (λ excitation, 250 nm; λ emission, 395 nm. Results: Alanine, proline, and leucine were the most abundant amino acids, whereas tyrosine and methionine were the least abundant. The linearity of the method was found to be good with amino acid concentrations of 0.012-0.36 μM. The precision was 0.05-1.36%; average recovery, 91.12-129.41%; and limit of detection, 0.006-0.058 μM. Conclusion: The method is reliable for determining the free amino acid content of different types of chamomile flowers.

  5. LC-PDA-ESI/MS Identification of the Phenolic Components of Three Compositae Spices: Chamomile, Tarragon, and Mexican Arnica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) and Mexican arnica (Heterotheca inuoides) are common compositae spices and herbs found in the US market. They contain flavonoids and hydroxycinnamates that are potentially beneficial to human health. A standardized LC-PDA-ESI...

  6. Horizontal oil well applications and oil recovery assessment. Volume 2: Applications overview, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deskins, W.G.; McDonald, W.J.; Knoll, R.G.; Springer, S.J.

    1995-03-01

    Horizontal technology has been applied in over 110 formations in the USA. Volume 1 of this study addresses the overall success of horizontal technology, especially in less-publicized formations, i.e., other than the Austin Chalk, Bakken, and Niobrara. Operators in the USA and Canada were surveyed on a formation-by-formation basis by means of a questionnaire. Response data were received describing horizontal well projects in 58 formations in the USA and 88 in Canada. Operators` responses were analyzed for trends in technical and economic success based on lithology (clastics and carbonates) and resource type (light oil, heavy oil, and gas). The potential impact of horizontal technology on reserves was also estimated. A forecast of horizontal drilling activity over the next decade was developed.

  7. Application of polymer flooding technology for enhanced oil recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkyt Kudaivergenov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Application of brine-initiated gelation of gellan for conformance control and water shutoff operations in field conditions was demonstrated. The developed technology was tested in Kumkol oilfield (Kyzylorda region, Kazakhstan on five injection wells. According to the results of the first oilfield test, the amount of additionally recovered oil during 11 months (from October 1, 2013 till September 1, 2014 was equal to 5890 tons. In 2014, the JSC “NIPIneftegas” (Aktau city, Kazakhstan carried out the second pilot test of polymer flooding technology on the same oilfield. The amount of additionally recovered oil during eight months (from October 2014 till May 2015 was equal to 8695 tons. The technology was tested for water shut-off purposes in producing well of Karabulak oilfield. After one-month treatment of production well the amount of water decreased 16 times in comparison with previous results.

  8. Production Strategies and Applications of Microbial Single Cell Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsenreither, Katrin; Glück, Claudia; Stressler, Timo; Fischer, Lutz; Syldatk, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of the ω-3 and ω-6 class (e.g., α-linolenic acid, linoleic acid) are essential for maintaining biofunctions in mammalians like humans. Due to the fact that humans cannot synthesize these essential fatty acids, they must be taken up from different food sources. Classical sources for these fatty acids are porcine liver and fish oil. However, microbial lipids or single cell oils, produced by oleaginous microorganisms such as algae, fungi and bacteria, are a promising source as well. These single cell oils can be used for many valuable chemicals with applications not only for nutrition but also for fuels and are therefore an ideal basis for a bio-based economy. A crucial point for the establishment of microbial lipids utilization is the cost-effective production and purification of fuels or products of higher value. The fermentative production can be realized by submerged (SmF) or solid state fermentation (SSF). The yield and the composition of the obtained microbial lipids depend on the type of fermentation and the particular conditions (e.g., medium, pH-value, temperature, aeration, nitrogen source). From an economical point of view, waste or by-product streams can be used as cheap and renewable carbon and nitrogen sources. In general, downstream processing costs are one of the major obstacles to be solved for full economic efficiency of microbial lipids. For the extraction of lipids from microbial biomass cell disruption is most important, because efficiency of cell disruption directly influences subsequent downstream operations and overall extraction efficiencies. A multitude of cell disruption and lipid extraction methods are available, conventional as well as newly emerging methods, which will be described and discussed in terms of large scale applicability, their potential in a modern biorefinery and their influence on product quality. Furthermore, an overview is given about applications of microbial lipids or derived fatty

  9. Production strategies and applications of microbial single cell oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Ochsenreither

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs of the -3 and -6 class (e.g. -linolenic acid, linoleic acid are essential for maintaining biofunctions in mammalians like humans. Due to the fact that humans cannot synthesize these essential fatty acids, they must be taken up from different food sources. Classical sources for these fatty acids are porcine liver and fish oil. However, microbial lipids or single cell oils, produced by oleaginous microorganisms such as algae, fungi and bacteria, are a promising source as well. These single cell oils can be used for many valuable chemicals with applications not only for nutrition but also for fuels and are therefore an ideal basis for a bio-based economy. A crucial point for the establishment of microbial lipids utilization is the cost-effective production and purification of fuels or products of higher value. The fermentative production can be realized by submerged (SmF or solid state fermentation (SSF. The yield and the composition of the obtained microbial lipids depend on the type of fermentation and the particular conditions (e.g. medium, pH-value, temperature, aeration, nitrogen source. From an economical point of view, waste or by-product streams can be used as cheap and renewable carbon and nitrogen sources. In general, downstream processing costs are one of the major obstacles to be solved for full economic efficiency of microbial lipids. For the extraction of lipids from microbial biomass cell disruption is most important, because efficiency of cell disruption directly influences subsequent downstream operations and overall extraction efficiencies. A multitude of cell disruption and lipid extraction methods are available, conventional as well as newly emerging methods, which will be described and discussed in terms of large scale applicability, their potential in a modern biorefinery and their influence on product quality. Furthermore, an overview is given about applications of microbial lipids

  10. Production Strategies and Applications of Microbial Single Cell Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsenreither, Katrin; Glück, Claudia; Stressler, Timo; Fischer, Lutz; Syldatk, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of the ω-3 and ω-6 class (e.g., α-linolenic acid, linoleic acid) are essential for maintaining biofunctions in mammalians like humans. Due to the fact that humans cannot synthesize these essential fatty acids, they must be taken up from different food sources. Classical sources for these fatty acids are porcine liver and fish oil. However, microbial lipids or single cell oils, produced by oleaginous microorganisms such as algae, fungi and bacteria, are a promising source as well. These single cell oils can be used for many valuable chemicals with applications not only for nutrition but also for fuels and are therefore an ideal basis for a bio-based economy. A crucial point for the establishment of microbial lipids utilization is the cost-effective production and purification of fuels or products of higher value. The fermentative production can be realized by submerged (SmF) or solid state fermentation (SSF). The yield and the composition of the obtained microbial lipids depend on the type of fermentation and the particular conditions (e.g., medium, pH-value, temperature, aeration, nitrogen source). From an economical point of view, waste or by-product streams can be used as cheap and renewable carbon and nitrogen sources. In general, downstream processing costs are one of the major obstacles to be solved for full economic efficiency of microbial lipids. For the extraction of lipids from microbial biomass cell disruption is most important, because efficiency of cell disruption directly influences subsequent downstream operations and overall extraction efficiencies. A multitude of cell disruption and lipid extraction methods are available, conventional as well as newly emerging methods, which will be described and discussed in terms of large scale applicability, their potential in a modern biorefinery and their influence on product quality. Furthermore, an overview is given about applications of microbial lipids or derived fatty

  11. Use of herbal medicines in children following EBM criteria. Effectiveness and tolerability of echinacea, cranberry, and chamomile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Careddu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent appreciation of phytotherapy is related to the evidence of efficacy of herbal medicines, as well as to the continuous improvement of scientific and clinical knowledge of their effects. Unfortunately among herbal medicine it is frequent to find products that are neither registered nor controlled by regulatory bodies, with a lack of proofs regarding their constituents and quality.Phytotherapy can find its role among medical therapies only if each medication is standardised and controlled according to the requirements of an official Pharmacopoeia, and produced on the basis of Good Manufacturing Practices similar to those used in pharmaceutical companies. This is even more important in paediatric age, also because often parents administer herbal medications to their children, without asking the physician or the pharmacist for advice, being convinced that “natural products” are always safe and do not have adverse events or interactions. The evaluation of these products, ensuring their safety and efficacy through registration and regulation,is an important challenge. To improve an evidence-based and safe use, herbal medicines should be titrated, standardised and labelled. Clinical applications, pharmacology, dosage, possible contraindications and precautions (i.e. during pregnancy, breastfeeding and paediatric age, and potential adverse reactions should be clearly described and codified, for example in the officialPharmacopeia and in the various Monographs (ESCOP, The European Scientific Cooperative On Phytotherapy, and WHO, World Health Organization.The purpose of this article is to provide a review on the safety and efficacy of some medicinal plants widely used in the paediatric age: echinacea, cranberry, and chamomile. The final aim is to help to use herbal medicine on the basis of the criteria of the Evidence Based Medicine.

  12. Evaluation of proline, chlorophyll, soluble sugar content and uptake of nutrients in the German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L. under drought stress and organic fertilizer treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Salehi

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Totally, organic fertilization by vermicompost could partly alleviate the effect of drought stress on chamomile by increasing N, P and K uptake and leaf soluble sugar, especially in stressed treatments.

  13. Erosion/corrosion testing of materials for oil sands applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, G.; Wolodko, J.; Alemaskin, K.; Been, J.; Danysh, M. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Erosion and corrosion are common wear mechanisms for components used in oil sands processing facilities. This paper described a slurry jet test apparatus designed to evaluate and assess materials for oil sands service conditions. The jet testing apparatus was designed to mimic the wet erosion phenomena typically found in oil sands applications. Wear- and corrosion-resistant materials tested by the apparatus included carbon steel, tungsten carbide metal matrix composite (WC-MMC) overlays, and a range of polymer and rubber liner materials. Polymeric materials included hydrogenated nitrile rubber (HNBR); polyurethane elastomer; and high density polyethylene (HDPE). Material losses were determined by measuring the mass of the samples before and after testing. Normalized rates of abrasion were calculated by dividing total mass lost in the specimens by the total mass of sand impinged on the sample surface. Samples were also visually assessed and analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in order to determine failure modes. Tests were conducted for a 2-hour period at an impingement angle of 90 degrees. Results of the study showed that the average abrasion rates of the polymeric samples are lower than rates seen with the carbon steel and overlay materials. Future work on the apparatus will include testing the materials under varying slurry jet parameters. 15 refs., 5 tabs., 10 figs.

  14. Experimental application of ultrasound waves to improved oil recovery during waterflooding

    OpenAIRE

    Emad Alhomadhi; Mohammad Amro; Mohammad Almobarky

    2014-01-01

    In oil reservoirs about 40% of the original oil in place is produced and the rest remains as residual oil after primary and secondary oil recovery due to geological and physical factors. Additional oil can be mobilized by applying some improved oil recovery methods. However, there is no universal IOR method to be implemented in any reservoir. Efforts are made to develop IOR methods with lower risk. One of these methods is the application of sound/ultrasound waves in the reservoirs to overcome...

  15. Production of free fatty acids from waste oil by application of ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Larissa P.; Santos, Francisco F.P.; Costa, Enio; Fernandes, Fabiano A.N. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2012-12-15

    This paper evaluates the production of free fatty acids (FFAs) from waste oil by means of low-frequency high-intensity ultrasound application under atmospheric pressure. To evaluate the potential of this technology, the reaction between waste palm oil and ethanol was carried out. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the influence of alcohol-to-oil weight ratio, potassium hydroxide-to-oil weight ratio, and temperature on the yield of waste oil into FFA. Analysis of the operating conditions by RSM showed that the most important operating conditions affecting the reaction were ethanol-to-oil weight ratio and potassium hydroxide-to-oil weight ratio. The highest yield observed was of 97.3 % after 45 min of reaction. The best operating condition was obtained by applying an ethanol-to-oil weight ratio of 2.4, a potassium hydroxide-to-oil weight ratio of 0.3, and temperature of 60 C. (orig.)

  16. Effect of fertilizer application on yield of oil palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eksomtramage, T.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of fertilizer application rates on leaf nutrient contents and yield of oil palm were investigated at the Agricultural and Technological College Plantation in Trang province during May 1998 - June 2001. A five-year-old oil palm plantation, planted on the Na Tham soil series (Fine loamy, mixed, isohyperthermic Oxic Plinthudults with spacing 9x9x9 m, was selected for study. A randomized complete block designwith three replications with 20 palms/replication was used. The treatments included six different rates of fertilizer application. The rates of fertilizer were as follows: T1 (farmer practice, T2 (40% of application rate in T4, T3 (70% of application rate in T4, T4 (urea 2,750 g/plant; triple super phosphate 1,500 g/plant; potassium chloride 4,000 g/plant; kieserite 1,000 g/plant; borate 80 g/plant, T5 (130% of application rate in T4 and T6 (170% of application rate in T4. The high leaf nutrient contents of N, P and K at the range of 2.6-2.8%, 0.16-0.18% and 1.13-1.18%, respectively, were found in the high nutrient application rate treatments (T5, T6. However, the amounts of leaf Ca and Mg in T5 and T6 decreased from 0.75-0.80% and 0.33- 0.37% at the beginning of experiment to 0.65-0.70% and 0.22-0.24%, respectively, at the end of the experiment. Small increases of leaf sulphur and boron up to about 0.20-0.22% and 16-19 mg/kg were also found in the high rate of fertilizer treatments. Accumulated fresh fruit bunch yield (FFB increased according to increasing rate of fertilizer application. Accumulated FFB yield of 268.4 kg/plant in the low fertilizer rate (T1 (farmer practice and 278.8 kg/plant in T2 were found compared with the highest yield of 370.2 kg/plant in the highest fertilizer application treatment (T6 for the 3 years experiment. Regarding the economic return, the medium rate of fertilizer application (T3 which achieved an accumulated FFB yield of 338.0 kg/ plant gave the highest profit with the VCR (Value: Cost ratio of 2.53.

  17. Cottage cheeses functionalized with fennel and chamomile extracts: Comparative performance between free and microencapsulated forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caleja, Cristina; Ribeiro, Andreia; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C M; Antonio, Amilcar L; Beatriz P P Oliveira, M; Barreiro, Maria Filomena; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-05-15

    Globally, there is a trend for healthy food products, preferably incorporating natural bioactive ingredients, replacing synthetic additives. From previous screening studies, extracts of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel) and Matricaria recutita L. (chamomile) maintained nutritional properties and improved the antioxidant activity of cottage cheese. Nevertheless, this effect was limited to 7 days. Accordingly, aqueous extracts of these plants were microencapsulated in alginate and incorporated into cottage cheese to achieve an extended bioactivity. Plain cottage cheese, and cheese functionalized by direct addition of free decoctions, were prepared and compared. Independently of plant species, "functionalization type" factor did not show a significant effect on the nutritional parameters, as also confirmed in the linear discriminant analysis, where these parameters were not selected as discriminating variables. Furthermore, samples functionalized with microencapsulated extracts showed higher antioxidant activity after the 7th day, thereby demonstrating that the main purpose of this experimental work was achieved.

  18. The effects of Chamomile tea on antioxidative biomarkers in operating room staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Ghazal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chamomile tea (CT is an herbal tea and is served as a beneficial herbal infusion all over the world. Its major polyphenols constituents and tea-catechins have been shown to have health benefits. Operating room staff are commonly exposed to damaging factors, such as radiation, waste anesthetic gases and psychological stress. One of the most important qualities of CT is its antioxidant property. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of CT in reducing the oxidative stress of operative room staff that are chronically exposed to damaging factors. Methods: In this study we approached to 20 operating room personnel. The subjects drank 2 cups of CT (every cup contained 1.8730 g of chamomile and 300 ml of water daily, one cup in the morning and another in the afternoon for 21 days. A questionnaire that contained personal information was filled by each subject. Oxidative stress parameters such as total antioxidant capacity (TAC, catalase (CAT and total thiol molecules (TTG were measured 2 times: first before drinking CT at the first day and the next time after the 21st day. Results: Consumption of CT by subjects caused a significant induction in TAC (6.62 ± 0.77 vs 4.81± 0.39 ųmol/ml, P < .05 of saliva. There was not any statistically significant change in saliva TTG and CAT after 21 days of drinking CT. Conclusion: In the end we came to conclusion that CT can be a useful additional food to remove the oxidative damage that happens to operating room staff.

  19. Effects of bacterial inoculants on the indigenous microbiome and secondary metabolites of chamomile plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth eSchmidt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant-associated bacteria fulfil important functions for plant growth and health of their host. However, our knowledge about the impact of bacterial treatments on the host’s microbiome and physiology is limited. The present study was conducted to assess the impact of bacterial inoculants on the microbiome of chamomile plants Chamomilla recutita (L. Rauschert grown in a field under organic management in Egypt. Chamomile seedlings were inoculated with three indigenous Gram-positive strains (Streptomyces subrutilus Wbn2-11, Bacillus subtilis Co1-6, Paenibacillus polymyxa Mc5Re-14 from Egypt and three European Gram-negative strains (Pseudomonas fluorescens L13-6-12, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila P69, Serratia plymuthica 3Re4-18 already known for their beneficial plant-microbe interaction. Molecular fingerprints of 16S rRNA gene as well as real-time PCR analyses did not show statistically significant differences for all applied bacterial antagonists compared to the control. In contrast, a pyrosequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene libraries revealed significant differences in the community structure of bacteria between the treatments. These differences could be clearly shown by a shift within the community structure and corresponding beta-diversity indices. Moreover, B. subtilis Co1-6 and P. polymyxa Mc5Re-14 showed an enhancement of the bioactive secondary metabolite apigenin-7-O-glucoside. This indicates a possible new function of bacterial inoculants: to interact with the plant microbiome as well as with the plant metabolome.

  20. Elastomers in mud motors for oil field applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrik, J. [Baker Hughes INTEQ GmbH, Celle (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    Mud motors, the most frequently used downhole drilling motors in modern drilling systems, are described in their application and function. The elastomeric liner in a mud motor acts as a huge continuous seal. Important properties of elastomers such as chemical resistance, fatigue resistance, mechanical strength, abrasion resistance, bonding to steel and processability are discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of NBR, HNBR, FKM, TFEP, and EPDM elastomers for mud motor applications are briefly described. The importance of drilling fluids and their physical and chemical impact on motor elastomers are described. Drilling fluids are categorized in: oil based-, synthetic-, and water based. Results of compatibility tests in the different drilling muds of the presented categories demonstrate the complexity of elastomer development. Elastomers with an equally good performance in all drilling muds are not available. Future developments and improvements are directed towards higher chemical resistance at higher service temperatures. This will be possible only with improved elastomer-to-metal bonding, increased mechanical and better dynamic properties.

  1. Suppression of neutrophil accumulation in mice by cutaneous application of geranium essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshima Haruyuki

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies suggested that essential oils suppressed the adherence response of human neutrophils in vitro and that intraperitoneal application of geranium oil suppressed the neutrophil accumulation into peritoneal cavity in vivo. Usually, essential oils are applied through skin in aromatherapy in inflammatory symptoms. The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of cutaneous application of essential oils on the accumulation of neutrophils in inflammatory sites in skin of mice. Methods Inflammation with accumulation of inflammatory cells was induced by injection of curdlan, a (1→3-β-D-glucan in skin or peritoneal cavity of mice. Essential oils were applied cutaneously to the mice immediately and 3 hr after intradermal injection of curdlan. The skin with inflammatory lesion was cut off 6 hr after injection of curdlan, and the homogenates were used for myeloperoxidase (MPO: a marker enzyme of neutrophil granule assay. Results The MPO activity of the skin lesion induced by curdlan was suppressed dose-dependently by cutaneous application of geranium oil. Other oils such as lavender, eucalyptus and tea tree oils also suppressed the activity, but their activities seemed weaker than geranium. Juniper oil didn't suppress the activity Conclusion Cutaneous application of essential oils, especially geranium oil, can suppress the inflammatory symptoms with neutrophil accumulation and edema.

  2. In vitro antimicrobial activity of five essential oils on multidrug resistant Gram-negative clinical isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Sakkas, Hercules; Gousia, Panagiota; Economou, Vangelis; Sakkas, Vassilios; Petsios, Stefanos; Papadopoulou, Chrissanthy

    2016-01-01

    Aim/Background: The emergence of drug-resistant pathogens has drawn attention on medicinal plants for potential antimicrobial properties. The objective of the present study was the investigation of the antimicrobial activity of five plant essential oils on multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Materials and Methods: Basil, chamomile blue, origanum, thyme, and tea tree oil were tested against clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 6), Escherichia coli (n = 4), Klebsiella pneum...

  3. Oil spill model development and application for emergency response system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The paper introduces systematically the developing principle ofCWCM 1.0 oil spill model based on Lagrange system and oil spill fate processes in environment, reviews two oil spill incidents of "East Ambassador" in Jiaozhou Bay and "Min Fuel 2" in the mouth of Pearl River, and designs the predict system simulating oil spill applied in contingency plans. It is indicated that CWCM 1.0 has met preliminarily the demands for functions of precision simulating and oil spill predicting, and can plan an important role to support oil spill response.

  4. Effect of gamma radiation on antioxidant capacity of green tea, yerba mate, and chamomile tea as evaluated by different methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerolis, Luanai Grazieli Luquini; Lameiras, Fernando Soares; Krambrock, Klaus; Neves, Maria Jose.

    2017-01-01

    Tea is a traditional plant extract with important cultural ties. It is the most widely consumed beverage in the world. Tea consumption has some health benefits including antioxidant stimulus. Gamma radiation is currently used to control of postharvest pathogens on tea herb. However, free radicals can be generated, which consumes antioxidant molecules. A positive relation was found between radiation doses used and free radicals generation in green tea (Camellia sinensis), yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis), and chamomile tea (Matricaria recutita). Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of aqueous and methanol extracts of these herbs was determined by various methods to compare the effect of irradiation of herb on antioxidant capacity of the extracts. TAC was evaluated by measuring: total phenols (decreased with irradiation in mate and green teas), total flavonoids (stable in aqueous extracts and decreased with irradiation in methanol extract of mate and chamomile), Trolox equivalent or ABTS (unchanged under irradiation), DPPH* scavenging capacity (stable on aqueous extract but diminished in methanol extract after irradiation), β carotene/acid linoleic ability (stable with the exception of chamomile tea that increased after irradiation) and, capacity to chelate ferrous ions (unchanged with irradiation). In conclusion, gamma irradiation reduced the capacity of some antioxidants but preserved the capacity of others. This study showed that one isolated test does not suffice to perform this evaluation reliably, which is a reflection of the diversity and complexity of the effects of irradiation on antioxidant molecules present in different samples.

  5. Synthesize and application of the oil-soluble viscosity reducer in heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhihong, Zhang; Yun, Huang [Northwest Oilfield Branch Engineering and Technology Institute of Sinopec (China); Jixiang, Guo; Heyi, Wang; Kai, Chao [Enhanced Oil Recovery Research Center, China University of Petroleum (China)], email: guojx002@163.com

    2010-07-01

    When viscosity reducer is added to crude oil, it breaks its original structure and reduces oil viscosity. A polybasic copolymer oil-soluble viscosity reducer of heavy oil was synthesized by using the orthogonal method. Infrared spectra (IR) and interfacial tensions of heavy oil with or without viscosity reducer were investigated. The synthetic viscosity reducer was added to a biphasic heavy oil/water solution, and the interfacial tension between the oil and the water was measured. The interfacial tension was significantly lower than the interfacial tension of a heavy oil/water solution without the viscosity reducer. It was observed that the viscosity reducer spread from the oil phase to the oil-water interface; it could replace macromolecular active substances of the oil-water interface so that a new interfacial film could be formed, thus reducing the interfacial tension. This synthetic viscosity reducer is more efficient than commercialy available viscosity reducers; its viscosity reduction rate is up to 95.47% at 50 degree Celsius.

  6. Applications of Enzymes in Oil and Oilseed Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing

    conventionally high temperature conditioning or cooking is necessary. The good story in industry is the fish oil and olive oil processing. Good quality and higher oil yield have been achieved through the use of enzymes in the processing stages. For the refining stage, the use of enzymes for degumming has...

  7. Research and Application of New Methods to Oil-Gas Geochemical Exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on the results of researches and applications for many years, it has been discovered that new methods and techniques for geochemical exploration of oil and gas such as D C, altered carbonate, Hg in absorption phase, Ks, Fe2+, d 13C, fluorescence in two and three dimensions, and N2 and O2 in heat release can give full play in the following five fields: (1) optimization of the favourable target or hollow zones and structural zones in a region; (2) evaluation of oil traps and delineation of prospective oil and gas areas; (3) prediction of deep-seated oil-bearing horizons; (4) evaluation of the genesis of oil and gas geochemical anomalies and determination of the types of oil and gas accumulations; (5) forecast of the burial depths of oil and gas pools.

  8. The oil spill model OILTRANS and its application to the Celtic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Alan; Dabrowski, Tomasz; Lyons, Kieran

    2012-11-01

    This paper describes details of an oil spill model, OILTRANS, developed by the authors. The model is an off-line particle-transport model coupled to the most up to date operational met-ocean model forecasts. Formulations for the dominant oil fate processes of spreading, advection, diffusion, evaporation, emulsification and dispersion have been encoded, providing the model with the ability to accurately predict the horizontal movement of surface oil slick, the vertical entrainment of oil into the water column and the mass balance of spilled oil. The application of the OILTRANS model to an accidental release during a ship-to-ship fuel transfer in the Celtic Sea in February 2009 is presented to validate the system. Comparisons with aerial observations of the oil slick at the time of the incident, and subsequent model simulations, indicate that the OILTRANS model is capable of accurately predicting the transport and fate of the oil slick.

  9. Prospects for applications of electron beams in processing of gas and oil hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponomarev, A. V., E-mail: ponomarev@ipc.rssi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry (Russian Federation); Pershukov, V. A. [ROSATOM National Nuclear Corporation (Russian Federation); Smirnov, V. P. [CJSC “Nauka i Innovatsii” (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Waste-free processing of oil and oil gases can be based on electron-beam technologies. Their major advantage is an opportunity of controlled manufacturing of a wide range of products with a higher utility value at moderate temperatures and pressures. The work considers certain key aspects of electron beam technologies applied for the chain cracking of heavy crude oil, for the synthesis of premium gasoline from oil gases, and also for the hydrogenation, alkylation, and isomerization of unsaturated oil products. Electronbeam processing of oil can be embodied via compact mobile modules which are applicable for direct usage at distant oil and gas fields. More cost-effective and reliable electron accelerators should be developed to realize the potential of electron-beam technologies.

  10. Vegetable oils as hydraulic fluids for agricultural applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendoza, G.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The formulation of environmentally friendly lubricants following the criterion of the European EcoLabel is expensive owing to the lack of technological development in this area. The present work deals with the development of lubricant formulations from vegetable oils, in particular using high oleic sunflower oil as base fluid. These new biolubricants have to perform as good as the reference lubricants used in the real application (an agricultural tractor but with the additional condition and value of their biodegradability without toxicity. Formulation development has been performed by Verkol Lubricantes, involving the selection of the base oil and the design of the additive package. The investigation performed by Tekniker in the laboratory has covered different aspects, characterizing the most important physicochemical properties of the lubricants, including their behavior at low temperatures and their resistance to oxidation. The tribological properties of the new biolubricants have also been studied, analyzing their ability to protect the interacting surface from wear, as well as the level of friction generated during sliding. Moreover, the compatibility of the new formulated oil with all the seals present in the real application has been taken into consideration. The selected lubricant is now being tested in agricultural machinery from AGRIA.

    La formulación de lubricantes amigables con el medioambiente siguiendo los criterios Europeos de la EcoLabel resulta cara debido a la falta de desarrollo tecnológico en esta área. En el presente trabajo se han desarrollado formulaciones de lubricantes a partir de aceites de origen vegetal, en particular empleando como aceite base el GAO (Girasol de Alto Oleico. Estos nuevos lubricantes deben presentar un comportamiento tan bueno como el de los lubricantes de referencia empleados en la aplicación real (un tractor agrícola, pero con la condición y valor añadido de ser biodegradables y no t

  11. Antimicrobial Efficacy of Various Essential Oils at Varying Concentrations against Periopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Harpreet Singh; Deswal, Himanshu; Agarwal, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.gingivalis) is a notorious perio-pathogen with the ability to evade host defense mechanism and invade into the periodontal tissues. Many antimicrobial agents have been tested that curb its growth, although these agents tend to produce side effects such as antibiotic resistance and opportunistic infections. Therefore search for naturally occurring anti-microbials with lesser side effects is the need of the hour. Aim The aim of this study was to substantiate the antimicrobial activity of various essential oils; eucalyptus oil, chamomile oil, tea tree oil and turmeric oil against P. gingivalis. Materials and Methods Pure cultures of P. gingivalis were grown on selective blood agar. Antimicrobial efficacy of various concentrations of essential oils (0%, 25%, 50% and 100%) was assessed via disc diffusion test. Zone of inhibition were measured around disc after 48 hours in millimeters. Results Zones of inhibition were directly proportional to the concentration of essential oils tested. At 100% concentration all the tested oils possess antimicrobial activity against P.gingivalis with eucalyptus oil being most effective followed by tea tree oil, chamomile oil and turmeric oil. Conclusion All essential oils tested were effective against P.gingivalis. After testing for their clinical safety they could be developed into local agents to prevent and treat periodontitis. PMID:27790572

  12. New heavy crude oil flow improver increases delivery : application scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, J.; Johnston, R.; Lauzon, P. [ConocoPhillips Specialty Products Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Flow improvers or drag reducing agents have been used for over 25 years as a method to increase fluid flow in hydrocarbon pipelines. The technology is effective in refined projects, light and medium crude oils. This paper presented a new development in flow improver technology that allows treatment of heavy crude oil slates. It discussed case studies of flow improver treatment of heavy oils in various pipeline system as well as factors that affect commercial success. tabs., figs.

  13. Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application

    OpenAIRE

    Michele eNavarra; Carmen eMannucci; Marisa eDelbò; Gioacchino eCalapai

    2015-01-01

    Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau, also known as Bergamot, is a plant belonging to the Rutaceae family, defined as a hybrid of bitter orange and lemon. It is an endemic plant of the Calabria region (Italy). Bergamot fruit is primarily used for the extraction of its essential oil (bergamot essential oil: BEO), employed in perfume, cosmetics, food and confections.The aim of this review was to collect recent data from the literature on Citrus bergamia essential oil and, through a critical analysi...

  14. Development and prototype application of an oil spill risk analysis in a coastal zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsimopoulou, V.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the development of a methodology for performance of oil spill risk analysis in coastal zones through a prototype application. The main objective of the research effort is to develop the basis for a tool that can assess risks due to the occurrence of an oil spill event aiming at

  15. Properties of dry film lubricants prepared by spray application of aqueous starch-oil composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqueous dispersions of starch-soybean oil (SBO) and starch-jojoba oil (JO) composites, prepared by excess steam jet cooking, form effective dry film lubricants when applied as thick coatings to metal surfaces by doctor blade. This application method necessitates long drying times, is wasteful, requ...

  16. Hepatoprotective effect of Matricaria chamomilla.L in paraquat induced rat liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakol, H S; Farzad, K; Fariba, M; Abdolkarim, C; Hassan, G; Seyed-Mostafa, H Z; Akram, R

    2015-02-01

    Paraquat (PQ), an effective and widely used herbicide, has been proven to be safe when appropriately applied to eliminate weeds. However, PQ poisoning is an extremely frustrating clinical condition with a high mortality and with a lack of effective treatments in humans. PQ is known to induce injury via a redox cyclic reaction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract Matricaria chamomilla.L (M. chamomilla) against PQ-induced liver injury in association with its antioxidant activity.The male rats were treated by gastric gavage daily with PQ (5 mg/kg/day) and M. chamomilla (50 mg/kg/day) were administered alone or in combination for 7 days. After treatments, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total thiol molecules (TTG) levels and catalase (CAT) activity in liver tissue were measured. At the end of the experiment, plasma and lung tissue of the animals was separated. The activity of enzymatic scavengers such as CAT, TAC and TTG were measured in liver homogenate.In this sample, the TAC and TTG were lower in the PQ group as compared with control group. Co-administration of PQ with M. chamomilla extract increased TAC and TTG in liver tissue as compared with PQ group.In conclusion, M. chamomilla as natural antioxidant may be considered beneficial for the protection oxidative liver injury in PQ poisoning.

  17. Application of Lean Tools in the Oil Field Safety Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinze Song

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Current safety management in oil fields is in low efficiency and data from DOE indicated that the injury rate in the oil and gas field was greater than those for all the other U.S. industries. The paperintroduced lean concepts and tools to the safety management in oil fields. In theresearch, a new safety management methodology has been set up. The study also compared the current safety management and the new safety management which was built up by lean concepts. In addition, several lean tools have been modified to make them fit and work better in oil fields.

  18. Application of Brown’s Gas for a Diesel Engine Running on Rapeseed Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredas Rimkus; Tomas Ulickas; Saugirdas Pukalskas; Paulius Stravinskas

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the analysis of possible applications of Brown’s gas to the diesel engine running on oil. The paper also contains a review of experimental works. The selected fuel combinations are as follows: diesel fuel, diesel fuel and Brown’s gas, oil (rapeseed oil) and oil and Brown’s gas. Test results have shown that an additional supply of Brown’s gas to the engine results in a decrease in the amounts of carbon monoxide (CO) and smoke level; however it increases the total emission ...

  19. Application of microemulsion in oil production operations; Emprego de microemulsao na producao de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Marcia Cristina K. de; Gonzalez, Gaspar [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2008-07-01

    Microemulsions are thermodynamically stable liquid-liquid dispersions that present a wide range of potential applications in the Petroleum Industry due to their high stability, ultralow interfacial tension and capacity to modify the wettability of the solids eventually present in the system. In this work some specific application such as removal of deposits from solid surfaces, oily sludge separation, heavy oil recovery from consolidated porous media and oil mobilization from limestone cores, currently under examination at PETROBRAS, are reviewed. It has been found that heavy oil fraction strongly attached to solid surfaces can be removed up to above 90% in the case solids contaminated with oil previously treated by thermal desorption or for sand contaminated with crude oil. Tests with field samples of oily sludge showed that these contaminants can readily be resolved into oil, water and free loose solid particles. In fluid injection tests using consolidated porous media it was observed that the injection of microemulsion after secondary oil removal with sea water conduced to an additional recovery of 59%. Qualitative tests carried out with consolidated limestone cores impregnated with crude oil showed that the oil was efficiently displaced by microemulsion. This effect has been ascribed to the rock matrix wettability inversion caused by the microemulsion. (author)

  20. A review of polymer nanofibres by electrospinning and their application in oil-water separation for cleaning up marine oil spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarbatly, Rosalam; Krishnaiah, Duduku; Kamin, Zykamilia

    2016-05-15

    The growths of oil and gas exploration and production activities have increased environmental problems, such as oil spillage and the resulting pollution. The study of the methods for cleaning up oil spills is a critical issue to protect the environment. Various techniques are available to contain oil spills, but they are typically time consuming, energy inefficient and create secondary pollution. The use of a sorbent, such as a nanofibre sorbent, is a technique for controlling oil spills because of its good physical and oil sorption properties. This review discusses about the application of nanofibre sorbent for oil removal from water and its current developments. With their unique physical and mechanical properties coupled with their very high surface area and small pore sizes, nanofibre sorbents are alternative materials for cleaning up oil spills.

  1. EFFECT OF PLASMA ENERGY ON THE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, TOTAL POLYPHENOLS AND FUNGAL VIABILITY IN CHAMOMILE (MATRICARIA CHAMOMILLA AND CINNAMON (CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solís-Pacheco J.R.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The plasma energy is a collection of free particles with positive and negative charges and has demonstrated to be a good prospect for food preservation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of plasma energy on the antioxidant activity, total polyphenol content and yeasts and molds counts in chamomile and cinnamon powder samples treated at 650, 750 and 850 volts for 0, 1, 3 ,5 7 and10 min. Total counts of yeasts and molds in chamomile and cinamon powder samples were determined before and after each treatment with plasma energy. The enumeration was conducted on potatoe dextrose agar suplemented with 0.6% Bengal rose and 2% ampicillin. The antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content were also analyzed. The results showed that plasma exposure on chamomile and cinnamon powder at 850V for 10 minutes significantly reduced (p<0.05 the concentration of yeasts and molds reduced to <1.0 log CFU/g, and only 0.68±0.19 log CFU/g, respectively. Regarding the antioxidant activity and the total polyphenol content, we observed a reduction of 55% in the antioxidant activity in chamomile, while in cinnamon; there was an increase of 21.4% at 750 V. The highest total polyphenol content was observed after 10 min of treatment at 650 V and 750V, with concentrations of 3.3 ± 0.05 mg GAE/g in chamomile and 1.7 ± 0.01 mg GAE/g in cinnamon. We conclude that treatment with plasma at 750 Volts and 10 minutes of exposure was the best treatment to significantly reduce (p<0.05 yeasts and molds counts without affecting the total polyphenol content in chamomile and cinnamon powder.

  2. Antibacterial activity of essential oils: potential applications in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Due to its antibacterial activity, oregano oil has lately become interesting as a potential 'natural' food preservative. Oregano oil was found to be a fast acting and effective inhibitor of a strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7, the causative agent of a serious gastro-enteritis, and was lethal to thi

  3. Development and characterization of cinnamon leaf oil nanocream for topical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N A Zainol

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamon leaf oil contains a high percentage of eugenol and has antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. However, the undiluted oil can cause irritation to the skin. Therefore, the aims of this study were to develop and evaluate cinnamon leaf oil nanocream using palm oil. Nanocream base was prepared using different ratios of oil, surfactants and water. The surfactant used were mixture of Tween 80:Carbitol or Tween 80:Span 65 at different hydrophile-lipophile balance values. The pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed to identify the nanocream base areas and the results showed that the nanocream bases using Span 65 as co-surfactant produced bigger cream area. Fifteen formulations using mixtures of Tween 80:Span 65 were further evaluated for accelerated stability test, droplet size, zeta potential, rheological properties and apparent viscosity. The nanocream base which had an average droplet size of 219 nm and had plastic flow with thixotropic behavior was selected for incorporation of 2% cinnamon leaf oil. The nanocream containing cinnamon leaf oil had the average size of 286 nm and good rheological characteristics. Thein vitro release study demonstrated that eugenol as the main constituent of cinnamon leaf oil was released for about 81% in 10 h. The short-term stability study conducted for 6 months showed that the cinnamon leaf oil nanocream was stable at a temperature of 25° and thus, cinnamon leaf oil nanocream is a promising natural based preparation to be used for topical application.

  4. Application of thin-layer chromatography of fat and oil, fatty acid and mineral oil for science education. Yushi, shibosan, koyu no hakuso chromatography to sono kyozaiteki katsuyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabuchi, K. (Ehime Univ., Ehime (Japan)); Takechi, Y.; Morimoto, M. (Ehime (Japan))

    1990-08-20

    In this article, with regard to application of thin-layer chromatography of fat and oil, fatty acid and mineral oil for science education, a study was made mainly on quality finding of n-hexane extracts provided in the law of prevention of water pollution, and separation of hydrolysis products of fat and oil. As a result, the existance of fat and oil, fatty acid and mineral oil in the enviromental water and the hydrolysis process of fat and oil could experimentally be confirmed. This is considered to be useful for studying teaching material on fat and oil. This report deals with the reagents and device, and specifies standard solution, thin-layer plate, spread solvent, spread tank and thermostat, and states, for its operation, the method using enzyme for hydrolysis of fat and oil and the method using potassium hydroxide. It also contemplates on R {sub f} values of fat and oil, fatty acid and mineral oil, etc., as well as spread of fat and oil, oils contained in n-hexane extracts and hydrolysis products of fat and oil. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Applications of Biosurfactants in the Petroleum Industry and the Remediation of Oil Spills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia F. S. Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum hydrocarbons are important energy resources. However, petroleum is also a major pollutant of the environment. Contamination by oil and oil products has caused serious harm, and increasing attention has been paid to the development and implementation of innovative technologies for the removal of these contaminants. Biosurfactants have been extensively used in the remediation of water and soil, as well as in the main stages of the oil production chain, such as extraction, transportation, and storage. This diversity of applications is mainly due to advantages such as biodegradability, low toxicity and better functionality under extreme conditions in comparison to synthetic counterparts. Moreover, biosurfactants can be obtained with the use of agro-industrial waste as substrate, which helps reduce overall production costs. The present review describes the potential applications of biosurfactants in the oil industry and the remediation of environmental pollution caused by oil spills.

  6. Applications of biosurfactants in the petroleum industry and the remediation of oil spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cássia F S Silva, Rita; Almeida, Darne G; Rufino, Raquel D; Luna, Juliana M; Santos, Valdemir A; Sarubbo, Leonie Asfora

    2014-07-15

    Petroleum hydrocarbons are important energy resources. However, petroleum is also a major pollutant of the environment. Contamination by oil and oil products has caused serious harm, and increasing attention has been paid to the development and implementation of innovative technologies for the removal of these contaminants. Biosurfactants have been extensively used in the remediation of water and soil, as well as in the main stages of the oil production chain, such as extraction, transportation, and storage. This diversity of applications is mainly due to advantages such as biodegradability, low toxicity and better functionality under extreme conditions in comparison to synthetic counterparts. Moreover, biosurfactants can be obtained with the use of agro-industrial waste as substrate, which helps reduce overall production costs. The present review describes the potential applications of biosurfactants in the oil industry and the remediation of environmental pollution caused by oil spills.

  7. Kinetic study of olive oil degradation monitored by fourier transform infrared spectrometry. Application to oil characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román Falcó, Iván P; Grané Teruel, Nuria; Prats Moya, Soledad; Martín Carratalá, M Luisa

    2012-11-28

    A new approach for the determination of kinetic parameters of the cis/trans isomerization during the oxidation process of 24 virgin olive oils belonging to 8 different varieties is presented. The accelerated process of degradation at 100 °C was monitored by recording the Fourier transform infrared spectra. The parameters obtained confirm pseudo-first-order kinetics for the degradation of cis and the appearance of trans double bonds. The kinetic approach affords the induction time and the rate coefficient; these parameters are related to the fatty acid profile of the fresh olive oils. The data obtained were used to compare the oil stability of the samples with the help of multivariate statistical techniques. Fatty acid allowed a classification of the samples in five groups, one of them constituted by the cultivars with higher stability. Meanwhile, the kinetic parameters showed greater ability for the characterization of olive oils, allowing the classification in seven groups.

  8. [Application of PCA to diesel engine oil spectrometric analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Tian, Hong-Xiang; Guo, Wen-Yong

    2010-03-01

    In order to study wear characteristics of a 6-cylinder diesel engine, six different working statuses were arranged by altering the clearance between cylinder and piston. Sixty-nine oil samples were taken from engine at different loads under 6 working statuses and analyzed by Spectroil M Instrument made in US. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to analyzing spectrometric data of sixty-nine oil samples and clustering those data according to elements and oil samples separately based on the weighted coefficient and principal component scores. All 21 elements were used in element clustering and only 6 wear-related elements, namely iron, chromium, aluminum, copper, plumbum and silicon, were used in sample clustering. It is shown that PCA effectively clustered oil spectrometric data into three different principal components according to elements. The projection of two different principal components exhibited five types of elements combinations, namely wear elements (Fe, Cr, Cu, Al and Pb), high concentration additives elements (Na, Zn, P, Ca and Mg), low concentration additives elements (Ba and B), base constituent of lubricating oils (C and H) and interferential elements (Ni, Ti, Mo, V, Ag and Sn). Furthermore, PCA clearly clustered oil samples according to different clearance between cylinder and piston in the diesel engine. The study suggests that analyzing oil spectrographic data by PCA could find the sources of different elements, monitor engine conditions and diagnose wear faults.

  9. In vitro effect of essential oils from aromatic and medicinal plants on mushroom pathogens: Verticillium fungicola var. fungicola, Mycogone perniciosa, and Cladobotryum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanović Brankica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lavender, anise, chamomile, fennel, geranium, oregano, parsley, and sage essential oils were tested for their effectiveness against mushroom pathogens: Verticillium fungicola var. fungicola, Mycogone perniciosa, and Cladobotryum sp. Isolates were exposed to the volatile phase of the oils and then ventilated in order to determine if the effect of the oil was lethal to the pathogen. Oregano and geranium oils were the most toxic, having a fungicidal effect at 0.02-0.08 μl/ml of air, depending on the pathogen. Oregano oil was characterized by high content of carvacrol and thymol, while citranelol and geraniol were the main components of geranium oil.

  10. LC-PDA-ESI/MS identification of the phenolic components of three compositae spices: chamomile, tarragon, and Mexican arnica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Long-Ze; Harnly, James M

    2012-06-01

    Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) and Mexican arnica (Heterotheca inuoides) are common compositae spices and herbs found in the US market. They contain flavonoids and hydroxycinnamates that are potentially beneficial to human health. A standardized LC-PDA-ESI/MS profiling method was used to identify 51 flavonoids and 17 hydroxycinnamates. Many of the identifications were confirmed with authentic standards or through references in the literature or the laboratory's database. More than half of the phenol compounds for each spice had not been previously reported. The phenolic profile can be used for plant authentication and to correlate with biological activities.

  11. Pityriasis rosea-like eruptions due to mustard oil application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zawar Vijay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A young man employed in a construction company, presented with cutaneous lesions clinically simulating pityriasis rosea. Satisfactory and complete response to corticosteroids and antihistamines was followed by recurrence. Multiple recurrences within a short span of time arose a suspicion of alternative diagnosis. Site visit helped us to rule out occupational contact dermatitis. Further history taking revealed that he was recently using mustard oil for body massage. Subsequent patch testing confirmed contact hypersensitivity to mustard oil. Avoidance of the contact with mustard oil arrested appearance of further skin lesions. We stress the importance of taking a good history in clinical practice in disclosing a possible contactant.

  12. Screening of thermotolerant microorganisms and application for oil separation from palm oil mill wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aran H-Kittikun

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of palm oil mill wastewater (POMW were brown color, pH 3.8-4.3, temperature 48-55oC, total solids 68.2-82.1 g/l, suspended solids 26.2-65.6 g/l, oil and grease 19.1-25.1 g/l, COD 49.9-160.7g/l and BOD 32.5-75.3 g/l. After centrifugation (3,184 xg of 50 ml POMW for 10 min, the POMW was separated into 3 layers: top (oil, middle (supernatant and bottom layer (sediment. The sediment containeddry weight 1.19 g and oil and grease 1.07 g. In order to release oil and grease trapped in palm fiber debris in the POMW, cellulase- and/or xylanase-enzyme-producing and thermotolerant microorganisms wereisolated. The isolates SO1 and SO2 were isolated from soil near the first anaerobic pond of the palm oil mill. They were aerobic, Gram positive, rod shaped, thermotolerant microorganisms and produced cellulase 12.11 U/ml (3 days and 7.2 U/ml (4 days, and xylanase 50.98 U/ml (4 days and 20.42 U/ml (4 days, respectivelyin synthetic medium containing carboxymethycellulose as a carbon source. When these 2 isolates were added into the steriled POMW under shaking condition for 7 days, after centrifugation at 3,184 xg the isolate SO1gave the better % reduction of dry weight (64.66 % and of oil and grease in the bottom layer (85.32 % of the POMW.

  13. Silicone oil emulsions: strategies to improve their stability and applications in hair care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, H; Zhang, W; Liu, Y; Chen, X; Wang, L; Naseer, M M; Ma, G

    2014-04-01

    Silicone oils have wide range of applications in personal care products due to their unique properties of high lubricity, non-toxicity, excessive spreading and film formation. They are usually employed in the form of emulsions due to their inert nature. Until now, different conventional emulsification techniques have been developed and applied to prepare silicone oil emulsions. The size and uniformity of emulsions showed important influence on stability of droplets, which further affect the application performance. Therefore, various strategies were developed to improve the stability as well as application performance of silicone oil emulsions. In this review, we highlight different factors influencing the stability of silicone oil emulsions and explain various strategies to overcome the stability problems. In addition, the silicone deposition on the surface of hair substrates and different approaches to increase their deposition are also discussed in detail.

  14. Application of Volatile Antifungal Plant Essential Oils for Controlling Pepper Fruit Anthracnose by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeum Kyu Hong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides has been destructive during pepper fruit production in outdoor fields in Korea. In vitro antifungal activities of 15 different plant essential oils or its components were evaluated during conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides. In vitro conidial germination was most drastically inhibited by vapour treatments with carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral, p-cymene and linalool. Inhibition of the mycelial growth by indirect vapour treatment with essential oils was also demonstrated compared with untreated control. Carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral and eugenol were among the most inhibitory plant essential oils by the indirect antifungal efficacies. Plant protection efficacies of the plant essential oils were demonstrated by reduced lesion diameter on the C. gloeosporioides-inoculated immature green pepper fruits compared to the inoculated control fruits without any plant essential oil treatment. In planta test showed that all plant essential oils tested in this study demonstrated plant protection efficacies against pepper fruit anthracnose with similar levels. Thus, application of different plant essential oils can be used for eco-friendly disease management of anthracnose during pepper fruit production.

  15. Health-promoting value and food applications of black cumin essential oil: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanien, Mohamed F R; Assiri, Adel M A; Alzohairy, Ahmed M; Oraby, Hesham Farouk

    2015-10-01

    Black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) seeds and its essential oil have been widely used in functional foods, nutraceuticals and pharmaceutical products. Analysis of Nigella sativa essential oil using GC and GC-MS resulted in the identification of many bioactive compounds representing ca. 85 % of the total content. The main compounds included p-cymene, thymoquinone, α-thujene, longifolene, β-pinene, α-pinene and carvacrol. Nigella sativa essential oil exhibited different biological activities including antifungal, antibacterial and antioxidant potentials. Nigella sativa essential oil showed complete inhibition zones against different Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including Penicillium citrinum Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The essential oil showed stronger antioxidant potential in comparison with synthetic antioxidants (i.e., BHA and BHT) in a rapeseed oil model system. The oil exhibited also stronger radical scavenging activity against DPPH·radical in comparison with synthetic antioxidants. The diversity of applications to which Nigella sativa essential oil can be put gives this oil industrial importance.

  16. Selection of a suitable vegetable oil for high voltage insulation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosier, I. L.; Guushaa, A.; Vaughan, A. S.; Swingler, S. G.

    2009-08-01

    Many items of high voltage plant employ a liquid both as a dielectric and a coolant. Currently these systems use a mineral oil, however, this suffers from the drawback of being potentially toxic and hence leakages and eventual disposal can be serious issues. To overcome this problem, an increasing trend in the UK is to backfill existing paper/oil cable systems with dodecylbenzene (DDB). This fluid possesses the advantages of improved gas absorption, good dielectric properties and biodegradability; nevertheless it is still derived from crude oil, a non-renewable resource. Vegetable oils offer the added advantage of being renewable although many types are available with very different properties. In order to select a suitable vegetable oil for high voltage applications, a standardised ageing and testing regime is required. In this paper, a wide range of vegetable oils were subjected to controlled laboratory ageing and the resulting aged oils were characterised by a number of analytical techniques. The results from these tests were then used to rank the different oils, and to select the most ageing resistant oil.

  17. Production strategies and applications of microbial single cell oils

    OpenAIRE

    Katrin Ochsenreither; Claudia Glück; Timo Stressler; Lutz Fischer; Christoph Syldatk

    2016-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of the ω-3 and ω-6 class (e.g., α-linolenic acid, linoleic acid) are essential for maintaining biofunctions in mammalians like humans. Due to the fact that humans cannot synthesize these essential fatty acids, they must be taken up from different food sources. Classical sources for these fatty acids are porcine liver and fish oil. However, microbial lipids or single cell oils, produced by oleaginous microorganisms such as algae, fungi and bacteria, are a pr...

  18. Application of polymers to modify bitumen obtained from waxy oils

    OpenAIRE

    Гринишин, Олег Богданович; Фридер, Ірина Вікторівна

    2013-01-01

    The article describes one of the ways of solution of the actual problem of obtaining quality bituminous materials from residues of paraffin oil recycling. The authors examined the modification of bitumen with polymers, in particular with petroleum resins, polyethylene, and industrial modifiers Elvaloy 4170 and Butonal NS 198. The study was carried out in two ways. We have studied the basic regularities of the joint oxidation of paraffin tar and oil polymerous resins. It was found that the pre...

  19. A novel preparation method for silicone oil nanoemulsions and its application for coating hair with silicone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Z

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Zhenhua Hu,1,2,* Meiling Liao,2,* Yinghui Chen,3,* Yunpeng Cai,2 Lele Meng,2 Yajun Liu,2 Nan Lv,2 Zhenguo Liu,1 Weien Yuan21Department of Neurology, Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 2School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 3Department of Neurology, Jinshan Hospital, Fudan University, Jinshan District, Shanghai, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Silicone oil, as a major component in conditioner, is beneficial in the moisture preservation and lubrication of hair. However, it is difficult for silicone oil to directly absorb on the hair surface because of its hydrophobicity. Stable nanoemulsions containing silicone oil may present as a potential solution to this problem.Methods: Silicone oil nanoemulsions were prepared using the oil-in-water method with nonionic surfactants. Emulsion particle size and distribution were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The kinetic stability of this nanoemulsion system was investigated under accelerated stability tests and long-term storage. The effect of silicone oil deposition on hair was examined by analyzing the element of hair after treatment of silicone oil nanoemulsions.Results: Nonionic surfactants such as Span 80 and Tween 80 are suitable emulsifiers to prepare oil-in-water nanoemulsions that are both thermodynamically stable and can enhance the absorption of silicone oil on hair surface.Conclusion: The silicone oil-in-water nanoemulsions containing nonionic surfactants present as a promising solution to improve the silicone oil deposition on the hair surface for hair care applications.Keywords: silicone oil, nanoemulsion, stability, moisture preservation, lubrication

  20. Lipase applications in oil hydrolysis with a case study on castor oil: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Debajyoti; Basu, Jayanta Kumar; De, Sirshendu

    2013-03-01

    Lipase (triacylglycerol acylhydrolase) is a unique enzyme which can catalyze various types of reactions such as hydrolysis, esterification, alcoholysis etc. In particular, hydrolysis of vegetable oil with lipase as a catalyst is widely studied. Free lipase, lipase immobilized on suitable support, lipase encapsulated in a reverse micelle and lipase immobilized on a suitable membrane to be used in membrane reactor are the most common ways of employing lipase in oil hydrolysis. Castor oil is a unique vegetable oil as it contains high amounts (90%) of a hydroxy monounsaturated fatty acid named ricinoleic acid. This industrially important acid can be obtained by hydrolysis of castor oil. Different conventional hydrolysis processes have certain disadvantages which can be avoided by a lipase-catalyzed process. The degree of hydrolysis varies widely for different lipases depending on the operating range of process variables such as temperature, pH and enzyme loading. Immobilization of lipase on a suitable support can enhance hydrolysis by suppressing thermal inactivation and estolide formation. The presence of metal ions also affects lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of castor oil. Even a particular ion has different effects on the activity of different lipases. Hydrophobic organic solvents perform better than hydrophilic solvents during the reaction. Sonication considerably increases hydrolysis in case of lipolase. The effects of additives on the same lipase vary with their types. Nonionic surfactants enhance hydrolysis whereas cationic and anionic surfactants decrease it. A single variable optimization method is used to obtain optimum conditions. In order to eliminate its disadvantages, a statistical optimization method is used in recent studies. Statistical optimization shows that interactions between any two of the following pH, enzyme concentration and buffer concentration become significant in presence of a nonionic surfactant named Span 80.

  1. A review of applications of tea tree oil in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazyar, Nader; Yaghoobi, Reza; Bagherani, Nooshin; Kazerouni, Afshin

    2013-07-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) is an essential oil, steam-distilled from the Australian native plant, Melaleuca alternifolia. It has a minimum content of terpinen-4-ol and a maximum content of 1, 8-cineole. Terpinen-4-ol is a major TTO component which exhibits strong antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. Tea tree oil exerts antioxidant activity and has been reported to have broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against bacterial, viral, fungal, and protozoal infections affecting skin and mucosa. Several studies have suggested the uses of TTO for the treatment of acne vulgaris, seborrheic dermatitis, and chronic gingivitis. It also accelerates the wound healing process and exhibits anti-skin cancer activity. This review opens up new horizons for dermatologists in the use of this herbal agent.

  2. The use of Brazilian vegetable oils in nanoemulsions: an update on preparation and biological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Bajerski

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Vegetable oils present important pharmacological properties, which gained ground in the pharmaceutical field. Its encapsulation in nanoemulsions is considered a promising strategy to facilitate the applicability of these natural compounds and to potentiate the actions. These formulations offer several advantages for topical and systemic delivery of cosmetic and pharmaceutical agents including controlled droplet size, protection of the vegetable oil to photo, thermal and volatilization instability and ability to dissolve and stabilize lipophilic drugs. For these reasons, the aim of this review is to report on some characteristics, preparation methods, applications and especially analyze recent research available in the literature concerning the use of vegetable oils with therapeutic characteristics as lipid core in nanoemulsions, specially from Brazilian flora, such as babassu (Orbignya oleifera, aroeira (Schinus molle L., andiroba (Carapa guaianiensis, casca-de-anta (Drimys brasiliensis Miers, sucupira (Pterodon emarginatus Vogel and carqueja doce (Stenachaenium megapotamicum oils.

  3. Adapting Human Reliability Analysis from Nuclear Power to Oil and Gas Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-09-01

    ABSTRACT: Human reliability analysis (HRA), as currently used in risk assessments, largely derives its methods and guidance from application in the nuclear energy domain. While there are many similarities be-tween nuclear energy and other safety critical domains such as oil and gas, there remain clear differences. This paper provides an overview of HRA state of the practice in nuclear energy and then describes areas where refinements to the methods may be necessary to capture the operational context of oil and gas. Many key distinctions important to nuclear energy HRA such as Level 1 vs. Level 2 analysis may prove insignifi-cant for oil and gas applications. On the other hand, existing HRA methods may not be sensitive enough to factors like the extensive use of digital controls in oil and gas. This paper provides an overview of these con-siderations to assist in the adaptation of existing nuclear-centered HRA methods to the petroleum sector.

  4. Application of organic polymeric fiocculants in centrifugal dewatering of oil refinery sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In order to evaluate the applicability of the organic polymeric floeculants(OPF) in the treatment of oil refinery sludge, experimentswere conducted to show that OPF have better performance of flocculation than inorganic flocculants. Both the anionic and cationic OPF havesatisfactory flocculation efficiency in oil sludge treatment, but the latter are more cost-efficient. Among the over 20 types of flocculants tested,2OPF(CPAM-2 and HPAM-2) were selected as the treatment agents, based on their good treatment performances, oil-resistance and economicfeasibility. It was demonstrated in the industrial-scale centrifugal dewatering experiments that the application of either CPAM-2 or HPAM-2could achieve high treatment efficiency of the oil sludge dewatering and reduce the COD of centrifugal liquid to less than 1000 mg/L.

  5. Application of lidar and optical data for oil palm plantation management in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafri, Helmi Z. M.; Ismail, Mohd Hasmadi; Razi, Mohd Khairil M.; Anuar, Mohd Izzuddin; Ahmad, Abdul Rahman

    2012-11-01

    Proper oil palm plantation management is crucial for Malaysia as the country depends heavily on palm oil as a major source of national income. Precision agriculture is considered as one of the approaches that can be adopted to improve plantation practices for plantation managers such as the government-owned FELDA. However, currently the implementation of precision agriculture based on remote sensing and GIS is still lacking. This study explores the potential of the use of LiDAR and optical remote sensing data for plantation road and terrain planning for planting purposes. Traditional approaches use land surveying techniques that are time consuming and costly for vast plantation areas. The first ever airborne LiDAR and multispectral survey for oil palm plantation was carried out in early 2012 to test its feasibility. Preliminary results show the efficiency of such technology in demanding engineering and agricultural requirements of oil palm plantation. The most significant advantage of the approach is that it allows plantation managers to accurately plan the plantation road and determine the planting positions of new oil palm seedlings. Furthermore, this creates for the first time, digital database of oil palm estate and the airborne imagery can also be used for related activities such as oil palm tree inventory and detection of palm diseases. This work serves as the pioneer towards a more frequent application of LiDAR and multispectral data for oil palm plantation in Malaysia.

  6. Juniper tar (cade oil) poisoning in new born after a cutaneous application

    OpenAIRE

    Achour, Sanae; Abourazzak, Sana; Mokhtari, Abdelrhani; Soulaymani, Abdelmjid; Soulaymani, Rachida; Hida, Moustapha

    2011-01-01

    Juniper tar (cade oil) is distilled from the branches and wood of Juniperus oxycedrus. It contains etheric oils, triterpene and phenols, used for many purposes in folk medicine. The authors report a case of a previously healthy new born treated with a topical application of Juniperus oxycedrus for atopic dermatosis The poisoning caused convulsions, collapsus, acute pulmonary oedema, renal failure and hepatotoxicity. The newborn survived after supportive and symptomatic treatment, and discharg...

  7. [Toxic mustard plaster dematitis and phototoxic dematitis after application of bergamot oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisenseel, P; Woitalla, S

    2005-12-15

    Two cases that illustrate the risks attendant on the therapeutic use of natural medications by laypersons are reported. In the first case, the application of a mustard plaster triggered toxic dermatitis. In the second case, a session in a solarium after the external application of bergamot oil resulted in a phototoxic reaction.

  8. Vegetable Oil-Loaded Nanocapsules: Innovative Alternative for Incorporating Drugs for Parenteral Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturinil, C G; Bruinsmann, A; Oliveira, C P; Contri, R V; Pohlmann, A R; Guterres, S S

    2016-02-01

    An innovative nanocapsule formulation for parenteral administration using selected vegetable oils (mango, jojoba, pequi, oat, annatto, calendula, and chamomile) was developed that has the potential to encapsulate various drugs. The vegetable oil-loaded nanocapsules were prepared by interfacial deposition and compared with capric/caprylic triglyceride-loaded lipid core nanocapsules. The major objective was to investigate the effect of vegetable oils on particle size distribution and physical stability and to determine the hemolytic potential of the nanocapsules, considering their applicability for intravenous administration. Taking into account the importance of accurately determining particle size for the selected route of administration, different size characterization techniques were employed, such as Laser Diffraction, Dynamic Light Scattering, Multiple Light Scattering, Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis, and Transmission Electronic Microscopy. Laser diffraction studies indicated that the mean particle size of all nanocapsules was below 300 nm. For smaller particles, the laser diffraction and multiple light scattering data were in agreement (D[3,2]-130 nm). Dynamic light scattering and nanoparticle tracking analysis, two powerful techniques that complement each other, exhibited size values between 180 and 259 nm for all nanoparticles. Stability studies demonstrated a tendency of particle creaming for jojoba-nanocapsules and sedimentation for the other nanoparticles; however, no size variation occurred over 30 days. The hemolysis test proved the hemocompatibility of all nanosystems, irrespective of the type of oil. Although all developed nanocapsules presented the potential for parenteral administration, jojoba oil-loaded nanocapsules were selected as the most promising nanoformulation due to their low average size and high particle size homogeneity.

  9. Experimental Investigation of Temperature Dependency of Relative Permeability Data in Heavy Oil Systems with Applications to Thermal Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Ashrafi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Heavy oil and tar sands are important hydrocarbon resources that are destined to play an increasingly important role in the oil supply of the world. A huge proportion of total world oil resources are in the form of these highly viscous fluids. The main recovery mechanism for these kinds of reservoirs is to somehow reduce their viscosity by the application of heat. In these extra heavy oil reservoirs, the reservoir has almost no injectivity, and therefore conventional steam flooding is hard to...

  10. A review on applications of nanotechnology in the enhanced oil recovery part B: effects of nanoparticles on flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghian, Goshtasp; Hendraningrat, Luky

    2016-11-01

    Chemical flooding is of increasing interest and importance due to high oil prices and the need to increase oil production. Research in nanotechnology in the petroleum industry is advancing rapidly, and an enormous progress in the application of nanotechnology in this area is to be expected. The nanotechnology has been widely used in several other industries, and the interest in the oil industry is increasing. Nanotechnology has the potential to profoundly change enhanced oil recovery and to improve mechanism of recovery, and it is chosen as an alternative method to unlock the remaining oil resources and applied as a new enhanced oil recovery method in last decade. This paper therefore focuses on the reviews of the application of nanotechnology in chemical flooding process in oil recovery and reviews the applications of nanomaterials for improving oil recovery that have been proposed to explain oil displacement by polymer flooding within oil reservoirs, and also this paper highlights the research advances of polymer in oil recovery. Nanochemical flooding is an immature method from an application point of view.

  11. Applications to marine disaster prevention spilled oil and gas tracking buoy system

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the recent results of the research project funded by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S) of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (No. 23226017) from FY 2011 to FY 2015 on an autonomous spilled oil and gas tracking buoy system and its applications to marine disaster prevention systems from a scientific point of view. This book spotlights research on marine disaster prevention systems related to incidents involving oil tankers and offshore platforms, approaching these problems from new scientific and technological perspectives. The most essential aspect of this book is the development of a deep-sea underwater robot for real-time monitoring of blowout behavior of oil and gas from the seabed and of a new type of autonomous surface vehicle for real-time tracking and monitoring of oil spill spread and drift on the sea surface using an oil sensor. The mission of these robots is to provide the simulation models for gas and oil blowouts or spilled oil drifting on the sea surface w...

  12. In Vivo Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Insulin Producing Cells on Electrospun Poly-L-Lactide Acid Scaffolds Coated with Matricaria chamomilla L. Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Fazili

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study examined the in vivo differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs into insulin producing cells (IPCs on electrospun poly-L-lactide acid (PLLA scaffolds coated with Matricaria chammomila L. (chamomile oil. Materials and Methods: In this interventional, experimental study adipose MSCs (AMSCs were isolated from 12 adult male New Zealand white rabbits and characterized by flow cytometry. AMSCs were subsequently differentiated into osteogenic and adipogenic lines. Cells were seeded onto either a PLLA scaffold (control or PLLA scaffold coated with chamomile oil (experimental. A total of 24 scaffolds were inserted into the pancreatic area of each rabbit and placement was confirmed by ultrasound. After 21 days, immunohistochemistry analysis of insulin-producing like cells on protein levels confirmed insulin expression of insulin producing cells (IPSCs. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR determined the expressions of genes related to pancreatic endocrine development and function. Results: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR results confirmed the existence of oil on the surface of the PLLA scaffold. The results showed a new peak at 2854 cm-1 for the aliphatic CH2 bond. Pdx1 expression was 0.051 ± 0.007 in the experimental group and 0.009 ± 0.002 in the control group. There was significantly increased insulin expression in the scaffold coated with chamomile oil (0.09 ± 0.001 compared to control group (0.063 ± 0.009, P≤0.05. Both groups expressed Ngn3 and Pdx1 specific markers and pancreatic tissue was observed at 21 days post transplantation. Conclusion: The pancreatic region is an optimal site for differentiation of AMSCs to IPCs. Chamomile oil (as an antioxidant agent can affect cell adhesion to the scaffold and increase cell differentiation. In addition, the oil may lead to increased blood glucose uptake in pathways in the muscles, liver and fatty tissue of a diabetic animal model by some probable molecular

  13. Microfluidic and micro-core methods for enhanced oil recovery and carbon storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phong

    Injection of CO2 into the subsurface, for both storage and oil recovery, is an emerging strategy to mitigate atmospheric CO2 emissions and associated climate change. In this thesis microfluidic and micro-core methods were developed to inform combined CO2-storage and oil recovery operations and determine relevant fluid properties. Pore scale studies of nanoparticle stabilized CO2-in-water foam and its application in oil recovery to show significant improvement in oil recovery rate with different oils from around the world (light, medium, and heavy). The CO2 nanoparticle-stabilized CO2 foams generate a three-fold increase in oil recovery (an additional 15% of initial oil in place) as compared to an otherwise similar CO2 gas flood. Nanoparticle-stabilized CO2 foam flooding also results in significantly smaller oil-in-water emulsion sizes. All three oils show substantial additional oil recovery and a positive reservoir homogenization effect. A supporting microfluidic approach is developed to quantify the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) -- a critical parameter for combined CO 2 storage and enhanced oil recovery. The method leverages the inherent fluorescence of crude oils, is faster than conventional technologies, and provides quantitative, operator-independent measurements. In terms of speed, a pressure scan for a single minimum miscibility pressure measurement required less than 30 min, in stark contrast to days or weeks with existing rising bubble and slimtube methods. In practice, subsurface geology also interacts with injected CO 2. Commonly carbonate dissolution results in pore structure, porosity, and permeability changes. These changes are measured by x-ray microtomography (micro-CT), liquid permeability measurements, and chemical analysis. Chemical composition of the produced liquid analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) shows concentrations of magnesium and calcium. This work leverages established advantages of

  14. Amaranth oil application for coronary heart disease and hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogojeva Ala V

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the Nation's leading killer for both men and women among all racial and ethnic groups. Development and progression of CVD is linked to the presence of risk factors such as hyperlipidemia, hypertension, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. It is known that cholesterol is an indicator of increased risk of heart attack and stroke. Low-density cholesterol (LDL above 130 mg/dl high-density cholesterol (HDL cholesterol below 35 mg/dl and total blood cholesterol above 200 mg/dl are indicators of problematic cholesterol. Proper ranges of cholesterol are important in the prevention of CVD. It has been suggested that a reduction in the consumption of saturated and an increase in unsaturated fatty acids is beneficial and prevents CVD. Amaranth grain contains tocotrienols and squalene compounds, which are known to affect cholesterol biosynthesis. The cholesterol precursors squalene, lanosterol and other methyl sterols, reflect cholesterol synthesis 123, whereas plant sterols and cholestanol, a metabolite of cholesterol, reflect the efficiency of cholesterol absorption in normal and hyperlipidemic populations 456. Qureshi with co-authors 7 showed that feeding of chickens with amaranth oil decreases blood cholesterol levels, which are supported by the work of others 8. Previously, we have shown that Amaranth oil modulates the cell membrane fluidity 9 and stabilized membranes that could be one reason as to why it is beneficial to those who consume it. It is known that in hypertension, the cell membrane is defective and hence, the movement of the Na and K ions across the cell membranes could defective that could contribute to the development of increase in blood pressure. Based on these properties of amaranth oil we hypothesize that it could be of significant benefit for patients with CVD.

  15. Pyrrolizidine and tropane alkaloids in teas and the herbal teas peppermint, rooibos and chamomile in the Israeli market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimshoni, Jakob Avi; Duebecke, Arne; Mulder, Patrick P J; Cuneah, Olga; Barel, Shimon

    2015-01-01

    Dehydro pyrrolizidine alkaloids (dehydro PAs) are carcinogenic phytotoxins prevalent in the Boraginaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae families. Dehydro PAs enter the food and feed chain by co-harvesting of crops intended for human and animal consumption as well as by carry-over into animal-based products such as milk, eggs and honey. Recently the occurrence of dehydro PAs in teas and herbal teas has gained increasing attention from the EU, due to the high levels of dehydro PAs found in commercially available teas and herbal teas in Germany and Switzerland. Furthermore, several tropane alkaloids (TAs, e.g. scopolamine and hyoscyamine) intoxications due to the consumption of contaminated herbal teas were reported in the literature. The aim of the present study was to determine the dehydro PAs and TAs levels in 70 pre-packed teabags of herbal and non-herbal tea types sold in supermarkets in Israel. Chamomile, peppermint and rooibos teas contained high dehydro PAs levels in almost all samples analysed. Lower amounts were detected in black and green teas, while no dehydro PAs were found in fennel and melissa herbal teas. Total dehydro PAs concentrations in chamomile, peppermint and rooibos teas ranged from 20 to 1729 μg/kg. Except for black tea containing only mono-ester retrorsine-type dehydro PAs, all other teas and herbal teas showed mixed patterns of dehydro PA ester types, indicating a contamination by various weed species during harvesting and/or production. The TA levels per teabag were below the recommended acute reference dose; however, the positive findings of TAs in all peppermint tea samples warrant a more extensive survey. The partially high levels of dehydro PAs found in teas and herbal teas present an urgent warning letter to the regulatory authorities to perform routine quality control analysis and implement maximum residual levels for dehydro PAs.

  16. SSR mining in oil palm EST database: application in oil palm germplasm diversity studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ngoot-Chin Ting; Noorhariza Mohd Zaki; Rozana Rosli; Eng-Ti Leslie Low; Maizura Ithnin; Suan-Choo Cheah; Soon-Guan Tan; Rajinder Singh

    2010-08-01

    This study reports on the detection of additional expressed sequence tags (EST) derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for the oil palm. A large collection of 19243 Elaeis guineensis ESTs were assembled to give 10258 unique sequences, of which 629 ESTs were found to contain 722 SSRs with a variety of motifs. Dinucleotide repeats formed the largest group (45.6%) consisting of 66.9% AG/CT, 21.9% AT/AT, 10.9% AC/GT and 0.3% CG/CG motifs. This was followed by trinucleotide repeats, which is the second most abundant repeat types (34.5%) consisting of AAG/CTT (23.3%), AGG/CCT (13.7%), CCG/CGG (11.2%), AAT/ATT (10.8%), AGC/GCT (10.0%), ACT/AGT (8.8%), ACG/CGT (7.6%), ACC/GGT (7.2%), AAC/GTT (3.6%) and AGT/ACT (3.6%) motifs. Primer pairs were designed for 405 unique EST-SSRs and 15 of these were used to genotype 105 E. guineensis and 30 E. oleifera accessions. Fourteen SSRs were polymorphic in at least one germplasm revealing a total of 101 alleles. The high percentage (78.0%) of alleles found to be specific for either E. guineensis or E. oleifera has increased the power for discriminating the two species. The estimates of genetic differentiation detected by EST-SSRs were compared to those reported previously. The transferability across palm taxa to two Cocos nucifera and six exotic palms is also presented. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of three primer-pairs detected in E. guineensis, E. oleifera, C. nucifera and Jessinia bataua were cloned and sequenced. Sequence alignments showed mutations within the SSR site and the flanking regions. Phenetic analysis based on the sequence data revealed that C. nucifera is closer to oil palm compared to J. bataua; consistent with the taxanomic classification.

  17. Application of an oregano oil nanoemulsion to the control of foodborne bacteria on fresh lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Kanika; Conti, Denise S; da Rocha, Sandro R P; Zhang, Yifan

    2015-05-01

    Although antimicrobial activities of plant essential oils are well documented, challenges remain as to their application in fresh produce due to the hydrophobic nature of essential oils. Oregano oil nanoemulsions were formulated with a food-grade emulsifier and evaluated for their efficacy in inactivating the growth of foodborne bacteria on fresh lettuce. Lettuce was artificially inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7, followed by a one-minute dipping in oregano oil nanoemulsions (0.05% or 0.1%). Samples were stored at 4 °C and enumerated for bacteria at fixed intervals (0 h, 3 h, 24 h, and 72 h). Compared to control, 0.05% nanoemulsion showed an up to 3.44, 2.31, and 3.05 log CFU/g reductions in L. monocytogenes, S. Typhimurium, and E. coli O157:H7, respectively. Up to 3.57, 3.26, and 3.35 log CFU/g reductions were observed on the same bacteria by the 0.1% treatment. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) demonstrated disrupted bacterial membranes due to the oregano oil treatment. The data suggest that applying oregano oil nanoemulsions to fresh produce may be an effective antimicrobial control strategy.

  18. Immediate systemic hypersensitivity reaction associated with topical application of Australian tea tree oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozelsio, Nancy B; Harris, Kathleen E; McGrath, Kris G; Grammer, Leslie C

    2003-01-01

    Australian tea tree oil has been used as a veterinary antiseptic for many years and, more recently, has been extended into human use. There have been many reports of allergic contact dermatitis and toxicity reactions, but it has never been implicated in immediate systemic hypersensitivity reactions. A 38-year-old man experienced immediate flushing, pruritus, throat constriction, and lightheadedness after topical application of tea tree oil. Our purpose was to determine whether this represented an immunoglobulin E (IgE)--mediated reaction. Skin-prick and intradermal testing was performed, as well as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for specific IgG and IgE against tea tree oil. The patient had a positive wheal and flare reaction on intradermal testing with tea tree oil. All five patient controls were negative on skin testing. No specific IgG or IgE was detected. We present the first reported case of an immediate systemic hypersensitivity reaction occurring after topical application of Australian tea tree oil, confirmed by positive wheal and flare reaction on skin testing.

  19. Estimation of dermatological application of creams with St. John's Wort oil extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsić, Ivana; Zugić, Ana; Tadić, Vanja; Tasić-Kostov, Marija; Mišić, Dušan; Primorac, Marija; Runjaić-Antić, Dušanka

    2011-12-28

    Oleum Hyperici, the oil extract of St. John's Wort (SJW), is one of the oldest folk remedies, traditionally used in the topical treatment of wounds, bruises, ulcers, cuts, burns, hemorrhoids and also as an antiseptic. Considering the advantageous characteristics of emulsion applications, in the present study we have formulated three O/W creams containing 15% (w/v) of SJW oil extract as an active ingredient. The aim was to estimate dermatological application of the prepared creams for the abovementioned indications. The extracts were prepared according to the prescriptions from traditional medicine, however with different vegetable oils used as an extractant, namely: Olive, palm and sunflower oil. The investigated O/W creams demonstrated significant antiinflammatory effects in an in vivo double-blind randomized study, using a sodium lauryl sulphate test. Both skin parameters assessed in the study (electrical capacitance and erythema index), were restored to the baseline value after a seven-day treatment with the tested creams. Almost all investigated SJW oil extracts and corresponding creams displayed the same antimicrobial activity against the most of the investigated microorganisms with obtained minimal inhibitory concentrations values of 1,280 µg/mL, 2,560 µg/mL or >2,560 µg/mL.

  20. Estimation of Dermatological Application of Creams with St. John’s Wort Oil Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušanka Runjaić-Antić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Oleum Hyperici, the oil extract of St. John’s Wort (SJW, is one of the oldest folk remedies, traditionally used in the topical treatment of wounds, bruises, ulcers, cuts, burns, hemorrhoids and also as an antiseptic. Considering the advantageous characteristics of emulsion applications, in the present study we have formulated three O/W creams containing 15% (w/v of SJW oil extract as an active ingredient. The aim was to estimate dermatological application of the prepared creams for the abovementioned indications. The extracts were prepared according to the prescriptions from traditional medicine, however with different vegetable oils used as an extractant, namely: Olive, palm and sunflower oil. The investigated O/W creams demonstrated significant antiinflammatory effects in an in vivo double-blind randomized study, using a sodium lauryl sulphate test. Both skin parameters assessed in the study (electrical capacitance and erythema index, were restored to the baseline value after a seven-day treatment with the tested creams. Almost all investigated SJW oil extracts and corresponding creams displayed the same antimicrobial activity against the most of the investigated microorganisms with obtained minimal inhibitory concentrations values of 1,280 µg/mL, 2,560 µg/mL or >2,560 µg/mL.

  1. Cottonseed: protein, oil yields, and oil properties as influenced by potassium fertilization and foliar application of zinc and phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkassas, Abou-El-Ela R.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In maximizing the quantity and quality of a crop’s nutritional value in terms of fatty acids and protein, it is necessary to identify the constraints which may affect it and to devise methods of overcoming them through the use of inputs or changes in management practices. Field experiments were conducted during two successive seasons at the Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt, on the cotton cultivar “Giza 86” (Gossypium barbadense L. to study the effects of potassium fertilization (at 0.0 and 47.4 kg of K ha–1 and foliar application of zinc (at 0.0 and 57.6 g of Zn ha–1, two times, 70 and 85 days after planting, “during square initiation and boll setting stage” and phosphorus (at 0.0, 576, 1152 and 1728 g of P ha–1, two times, 80 and 95 days after planting on cottonseed. The application of potassium along with spraying plants with zinc and phosphorus caused  an increase in cottonseed yield ha–1, seed index, seed oil content, oil and protein yields ha–1, seed oil unsaponifiable matter and total unsaturated fatty acids (oleic and linoleic. However, those treatments resulted in a decrease in oil acid value, saponification value and total saturated fatty acids. The highest P concentration of 1728 g ha–1 gave the best values of cottonseed yield/ha, seed index, and seed oil and protein yields/ha and oil saponifiable matter.Para maximizar la cantidad y calidad del valor nutricional de una semilla en términos de ácidos grasos y proteínas es necesario identificar los factores que los afectan y proponer métodos que favorezcan los resultados deseados a través de cambios o mejoras en las prácticas utilizadas. Los experimentos se llevaron a cabo en dos campañas sucesivas en el Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egipto, en el cultivo “Giza 86” (Gossypium barbadense L. para estudiar los efectos de la fertilización con potasio (a 0.0 y 47.7 kg por ha y las aplicaciones foliares de zinc (a 0.0 y 57.6 g por ha, dos veces

  2. Power Module Cooling for Future Electric Vehicle Applications: A Coolant Comparison of Oil and PGW

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    POWER MODULE COOLING FOR FUTURE ELECTRIC VEHICLE APPLICATIONS: A COOLANT COMPARISON OF OIL AND PGW T. E. Salem U. S. Naval Academy 105...and efficient power converters are being developed to support the needs of future ground vehicle systems. This progress is being driven by...2006 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Power Module Cooling For Future Electric Vehicle Applications: A Coolant

  3. Application of hydrophilic magnetic fluid to oil seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. S.; Nakatsuka, K.; Fujita, T.; Atarashi, T.

    1999-07-01

    Bearing and gear are important components in machines. Lubricant for bearing or gear is usually confined in working space by rubber retainer or mechanical seal, and its lifetime which is determined by the friction wear of sealing material is important. In this report, the basic characteristics of magnetic fluid seal applied to lubricant retainer is studied. The fluid used for this purpose is ethyleneglycol-based magnetic fluid in which silica-coated iron particles are dispersed. The lubricant oil seal set consisting of six stages of pole piece and Nd-permanent magnets (4.0 Wb/m 2) in seal housing showed an excellent pressure resistance of 618 kPa under a rotating speed of 1800 rpm.

  4. Antibacterial activity of essential oils on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and measurement of their binding interaction using optical biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kyong-Hwan; Yang, Ki-Sook; Kim, Jin; Kim, Jin-Chul; Lee, Ki-Young

    2007-11-01

    Antibacterial activity of essential oils (Tea tree, Chamomile, Eucalyptus) on Staphylococcus aureus growth was evaluated as well as the essential oil-loaded alginate beads. The binding interactions between the cell and the essential oils were measured using an optical biosensor. The antibacterial activity of the essential oils to the cell was evaluated with their binding interaction and affinity. The antibacterial activity appeared in the order of Tea Tree> Chamomile>Eucalyptus, in comparison of the inhibition effects of the cell growth to the essential oils. The association rate constant and affinity of the cell binding on Tea Tree essential oil were 5.0 x 10(-13) ml/(CFU-s) and 5.0 x 10(5) ml/CFU, respectively. The affinity of the cell binding on Tea Tree was about twice higher than those on the other essential oils. It might be possible that an effective antibacterial activity of Tea Tree essential oil was derived from its strong adhesive ability to the cell, more so than those of the other essential oils.

  5. Application of Technology of Hydrodynamic Cavitation Processing High-Viscosity Oils for the Purpose of Improving the Rheological Characteristics of Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemenkov, Y. D.; Zemenkova, M. Y.; Vengerov, A. A.; Brand, A. E.

    2016-10-01

    There is investigated the technology of hydrodynamic cavitational processing viscous and high-viscosity oils and the possibility of its application in the pipeline transport system for the purpose of increasing of rheological properties of the transported oils, including dynamic viscosity shear stress in the article. It is considered the possibility of application of the combined hydrodynamic cavitational processing with addition of depressor additive for identification of effect of a synergism. It is developed the laboratory bench and they are presented results of modeling and laboratory researches. It is developed the hardware and technological scheme of application of the developed equipment at industrial objects of pipeline transport.

  6. Design and preparation of plant oil-based polymers and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Byung-Jun Kollbe

    Renewable materials are desirable for many applications due to the finite fossil resources and environmental issues. Plant oil is one of the most promising renewable feedstocks. Plant oils and functionalized oleo-chemicals including functionalized soybean oils have become attractive sustainable chemicals for industrial applications. Especially, epoxidized oleo-chemicals such as epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) are one of the most well-known readily available inexpensive functionalized plant oils. In this study, novel polymers and nanocomposites for sustainable materials applications were designed and prepared via ring-opening of epoxide in plant oils, and their chemical and physical properties were characterized. The novel transparent elastomers derived from functionalized plant oils have a great potential as flexible electronic and biological applications with their inherent low toxicity. Especially, their rheological properties showed a potential for pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs). The dominant thermal stability and transparency were obtained via green processing: one pot, single step, fast reactions in moderate conditions, or solvent-free UV curing conditions. These oleo-based elastomers presented excellent end-use properties for PSAs application comparable to commercial PSA tapes. Based on the principal chemical studies, the roles of the each component have been identified: polymer derived from the ring-opening of epoxides as an elastomer, and dihydroxylated triglycerides as a tackifier. Their interaction was also elucidated with an element label analysis. The mechanical and rheological properties of the oleo-polymer as PSAs were able to be improved with a rosin ester tackifier. In addition, biogreases and bio-thermoplastics were developed via the environmentally benign process, which will contribute to further application on the production of new bio-based materials. Further, this study essays a novel acid functionalized iron/iron oxide nanoparticles catalyst

  7. Juniper tar (cade oil) poisoning in new born after a cutaneous application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achour, Sanae; Abourazzak, Sana; Mokhtari, Abdelrhani; Soulaymani, Abdelmjid; Soulaymani, Rachida; Hida, Moustapha

    2011-10-28

    Juniper tar (cade oil) is distilled from the branches and wood of Juniperus oxycedrus. It contains etheric oils, triterpene and phenols, used for many purposes in folk medicine. The authors report a case of a previously healthy new born treated with a topical application of Juniperus oxycedrus for atopic dermatosis The poisoning caused convulsions, collapsus, acute pulmonary oedema, renal failure and hepatotoxicity. The newborn survived after supportive and symptomatic treatment, and discharged in a good condition on the eleventh day of hospitalisation in intensive care unit.

  8. Nano-encapsulation of fish oil in nano-liposomes and its application in fortification of yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanzade, Tahere; Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Akhavan, Sahar; Hadavi, Roxana

    2017-02-01

    Fish oils have many dietary benefits, but due to their strong odors and rapid deterioration, their application in food formulations is limited. For these reasons, nano-liposome was used to nano-encapsulate fish oil in this study and encapsulated fish oil was utilized in fortifying yogurt. Physicochemical properties of produced yogurt including pH, acidity, syneresis, fatty acid composition, peroxide value as well as sensory tests were investigated during three weeks storage at 4°C. Nano-liposome encapsulation resulted in a significant reduction in acidity, syneresis and peroxide value. The results of gas chromatography analyses revealed that after 21days storage, yogurt fortified with nano-encapsulated fish oil had a higher DHA and EPA contents than yogurt containing free fish oil. Overall, the results of this study indicates that adding nano-encapsulated fish oil into yogurt gave closer characteristics to control sample in terms of sensory characteristics than yogurt fortified with free fish oil.

  9. The potential applications in heavy oil EOR with the nanoparticle and surfactant stabilized solvent-based emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, F. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The main challenges in developing the heavy oil reservoirs in the Alaska North Slope (ANS) include technical challenges regarding thermal recovery; sand control and disposal; high asphaltene content; and low in-situ permeability. A chemical enhanced oil recovery method may be possible for these reservoirs. Solvent based emulsion flooding provides mobility control; oil viscosity reduction; and in-situ emulsification of heavy oil. This study evaluated the potential application of nano-particle-stabilized solvent based emulsion injection to enhance heavy oil recovery in the ANS. The optimized micro-emulsion composition was determined using laboratory tests such as phase behaviour scanning, rheology studies and interfacial tension measurements. The optimized nano-emulsions were used in core flooding experiments to verify the recovery efficiency. The study revealed that the potential use of this kind of emulsion flooding is a promising enhanced oil recovery process for some heavy oil reservoirs in Alaska, Canada and Venezuela. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  10. New own design an application of electric heating cable for the Orinoco oil belt wells in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quezada, A; Jorge, L [PDVSA PETROLEOS S.A. (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, thermal recovery processes are common methods to reduce oil viscosity and the oil steaking factor. One of these methods consists of using a heating element to increase the well's temperature.. A new heating system, the down hole electric heating system (CEF), has been developed where the hold cable for the horizontal section is heated and used as a resistive heating element; the aim of this paper is to present this new technology system and its application. The system was installed one of PDVSA's wells in the Zuata Field in the Orinoco oil belt in Venezuela and has now been in use for 8 months. Results showed a production increase of 20% with the use of the down hole electric heating system. Through successful application in a well in Venezuela, this paper showed that the down hole electric heating system can be a good alternative to produce oil from heavy oil reservoirs.

  11. Determine the content of Apigenin 7-glucoside in Matricaria Chamomile%洋甘菊中芹苷元-7-葡萄糖苷含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰卫; 郭玉婷; 耿直; 倪健

    2014-01-01

    目的:测定洋甘菊中芹苷元-7-葡萄糖苷含量。方法在美国药典收载的 HPLC 方法基础上,适当调整色谱条件,采用 UPLC 法,测定新疆洋甘菊中芹苷元-7-葡萄糖苷的含量。结果两批洋甘菊样品中芹苷元-7-葡萄糖苷含量分别为5.2、5.8 mg/g。结论UPLC 方法,可作为洋甘菊中芹苷元-7-葡萄糖苷含量测定。%Objective To determine the content of Apigenin 7-glucoside in Matricaria Chamomile.Method HPLC method which was recorded in the United States Pharmacopoeia was used.Results The content of Apigenin 7-glucoside in two batches of Chamomile samples were 5.2,5.8 mg/g respectively.Conclusion The HPLC method recorded in USP is simple and accurate.It could be used for simultaneous determination of apigenin 7-glucoside in Chamomile.

  12. Biological and molecular analysis of the pathogenic variant C3 of potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) evolved during adaptation to chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoušek, Jaroslav; Stehlík, Jan; Procházková, Jitka; Orctová, Lidmila; Wullenweber, Julia; Füssy, Zoltan; Kováčik, Josef; Duraisamy, Ganesh S; Ziegler, Angelika; Schubert, Jörg; Steger, Gerhard

    2012-07-01

    Viroid-caused pathogenesis is a specific process dependent on viroid and host genotype(s), and may involve viroid-specific small RNAs (vsRNAs). We describe a new PSTVd variant C3, evolved through sequence adaptation to the host chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) after biolistic inoculation with PSTVd-KF440-2, which causes extraordinary strong ('lethal') symptoms. The deletion of a single adenine A in the oligoA stretch of the pathogenicity (P) domain appears characteristic of PSTVd-C3. The pathogenicity and the vsRNA pool of PSTVd-C3 were compared to those of lethal variant PSTVd-AS1, from which PSTVd-C3 differs by five mutations located in the P domain. Both lethal viroid variants showed higher stability and lower variation in analyzed vsRNA pools than the mild PSTVd-QFA. PSTVd-C3 and -AS1 caused similar symptoms on chamomile, tomato, and Nicotiana benthamiana, and exhibited similar but species-specific distributions of selected vsRNAs as quantified using TaqMan probes. Both lethal PSTVd variants block biosynthesis of lignin in roots of cultured chamomile and tomato. Four 'expression markers' (TCP3, CIPK, VSF-1, and VPE) were selected from a tomato EST library to quantify their expression upon viroid infection; these markers were strongly downregulated in tomato leaf blades infected by PSTVd-C3- and -AS1 but not by PSTVd-QFA.

  13. Application of Canola Oil Biodiesel/Diesel Blends in a Common Rail Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cong Ge

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the application effects of canola oil biodiesel/diesel blends in a common rail diesel engine was experimentally investigated. The test fuels were denoted as ULSD (ultra low sulfur diesel, BD20 (20% canola oil blended with 80% ULSD by volume, and PCO (pure canola oil, respectively. These three fuels were tested under an engine speed of 1500 rpm with various brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs. The results indicated that PCO can be used well in the diesel engine without engine modification, and that BD20 can be used as a good alternative fuel to reduce the exhaust pollution. In addition, at low engine loads (0.13 MPa and 0.26 MPa, the combustion pressure of PCO is the smallest, compared with BD20 and ULSD, because the lower calorific value of PCO is lower than that of ULSD. However, at high engine loads (0.39 MPa and 0.52 MPa, the rate of heat release (ROHR of BD20 is the highest because the canola oil biodiesel is an oxygenated fuel that promotes combustion, shortening the ignition delay period. For exhaust emissions, by using canola oil biodiesel, the particulate matter (PM and carbon monoxide (CO emissions were considerably reduced with increased BMEP. The nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions increased only slightly due to the inherent presence of oxygen in biodiesel.

  14. Thermal Hydraulic Analysis Using GIS on Application of HTR to Thermal Recovery of Heavy Oil Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangping Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, large water demand and carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions have emerged as challenges of steam injection for oil thermal recovery. This paper proposed a strategy of superheated steam injection by the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTR for thermal recovery of heavy oil, which has less demand of water and emission of CO2. The paper outlines the problems of conventional steam injection and addresses the advantages of superheated steam injection by HTR from the aspects of technology, economy, and environment. A Geographic Information System (GIS embedded with a thermal hydraulic analysis function is designed and developed to analyze the strategy, which can make the analysis work more practical and credible. Thermal hydraulic analysis using this GIS is carried out by applying this strategy to a reference heavy oil field. Two kinds of injection are considered and compared: wet steam injection by conventional boilers and superheated steam injection by HTR. The heat loss, pressure drop, and possible phase transformation are calculated and analyzed when the steam flows through the pipeline and well tube and is finally injected into the oil reservoir. The result shows that the superheated steam injection from HTR is applicable and promising for thermal recovery of heavy oil reservoirs.

  15. Synthesis of cracked Calophyllum inophyllum oil using fly ash catalyst for diesel engine application

    KAUST Repository

    Muthukumaran, N.

    2015-04-16

    In this study, production of hydrocarbon fuel from Calophyllum inophyllum oil has been characterized for diesel engine application, by appraising essential fuel processing parameters. As opposed to traditional trans-esterification process, the reported oil was cracked using a catalyst, as the latter improves the fuel properties better than the former. In a bid to make the production process economically viable, a waste and cheap catalyst, RFA (raw fly ash), has been capitalized for the cracking process as against the conventional zeolite catalyst. The fuel production process, which is performed in a fixed bed catalytic reactor, was done methodologically after comprehensively studying the characteristics of fly ash catalyst. Significantly, fly ash characterization was realized using SEM and EDS, which demarcated the surface and internal structures of fly ash particles before and after cracking. After the production of hydrocarbon fuel from C. inophyllum oil, the performed compositional analysis in GC-MS revealed the presence of esters, parfins and olefins. Followed by the characterization of catalytically cracked C. inophyllum oil, suitable blends of it with diesel were tested in a single cylinder diesel engine. From the engine experimental results, BTE (brake thermal efficiency) of the engine for B25 (25% cracked C. inophyllum oil and 75% diesel) was observed to be closer to diesel, while it decreased for higher blends. On the other hand, emissions such as HC (hydrocarbon), CO (carbon monoxide) and smoke were found to be comparable for B25 with diesel. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The application of event-tree based approach in long-term crude oil scheduling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of optimal operation in long-term crude oil scheduling,which involves unloading crude oil from vessels,transferring it to charging tanks and feeding it to the distillation units.The application of a new approach for modeling and optimization of long-term crude oil scheduling is presented and the event-tree based modeling method that is very different from mathematical programming is employed.This approach is developed on the basis of natural language modeling and continuous time representation.Event triggered rules,decomposition strategy,depth-first search algorithm and pruning strategy are adopted to improve the efficiency of searching the optimum solution.This approach is successfully applied to an industrial-size problem over a horizon of 4 weeks,involving 7 vessels,6 storage tanks,6 charging tanks,2 crude oil distillation units,and 6 crude oil types.The CPU (AMD 3000+,2.0GHz) solving time is less than 70 seconds.

  17. Coconut oil extraction by the Java method: An investigation of its potential application in aqueous Jatropha oil extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasabessy, A.; Moeis, M.R.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Weusthuis, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    A traditional Java method of coconut oil extraction assisted by paddy crabs was investigated to find out if crabs or crab-derived components can be used to extract oil from Jatropha curcas seed kernels. Using the traditional Java method the addition of crab paste liberated 54% w w-1 oil from grated

  18. Coconut oil extraction by the traditional Java method : An investigation of its potential application in aqueous Jatropha oil extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasabessy, Ahmad; Moeis, Maelita R.; Sanders, Johan P. M.; Weusthuis, Ruud A.

    2010-01-01

    A traditional Java method of coconut oil extraction assisted by paddy crabs was investigated to find out if crabs or crab-derived components can be used to extract oil from Jatropha curcas seed kernels. Using the traditional Java method the addition of crab paste liberated 54% w w(-1) oil from grate

  19. Preparation and Application of Water-in-Oil Emulsions Stabilized by Modified Graphene Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoma Fei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of alkyl chain modified graphene oxides (AmGO with different alkyl chain length and content was fabricated using a reducing reaction between graphene oxide (GO and alkyl amine. Then AmGO was used as a graphene-based particle emulsifier to stabilize Pickering emulsion. Compared with the emulsion stabilized by GO, which was oil-in-water type, all the emulsions stabilized by AmGO were water-in-oil type. The effects of alkyl chain length and alkyl chain content on the emulsion properties of AmGO were investigated. The emulsions stabilized by AmGO showed good stability within a wide range of pH (from pH = 1 to pH = 13 and salt concentrations (from 0.1 to 1000 mM. In addition, the application of water-in-oil emulsions stabilized by AmGO was investigated. AmGO/polyaniline nanocomposite (AmGO/PANi was prepared through an emulsion approach, and its supercapacitor performance was investigated. This research broadens the application of AmGO as a water-in-oil type emulsion stabilizer and in preparing graphene-based functional materials.

  20. The Application of Data & Graphic Managing Technology in Oil & Gas Exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Zhiyong; Chen Weijun; Ma Xuehui

    2002-01-01

    The managing of information and data between researching groups is critical to the success of any exploration or development project. Poor communication and data sharing between technological departments can result in incomplete interpretations or inaccurate drilling decisions making. According to the statistic results, the time cost in retrieving and collecting data will occupy more than 70 % percent of the total working time of technicians during the petroleum geological researching. This paper is a summary of the characteristics and the development of the Data & Graphic management system for oil & gas exploration.After that the system's application in oil & gas exploration and researching, which has improved the quality and accurateness of mapping has been summarized in detail. The application of the system mentioned above has proved to be very successful in Daqing oilfield.

  1. Evaluation of Some Finishing Properties of Oil Palm Particleboard for Furniture Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnasingam, J.; Nyugen, V.; Ioras, F.

    The finishing properties of particleboard made from the Empty-Fruit Bunch (EFB) of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were evaluated for its suitability for furniture applications, using different coating and overlay materials. The results found that the thick plastic-formica overlay provided the best surface finish, in terms of surface smoothness, adhesion strength and impact resistance. Although the polyurethane lacquer provided an acceptable finish, its quality and performance is not comparable to that of the thick plastic overlay. Despite the fact that the use of such overlay material may render the material not aesthetically appealing and limit it to concealed applications or where the thick overlay material is tolerated, its cost competitiveness and environmental friendliness may be able to position the oil palm particleboard as a substitute for the conventional wood-based particleboard in the furniture manufacturing industry.

  2. Manufacturing of vegetable oils-based epoxy and composites for structural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rongpeng

    Epoxidized vegetable oil (EVO) is one of the largest industrial applications of vegetable oils (VOs) and is widely used as a plasticizer and as a synthetic intermediate for polyol or unsaturated polyester. However, the utility of EVO as monomer for high performance epoxy thermoset polymer is limited by its reactivity and by the resulting physical properties. Herein, VO-based epoxy monomers, i.e., glycidyl esters of epoxidized fatty acids derived from soybean oil (EGS) or linseed oil (EGL), have been synthesized and were benchmarked against commercial available diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) and also epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) controls. EGS and EGL possessed higher oxirane content, more reactivity and lower viscosity than ESO or epoxidized linseed oil (ELO), provided better compatibility with DGEBA as a reactive diluent, and yielded thermally and mechanically stronger polymers than polymers obtained using ESO. Glass transition temperatures (T g) of the VO-based epoxy thermoset polymers were mostly a function of monomer oxirane content with some added structural influences of epoxy reactivity, and presence of a pendant chain. Organo-modified montmorillonite clay (OMMT) and long glass fiber reinforced composites (FRC) were efficiently manufactured using anhydride cured EGS as matrices. The OMMT nanocomposites showed higher mechanical and thermal strength than the neat polymers but were also dependent on the dispersion techniques and the clay concentration. Surprisingly, the neat EGS-anhydride matrix FRC showed comparable properties, such as flexural and impact strengths and slightly lower Tg, versus DGEBA based counterparts. These high performance monomers, polymers, and composites have potential to replace petroleum-based epoxy as value-added products from VOs compared to EVOs.

  3. Application of fluorescence and PARAFAC to assess vertical distribution of subsurface hydrocarbons and dispersant during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Wilson G; Riemer, Daniel D; Zika, Rod G

    2013-05-01

    We evaluated the use of excitation and emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence and parallel factorial analysis (PARAFAC) modeling techniques for monitoring crude oil components in the water column. Four of the seven derived PARAFAC loadings were associated with the Macondo crude oil components. The other three components were associated with the dispersant, an unresolved component and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). The fluorescence of the associated benzene and naphthalene-like components of crude oil exhibited a maximum at ∼1200 m. The maximum fluorescence of the component associated with the dispersant (i.e., Corexit EC9500A) was observed at the same depth. The plume observed at this depth was attributed to the dispersed crude oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Results demonstrate the application of EEM and PARAFAC to simultaneously monitor selected PAH, dispersant-containing and humic-like fluorescence components in the oil spill region in the Gulf of Mexico.

  4. Encapsulation of plai oil/2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) electrospun nanofibers for topical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonglairoum, Prasopchai; Chuchote, Tudduo; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare electrospun polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) nanofiber mats and to incorporate plai oil (Zingiber Cassumunar Roxb.). The plai oil with 10, 20 and 30% wt to polymer were incorporated in the PVP/HPβCD solution and electrospun to obtain nanofibers. The morphology and structure of the PVP and PVP/HPβCD nanofiber mats with and without the plai oil were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The thermal behaviors of the nanofiber mats were characterized using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Terpinen-4-ol was used as a marker of the plai oil. The amount of plai oil remaining in the PVP/HPβCD nanofiber mats was determined using gas chromatography-mass spectoscopy (GC-MS). The SEM images revealed that all of the fibers were smooth. The average diameter of fibers was 212-450 nm, and decreased with the increasing of plai oil content. The release characteristics of plai oil from the fiber showed the fast release followed by a sustained release over the experimental time of 24 h. The release rate ranged was in the order of 10% > 20% ∼ 30% plai oil within 24 h. Electrospun fibers with 20% plai oil loading provided the controlled release and also showed the highest plai oil content. Hence, this electrospun nanofiber has a potential for use as an alternative topical application.

  5. Estimation of Potential Availability of Essential Oil in Some Brands of Herbal Teas and Herbal Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Radosław; Baj, Tomasz; Kowalska, Grażyna; Pankiewicz, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to estimate potential availability of essential oil in some brands of herbal products. Methods A comparison was performed on the basis of the essential oil yield in the unprocessed raw materials such as leaves of peppermint and lemon balm and inflorescence of chamomile as well as herbal tea bags and in dietary supplements. The yield of essential oil was determined by distillation. Essential oil was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Results It was found that the average potential availability of essential oils in the products such as dietary supplements for the doses recommended by the producers is lower than in the corresponding tea infusions: for peppermint formulations approximately 6-fold lower, for the formulations with lemon balm about 4-fold lower, and for the chamomile preparations about 3-fold lower. It was found that essential oils extracted from herbal teas have a similar chemical profile with characteristic deviations in the amount of individual components, which arise from the origin of the raw material. Discussion In contrast to homogenous pharmaceutical herbal mixtures consistent with, the Pharmacopoeia requirements, herbal teas (available in grocery stores) and dietary supplements are often out of control in terms of the yield and composition of the essential oil, which is primarily responsible for the health benefits and aromatic qualities of these products. Analysis of the composition of the dietary supplements showed that they contain on average significantly lower amounts of plant material compared to the herbal teas. PMID:26110869

  6. Estimation of Potential Availability of Essential Oil in Some Brands of Herbal Teas and Herbal Dietary Supplements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Kowalski

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate potential availability of essential oil in some brands of herbal products.A comparison was performed on the basis of the essential oil yield in the unprocessed raw materials such as leaves of peppermint and lemon balm and inflorescence of chamomile as well as herbal tea bags and in dietary supplements. The yield of essential oil was determined by distillation. Essential oil was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS.It was found that the average potential availability of essential oils in the products such as dietary supplements for the doses recommended by the producers is lower than in the corresponding tea infusions: for peppermint formulations approximately 6-fold lower, for the formulations with lemon balm about 4-fold lower, and for the chamomile preparations about 3-fold lower. It was found that essential oils extracted from herbal teas have a similar chemical profile with characteristic deviations in the amount of individual components, which arise from the origin of the raw material.In contrast to homogenous pharmaceutical herbal mixtures consistent with, the Pharmacopoeia requirements, herbal teas (available in grocery stores and dietary supplements are often out of control in terms of the yield and composition of the essential oil, which is primarily responsible for the health benefits and aromatic qualities of these products. Analysis of the composition of the dietary supplements showed that they contain on average significantly lower amounts of plant material compared to the herbal teas.

  7. Advanced distillation curve measurements for corrosive fluids: Application to two crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa Starkey Ott; Beverly L. Smith; Thomas J. Bruno [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States). Physical and Chemical Properties Division

    2008-10-15

    We have recently introduced several important improvements in the measurement of distillation curves for complex fluids. The modifications include a composition-explicit data channel for each distillate fraction (for both qualitative and quantitative analysis) and corrosivity assessment of each distillate fraction. The composition-explicit information is achieved with a new sampling approach that allows precise qualitative as well as quantitative analyses of each fraction, on the fly. We have applied the new method to a variety of fluids, including simple n-alkanes, rocket propellant, gasoline, jet fuels, and a hydrocarbon fluid made corrosive with dissolved hydrogen sulfide. In the current contribution, we present the application of the advanced distillation curve method to two samples of crude oil. A primary motivation behind the work is to precisely measure the distillation curves of these oils using our advanced distillation apparatus; these low uncertainty measurements of true thermodynamic state points can be used for equation of state development and differentiation of crude oil samples. Then, the information content of each distillation was extended much further by use of the composition-explicit data channel: gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), infrared spectrophotometry (IR), gas chromatography with sulfur chemiluminescence detection (GC-SCD), and the copper strip corrosion test (CSCT) were used for each distillate volume fraction sampled. Consequently, for each volume fraction of crude oil distillate sampled, we can address the composition, quantitate the total sulfur content, and measure the corrosivity. 39 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. The application of masonry chimney venting tables for oil-fired appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krajewski, R.F.; Strasser, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of the results of work in developing a set of rational guidelines for the venting of modern oil-fired appliances. The activities included the continued development and completion of the Oil-Heat Vent Analysis Program (OHVAP), Version 1.0 and the interpretation of nearly 2,000 runs in preparing recommendations for presentation in table form. These results are presented in the form of venting tables for the installation of chimney vent systems for mid- and high-efficiency oil-fired heating appliances using masonry chimneys. A brief description of OHVAP is given as well as a discussion of what the program does. Recommendations based on the results of OHVAP are presented in the form of five tables spanning oil-fired appliance Steady state Efficiencies (Eff{sub ss}) of 80% to 88%. The assumptions used in the calculations and examples of the computed results are presented as well as a discussion of the rationale for masonry chimney system treatment. Working examples are given with suggested diagnostic approaches for application of the table recommendations.

  9. Globalization and the uneven application of international regulatory standard : the case of oil exploration in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adalikwu, J.

    2008-07-01

    This study was conducted to increase the awareness of the current economic situation that exists in the Niger Delta, a region that has been devastated by the activities of oil multinational corporations (MNCs). In particular, the study linked the Obelle and Obagi communities to the political economy of global capital which creates inequalities that divide societies into hierarchies of the rich and poor. The strategies adopted by the people to improve the negative consequences of oil exploration in the communities were also examined. The researcher postulated that there is a relationship between the uneven application of international and national regulations in oil production by MNCs and environmental degradation. A critical ethnographic paradigm was used to explore and explain the processes of globalization that affect the people's lives and means of livelihood. Data were collected and analyzed using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Data was then analyzed using several methods, such as statistics based on cross-tabulation, analysis of themes that emerged from interviews, and Atlas.ti 5.0 qualitative analysis computer programme to show the relationship between variables that emerged from the study. The study revealed that resource exploitation by oil MNCs in Obagi/Obelle communities of the Nigeria Delta, together with the Nigerian government, has resulted in economic expropriation, political disenfranchisement, social instability and environmental damage.

  10. Production, Characterization and Application of Bacillus licheniformis W16 Biosurfactant in Enhancing Oil Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanket J. Joshi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The biosurfactant production by Bacillus licheniformis W16 and evaluation of biosurfactant based enhanced oil recovery using core-flood under reservoir conditions were investigated. Previously reported nine different production media were screened for biosurfactant production, and two were further optimized with different carbon sources (glucose, sucrose, starch, cane molasses or date molasses, as well as the strain was screened for biosurfactant production during the growth in different media. The biosurfactant reduced the surface tension and interfacial tension to 24.33+0.57mN m-1 and 2.47+0.32mN m-1 respectively within 72h, at 40 C, and also altered the wettability of a hydrophobic surface by changing the contact angle from 55.67°+1.6° to 19.54°+0.96°. The critical micelle dilution values of 4X were observed. The biosurfactants were characterized by different analytical techniques and identified as lipopeptide, similar to lichenysin-A. The biosurfactant was stable over wide range of extreme environmental conditions. The core flood experiments showed that the biosurfactant was able to enhance the oil recovery by 24-26% over residual oil saturation (Sor. The results highlight the potential application of lipopeptide biosurfactant in wettability alteration and microbial enhanced oil recovery processes.

  11. State of the Art Satellite and Airborne Marine Oil Spill Remote Sensing: Application to the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    kelp beds, natural organics, pollen, plankton blooms, cloud shadows, jellyfish, algae, and guano washing off rocks have all been reported as oil by...susceptible to misidentification, as they appear similar to non-oil bio- logical slicks. In fact, the sea surface’s upper 1 mm is well described as a gelatinous ...in the upper few meters of the water column (Brown et al., 2003b) allowing discrimination between submerged oil and phyto- plankton in near surface

  12. Virgin olive oil blended polyurethane micro/nanofibers ornamented with copper oxide nanocrystals for biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amna T

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Touseef Amna,1 M Shamshi Hassan,2 Jieun Yang,1 Myung-Seob Khil,2 Ki-Duk Song,3 Jae-Don Oh,3 Inho Hwang1 1Department of Animal Sciences and Biotechnology, 2Department of Organic Materials and Fiber Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, South Korea; 3Genomic Informatics Center, Hankyong National University, Anseong, South Korea Abstract: Recently, substantial interest has been generated in using electrospun biomimetic nanofibers of hybrids, particularly organic/inorganic, to engineer different tissues. The present work, for the first time, introduced a unique natural and synthetic hybrid micronanofiber wound dressing, composed of virgin olive oil/copper oxide nanocrystals and polyurethane (PU, developed via facile electrospinning. The as-spun organic/inorganic hybrid micronanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction, electron probe microanalysis, and transmission electron microscopy. The interaction of cells with scaffold was studied by culturing NIH 3T3 fibroblasts on an as-spun hybrid micronanofibrous mat, and viability, proliferation, and growth were assessed. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay results and SEM observation showed that the hybrid micronanofibrous scaffold was noncytotoxic to fibroblast cell culture and was found to benefit cell attachment and proliferation. Hence our results suggest the potential utilization of as-spun micronanoscaffolds for tissue engineering. Copper oxide–olive oil/PU wound dressing may exert its positive beneficial effects at every stage during wound-healing progression, and these micronanofibers may serve diverse biomedical applications, such as tissue regeneration, damaged skin treatment, wound healing applications, etc. Conclusively, the fabricated olive oil–copper oxide/PU micronanofibers combine the benefits of virgin olive oil and copper oxide, and therefore hold great promise for

  13. Lousicidal, ovicidal and repellent efficacy of some essential oils against lice and flies infesting water buffaloes in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, Hanem F; Ramadan, Mohamed Y; El-Madawy, Reham S

    2009-10-14

    The lousicidal and repellent effects of five essential oils were investigated for the first time against the buffalo louse, Haematopinus tuberculatus, and flies infesting water buffaloes in Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt. For the in vitro studies, filter paper contact bioassays were used to test the oils and their lethal activities were compared with that of d-phenothrin. Four minutes post-treatment, the median lethal concentration, LC50, values were 2.74, 7.28, 12.35, 18.67 and 22.79% for camphor (Cinnamomum camphora), onion (Allium cepa), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) and rosemary oils (Rosmarinus officinalis), respectively, whereas for d-phenothrin, it was 1.17%. The lethal time (50) (LT50) values were 0.89, 2.75, 15.39, 21.32, 11.60 and 1.94 min after treatment with 7.5% camphor, onion, peppermint, chamomile, rosemary and d-phenothrin, respectively. All the materials used except rosemary, which was not applied, were ovicidal to the eggs of H. tuberculatus. Despite the results of the in vitro assays, the in vivo treatments revealed that the pediculicidal activity was more pronounced with oils. All treated lice were killed after 0.5-2 min, whereas with d-phenothrin, 100% mortality was reached only after 120 min. The number of lice infesting buffaloes was significantly reduced 3, 6, 4, 6 and 9 days after treatment with camphor, peppermint, chamomile, onion, and d-phenothrin, respectively. Moreover, the oils and d-phenothrin significantly repelled flies, Musca domestica, Stomoxys calcitrans, Haematobia irritans and Hippobosca equina, for 6 and 3 days post-treatment, respectively. No adverse effects were noted on either animals or pour-on operators after exposure to the applied materials. Consequently, some Egyptian essential oils show potential for the development of new, speedy and safe lousicides and insect repellents for controlling lice and flies which infest water buffaloes.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide-neem oil-chitosan bionanocomposite for food packaging application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanuja, S; Agalya, A; Umapathy, M J

    2015-03-01

    Nano zinc oxide at different concentrations (0.1, 0.3 and 0.5%) and neem essential oil were incorporated into the chitosan polymer by solution cast method to enhance the properties of the bionanocomposite film. The functional groups, crystalline particle size, thermal stability and morphology were determined using FTIR, XRD, TGA and SEM, respectively. The results showed that 0.5% nano zinc oxide incorporated composite film have improved tensile strength, elongation, film thickness, film transparency and decreased water solubility, swelling and barrier properties due to the presence of neem oil and nano zinc oxide in the polymer matrix. Further antibacterial activity by well diffusion assay method was followed against Escherichia coli which were found to have good inhibition effect. In addition to this food quality application were carried against carrot and compared with the commercial film.

  15. Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis for the examination of oil pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y.S.; Kim, S.H.; Sun, G.M.; Lim, J.M.; Moon, J.H.; Kim, Y.J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, S.J.; Song, Y.N.; Kim, K. [National Museum of Contemporary Art, Gwacheon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    This study is to investigate the applicability of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) as a non-destructive examination tool for the quantitative chemical composition analysis associated with authentication, restoration and conservation of art objects in the field of cultural heritage. The quantitative analysis of major, minor and trace elements in Rembrandt's {sup registered} oil pigments recently collected at the Korean market as one of the art objects was carried out using INAA facilities of the HANARO research reactor at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute in collaboration with the National Museum of Contemporary Art in Korea. Analytical quality control was implemented using NIST SRM 2709, certified reference materials and metal standards. The analytical results for seventeen characteristic elements of thirty-one measured elements were statistically treated to identify the characteristic correlations and patterns between color and source of oil pigment and similarity degree of constituents using a cluster and discriminate analysis. (orig.)

  16. Rheology of oleogels based on sorbitan and glyceryl monostearates and vegetable oils for lubricating applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez, R.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Oleogels based on sorbitan and glyceryl monostearates and different types of vegetable oils, potentially applicable as biodegradable alternatives to traditional lubricating greases, have been studied. In particular, the rheological behavior, by means of small-amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS measurements, and some lubrication performance-related properties (mechanical stability and tribological response have been evaluated in this work. SAOS response and mechanical stability of these oleogels are significantly influenced by the type and concentration of the organogelator and the vegetable oil used in the formulations. Glyceryl monostearate (GMS generally produces stronger gels than sorbitan monostearate (SMS. The use of low-viscosity oils, such as rapeseed and soybean oils, yields gels with significantly higher values of the linear viscoelastic functions than oleogels prepared with high-viscosity oils, i.e. castor oil. The rheological behavior of SMS-based oleogels also depends on the cooling rate applied during the gelification process. On the other hand, the oleogels studied present low values of the friction coefficient obtained in a tribological contact, although only some GMS/castor oil-based oleogels exhibit a suitable mechanical stability.

    En el presente trabajo se han estudiado diferentes oleogeles, basados en monoestearatos de sorbitano y glicerilo y aceites vegetales, que podrían ser potencialmente empleados como alternativas biodegradables a las grasas lubricantes tradicionales. En concreto, se ha evaluado su comportamiento reológico, a través de ensayos en cizalla oscilatoria, y algunas propiedades relacionadas con su rendimiento en la lubricación, tales como su estabilidad mecánica y comportamiento tribológico. La respuesta reológica y la estabilidad mecánica de los oleogeles estudiados están significativamente influenciadas por el tipo y la concentración del agente gelificante y por el aceite vegetal empleado. As

  17. Raman Spectral Characteristics of Oil-Paper Insulation and Its Application to Ageing Stage Assessment of Oil-Immersed Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxin Zou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aging of oil-paper insulation in power transformers may cause serious power failures. Thus, effective monitoring of the condition of the transformer insulation is the key to prevent major accidents. The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility of confocal laser Raman spectroscopy (CLRS for assessing the aging condition of oil-paper insulation. Oil-paper insulation samples were subjected to thermal accelerated ageing at 120 °C for up to 160 days according to the procedure described in the IEEE Guide. Meanwhile, the dimension of the Raman spectrum of the insulation oil was reduced by principal component analysis (PCA. The 160 oil-paper insulation samples were divided into five aging stages as training samples by clustering analysis and with the use of the degree of polymerization of the insulating papers. In addition, the features of the Raman spectrum were used as the inputs of a multi-classification support vector machine. Finally, 105 oil-paper insulation testing samples aged at a temperature of 130 °C were used to further test the diagnostic capability and universality of the established algorithm. Results demonstrated that CLRS in conjunction with the PCA-SVM technique provides a new way for aging stage assessment of oil-paper insulation equipment in the field.

  18. GIS DATA COLLECTION FOR OIL PALM (DaCOP MOBILE APPLICATION FOR SMART PHONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Abdullah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, smart phone has become a necessity as it offers more than just making a phone call. Smart phone combines the features of cell phone with other mobile devices such as personal digital assistant (PDA and GPS navigation unit that propel the popularity of smart phones. In recent years, the interest in mobile communication has been increased. Previous research using mobile application has been successfully done in varies areas of study. Areas of study that have been done are health care, education, and traffic monitoring. Besides, mobile application has also been applied in agricultural sector for various purposes such as plant pest risk management. In this study, mobile application for data collection on Ganoderma disease of oil palm has been successfully developed. The application uses several devices in a smart phone such as GPS, Wifi/ GPRS connection and accelerometer devices. The application can be installed in the smart phone and users can use the application while working on-site. The data can be updated immediately through their smart phones to the service. Besides, the application provides offline map so the user can be productive even though their network connectivity is poor or nonexistent. The data can be synced when the users online again. This paper presents an application that allows users to download features from a sync-enabled ArcGIS Feature Service, view and edit the features even when the devices fail to connect with any network connectivity while collecting data on-site.

  19. GIS Data Collection for Oil Palm (DaCOP) Mobile Application for Smart Phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, A. F.; Muhadi, N. A.

    2015-10-01

    Nowadays, smart phone has become a necessity as it offers more than just making a phone call. Smart phone combines the features of cell phone with other mobile devices such as personal digital assistant (PDA) and GPS navigation unit that propel the popularity of smart phones. In recent years, the interest in mobile communication has been increased. Previous research using mobile application has been successfully done in varies areas of study. Areas of study that have been done are health care, education, and traffic monitoring. Besides, mobile application has also been applied in agricultural sector for various purposes such as plant pest risk management. In this study, mobile application for data collection on Ganoderma disease of oil palm has been successfully developed. The application uses several devices in a smart phone such as GPS, Wifi/ GPRS connection and accelerometer devices. The application can be installed in the smart phone and users can use the application while working on-site. The data can be updated immediately through their smart phones to the service. Besides, the application provides offline map so the user can be productive even though their network connectivity is poor or nonexistent. The data can be synced when the users online again. This paper presents an application that allows users to download features from a sync-enabled ArcGIS Feature Service, view and edit the features even when the devices fail to connect with any network connectivity while collecting data on-site.

  20. Application of biosurfactants in environmental biotechnology; remediation of oil and heavy metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fahim Mahmud

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Many toxic substances have been introduced into environment through human activities. These compounds are danger to human health when they are ultimately or immediately in contact with soil particles. A conventional method to reduce, degrade and remove these substances is associated with some risk. In recent years, microorganisms have proved a unique role in the degradation and detoxification of polluted soil and water environments and, this process has been termed bio reclamation. The diversity of bioemulsifiers/biosurfactants makes them an attractive group and important key roles in various fields of industrial as well as biotechnological applications such as enhanced oil recovery, biodegradation of pollutants, and pharmaceutics. Environmental application of microbial surfactant has been shown as a promising due to solubilization of low solubility compounds, low toxicity observed and efficacy in improving biodegradation. However, it is important to note that full scale tests and more information is require to predict the behavior and model of surfactant function on the remediation process with biosurfactants. The purpose of this review is to describe the state of art in the potential applications of biosurfactants in remediation of environmental pollution caused by oil and heavy metal.

  1. Intermetallic Nickel-Titanium Alloys for Oil-Lubricated Bearing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, C.; Pepper, S. V.; Noebe, R.; Hull, D. R.; Glennon, G.

    2009-01-01

    An intermetallic nickel-titanium alloy, NITINOL 60 (60NiTi), containing 60 wt% nickel and 40 wt% titanium, is shown to be a promising candidate material for oil-lubricated rolling and sliding contact applications such as bearings and gears. NiTi alloys are well known and normally exploited for their shape memory behavior. When properly processed, however, NITINOL 60 exhibits excellent dimensional stability and useful structural properties. Processed via high temperature, high-pressure powder metallurgy techniques or other means, NITINOL 60 offers a broad combination of physical properties that make it unique among bearing materials. NITINOL 60 is hard, electrically conductive, highly corrosion resistant, less dense than steel, readily machined prior to final heat treatment, nongalling and nonmagnetic. No other bearing alloy, metallic or ceramic encompasses all of these attributes. Further, NITINOL 60 has shown remarkable tribological performance when compared to other aerospace bearing alloys under oil-lubricated conditions. Spiral orbit tribometer (SOT) tests were conducted in vacuum using NITINOL 60 balls loaded between rotating 440C stainless steel disks, lubricated with synthetic hydrocarbon oil. Under conditions considered representative of precision bearings, the performance (life and friction) equaled or exceeded that observed with silicon nitride or titanium carbide coated 440C bearing balls. Based upon this preliminary data, it appears that NITINOL 60, despite its high titanium content, is a promising candidate alloy for advanced mechanical systems requiring superior and intrinsic corrosion resistance, electrical conductivity and nonmagnetic behavior under lubricated contacting conditions.

  2. Comparison of polymer applications to treatment of oil sands fine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H.; Zhou, J.; Chow, R. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Oil sands tailings are disposed of into large ponds where the coarse particles settle out, and fine particles settle down very slowly to form a stable suspension called mature fine tailings (MFTs). Many oil sands projects are not meeting tailings management targets. Polymer applications are being designed to create agglomerated particles. This presentation discussed a study that compared 3 types of polymers in solids dewatering processes: (1) polyacrylamide (PAM); a aluminum PAM hybrid (Al-PAM) and a thermal-sensitive poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide (PNIPAM). The aim of the study was to determine the optimal polymeric facilitation. Oil sands tailings from lab flotation tests were used. The effect on the initial settling rate of the tailings using the polymers was studied. Inter-particle forces were also compared, as well as the effects of temperature on polymer transitions in aqueous solutions. The effects of the polymers on silica settling and consolidation were examined. Dewatering performance was also compared. Multi-function polymers (MFP) were used to enhance water recovery from settling, consolidation and filtration. Synergetic-effect polymers (SEP) were used to enhance bitumen and water recovery. Results of the study showed that PAM effectively induced solids flocculation, but flocculants were irregular in shape. Al-PAM induced stronger flocculation of particles with dense spherical flocculants. PNIPAM enhanced dewatering in both settling and consolidation. It was concluded that PNIPAM manipulated inter-particle forces with the help of external stimuli conditions to obtain solids sediment with less volume. tabs., figs.

  3. Extended application of radon as a natural tracer in oil reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira R.M.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the 80's it was a common practice in the study of contamination by NAPL to incorporate a tracer to the medium to be studied. At that time the first applications focused on the use of 222Rn, a naturally occurring radioactive isotope as a natural tracer, appropriate for thermodynamics studies, geology and transport properties in thermal reservoirs. In 1993 the deficit of radon was used to spot and quantify the contamination by DNAPL under the surface. For the first time these studies showed that radon could be used as a partitioning tracer. A methodology that provides alternatives to quantify the oil volume stored in the porous space of oil reservoirs is under development at CDTN. The methodology here applied, widens up and adapts the knowledge acquired from the use of radon as a tracer to the studies aimed at assessing SOR. It is a postulation of this work that once the radon partition coefficient between oil and water is known, SOR will be determined considering the increased amount of radon in the water phase as compared to the amount initially existent as the reservoir is flooded with water. This paper will present a description of the apparatus used and some preliminary results of the experiments.

  4. The application of a carrier-based bioremediation strategy for marine oil spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Petra J; Simons, Keryn L; Adetutu, Eric M; Kadali, Krishna K; Juhasz, Albert L; Manefield, Mike; Sarma, Priyangshu M; Lal, Banwari; Ball, Andrew S

    2014-07-15

    The application of recycled marine materials to develop sustainable remediation technologies in marine environment was assessed. The remediation strategy consisted of a shell carrier mounted bacterial consortium composed of hydrocarbonoclastic strains enriched with nutrients (Bioaug SC). Pilot scale studies (5000 l) were used to examine the ability of Bioaug-SC to degrade weathered crude oil (10 g l(-1); initially 315,000±44,000 mg l(-1)) and assess the impacts of the introduction and biodegradation of oil. Total petroleum hydrocarbon mass was effectively reduced by 53.3 (±5.75)% to 147,000 (±21,000) mg l(-1) within 27 weeks. 16S rDNA bacterial community profiling using Denaturant Gradient Gel Electrophoresis revealed that cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria dominated the microbial community. Aquatic toxicity assessment was conducted by ecotoxicity assays using brine shrimp hatchability, Microtox and Phaeodactylum tricornutum. This study revealed the importance of combining ecotoxicity assays with oil chemistry analysis to ensure safe remediation methods are developed.

  5. Production, Characterization, and Application of Bacillus licheniformis W16 Biosurfactant in Enhancing Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sanket J.; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M.; Al-Bahry, Saif N.; Elshafie, Abdulkadir E.; Al-Bemani, Ali S.; Al-Bahri, Asma; Al-Mandhari, Musallam S.

    2016-01-01

    The biosurfactant production by Bacillus licheniformis W16 and evaluation of biosurfactant based enhanced oil recovery (EOR) using core-flood under reservoir conditions were investigated. Previously reported nine different production media were screened for biosurfactant production, and two were further optimized with different carbon sources (glucose, sucrose, starch, cane molasses, or date molasses), as well as the strain was screened for biosurfactant production during the growth in different media. The biosurfactant reduced the surface tension and interfacial tension to 24.33 ± 0.57 mN m−1 and 2.47 ± 0.32 mN m−1 respectively within 72 h, at 40°C, and also altered the wettability of a hydrophobic surface by changing the contact angle from 55.67 ± 1.6 to 19.54°± 0.96°. The critical micelle dilution values of 4X were observed. The biosurfactants were characterized by different analytical techniques and identified as lipopeptide, similar to lichenysin-A. The biosurfactant was stable over wide range of extreme environmental conditions. The core flood experiments showed that the biosurfactant was able to enhance the oil recovery by 24–26% over residual oil saturation (Sor). The results highlight the potential application of lipopeptide biosurfactant in wettability alteration and microbial EOR processes. PMID:27933041

  6. Divisia Decomposition Method and Its Application to Changes of Net Oil Import Intensity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖华; 徐照祎; 王策

    2014-01-01

    The existing oil import dependence index cannot exactly measure the economic cost or scales, and it is difficult to describe the economical aspect of oil security. To measure the foreign dependence of one country’s econ-omy and reflect its oil economic security, this paper defines the net oil import intensity as the ratio of net oil import cost to GDP. By using Divisia Index Decomposition, the change of net oil import intensity in five industrialized coun-tries and five newly industrialized countries during 1971-2010 is decomposed into five factors:oil price, oil intensity, oil self-sufficiency, domestic price level and exchange rate. The result shows that the dominating factors are oil price and oil intensity;moreover, the newly industrialized countries have higher net oil import intensity than industrialized countries.

  7. Quantitative Methods for Reservoir Characterization and Improved Recovery: Application to Heavy Oil Sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castle, James W.; Molz, Fred W.; Bridges, Robert A.; Dinwiddie, Cynthia L.; Lorinovich, Caitlin J.; Lu, Silong

    2003-02-07

    This project involved application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation. The investigation was performed in collaboration with Chevron Production Company U.S.A. as an industrial partner, and incorporates data from the Temblor Formation in Chevron's West Coalinga Field, California. Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity was needed to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contained approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley.

  8. Application of Chemically Accelerated Biotreatment to Reduce Risk in Oil-Impacted Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterek, J.R.; Bogan, W.W.; Lahner, L.M.; Trbovic, V.

    2003-03-06

    Conducted research in the following major focus areas: (1) Development of mild extraction approaches to estimate bioavailable fraction of crude oil residues in contaminated soils; (2) Application of these methods to understand decreases in toxicity and increases in sequestration of hydrocarbons over time, as well as the influence of soil properties on these processes; (3) Measurements of the abilities of various bacteria (PAH-degraders and others more representative of typical soil bacteria) to withstand oxidative treatments (i.e. Fenton's reaction) which would occur in CBT; and (4) Experiments into the biochemical/genetic inducibility of PAH degradation by compounds formed by the chemical oxidation of PAH.

  9. Survival of Salmonella on chamomile, peppermint, and green tea during storage and subsequent survival or growth following tea brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Susanne E; Stam, Christina N; Gradl, Dana R; Chen, Zhengzai; Larkin, Emily L; Pickens, Shannon R; Chirtel, Stuart J

    2015-04-01

    The survival of Salmonella on dried chamomile flowers, peppermint leaves, and green tea leaves stored under different conditions was examined. Survival and growth of Salmonella was also assessed after subsequent brewing using dried inoculated teas. A Salmonella enterica serovar cocktail was inoculated onto different dried tea leaves or flowers to give starting populations of approximately 10 log CFU/g. The inoculum was allowed to dry (at ambient temperature for 24 h) onto the dried leaves or flowers prior to storage under 25 and 35 °C at low (90% RH) humidity levels. Under the four storage conditions tested, survival followed the order 25 °C with low RH > 35 °C with low RH > 25 °C with high RH > 35 °C with high RH. Salmonella losses at 25 °C with low RH occurred primarily during drying, after which populations showed little decline over 6 months. In contrast, Salmonella decreased below detection after 45 days at 35 °C and high RH in all teas tested. The thermal resistance of Salmonella was assessed at 55 °C immediately after inoculation of tea leaves or flowers, after drying (24 h) onto tea leaves or flowers, and after 28 days of storage at 25 °C with low RH. All conditions resulted in similar D-values (2.78 ± 0.12, 3.04 ± 0.07, and 2.78 ± 0.56, at 0 h, 24 h, and 28 days, respectively), indicating thermal resistance of Salmonella in brewed tea did not change after desiccation and 28 days of storage. In addition, all brewed teas tested supported the growth of Salmonella. If Salmonella survives after storage, it may also survive and grow after a home brewing process.

  10. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF OIL SPILL ON THE SEA AND APPLICATION OF THE MODELING IN DAYA BAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hai-zhou; LI Da-ming; LI Xiao

    2007-01-01

    Through the study of the theory of oil spill model, a mathematical modeling of oil spill on the sea is developed which with the consideration of spread, diffusion, drifting and attenuation of oil slick is influenced by evaporation and emulsification factors. A model that under the effect of ocean dynamic condition of tide, wind and wave, using Monte Carlo method to simulate the movement of oil slick is established. The modeling is applied to calculate and predict pollution range of oil spill at oil quay and oil ship in Daya Bay. The prediction results have basically shown the pollution situation by emergency of oil spill on the sea.

  11. Synthesis of dodecyl lauroyl benzene sulfonate and its application in enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Zhenggang; Wu, Le; Sun, Mingming; Jiang, Jian-zhong; Wang, Feng [Jiangnan Univ., Wuxi (China). School of Chemical and Material Engineering

    2011-09-15

    A new hydrophobic surfactant, dodecyl lauroyl benzene sulfonate (DLBS), was synthesized and its application in enhanced oil recovery by alkali-surfactant-polymer (ASP) flooding was studied. The results show that DLBS can be synthesized by reaction of industrial dodecyl benzene with lauroyl chloride in the presence of AlCl{sub 3}, followed by sulfonation with ClSO{sub 3}H and neutralization with NaOH. The lauroyl-group is confirmed to be connected to the para-position of the alkylbenzene by1HNMR spectrum. The synthesized DLBS is well soluble in pure water and reservoir (connate) water at 45 C. It is highly surface active which is indicated by its low CMC of 1.1 . 10{sup -5} mol/L, and its low surface tension, {gamma}{sub cmc} of 28.6 mN m{sup -1}. By mixing with heavy alkylbenzene sulfonates of relatively low average molar mass (387g mol{sup -1}) at a total surfactant concentration of 5 mM, DLBS can reduce the interfacial tension of Daqing crude oil/connate water to an order of 10{sup -3} mN/m at 45 C in the presence of 0.5-1.0 wt.% NaOH and 1000 mg L{sup -1} of polymer. If the NaOH was replaced by a gentle alkaline salt, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, certain amounts of dodecyl dimethyl carboxy betaine were added and the concentration of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} was increased to 1.2-2.0 wt.%, the interfacial tension of Daqing crude oil/connate water can also be reduced to an ultralow value. Therefore DLBS is a good hydrophobic surfactant applicable in ASP flooding with either NaOH or Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as alkaline agents. (orig.)

  12. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajau, Rida; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Ibrahim, Mohammad Izzat [Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (UM), 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Yunus, Nurulhuda Mohd [Faculty of Science and Technology, National University Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidised palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) i.e. EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80%) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70%), where the different is around 10-15%. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50% at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newtons (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photoinitiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glosiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photoinitiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough.

  13. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajau, Rida; Ibrahim, Mohammad Izzat; Yunus, Nurulhuda Mohd; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik

    2014-02-01

    The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidised palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) i.e. EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80%) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70%), where the different is around 10-15%. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50% at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newtons (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photoinitiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glosiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photoinitiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough.

  14. Fruit quality in the peach and nectarine with application of hydrogenated cyanamide and mineral oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Leonel

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the quality of the fruit in peach and nectarine cultivars with and without the application of hydrogenated cyanamide and mineral oil, for two production cycles (2009 and 2010. The experiment was carried out at the School of Agricultural Science of the São Paulo State University (UNESP, at Botucatu in the Brazilian state of São Paulo, located at latitude 22º51'55" S and longitude 48º26'22" E, at an altitude of 810 m. The predominant climate type is warm temperate (mesothermal with rains in the summer and dry in the winter. The following were evaluated: soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, ratio, firmness, vitamin C and pulp yield. The use of hydrogenated cyanamide and mineral oil had no effect on the quality attributes of the fruit, except for pH, where those fruits under application of the products showed higher values. The cultivars all had a pulp yield greater than 90%, with 'Tourmaline' showing the highest yield (96 %. The levels of vitamin C varied according to the cultivars, where 'Marli' (16.9 mg 100 g-1 and 'Dourado-2' (16.5 mg 100 g-1, stood out for having the highest levels.

  15. Applications of de-oiled microalgal biomass towards development of sustainable biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Rahulkumar; Paliwal, Chetan; Ghosh, Tonmoy; Pancha, Imran; Chokshi, Kaumeel; Mitra, Madhusree; Ghosh, Arup; Mishra, Sandhya

    2016-08-01

    In view of commercialization of microalgal biofuel, the de-oiled microalgal biomass (DMB) is a surplus by-product in the biorefinery process that needs to be exploited to make the process economically attractive and feasible. This DMB, rich in carbohydrates, proteins, and minerals, can be used as feed, fertilizer, and substrate for the production of bioethanol/bio-methane. Further, thermo-chemical conversion of DMB results into fuels and industrially important chemicals. Future prospects of DMB also lie with its conversion into novel biomaterials like nanoparticles and carbon-dot which have biomedical importance. The lowest valued application of DMB is to use it for adsorption of dyes and heavy metals from industrial effluents. This study reviews how DMB can be utilized for different applications and in the generation of valuable co-products. The value addition of DMB would thereby improve the overall cost economics of the microalgal bio-refinery.

  16. Surface Modification for Superhydrophilicity and Underwater Superoleophobicity: Applications in Antifog, Underwater Self-Cleaning, and Oil-Water Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kang-Ting; Yeh, Shiou-Bang; Huang, Chun-Jen

    2015-09-30

    A facile yet effective surface modification strategy for superhydrophilicity and underwater superoleophobicity was developed by silanization of zwitterionic sulfobetaine silane (SBSi) on oxidized surfaces. The coatings exhibit excellent wetting properties, as indicated by static contact angles of water separation. The SBSi glasses retained their optical transmittance because of the rapid formation of coalesced water thin films on surfaces in contact with water vapor and moisture. In addition, the underwater-oil contact-angle measurements verified the underwater superoleophobicity of the zwitterionic SBSi coatings. The oil spills on the SBSi coating could be readily removed in contact with water to realize the self-cleaning property. Besides, we modified stainless steel wire meshes with SBSi for oil-water separation. The optimal oil recovery rate for the oil-water mixtures reached >99.5% when using the SBSi-coated meshes with a pore size of 17 μm. More importantly, the water flux with modified meshes achieved 6.5 × 10(7) L/m(2)·h·bar, enabling gravity-driven and energy-saving separation. Consequently, we demonstrated the superhydrophilicity and underwater superoleophobicity of SBSi, offering promise in solving technological problems of interfacial fog, oil spills, and oil-water separation and thereby showing great potential in large-scale commercial applications.

  17. Rheology of oleo gels based on sorbitan and glyceryl mono stearates and vegetable oils for lubricating applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, R.; Franco, J. M.; Delgado, M. A.; Valencia, C.; Gallegos, C.

    2011-07-01

    Oleo gels based on sorbitan and glyceryl mono stearates and different types of vegetable oils, potentially applicable as biodegradable alternatives to traditional lubricating greases, have been studied. In particular, the rheological behavior, by means of small-amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) measurements, and some lubrication performance-related properties (mechanical stability and tribological response) have been evaluated in this work. SAOS response and mechanical stability of these oleo gels are significantly influenced by the type and concentration of the organogelator and the vegetable oil used in the formulations. Glyceryl monostearate (GMS) generally produces stronger gels than sorbitan monostearate (SMS). The use of low-viscosity oils, such as rapeseed and soybean oils, yields gels with significantly higher values of the linear viscoelastic functions than oleo gels prepared with high-viscosity oils, i.e. castor oil. The rheological behavior of SMS-based oleo gels also depends on the cooling rate applied during the gelification process. On the other hand, the oleo gels studied present low values of the friction coefficient obtained in a tribological contact, although only some GMS/castor oil-based oleo gels exhibit a suitable mechanical stability. (Author) 28 refs.

  18. Composição química do óleo fixo obtido dos frutos secos da [Chamomilla recutita (L. Rauschert] produzida no município de Mandirituba, PR. Chemical composition of the fixed oil from [Chamomilla recutita (L. Rauschert] dried fruits native to the municipality of Mandirituba, Paraná (PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P. Pereira

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A camomila [Chamomilla recutita (L. Rauschert], é uma planta empregada na indústria de medicamentos, cosméticos e alimentos. Os frutos secos da camomila conhecidos por "sementes" são provenientes dos capítulos florais, dos quais pode-se extrair um óleo fixo rico em ácidos graxos insaturados. Através da técnica de extração com hexano em dispositivo de soxhlet, foi obtido o óleo bruto dos frutos secos da camomila em 19% de rendimento. O óleo foi caracterizado pela técnica de CG-EM, revelando um elevado teor de ácido linoleico na sua composição. Portanto, o óleo oriundo dos frutos secos da camomila vem a ser uma matéria-prima potencialmente útil na dermo-farmácia.Chamomile [Chamomilla recutita (L. Rauschert], is a plant employed in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. The chamomile dried fruits known as "seeds" they derive from floral chapters from which fixed oil rich in unsatured fatty acids can be extracted. Through the use of a soxhlet apparatus, using hexane as solvent, the chamomile dried fruits crude oil was obtained in 19% yields. This oil, was characterized by GC-MS technique and showed a high ratio of linoleic acid in its composition. Therefore, the chamomile dried fruits oil is a potential material to be used in the dermatological-pharmacy.

  19. Avaliação farmacognóstica e microbiológica da droga vegetal camomila (Chamomilla recutita L. comercializada como alimento em Cascavel - Paraná Pharmacognostic and microbiological evaluation of the medicinal plant chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L. commercialized as food in Cascavel Municipality, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S.R Lucca

    2010-06-01

    product presenting unsuitable conditions for consumption can lead to several risks to the consumer. Thus, the present study aimed to perform a pharmacognostic and microbiological evaluation of fifteen samples of chamomile tea commercialized in Cascavel Municipality, Paraná State, Brazil. The adopted methodology for the tests was that recommended by the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia (1988, 1996, 1998. The authenticity study indicated that all samples were constituted of Chamomilla recutita L.; however, most samples had excessively destroyed flower capitula. Six samples had levels of strange materials above 5%. As regards essential oil evaluation, all samples were unsatisfactory, since they only had essential oil traces, i.e. values under 0.4%, which is the lowest value accepted by the Pharmacopoeia. As regards mold and yeast analyses, four samples had values above the limit of 10(4 UFC mL-1, according to that recommended by the World Health Organization. The obtained data suggest that the chamomile commercialized in Cascavel Municipality has problems regarding quality; thus, establishing suitable procedures for sanitary hygienic control in its production chain is needed to assure the quality and the safety of such products.

  20. Application of microwave irradiation for the removal of polychlorinated biphenyls from siloxane transformer and hydrocarbon engine oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonetti, Claudia; Licursi, Domenico; Raspolli Galletti, Anna Maria; Martinelli, Marco; Tellini, Filippo; Valentini, Giorgio; Gambineri, Francesca

    2016-09-01

    The removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) both from siloxane transformer oil and hydrocarbon engine oil was investigated through the application of microwave (MW) irradiation and a reaction system based on polyethyleneglycol (PEG) and potassium hydroxide. The influence of the main reaction parameters (MW irradiation time, molecular weight of PEG, amount of added reactants and temperature) on the dechlorination behavior was studied. Promising performances were reached, allowing about 50% of dechlorination under the best experimental conditions, together time and energy saving compared to conventional heating systems. Moreover, an interesting dechlorination degree (up to 32%) was achieved for siloxane transformer oil when MW irradiation was employed as the unique driving force. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time in which MW irradiation is tested as the single driving force for the dechlorination of these two types of PCB-contaminated oils.

  1. Literature Review: Theory and Application of In-Line Inspection Technologies for Oil and Gas Pipeline Girth Weld Defection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingshan Feng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Girth weld cracking is one of the main failure modes in oil and gas pipelines; girth weld cracking inspection has great economic and social significance for the intrinsic safety of pipelines. This paper introduces the typical girth weld defects of oil and gas pipelines and the common nondestructive testing methods, and systematically generalizes the progress in the studies on technical principles, signal analysis, defect sizing method and inspection reliability, etc., of magnetic flux leakage (MFL inspection, liquid ultrasonic inspection, electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT inspection and remote field eddy current (RFDC inspection for oil and gas pipeline girth weld defects. Additionally, it introduces the new technologies for composite ultrasonic, laser ultrasonic, and magnetostriction inspection, and provides reference for development and application of oil and gas pipeline girth weld defect in-line inspection technology.

  2. Insight into the applications of palm oil mill effluent: A renewable utilization of the industrial agricultural waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foo, K.Y.; Hameed, B.H. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, University of Science Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2010-06-15

    Water scarcity and pollution rank equal to climate change as the most intricate environmental turmoil for the 21st century. Today, the percolation of palm oil mill effluents into the waterways and ecosystems, remain a fastidious concern towards the public health and food chain interference. With the innovation of palm oil residue into a high valuable end commodity, there has been a steadily growing interest in this research field. Confirming the assertion, this paper presents a state of art review of palm oil mill effluent industry, its fundamental characteristics and environmental implications. Moreover, the key advance of its implementations, major challenges together with the future expectation are summarized and discussed. Conclusively, the expanding of palm oil mill effluent in numerous field of application represents a plausible and powerful circumstance, for accruing the worldwide environmental benefit and shaping the national economy. (author)

  3. Investigating electrokinetics application for in-situ inorganic oil field scale control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashaykeh, Manal A. I. Albadawi

    Oil well scale formation and deposition is an expensive problem and could be a nightmare for any production engineer if the rate of deposition is rapid as in the case of North Sea oil fields. Inorganic scales accumulate in surface and subsurface equipment causing a reduction in oil production and severe damage for production equipment. The major components of most oil field scale deposits are BaSO4, CaSO4 and SrSO4, which are formed due to incompatible mixing of reservoir formation water and sea water flooded in secondary enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes. This work focuses on BaSO4 scale as it is one of the toughest scale components to be removed either by chemical means or mechanical means. Scale control methods usually involve complicated treatment using chemical dissolution methods as primary attempt and mechanical scrapping or jetting methods in case of failure of the chemical means. In this work, we devised a novel in-situ scale control method benefiting from the application of direct current (DC) which involves some of the electrokinetic (EK) phenomena. The applications of EK has been proved in our laboratories yielding high efficiency in capturing barium and separating it from sulfate before reaching the production well, thus preventing deposition in the production wellbore or wellbore formation. This objective was evaluated in our lab designed EK apparatus in three parts. In part-1, an 18.5 cm unconsolidated sand core was used which produced inconsistent results. This problem was overcome in part-2, where the porous media involved 46 cm consolidated sandcore. This also partly fulfilled the purpose of upscaling. In part-3, the porous media was extended to a 100 cm spatial distance between the injection and production wells. For all the experiments the reservoir models were made of 125 µm uniform sand particles and followed a final consolidation pressure of 30 psi. The EK-reservoir model contains 2 basic junctions; one of them injecting a 500 ppm SO4 2

  4. Application Closed-End Oscillating Heat Pipe for Essential Oil Condensation of the Small Scale Essential Oil Refiner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakultala WANNAPAKHE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the design and building of a small scale essential oil refiner by using heat pipes for essential oil condensation. The device structure of the small scale essential oil refiner was divided into 3 sections as follows: 1 the boiler with a heater for heating, 2 the vapor tube, and 3 the condenser unit. Three patterns of condenser unit were investigated: 1 condensation by water circulation, 2 condensation using heat pipes, and 3 condensation using heat pipes with water circulation. The temperature for testing was 80, 90 and 100 °C. A closed-end oscillating heat pipe (CEOHP was used in this research. The inner diameter of the heat pipe was 2 mm. R123 was used as the working fluid. 500 g of kaffir lime peels were used for each test with a time of 2 hours. It was found that the highest quantity of essential oil was 1.4 cc when using a CEOHP with a water circulation unit at 100 °C.

  5. Preparation of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes/Hydroxyl-Terminated Silicone Oil Fiber and Its Application to Analysis of Crude Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukui Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and efficient method to analyze the volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in crude oils has been developed based on direct immersion solid-phase microextraction coupled to comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (DI-SPME-GC × GC/TOFMS. A novel fiber, multiwalled carbon nanotubes/hydroxyl-terminated silicone oil (MWNTs-TSO-OH, was prepared by sol-gel technology. Using standard solutions, the extraction conditions were optimized such as extraction mode, extraction temperature, extraction time, and salts effect. With the optimized conditions, a real crude oil sample was extracted and then analyzed in detail. It shows that the proposed method is very effective in simultaneously analyzing the normal and branched alkanes, cycloalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, and biomarkers of crude oil such as steranes and terpanes. Furthermore, the method showed good linearity (r > 0.999, precision (RSD < 8%, and detection limits ranging from 0.2 to 1.6 ng/L.

  6. Lipase from marine Aspergillus awamori BTMFW032: production, partial purification and application in oil effluent treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basheer, Soorej M; Chellappan, Sreeja; Beena, P S; Sukumaran, Rajeev K; Elyas, K K; Chandrasekaran, M

    2011-10-01

    Marine fungus BTMFW032, isolated from seawater and identified as Aspergillus awamori, was observed to produce an extracellular lipase, which could reduce 92% fat and oil content in the effluent laden with oil. In this study, medium for lipase production under submerged fermentation was optimized statistically employing response surface method toward maximal enzyme production. Medium with soyabean meal-0.77% (w/v); (NH(4))(2)SO(4)-0.1m; KH(2)PO(4)-0.05 m; rice bran oil-2% (v/v); CaCl(2)-0.05 m; PEG 6000-0.05% (w/v); NaCl-1% (w/v); inoculum-1% (v/v); pH 3.0; incubation temperature 35°C and incubation period-five days were identified as optimal conditions for maximal lipase production. The time course experiment under optimized condition, after statistical modeling, indicated that enzyme production commenced after 36 hours of incubation and reached a maximum after 96 hours (495.0 U/ml), whereas maximal specific activity of enzyme was recorded at 108 hours (1164.63 U/mg protein). After optimization an overall 4.6-fold increase in lipase production was achieved. Partial purification by (NH(4))(2)SO(4) precipitation and ion exchange chromatography resulted in 33.7% final yield. The lipase was noted to have a molecular mass of 90 kDa and optimal activity at pH 7 and 40°C. Results indicated the scope for potential application of this marine fungal lipase in bioremediation.

  7. Benefits of clean development mechanism application on the life cycle assessment perspective: a case study in the palm oil industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuen, Onn Chiu; Yusoff, Sumiani

    2012-03-01

    This study performed an assessment on the beneficial of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) application on waste treatment system in a local palm oil industry in Malaysia. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to assess the environmental impacts of the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction from the CDM application. Calculations on the emission reduction used the methodology based on AM002 (Avoided Wastewater and On-site Energy Use Emissions in the Industrial Sector) Version 4 published by United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC). The results from the studies showed that the introduction of CDM in the palm oil mill through conversion of the captured biogas from palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment into power generation were able to reduce approximate 0.12 tonnes CO2 equivalent concentration (tCO2e) emission and 30 kW x hr power generation per 1 tonne of fresh fruit bunch processed. Thus, the application of CDM methodology on palm oil mill wastewater treatment was able to reduce up to 1/4 of the overall environment impact generated in palm oil mill.

  8. Physical characterization of biomass-based pyrolysis liquids. Application of standard fuel oil analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oasmaa, A.; Leppaemaeki, E.; Koponen, P.; Levander, J.; Tapola, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-31

    The main purpose of the study was to test the applicability of standard fuel oil methods developed for petroleum-based fuels to pyrolysis liquids. In addition, research on sampling, homogeneity, stability, miscibility and corrosivity was carried out. The standard methods have been tested for several different pyrolysis liquids. Recommendations on sampling, sample size and small modifications of standard methods are presented. In general, most of the methods can be used as such but the accuracy of the analysis can be improved by minor modifications. Fuel oil analyses not suitable for pyrolysis liquids have been identified. Homogeneity of the liquids is the most critical factor in accurate analysis. The presence of air bubbles may disturb in several analyses. Sample preheating and prefiltration should be avoided when possible. The former may cause changes in the composition and structure of the pyrolysis liquid. The latter may remove part of organic material with particles. The size of the sample should be determined on the basis of the homogeneity and the water content of the liquid. The basic analyses of the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) include water, pH, solids, ash, Conradson carbon residue, heating value, CHN, density, viscosity, pourpoint, flash point, and stability. Additional analyses are carried out when needed. (orig.) 53 refs.

  9. Paste and thickened tailings technology and its applicability in oil sand tailings management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, X.S.; Lahaie, R. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Tailings management practices can have a significant impact on overall oil sands mining operations. Paste and thickened tailings (P and TT) technology is an integrated engineering system that includes a thickener feed preparation process, type selection, and process; a flocculant selection and technology development; P and TT transport, deposition, and consolidation; and a strategy for re-using thickener overflow water and reducing impacts to the environment. This paper discussed developments of P and TT technology in relation to fine oil sands tailings. Practical applications of P and TT technology in the mineral industry were discussed, as well as recent research and development work conducted by Syncrude. Pilot programs currently being conducted to determine optimal thickener hydraulic and solids loading rates were discussed as well as the results of experiments conducted to determine flocculation and sedimentation processes. Thin-lift dry stacking technologies and containment methods were reviewed. Environmental considerations related to closure, residual bitumen, and warm water return and heat recovery were discussed. The study concluded by suggesting that a suite of technologies is needed to address the varying geographical, surface area, and mine progression challenges related to tailings management. 28 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs.

  10. An overview of uncertainty quantification techniques with application to oceanic and oil-spill simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Iskandarani, Mohamed

    2016-04-22

    We give an overview of four different ensemble-based techniques for uncertainty quantification and illustrate their application in the context of oil plume simulations. These techniques share the common paradigm of constructing a model proxy that efficiently captures the functional dependence of the model output on uncertain model inputs. This proxy is then used to explore the space of uncertain inputs using a large number of samples, so that reliable estimates of the model\\'s output statistics can be calculated. Three of these techniques use polynomial chaos (PC) expansions to construct the model proxy, but they differ in their approach to determining the expansions\\' coefficients; the fourth technique uses Gaussian Process Regression (GPR). An integral plume model for simulating the Deepwater Horizon oil-gas blowout provides examples for illustrating the different techniques. A Monte Carlo ensemble of 50,000 model simulations is used for gauging the performance of the different proxies. The examples illustrate how regression-based techniques can outperform projection-based techniques when the model output is noisy. They also demonstrate that robust uncertainty analysis can be performed at a fraction of the cost of the Monte Carlo calculation.

  11. Study of the application of sunflower oil in the process of drilling ABNT 1045 steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Robert Pereira Rodrigues

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The cutting fluids in machining, when chosen and applied adequately can contemplate in benefits during the manufacturing processes. The selected method should allow the cutting fluid to reach the closest possible of the cutting edge lubricating the chip-tool interface. The properties of the fluid are fundamental so that the same facilitates the machining process. However the fluid can represent a great problem for the environment and health of the operator. For that reason, several scientific and technological studies are constantly developed to investigate the performance and alternative applications of cutting fluids in machining operations. This work studies the effect of sunflower oil in the cutting forces for the drilling process of 1045 ABNT steel. The fluid was applied in the form MQL - Minimum Quantity Lubrication for different cutting conditions. The cutting speed, feed rate and the length of the hole were varied. Each one of the cutting variables two levels were used. The results suggest a good acting sunflower oil in the work accomplished.

  12. A REVIEW OF OIL PALM BIOCOMPOSITES FOR FURNITURE DESIGN AND APPLICATIONS: POTENTIAL AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Suhaily,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This review considers the potential and challenges of using agro-based oil palm biomasses, including the trunk, frond, empty fruit bunch, and palm press fiber biocomposites, for furniture applications. Currently, design and quality rather than price are becoming the primary concern for consumers when buying new furniture. Within this context, this paper focuses on the design of innovative, sustainable furniture from agro-based biocomposites to meet the needs of future population growth and technology. This research also discusses the need for biocomposite materials that do not depend on the growth of populations, but on the growth and development of the economy. This study focuses on globally available agro-based biocomposites, especially those from oil palm biomass: plywood, medium density fiberboard (MDF, wood plastic composite (WPC, laminated veneer lumber (LVL, oriented strand board (OSB, hardboards, and particleboard. Additional positive aspects of biocomposites are their environmentally friendly character, high quality, competitive design, and capacity to improve the value proposition of high-end products. These attributes increase the demand for agro-based biocomposite furniture on the international market.

  13. Homogeneous Modification of Sugarcane Bagasse by Graft Copolymerization in Ionic Liquid for Oil Absorption Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jie Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane bagasse, lignocellulosic residue from the sugar industry, is an abundant and renewable bioresource on the earth. The application of ionic liquids in sugarcane bagasse biorefinery is gaining increasing interest. The homogeneous modification of sugarcane bagasse by free radical initiated graft copolymerization of acrylate monomers using 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride as solvent was performed. A variety of sugarcane bagasse graft copolymers with different weight percent gain were prepared via adjusting the monomer dosage. FT-IR studies confirmed the success in attaching the poly(acrylate side chains onto sugarcane bagasse. Oil absorbency studies suggested that the sugarcane bagasse graft copolymers were potential biobased materials for effective treatment of ester-based oils. SEM studies showed that the sugarcane bagasse graft copolymers displayed a dense morphology structure. Thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that the thermal stability of sugarcane bagasse decreased after the homogeneous modification by the graft copolymerization. The present study provides an alternative strategy to convert sugarcane bagasse into a value-added functional biobased material.

  14. Application of oil-field well log interpretation techniques to the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ershaghi, I.; Phillips, L.B.; Dougherty, E.L.; Handy, L.L.

    1979-10-01

    An example is presented of the application of oil-field techniques to the Cerro Prieto Field, Mexico. The lithology in this field (sand-shale lithology) is relatively similar to oil-field systems. The study was undertaken as a part of the first series of case studies supported by the Geothermal Log Interpretation Program (GLIP) of the US Department of Energy. The suites of logs for individual wells were far from complete. This was partly because of adverse borehole conditions but mostly because of unavailability of high-temperature tools. The most complete set of logs was a combination of Dual Induction Laterolog, Compensated Formation Density Gamma Ray, Compensated Neutron Log, and Saraband. Temperature data about the wells were sketchy, and the logs had been run under pre-cooled mud condition. A system of interpretation consisting of a combination of graphic and numerical studies was used to study the logs. From graphical studies, evidence of hydrothermal alteration may be established from the trend analysis of SP (self potential) and ILD (deep induction log). Furthermore, the cross plot techniques using data from density and neutron logs may help in establishing compaction as well as rock density profile with depth. In the numerical method, R/sub wa/ values from three different resistivity logs were computed and brought into agreement. From this approach, values of formation temperature and mud filtrate resistivity effective at the time of logging were established.

  15. Epoxidized soybean oil/ZnO biocomposites for soft tissue applications: preparation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Pascual, Ana M; Díez-Vicente, Angel L

    2014-10-01

    Biocompatible and biodegradable nanocomposites comprising epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) as matrix, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles as reinforcements, and 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) as a catalyst have been successfully prepared via epoxidization of the double bonds of the vegetable oil, ultrasonication, and curing without the need for interfacial modifiers. Their morphology, water uptake, thermal, mechanical, barrier, tribological, and antibacterial properties have been investigated. FT-IR analysis revealed the existence of strong ESO-ZnO hydrogen-bonding interactions. The nanoparticles acted as mass transport barriers, hindering the diffusion of volatiles generated during the decomposition process and leading to higher thermal stability, and also reduced the water absorption and gas permeability of the bioresin. Significant improvements in the static and dynamic mechanical properties, such as storage and Young's moduli, tensile strength, toughness, hardness, glass transition, and heat distortion temperature, were attained on reinforcement. A small drop in the nanocomposite stiffness and strength was found after exposure to several cycles of steam sterilization or to simulated body fluid (SBF) at physiological temperature. Extraordinary reductions in the coefficient of friction and wear rate were detected under both dry and SBF conditions, confirming the potential of these nanoparticles for improving the tribological performance of ESO. The nanocomposites displayed antimicrobial action against human pathogen bacteria with and without UV illumination, which increased progressively with the ZnO content. These sustainable, ecofriendly, and low-cost biomaterials are very promising for use in biomedical applications, like structural tissue engineering scaffolds.

  16. Application of vegetable oils in infant formula milk powder%植物油在婴儿配方乳粉中的应用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房新平; 翟红梅; 胡长利

    2014-01-01

    The fatty acid contents of seven vegetable oils ( soybean oil, corn oil, walnut oil,sunflower seed oil, high oleic sunflower seed oil, palm oil and coconut oil) often used in infant formula milk pow-der were determined, and linoleic acid, linolenic acid and oleic acid,as the important indicators of fatty acid were analyzed. Furthermore, these results were compared with the fatty acid compositions of three noval vegetable oils(double - low rapeseed oil, rice bran oil and safflower seed oil), and the applications of the noval vegetable oils in infant formula milk powder were discussed.%从婴儿配方乳粉在用的7种植物油(大豆油、玉米油、核桃油、葵花籽油、高油酸葵花籽油、棕榈油和椰子油)入手,通过检测植物油的脂肪酸含量,对亚油酸、亚麻酸和油酸等几个主要指标进行了分析,进而与3种新型植物油(双低菜籽油、米糠油和红花籽油)的脂肪酸组成进行了比较,对新型植物油在婴儿配方乳粉中的应用进行了探讨。

  17. Application of lavender and rosemary essential oils improvement of the microbiological quality of chicken quarters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Petrová

    2015-12-01

    in air condition. The initial Enterobacteriacea genera value of chicken quarter was 2.00 log CFU.g-1 on 0 day. Presences of these bacteria were found on all groups at 16 days. The results of this present study suggest the possibility of application the Lavandula angustifolia and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil as natural food preservatives and potential sources of antimicrobial ingredients for food industry. 

  18. Reserve growth of oil and gas fields—Investigations and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Troy A.

    2013-01-01

    The reserve growth of fields has been a topic for ongoing discussion for over half a century and will continue to be studied well into the future. This is due to the expected size of the volumetric contribution of reserve growth to the future supply of oil and natural gas. Understanding past methods of estimating future volumes based on the data assembly methods that have been used can lead to a better understanding of their applicability. The statistical nature of past methods and the (1) possible high level of dependency on a limited number of fields, (2) assumption of an age-based correlation with effective reserve growth, and (3) assumption of long-lived and more common than not reserve growth, may be improved by employing a more geologically based approach.

  19. Relative merits of duplex and austenitic stainless steels for applications in the oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Elisabeth; Wegrelius, Lena; Pettersson, Rachel [Outokumpu Stainless AB, Avesta (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    The broad range of available stainless steel grades means that these materials can fulfil a wide variety of requirements within the oil and gas industry. The duplex grades have the advantage of higher strength than standard austenitic grades, while the superaustenitic grades provide a cost-effective alternative to nickel-base alloys in a number of cases. The paper presents the results of various types of laboratory testing to rank the grades in terms of resistance to pitting, crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. Results from field testing in actual or simulated service conditions are discussed and a number of application examples, including process piping flexible, heat exchangers and topside equipment are presented. (author)

  20. Preparation and characterization of polyurethane plasticizer for flexible packaging applications: Natural oils affirmed access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Mekewi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Developing bio-renewable feedstock for polyurethane (PU manufacturing and polymer industry as a whole has become highly desirable for both economic and environmental reasons. In this work castor oil (CO and palm olein (PO polyols were synthesized and partially used as renewable feedstock for the manufacturing of polyurethane plasticizing resin for printing ink applications. The chemical structure of the prepared polyols and polyurethanes were characterized using IR spectra and GPC and their solubility in common solvents was tested. As well, properties such as flexibility, mechanical properties, optical properties, heat seal and freeze resistance of these prepared printing inks were determined. The results indicated that the prepared printing inks from 50% synthesized polyurethane have high thermal stability, adhesion and excellent freeze resistance. The net technical properties of the new ink formulations are relatively comparable to the printing ink prepared from standard polyurethane plasticizer.

  1. Application of waste frying oils in the biosynthesis of biodemulsifier by a demulsifying strain Alcaligenes sp. S-XJ-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Peng, Kaiming; Huang, Xiangfeng; Lu, Lijun; Cheng, Hang; Yang, Dianhai; Zhou, Qi; Deng, Huiping

    2011-01-01

    Exploration of biodemulsifiers has become a new research aspect. Using waste frying oils (WFOs) as carbon source to synthesize biodemulsifiers has a potential prospect to decrease production cost and to improve the application of biodemulsifiers in the oilfield. In this study, a demulsifying strain, Alcaligenes sp. S-XJ-1, was investigated to synthesize a biodemulsifier using waste frying oils as carbon source. It was found that the increase of initial pH of culture medium could increase the biodemulsifier yield but decrease the demulsification ratio compared to that using paraffin as carbon source. In addition, a biodemulsifier produced by waste frying oils and paraffin as mixed carbon source had a lower demulsification capability compared with that produced by paraffin or waste frying oil as sole carbon source. Fed-batch fermentation of biodemulsifier using waste frying oils as supplementary carbon source was found to be a suitable method. Mechanism of waste frying oils utilization was studied by using tripalmitin, olein and tristearin as sole carbon sources to synthesize biodemulsifier. The results showed saturated long-chain fatty acid was difficult for S-XJ-1 to utilize but could effectively enhance the demulsification ability of the produced biodemulsifier. Moreover, FT-IR result showed that the demulsification capability of biodemulsifiers was associated with the content of C=O group and nitrogen element.

  2. Study of wettability of calcite surfaces using oil-brine-enzyme systems for enhanced oil recovery applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khusainova, Alsu; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Pedersen, Hanne Høst;

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes have recently been considered as possible agents for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) acting at the liquid-solid interface. One way to assess this is via measuring the wettability of calcite surfaces, important for EOR methods in carbonaceous reservoirs. In the present work, we have experiment......Enzymes have recently been considered as possible agents for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) acting at the liquid-solid interface. One way to assess this is via measuring the wettability of calcite surfaces, important for EOR methods in carbonaceous reservoirs. In the present work, we have...... experimentally investigated the effect of enzymes on the wettability of calcite mineral surfaces with oil-brine systems. The action of various enzymes, including esterases/lipases, carbohydrases, proteases and oxidoreductases (along with two commercial mixtures) was studied by contact angle measurements.......1% of the enzyme product (corresponding to 0.002-0.005% protein). Likewise, proteases could also improve wettability, although the effect was not consistent and was dependent on impurities. Other enzymes had no effect on the wettability of calcite at the concentration studied. The main mechanism of enzymatic...

  3. Effect of water stress and foliar boron application on seed protein oil fatty acids and nitrogen metabolism in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of water stress and foliar boron (FB) application on soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr.) seed composition and nitrogen metabolism have not been well investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of water stress and FB on seed protein, oil, fatty acids, nitra...

  4. Application of metal triflate catalysts for the trans-esterification of Jatropha curcas L. oil with methanol and higher alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniel, Louis; Rasrendra, Carolus B.; Kloekhorst, Arjan; Broekhuis, Antonius A.; Manurung, Robert; Heeres, Hero J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental study on the application of metal triflate salts for the (trans-) esterification of fatty esters (triolein, methyl oleate, methyl linoleate), fatty acid (oleic acid), as well as Jatropha curcas L. oil with methanol and higher alcohols (ethanol, n-propanol, iso-pr

  5. Application of linseed oil in cosmetics%亚麻籽油在化妆品中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨金娥; 黄凤洪; 黄庆德; 邓乾春

    2011-01-01

    简要介绍了亚麻籽油的来源、特性与传统应用,着重介绍了亚麻籽油在化妆品中的应用.亚麻籽油作为一种特殊天然功能油脂,在各种保湿护肤护发化妆品中用作营养和保湿剂.作为Omega -3系必需脂肪酸补充剂,不仅应用于具有特殊疗效的肤用化妆品中缓解或治疗皮肤问题,还应用于发用化妆品中发挥促进生发的功效.最后对亚麻籽油如何更好地应用于我国化妆品行业进行了展望.%The occurrence, characteristics and traditional applications of linseed oil were briefly introduced and highlighted on its applications in cosmetics. As a natural vegetable oil with special function, linseed oil was used as moisturizing and nourishing matrix in various kinds of skin - care and hair - care products. As supplementation of Omega - 3 essential fatty acids, linseed oil was used in some special cosmetics for treatment and alleviation of skin disease and in hair - care products for promotion of hair growth. Outlook for more effective use of linseed oil in cosmetic preparations was prospected.

  6. Vigilância de fitoterápicos em Minas Gerais. Verificação da qualidade de diferentes amostras comerciais de camomila Surveillance of phytotherapeutic drugs in the State of Minas Gerais. Quality assessment of commercial samples of chamomile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G. Lins Brandão

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available O comércio de plantas medicinais e produtos fitoterápicos encontra-se em expansão em todo o mundo. Uma portaria lançada recentemente pelo Ministério da Saúde busca regulamentar a produção dos fitoterápicos comercializados no Brasil. Com o objetivo de contribuir com a farmacovigilância deste setor, iniciamos um programa de avaliação do material fitoterápico comercializado em Minas Gerais. Foram analisadas 27 amostras de camomila, procedentes de farmácias, ervanarias e mercados, quanto à identidade, pureza e presença dos constituintes ativos. Apesar de todas as amostras serem constituídas da genuína Matricaria recutita, na maior parte os capítulos florais estavam muito destruídos, conseqüência de manuseio excessivo ou má conservação. Foram detectados contaminantes em todas as amostras, estando insetos presentes em 63% daquelas comercializadas em farmácias. Somente cerca de metade das amostras apresentaram os constituintes dos óleos essenciais, necessários à atividade antiinflamatória da planta. Os constituintes fenólicos, de ação espasmolítica, foram detectados em somente cerca de 20%. Os resultados com a camomila indicam a precariedade com que as plantas medicinais e fitoterápicos vêm sendo comercializados e confirmam a necessidade urgente de vigilância destes produtos no Brasil.Marketing of medicinal plants and phytotherapeutic products is spreading all over the world. In order to assess the commercialization of medicinal plants and phytotherapeutic products in the State of Minas Gerais, we identified and tested for the presence of adulterants and active ingredients in 27 samples of chamomile. All the samples consisted of Matricaria recutita flowers, but they were badly fragmented, a result of excessive handling and poor preservation. All samples contained contaminants, and insects were observed in 63% of the samples sold in drugstores. Only 50% of the samples in each group had the essential oils needed to

  7. Oligomerization of jojoba oil in super-critical carbon dioxide (green solvent) for different applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetable oils are renewable, non-toxic, biodegradable, non-polluting, and relatively harmless to the environment. Approximately 80% of the global plant oil and fat production is from vegetable oil, whereas 20% is from animal origin (share decreasing). Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is a perennial sh...

  8. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF PROTOCOLS FOR EVALUATION OF OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION (RESEARCH BRIEF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protocols were developed and evaluated to assess the efficacy and environmental safety of commercial oil spill bioremediation agents (CBAs). Test systems that simulate oil slicks on open water or oiled sandy beaches were used to test the effectiveness of CBAs. Gravimetric and gas...

  9. Rational Application of Chemicals in Response to Oil Spills May Reduce environmental Damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamis, J.E.; Jongbloed, R.H.; Karman, C.C.; Koops, W.; Murk, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Oil spills, for example those due to tanker collisions and groundings or platform accidents, can have huge adverse impacts on marine systems. The impact of an oil spill at sea depends on a number of factors, such as spill volume, type of oil spilled, weather conditions, and proximity to environmenta

  10. An ex vivo, assessor blind, randomised, parallel group, comparative efficacy trial of the ovicidal activity of three pediculicides after a single application - melaleuca oil and lavender oil, eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil, and a "suffocation" pediculicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altman Phillip M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are two components to the clinical efficacy of pediculicides: (i efficacy against the crawling-stages (lousicidal efficacy; and (ii efficacy against the eggs (ovicidal efficacy. Lousicidal efficacy and ovicidal efficacy are confounded in clinical trials. Here we report on a trial that was specially designed to rank the clinical ovicidal efficacy of pediculicides. Eggs were collected, pre-treatment and post-treatment, from subjects with different types of hair, different coloured hair and hair of different length. Method Subjects with at least 20 live eggs of Pediculus capitis (head lice were randomised to one of three treatment-groups: a melaleuca oil (commonly called tea tree oil and lavender oil pediculicide (TTO/LO; a eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil pediculicide (EO/LTTO; or a "suffocation" pediculicide. Pre-treatment: 10 to 22 live eggs were taken from the head by cutting the single hair with the live egg attached, before the treatment (total of 1,062 eggs. Treatment: The subjects then received a single treatment of one of the three pediculicides, according to the manufacturers' instructions. Post-treatment: 10 to 41 treated live eggs were taken from the head by cutting the single hair with the egg attached (total of 1,183 eggs. Eggs were incubated for 14 days. The proportion of eggs that had hatched after 14 days in the pre-treatment group was compared with the proportion of eggs that hatched in the post-treatment group. The primary outcome measure was % ovicidal efficacy for each of the three pediculicides. Results 722 subjects were examined for the presence of eggs of head lice. 92 of these subjects were recruited and randomly assigned to: the "suffocation" pediculicide (n = 31; the melaleuca oil and lavender oil pediculicide (n = 31; and the eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil pediculicide (n = 30 subjects. The group treated with eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil had an ovicidal efficacy of 3.3% (SD

  11. A new model for the biodegradation kinetics of oil droplets: application to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilcáez, Javier; Li, Li; Hubbard, Susan S

    2013-10-20

    Oil biodegradation by native bacteria is one of the most important natural processes that can attenuate the environmental impacts of marine oil spills. Existing models for oil biodegradation kinetics are mostly for dissolved oil. This work developed a new mathematical model for the biodegradation of oil droplets and applied the model to estimate the time scale for oil biodegradation under conditions relevant to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. In the model, oil is composed of droplets of various sizes following the gamma function distribution. Each oil droplet shrinks during the microbe-mediated degradation at the oil-water interface. Using our developed model, we find that the degradation of oil droplets typically goes through two stages. The first stage is characterized by microbial activity unlimited by oil-water interface with higher biodegradation rates than that of the dissolved oil. The second stage is governed by the availability of the oil-water interface, which results in much slower rates than that of soluble oil. As a result, compared to that of the dissolved oil, the degradation of oil droplets typically starts faster and then quickly slows down, ultimately reaching a smaller percentage of degraded oil in longer time. The availability of the water-oil interface plays a key role in determining the rates and extent of degradation. We find that several parameters control biodegradation rates, including size distribution of oil droplets, initial microbial concentrations, initial oil concentration and composition. Under conditions relevant to the Deepwater Horizon spill, we find that the size distribution of oil droplets (mean and coefficient of variance) is the most important parameter because it determines the availability of the oil-water interface. Smaller oil droplets with larger variance leads to faster and larger extent of degradation. The developed model will be useful for evaluating transport and fate of spilled oil, different

  12. Application of remote sensing data to monitoring of oil pollution as part of the environmental expert system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagarova, Lyudmila; Muratova, Mira; Abuova, Sholpan

    2016-07-01

    The impact of oil-producing facilities on the environment is caused by toxicity of hydrocarbons and by-products, a variety of chemicals used in industrial processes, as well as specificity of production, treatment, transportation and storage of oil and oil products. To predict the state of the geological environment, scientists carry out investigations, which help to choose the optimal strategy for creation of the expert system taking into account simulations and to provide efficient use of available environmentally relevant information related to the current state of the geological environment. The expert system is a complex of interconnected blocks, one of which is the information on the presence of oil pollution, which can be identified using satellite imagery. The satellite imagery has practical application in monitoring of oil pollution, as it allows specialists to identify oil spills remotely and to determine their characteristics based on the differentiation of the surface reflectance spectra. Snapshots are used to estimate the area of oil-contamination and location of spills. To detect contaminants it is necessary to perform the following steps in processing of the remote sensing data: - Identify and isolate all the dark deformations in the satellite images, as a result of processing of segmentation and threshold processing; - Calculate statistical parameters of dark deformations, i.e., signs similar to areas prone to contamination. These signs are related to the geometry of formation, their physical changes (backscattering value) and the image context; - Classify the selected spectral anomalies as oil pollution and oil sludge. On the basis of classification of satellite imagery, the objects of oil pollution are detected and deciphering signs are analyzed in order to refer classified objects to implicit or explicit contaminations. To detect oil pollution, pixels are classified into categories with learning on the given areas with creation of the

  13. QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND IMPROVED RECOVERY: APPLICATION TO HEAVY OIL SANDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James W. Castle; Fred J. Molz; Ronald W. Falta; Cynthia L. Dinwiddie; Scott E. Brame; Robert A. Bridges

    2002-10-30

    Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity has the potential to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involves application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation, particularly in heavy oil sands. The investigation was performed in collaboration with Chevron Production Company U.S.A. as an industrial partner, and incorporates data from the Temblor Formation in Chevron's West Coalinga Field. Observations of lateral variability and vertical sequences observed in Temblor Formation outcrops has led to a better understanding of reservoir geology in West Coalinga Field. Based on the characteristics of stratigraphic bounding surfaces in the outcrops, these surfaces were identified in the subsurface using cores and logs. The bounding surfaces were mapped and then used as reference horizons in the reservoir modeling. Facies groups and facies tracts were recognized from outcrops and cores of the Temblor Formation and were applied to defining the stratigraphic framework and facies architecture for building 3D geological models. The following facies tracts were recognized: incised valley, estuarine, tide- to wave-dominated shoreline, diatomite, and subtidal. A new minipermeameter probe, which has important advantages over previous methods of measuring outcrop permeability, was developed during this project. The device, which measures permeability at the distal end of a small drillhole, avoids surface weathering effects and provides a superior seal compared with previous methods for measuring outcrop permeability. The new probe was used successfully for obtaining a high-quality permeability data set from an outcrop in southern Utah

  14. Stabilization of sand dunes with oil residue:Application to civil engineering construction and environmental implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Esmail Aflaki; Alborz Hajiannia

    2015-01-01

    The present work ascertains the feasibility of oil residue treatment for stabilizing wind-blown sand dunes. Various combinations of natural collapsible saline from the Jandaq desert of Iran and oil residue from distillation towers of Iranian refineries were tested in laboratory experiments. Stabilized sands were evaluated in terms of geotechnical properties, permeability, and oil retention characteristics (i.e. bonding mechanisms, leaching and migrating behaviour of oil residue from the stabilized sands). Since the presence of oil residue in soils can pose an environmental threat, the optimum retention capacity of the stabilized sands is of critical concern. Relative to sand that was not augmented with oil residue, specimens made of 7% oil residues had the highest compressive strength, significantly higher cohesion and load bearing capacity, and considerably lower permeability. The effect of distilled water, saline water and municipal sewage on prepared specimens were also evaluated.

  15. FT-IR Application for the Detection of Pistachio Oil Adulteration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sheibani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR is used to identify and detection the adulteration of pistachio oil with cheap edible oils of corn, sunflower and soybean. For this purpose, pistachio oil was blended with cheap oils at concentration level of 10 to 60% (w/w. Then, FT-IR spectra of pure and adulterated pistachio oil samples were obtained. The fingerprints region was found to be useful in investigation of the adulteration of pistachio oil. At this region, the absorbance peaks of FT-IR decreased by increasing the adulterant amount with a linear relation that can be applied for the quality and quantity purposes. The obtained results showed that the proposed method can be considered and used as an alternative method in the detection and semi-quantization of adulteration in pistachio oil.

  16. Inclusão da camomila no desempenho, comportamento e estresse em codornas durante a fase de recria Chamomile inclusion on performance, behavior and stress in immature quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Henrique Marques

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da Matricaria chamomila sobre o estresse de codornas japonesas na fase de recria (28 a 42 dias de idade. Foram utilizadas 192 codornas com 28 dias de idades, distribuídas em blocos casualizados e submetidas às dietas com 0, 250, 500 e 750mg de camomila/kg de ração, totalizando quatro tratamentos, com oito repetições e seis aves por parcela. Foram avaliados os parâmetros de desempenho (consumo diário de ração, conversão alimentar e ganho de peso, comportamentais (tempo em imobilidade tônica, ferimentos corporais e agressividade e fisiológicos (concentração plasmática de corticosterona e relação heterófilo:linfócito. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que a camomila adicionada na dieta não foi capaz de alterar os parâmetros de desempenho, bem como os de comportamento e fisiológicos.The objective of this study was to test the effect of Matricaria chamomila on the stress of the Japanese quails in the rearing period. In the rearing phase, from 28 to 42 days old, 192 quails were lodged to cages and allotted to completely randomized blocks design, with four diets (0; 250; 500 and 750mg of chamomile/kg of ration, with eight replicates and six birds per cage. Performance (feed intake, body weight gain, and feed conversion ratio, behavior (body injury, tonic immobility and focal observation and physiological parameters (corticosterone plasmatic and heterophil/lymphocyte ratio were evaluated. The tested chamomile levels did not affect performance, behavior and physiological parameters of quails in the rearing phase.

  17. ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR OPERATIONAL SAFETY IN A COMPANY OF OIL AND GAS SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Coentrão Marques

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Operational safety is a worrying factor within any company, especially in the oil and gas sector. The objective of this work was to analyze the application of technical regulation of the management system for operational safety on marine installations for drilling and production of oil and natural gas from the National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels in manuals of a company in the oil and gas sector. The methodology was based on documentary analysis. It was observed that the company management can achieve the technical factors of work, building design and integration as operational safety in each of the management practices. Concluded that the format and information of manuals are placed as potential to eliminate the risks for the company and the environment.

  18. Comparative studies of antifugal potentialities for some natural plant oils against different fungi isolated from poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed, F. H.

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory effect of eight natural oils on ten pathogenic fungi isolated from the digestive and respiratory tracts of dead chickens in Kena Governorate showed that crude peppermint oil only has a highest effect against some isolated fungi and a low response against others. While its 10% and 2% oil concentrations failed to give any effect against all the tested fungi. Crude chamomile and pelargonium oils showed moderate effect against all isolated fungi. The effect of different dilutions of chamomile, cumin and celery oils appeared that the 10% concentration showed more effective than the crude oil. Lemongrass and basil oils have almost the same behaviour towards the isolated fungi as the crude oils and the 10% concentration affected them greatly. On the other hand 2% basil oil gave no effect at all. Critical concentrations of the efficient oils against isolated fungi were calculated. The most efficient oils were lemongrass against Aspergillus flavipes, chamomile against A. fumigatus and cumin against A. nidulans, while cumin against A. glaucus, clove against A. flavus were chamomile against A. flavus and clove against A. flavipes were the lowest efficient oils.

    El efecto inhibidor de ocho aceites naturales sobre diez aislados de hongos patógenos de los tractos digestivo y respiratorio de pollos muertos en "Kena Governorate" mostró que el aceite de menta crudo tiene un mayor efecto frente a algunos aislados y una repuesta menor frente a otros. Aunque sus concentraciones en aceite al 10% y 2% consiguieron dar algún efecto frente a todos los hongos ensayados. Aceites de geranio y manzanilla crudo mostraron efecto moderado frente a todos los aislados de hongos. El efecto de disoluciones diferentes de aceites de manzanilla, comino y apio dieron como resultado que la concentración al 10% era más efectiva que el aceite crudo. Aceites de lemongras y albahaca tienen casi el mismo

  19. Research Concerning Antimicrobial Activities of Some Essential Oils Extracted from Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA DALILA CRISTE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The principal components of some essential oils extracted from plants have been found to have microbial activity. Depending on the concentration, the members of this class are known to be bactericide or bacteriostatic. Their action mechanism is unclear, but some studies suggest that the compounds penetrate the cell, where they interfere with cellular metabolism. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of 5 essential oils extracted from plants on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus and to determinate how different amount of the used oils can influence the results of inhibition tests. These results showed that mainly all the natural extracts presented an antimicrobial effect. Thereby, some extracts were more efficient than another and the order is: Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus, Mentha piperita (mint, Lavandula angustifolia (lavender, Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile, Calendula officinalis (calendula.

  20. An efficient thermotolerant and halophilic biosurfactant-producing bacterium isolated from Dagang oil field for MEOR application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Langping; Richnow, Hans; Yao, Jun; Jain, Anil

    2014-05-01

    Dagang Oil field (Petro China Company Limited) is one of the most productive oil fields in China. In this study, 34 biosurfactant-producing strains were isolated and cultured from petroleum reservoir of Dagang oil field, using haemolytic assay and the qualitative oil-displacement test. On the basis of 16S rDNA analysis, the isolates were closely related to the species in genus Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and Bacillus. One of the isolates identified as Bacillus subtilis BS2 were selected for further study. This bacterium was able to produce a type of biosurfactant with excessive foam-forming properties at 37ºC as well as at higher temperature of 55ºC. The biosurfactant produced by the strain BS2 could reduce the surface tension of the culture broth from 70.87 mN/m to 28.97 mN/m after 8 days of incubation at 37ºC and to 36.15 mN/m after 20 days of incubation at 55ºC, respectively. The biosurfactant showed stability at high temperature (up to 120ºC), a wide range of pH (2 to 12) and salt concentrations (up to 12%) offering potential for biotechnology. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum of extracted biosurfactant tentatively characterized the produced biosurfactant as glycolipid derivative. Elemental analysis of the biosurfactant by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) reveals that the biosurfactant was anionic in nature. 15 days of biodegradation of crude oil suggested a preferential usage of n-alkane upon microbial metabolism of BS2 as a carbon substrate and consequently also for the synthesis of biosurfactants. Core flood studies for oil release indicated 9.6% of additional oil recovery over water flooding at 37ºC and 7.2% of additional oil recovery at 55 ºC. Strain BS2 was characterized as an efficient biosurfactant-producing, thermotolerant and halophillic bacterium and has the potential for application for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) through water flooding in China's oil fields even in situ as adapted to reservoir chemistry and

  1. Effects of Zeolite and Selenium Application on Some Physiological Traits and Oil Yield of Medicinal Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh Eskandari Zanjani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that certain plants offer valuable medicinal properties. But there are many challenges that local communities face in the harvesting and cultivation of these plants. Medicinal pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. var. Styriaca is an economically important medicinal plant cultivated for oil production. Water source limitation is one of the important problems in agriculture worldwide. Natural zeolits have some properties such as water absorption and emission and nitrate leaching inhibition, which is useful for soil amendment. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of zeolite and selenium application on some physiological traits and oil yield of medicinal pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. under drought stress. A field experiment was carried out in a factorial based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. The factors included: Irrigation (control, drought stress imposed during at flowering phase and drought stress imposed during fruit formation, Zeolite (non-application and application of 10 ton/ha and Selenium (nonapplication and 30 g/Lit from sodium selenate. All physiological parameters were affected by drought stress and zeolite application. Drought stress decreased total chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, RWC, leaf soluble protein, oil content and oil yield and zeolite application in drought stress increased mentioned traits except oil content. Proline accumulation, WSD and CAT antioxidant enzyme activity were reduced in presence of zeolite in drought stress conditions than under control. Selenium spraying with zeolite application in drought conditions increased RWC, CAT antioxidant enzyme activity and oil yield. Drought stress at fruit formation phase reduced oil content and oil yield more severe than that on flowering stage. Finally, it seems that zeolite and selenium application in dry lands are exposed to drought stress be helpful for physiological traits and oil yield improvement and

  2. Application of Thermal Desorption Unit (TDU) to treat low-toxicity mineral oil base cuttings in Barinas District, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendon, Ruben [Petroleos de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela); Luzardo, Janeth; Alcoba, Alcides [M-I SWACO, Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The potential environmental impact of oil-based drill cuttings is generating increased scrutiny in the oil and gas industry. If left untreated, oil-based cuttings not only increase the risk of environmental liabilities, but also affect revenue, as drilling generates wastes that in most cases require special treatment before disposal. Consequently, the oil industry is looking for technologies to help minimize environmental liabilities. Accordingly, the Barinas District of PDVSA has started a pilot trial to treat oil-based drilling cuttings by applying thermal desorption technology. The main objective of this technology is recovering trapped hydrocarbons, while minimizing wastes and preparing solids to be disposed of through a mobile treatment plant. This novel technology has been used worldwide to treat organic pollutants in soil. Thermal desorption is a technology based on the application of heat in soils polluted with organic compounds. With this technology, target temperatures vary according to the type and concentration of detected pollutants along with its characterization, in such a way that compounds are disposed of by volatilization. As part of the integral waste management development along with the pilot trial for hydrocarbon-contaminated solid waste treatment, trials on soils were undertaken by applying process-generated ashes in equally-sized bins, with different mixtures (ashes, ashes organic material, ashes-organic material-sand, ashes-land). The resulting process offers an immediate soil remediation and final disposal solution for toxic and dangerous waste. (author)

  3. Research Status of Extraction and Applications of Essential Oil of Pomelo Peel%柚皮精油提取工艺与应用研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋平; 吴厚玖; 沈海亮

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarized the extraction methods of pemelo peel oil at home and abroad, and the application of every method. According to the applications of essential oils of pomelo peel at this stage, the development prospect of studies and application of essential oil of pomelo peel were outlooked.%综述目前国内外柚皮精油的提取方法及应用研究情况,并根据现阶段柚皮精油的应用状况,展望未来柚皮精油研究与应用的发展前景.

  4. Studies on crude oil removal from pebbles by the application of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wen-xiang; Xia, Yan; Li, Jin-cheng; Zhang, Dan-feng; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Xin-ping

    2015-02-15

    Oil residues along shorelines are hard to remove after an oil spill. The effect of biodiesel to eliminate crude oil from pebbles alone and in combination with petroleum degrading bacteria was investigated in simulated systems. Adding biodiesel made oil detach from pebbles and formed oil-biodiesel mixtures, most of which remained on top of seawater. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal efficiency increased with biodiesel quantities but the magnitude of augment decreased gradually. When used with petroleum degrading bacteria, the addition of biodiesel (BD), nutrients (NUT) and BD+NUT increased the dehydrogenase activity and decreased the biodegradation half lives. When BD and NUT were replenished at the same time, the TPH removal efficiency was 7.4% higher compared to the total improvement of efficiency when BD and NUT was added separately, indicating an additive effect of biodiesel and nutrients on oil biodegradation.

  5. Marine oil spill risk mapping for accidental pollution and its application in a coastal city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Dongdong; Liang, Bin; Bao, Chenguang; Ma, Minghui; Xu, Yan; Yu, Chunyan

    2015-07-15

    Accidental marine oil spill pollution can result in severe environmental, ecological, economic and other consequences. This paper discussed the model of Marine Oil Spill Risk Mapping (MOSRM), which was constructed as follows: (1) proposing a marine oil spill risk system based on the typical marine oil spill pollution accidents and prevailing risk theories; (2) identifying suitable indexes that are supported by quantitative sub-indexes; (3) constructing the risk measuring models according to the actual interactions between the factors in the risk system; and (4) assessing marine oil spill risk on coastal city scale with GIS to map the overall risk. The case study of accidental marine oil spill pollution in the coastal area of Dalian, China was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the model. The coastal areas of Dalian were divided into three zones with risk degrees of high, medium, and low. And detailed countermeasures were proposed for specific risk zones.

  6. Application of Origanum majorana L. essential oil as an antimicrobial agent in sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busatta, C; Vidal, R S; Popiolski, A S; Mossi, A J; Dariva, C; Rodrigues, M R A; Corazza, F C; Corazza, M L; Vladimir Oliveira, J; Cansian, R L

    2008-02-01

    This work reports on the antimicrobial activity in fresh sausage of marjoram (Origanum majorana L.) essential oil against several species of bacteria. The in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for 10 selected aerobic heterotrophic bacterial species. The antimicrobial activity of distinct concentrations of the essential oil based on the highest MIC value was tested in a food system comprising fresh sausage. Batch food samples were also inoculated with a fixed concentration of Escherichia coli and the time course of the product was evaluated with respect to the action of the different concentrations of essential oil. Results showed that addition of marjoram essential oil to fresh sausage exerted a bacteriostatic effect at oil concentrations lower than the MIC, while a bactericidal effect was observed at higher oil concentrations which also caused alterations in the taste of the product.

  7. Application of orange essential oil as an antistaphylococcal agent in a dressing model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthaiyan Arunachalam

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus is the pathogen most often and prevalently involved in skin and soft tissue infections. In recent decades outbreaks of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA have created major problems for skin therapy, and burn and wound care units. Topical antimicrobials are most important component of wound infection therapy. Alternative therapies are being sought for treatment of MRSA and one area of interest is the use of essential oils. With the increasing interest in the use and application of natural products, we screened the potential application of terpeneless cold pressed Valencia orange oil (CPV for topical therapy against MRSA using an in vitro dressing model and skin keratinocyte cell culture model. Methods The inhibitory effect of CPV was determined by disc diffusion vapor assay for MRSA and vancomycin intermediate-resistant S. aureus (VISA strains. Antistaphylococcal effect of CPV in an in vitro dressing model was tested on S. aureus inoculated tryptic soya agar plate. Bactericidal effect of CPV on MRSA and VISA infected keratinocyte cells was examined by enumeration of extra- and intra-cellular bacterial cells at different treatment time points. Cytotoxic effects on human skin cells was tested by adding CPV to the keratinocyte (HEK001 cells grown in serum free KSFM media, and observed by phase-contrast microscope. Results CPV vapour effectively inhibited the MRSA and VISA strains in both disc diffusion vapour assay and in vitro dressing model. Compared to untreated control addition of 0.1% CPV to MRSA infected keratinocyte decreased the viable MRSA cells by 2 log CFU/mL in 1 h and in VISA strain 3 log CFU/mL reduction was observed in 1 h. After 3 h viable S. aureus cells were not detected in the 0.2% CPV treatment. Bactericidal concentration of CPV did not show any cytotoxic effect on the human skin keratinocyte cells in vitro. Conclusions At lower concentration addition of CPV to keratinocytes infected

  8. Influence of Zn foliar application on growth characteristics and essential oil yield of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. under salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Gohari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mass production of medicinal and aromatic plants under hydroponic systems and especially in areas with saline soils is very important. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the interaction of salinity stress and foliar application of zinc (Zn on hydroponically-grown basil (Ocimum basilicum L.. The factorial experiment was arranged as randomized complete blocks design, with two salinity levels (0 and 50 mM NaCl and three Zn levels (0, 100 and 200 mg/L as ZnSO4,7H2O and three replications. Some growth characteristics such as height, leaf surface area, fresh and dry weight of leaves, stem and whole plant, chlorophyll index, harvest index and yield of dry leaves per m2 were measured. After extraction of essential oil, the oil yield was calculated based on oil content in the plant. The results showed that salinity stress adversely affected all growth characteristics as well as essential oil content and yield. Despite the generally accepted hypothesis, Zn application not only had no impact on reducing the negative effects of salinity, but also showed no significant difference between the control plants (no salinity. The highest essential oil content and yield were recorded for control plants. Therefore, it is concluded that under the hydroponics system, basil is sensitive to 50 mM salinity, and Zn foliar application up to 200 mg/L had no positive impact on the reduction of negative effects of salinity. Thus, control nutrient solution has appropriate amount of Zn for salinity stress conditions.

  9. Analysis of multicriteria models application for selection of an optimal artificial lift method in oil production

    OpenAIRE

    Crnogorac, Miroslav P.; Danilović, Dušan Š.; Karović-Maričić, Vesna D.; Leković, Branko A.

    2016-01-01

    In the world today for the exploitation of oil reservoirs by artificial lift methods are applied different types of deep pumps (piston, centrifugal, screw, hydraulic), water jet pumps and gas lift (continuous, intermittent and plunger). Maximum values of oil production achieved by these exploitation methods are significantly different. In order to select the optimal exploitation method of oil well, the multicriteria analysis models are used. In this paper is presented an analysis of the multi...

  10. Application of Parallel Algorithm Approach for Performance Optimization of Oil Paint Image Filter Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Mukherjee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a detailed study on the performance of image filter algorithm with various parameters applied on an image of RGB model. There are various popular image filters, which consumes large amount of computing resources for processing. Oil paint image filter is one of the very interesting filters, which is very performance hungry. Current research tries to find improvement in oil paint image filter algorithm by using parallel pattern library. With increasing kernel-size, the processing time of oil paint image filter algorithm increases exponentially. I have also observed in various blogs and forums, the questions for faster oil paint have been asked repeatedly.

  11. Pretreatment of super viscous oil wastewater and its application in refinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Chunmao; Yan Guangxu; Guo Shaohui; Yang Yong

    2008-01-01

    Wastewater from super viscous oil processing cannot be effectively treated by conventional wastewater treatment plants in refineries because of its high concentration of various organic pollutants.In order to resolve this problem,a number of investigations were conducted in our work to understand the physicochemical properties,sedimentation,demulsification and pretreatment of such super viscous oil refinery wastewater.The results showed that the key issues for pretreatment of this wastewater were:(1)Optimized process parameters were used in the sedimentation and demulsification processes for oil removal to effectively recover oil and remove scum from wastewater;(2)A suitable flocculation process was selected to minimize oil,suspended solids(SS)and chemical oxygen demand(CODcr).A pretreatment process including three continuous steps:oil removal by sedimentation,oil removal by demulsification,and flotation separation,was proposed and applied in Liaohe Petrochemical Company,PetroChina and the oil content in effluents was Iess than 200 mg/L and CODcr less than 2,500 mg/L,which completely met the requirement for influent of the conventional wastewater treatment plant,and the recovered super viscous oil reached 5,873 tons in the initial year in Liaohe Petrochemical Company,PetroChina.

  12. APPLICATION OF CHEMICALLY ACCELERATED BIOTREATMENT TO REDUCE RISKIN OIL-IMPACTED SOILS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.R. Paterek; W.W.Bogan; V. Trbovic; W. Sullivan

    2003-01-07

    The drilling and operation of gas/petroleum exploratory wells and the operations of natural gas and petroleum production wells generate a number of waste materials that are usually stored and/or processed at the drilling/operations site. Contaminated soils result from drilling operations, production operations, and pipeline breaks or leaks where crude oil and petroleum products are released into the surrounding soil or sediments. In many cases, intrinsic biochemical remediation of these contaminated soils is either not effective or is too slow to be an acceptable approach. This project targeted petroleum-impacted soil and other wastes, such as soil contaminated by: accidental release of petroleum and natural gas-associated organic wastes from pipelines or during transport of crude oil or natural gas; production wastes (such as produced waters, and/or fuels or product gas). Our research evaluated the process designated Chemically-Accelerated Biotreatment (CAB) that can be applied to remediate contaminated matrices, either on-site or in situ. The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) had previously developed a form of CAB for the remediation of hydrocarbons and metals at Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) sites and this research project expanded its application into Exploration and Production (E&P) sites. The CAB treatment was developed in this project using risk-based endpoints, a.k.a. environmentally acceptable endpoints (EAE) as the treatment goal. This goal was evaluated, compared, and correlated to traditional analytical methods (Gas Chromatography (GC), High Precision Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), or Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (CGMS)). This project proved that CAB can be applied to remediate E&P contaminated soils to EAE, i.e. those concentrations of chemical contaminants in soil below which there is no adverse affect to human health or the environment. Conventional approaches to risk assessment to determine ''how clean is clean'' for soils

  13. INEEL Biotechnology for Oilfield Application--Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery FY-03 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. A. Bala; D. F. Bruhn; S. L. Fox; K. S. Noah; K. D. Schaller; E. P. Robertson; X. Xie

    2003-11-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Biotechnology for Oilfield Operations program supports development, engineering, and application of biotechnology for exploration and production. This continuing INEEL program also supports mitigation of detrimental field conditions. The program is consistent with the United States Department of Energy mission to ¡§promote activities and policies through its oil technology and natural gas supply programs to enhance the efficiency and environmental quality of domestic oil and natural gas exploration, recovery, processing, transport, and storage.¡¨ In addition, the program directly supports the focus areas of Reservoir Life Extension; Advanced Drilling, Completion and Stimulation Systems; Effective Environmental Protection; and Cross Cutting Areas. The program is enhanced by collaborative relationships with industry and academia. For fiscal year 2003, the program focused on production and characterization of biological surfactants from agricultural residuals and the production and application of reactive microbial polymers. This report specifically details: 1. Use of a chemostat reactor operated in batch mode for producing surfactin, with concomitant use of an antifoam to prevent surfactant loss. The program achieved production and recovery of 0.6 g/L of surfactin per 12 hr. 2. Characterization of surfactin produced from agricultural residuals with respect to its ability to mediate changes in surface tension. Conditions evaluated were salt (as NaCl) from 0 to 10% (w/v), pH from 3 to 10, temperature from 21 to 70¢XC, and combinations of these conditions. When evaluated singularly, pH below 6 and salt concentrations above 30 g/L were found to have an adverse impact on surfactin. Temperatures of 70¢XC for 95 days had no effect. When the effect of temperature was added to the pH experiment, there were no significant changes, and, again, surface tension, at any temperature, increased at pH below 6

  14. Application of microencapsulated essential oils in cosmetic and personal healthcare products - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, I T; Estevinho, B N; Santos, L

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, the consumers around the world are increasingly focused on health and beauty. The renewed consumer interest in natural cosmetic products creates the demand for new products and reformulated others with botanical and functional ingredients. In cosmetic products, essential oils (EOs) play a major role as fragrance ingredients. They can optimize its proprieties and preservation, as well as the marketing image of the final product. Microencapsulation of EOs can protect and prevent the loss of volatile aromatic ingredients and improve the controlled release and stability of this core materials. The importance of EOs for cosmetic industry and its microencapsulation was reviewed in this study. Also a briefly introduction about the preparation of microparticles was presented. Some of the most important and usual microencapsulation techniques of EOs, as well as the conventional encapsulating agents, were discussed. Despite the fact that microencapsulation of EOs is a very promising and extremely attractive application area for cosmetic industry, further basic research needs to be carried out, for a better understanding of the biofunctional activities of microencapsulated EOs and its release modulation, as well as the effects of others cosmetic ingredients and the storage time in the microparticles properties.

  15. Activated carbons derived from oil palm empty-fruit bunches: Application to environmental problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md.Zahangir ALAM; Suleyman A.MUYIBI; Mariatul F.MANSOR; Radziah WAHID

    2007-01-01

    Activated carbons derived from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) were investigated to find the suitability of its application for removal of phenol in aqueous solution through adsorption process. Two types of activation namely; thermal activation at 300, 500 and 800℃ and physical activation at 150℃ (boiling treatment) were used for the production of the activated carbons. A control (untreated EFB) was used to compare the adsorption capacity of the activated carbons produced from these processes. The results indicated that the activated carbon derived at the temperature of 800℃ showed maximum absorption capacity in the aqueous solution of phenol. Batch adsorption studies showed an equilibrium time of 6 h for the activated carbon at 800℃. It was observed that the adsorption capacity was higher at lower values of pH (2-3) and higher value of initial concentration of phenol (200-300 mg/L). The equilibrium data fitted better with the Freundlich adsorption isotherm compared to the Langmuir. Kinetic studies of phenol adsorption onto activated carbons were also studied to evaluate the adsorption rate. The estimated cost for production of activated carbon from EFB was shown in lower price (USD 0.50/kg of AC) compared the activated carbon from other sources and processes.

  16. Promising applications of cyclodextrins in food: Improvement of essential oils retention, controlled release and antiradical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kfoury, Miriana; Auezova, Lizette; Greige-Gerges, Hélène; Fourmentin, Sophie

    2015-10-20

    Essential oils (EOs) are gaining great interest as alternatives for harmful synthetic food preservatives. Due to their volatile nature, they could be applied in food packaging to improve food quality and extend shelf-life. To provide long-term effects of EOs by increasing their retention and ensuring controlled release of their components, they could be encapsulated in cyclodextrins (CDs). Herein, the ability of six CDs to retain nine EOs and to bind their individual components was investigated. Retention capacities and binding abilities of CDs were assessed by static headspace-gas chromatography (SH-GC) using a new validated "rapid method". The ability of CDs to generate controlled release systems was examined by multiple headspace extraction (MHE). Finally, radical scavenging activity of free and encapsulated EOs was evaluated. The highest retention capacity toward the studied EOs was obtained for β-CD and its derivatives (69-78%). Also, β-CD and its derivatives showed, with one exception, the highest Kf values for all the studied guests. In addition, encapsulation in CDs reduced the releasing rate of EO components (from 1.43 to 2.43-fold for β-CD/Satureja montana EO used as a model). Furthermore, the inclusion complexes showed higher ABTS(+) scavenging capacity than the free EOs. Results confirmed the usefulness of CDs as encapsulant for EOs and should encourage their application in food and as part of active packaging systems.

  17. Application Research of the Sparse Representation of Eigenvector on the PD Positioning in the Transformer Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The partial discharge (PD detection of electrical equipment is important for the safe operation of power system. The ultrasonic signal generated by the PD in the oil is a broadband signal. However, most methods of the array signal processing are used for the narrowband signal at present, and the effect of some methods for processing wideband signals is not satisfactory. Therefore, it is necessary to find new broadband signal processing methods to improve detection ability of the PD source. In this paper, the direction of arrival (DOA estimation method based on sparse representation of eigenvector is proposed, and this method can further reduce the noise interference. Moreover, the simulation results show that this direction finding method is feasible for broadband signal and thus improve the following positioning accuracy of the three-array localization method. And experimental results verify that the direction finding method based on sparse representation of eigenvector is feasible for the ultrasonic array, which can achieve accurate estimation of direction of arrival and improve the following positioning accuracy. This can provide important guidance information for the equipment maintenance in the practical application.

  18. Essential oil composition of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in symbiotic relationship with Piriformospora indica and paclobutrazol application under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramati, Sara; Pirdashti, Hemmatollah; Babaeizad, Valliollah; Dehestani, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Essential oil content and oil composition of paclobutrazol treated sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) plant inoculated with Piriformospora indica under salt stress were investigated by GC-MS. The results show a slight increase in essential oil content when basil plants subjected to moderate salinity stress (3 dS m(-1) of NaCl). It decreased signifiicantly with increasing salinity level to 9 dS m(-1). The findings revealed that leaf area, above ground and leaf dry weights, essential oil content and yield were significantly affected by P. indica inoculation, however paclobutrazol application significantly influenced essential oil yield but not content. Fungal symbiosis as well as paclobutrazol application ameliorated the negative effects of salinity on dry matter and essential oil yield. The main constituents found in the volatile oil of O. basilicum in control treatment were Geranial (26.03%), Neral (24.88%) and Estragole (24.78%). The compounds concentrations showed some differences in P. indica and paclobutrazol treatments. The results demonstrate that micorrhiza-like fungi concomitantly increase essential oil production and biomass in sweet basil, a medicinal herb rich in commercially valuable essential oils.

  19. Thermodynamic Performance Indicators for Offshore Oil and Gas Processing: Application to Four North Sea Facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldsund, Mari; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Well-defined performance indicators can motivate optimal operation of offshore oil and gas platforms. We evaluate several thermodynamic performance indicators presented in the literature according to three criteria: Thermodynamic performance indicators should evaluate the use of technically achie...... of oil and gas platforms—the best-available-technology efficiency on an exergy basis, a task exergy efficiency, and the specific exergy destruction....

  20. Oligomerization of jojoba oil in supercritical C02 for cosmeceutical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growing social importance on issues such as exhaustion of non-renewable resources, high crude oil prices, the environment, and waste disposal, has led to the search for bio-based products from renewable agricultural resources. Vegetable oils are renewable, non-toxic, biodegradable, non-polluting, an...

  1. Application of the quantitative oil monitoring to analysing the operating condition of marine machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the data of Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, spectrometric oilanalysis (SOA) and other routine methods, the experiment of oil monitoring for steering propellersis discussed. The experiment demonstrates the FTIR spectroscopy can rapidly and easily obtainthe results in laboratory analysis, and combine with spectrometer oil analysis, complementary in-formation is most effective to condition monitoring of marine machinery.

  2. Characterization of novel soybean-oil-based thermosensitive amphiphilic polymers for drug delivery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characterization, aggregation behavior, physical properties and drug-polymer interaction of novel soybean oil-based polymers i.e., hydrolyzed polymers of (epoxidized) soybean oil (HPESO), were studied. The surface tension method was used to determine the critical micelle concentration (CMC). CMC w...

  3. Characterization of fast-pyrolysis bio-oil distillation residues and their potential applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    A typical petroleum refinery makes use of the vacuum gas oil by cracking the large molecular weight compounds into light fuel hydrocarbons. For various types of fast pyrolysis bio-oil, successful analogous methods for processing heavy fractions could expedite integration into a petroleum refinery fo...

  4. Geothermal Energy Production from Oil/Gas Wells and Application for Building Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Honggang [Rutgers University; Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    One significant source of low-temperature geothermal energy is the coproduced hot water from oil/gas field production. In the United States, daily oil production has reached above 8 million barrels in recent years. Considering various conditions of wells, 5-10 times or more water can be coproduced in the range of temperature 120 F to 300 F. Like other geothermal resources, such energy source from oil/gas wells is under-utilized for its typical long distance from consumption sites. Many oil/gas fields, however, are relatively close (less than 10 miles) to consumers around cities. For instance, some petroleum fields in Pennsylvania are only a few miles away from the towns in Pittsburg area and some fields in Texas are quite close to Houston. In this paper, we evaluate geothermal potential from oil/gas wells by conducting numerical simulation and analysis of a fractured oil well in Hastings West field, Texas. The results suggest that hot water can be continuously coproduced from oil wells at a sufficient rate (about 4000 gallons/day from one well) for more than 100 years. Viable use of such geothermal source requires economical transportation of energy to consumers. The recently proposed two-step geothermal absorption (TSGA) system provides a promising energy transport technology that allows large-scale use of geothermal energy from thousands of oil/gas wells.

  5. Antioxidants from slow pyrolysis bio-oil of birch wood: Application for biodiesel and biobased lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch wood was slowly pyrolyzed to produce bio-oil and biochar. Slow pyrolysis conditions including reaction temperature, residence time, and particle size of the feed were optimized to maximize bio-oil yield. Particle size had an insignificant effect, whereas yields of up to 56% were achieved using...

  6. Two-component mixture model: Application to palm oil and exchange rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoong, Seuk-Yen; Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Hamzah, Firdaus Mohamad

    2014-12-01

    Palm oil is a seed crop which is widely adopt for food and non-food products such as cookie, vegetable oil, cosmetics, household products and others. Palm oil is majority growth in Malaysia and Indonesia. However, the demand for palm oil is getting growth and rapidly running out over the years. This phenomenal cause illegal logging of trees and destroy the natural habitat. Hence, the present paper investigates the relationship between exchange rate and palm oil price in Malaysia by using Maximum Likelihood Estimation via Newton-Raphson algorithm to fit a two components mixture model. Besides, this paper proposes a mixture of normal distribution to accommodate with asymmetry characteristics and platykurtic time series data.

  7. Floating Production Platforms and their Applications in the Development of Oil and Gas Fields in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dagang Zhang; Yongjun Chen; Tianyu Zhang

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the current available options for floating production platforms in developing deepwater oil fields and the potential development models of future oil and gas exploration in the South China Sea. A detailed review of current deepwater platforms worldwide was performed through the examples of industry projects, and the pros and cons of each platform are discussed. Four types of platforms are currently used for the deepwater development: tension leg platform, Spar, semi-submersible platform, and the floating production system offloading. Among these, the TLP and Spar can be used for dry tree applications, and have gained popularity in recent years. The dry tree application enables the extension of the drilling application for fixed platforms into floating systems, and greatly reduces the cost and complexity of the subsea operation. Newly built wet tree semi-submersible production platforms for ultra deepwater are also getting their application, mainly due to the much needed payload for deepwater making the conversion of the old drilling semi-submersible platforms impossible. These platforms have been used in different fields around the world for different environments;each has its own advantages and disadvantages. There are many challenges with the successful use of these floating platforms. A lot of lessons have been learned and extensive experience accumulated through the many project applications. Key technologies are being reviewed for the successful use of floating platforms for field development, and potential future development needs are being discussed. Some of the technologies and experience of platform applications can be well used for the development of the South China Sea oil and gas field.

  8. Development and Application of a Life Cycle-Based Model to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Oil Sands Upgrading Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Diana M; Bergerson, Joule A; Alvarez-Majmutov, Anton; Chen, Jinwen; MacLean, Heather L

    2016-12-20

    A life cycle-based model, OSTUM (Oil Sands Technologies for Upgrading Model), which evaluates the energy intensity and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of current oil sands upgrading technologies, is developed. Upgrading converts oil sands bitumen into high quality synthetic crude oil (SCO), a refinery feedstock. OSTUM's novel attributes include the following: the breadth of technologies and upgrading operations options that can be analyzed, energy intensity and GHG emissions being estimated at the process unit level, it not being dependent on a proprietary process simulator, and use of publicly available data. OSTUM is applied to a hypothetical, but realistic, upgrading operation based on delayed coking, the most common upgrading technology, resulting in emissions of 328 kg CO2e/m(3) SCO. The primary contributor to upgrading emissions (45%) is the use of natural gas for hydrogen production through steam methane reforming, followed by the use of natural gas as fuel in the rest of the process units' heaters (39%). OSTUM's results are in agreement with those of a process simulation model developed by CanmetENERGY, other literature, and confidential data of a commercial upgrading operation. For the application of the model, emissions are found to be most sensitive to the amount of natural gas utilized as feedstock by the steam methane reformer. OSTUM is capable of evaluating the impact of different technologies, feedstock qualities, operating conditions, and fuel mixes on upgrading emissions, and its life cycle perspective allows easy incorporation of results into well-to-wheel analyses.

  9. Application of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy for the Oxidation and Peroxide Value Evaluation in Virgin Walnut Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengjuan Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-partial least squares (FTIR-PLSs extend the application of this strategy to the field of the edible oils and fats research. In this work, FT-IR spectroscopy was used as an effective analytical tool to determine the peroxide value of virgin walnut oil (VWO samples undergone during heating. The spectra were recorded from a film of pure oil between two disks of KBr for each sample at frequency regions of 4000–650 cm−1. Changes in the values of the frequency of most of the bands of the spectra were observed and used to build the calibration model. PLS model correlates the actual and FT-IR estimated value of peroxide value with a correlation coefficient of 0.99, and the root mean square error of the calibration (RMSEC value is 0.4838. The methodology has potential as a fast and accurate way for the quantification of peroxide value of the edible oils.

  10. Development and Application of Oil-Spill Risk Assessment Model for Offshore Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yan; WANG Jia; WEI Wenpu; YANG Yong; AN Wei

    2014-01-01

    To the potential oil-spill risk caused by offshore pipeline more attention has been paid after the Dalian oil spill incident from oil-pipeline explosion. Since then an issue about how to prevent and control the sudden oil-spill from the offshore pipeline has been raised. In this paper, we proposed an optimized model to analyze the main causes (probability) of spill and the consequence with the fuzzy comprehensive assessment model. Considering the complicated assessment process for oil-spill, the assessment factor system involving the spill probability and consequence was established based on the operative manual and statistic leakage/damage data of offshore pipeline in order to estimate the integrated spill risk score automatically. The evaluated factors of spill probability could be grouped into five aspects:corrosion, fatigue, national damage, third party, and operational fault;the consequence evaluated factors of spill included hazard of oil and impact-controlling capability. With some modifications based on experts’ opinions, each of the evaluated factors in our work was developed with a relative weight and evaluation criterion. A test example for an offshore pipe-line in the Bohai waters was described to show how the model can be used for an actual case in more detail. By using the oil-spill risk assessment model, it is easy to determine the risk level associated with the ongoing activity and management level and hence to take the risk mitigation action immediately.

  11. The Application of Neural Networks in Balancing Production of Crude Sunflower Oil and Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Ivetic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to predict specific output characteristics of half finished goods (crude sunflower oil and meal on the basis of specific input variables (quality and composition of sunflower seeds, with the help of artificial neural networks. This is an attempt to predict the amount much more precisely than is the case with technological calculations commonly used in the oil industry. All input variables are representing the data received by the laboratory, and the output variables except category % of oil which is obtained by measuring the physical quantity of produced crude sunflower oil and sunflower consumed quantity of the processing quality. The correct prediction of the output variables contributes to better sales planning, production of sunflower oil, and better use of storage. Also, the correct prediction of technological results of the quality of crude oil and meal provides timely response and also preventing getting rancid and poor-quality oil, timely categorizing meal, which leads to proper planning and sales to the rational utilization of storage space, allows timely response technologists and prevents the growth of microorganisms in the meal.

  12. Application of response surface methodology for optimizing transesterification of Moringa oleifera oil: Biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Umer, E-mail: umer.rashid@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar 31750, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Anwar, Farooq, E-mail: fqanwar@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Ashraf, Muhammad, E-mail: ashrafbot@yahoo.com [Department of Botany, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Department of Botany and Microbiology, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Saleem, Muhammad [Department of Statistics, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000 (Pakistan); Yusup, Suzana, E-mail: drsuzana_yusuf@petronas.com.my [Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar 31750, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Biodiesel production from Moringa oil (MO) has been optimized for the first time using RSM. {yields} RSM-optimized reaction conditions gave a high Moringa oil methyl esters (MOMEs) yield (94.3%). {yields} Fuel properties of MOMEs yielded satisfied the ASTM D 6751 and EU 14214 specifications. {yields} Present RSM-model can be useful for predicting optimum biodiesel yield from other oils. - Abstract: Response surface methodology (RSM), with central composite rotatable design (CCRD), was used to explore optimum conditions for the transesterification of Moringa oleifera oil. Effects of four variables, reaction temperature (25-65 deg. C), reaction time (20-90 min), methanol/oil molar ratio (3:1-12:1) and catalyst concentration (0.25-1.25 wt.% KOH) were appraised. The quadratic term of methanol/oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration and reaction time while the interaction terms of methanol/oil molar ratio with reaction temperature and catalyst concentration, reaction time with catalyst concentration exhibited significant effects on the yield of Moringa oil methyl esters (MOMEs)/biodiesel, p < 0.0001 and p < 0.05, respectively. Transesterification under the optimum conditions ascertained presently by RSM: 6.4:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, 0.80% catalyst concentration, 55 deg. C reaction temperature and 71.08 min reaction time offered 94.30% MOMEs yield. The observed and predicted values of MOMEs yield showed a linear relationship. GLC analysis of MOMEs revealed oleic acid methyl ester, with contribution of 73.22%, as the principal component. Other methyl esters detected were of palmitic, stearic, behenic and arachidic acids. Thermal stability of MOMEs produced was evaluated by thermogravimetric curve. The fuel properties such as density, kinematic viscosity, lubricity, oxidative stability, higher heating value, cetane number and cloud point etc., of MOMEs were found to be within the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards.

  13. Experimental application of ultrasound waves to improved oil recovery during waterflooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Alhomadhi

    2014-01-01

    Results show that the rate of oil displacement increases due to various identified mechanisms, and the interaction of the generated waves with the fluids in porous media causes changes in relative permeability and in water breakthrough. Wave stimulation at residual oil saturation was more effective than the case of original oil in place. Therefore, this method is advised to be used in depleted reservoirs. Moreover, wave stimulation on core sample with a compressive strength of <150 psi (unconsolidated is not recommended due to sand production.

  14. Characteristics and composition of Jatropha gossypiifoliaand Jatropha curcas L. oils and application for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Oliveira, Jefferson S.; Leite, Polyanna M.; de Souza, Lincoln B.; Mello, Vinicius M.; Rubim, Joel C.; Suarez, Paulo A.Z. [Laboratorio de Materiais e Combustiveis, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Brasilia, C.P. 4478, 70919-970 Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Silva, Eid C.; Meneghetti, Simoni M.P. [Instituto de Quimica e Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Av. Lourival de Melo Mota, s/n, Cidade Universitaria, 57072-970 Maceio-AL (Brazil)

    2009-03-15

    In this work two genus of the Jatropha family: the Jatropha gossypiifolia (JG) and Jatropha curcas L. (JC) were studied in order to delimitate their potential as raw material for biodiesel production. The oil content in wild seeds and some physical-chemical properties of the oils and the biodiesel obtained from them were evaluated. The studied physical-chemical properties of the JC and JG biodiesel are in acceptable range for use as biodiesel in diesel engines, showing a promising economic exploitation of these raw materials in semi-arid regions. However, further agronomic studies are needed in order to improve the seed production and the crude oil properties. (author)

  15. Mixed matrix membrane application for olive oil wastewater treatment: process optimization based on Taguchi design method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirehpour, Alireza; Rahimpour, Ahmad; Jahanshahi, Mohsen; Peyravi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) is a concentrated effluent with a high organic load. It has high levels of organic chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phenolic compounds. This study presents a unique process to treat OMW. The process uses ultrafiltration (UF) membranes modified by a functionalized multi wall carbon nano-tube (F-MWCNT). The modified tube has an inner diameter of 15-30 nm and is added to the OMW treatment process to improve performance of the membrane. Tests were done to evaluate the following operating parameters of the UF system; pressure, pH and temperature; also evaluated parameters of permeate flux, flux decline, COD removal and total phenol rejection. The Taguchi robust design method was applied for an optimization evaluation of the experiments. Variance (ANOVA) analysis was used to determine the most significant parameters affecting permeate flux, flux decline, COD removal and total phenols rejection. Results demonstrated coagulation and pH as the most important factors affecting permeate flux of the UF. Moreover, pH and F-MWCNT UF had significant positive effects on flux decline, COD removal and total phenols rejection. Based on the optimum conditions determined by the Taguchi method, evaluations for permeate flux tests; flux decline, COD removal and total phenols rejection were about 21.2 (kg/m(2) h), 12.6%, 72.6% and 89.5%, respectively. These results were in good agreement with those predicted by the Taguchi method (i.e.; 22.8 (kg/m(2) h), 11.9%, 75.8 and 94.7%, respectively). Mechanical performance of the membrane and its application for high organic wastewater treatment were determined as strong.

  16. Essential oils and distilled straws of lavender and lavandin: a review of current use and potential application in white biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesage-Meessen, Laurence; Bou, Marine; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude; Faulds, Craig B; Lomascolo, Anne

    2015-04-01

    The Lavandula genus, which includes lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lavandin (L. angustifolia × Lavandula latifolia), is cultivated worldwide for its essential oils, which find applications in perfumes, cosmetics, food processing and, more recently, in aromatherapy products. The chemical composition of lavender and lavandin essential oils, usually produced by steam distillation from the flowering stems, is characterized by the presence of terpenes (e.g. linalool and linalyl acetate) and terpenoids (e.g. 1,8-cineole), which are mainly responsible for their characteristic flavour and their biological and therapeutic properties. Lavender and lavandin distilled straws, the by-products of oil extraction, were traditionally used for soil replenishment or converted to a fuel source. They are mineral- and carbon-rich plant residues and, therefore, a cheap, readily available source of valuable substances of industrial interest, especially aroma and antioxidants (e.g. terpenoids, lactones and phenolic compounds including coumarin, herniarin, α-bisabolol, rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids). Accordingly, recent studies have emphasized the possible uses of lavender and lavandin straws in fermentative or enzymatic processes involving various microorganisms, especially filamentous fungi, for the production of antimicrobials, antioxidants and other bioproducts with pharmaceutical and cosmetic activities, opening up new challenging perspectives in white biotechnology applications.

  17. Self-consistent photothermal techniques: Application for measuring thermal diffusivity in vegetable oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderas-López, J. A.; Mandelis, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    The thermal wave resonator cavity (TWRC) was used to measure the thermal properties of vegetable oils. The thermal diffusivity of six commercial vegetable oils (olive, corn, soybean, canola, peanut, and sunflower) was measured by means of this device. A linear relation between both the amplitude and phase as functions of the cavity length for the TWRC was observed and used for the measurements. Three significant figure precisions were obtained. A clear distinction between extra virgin olive oil and other oils in terms of thermal diffusivity was shown. The high measurement precision of the TWRC highlights the potential of this relatively new technique for assessing the quality of this kind of fluids in terms of their thermophysical properties.

  18. Application of bio-huff-`n`-puff technology at Jilin oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiu-Yuan Wang; Yan-Fed Xue; Gang Dai; Ling Zhao [Institute of Microbiology, Beijing (China)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    An enriched culture 48, capable of adapting to the reservoir conditions and fermenting molasses to produce gas and acid, was used as an inoculum for bio- huff-`n`-puff tests at Fuyu oil area of Jilin oil field. The production well was injected with water containing 4-6% (v/v) molasses and inoculum, and then shut in. After 15-21 days, the well was placed back in operation. A total of 44 wells were treated, of which only two wells showed no effects. The daily oil production of treated wells increased by 33.3-733.3%. Up to the end of 1994, the oil production was increased by 204 tons per well on average. Results obtained from various types of production wells were discussed.

  19. Post harvest ripening of oil palm fruit is accelerated by application of exogenous ethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narumol Nualwijit

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted with fresh fully mature fruit bunches of Tenera variety oil-palm. Palm fruit bunches were exposed to 0, 250, 500 or 1000 mlL-1 ethylene for 24 hours. Each fruit bunch was evaluated in three separate sections: the bottom, the middle, and the top. The exogenous ethylene treatments significantly hastened palm fruit ripening, quantified by an increase in the fruit peel coloring that turns from black to reddish orange. Ethylene treatments also significantly eased detaching the fruit, by reducing the tension force required. Total oil contents of fruit increased with 1000 mlL-1 ethylene treatment. Free fatty acids (FFA in untreated palm fruit, especially in the bottom section, were at their highest levels 2 days after harvest, and the FFA levels were lowered by ethylene treatments. In summary, exogenous ethylene fumigation accelerated the ripening of oil palm fruit, increased oil yield, and decreased the FFA levels.

  20. Determinants of Oil Demand in OECD Countries: An Application of Panel Data Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu OZCAN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze demand for oil in 20 selected OECD countries over the period 1980 to 2011, within the framework of panel data model. The long-run income and price elasticities of oil demand were computed and the Granger causality between variables of interest was tested. The results indicated that oil demand has positive and negative income and price elasticities, respectively. In addition, both income and price were inelastic in the long-run, but price elasticity was lower than income elasticity. Furthermore, a bidirectional causality running from economic growth to oil consumption and vice versa was obtained, providing evidence of feedback hypothesis. Based on these results, some crucial policy implications were suggested

  1. Case study of an application of computer mapping in oil-shale resource mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, F.G.F. Jr.; Smith, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    The Laramie Energy Technology Center, U.S. Department of Energy, is responsible for evaluating the resources of potential oil and the deposit characteristics of oil shales of the Green River Formation in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. While the total oil shale resource represents perhaps 2 trillion barrels of oil, only parts of this total are suitable for any particular development process. To evaluate the resource according to deposit characteristics, a computer system for making resource calculations and geological maps has been established. The system generates resource tables where the calculations have been performed over user-defined geological intervals. The system also has the capability of making area calculations and generating resource maps of geological quality. The graphics package that generates the maps uses corehole assay data and digitized map data. The generated maps may include the following features: selected drainages, towns, political boundaries, township and section surveys, and corehole locations. The maps are then generated according to user-defined scales.

  2. Optimization and application of methods of triacylglycerol evaluation for characterization of olive oil adulteration by soybean oil with HPLC-APCI-MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasciotti, Maíra; Pereira Netto, Annibal D

    2010-05-15

    Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the main constituents of vegetable oils where they occur in complex mixtures with characteristic distributions. Mass spectrometry using an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface (APCI-MS) run in positive mode and an Ion Trap mass analyser were applied in the study of olive and soybean oils and their mixtures. Direct injections of soybean and olive oil solutions allowed the identification of ions derived from the main TAGs of both oils. This procedure showed to be a simple and powerful tool to evaluate mixtures or addition of soybean to olive oil. TAG separation was optimized by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using an octadecylsilica LiChrospher column (250mm x 3mm; 5microm) and a gradient composed of acetonitrile and 2-propanol allowed the separation of the main TAGs of the studied oils. APCI vaporization temperature was optimized and best signals were obtained at 370 degrees C. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) employing the transition of the protonated TAG molecules ([M+H](+)) to the protonated diacylglycerol fragments ([M+H-R](+)) improved the selectivity of TAG detection and was used in quantitative studies. Different strategies were developed to evaluate oil composition following TAG analysis by MRM. The external standard calibration and standard additions methods were compared for triolein quantification but the former showed to be biased. Further quantitative studies were based on the estimates of soybean and olive oil proportions in mixtures by comparison of TAG areas found in mixtures of known and unknown composition of both oils. Good agreement with expected or labeled values was found for a commercial blend containing 15% (w/w) of olive oil in soybean oil and to a 1:1 mixture of both oils, showing the potential of this method in characterizing oil mixtures and estimating oil proportions. Olive oils of different origins were also evaluated by mass spectra data obtained after direct injections of oil

  3. Development of SNP markers and their application for genetic diversity analysis in the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, P W; Maizura, I; Abdullah, N A P; Rafii, M Y; Ooi, L C L; Low, E T L; Singh, R

    2015-10-09

    The genetic evaluation of oil palm germplasm collections is required for insight into the variability among populations. The information obtained is also useful for incorporating new genetic materials into current breeding programs. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been widely used in many plant genetic studies due to the availability of large numbers of genomic sequences and expressed sequence tags. The present study examined 219 oil palms collected from two natural Angolan populations, a few hundred kilometers apart. A total of 62 SNPs were designed from oil palm genomic sequences and converted to cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS). Of these, nine were found to be informative across the two populations. The nine informative SNPs revealed mean major allele frequency of 0.693. The average expected and observed heterozygosities were 0.398 and 0.400, respectively. The mean polymorphism information content was 0.315 (ranging between 0.223 and 0.375). None of the loci deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and no rare alleles were detected. In cluster analysis using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic, the 219 oil palms fell into two clusters. This was further supported by the population structure analysis result (K = 2), suggesting that the samples were divided into two main genetic groups. However, the two groups did not coincide with the geographic populations. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that within-population variation contributed 93% of the total genetic variation. This study showed that SNP-based CAPS markers are useful for studying the genetic diversity of oil palm and have potential application for marker-trait association studies.

  4. Electromagnetic Heating of Heavy Oil and Bitumen: A Review of Experimental Studies and Field Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Albina Mukhametshina; Elena Martynova

    2013-01-01

    Viscosity is a major obstacle in the recovery of low API gravity oil resources from heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs. While thermal recovery is usually considered the most effective method for lowering viscosity, for some reservoirs introducing heat with commonly implemented thermal methods is not recommended. For these types of reservoirs, electromagnetic heating is the recommended solution. Electromagnetic heating targets part of the reservoir instead of heating the bulk of the reservoir, w...

  5. Application of "magnetic tongue" to the sensory evaluation of extra virgin olive oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauri, Ilaria; Pagano, Bruno; Malmendal, Anders

    2013-01-01

    to describe sensory features. The availability of a number of instrumental techniques has opened up the possibility to calibrate the sensory perception. Here we have tested the potentiality of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as "magnetic tongue" to measure sensory descriptors in extra-virgin olive oil....... We were able to correlate the NMR metabolomic fingerprints of extra-virgin olive oil to the sensory descriptors: tomato, bitter, pungent, rosemary, artichoke, sweet, grassy and leaf....

  6. Application of Zataria multiflora Boiss. and Cinnamon zeylanicum essential oils as two natural preservatives in cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordsardouei, Habibe; Barzegar, Mohsen; Sahari, Mohamad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Oxidation of oils has an important effect on nutritional and organoleptic properties of foodstuffs. Nowadays, new tendency has created a necessity to use natural compounds such as essential oils for producing functional foods. In this study, antioxidant, antifungal, and organoleptic properties of Zataria multiflora Boiss. (ZMEO) and Cinnamon zeylanicum essential oils (CZEO) have been checked as two natural preservatives in the cakes. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity of essential oils were determined by measuring thiobarbituric, peroxide, and free fatty acid values of prepared cakes during 60 days storage at 25 ˚C. Antifungal properties of essential oils were determined and given as the ratio of colony number in samples containing ZMEO and CZEO to the control. Results: Different concentrations of essential oils prevented oxidation rate and reducd preliminary and secondary oxidation products compared with butylate hydroxyanisole (BHA (100 and 200 ppm)) and control cakes. Moreover, ZMEO and CZEO at three concentrations (500, 1000, and 1500 ppm) reduced the fungal growth more than samples containing BHA (100 and 200 ppm) and the control. Conclusion: Our results showed that optimum concenteration of ZMEO and CZEO for using in the cakes was 500 ppm therefore it can be replaced instead of synthetic preservatives in foodstuffs. PMID:25050280

  7. Life cycle Greenhouse gas emissions of current Oil Sands Technologies: surface mining and in situ applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergerson, Joule A; Kofoworola, Oyeshola; Charpentier, Alex D; Sleep, Sylvia; Maclean, Heather L

    2012-07-17

    Life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with two major recovery and extraction processes currently utilized in Alberta's oil sands, surface mining and in situ, are quantified. Process modules are developed and integrated into a life cycle model-GHOST (GreenHouse gas emissions of current Oil Sands Technologies) developed in prior work. Recovery and extraction of bitumen through surface mining and in situ processes result in 3-9 and 9-16 g CO(2)eq/MJ bitumen, respectively; upgrading emissions are an additional 6-17 g CO(2)eq/MJ synthetic crude oil (SCO) (all results are on a HHV basis). Although a high degree of variability exists in well-to-wheel emissions due to differences in technologies employed, operating conditions, and product characteristics, the surface mining dilbit and the in situ SCO pathways have the lowest and highest emissions, 88 and 120 g CO(2)eq/MJ reformulated gasoline. Through the use of improved data obtained from operating oil sands projects, we present ranges of emissions that overlap with emissions in literature for conventional crude oil. An increased focus is recommended in policy discussions on understanding interproject variability of emissions of both oil sands and conventional crudes, as this has not been adequately represented in previous studies.

  8. Application of Zataria multiflora Boiss. and Cinnamon zeylanicum essential oils as two natural preservatives in cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibe Kordsardouei

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Oxidation of oils has an important effect on nutritional and organoleptic properties of foodstuffs. Nowadays, new tendency has created a necessity to use natural compounds such as essential oils for producing functional foods. In this study, antioxidant, antifungal, and organoleptic properties of Zataria multiflora Boiss.(ZMEO and Cinnamon zeylanicum essential oils (CZEO have been checked as two natural preservatives in the cakes. Materials and Methods:The antioxidant activity of essential oils were determined by measuring thiobarbituric, peroxide, and free fatty acid values of prepared cakes during 60 days storage at 25˚C. Antifungal properties of essential oils were determined and given as the ratio of colony number in samples containing ZMEO and CZEO to the control. Results: Different concentrations of essential oils prevented oxidation rate and reducd preliminary and secondary oxidation products compared with butylate hydroxyanisole (BHA (100 and 200 ppm and control cakes. Moreover, ZMEO and CZEO at three concentrations (500, 1000, and 1500 ppm reduced the fungal growth more than samples containing BHA (100 and 200 ppm and the control. Conclusion: Our results showed that optimum concenteration of ZMEO and CZEO for using in the cakes was 500 ppm therefore it can be replaced instead of synthetic preservatives in foodstuffs.

  9. Characterization of a hydrolyzed oil obtained from fish waste for nutraceutical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Viana do Nascimento

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The fish industry generates high volume of waste from fish oil that can have the extraction of its lipids used as nutraceuticals and foods. The objective of this study was to produce unsaturated fatty acids from industrialized fish oil by means of a differentiated hydrolysis process. The samples used were crude fish oil obtained from Campestre industry and characterized through physical-chemical parameters, according to AOCS: acidity, peroxide, saponification, iodine and percentage of free fatty acids and also obtained the fatty acid profile through derivatization method for gas chromatography. The results obtained for the oleochemical indices for refined oil were similar to the data found on the literature. The content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA was found of 32,78%, with 9,12% of docosahexaenoic (DHA and 10,36% of eicosapentaenoic (EPA, regarding monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA content was of 30,59% in the hydrolyzed fish oil in relation to refined (20,06%. Thus, it can be concluded that the hydrolysis process used for oils from fish-waste was satisfactory on the production of absolute yield of lipids in the process and significant preservation on the percentages of EPA and DHA, interesting on the production of nutraceuticals and nutrition of aquatic animals, including shrimp in captivity.

  10. Analysis of heavy oils: Method development and application to Cerro Negro heavy petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbognani, L.; Hazos, M.; Sanchez, V. (INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas (Venezuela)); Green, J.A.; Green, J.B.; Grigsby, R.D.; Pearson, C.D.; Reynolds, J.W.; Shay, J.Y.; Sturm, G.P. Jr.; Thomson, J.S.; Vogh, J.W.; Vrana, R.P.; Yu, S.K.T.; Diehl, B.H.; Grizzle, P.L.; Hirsch, D.E; Hornung, K.W.; Tang, S.Y.

    1989-12-01

    On March 6, 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ministry of Energy and Mines of Venezuela (MEMV) entered into a joint agreement which included analysis of heavy crude oils from the Venezuelan Orinoco oil belt.The purpose of this report is to present compositional data and describe new analytical methods obtained from work on the Cerro Negro Orinoco belt crude oil since 1980. Most of the chapters focus on the methods rather than the resulting data on Cerro Negro oil, and results from other oils obtained during the verification of the method are included. In addition, published work on analysis of heavy oils, tar sand bitumens, and like materials is reviewed, and the overall state of the art in analytical methodology for heavy fossil liquids is assessed. The various phases of the work included: distillation and determination of routine'' physical/chemical properties (Chapter 1); preliminary separation of >200{degree}C distillates and the residue into acid, base, neutral, saturated hydrocarbon and neutral-aromatic concentrates (Chapter 2); further separation of acid, base, and neutral concentrates into subtypes (Chapters 3-5); and determination of the distribution of metal-containing compounds in all fractions (Chapter 6).

  11. Application of local singularity in prospecting potential oil/gas Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyu Bao

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Together with generalized self-similarity and the fractal spectrum, local singularity analysis has been introduced as one part of the new 3S principle and technique for mineral resource assessment based on multifractal modeling, which has been demonstrated to be useful for anomaly delineation. Local singularity is used in this paper to characterize the property of multifractal distribution patterns of geochemical indexes to delineate potential areas for oil/gas exploration using the advanced GeoDAS GIS technology. Geochemical data of four oil/gas indexes, consisting of acid-extracted methane (SC1, ethane (SC2, propane (SC3, and secondary carbonate (ΔC, from 9637 soil samples amassed within a large area of 11.2×104 km2 in the Songpan-Aba district, Sichuan Province, southwestern China, were analyzed. By eliminating the interference of geochemical oil/gas data with the method of media-modification and Kriging, the prospecting area defined by the local singularity model is better identified and the results show that the subareas with higher singularity exponents for the four oil/gas indexes are potential targets for oil/gas exploration. These areas in the shape of rings or half-rings are spatially associated with the location of the known producing drilling well in this area. The spatial relationship between the anomalies delineated by oil/gas geochemical data and distribution patterns of local singularity exponents is confirmed by using the stable isotope of δ13C.

  12. Role of interfacial protein membrane in oxidative stability of vegetable oil substitution emulsions applicable to nutritionally modified sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiang; Xiong, Youling L

    2015-11-01

    The potential health risk associated with excessive dietary intake of fat and cholesterol has led to a renewed interest in replacing animal fat with nutritionally-balanced unsaturated oil in processed meats. However, as oils are more fluid and unsaturated than fats, one must overcome the challenge of maintaining both physical and chemical (oxidative) stabilities of prepared emulsions. Apart from physical entrapments, an emulsion droplet to be incorporated into a meat protein gel matrix (batter) should be equipped with an interactive protein membrane rather than a small surfactant, and the classical DLVO stabilization theory becomes less applicable. This review paper describes the steric effects along with chemical roles (radical scavenging and metal ion chelation) of proteins and their structurally modified derivatives as potential interface-building materials for oxidatively stable meat emulsions.

  13. Changes of the content of oil products in the oil-polluted peat soil of a high-moor bog in a field experiment with application of lime and fertilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkenova, M. I.; Tolpeshta, I. I.; Trofimov, S. Ya.; Aptikaev, R. S.; Lazarev, A. S.

    2016-11-01

    A field model experiment on stimulating the activity of native oil microorganisms-decomposers was performed on an oil-polluted area in a high-moor bog under its total flooding in the northern taiga (Western Siberia). For two summer months, the doses of lime and nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizers applied have caused a decrease in the oil products (OP) content by 54% relative to their initial amount. The decrease of the OP content in the soil profiles was nonuniform, and at the depth of 30-50 cm it was accompanied by the acidification of peat. The stimulation of the activity of aboriginal microorganisms by applying lime and mineral fertilizers led to the development of migration processes with the participation of oil and products of its transformation. These processes differed from those in the soil without application of lime and fertilizers. An original technology of applying lime and fertilizers providing minimal disturbances the upper 50-cm peat layer is suggested.

  14. Effects of rainfall on oil droplet size and the dispersion of spilled oil with application to Douglas Channel, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yongsheng; Hannah, Charles G; Thupaki, Pramod; Mo, Ruping; Law, Brent

    2017-01-15

    Raindrops falling on the sea surface produce turbulence. The present study examined the influence of rain-induced turbulence on oil droplet size and dispersion of oil spills in Douglas Channel in British Columbia, Canada using hourly atmospheric data in 2011-2013. We examined three types of oils: a light oil (Cold Lake Diluent - CLD), and two heavy oils (Cold Lake Blend - CLB and Access Western Blend - AWB). We found that the turbulent energy dissipation rate produced by rainfalls is comparable to what is produced by wind-induced wave breaking in our study area. With the use of chemical dispersants, our results indicate that a heavy rainfall (rain rate>20mmh(-1)) can produce the maximum droplet size of 300μm for light oil and 1000μm for heavy oils, and it can disperse the light oil with fraction of 22-45% and the heavy oils of 8-13%, respectively. Heavy rainfalls could be a factor for the fate of oil spills in Douglas Channel, especially for a spill of light oil and the use of chemical dispersants.

  15. Application of Expand Graphite in Treatment of Spilled Oil at Sea%膨胀石墨用于溢油污染治理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任京成; 董风之; 沈万慈

    2001-01-01

    Spilled oil at sea can produce a great of marine pollution.In this paper,spilled oil pollution at sea and some treatment methods were introduced briefly.Being a novel porous material,expanded graphite has excellent adsorption capacity in removing oil from water and can be used as a supper oil sorbent.Applications of expanded graphite in treatment of spilled oil pollution were also discussed.%膨胀石墨是一种新型多孔碳材料,对水中油类有超大吸附量,且易于回收循环再利用,是一种优良的水中油类吸附剂。本文简要介绍了溢油污染及治理方法,并展望了膨胀石墨在溢油污染治理方面的应用前景。

  16. Supercritical Fluid Synthesis and Tribological Applications of Silver Nanoparticle-decorated Graphene in Engine Oil Nanofluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yuan; Su, Fenghua; Chen, Yangzhi

    2016-08-04

    Silver nanoparticle-decorated graphene nanocomposites were synthesized by a facile chemical reduction approach with the assistance of supercritical CO2 (ScCO2). The silver nanoparticles with diameters of 2-16 nm are uniformly distributed and firmly anchored on graphene nanosheets. The tribological properties of the as-synthesized nanocomposites as lubricant additives in engine oil were investigated by a four-ball tribometer. The engine oil with 0.06~0.10 wt.% Sc-Ag/GN nanocomposites displays remarkable lubricating performance, superior than the pure engine oil, the engine oil containing zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP), as well as the oil dispersed with the single nanomaterial of graphene oxides (GOs) and nano-Ag particles alone. The remarkable lubricating behaviors of Sc-Ag/GN probably derive from the synergistic interactions of nano-Ag and graphene in the nanocomposite and the action of the formed protective film on the contact balls. The anchored nano-Ag particles on graphene expand the interlamination spaces of graphene nanosheets and can prevent them from restacking during the rubbing process, resulting in the full play of lubricating activity of graphene. The formed protective film on the friction pairs significantly reduces the surface roughness of the sliding balls and hence preventing them from direct interaction during the sliding process.

  17. Synthesis of 1,2,4 trioxolanes from vegetable oils for pharmaceutical and veterinary application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália R. Almeida

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oils are rich in mono-and poly-unsaturated fatty acids, and these compounds contain carbon-carbon double bonds available for chemical/structural modification, especially via oxidative processes. Sunflower oil obtained from seed of sunflower (Helianthus annuus contains a large amount of these acids, such as linoleic (48-74% and oleic (14-39% acids, proving to be an ideal starting material for these changes [1]. Ozone is an oxidizing agent that reacts with double bonds of fatty acids present in vegetable oils to form ozonides or 1,2,4 trioxolanes,  and peroxidic species such as hydroperoxides, hydrogen peroxide, polymeric peroxides and other organic peroxides. These compounds are of great pharmaceutical interest for the treatment of various dermatological diseases, due to their antimicrobial properties and stimulating action on tissue repair and regeneration [2]. In this work, the sunflower oil was ozonized, and the ideal conditions, as reaction time, ozone concentration and temperature, were determined. The IR and 1H and 13C NMR of ozonized oils confirm the formation of 1,2,4 trioxolane ring according to the mechanism proposed by Criegee [3]. The ozonolysis reaction was performed under different conditions and the product is in the process of knowledge protection or patent.

  18. Sustainable asphalt pavement: Application of slaughterhouse waste oil and fly ash in asphalt binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Ramos, Jorge Luis

    Increasing energy costs, lack of sufficient natural resources and the overwhelming demand for petroleum has stimulated the development of alternative binders to modify or replace petroleum-based asphalt binders. In the United States, the petroleum-based asphalt binder is mainly used to produce the Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA). There are approximately 4000 asphalt plants that make 500 million tons of asphalt binder valued at roughly 3 billion/year. The instability of the world's oil market has pushed oil prices to more than 80 per barrel in 2012, which increased the cost of asphalt binder up to $570 per ton. Therefore, there is a timely need to find alternative sustainable resources to the asphalt binder. This paper investigates the possibility of the partial replacement of the asphalt binder with slaughterhouse waste and/or fly ash. In order to achieve this objective, the asphalt binder is mixed with different percentages of waste oil and/or fly ash. In order to investigate the effect of these additives to the performance of the asphalt binder, a complete performance grade test performed on multiple samples. The results of the performance grade tests are compared with a control sample to observe how the addition of the waste oil and/or fly ash affects the sample. Considering the increasing cost and demand of asphalt, the use of slaughterhouse waste oil and/or fly ash as a partial replacement may result in environmental and monetary improvements in the transportation sector.

  19. Application of PLE for the determination of essential oil components from Thymus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Rado, Ewelina; Wianowska, Dorota; Mardarowicz, Marek; Gawdzik, Jan

    2008-08-15

    Essential plants, due to their long presence in human history, their status in culinary arts, their use in medicine and perfume manufacture, belong to frequently examined stock materials in scientific and industrial laboratories. Because of a large number of freshly cut, dried or frozen plant samples requiring the determination of essential oil amount and composition, a fast, safe, simple, efficient and highly automatic sample preparation method is needed. Five sample preparation methods (steam distillation, extraction in the Soxhlet apparatus, supercritical fluid extraction, solid phase microextraction and pressurized liquid extraction) used for the isolation of aroma-active components from Thymus vulgaris L. are compared in the paper. The methods are mainly discussed with regard to the recovery of components which typically exist in essential oil isolated by steam distillation. According to the obtained data, PLE is the most efficient sample preparation method in determining the essential oil from the thyme herb. Although co-extraction of non-volatile ingredients is the main drawback of this method, it is characterized by the highest yield of essential oil components and the shortest extraction time required. Moreover, the relative peak amounts of essential components revealed by PLE are comparable with those obtained by steam distillation, which is recognized as standard sample preparation method for the analysis of essential oils in aromatic plants.

  20. Wave-induced mixing and transport of buoyant particles: application to the Statfjord A oil spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Drivdal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on how wave–current and wave–turbulence interactions modify the transport of buoyant particles in the ocean. Here the particles can represent oil droplets, plastic particles, or plankton such as fish eggs and larvae. Using the General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM, modified to take surface wave effects into account, we investigate how the increased mixing by wave breaking and Stokes shear production, as well as the stronger veering by the Coriolis–Stokes force, affects the drift of the particles. The energy and momentum fluxes, as well as the Stokes drift, depend on the directional wave spectrum obtained from a wave model. As a first test, the depth and velocity scales from the model are compared with analytical solutions based on a constant eddy viscosity (i.e., classical Ekman theory. Secondly, the model is applied to a case in which we investigate the oil drift after an oil spill off the west coast of Norway in 2007. During this accident the average net drift of oil was observed to be both slower and more deflected away from the wind direction than predicted by oil-drift models. In this case, using wind and wave forcing from the ERA Interim archive it is shown that the wave effects are important for the resultant drift and have the potential to improve drift forecasting.

  1. Supercritical Fluid Synthesis and Tribological Applications of Silver Nanoparticle-decorated Graphene in Engine Oil Nanofluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yuan; Su, Fenghua; Chen, Yangzhi

    2016-08-01

    Silver nanoparticle-decorated graphene nanocomposites were synthesized by a facile chemical reduction approach with the assistance of supercritical CO2 (ScCO2). The silver nanoparticles with diameters of 2–16 nm are uniformly distributed and firmly anchored on graphene nanosheets. The tribological properties of the as-synthesized nanocomposites as lubricant additives in engine oil were investigated by a four-ball tribometer. The engine oil with 0.06~0.10 wt.% Sc-Ag/GN nanocomposites displays remarkable lubricating performance, superior than the pure engine oil, the engine oil containing zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP), as well as the oil dispersed with the single nanomaterial of graphene oxides (GOs) and nano-Ag particles alone. The remarkable lubricating behaviors of Sc-Ag/GN probably derive from the synergistic interactions of nano-Ag and graphene in the nanocomposite and the action of the formed protective film on the contact balls. The anchored nano-Ag particles on graphene expand the interlamination spaces of graphene nanosheets and can prevent them from restacking during the rubbing process, resulting in the full play of lubricating activity of graphene. The formed protective film on the friction pairs significantly reduces the surface roughness of the sliding balls and hence preventing them from direct interaction during the sliding process.

  2. Application of passive sonar technology to mineral processing and oil sands applications : if you can measure it, you can manage it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, C.; Viega, J.; Fernald, M. [CiDRA Corp., Wallingford, CT (United States)

    2007-07-01

    SONAR-based flow and entrained air measurement instruments were described. This new class of industrial flow and compositional analyzers was developed by CiDRA to provide new measurement insight and quantifiable value to industrial process operators. Passive sonar array-based processing units have been installed worldwide in several industrial applications and are particularly suited for a wide range of mineral processing applications, including slurry flow rate measurement and fluid characterization. This paper also described the SONAR-based, clamp-on SONARtrac technology, a scalable platform that provides several other value added measurements and information such as speed of sound, entrained air/gas, gas hold-up, and velocity profile. Oil sands, tailings and bitumen slurries present considerable measurement challenges for in-line flow measurement devices in terms of measurement accuracy, reliability and maintenance. The sonar-based technology platform has been used in a variety of oil sands processes, hydrotransport, and minerals beneficiation applications. This paper described these applications with particular reference to difficult slurry flow measurement and control in the areas of comminution and flotation such as mill discharge, hydrocyclone feed/overflow, final concentrate, thickener discharge, and tailings. 5 refs., 4 tabs., 23 figs.

  3. Application of cashew tree gum on the production and stability of spray-dried fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botrel, Diego Alvarenga; Borges, Soraia Vilela; Fernandes, Regiane Victória de Barros; Antoniassi, Rosemar; de Faria-Machado, Adelia Ferreira; Feitosa, Judith Pessoa de Andrade; de Paula, Regina Celia Monteiro

    2017-04-15

    Evaluation of cashew gum compared to conventional materials was conducted regarding properties and oxidative stability of spray-dried fish oil. Emulsions produced with cashew gum showed lower viscosity when compared to Arabic gum. The particle size was larger (29.9μm) when cashew gum was used, and the encapsulation efficiency reached 76%, similar to that of modified starch but higher than that for Arabic gum (60%). The oxidation process for the surface oil was conducted and a relative lower formation of oxidation compounds was observed for the cashew gum treatment. GAB model was chosen to describe the moisture adsorption isotherm behaviours. Microparticles produced using Arabic and cashew gums showed greater water adsorption when exposed to higher relative humidities. Microparticles produced using cashew gum were more hygroscopic however encapsulation efficiency were higher and surface oil oxidation were less pronounced. Cashew gum can be further explored as an encapuslant material for spray drying processes.

  4. Application of MODFLOW for oil reservoir simulation during the Deepwater Horizon Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    When the Macondo well was shut in on July 15, 2010, the shut-in pressure recovered to a level that indicated the possibility of oil leakage out of the well casing into the surrounding formation. Such a leak could initiate a hydraulic fracture that might eventually breach the seafloor, resulting in renewed and uncontrolled oil flow into the Gulf of Mexico. To help evaluate whether or not to reopen the well, a MODFLOW model was constructed within 24 h after shut in to analyze the shut-in pressure. The model showed that the shut-in pressure can be explained by a reasonable scenario in which the well did not leak after shut in. The rapid response provided a scientific analysis for the decision to keep the well shut, thus ending the oil spill resulting from the Deepwater Horizon blow out.

  5. Argan oil nanoemulsions as new hydrophobic drug-loaded delivery system for transdermal application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lococo, D; Mora-Huertas, C E; Fessi, H; Zaanoun, I; Elaissari, A

    2012-10-01

    This research work deals with the development of argan oil-based nanoemulsions as vehicle of hydrophobic drugs such as diclofenac used as model. Nanoemulsions of oil in water were prepared using the ultrasonication method in order to obtain submicron size colloidal dispersion. The size, zeta potential and encapsulation efficiency of the dispersions obtained were investigated. In addition, the ability of sorbitan ester derivatives to form nanovesicles (niosomes), which in turn were used for encapsulating drug in oily solutions forming stable nanoemulsions, was particularly examined. Thus, additional stabilizing agents were not required in the recipe and formulations using only sorbitan monolaurate, argan oil and water lead to attractive results. Their submicronic size (<250 nm), high negative zeta potential (between -40 and -50 mV) and drug-encapsulation efficiency (higher than 85%) allow predicting both a good physical stability and a good performance as drug carriers.

  6. Application of MODFLOW for oil reservoir simulation during the Deepwater Horizon crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Paul A

    2011-01-01

    When the Macondo well was shut in on July 15, 2010, the shut-in pressure recovered to a level that indicated the possibility of oil leakage out of the well casing into the surrounding formation. Such a leak could initiate a hydraulic fracture that might eventually breach the seafloor, resulting in renewed and uncontrolled oil flow into the Gulf of Mexico. To help evaluate whether or not to reopen the well, a MODFLOW model was constructed within 24 h after shut in to analyze the shut-in pressure. The model showed that the shut-in pressure can be explained by a reasonable scenario in which the well did not leak after shut in. The rapid response provided a scientific analysis for the decision to keep the well shut, thus ending the oil spill resulting from the Deepwater Horizon blow out.

  7. ADSORPTION OF DIETARY OILS ONTO LIGNIN FOR PROMISING PHARMACEUTICAL AND NUTRITIONAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Tolba

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Kraft lignin, a by-product of the pulp and paper industry, was explored as an adsorbent for six dietary oils and was compared to chitosan, which is widely used in the pharmaceutical market. The dissolution and adsorption efficiency of kraft lignin were tested at an acidic pH corresponding to the stomach, as well as at a basic pH corresponding to the intestine. Results showed that kraft lignin is a powerful adsorbent that can take up dietary oils at up to about 6 times its own weight. Kraft lignin exhibits higher stability and insolubility at the pH of the stomach in comparison to chitosan. The adsorption isotherm of dietary oils fits well with the Freundlich model, and the adsorption kinetics follows a pseudo-second order relationship.

  8. Elaboration of Nanoparticles Containing Indomethacin: Argan Oil for Transdermal Local and Cosmetic Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waisudin Badri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is the preparation of nanocapsules which are intended for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. We use Argan oil as vehicle of hydrophobic drugs such as indomethacin. Nanoprecipitation technique was used like a method for preparation of nanocapsules, where polycaprolactone, acetone, and Argan oil are used as polymer, solvent, and carrier, respectively. Primarily, investigation of Argan oil amount addition was performed; then systematic study to optimize the formulation was done. Nanocapsules containing indomethacin (loaded nanocapsules and others without indomethacin (blank nanocapsules were characterized by studying particles size, zeta potential, and encapsulation efficiency. It is shown that particle size ranged between 290 nm and 350 nm. The zeta potential values were negative (from −40 up to −50 mV while encapsulation efficiency ranged between 65 and 75%.

  9. Biodispersant production by sea bacteria and its application to oil spills at sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayol, M.A.; Pita, A.; Bergueiro, J.R.; Rallo, M.; Somoza, S. [Balearic Island Univ., Palma de Mallorca, Islas Baleares (Spain)

    1998-09-01

    The feasibility of developing natural dispersants (biodispersants) for use in response to a marine oil spill was discussed. In this study biochemical tests were conducted with Bacillus and Coccus Gram Positive bacteria in order to select the one marine microorganism which is capable of producing biodispersants to degrade crude oil. Different carbon sources and salt concentrations were used in the experiments. A second experiment was conducted in which the production of biodispersants by the pure microbial strain were studied by measuring interfacial tension, determined by using the Longman method. The surfactant efficacy and the dispersant stability of Arabian Light crude oil was also studied. The biological oxygen demand at five days, biological oxygen demand at the end of the biodegradation, the biodegradation constant and the biochemical stabilization constant were determined during the degradation process. 23 refs., 9 tabs.,4 figs.

  10. Electromagnetic Heating of Heavy Oil and Bitumen: A Review of Experimental Studies and Field Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albina Mukhametshina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Viscosity is a major obstacle in the recovery of low API gravity oil resources from heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs. While thermal recovery is usually considered the most effective method for lowering viscosity, for some reservoirs introducing heat with commonly implemented thermal methods is not recommended. For these types of reservoirs, electromagnetic heating is the recommended solution. Electromagnetic heating targets part of the reservoir instead of heating the bulk of the reservoir, which means that the targeted area can be heated up more effectively and with lower heat losses than with other thermal methods. Electromagnetic heating is still relatively new and is not widely used as an alternate or addition to traditional thermal recovery methods. However, studies are being conducted and new technologies proposed that could help increase its use. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the recovery of heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs by electromagnetic heating through the review of existing laboratory studies and field trials.

  11. Analysis and applications of microorganisms from a chalk oil reservoir in the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaster, Krista Michelle

    2009-03-15

    Ekofisk a chalk oil reservoir in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea was found to harbour an active and diverse microbial community. Microbial actives may be deleterious in nature as in reservoir souring or maybe advantageous as in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The aim of this study was to characterise the microbial communities in the Ekofisk oil reservoir and to gain insight into the microbial mechanisms important for the a) control of reservoir souring, and b) which can be utilized in enhanced oil recovery. Produced water samples from the Ekofisk oil reservoir were analysed using both culture-dependent and -independent techniques. The Ekofisk microbial community was found to be dominated by thermophilic microorganisms many of which were capable of either sulphidogenic or methanogenic physiologies. They were similar to organisms that have been previously identified from oil reservoir fluids. The dominant organisms identified directly from the produced water samples had sequences similar to members of the genera Thermotoga, Caminicella, Thermoanaerobacter, Archaeoglobus, Thermococcus, and Methanobulbus. Enrichment cultures obtained from the produced water samples were dominated by sheathed rods. Sequence analyses of the cultures indicated predominance of the genera Petrotoga, Arcobacter, Archaeoglobus and Thermococcus. Reservoir souring caused by sulphide production due the activity of sulphate reducing prokaryotes (SRP) may be reduced by the injection of nitrate or nitrite. Nitrate or nitrite mitigates sulphide production either by the stimulation of nitrate reducing bacteria (NRB) through nitrate addition or via metabolic inhibition of the reduction of sulphite to sulphide by nitrite. Here we found that nitrate addition was ineffective at controlling souring whereas nitrite proved very effective at inhibiting sulphate reduction even at very low concentrations (0.25 mM - 1 mM) in both batch culture and bioreactor studies. To investigate microbial utilization

  12. Thermal characteristics of non-edible oils as phase change materials candidate to application of air conditioning chilled water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsyad, M.; Indartono, Y. S.; Suwono, A.; Pasek, A. D.

    2015-09-01

    The addition of phase change material in the secondary refrigerant has been able to reduce the energy consumption of air conditioning systems in chilled water system. This material has a high thermal density because its energy is stored as latent heat. Based on material melting and freezing point, there are several non-edible oils that can be studied as a phase change material candidate for the application of chilled water systems. Forests and plantations in Indonesia have great potential to produce non-edible oil derived from the seeds of the plant, such as; Calophyllum inophyllum, Jatropha curcas L, and Hevea braziliensis. Based on the melting temperature, these oils can further studied to be used as material mixing in the secondary refrigerant. Thermal characteristics are obtained from the testing of T-history, Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC) and thermal conductivity materials. Test results showed an increase in the value of the latent heat when mixed with water with the addition of surfactant. Thermal characteristics of each material of the test results are shown completely in discussion section of this article.

  13. Photoacoustic Detection of Perfluorocarbon Tracers in Air for Application to Leak Detection in Oil-Filled Cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajarevich, N.; Slezak, V.; Peuriot, A.; Villa, G.; Láttero, A.; Crivicich, R.

    2013-09-01

    The underground oil-filled cable consists of a hollow copper conductor surrounded by oiled paper which acts as electrical insulation. The oil flows along the conductor and diffuses through it to the insulating paper. A lead sheath is used as the outer retaining wall. As the deterioration of this cover may cause a loss of insulation fluid, its detection is very important since this high voltage and power cable is used in cities even under sidewalks. The method of perfluorocarbon vapor tracers, based on the injection and subsequent detection of these volatile chemical substances in the vicinity of the cable, is one of the most promising methods, so far used in combination with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. In this study, the possibility of detecting two different tracers, and , by means of resonant photoacoustic spectroscopy is studied. The beam from a tunable amplitude-modulated laser goes through an aluminum cell with quarter wave filters at both ends of an open resonator and an electret microphone in its center, attached to the walls. The calibration of the system for either substance diluted in chromatographic air showed a higher sensitivity for , so the experiment was completed checking the behavior of this substance in samples prepared with ambient air in order to analyze the application of the system to field studies.

  14. Comparison of Phosphorous Absorption, Quality and Yield Between High Oil Corn and Common Corn as Influenced by Phosphorous Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Ping; JIN Ji-yun; LI Wen-juan; LIU Hai-long; HUANG Shao-wen; WANG Xiu-fang; WANG Li-chun; XIE Jia-gui

    2005-01-01

    A field trial was carried out to investigate phosphorous (P) absorption, grain quality and yield between high oil corn and common corn. The results indicated that high oil corn var. Tongyou 1 obtained lower highest P absorption rate (HAR) and later occurring date of HAR, in comparison with common corn var. Simi 25. The highest HAR and the earliest occurring date of HAR was obtained by the treatments of P45 and P75 in Tongyou 1 and Simi 25 separately; while the total amount of P accumulated by maize plant was achieved by P105 treatment in both varieties. P in grain relied mainly on root uptake at maturation that accounted for 85.7-96.8% and 79.3-84.3% for Tongyou 1 and Simi 25, respectively. Tongyou 1 contained more oil and protein contents, but less starch content with lower grain yield. P application at appropriate rate enhanced contents of protein and fatty acid, but the increment of starch content was neglectable.

  15. A Prediction Model of Oil Cracked Gas Resources and Its Application in the Gas Pools of Feixianguan Formation in NE Sichuan Basin, SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongshan Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of oil cracked gas resources is necessary and urgent in the gas exploration of these basins at high to over stage in China. A marine crude oil sample was pyrolyzed using sealed gold tubes system in our study. The pyrolysates including gas, liquid, and solid were quantitatively analyzed. Based on the pyrolysis data and kinetic calculation, the yield correlativity among gas, liquid, and solid products was regressed with high correlative coefficients to establish a prediction model suitable for the resource estimation of oil cracked gas. The verification formula for this model was also established on the principle of mass conservation. The affecting factors and the application preconditions of this model were discussed. Finally the model was extrapolated to the prediction of oil cracked gas resources of Feixianguan formation in NE Sichuan basin, SW China. The prediction value of oil cracked resources is about 6.84×1012 m3, and generation intensity of oil cracked gas is about 97.5×108 m3/km2, and the paleo-oil reserves is about 97×108 t. The verifying value for this prediction is approximately equal to 1, indicating the model is reliable in the resource estimation of oil cracked gas.

  16. Statement complementing the scientific opinion on application EFSA-GMO-NL-2010-78 to cover the safety of soybean MON 87705 oil for commercial frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this statement, the EFSA GMO Panel responds to a request from the European Commission (EC to assess the safety of soybean MON 87705 oil for commercial frying. The applicant provided exposure assessments based on total and partial substitutions of conventional soybean, rapeseed and sunflower oils with the soybean MON 87705 oil in foods (salad dressings, margarines and spreads, mayonnaise, crackers and salty snacks and soybean/rapeseed/sunflower oils processed foods. No distinction was made between commercial and domestic use, nor whether the oils were used in frying or not. The EFSA GMO Panel considers that this exposure scenario is the most pertinent in that it addresses not only the question raised by the EC about the possible use of soybean MON 87705 oil in frying, but also other possible food uses. Having assessed total replacement, the most conservative scenario arising from both domestic and commercial use of the oil, the EFSA GMO Panel concluded that the use of soybean MON 80775 oil does not impact on human health and nutrition. The Panel recommends a post-market monitoring plan for the marketed foods and feed.

  17. Preparation and Application of Water-in-Oil Emulsions Stabilized by Modified Graphene Oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoma Fei; Lei Xia; Mingqing Chen; Wei Wei; Jing Luo; Xiaoya Liu

    2016-01-01

    A series of alkyl chain modified graphene oxides (AmGO) with different alkyl chain length and content was fabricated using a reducing reaction between graphene oxide (GO) and alkyl amine. Then AmGO was used as a graphene-based particle emulsifier to stabilize Pickering emulsion. Compared with the emulsion stabilized by GO, which was oil-in-water type, all the emulsions stabilized by AmGO were water-in-oil type. The effects of alkyl chain length and alkyl chain content on the emulsion properti...

  18. Study on Application of the Silicone Oil in the Reattachment of Complicated Retinal Detachment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    Sixty eyes with complicated retinal detachment were treatedby vitrectomy combined with silicone oil tamponade (27 eyes of PMR gradeD,15 eyes of giant retinal tears with posterior flat folded-over,13 eyes ofposterior or macular hole,5 eyes of traumatic PVR).After 3-24 monthsfollow-up,the study showed retinal anatomic reattachment in 48 eyes inwhich the visual acuity of 32 eyes was 0.05 or better.The authorsconsider that vitrectomy and peeling make the silicone oil tamponadeperfect the vitreous surgery an...

  19. Fenton treatment of olive oil mill wastewater--applicability of the method and parameters effects on the degradation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bensalah Nasr; Bedoui Ahmed; Gadri Abdellatif

    2004-01-01

    The low biodegradability of polyphenolic compounds typically found in olive processing indicated that biological treatment is not always successful in the treatment of olive oil mill wastewater in term of COD removal. In this study the results of investigations on the applicability of Fenton's reagent in the treatment of this effluent were discussed. The efficiency of this method was determined. 86 % of removal COD was obtained using 5 mol H2O2 and 0.4 mol Fe2+ per liter of crude OMW. The main parameters that govern the complex reactive system, i.e., time, pH, [H2O2] and [Fe(II)] have been studied.

  20. Application of Li2SiO3 as a heterogeneous catalyst in the production of biodiesel from soybean oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Xun Wang; Kung Tung Chen; Shiuh Tsuen Huang; Chiing Chang Chen

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel was synthesized from soybean oil by transesterification over Li2SiO3 catalyst. The Li2SiO3 can be used for biodiesel production directly without further drying or thermal pretreatment, no obvious difference in the FAME conversion (92.4-96.7%) between the air-exposed catalyst (24-72 h) and the fresh one (94.2%). This leads to important benefits when considering industrial applications of Li2SiO3 as a solid catalyst for storing and handling catalyst without taking special actions.

  1. 加氢油在金属轧制油中的应用研究%Development and application of hydrotreated base stocks in metal rolling oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张青蔚; 韩志群

    2000-01-01

    利用加氢油研制出铝材、铜材及不锈钢轧制油。应用结果表明,加氢油是生产金属轧制油的理想基础油。%The rolling oils for aluminum,copper and stainless steel were prepared using the hydrotreated base stocks. The application results showed that the hydrotreated base stocks were satisfactory for the production of metal rolling oils.

  2. Application of Tin(II Chloride Catalyst for High FFA Jatropha Oil Esterification in Continuous Reactive Distillation Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Dewi Kusumaningtyas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of heterogeneous solid acid catalysts in biodiesel production has become popular and gained significant attention over the last few years. It is since these types of catalysts hold the benefits in terms of easy separation from the product, reusability of the catalyst, high selectivity of the reaction. They are also considered sustainable and powerful particularly in organic synthesis. This work studied the use of tin(II chloride as solid Lewis acid catalyst to promote the esterification reaction of high Free Fatty Acid (FFA jatropha oil in continuous reactive distillation column. To obtain the optimum condition, the influences of reaction time, molar ratio of the reactant, and catalyst were investigated. It was revealed that the optimum condition was achieved at the molar ratio of methanol to FFA at 1:60, catalyst concentration of 5%, and reaction temperature of 60°C with the reaction conversion of 90%. This result was significantly superior to the identical reaction performed using batch reactor. The esterification of high FFA jatropha oil using reactive distillation in the presence of tin(II chloride provided higher conversion than that of Amberlyst-15 heterogeneous catalyst and was comparable to that of homogenous sulfuric acid catalyst, which showed 30 and 94.71% conversion, respectively. The esterification reaction of high FFA jatropha oil was subsequently followed by transesterification reaction for the completion of the biodiesel production. Transesterification was carried out at 60 °C, molar ratio of methanol to oil of 1:6, NaOH catalyst of 1%, and reaction time of one hour. The jatropha biodiesel product resulted from this two steps process could satisfy the ASTM and Indonesian biodiesel standard in terms of ester content (97.79 %, density, and viscosity. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 10th November 2015; Revised: 4th February 2016; Accepted: 4th February 2016 How to Cite: Kusumaningtyas

  3. Satellite and airborne oil spill remote sensing: State of the art and application to the BP DeepWater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, I.; Clark, R.; Jones, C.; Holt, B.; Svejkovsky, J.; Swayze, G.

    2011-01-01

    The vast, persistent, and unconstrained oil release from the DeepWater Horizon (DWH) challenged the spill response, which required accurate quantitative oil assessment at synoptic and operational scales. Experienced observers are the mainstay of oil spill response. Key limitations are weather, scene illumination geometry, and few trained observers, leading to potential observer bias. Aiding the response was extensive passive and active satellite and airborne remote sensing, including intelligent system augmentation, reviewed herein. Oil slick appearance strongly depends on many factors like emulsion composition and scene geometry, yielding false positives and great thickness uncertainty. Oil thicknesses and the oil to water ratios for thick slicks were derived quantitatively with a new spectral library approach based on the shape and depth of spectral features related to C-H vibration bands. The approach used near infrared, imaging spectroscopy data from the AVIRIS (Airborne Visual/InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer) instrument on the NASA ER-2 stratospheric airplane. Extrapolation to the total slick used MODIS satellite visual-spectrum broadband data, which observes sunglint reflection from surface slicks; i.e., indicates the presence of oil and/or surfactant slicks. Oil slick emissivity is less than seawater's allowing MODIS thermal infrared (TIR) nighttime identification; however, water temperature variations can cause false positives. Some strong emissivity features near 6.7 and 9.7 ??m could be analyzed as for the AVIRIS short wave infrared features, but require high spectral resolution data. TIR spectral trends can allow fresh/weathered oil discrimination. Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SSAR) provided synoptic data under all-sky conditions by observing oil dampening of capillary waves; however, SSAR typically cannot discriminate thick from thin oil slicks. Airborne UAVSAR's significantly greater signal-to-noise ratio and fine spatial resolution allowed

  4. Whey protein/polysaccharide-stabilized oil powders for topical application-release and transdermal delivery of salicylic acid from oil powders compared to redispersed powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzé, Magdalena; Otto, Anja; Jordaan, Anine; du Plessis, Jeanetta

    2015-08-01

    Oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions are commonly converted into solid-like powders in order to improve their physical and chemical stabilities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether whey protein/polysaccharide-stabilized o/w emulsions could be converted into stable oil powders by means of freeze-drying. Moreover, during this study, the effects of pH and polymer type on release and trans(dermal) delivery of salicylic acid, a model drug, from these oil powders were investigated and compared to those of the respective template emulsions and redispersed oil powders. Physical characterization of the various formulations was performed, such as droplet size analysis and oil leakage, and relationships drawn with regards to release and trans(dermal) delivery. The experimental outcomes revealed that the oil powders could be redispersed in water without changing the release characteristics of salicylic acid. pH and polymer type affected the release of salicylic acid from the oil powders, template emulsions, and redispersed powders similarly. Contrary, the transdermal delivery from the oil powders and from their respective redispersed oil powders was differently affected by pH and polymer type. It was hypothesized that the release had been influenced by the electrostatic interactions between salicylic acid and emulsifiers, whereas the transdermal performance could have been determined by the particle or aggregate sizes of the formulations.

  5. Application of Neuro-Net Technology to Reservoir Prediction in Chendao Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Suhua

    1996-01-01

    @@ Recently, the Research Institute of Geological Sciences of the Shengli oil region and the University of Petroleum have been cooperated in developing a set of intelligent expert system to predicte reservoir and to estimate sand body thickness using multiple seismic information.

  6. Application of geo-microbial prospecting method for finding oil and gas reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, M. A.; Hasan, Syed Zaheer; Rao, P. L. Srinivasa; Boruah, Annapurna; Sudarshan, V.; Kumar, B.; Harinarayana, T.

    2015-03-01

    Microbial prospecting of hydrocarbons is based on the detection of anomalous population of hydrocarbon oxidizing bacteria in the surface soils, indicates the presence of subsurface oil and gas accumulation. The technique is based on the seepage of light hydrocarbon gases such as C1-C4 from the oil and gas pools to the shallow surface that provide the suitable conditions for the development of highly specialized bacterial population. These bacteria utilize hydrocarbon gases as their only food source and are found enriched in the near surface soils above the hydrocarbon bearing structures. The methodology involves the collection of soil samples from the survey area, packing, preservation and storage of samples in pre-sterilized sample bags under aseptic and cold conditions till analysis and isolation and enumeration of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria such as methane, ethane, propane, and butane oxidizers. The contour maps for the population density of hydrocarbon oxidizing bacteria are drawn and the data can be integrated with geological, geochemical, geophysical methods to evaluate the hydrocarbon prospect of an area and to prioritize the drilling locations thereby reducing the drilling risks and achieve higher success in petroleum exploration. Microbial Prospecting for Oil and Gas (MPOG) method success rate has been reported to be 90%. The paper presents details of microbial prospecting for oil and gas studies, excellent methodology, future development trends, scope, results of study area, case studies and advantages.

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Ni/Hydrotalcite and Its Application in Hydrocracking Calophyllum Inophyllum Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafshah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to synthesize hydrotalcite as an alternatives of catalyst support of hydrocracking of vegetable oils. Hydrotalcite can be synthesized in several ways, the most common is coprecipitation method. Hydrotalcite was synthesized using Mg/Al mole ratio of 1: 1, NaOH and Na2CO3 as base solutions. Ni/hydrotalcite catalyst was synthesized by incipicient wetness impregnation method with Ni impregnation of 10% w/w. The characterization of the crystal structure was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD. The spesific surface area (SBET was determined by adsorption-desorption of nitrogen, it were obtained 201 m2/g after impregnation and 191 m2/g before impregntion. The test of performance of catalyst was conducted by hydrocracking reaction of Calophyllum inophyllum oil. The liquid products were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Hydrocracking process produced gasoline, kerosene, gas oil with yield of 0.36%, 2.45%, 54.88% respectively, conversion of 96.26% and selectivity of gas oil of 84.39%.

  8. A novel cardanol-based antioxidant and its application in vegetable oils and biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel antioxidant, epoxidized cardanol (ECD), derived from cardanol has been synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Oxidative stability of ECD in vegetable oils and biodiesel was evaluated by the pressurized differential scanning calorimetry and Rancimat methods, respectively....

  9. Wave induced mixing and transport of buoyant particles: application to the Statfjord A oil spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Drivdal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The modelling of wave-current and wave-turbulence interactions have received much attention in recent years. In this study the focus is on how these wave effects modify the transport of particles in the ocean. Here the particles are buoyant tracers that can represent oil droplets, plastic particles or plankton, for example fish eggs and larvae. Using the General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM, modified to take surface wave effects into account, we investigate how the increased mixing by wave breaking and Stokes shear production as well as the stronger veering by the Coriolis–Stokes force affect the drift of the particles. The energy and momentum fluxes as well as the Stokes drift depend on the directional wave spectrum that can be obtained from a wave model or from observations. As a first test the depth and velocity scales from the model are compared with analytical solutions based on a constant eddy viscosity (e.g. classical Ekman theory. Secondly the model is applied to a case where we investigate the oil drift after an offshore oil spill outside the western coast of Norway in 2007. During this accident the average net drift of oil was observed to be both slower and more deflected away from the wind direction than predicted by empirical models. With wind and wave forcing from the ERA Interim archive, it is shown that the wave effects are important for the resultant drift in this case, and has the potential to improve drift forecasting.

  10. Analytical Thermal Field Theory Applicable to Oil Hydraulic Fluid Film Lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Per; Roemer, Daniel Beck; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2014-01-01

    An analytical thermal field theory is derived by a perturbation series expansion solution to the energy conservation equation. The theory is valid for small values of the Brinkman number and the modified Peclet number. This condition is sufficiently satisfied for hydraulic oils, whereby the analy...

  11. On the definition of exergy efficiencies for petroleum systems: Application to offshore oil and gas processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Voldsund, Mari; Elmegaard, Brian

    2014-01-01

    ) the differences in operating conditions between facilities. This work focuses on offshore processing plants, considering four oil platforms that differ by their working conditions and designs. Several approaches from the scientific literature for similar processes are presented and applied to the four cases...

  12. Wettability Improvement with Enzymes: Application to Enhanced Oil Recovery under Conditions of the North Sea Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khusainova, Alsu; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2012-01-01

    , proteases and oxidoreductases, provided by Novozymes, have been investigated. Two commercial mixtures containing enzymes: Apollo-GreenZyme™ and EOR-ZYMAX™ have also been applied. The North Sea dead oil and the synthetic sea water were used as test fluids. Internal surface of a carbonate rock has been...

  13. On the application of reynolds theory to thermo-piezo-viscous lubrication in oil hydraulics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Per; Roemer, Daniel Beck; Andersen, Torben O.

    2015-01-01

    . In this paper the derivation of Reynolds equation from the continuum assumption is reviewed and it is shown that the validity of Reynolds theory based pressure field solutions in oil hydraulic thermo-piezo-viscous lubrication models are subject to maximum bounds on the pressure and temperature field gradients...

  14. Application of a non-equilibrium reaction model for describing horizontal well performance in foamy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luigi, A.; Saputelli, B.; Carlas, M.; Canache, P.; Lopez, E. [DPVS Exploracion y Produccion (Venezuela)

    1998-12-31

    This study was designed to determine the activation energy ranges and frequency factor ranges in chemical reactions in heavy oils of the Orinoco Belt in Venezuela, in order to account for the kinetics of physical changes that occur in the morphology of gas-oil dispersion. A non-equilibrium reaction model was used to model foamy oil behaviour observed at SDZ-182 horizontal well in the Zuata field. Results showed that activation energy for the first reaction ranged from 0 to 0.01 BTU/lb-mol and frequency factor from 0.001 to 1000 l/day. For the second reaction the activation energy was 50x10{sub 3} BTU/lb-mol and the frequency factor 2.75x10{sub 1}2 l/day. The second reaction was highly sensitive to the modifications in activation energy and frequency factor. However, both the activation energy and frequency factor were independent of variations for the first reaction. In the case of the activation energy, the results showed that the high sensitivity of this parameter reflected the impact that temperature has on the representation of foamy oil behaviour. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  15. Development of nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems with olive vegetable oil for cutaneous application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silas Arandas Monteiro e Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Liquid-Crystalline Systems represent active compounds delivery systems that may be able to overcome the physical barrier of the skin, especially represented by the stratum corneum. To obtain these systems, aqueous and oily components are used with surfactants. Of the different association structures in such systems, the liquid-crystalline offer numerous advantages to a topical product. This manuscript presents the development of liquid-crystalline systems consisting, in which the oil component is olive oil, its rheological characterizations, and the location of liquid crystals in its phase map. Cytotoxic effects were evaluated using J-774 mouse macrophages as the cellular model. A phase diagram to mix three components with different proportions was constructed. Two liquid crystalline areas were found with olive oil in different regions in the ternary diagram with two nonionic surfactants, called SLC1 (S1 and SLC2 (S2. These systems showed lamellar liquid crystals that remained stable during the entire analysis time. The systems were also characterized rheologically with pseudoplastic behavior without thixotropy. The texture and bioadhesion assays showed that formulations were similar statistically (p < 0.05, indicating that the increased amount of water in S2 did not interfere with the bioadhesive properties of the systems. In vitro cytotoxic assays showed that formulations did not present cytotoxicity. Olive oil-based systems may be a promising platform for skin delivery of drugs.

  16. Oil-Free Turbomachinery Technologies for Long-Life, Maintenance-Free Power Generation Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacorte, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Turbines have long been used to convert thermal energy to shaft work for power generation. Conventional turbines rely upon oil-lubricated rotor supports (bearings, seals, etc.) to achieve low wear, high efficiency and reliability. Emerging Oil-Free technologies such as gas foil bearings and magnetic bearings offer a path for reduced weight and complexity and truly maintenance free systems. Oil-Free gas turbines, using gaseous and liquid fuels are commercially available in power outputs to at least 250kWe and are gaining acceptance for remote power generation where maintenance is a challenge. Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) turbines are an approach to power generation that is well suited for long life space missions. In these systems, a recirculating gas is heated by nuclear, solar or other heat energy source then fed into a high-speed turbine that drives an electrical generator. For closed cycle systems such as these, the working fluid also passes through the bearing compartments thus serving as a lubricant and bearing coolant. Compliant surface foil gas bearings are well suited for the rotor support systems of these advanced turbines. Foil bearings develop a thin hydrodynamic gas film that separates the rotating shaft from the bearing preventing wear. During start-up and shut down when speeds are low, rubbing occurs. Solid lubricants are used to reduce starting torque and minimize wear. Other emerging technologies such as magnetic bearings can also contribute to robust and reliable Oil-Free turbomachinery. In this presentation, Oil-Free technologies for advanced rotor support systems will be reviewed as will the integration and development processes recommended for implementation.

  17. Lagrangian-based Backtracking of Oil Spill Dynamics from SAR Images: Application to Montara Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautama, Budhi Gunadharma; Mercier, Gregoire; Fablet, Ronan; Longepe, Nicolas

    2016-08-01

    Within the framework of INDESO project (Infrastructure Development Space Oceanography), we address the issue of oilspill and aim at developing an operational SAR- based system for monitoring this issue in Indonesian waters from space. In this work, we focus on the backtrack- ing of an oilspill detected from SAR observations. As a case-study, we consider one large oil spill event that happened in Indonesian waters in 2009, referred to as the Montara oilspill. On 21 August 2009, the Montara Wellhead Platform had an uncontrolled release of hydrocarbons from one of the platform wells. It was estimated that 400 barrels (or approximately 64 tonnes) of crude oil were being lost per day. The uncontrolled release continued until 3 November 2009 and response operations continued until 3 December 2009. In this work, we develop a Langragian analysis and associated numerical inversion tools with a view to further analyzing the oil spread due to the Montara Wellhead Platform. Our model relies on a 2D Lagrangian transport model developed by CLS (Collecte Localisation Satellite). Our model involves four main parameters : the weights of wind- related and current-related advection, the origin and the duration of the oil leakage. Given SAR oilspill detections, we propose a numerical inversion of the parameters of the Lagrangian model, so that the simulated drift match the SAR observations of the oil spill. We demonstrate the relevance of the proposed model and numerical scheme for the Montara oilspill and further discuss their operational interest for the space-based oilspill backtracking and forecasting.

  18. Characteristics of Waste Plastics Pyrolytic Oil and Its Applications as Alternative Fuel on Four Cylinder Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosal Nugroho Pratama

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Waste plastics recycling using pyrolysis method is not only able to decrease a number of environment pollutant but also able to produce economical and high quality hydrocarbon products. Two experiments were conducted to completely study Waste Plastic Pyrolytic Oil (WPPO characteristics and its applications.  First experiment investigated oil characteristics derived from pyrolysis process in two stages batch reactors: pyrolysis and catalytic reforming reactor, at maximum temperature 500oC and 450oC respectively. Waste Polyethylene (PE, Polypropylene (PP, Polystyrene (PS, Polyethylene Terepthalate (PET and others were used as raw material. Nitrogen flow rate at 0.8 l/minutes was used to increase oil weight percentage. Indonesian natural zeolite was used as catalyst. Then, second experiment was carried out on Diesel Engine Test Bed (DETB used blending of WPPO and Biodiesel fuel with a volume ratio of 1:9. This experiment was specifically conducted to study how much potency of blending of WPPO and biodiesel in diesel engine. The result of first experiment showed that the highest weight percentage of WPPO derived from mixture of PE waste (50%wt, PP waste (40%wt and PS waste (10%wt is 45.13%wt. The more weight percentage of PE in feedstock effected on the less weight percentage of WPPO, the more percentage of C12-C20 content in WPPO and the higher calorific value of WPPO. Characteristics of WPPO such as, Specific Gravity, Flash point, Pour Point, Kinematic Viscosity, Calorific value and percentage of C12-C20 showed interesting result that WPPO could be developed as alternative fuel on diesel fuel blending due to the proximity of their characteristics. Performance of diesel engine using blending of WPPO and biodiesel on second experiment gave good result so the WPPO will have great potency to be valuable alternative liquid fuel in future, especially on stationary diesel engine and transportation engine application.

  19. A spatial price equilibrium model in the oligopolistic market for oil derivatives: an application to the brazilian scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Mezadre Pompermayer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a spatial price equilibrium model in an oligopoly market for refined oil products. Till 1997 the Brazilian oil market was characterized by the state monopoly of Petrobras, which up to 2001 remained the only firm authorized to import oil derivatives. With several agents operating in the primary oil supply market, the government stopped fixing the prices for Petrobras, which started to determine the prices based on competition with other players. In this new scenario some questions arise regarding the price levels at which refined products will be supplied in different regions across Brazil as well as the capacity of national refineries to compete with imported products. To answer those and other questions, a new oligopoly spatial equilibrium model is herein proposed, taking into account the special characteristics of production of refined oil products. An iterative Gauss-Seidel-like algorithm with sequential adjustments was developed and applied to Brazilian market data. The model, the algorithm and its application are described in this work. Such a model may be used both by regulatory authorities and by companies in the sector.Este artigo apresenta um modelo de equilíbrio espacial de preços em um mercado oligopolizado de derivados de petróleo. Até o ano de 1997, o mercado brasileiro era caracterizado pelo monopólio estatal da Petrobrás, a qual permaneceu, até 2001, como a única empresa autorizada a importar derivados de petróleo. Com vários agentes operando no mercado, o governo deixou de fixar os preços para a Petrobrás, que passou a determinar os preços baseada na competição com outros agentes. Neste cenário, surgem algumas questões relativas aos níveis de preços a serem oferecidos no mercado e relativas à capacidade das refinarias nacionais de competir com produtos importados. Para responder a estas e outras questões, um novo modelo de equilíbrio espacial de preços para um mercado oligopolizado foi

  20. Application of a Step-by-Step Fingerprinting Identification Method on a Spilled Oil Accident in the Bohai Sea Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Peiyan; GAO Zhenhui; CAO Lixin; WANG Xinping; ZHOU Qing; ZHAO Yuhui; LI Guangmei

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, oil spill accidents occur frequently in the marine area of China. Finding out the spilled oil source is a key step in the relevant investigation. In this paper, a step-by-step fingerprinting identification method was used in a spilled oil accident in the Bohai Sea in 2002. Advanced chemical fingerprinting and data interpretation techniques were used to characterize the chemical composition and determine the possible sources of two spilled oil samples. The original gas chromatography -flame ionization detection (GC-FID) chromatogram of saturated hydrocarbons was compared. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS)chromatograms of aromatic hydrocarbons terpane and sterane, n-alkane and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed. The correlation analysis on diagnostic ratios was performed with Student's t-test. It is found that the oil fingerprinting of the spilled oil (designated as szl) from the polluted sand beach was identical with the suspected oil (designated as kyl) from a nearby crude oil refinery factory. They both showed the fingerprinting character of mixed oil. The oil fingerprinting of the spilled oil (designated as msl) collected from the port was significantly different from oil kyl and oil szl and was with a lubricating oil fingerprint character. The identification result not only gave support for the spilled oil investigation, but also served as an example for studying spilled oil accidents.

  1. Annual committed effective dose from olive oil (due to 238U, 232Th, and 222Rn) estimated for members of the Moroccan public from ingestion and skin application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misdaq, M A; Touti, R

    2012-03-01

    Olive oil is traditionally refined and widely consumed by Moroccan rural populations. Uranium (238U), thorium (232Th), radon (222Rn), and thoron (220Rn) contents were measured in various locally produced olive oil samples collected in rural areas of Morocco. These radionuclides were also measured inside various bottled virgin olive oils consumed by the Moroccan populations. CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) were used. Annual committed effective doses due to 238U, 232Th, and 222Rn from the ingestion of olive oil by the members of the general public were determined. The maximum total committed effective dose due to 238U, 232Th, and 222Rn from the ingestion of olive oil by adult members of Moroccan rural populations was found equal to 5.9 µSv y-1. The influence of pollution due to building material dusts and phosphates on the radiation dose to workers from the ingestion of olive oil was investigated, and it was found that the maximum total committed effective dose due to 238U, 232Th, and 222Rn was on the order of 0.22 mSy y-1. Committed effective doses to skin due to 238U, 232Th, and 222Rn from the application of olive oil masks by rural women were evaluated. The maximum total committed effective dose to skin due to 238U, 232Th, and 222Rn was found equal to 0.07 mSy y-1 cm-2.

  2. METHODOLOGICAL BASES OF PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF PRODUCTION COSTS MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING AT OIL AND FAT ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mykhalska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Implementing of models of production costs management accounting in response to responsibility centers into Ukrainian oil and fat enterprises is the aim of their full optimization in terms of current competitive market. Setting production costs as an object of every single responsibility center will enable to update the whole range of accounting operations on costs paperwork, used raw and other materials assessment, cost recovery from labour costs with benefits-related deduction, depreciation recovery due to season production variability, services distribution of auxiliary and service departments and general production costs. In this regard, referring to the current costs accounting at oil and fat enterprises of Ukraine it should be admitted that the main purpose of the article is to explore the above-mentioned issues.

  3. Biosurfactant production by Rhodococcus erythropolis and its application to oil removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Jardim Pacheco

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different nutrients on biosurfactant production by Rhodococcus erythropolis was investigated. Increasing the concentration of phosphate buffer from 30 up through 150 mmol/L stimulated an increase in biosurfactant production, which reached a maximum concentration of 285 mg/L in shaken flasks. Statistical analysis showed that glycerol, NaNO3,MgSO4 and yeast extract had significant effects on production. The results were confirmed in a batchwise bioreactor, and semi-growth-associated production was detected. Reduction in the surface tension, which indicates the presence of biosurfactant, reached a value of 38 mN/m at the end of 35 hours. Use of the produced biosurfactant for washing crude oil-contaminated soil showed that 2 and 4 times the critical micellar concentration (CMC were able to remove 97 and 99% of the oil, respectively, after 1 month of impregnation.

  4. Application of jatropha oil and biogas in a dual fuel engine for rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerkhof, E.

    2008-06-15

    In this thesis, the technical feasibility of using jatropha oil and biogas for dual fuel generators is investigated. This technology could be used for electricity generation in rural areas in developing countries. The use of jatropha oil and biogas is considered a sustainable energy supply, when both fuels are produced locally. The local production of fuel and generation of electricity could result in economic development and poverty reduction. In order to investigate the technical feasibility, a parameter study is performed, an experimental set-up is constructed and experiments are carried out. Three performance parameters are investigated: thermal efficiency, because it is a direct measure for fuel efficiency; volumetric efficiency, because it is a measure for power output; and air-excess ratio, because it influences particulate emissions and HC emissions. The parameter study is conducted, to predict the effect of dual fuel operation, by deriving expressions for the performance parameters. The experiments are carried out to assess the effect of dual fuel operation on performance and to find the operation limits (smoke limit and knock limit). Experiments are carried out on a 12 kW diesel generator set. The jatropha oil that is used is pure oil. Biogas mainly consists of methane and carbon dioxide. Simulated, bottled, biogas of different quality is used (i.e. CH4/CO2 ratios). Pure methane is also tested as gaseous fuel. Gas is added to the inlet air with a venturi. The design of the venturi limited the gas flow; consequently the maximum heat release fraction of methane was 80% for pure methane and approximately 70% for biogas. Tests were performed at 6, 8 and 10 kW load. The engine showed a thermal efficiency characteristic for pure jatropha oil operation, which is expected for a diesel generator. The characteristic for jatropha oil did not deviate from that of diesel. At full load, thermal efficiency is approximately 32%. Under dual fuel operation, with biogas, at

  5. USGS science in the gulf oil spill: Novel science applications in a crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, M.

    2011-01-01

    Marcia McNutt reflects on the role of the US Geological Survey (USGS) team following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Secretary Salazar asked Marcia McNutt to lead the Flow Rate Technical Group, a team charged by National Incident Commander Adm. Thad Allen with improving estimates of the oil discharge rate from the Macondo well as quickly as possible. Given the unprecedented nature of this spill, the team moved rapidly to deploy every reasonable approach. The team estimated the plume velocity from deep-sea video and from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution's acoustic Doppler current profiler. The team calculated the total volume of the spill using aircraft remote sensing. After the unsuccessful top kill attempt in late May, during which large volumes of mud were pumped down the flowing well, an important part of understanding the failure of the procedure was answering the question.

  6. Application of "magnetic tongue" to the sensory evaluation of extra virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauri, Ilaria; Pagano, Bruno; Malmendal, Anders; Sacchi, Raffaele; Novellino, Ettore; Randazzo, Antonio

    2013-10-15

    The perception of odour and flavour of foods is a complicated physiological and psychological process that cannot be explained by simple models. Unfortunately, taste is not objective, but partially subjective and it depends also on the mood of the taster. Generally, sensory analysis is used to describe sensory features. The availability of a number of instrumental techniques has opened up the possibility to calibrate the sensory perception. Here we have tested the potentiality of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as "magnetic tongue" to measure sensory descriptors in extra-virgin olive oil. We were able to correlate the NMR metabolomic fingerprints of extra-virgin olive oil to the sensory descriptors: tomato, bitter, pungent, rosemary, artichoke, sweet, grassy and leaf.

  7. Applications of science and engineering to quantify and control the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, Marcia K.; Chu, Steven; Lubchenco, Jane; Hunter, Tom; Dreyfus, Gabrielle; Murawski, Steven A.; Kennedy, David M.

    2012-01-01

    The unprecedented engagement of scientists from government, academia, and industry enabled multiple unanticipated and unique problems to be addressed during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. During the months between the initial blowout on April 20, 2010, and the final well kill on September 19, 2010, researchers prepared options, analyses of tradeoffs, assessments, and calculations of uncertainties associated with the flow rate of the well, well shut in, killing the well, and determination of the location of oil released into the environment. This information was used in near real time by the National Incident Commander and other government decision-makers. It increased transparency into BP’s proposed actions and gave the government confidence that, at each stage proposed, courses of action had been thoroughly vetted to reduce risk to human life and the environment and improve chances of success.

  8. Application of nano-encapsulated olive leaf extract in controlling the oxidative stability of soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Adeleh; Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Esfanjani, Afshin Faridi; Akhavan, Sahar

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of olive leave extract (OLE) encapsulated by nano-emulsions in soybean oil. The average droplet size one day after production was 6.16 nm for primary W/O nano-emulsion and, 675 nm and 1443 nm for multiple emulsions stabilized by WPC alone and complex of WPC-pectin, respectively. The antioxidant activity of these emulsions containing three concentrations of 100, 200 and 300 mg OLE during storage was evaluated in soybean oil by peroxide value, TBA value and rancimat thermal stability test and was compared with blank (non-encapsulated) OLE and synthetic TBHQ antioxidant. Nano-encapsulated OLE was capable of controlling peroxide value better than unencapsulated OLE. But because of blocking phenolic compounds within dispersed emulsions droplets, thermal stability of encapsulated OLE was lower. To summarize, with increased solubility and controlled release of olive leaf phenolic compounds through their nano-encapsulation, a higher antioxidant activity was achieved.

  9. [Application of ICP-MS to the detection of 22 elements in transgenic soybean oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wel, Zhen-lin; Shen, Lin; Rui, Yu-kui; Jiao, Chuan-zhen

    2008-06-01

    With the rapid development of transgenic food, more and more transgenic food has been pouring into the market, and much attention has been paid to the edible safety of transgenic food. Transgenic soybean oils were studied by ICP-MS to detect 22 kinds of elements. The results showed that the contents of 7 kinds of macroelements range from 0. 13 to 12.52 microg x g(-1) in transgenic soybean oils, the range of the rest 15 kinds of microelements is from 0.15 ng x g(-1) to 7)0.00 ng x g(-1). The sequence of macroelement concentration is Ca>Na>K>Mg>Al>P>Si. There are 5 kinds of micoelements whose concentrations were higher than 200 ng x g(-1), including Zn>Ba>Cr>Fe>Ti, especially Zn, Ba, Cr and Fe.

  10. Oil quality of canola cultivars in response to water stress and super absorbent polymer application

    OpenAIRE

    Moghadam,Hamid Reza Tohidi; Hossein ZAHEDI; Ghooshchi,Farshad

    2011-01-01

    Water stress significantly limits plant growth and crop yield. Hence, the efficient management of soil moisture and the study of metabolic changes which occur in response to drought stress are important for agriculture. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of six oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) genotypes (Rgs003, Sarigol, Option500, Hyola401, Hyola330, and Hyola420), with and without drought stress, and with and without the use of super absorbent polymer, on oil quality and...

  11. Synthesis and characterization of dielectric nanoparticles for application in enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, H. Mohd; Yahya, N.; Ahmad Latiff, N. R.; Demiral, B.

    2012-09-01

    A non-invasive electromagnetically enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method by injecting nanofluids into the oil reservoir simultaneously with electromagnetic irradiation, with the intention to create disturbance at oil-water interfaces and increase oil production has been proposed. Dielectric nanoparticles having relatively high dielectric loss factor were chosen due to the abundance of bound surface charges which exist at the surface. In this research, zinc oxide, ZnO and aluminium oxide, Al2O3 nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by sol-gel method. Zinc nitrate hexahydrate and aluminium nitrate nonahydrate were used as the precursors for ZnO and Al2O3 respectively. Solutions formed by dissolving zinc nitrate hexahydrate and aluminium nitrate nonahydrate in nitric acid were stirred in 14 days to ensure homogeneity. The resulting xerogels were annealed at various temperatures; 200°C, 250°C and 300°C for ZnO and 900°C, 1000°C and 1100°C for Al2O3, respectively. The as-synthesized ZnO and Al2O3 nanoparticles were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX). XRD analysis shows that the resulting nanoparticles have high crystallinity, which can be indexed to standard hexagonal structure for both ZnO and Al2O3, having average crystallite size of 45nm and 38nm, respectively. Dielectric properties of both nanoparticles shows that Al2O3 has higher dielectric losses in the low frequency region compared to ZnO which may be resulted from its highly porous structure and impurities existence.

  12. Numerical modelling and experimentation of oil-spill curtain booms: Application to a harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttin, F.; Campbell, R.; Ouansafi, A.; Benelmostafa, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Oil-spill curtain booms are an important response device dedicated to containing and deviating floating pollutants. The hydrodynamic and structural limitations of curtain booms necessitate numerical modelling for efficient usage assessment. A four step model is proposed and applied during an exercise performed in the Galician region of Spain. Experimental results are used to produce a re-analysis of the model and improve contingency planning.

  13. Application of sustainable foaming agents to control the mobility of carbon dioxide in enhanced oil recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roozbeh Rafati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 flooding is a conventional process in which the CO2 is injected into the oil reservoir to increase the quantity of extracting oil. This process also controls the amount of released CO2 as a greenhouse gas in the atmosphere which is known as CO2 sequestration process. However, the mobility of the CO2 inside the hydrocarbon reservoir is higher than the crude oil and always viscous fingering and gravity override problems occur during a CO2 injection. The most common method to overcome these problems is to trap the gas bubbles in the liquid phase in the form of aqueous foam prior to CO2 injection. Although, the aqueous foams are not thermodynamically stable, special care should be considered to ensure bulk foam preparation and stability. Selection of a proper foaming agent from a large number of available surfactants is the main step in the bulk foam preparation. To meet this purpose, many chemical and crude oil based surfactants have been reported but most of them are not sustainable and have disposal problems. The objective of this experimental study is to employ Lignosulfonate and Alkyl Polyglucosides (APGs as two sustainable foaming agents for the bulk foam stability investigations and foam flooding performance in porous media. In the initial part, the bulk foam stability results showed that APGs provided more stable foams in comparison with Lignosulfonate in all surfactant concentrations. In the second part, the results indicated that the bulk foam stability measurements provide a good indication of foam mobility in porous media. The foaming agent’s concentration which provided the maximum foam stability also gave the highest value of mobility reduction in porous media.

  14. B-SPLINE-BASED SVM MODEL AND ITS APPLICATIONS TO OIL WATER-FLOODED STATUS IDENTIFICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang Fuhua; Zhao Tiejun; Yi Xiongying

    2007-01-01

    A method of B-spline transform for signal feature extraction is developed. With the B-spline,the log-signal space is mapped into the vector space. An efficient algorithm based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) to automatically identify the water-flooded status of oil-saturated stratum is described.The experiments show that this algorithm can improve the performances for the identification and the generalization in the case of a limited set of samples.

  15. Application of forward osmosis membrane technology for oil sands process-affected water desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yaxin; Liang, Jiaming; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The extraction process used to obtain bitumen from the oil sands produces large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). As a newly emerging desalination technology, forward osmosis (FO) has shown great promise in saving electrical power requirements, increasing water recovery, and minimizing brine discharge. With the support of this funding, a FO system was constructed using a cellulose triacetate FO membrane to test the feasibility of OSPW desalination and contaminant removal. The FO systems were optimized using different types and concentrations of draw solution. The FO system using 4 M NH4HCO3 as a draw solution achieved 85% water recovery from OSPW, and 80 to 100% contaminant rejection for most metals and ions. A water backwash cleaning method was applied to clean the fouled membrane, and the cleaned membrane achieved 77% water recovery, a performance comparable to that of new FO membranes. This suggests that the membrane fouling was reversible. The FO system developed in this project provides a novel and energy efficient strategy to remediate the tailings waters generated by oil sands bitumen extraction and processing.

  16. Essential oil mediated synthesis of silver nanocrystals for environmental, anti-microbial and antioxidant applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas, Vidya; Philip, Daizy; Mathew, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Our quest for a green, non-toxic and environmentally benign synthetic design for the fabrication of metal nanoparticles has led to the use of essential oil present in plant parts as the bioreductant. In this report, silver particles at nanoscale have been synthesized using essential oil present in the leaves of Coleus aromaticus at physiological pH and at 373 K. UV-vis spectra of the colloid display strong plasmon bands centred around 396-411 nm, characteristic of silver nanoparticles. Comparative studies of the FTIR spectra of essential oil and silver nanoparticles reveal the involvement of terpenes and their phenolic derivatives in reduction and subsequent stabilization. TEM micrographs and XRD pattern show the formation of 26 and 28 nm sized face centred cubic structured crystalline nanospheroids with intermittent formation of nanorods. The phytosynthesized silver nanoparticles are found to be effective in degrading hazardous organic pollutants including methyl orange, methylene blue, eosin yellowish and para nitro phenol within a span of a few minutes. Dose dependant antibacterial activity of the biogenic nanosilver against pathogenic Gramme-negative Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Gramme-positive Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) has been portrayed through agar-well dispersion method. The antioxidant activity including antiradical activity and reducing power have been depicted through superoxide radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, nitric oxide scavenging activity, DPPH assay and reducing power activity involving the reduction of ferric ion.

  17. Application of Electrical Properties to Differentiate Lard from Tallow and Palm Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sucipto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to differentiate lard from tallow and palm oil based on its electrical properties, namely conductance, impedance and capacitance. These properties were measured at spectra frequencies of 4.20 to 5.00 MHz in room temperature (26-27 oC. Statistic multivariate that consist on principal component analysis (PCA and cluster analysis (CA were used to evaluate the data. The results showed that lard and tallow can be differentiated using whole parameters electrical properties of materials. On the other hand, lard and palm oil can only be differentiated using part of the material electrical properties. Good performance of differentiation process was obtained using PCA model at 4.91 to 4.98 MHz. The first two components of PCA, which was derived from conductance, impedance and capacitance, contributed more than 90% of the total variances. CA showed that lard and tallow are different groups based on the Euclidean distance of each electrical properties. This technique can be potentially developed as an electrical sensor for differentiation lard to tallow and palm oil.

  18. Simple surface foam application enhances bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil in cold conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Jongshin; Kim, Jaisoo

    2015-04-09

    Landfarming of oil-contaminated soil is ineffective at low temperatures, because the number and activity of micro-organisms declines. This study presents a simple and versatile technique for bioremediation of diesel-contaminated soil, which involves spraying foam on the soil surface without additional works such as tilling, or supply of water and air. Surfactant foam containing psychrophilic oil-degrading microbes and nutrients was sprayed twice daily over diesel-contaminated soil at 6 °C. Removal efficiencies in total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) at 30 days were 46.3% for landfarming and 73.7% for foam-spraying. The first-order kinetic biodegradation rates for landfarming and foam-spraying were calculated as 0.019 d(-1) and 0.044 d(-1), respectively. Foam acted as an insulating medium, keeping the soil 2 °C warmer than ambient air. Sprayed foam was slowly converted to aqueous solution within 10-12h and infiltrated the soil, providing microbes, nutrients, water, and air for bioaugmentation. Furthermore, surfactant present in the aqueous solution accelerated the dissolution of oil from the soil, resulting in readily biodegradable aqueous form. Significant reductions in hydrocarbon concentration were simultaneously observed in both semi-volatile and non-volatile fractions. As the initial soil TPH concentration increased, the TPH removal rate of the foam-spraying method also increased.

  19. FBG sensing temperature characteristic and application in oil/gas down-hole measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaomin LI; Xiaoying LIU; You LI; Shenlong YANG; Chong LIU

    2009-01-01

    Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) have been used to sense numerous parameters such as strain, temperature, and pressure. Cost-effective multipoint measurements have been achieved by connecting FBGs in parallel, serial, and other topologies as well as by using spatial, wavelength, and time-domain multiplexing techniques. This paper presents a method of measuring temperature of the oil/gas down-hole. Detailed contents include the basic theory and characteristics of fiber gratings, analysis of the sensing mechanism of fiber-optic gratings, and the cross-sensitivity effect between temperature and strain; the method of making the light-source of the fiber-optic gratings and the technology of measuring wavelength shift, building an experimental system of the temperature measurement, and dealing with the experimental data. The paper makes a comparison of several kinds of FBG sensing systems used in oil/gas down-hole to measure temperature and the analysis of the experimental results of building the temperature measurement experimental sys-tem. It demonstrates that the fiber-optic grating sensing method is the best choice in all methods of measuring temperature in oil/gas down-hole, which has a brilliant applied prospect.

  20. The Recovery Application of Membrane Technology in the Oil and Gas%膜技术在油气回收中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁建友

    2011-01-01

    文章首先介绍了油气分离膜的工作原理和分离过程特点,重点阐述了膜技术在油库、加油站和炼油厂等工业领域油气回收中的应用,同时介绍膜技术发展过程中注意的问题。%The paper described the oil and gas membrane separation process principles and features,focusing on the membrane technology in the oil deposits,petrol stations and oil refineries and other oil and gas recovery in the industrial applications,at the same time the development process problems were also focused.

  1. Detailed Study of Seismic Wave Attenuation in Carbonate Rocks: Application on Abu Dhabi Oil Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchaala, F.; Ali, M. Y.; Matsushima, J.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic wave attenuation is a promising attribute for the petroleum exploration, thanks to its high sensitivity to physical properties of subsurface. It can be used to enhance the seismic imaging and improve the geophysical interpretation which is crucial for reservoir characterization. However getting an accurate attenuation profile is not an easy task, this is due to complex mechanism of this parameter, although that many studies were carried out to understand it. The degree of difficulty increases for the media composed of carbonate rocks, known to be highly heterogeneous and with complex lithology. That is why few attenuation studies were done successfully in carbonate rocks. The main objectives of this study are, Getting an accurate and high resolution attenuation profiles from several oil fields. The resolution is very important target for us, because many reservoirs in Abu Dhabi oil fields are tight.Separation between different modes of wave attenuation (scattering and intrinsic attenuations).Correlation between the attenuation profiles and other logs (Porosity, resistivity, oil saturation…), in order to establish a relationship which can be used to detect the reservoir properties from the attenuation profiles.Comparison of attenuation estimated from VSP and sonic waveforms. Provide spatial distribution of attenuation in Abu Dhabi oil fields.To reach these objectives we implemented a robust processing flow and new methodology to estimate the attenuation from the downgoing waves of the compressional VSP data and waveforms acquired from several wells drilled in Abu Dhabi. The subsurface geology of this area is primarily composed of carbonate rocks and it is known to be highly fractured which complicates more the situation, then we separated successfully the intrinsic attenuation from the scattering. The results show that the scattering is significant and cannot be ignored. We found also a very interesting correlation between the attenuation profiles and the

  2. Application of the accelerated test Rancimat to evaluate oxidative stability of dried microencapsulated oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márquez-Ruiz, G.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to apply the oxidative test Rancimat to dried microencapsulated oils (DMO, with special emphasis on assessing the efficacy of natural antioxidants. DMO were prepared by freeze-drying emulsions containing sodium caseinate, lactose and fish or sunflower oils, with and without added the antioxidant mixture ALT (ascorbic acid, lecithin and tocopherol. Under the Rancimat working conditions selected for testing DMO (5 g sample, 100ºC and 20 L air/h, excellent repeatability was obtained. The antioxidant effect of ALT was much higher in bulk fish oil than in its counterpart DMO, either in Rancimat or at 30ºC in the dark. Further experiments using Rancimat showed that the moderate increase in stability of DMO added ALT was only attributable to tocopherol while the synergistic actions of lecithin and ascorbic acid were not observed, their action probably depending on their location and orientation in these complex lipid systems. This test enabled to compare monophasic (bulk oils and DMO-extracted oils and heterophasic lipidic systems (DMO and DMO devoid of the accessible, free oil fraction, thus offering a rapid means to examine the influence of oil distribution and partitioning of antioxidants on oxidative stability.El objetivo de este trabajo es la aplicación del test Rancimat a aceites microencapsulados, con especial interés en el estudio de la eficacia de antioxidantes naturales. Los aceites microencapsulados en matriz seca (DMO se prepararon mediante liofilización de emulsiones constituidas por caseinato sódico, lactosa y aceite de pescado o girasol, con o sin la mezcla antioxidante ALT (ácido ascórbico, lecitina y tocoferol. En las condiciones seleccionadas en Rancimat (5 g de muestra, 100ºC y 20 L/h aire se obtuvo excelente repetitividad. La mezcla ALT fue mucho más efectiva en el aceite de pescado que en su correspondiente DMO, tanto en Rancimat como a 30ºC en la oscuridad. Otros experimentos en

  3. APPLICATION OF MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY IN OIL POLLUTION CONTROL%微波技术在石油污染治理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄维秋; 王丹莉; 李峰; 王卫卿

    2011-01-01

    石油污染会造成严重的环境污染,还会对人的身体健康造成严重的危害。就微波技术在含油废水的处理、石油污染土壤的修复、油气吸附剂的再生方面做了详细的阐述,指出了微波技术在石油污染治理领域应用的优缺点,重点提出了在油气吸附回收工艺中,应用微波/真空或微波/超声波集成再生技术的研究思路。%Oil pollution can lead to serious harmful effects on people and the environment.The applications of microwave technology to control the oil pollution,such as treatment of oily wastewater,remedy of soil contaminated with oil,regeneration of oil vapor adsorbents,were introduced and analyzed in detail.The advantages and disadvantages of the applications were also discussed and compared.Then,the key research topic on the integrated regeneration technology of either microwave/vacuum or microwave/ultrasonic was emphasised and explored for the future research and application of the oil vapor adsorption recovery technology.

  4. Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery - Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroni, M. [American Oil Recovery, Inc., Decatur, IL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Phase I results of a C0{sub 2}-assisted oil recovery demonstration project in selected Cypress Sandstone reservoirs at Mattoon Field, Illinois are reported. The design and scope of this project included C0{sub 2} injectvity testing in the Pinnell and Sawyer units, well stimulaton treatments with C0{sub 2} in the Strong unit and infill well drilling, completion and oil production. The field activities were supported by extensive C0{sub 2}-oil-water coreflood experiments, CO{sub 2} oil-phase interaction experiments, and integrated geologic modeling and reservoir simulations. The progress of the project was made public through presentations at an industry meeting and a DOEs contractors` symposium, through quarterly reports and one-to-one consultations with interested operators. Phase II of this project was not implemented. It would have been a water-alternating-gas (WAG) project of longer duration.

  5. A Review of Techniques for Fish Oil Application in Food Products%鱼油在食品领域中的应用技术综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏树华; 姜元荣; 张余权; 牛付欢

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a review of tehcniques for the application of fish oil in foods products. Fish oil has been widely used in food products due to its special health benefit. It is necessary to add fish oil in food products because of deficient intake of docesahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in China. Nowadays, there are many foods rich in fish oil avabiale in the market. The oxidative stability of fish oil has been a concern for a long time during this application. The addition styles such as direct addition, emulsion or microcapsulation, and new processing techniques can effectively improve the oxidative stability of fish oil. Therefore, the application of fish oil in daily food will be developed widely in future both technologically and commercially.%对鱼油在食品领域中的应用技术进行综述。由于具有独特的营养功能,鱼油的应用十分广泛。中国居民目前对二十碳五烯酸(EPA)和二十二碳六烯酸(DHA)摄入不足,因而鱼油在食品中的应用十分必要。目前市场上已有多种鱼油应用于各类食品中。在应用过程中,鱼油的氧化稳定性问题一直是研究热点,选择不同的添加形式(纯鱼油、乳状液和微胶囊)并采用某些新工艺可有效提高氧化稳定性。鱼油应用于食品在技术和商业方面的发展前景均十分广阔。

  6. Dibenzofuran Series in Terrestrial Source Rocks and Crude Oils and Applications to Oil-Source Rock Correlations in the Kuche Depression of Tarim Basin, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李景贵; 李梅; 王兆云

    2004-01-01

    Ten series of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (biphenyl, naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, retene, chrysene, benzoanthracene, dibenzofuran, fluorene, dibenzothiophene) isolated from seven Triassic and Jurassic lacustrine mudstone samples and three swamp coal samples, as well as five crude oil samples collected in the Kuche depression of the Tarim Basin, NW China, have been analysed by GC-MS techniques. It is found that the relative abundances of dibenzofuran series are higher in the three swamp coal samples than those in the lacustrine mudstone samples. Based on the similar relative abundances of dibenzofuran series, especially dibenzofuran compound, in the TICs of aromatic hydrocarbons, crude oils from wells SA3 (K), YTK5 (E, K) and QL1 (E) are thought to have been derived predominantly from the coals of the Lower Jurassic Yangxia Formation or Middle Jurassic Kezilenuer Formation, whereas those from wells YM7 (O) and YH1 (E) were derived mainly from Triassic and Jurassic lacustrine mudstones in the Kuche depression. This is the first report about how to distinguish coal-generated oils from lacustrine mudstone-generated oils in the Kuche depression in terms of the dibenzofuran series. The present paper has enlightening and directive significance for further oil-source rock correlations and oil and/or gas exploration in the Kuche depression of the Tarim Basin.

  7. Microbial decomposition of marine spillage oil and its application to the disposal of spillage oil. Kaiyo ryushutsuyu no biseibutsu bunkai to shori eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Akihiko; Yamane, Akiko (Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Tech., Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-01-01

    To dispose of the crude oil spilledonto ocean, there is no other way than to wait for microbial decomposition of the oil ultimately. It was, however, tried to develop a way to get rid of crude oil by causing microbial decomposition artificially. Factors which influence the microbial decomposition process of spilled crude oil are the temperature of the sea water, the density of decomposing bacteria and the concentration of nutrient salts. A method to accelerate the microbial decomposition by controlling these factors artificially and get rid of crude oil swiftly was examined. It is almost impossible to control the temperature of the sea water and the density of decomposing bacteria, and the only way left is to replenish nutrient salts. As a measure to maintain the concentration of nutrient salts near the oil film high by controlling the elution speed, a microcapsule which contains nutrient salts was developed. As a result of experimenting the developed microcapsule, its effectiveness and supplying conditions were demonstrated. It is, however, necessary to make further researches to improve the characteristics of nutrient salts, and to respond to the site conditions such as oceanic and tidal currents. 21 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Preparation of highly porous binderless activated carbon electrodes from fibres of oil palm empty fruit bunches for application in supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farma, R; Deraman, M; Awitdrus, A; Talib, I A; Taer, E; Basri, N H; Manjunatha, J G; Ishak, M M; Dollah, B N M; Hashmi, S A

    2013-03-01

    Fibres from oil palm empty fruit bunches, generated in large quantities by palm oil mills, were processed into self-adhesive carbon grains (SACG). Untreated and KOH-treated SACG were converted without binder into green monolith prior to N2-carbonisation and CO2-activation to produce highly porous binderless carbon monolith electrodes for supercapacitor applications. Characterisation of the pore structure of the electrodes revealed a significant advantage from combining the chemical and physical activation processes. The electrochemical measurements of the supercapacitor cells fabricated using these electrodes, using cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic charge-discharge techniques consistently found that approximately 3h of activation time, achieved via a multi-step heating profile, produced electrodes with a high surface area of 1704m(2)g(-1) and a total pore volume of 0.889cm(3)g(-1), corresponding to high values for the specific capacitance, specific energy and specific power of 150Fg(-1), 4.297Whkg(-1) and 173Wkg(-1), respectively.

  9. Selection of bacteria with favorable transport properties through porous rock for the application of microbial-enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, L K; Chang, P W; Findley, J E; Yen, T F

    1983-11-01

    This paper presents a bench-scale study on the transport in highly permeable porous rock of three bacterial species-Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas putida, and Clostridium acetobutylicum-potentially applicable in microbial-enhanced oil recovery processes. The transport of cells during the injection of bacterial suspension and nutrient medium was simulated by a deep bed filtration model. Deep bed filtration coefficients and the maximum capacity of cells in porous rock were measured. Low to intermediate ( approximately 10/ml) injection concentrations of cellular suspensions are recommended because plugging of inlet surface is less likely to occur. In addition to their resistance to adverse environments, spores of clostridia are strongly recommended for use in microbial-enhanced oil recovery processes since they are easiest among the species tested to push through porous rock. After injection, further transport of bacteria during incubation can occur by growth and mobility through the stagnant nutrient medium which fills the porous rock. We have developed an apparatus to study the migration of bacteria through a Berea sandstone core containing nutrient medium.

  10. Energy applications of olive-oil industry by-products: 1. The exhaust foot cake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masghouni, M. [Ecole Nationale des Ingenieurs de Tunis, Belvedere (Tunisia). Laboratoire de synthese et d' analyse des materiaux; Hassairi, M. [Ecole Nationale des Ingenieurs de Tunis, Belvedere (Tunisia). Laboratoire de thermique industrielle

    2000-07-01

    The energy characteristics of the exhaust foot cake (EFC) from the olive-oil extraction industry are described in this paper. This biomass has proved to be an interesting energy source. The use of this solid-waste as a combustible in brick manufacture is economically profitable: 1100 tons of EFC yearly substitute 420 EOT of No. 2 heavy fuel containing 4% of sulphur. The use of this solid-waste as an energy source is environment friendly, as it reduces the nuisance of solid-waste and gas emissions to the atmosphere, particularly sulphur oxides. (author)

  11. Application of Hilbert-Huang signal processing to ultrasonic non-destructive testing of oil pipelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Yi-mei; QUE Pei-wen

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a detection technique for locating and determining the extent of defects and cracks in oil pipelines based on Hilbert-Huang time-frequency analysis is proposed. The ultrasonic signals reflected from defect-free pipelines and from pipelines with defects were processed using Hilbert-Huang transform, a recently developed signal processing technique based on direct extraction of the energy associated with the intrinsic time scales in the signal. Experimental results showed that the proposed method is feasible and can accurately and efficiently determine the location and size of defects in pipelines.

  12. Application of Trichoderma harzianum in the control of basal stem rot of oil palms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdullah F; Ilias G N M

    2004-01-01

    @@ The palm, Elaeis guineensis, has its origins in Africa but is planted on a commercial basis in several countries Statistics for 2002 showed that in the lead for land mass under oil palm cultivation is Indonesia, at 3,769,000 ha, followed by Malaysia at 3,376,000 ha; however, the world' s leading producer of palm oil is still Malaysia, since the 1970's. Both countries are predicted to produce 82.4%of the world's palm oil production by the year 2005. However, the palm is susceptible to basal stem rot, a devastating disease which results in direct loss of field stands and to which no effective chemical control is yet available. Caused by Ganoderma boninense, infected palms appear symptomless, at the first sign of disease, at least 50 % of the internal trunk tissue stem would have actually rotted. This study investigated the efficacy of Trichoderma harzianum (isolate FA 1132) as a biological control agent, using 6-month old oil palm seedlings as models and the experiment performed in a greenhouse at 29-30 ℃ ambient conditions. The plants were artificially infected with G. boninense and a conidial suspension of 1 × 109-9 × 109 spores/mL was applied as a soil drench at 1L/plant every 2 weeks for 20weeks. The parameters examined were efficacy of the biocontrol agent and the effect of Trichodermaincorporated mulch in addition to the soil drench. Efficacy was assessed in terms disease severity index (DSI) where a higher percentage indicates a higher severity. Results showed that infection first sets in on untreated plants at week 12 and got worse progressively. The completely untreated plants were all infected and the DSI at 20 weeks after infection (wa. i.) was 92. 5%. Plants given only a Trichoderma -infused food base supplement without conidial suspension gave a DSI of 70% whereas those given a conidial soil drench without supplemental food base gave a DSI of 85% at 20 w.a.i.Infected plants given a conidial treatment together with a food base supplement gave a DSI

  13. Country Risk Volatility Spillovers of Emerging Oil Economies: An Application to Russia and Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaolei; He, Wan; Li, Jianping

    The emerging oil economies (EOEs) of geographical proximity, are usually impacted by some common risk factors which may make the interaction of their country risk closely related. This paper focuses on the interaction of country risk between EOEs by investigating the volatility spillovers of country risk. Taking Russia and Kazakhstan for example, a multivariate conditional volatility model is used to capture the dynamic spillovers of country risk. Empirical results show that there are significant bidirectional spillover effects with the asymmetrical volatility between Russia and Kazakhstan.

  14. Synthesis of Lipid Based Polyols from 1-butene Metathesized Palm Oil for Use in Polyurethane Foam Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan Pillai, Prasanth Kumar

    This thesis explores the use of 1-butene cross metathesized palm oil (PMTAG) as a feedstock for preparation of polyols which can be used to prepare rigid and flexible polyurethane foams. PMTAG is advantageous over its precursor feedstock, palm oil, for synthesizing polyols, especially for the preparation of rigid foams, because of the reduction of dangling chain effects associated with the omega unsaturated fatty acids. 1-butene cross metathesis results in shortening of the unsaturated fatty acid moieties, with approximately half of the unsaturated fatty acids assuming terminal double bonds. It was shown that the associated terminal OH groups introduced through epoxidation and hydroxylation result in rigid foams with a compressive strength approximately 2.5 times higher than that of rigid foams from palm and soybean oil polyols. Up to 1.5 times improvement in the compressive strength value of the rigid foams from the PMTAG polyol was further obtained following dry and/or solvent assisted fractionation of PMTAG in order to reduce the dangling chain effects associated with the saturated components of the PMTAG. Flexible foams with excellent recovery was achieved from the polyols of PMTAG and the high olein fraction of PMTAG indicating that these bio-derived polyurethane foams may be suitable for flexible foam applications. PMTAG polyols with controlled OH values prepared via an optimized green solvent free synthetic strategy provided flexible foams with lower compressive strength and higher recovery; i.e., better flexible foam potential compared to the PMTAG derived foams with non-controlled OH values. Overall, this study has revealed that the dangling chain issues of vegetable oils can be addressed in part using appropriate chemical and physical modification techniques such as cross metathesis and fractionation, respectively. In fact, the rigidity and the compressive strength of the polyurethane foams were in very close agreement with the percentage of terminal

  15. The electrospinning of the copolymer of styrene and butyl acrylate for its application as oil absorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Naiku; Cao, Jipeng; Lu, Yuyao

    2016-01-01

    Electrospun polystyrene materials have been employed as oil absorbents, but they have visible drawbacks such as poor strength at low temperature and unreliable integrity because of brittleness and insufficient cohesive force among fibers. Butyl acrylate can polymerize into flexible chains, and its polymer can be used as elastomer and adhesive material. Thereby it is possible to obtain the material that has better performance in comparison with electrospun polystyrene material through the electrospinning of the copolymer of styrene and butyl acrylate. In this work, a polymer was synthesized through suspension polymerization by using styrene and butyl acrylate as comonomers. The synthesis of the copolymer of styrene and butyl acrylate was verified through dissolution and hydrolysis experimental data; as well through nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. The viscous flow activation energy of the solution consisting of copolymer and N, N-dimethylformamide was determined via viscosity method and then adopted to establish the entanglement characteristics of butyl acrylate's chain segments. Finally, in order to electrospin the copolymer solution into fibrous membrane, the effects of monomer feed ratio and spinning parameters were investigated. The prepared fibrous membrane was found to have a potential use as oil absorbent.

  16. Antioxidant capacity index based on gold nanoparticles formation. Application to extra virgin olive oil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Pelle, Flavio; Vilela, Diana; González, María Cristina; Lo Sterzo, Claudio; Compagnone, Darío; Del Carlo, Michele; Escarpa, Alberto

    2015-07-01

    A simple gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) based colorimetric assay for the antioxidant activity determination has been developed. The AuNP formation is mediated by extra virgin olive oil (EVOO's) endogenous polyphenols; the reaction is described by a sigmoidal curve. The ratio KAuNPs/Xc(50) (slope of the linear part of the sigmoid/concentration at half value of the absorbance) was found to be the optimal parameter to report the antioxidant capacity with respect to the single KAuNPs or Xc(50) values. The obtained data demonstrated that the compounds with ortho-diphenols functionality are most active in reducing gold (III) to gold (0). Thus, intermediate activity was found for gallic acid, while tyrosol (mono-phenols) had a significant lower activity than the others antioxidant compounds (at least one order of magnitude). In the analysis of olive oil samples, a significant correlation among classical methods used to determine antioxidant activity and the proposed parameter was found with R values in the 0.96-0.97 range.

  17. Laboratory development and field application of novel cement system for cementing high-temperature oil wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, X.; Zhang, H.; Li, Y.; Yang, Y. [SINOPEC, Beijing (China); Shan, H.; Xiao, Z. [OPT, Beijing (China)

    2010-07-01

    The challenges that oil and gas well engineers face when cementing mid-to-high temperature exploration oil and gas wells were discussed. A newly developed cement system with an effective laminar-flow spacer was presented along with case histories that document the system's effectiveness for cementing high temperature exploration wells. The problems associated with cementing high temperature exploration wells include high bottom hole static temperature; very low pump rates; and very long job times. These challenges contribute to the operational risks during cement slurry placement in the wellbore as well as during cement sheath setting during the life of the well. The new cement formulation presented in this paper addresses these challenges. Eight jobs have been completed in the field with much success. The combination of a new retarder and fluid loss control additive improves the system performance considerably in terms of low fluid loss rate, minimal free water, proper rheology, predictable thickening time, high resistance to salt contaminations and no adverse effect on set cement strength. The drilling muds are effectively displaced by the laminar flow spacer, thus improving the cementing bond. 9 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs.

  18. Manganese carbonate-zinc glycerolate, synthesis, characterization and application as catalyst for transesterification of soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Xiaochan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, mixed system containing manganese carbonate (MnCO3 and zinc glycerolate (ZnGly was synthesized, and tested as solid catalyst for transesterification of soybean oil and biodiesel production. The samples of MnCO3/ZnGly before and after usage for transesterification process were characterized using different techniques: determination of basic strength, determination of specific surface area according to Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET, measuring the mass change using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, investigating the solid phase content and presence of different specific elements and groups by X-Ray diffraction (XRD, the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. The effects of different working parameters of transesterification were also investigated: temperature (438-458K, duration of transesterification (0-3.5h, methanol to oil molar ratio (12:1-36:1 and used amounts of catalyst (1-5 mass%. The reusability and stability of MnCO3/ZnGly were analyzed and obtained results showed that MnCO3/ZnGly exhibited a good activity with 100% TG conversion and 81.5% FAME yield with fresh catalyst, and can give 95-100% TG conversion and 62-78% FAME yield after 13 repeated use of same amount of catalyst without regeneration processes. Content of Mn and Zn in biodiesel and glycerol was analyzed by ICP-AAS after each reuse of catalyst.

  19. Application of new geological modeling technology in secondary development in Daqing oil field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C. L.; Zhang, J. H.; Li, H. K.; Liu, C.

    2016-08-01

    The reconfiguration on underground geology system is one of the key techniques for secondary development in Daqing oil field. The geological modeling is the unique method to characterize new knowledge system of reservoir. The development history of maturing field is long. The structure of maturing field is complex and the distribution of oil remaining is highly scattered. The difficulty of adjustment and potential tapping is great. In viewing of demand for secondary development, the strategies and methods of geological modeling are proposed. According to the characteristics that many faults crosscut each other, the clue of fractional simulation—key horizon controlling—overall structural modeling is carried out to accurately and effectively build fine structural models. In order to approximate the real microfacies simulation effect, microfacies modeling technology of multiple iterations and geology tendency under vertical and lateral geology tendency constraint is used. And the attribute models could approximate the real parametric distribution. Moreover, in viewing of the key and potential reservoir sand, the countermeasure on configuration modeling by different stochastic simulation methods and step simulation is proposed to rapidly build geologic models. The geologic models are scientific and feasible. The above-mentioned countermeasures and methods have been used in secondary development of Daqing oilfield and the effect was well. This new technology presents directive sense.

  20. Advanced Data Communications for Downhole Data Logging and Control Applications in the Oil Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spracklen, C. T.; Aslam, Tariq

    2013-12-01

    We present details of 'Mercury', a high-speed downhole communications system that utilizes the (metallic) wall of a gas or oil pipeline or a drill 'string' as the communications 'channel' to control or monitor equipment or sensors used in the oil industry. Conventional downhole communication systems typically use 'mud pulse' telemetry for 'Measurement While Drilling' (MWD) operations. Current mud pulse telemetry technology offers bandwidths of up to 40 bit/s. However the data rate drops with increasing length of the wellbore and is typically as low as 1.5 bit/s - 3.0 bit/s at a depth of 35,000 ft. - 40,000 ft. The system described, by contrast, offers data rates of several megabits per second over distances of many kilometres and uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) coupled with Wideband Frequency Division Multiple Access (W-CDMA). This paper presents details of our system; results of several trials undertaken on actual gas pipelines in the UK will be presented at the Conference.

  1. Polyurethane and polyurea nanoparticles based on polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative surfactant suitable for endovascular applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morral-Ruíz, Genoveva; Melgar-Lesmes, Pedro; García, María Luísa; Solans, Conxita; García-Celma, María José

    2014-01-30

    The design of new, safe and effective nanotherapeutic systems is an important challenge for the researchers in the nanotechnology area. This study describes the formation of biocompatible polyurethane and polyurea nanoparticles based on polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative surfactant formed from O/W nano-emulsions by polymerization at the droplet interfaces in systems composed by aqueous solution/Kolliphor(®) ELP/medium chain triglyceride suitable for intravenous administration. Initial nano-emulsions incorporating highly hydrophilic materials were prepared by the phase inversion composition (PIC) method. After polymerization, nanoparticles with a small particle diameter (25-55 nm) and low polydispersity index were obtained. Parameters such as concentration of monomer, O/S weight ratio as well as the polymerization temperature were crucial to achieve a correct formation of these nanoparticles. Moreover, FT-IR studies showed the full conversion of the monomer to polyurethane and polyurea polymers. Likewise the involvement of the surfactant in the polymerization process through their nucleophilic groups to form the polymeric matrix was demonstrated. This could mean a first step in the development of biocompatible systems formulated with polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative surfactants. In addition, haemolysis and cell viability assays evidenced the good biocompatibility of KELP polyurethane and polyurea nanoparticles thus indicating the potential of these nanosystems as promising drug carriers.

  2. Oat (Avena sativa L.): Oil and Nutriment Compounds Valorization for Potential Use in Industrial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Halima, Nihed; Ben Saad, Rania; Khemakhem, Bassem; Fendri, Imen; Abdelkafi, Slim

    2015-01-01

    Oat is a promising plant for the future. It is edible and beneficial thanks to its nutritional, medicinal and pharmaceutical uses and, hence, recognized to be useful for a healthier world. The assessment of the vital functions of oat components is important for industries requiring correct health labelling, valid during the shelf life of any product. Oil, enzymes and other biomolecules of nutraceutic or dietary usage from oats would be valorized for this purpose. Although oats have a unique and versatile composition including antioxidants and biomolecules indispensable for health, they are undervalued in comparison with other staple cereals such as wheat, barley and rice. Furthermore, oats, apart from maize, comprise a high oil content used for a wide range of beneficial purposes. In addition, they contain beta glucan that has proven to be very helpful in reducing blood cholesterol levels and other cardiovascular diseases risks. In fact, there is diversity in the composition and content of the beneficial oat components within their genotypes and the different environmental conditions and, thus, oats are amenable to be enhanced by agronomic practices and genetic approaches.

  3. Combination of Tung oil and Natural Rubber Latex in PVA as Water Based Coatings for Paperboard Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianprasert Apichaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is focused on the preparation of the PVA/TO/NRL coatings for paperboard by using poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA as substance and blending with Tung oil (TO and/or natural rubber latex (NRL in order to enhance water resistance and dynamic mechanical properties. The effects of TO: NRL ratios on the structures were investigated by water resistance property and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMA. The results showed that the water resistance property was improved by crosslinking of TO and film forming of NRL. The PVA/TO/NRL coating containing both TO and NRL gave better thermal behavior than those with only TO or NRL. For paperboard application, the PVA/TO/NRL coatings were applied on the paperboard to study water affinity and absorption rate on the coated surface. The rate of contact angle change of water on coated paperboards decreased depending on the ratios of TO and NRL.

  4. Effects of clove oil-phospholipid mixtures on rheology of gum tragacanth - possible application for surfactant action on mucus gel simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, R; Puniyani, R R

    2000-01-01

    The present study evaluates the effectiveness of specialised biomaterials consisting of clove oil- phospholipid mixtures as possible substitute surfactants in diseases of altered mucus viscosity by studying their effect on the viscosity of mucus gel simulants in vitro. Test surfactants consisting of phospholipid-clove oil mixtures in the ratio of 1 part of oil to 9 parts of phospholipid were prepared. The phospholipids used were dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and binary mixtures of PC: PE and PC: PG in the ratio of 2 parts of PC to 3 parts of PE or PG. The effects of the phospholipid-clove oil mixtures on the viscosity of mucus gel simulant (MGS: a polymeric gel consisting predominantly of gum tragacanth and simulating respiratory mucus), was studied by application of steady shear rates ranging from 0.512 to 51.2/s in a concentric cylinder viscometer at 37 degrees C. The change in MGS viscosity, after incubation with surfactants, was found to have a non-Newtonian character and to follow the power law model with R2 values >0.8. The addition of clove oil-phospholipid mixtures caused a decrease in the MGS viscosity when compared with the effect of the phospholipid alone at low shear rates in case of PC, PG and PCPG. The combination of PC : PG with clove oil caused ratios of change in MGS viscosity rheology.

  5. HACCP在食用油加工行业中的应用探讨%Discussion about Application of HACCP to Edible Oil Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘悦; 聂作明; 王兴国

    2009-01-01

    探讨HAcCP(危害分析与关键控制点)体系在食用油行业中的应用,指出食用油行业安全问题是一个全程的质量控制问题.为了使HACCP体系更好地应用于食用油行业,不仅要注重加工中的安全操作,而且更要加强食用油在流通领域及食用过程中安全问题的关注力度,提高HACcP在实际推广过程中所提出的问题的研究广度和深度,并对食用油产品进行有效分类.%The application of HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) to edible oil industry was further discussed, indicating that the safety problem of edible oil area is a problem of quality control in overall process. To ensure that HACCP could be carry out better in edible oil industry, we should not only focus on safe operations in the process of oilproducing, but also strengthen the attention on safety problems appeared in edible oil circulation stage and consumption,enhance the depth and extent of studies on edible oil safety problems generated in the process of HACCP practice, and clas-sify the edible oil product effectively.

  6. Properties and Applications of Epoxy Fish Oil%环氧鱼油的性质及其应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林美娟; 章文贡

    2001-01-01

    采用一步环氧化工艺制得环氧值为4.5%的环氧鱼油,研究环氧鱼油的性质及其在氯乙烯中的应用。研究结果表明:环氧鱼油耐热性高,用于聚氯乙烯中,与金属皂并用有良好的协同稳定作用,作用效果与环氧大豆油相当甚至更好些,可作为聚氯乙烯优良的增塑剂兼稳定剂。%Epoxy fish oil with 4.5% epoxy value is prepared byepoxidation.Properties of epoxy fish oil and its applications in poly(vinyl chloride)(PVC) are studied.Results show that heat-resistant performance of epoxy fish oil is quite good,synergistic stability effect of the epoxy fish oil with metal soaps used in PVC is as good as or better than that of epoxy soybean oil with meal soaps.The epoxy fish oil can be used as good plasticizer and stabilizer for PVC.

  7. Application of waste frying oils in the biosynthesis of biodemulsifier by a demulsifying strain Alcaligenes sp. S-X J-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Liu; Kaiming Peng; Xiangfeng Huang; Lijun Lu; Hang Cheng; Dianhai Yang; Qi Zhou; Huiping Deng

    2011-01-01

    Exploration of biodemulsifiers has become a new research aspect. Using waste frying oils (WFOs) as carbon source to synthesize biodemulsifiers has a potential prospect to decrease production cost and to improve the application of biodemulsifiers in the oilfield.In this study, a demulsifying strain, Alcaligenes sp. S-XJ-1, was investigated to synthesize a biodemulsifier using waste frying oils as carbon source. It was found that the increase of initial pH of culture medium could increase the biodemulsifier yield but decrease the demulsification ratio compared to that using paraffin as carbon source. In addition, a biodemulsifier produced by waste frying oils and paraffn as mixed carbon source had a lower demulsification capability compared with that produced by paraffin or waste frying oil as sole carbon source. Fed-batch fermentation of biodemulsifier using waste frying oils as supplementary carbon source was found to be a suitable method. Mechanism of waste frying oils utilization was studied by using tripalmitin, olein and tristearin as sole carbon sources to synthesize biodemulsifier. The results showed saturated long-chain fatty acid was difficult for S-XJ-1 to utilize but could effectively enhance the demulsification ability of the produced biodemulsifier. Moreover, FT-IR result showed that the demulsification capability of biodemulsifiers was associated with the content of C=O group and nitrogen element.

  8. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  9. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  10. An overview of the Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB potential as reinforcing fibre in polymer composite for energy absorption applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faizi M.K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB natural fibres were comprehensively reviewed to assess their potential as reinforcing materials in polymer composites for energy absorption during low-velocity impact. The typical oil palm wastes include trunks, fronds, kernel shells, and empty fruit bunches. This has a tendency to burden the industry players with disposal difficulties and escalates the operating cost. Thus, there are several initiatives have been employed to convert these wastes into value added products. The objective of this study is to review the potential of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB as natural fibre polymer composite reinforcement to absorb the energy during low-velocity impact as another option for value added products. Initially, this paper reviewed the local oil palm waste issues. Previous research works on OPEFB polymer composite, and their mechanical characterization is appraised. Their potential for energy absorption in low-velocity impact application was also elaborated. The review suggests high potential applications of OPEFB as reinforcing materials in composite structures. Furthermore, it is wisely to utilize the oil palm biomass waste into a beneficial composite, hence, promotes the green environment.

  11. Oil pollution in the seas around India and application of remote sensing for its detection and monitoring

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fondekar, S.P.

    tor oil spill management purposes and (iii) too long interval between consecutive passes over the same region. The problem can be ettectively tavltled by airborne remote sensing with suitable sensors toworlc~byda;r or by night and in all weather... conditions. These sensors provide more objective information about the location and size ot an oil slick than visual obser- 0'. vations. 42 OIL SPILL MONITORING AND SORVEII,LANCE SYSTn'I Ideally an airborne oil pollution monitoring system should be able...

  12. Application of biological markers for the identification of oil-type pollutants in recent sediments: Alluvial formation of the Danube river, Oil refinery Pančevo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašović Aleksandar S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to examine to which extent the abundance and distribution of certain biological markers may be used for the identification of oil-type pollutants in recent sediments and ground waters. The samples were taken from the area of the Oil Refinery Pančevo (alluvial formation of the Danube River. The organic matter of the investigated samples was isolated using an extraction method with chloroform. The group composition and usual biological markers were analyzed in the obtained extracts. n-Alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids, pristane and phytane were analyzed using gas chromatographie (GC analysis of saturated hydrocarbons. Polycyclic alkanes of the sterane and terpane type were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, i.e. by analyzing the carbamide non-adduct of the total alkane fraction (Single Ion Monitoring SIM-technique. The obtained results indicate that n-alkanes can be used for the identification of oil-type pollutants (for example, if the oil-pollutant is biodegraded or present in very low concentrations, and steranes and triterpanes can be used as very reliable indicators of oil-type pollution in recent sediments and ground waters.

  13. Research Progress in Biotechnological Applications of Oil Bodies%植物油体在生物技术中的应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚正颖; 张卫明; 孙力军

    2014-01-01

    Oil bodies are the important oil storage organelles in plant seeds, particularly in oil plant seeds. Oil bodies have strong physical and chemical stability and are easily separated by centrifugation. Studies showed that oil bodies have a spherical or ellipsoid shape and are composed of outer phospholipid, integral proteins and inner liquid matrix (mostly triacylglycerol). To date,three types of integral proteins have been found in plants and are mainly localized on the surface of oil bodies. In view of the unique structures of oil bodies and integral proteins,both of them have been widely applied in the field of biotechnology. This review summarized advantages and strategies of using oil bodies in expression and purification of recombinant proteins,as well as its applications in the fields of production of pharmaceutical protein, preparation of immobilized enzymes, affinity capture of antibodies and pharmaceutical enzymes, production of nutraceuticals, enhancement of plant resistance against pathogen. The development and applications of artificial oil bodies and oil-body-emulsifying-agents were also discussed.%油体是植物种子尤其是油料植物种子的重要贮脂细胞器,具有较强的物化稳定性,而且易于通过离心法分离提取。研究表明,油体是由外层的磷脂和油体结合蛋白以及包裹在内部的液态基质(主要为三酰甘油)形成的弹性球体或椭球体。目前,在植物中共发现三类油体结合蛋白,它们主要存在于油体表面。鉴于油体和油体结合蛋白的结构特殊性,二者在生物技术领域得到了广泛应用。本文重点综述了油体在表达纯化外源蛋白方面的优势、策略以及在生产药用蛋白、制备固定化酶、捕捉抗体和药用酶、生产营养素和提高植物抗性等多个领域的研究进展,并介绍了人工油体和油体乳化剂方面的开发应用情况。

  14. Commercial Application of CPP for Producing Ethylene and Propylene from Heavy Oil Feed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Dianguo; Xie Chaogang; Wang Xieqing

    2003-01-01

    A new process named CPP (Catalytic Pyrolysis Process) for producing ethylene andpropylene from heavy oil feedstock has been developed. The catalyst CEP was specially designedfor this process, which has bi-functional catalytic activities for both carbonium ion reaction andfree radical reaction, so as to maximize the yields of ethylene and propylene. The commercial trialshowed that the yield of ethylene and propylene was 20.37% and 18.23% respectively inmaximum ethylene operation with Daqing AR as feedstock, and the yield of ethylene and propylenewas 9.77% and 24.60% respectively in maximum propylene operation by using the same feedstock.Compared with steam cracker, the feed cost of CPP is much lower for producing ethylene andpropylene.

  15. Application of ozonated piggery wastewater for cultivation of oil-rich Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Ke; Mou, Xiaoqing; Xu, Yan; Wang, Haiying

    2014-11-01

    Ozonated and autoclaved piggery wastewaters were compared for cultivation of oil-rich Chlorella pyrenoidosa by measuring nutrient removal from the medium and growth rate and lipid production of the microalgae. The removal rates of chemical oxygen demand, NH4(+)-N, total nitrogen and total phosphorus by C. pyrenoidosa were not influenced by both sterilisation methods. The specific growth rate and biomass of C. pyrenoidosa were determined by analysing the chlorophyll concentration for eliminating the disturbance of bacteria growth in culture system. Bacteria raised from the residue in the ozonated medium achieved 30% of the total microorganisms at the end of cultivation. They reduced the growth of C. pyrenoidosa by 10.4%, but contributed to a faster decline of the nutrient content on the first day. Lipid production and fatty acid profile did not change markedly in both sterilisation methods. The results suggest that ozonation is acceptable for piggery wastewater treatment for C. pyrenoidosa cultivation.

  16. Clinical and mycological benefits of topical application of honey, olive oil and beeswax in diaper dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Waili, N S

    2005-02-01

    Twelve infants suffering from diaper dermatitis were treated four times daily for 7 days with a mixture containing honey, olive oil and beeswax. The severity of erythema was evaluated on a five-point scale. Three infants had severe erythema and ulceration, four had moderate erythema, and five had moderate erythema with maceration. The initial mean lesion score of 2.91 +/- 0.79 declined significantly (p < 0.05) to 2.0 +/- 0.98 (day 3), 1.25 +/- 0.96 (day 5) and 0.66 +/- 0.98 (day 7). Candida albicans was isolated initially from four patients, but from only two patients after treatment. This topical treatment was safe and well-tolerated, and demonstrated clinical and mycological benefits in the treatment of diaper dermatitis.

  17. Isoprenoid biosynthesis. Metabolite profiling of peppermint oil gland secretory cells and application to herbicide target analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, B M; Ketchum, R E; Croteau, R B

    2001-09-01

    Two independent pathways operate in plants for the synthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate, the central intermediates in the biosynthesis of all isoprenoids. The mevalonate pathway is present in the cytosol, whereas the recently discovered mevalonate-independent pathway is localized to plastids. We have used isolated peppermint (Mentha piperita) oil gland secretory cells as an experimental model system to study the effects of the herbicides fosmidomycin, phosphonothrixin, methyl viologen, benzyl viologen, clomazone, 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl diphosphate, alendronate, and pamidronate on the pools of metabolites related to monoterpene biosynthesis via the mevalonate-independent pathway. A newly developed isolation protocol for polar metabolites together with an improved separation and detection method based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry have allowed assessment of the enzyme targets for a number of these herbicides.

  18. A Predictive Model of Enhanced Oil Recovery by Infill Drilling and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Jianhong; Cheng Linsong; Ma Lili

    2007-01-01

    Infill drilling is now recognized as a viable improved recovery process. However, the reliable prediction of incremental recovery by infill drilling cannot be readily and accurately determined by present techniques. This paper proposes a hybrid predictive model of stream tube simulation and numerical simulation by using the contemporary theory of fluid flow in porous media. The model calculates the geometries of stream tubes, remaining oil distribution and water cut at different development stages in the near future, and uses a three-dimensional simulation to track fluid movement in each stream tube slice. This will help reservoir engineers to determine the feasibility of infill drilling. This predictive model is used to forecast the degree of control of well pattern, the ultimate incremental recovery of infill wells within an inverted 5-spot case in an oilfield and the economic benefit is also analyzed.

  19. Application of Discrete Lumped Kinetic Modeling on Vacuum Gas Oil Hydrocracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Longnian; Fang Xiangchen; Peng Chong; Zhao Tao

    2013-01-01

    The kinetic model of vacuum gas oil (VGO) hydrocracking based on discrete lumped approach was investigated, and some improvement was put forward at the same time in this article. A parallel reaction scheme to describe the conver-sion of VGO into products (gases, gasoline, and diesel) proposed by Orochko was used. The different experimental data were analyzed statistically and then the product distribution and kinetic parameters were simulated by available data. Fur-thermore, the kinetic parameters were correlated based on the feed property, reaction temperature, and catalyst activity. An optimization code in Matlab 2011b was written to ifne-tune these parameters. The model had a favorable ability to predict the product distribution and there was a good agreement between the model predictions and experiment data. Hence, the ki-netic parameters indeed had something to do with feed properties, reaction temperature and catalyst activity.

  20. Cassava Starch Edible Film Incorporated with Lemongrass Oil: Characteristics and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dani Supardan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to evaluate the effect of the addition of lemongrass essential oil (LGO on the characteristics and antimicrobial properties of cassava starch based films. Edible films were prepared from a mixture of cassava starch and glycerol. LGO was added to edible films as natural antimicrobial agent. There was a reduction in tensile strength of edible film because of incorporation of LGO. The presence of LGO also caused to a reduction in roughness of the edible film. The experimental results showed that Trichoderma and Penicillium was not appear upon the film until the third day of incubation. Meanwhile, the use of edible films containing LGO as antimicrobial agents caused to a reduction in microbial counts of meat during storage.

  1. Application of waste frying oil as an extractant for uranium from sulfate leach liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enass Mohamed El-Sheikh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using the waste frying oil (WFO as an extractant for uranium from its sulfate liquor has been studied. Several experiments were conducted to determine the relevant factors affecting both the extraction and stripping of the uranium from a synthetic solution. At the optimum conditions, it was found that the maximum uranium uptake would attain 54 mg/g at a solution pH of 3.5. Kinetic characteristics of the loading process have been found to satisfactorily fitting to the pseudo-first-order equation. The obtained optimum conditions have also been applied to investigate the potentiality of the working WFO for the recovery of uranium from the actual sulfate leach liquor of El-Sela ore material (South Eastern Desert of Egypt.

  2. The potential application of plant essential oils to control Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, María Mercedes; Werdin-González, Jorge Omar; Stefanazzi, Natalia; Bras, Cristina; Ferrero, Adriana Alicia

    2016-02-01

    The human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae), is an ectoparasite confined to the scalp and human hairs. The repeated use of insecticides for the control of head lice during past decades has resulted in the development of marked levels of resistance. Natural compounds such as essential oils (EOs) have been suggested as alternative sources for insect control agents. In order to introduce a new pediculicide based on EOs, the effectiveness of the product and their effects on human being must be analyzed. In consequence, the biological activity of EOs from the leaves and fruits of Schinus areira (Anacardiaceae) and the leaves of Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae), Aloysia polystachya and Aloysia citriodora (Verbenacea) were evaluated against the eggs and adults of P. humanus capitis by fumigant and contact toxicity bioassays. Additionally, dermal corrosion/irritation tests were performed on New Zealand albino rabbits. In a fumigant bioassay, EOs from the leaves and fruits of S. areira were the most toxic against P. humanus capitis adults while these EOs and T. vulgaris were the most effective against the eggs. In contact bioassay, the EO from T. vulgaris was the most toxic against both stages. In the corrosion/irritation tests, the EOs did not produce dermal effects. According to the results, the essential oils from the leaves of T. vulgaris would be a valid tool for the management of P. humanus capitis. This EO produces a high knockdown effect in adults (followed by mortality) and toxicity in the eggs when it is applied for 21 min at a low concentration.

  3. Application of Formation Testing Technology to Oil and and Gas Exploration in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Xiwu

    1994-01-01

    @@ The introduction and application of formation testing technology to China has been relatively late. In the 1940's, the pounding valve tester developed by Johnston Company was used in Yumen Oilfield. After the 1950's, the formation testing technology was no longer used due to introduction and application of former Soviet Union's testing technology.

  4. Ionic liquids in separations: applications for pyrolysis oil and emulsion systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Xiaohua

    2017-01-01

    Solvent extraction is one of the main separation techniques and has been developed for a wide range of industrial applications. Ionic liquids (ILs) are often considered as environmentally friendly solvents and have been studied widely in various laboratory applications. Aiming to design effective ex

  5. Predicted changes in fatty acid intakes, plasma lipids, and cardiovascular disease risk following replacement of trans fatty acid-containing soybean oil with application-appropriate alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Michael; Mensink, Ronald P; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Petersen, Barbara; Smith, Kim; Flickinger, Brent D

    2012-10-01

    The varied functional requirements satisfied by trans fatty acid (TFA)--containing oils constrains the selection of alternative fats and oils for use as potential replacements in specific food applications. We aimed to model the effects of replacing TFA-containing partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSBO) with application-appropriate alternatives on population fatty acid intakes, plasma lipids, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 24-hour dietary recalls for 1999-2002, we selected 25 food categories, accounting for 86 % of soybean oil (SBO) and 79 % of TFA intake for replacement modeling. Before modeling, those in the middle quintile had a mean PHSBO TFA intake of 1.2 % of energy. PHSBO replacement in applications requiring thermal stability by either low-linolenic acid SBO or mid-oleic, low-linolenic acid SBO decreased TFA intake by 0.3 % of energy and predicted CVD risk by 0.7-0.8 %. PHSBO replacement in applications requiring functional properties with palm-based oils reduced TFA intake by 0.8 % of energy, increased palmitic acid intake by 1.0 % of energy, and reduced predicted CVD risk by 0.4 %, whereas replacement with fully hydrogenated interesterified SBO reduced TFA intake by 0.7 % of energy, increased stearic acid intake by 1.0 % of energy, and decreased predicted CVD risk by 1.2 %. PHSBO replacement in both thermal and functional applications reduced TFA intake by 1.0 % of energy and predicted CVD risk by 1.5 %. Based solely on changes in plasma lipids and lipoproteins, all PHSBO replacement models reduced estimated CVD risk, albeit less than previously reported using simpler replacement models.

  6. 油气回收技术在凝析油加工企业的应用%Application of oil vapor recovery technology in condensate oil processing enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光辉; 贾中堂; 杨继东; 徐建京; 于瑞香

    2012-01-01

    针对凝析油易挥发且轻质油品收率高的特点,以中海石油葫芦岛精细化工有限责任公司为例,介绍了吸附法与吸收法相结合的油气回收技术工艺流程,对技术改造后该公司的环境效果、经济效益和社会效益进行监测和分析.结果表明:油气回收技术改造后,储油库油气排放检测浓度符合GB20950-2007要求,油气回收率超过95%,尾气排放质量分数小于5 g/m3;回收轻质油品100.24t,每年可产生经济效益60.14×104元,净利润55×104元;保证了装车站台的安全生产,提高了企业的清洁生产水平.%Condensate oil is more volatile and light oil has a high recovery rate. Taking CNOOC Huludao Fine Chemical Industry LLC as an example, this paper introduces the oil vapor recovery technology process flow with combined method of adhesion and adsorption, and carries out monitoring and analysis of environmental benefits, economic benefits and social benefits of the company after technical transformation. The results show that after technical transformation of oil vapor recovery technology, the detected concentration of oil vapor emissions complies with the requirements specified in GB20950-2007, the oil vapor recovery rate is greater than 95%, exhaust emission concentration is less than 5 g/m3, and recovered light oil is up to 100.24 t, with an annual income at 601,400 CNY and net income at 5.15 million CNY. The application of the technology provides a support to safe operation for oil loading station and improves cleaning running level for the enterprise.

  7. Over expression and application of the -carboxyltransferase (EgaccD gene in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa Nakkaew

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm is an economic crop with its oil currently in high demand. In this work, the numbers of EgaccD copies, one of the key genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and oil production, were compared from two populations of oil palm, one a low and the other a high oil content productivity cultivar. Real time PCR was employed and the copy number of the EgaccD from the high oil yielding cultivar was much higher than from the low oil yielding cultivar. The EgaccD was then over expressed in oil palm calli under the control of its promoter to establish if its overexpression could enhance the oil content of transgenic calli. An increase in the lipid accumulation by the modified calli was detected by Sudan black B staining. Based on this finding, genetic manipulation of EgaccD seemed to be one promising method to try to increase the oil content. Also it seemed possible to use the level of this gene as a marker to assist selection of possible high oil yielding cultivars in breeding programs.

  8. Application of Tension Leg Platform Combined with Other Systems in the Development of China Deepwater Oil Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Da-gang

    2006-01-01

    The development of deepwater oil fields has reached a new stage with the dramatic increase in water depth and the recent increasing demands of the economic development in the filed. The use of a Tension Leg Platform (TLP) combined with other systems, such as Floating Production Storage and Offloading (FPSO) system, Floating Production Unit (FPU) system, Tender Assisted Drilling (TAD) system, etc., has drawn the industry attention and increased significantly in the past few years. For the areas lacking of pipeline system, the use of TLP(s) combined with FPSO has been chosen to efficiently develop the deepwater fields. The TLP with a Tender Assisted Drilling system significantly reduces the payload of the platform and reduces the investment in the TLP system substantially. This opens the door for many new deepwater field developments to use the tension leg platform. The advantage of the TLP combined with a TAD system is more significant when several TLPs are used for the continuous development of the field. One of the applications for the TLP with a tender assisted drilling system can be in the development of an offshore marginal field. Owing to the increase of water depth, the conventional fixed platform model for the exploration of those fields becomes uneconomical. It also would be too expensive to use a large TLP structure for those marginal fields due to the large amount of initial investment. The TLP system with tender assisted drilling can be used to develop those fields economically. There are many marginal fields in China offshore, especially in shelf areas. The application of this field developing model, combined with the existing field developing experience in China, will open the door for many marginal field developments. This paper will review the application of the combined TLP system through some examples of completed/ongoing projects, and major technical issues encountered in those practices. The potential application of this technology in China

  9. Application of Time-Lapse Seismic Monitoring for the Control and Optimization of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian Toelle

    2008-11-30

    This project, 'Application of Time-Lapse Seismic Monitoring for the Control and Optimization of CO{sub 2} Enhanced Oil Recovery Operations', investigated the potential for monitoring CO{sub 2} floods in carbonate reservoirs through the use of standard p-wave seismic data. This primarily involved the use of 4D seismic (time lapse seismic) in an attempt to observe and map the movement of the injected CO{sub 2} through a carbonate reservoir. The differences between certain seismic attributes, such as amplitude, were used for this purpose. This technique has recently been shown to be effective in CO{sub 2} monitoring in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) projects, such as Weyborne. This study was conducted in the Charlton 30/31 field in the northern Michigan Basin, which is a Silurian pinnacle reef that completed its primary production in 1997 and was scheduled for enhanced oil recovery using injected CO{sub 2}. Prior to injection an initial 'Base' 3D survey was obtained over the field and was then processed and interpreted. CO{sub 2} injection within the main portion of the reef was conducted intermittently during 13 months starting in August 2005. During this time, 29,000 tons of CO{sub 2} was injected into the Guelph formation, historically known as the Niagaran Brown formation. By September 2006, the reservoir pressure within the reef had risen to approximately 2000 lbs and oil and water production from the one producing well within the field had increased significantly. The determination of the reservoir's porosity distribution, a critical aspect of reservoir characterization and simulation, proved to be a significant portion of this project. In order to relate the differences observed between the seismic attributes seen on the multiple 3D seismic surveys and the actual location of the CO{sub 2}, a predictive reservoir simulation model was developed based on seismic attributes obtained from the base 3D seismic survey and available well data. This

  10. Molecular characterization of organically bound sulphur in crude oils. A feasibility study for the application of Raney Ni desulphurization as a new method to characterize crude oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Leeuw, J.W. de; Lijmbach, G.W.M.

    1994-01-01

    Five crude oils with varying sulfur contents (0.1 – 4.7%) were characterized on a molecular level for organically-bound sulfur. Aromatic fractions were analyzed by GC-(MS) and asphaltene and polar fractions were analyzed by flash pyrolysis-GC-(MS). The polar fractions were also desulfurized with Ran

  11. The extension of shelf-life of chicken meat after application of caraway and anise essential oils and vacuum packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Kluz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE The effect of caraway (CEO and anise (AEO essential oils as well as vacuum packaging (VP in extending of the shelf life of fresh chicken breast meat stored at 4 °C was investigated. CEO and AEO were used at concentrations 0.2% v/w with and without VP. Microbiological properties of chicken breast meat were monitored over a 16 day period. The microbiological parameters as the anaerobic plate count (AC, Enterobacteraceae, lactic acid bacteria and Pseudomonas spp. counts were detected. The anaerobic plate counts ranged from 2.77 log cfu.g-1 in all tested group on 0 day to 5.45 log cfu.g-1 on 16 day in control group stored in air condition. The number of lactic acid bacteria ranged from 3.20 log cfu.g-1 in all tested group on 0 day to 4.75 log cfu.g-1 on 16 day in control group stored in air condition. Enterobacteriaceae counts ranged from 0.00 to 4.25 log cfu.g-1 on 16 day in control group stored in air condition. The number of Pseudomonas spp. ranged from 0.00 log cfu.g-1 in all tested group on 0 day to 2.65 log cfu.g-1 on 16 day in control group stored in air condition. Statistically significant differences (P≤0.001 were found among tested group in all tested microorganisms. Among the antimicrobial combination treatments were examined in the study, the as application of vacuum packaging, EDTA, and essential oils were the most effective against the growth of lactic acid bacteria and Enterobactericeae and to a less extent on anaerobic plate count. The results of this present study suggest the possibility of using the essential oil of caraway and anise as natural food preservatives and potential source of antimicrobial ingredients for chicken breast meat.

  12. Effect of ultrasonic treatment on total phenolic extraction from Lavandula pubescens and its application in palm olein oil industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, Marwan M A; Tong, Qunyi; Abdelhai, Mandour H; Gasmalla, Mohammed A A; Ndayishimiye, Jean B; Chen, Long; Ren, Fei

    2016-03-01

    The aims of the current study were to evaluate the best technique for total phenolic extraction from Lavandula pubescens (Lp) and its application in vegetable oil industries as alternatives of synthetic food additives (TBHQ and BHT). To achieve these aims, three techniques of extraction were used: ultrasonic-microwave (40 kHz, 50 W, microwave power 480 W, 5 min), ultrasonic-homogenizer (20 kHz, 150 W, 5 min) and conventional maceration as a control. By using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, the total phenolic contents (TPC) (mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry matter) were found to be 253.87, 216.96 and 203.41 for ultrasonic-microwave extract, ultrasonic-homogenizer extract and maceration extract, respectively. The ultrasonic-microwave extract achieved the higher scavenger effect of DPPH (90.53%) with EC50 (19.54 μg/mL), and higher inhibition of β-carotene/linoleate emulsion deterioration (94.44%) with IC50 (30.62 μg/mL). The activity of the ultrasonic-microwave treatment could prolong the induction period (18.82 h) and oxidative stability index (1.67) of fresh refined, bleached and deodorized palm olein oil (RBDPOo) according to Rancimat assay. There was an important synergist effect between citric acid and Lp extracts in improving the oxidative stability of fresh RBDPOo. The results of this work also showed that the ultrasonic-microwave assisted extract was the most effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains that were assessed in this study. The uses of ultrasonic-microwave could induce the acoustic cavitation and rupture of plant cells, and this facilitates the flow of solvent into the plant cells and enhances the desorption from the matrix of solid samples, and thus would enhance the efficiency of extraction based on cavitation phenomenon.

  13. Thermophysical parameters of coconut oil and its potential application as the thermal energy storage system in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Widya A.; Fahmi, Zulfikar; Sutjahja, I. M.; Kurnia, D.; Wonorahardjo, S.

    2016-08-01

    The high consumption of electric energy for room air conditioning (AC) system in Indonesia has driven the research of potential thermal energy storage system as a passive temperature controller. The application of coconut oil (CO) as the potential candidate for this purpose has been motivated since its working temperature just around the human thermal comfort zone in the tropical area as Indonesia. In this research we report the time-dependent temperature data of CO, which is adopting the T-history method. The analysis of the data revealed a set of thermophysical parameters, consist of the mean specific heats of the solid and liquid, as well as the latent heat of fusion for the phase change transition. The performance of CO to decrease the air temperature was measured in the thermal chamber. From the results it is shown that the latent phase of CO related to the solid-liquid phase transition show the highest capability in heat absorption, directly showing the potential application of CO as thermal energy storage system in Indonesia.

  14. Novel Application of the Flotation Technique To Measure the Wettability Changes by Ionically Modified Water for Improved Oil Recovery in Carbonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohal, Muhammad Adeel Nassar; Thyne, Geoffrey; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2016-01-01

    imbibition tests take months, and chromatographic separation is feasible only for core flooding in sulfate free carbonates at low temperature. A novel application of the well-established technique known as flotation was used in this study to measure the oil-wet and water-wet percent of pure biogenic chalk (Dan...... Chalk from Denmark). It is an accurate, fast, and most reliable method to quantitatively measure the water-wet and oil-wet fractions of a reservoir rock. It determines the potential of advanced water to improve wettability within days, instead of measurements that can take months and require expensive...... alteration and the amount of oil attached to the water-wet percent of rock was also determined....

  15. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/PS magnetic nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization and their application as sorbents of oil from waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Liuhua; Hao, Gazi; Gu, Junjun; Zhou, Shuai; Zhang, Ning; Jiang, Wei, E-mail: superfine_jw@126.com

    2015-11-15

    In this work, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/PS composites with a rough surface and different coating rates were successfully designed and synthesized by emulsion polymerization. We carried out some comparative experiments to compare magnetic properties and oil absorption properties of the nano-magnetic materials. It had been found that several prepared groups of magnetic nanocomposites have a core–shell structure and good coating rates. These nanoparticles combined with unsinked, highly hydrophobic and superoleophilic properties. The absorption capacity of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/PS composites for organic solvents and the composites could absorb diesel oil up to 2.492 times of its own weight. It is more important that the oil could be readily removed from the surfaces of nanoparticles by a simple ultrasonic treatment whereas the nanocomposites particles still kept highly hydrophobic and superoleophilic characteristics. With a combination of simple synthesis process, low density, magnetic responsibility and excellent hydrophobicity, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/PS nanocomposites as a promising absorbent have great potential in the application of spilled oil recovery and environmental protection. - Graphical abstract: In this article, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/PS nanoparticles present a property called selective adsorption. When the nanocomposites are added into watchglass with a layer diesel oil dyed by Sudan red for clarity on a water surface, oil is quickly absorbed in few seconds and then keeps a balance of adsorption. Owing to the presence of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles, the nanocomposites could be collected to the oil-polluted region by a magnet bar. The particles can dissolve in ethanol by ultrasonic washing. After that we can regenerate the magnetic composite materials through filtering, washing and drying, the process is showed in the following Figure. Adsorption and desorption of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/PS nanoparticles. - Highlights: • We prepared Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/PS nanocomposites with

  16. Application of 1D and 2D MFR reactor technology for the isolation of insecticidal and anti-microbial properties from pyrolysis bio-oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad M; Scott, Ian M; Berruti, Franco; Briens, Cedric

    2016-12-01

    Valuable chemicals can be separated from agricultural residues by chemical or thermochemical processes. The application of pyrolysis has already been demonstrated as an efficient means to produce a liquid with a high concentration of desired product. The objective of this study was to apply an insect and microorganism bioassay-guided approach to separate and isolate pesticidal compounds from bio-oil produced through biomass pyrolysis. Tobacco leaf (Nicotianata bacum), tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum), and spent coffee (Coffea arabica) grounds were pyrolyzed at 10°C/min from ambient to 565°C using the mechanically fluidized reactor (MFR). With one-dimensional (1D) MFR pyrolysis, the composition of the product vapors varied as the reactor temperature was raised allowing for the selection of the temperature range that corresponds to vapors with a high concentration of pesticidal properties. Further product separation was performed in a fractional condensation train, or 2D MFR pyrolysis, thus allowing for the separation of vapor components according to their condensation temperature. The 300-400°C tobacco and tomato bio-oil cuts from the 1D MFR showed the highest insecticidal and anti-microbial activity compared to the other bio-oil cuts. The 300-350 and 350-400°C bio-oil cuts produced by 2D MFR had the highest insecticidal activity when the bio-oil was collected from the 210°C condenser. The tobacco and tomato bio-oil had similar insecticidal activity (LC50 of 2.1 and 2.2 mg/mL) when the bio-oil was collected in the 210°C condenser from the 300-350°C reactor temperature gases. The 2D MFR does concentrate the pesticidal products compared to the 1D MFR and thus can reduce the need for further separation steps such as solvent extraction.

  17. Palm Based Flavoring Oil for Fish Snack and Its Applications%棕榈油基鱼制品加工用调味油及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季敏; 黄清吉; 黄仕群; 张剑; 谢凤; 刘忠义; 王怀智

    2016-01-01

    Using palm superolein, rapesee d oil, sunflower oil and groundnut oil as raw materials, two types of palm based flavoring oils were developed for fish snack application. These flavoring oils with glittering and clear appearance and relatively appropriate fatty acid compositions were tested for cold stability at 5 ℃ for 30 days without solidification and crystallization. Their acid values ( AV) and peroxide values ( PV) all met Chinarelevant national standards. Fish snack soaked with flavoring oils were tested for shelf life at 45℃ for 60 days. The oil quality were tested for AVs and PVs which quality was much superior and much lower than permissible limits in fish snack standard DBS 43/006-2013.%用棕榈油、菜籽油、葵花籽油和花生油为原料,研制了2种鱼制品加工用调味油。2种调味油均可在5℃条件下30天不产生油脂结晶固化,外观色泽良好;脂肪酸组成相对比较合理;其酸价( AV)和过氧化值( PV)符合国家一级食用植物油标准。用2种调味油加工生产的鱼制品在45℃恒温条件下保藏60天,其AV和PV远低于DBS 43/006-2013规定的最大许可值。

  18. Headspace mass spectrometry methodology: application to oil spill identification in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Pavon, J.L.; Garcia Pinto, C.; Moreno Cordero, B. [Universidad de Salamanca, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Salamanca (Spain); Guerrero Pena, A. [Universidad de Salamanca, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Salamanca (Spain); Laboratorio de Suelos, Plantas y Aguas, Campus Tabasco, Colegio de Postgraduados, Cardenas, Tabasco (Mexico)

    2008-05-15

    In the present work we report the results obtained with a methodology based on direct coupling of a headspace generator to a mass spectrometer for the identification of different types of petroleum crudes in polluted soils. With no prior treatment, the samples are subjected to the headspace generation process and the volatiles generated are introduced directly into the mass spectrometer, thereby obtaining a fingerprint of volatiles in the sample analysed. The mass spectrum corresponding to the mass/charge ratios (m/z) contains the information related to the composition of the headspace and is used as the analytical signal for the characterization of the samples. The signals obtained for the different samples were treated by chemometric techniques to obtain the desired information. The main advantage of the proposed methodology is that no prior chromatographic separation and no sample manipulation are required. The method is rapid, simple and, in view of the results, highly promising for the implementation of a new approach for oil spill identification in soils. (orig.)

  19. Surface modification of oil fly ash and its application in selective capturing of carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaumi, Ali L.; Hussien, Ibnelwaleed A.; Shawabkeh, Reyad A.

    2013-02-01

    Oil fly ash from power generation plants was activated with 30% NH4OH and used for selective adsorption of carbon dioxide from CO2/N2 mixture. The treated samples were characterized for their surface area, morphology, crystalline phase, chemical composition and surface functional groups. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis showed an increase in the carbon contents from 45 to 73 wt% as a result of leaching out metal oxides. XRD proved that chemical activation of ash resulted in diminishing of major crystalline phases of zeolite, and other alumino-silicates leaving only quartz and mullite. BET analysis showed an increase in surface area from 59 to 318 m2/g after chemical activation and the pore volume increased from 0.0368 to 0.679 cm3/g. This increase in pore volume is supported by the results of SEM, where more micropores were opened with well-defined particle sizes and porous structure. The TGA of the treated fly ash showed stability at higher temperature as the weight loss decreased with increasing temperature. For treated ash, the FTIR displayed new peaks of amine functional group. The treated ash was used for the removal of CO2 from CO2/N2 mixture and the maximum adsorption/capturing capacity was found to be 240 mg/g. This capacity increases with increase in initial gas concentration, inlet flow rate and temperature suggesting the endothermic nature of the interaction between the gas molecules and the surface of the ash.

  20. Pathogenic Fungi Transmitted Through Cucumber Seeds and Safely Elimination by Application of Peppermint Extract and Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman S.H. FARRAG

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Diseases induced by Fusarium, like damping-off and wilt on cucumber, are serious problems around the world. Samples of cucumber seeds were collected from commercial markets in Egypt and tested for seed-borne fungi. In order to detect the maximum number of internal and external seed-borne fungi, agar plate examination of disinfected and non-disinfected seeds were used. Two species of Fusarium were the most frequent and predominant fungi. Facultative parasites of the genera Alternaria, Rhizoctonia, Helminthosporium and Penicillium were also found. A total 33 isolates of Fusarium spp. were obtained using Komadas selective medium. Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani were highly frequent. Pathogenicity test indicated that, F. oxysporum isolate (Fem8 was the main causal organism of pre- and post-emergence damping off. Furthermore, it occurred in all seed parts tested. Some infected seeds germinate, but they were either rapidly overgrown by F. oxysporum or they developed into a diseased seedling. The water extract of garlic, peppermint and rheum completely inhibited the conidiospore germination and mycelial growth of F. oxysporum at tested conc. 3, 2 and 3%, respectively. Soaked seeds in 2% peppermint extract and evaporated seeds by vapor of peppermint oil caused a highly reduction in the infection and reduced transmission of the referred fungi from seeds to the growing seedlings. The vigor of cucumber seedlings raised from the treated seeds was better than that developed from untreated ones.

  1. Sand-wear resistance of brush electroplated nanocomposite coating in oil and its application to remanufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Shi-yun; XU Bin-shi; DU Ling-zhong; YANG Hua

    2005-01-01

    Sand-wear resistance of nano scale alumina particle reinforced nickel matrix composite coating (n-Al2O3/ Ni) prepared by brush electroplating technique was investigated via wear tests in sand-contaminated oil lubricant,comparing with that of AISI1045 steel and brush electroplated Ni coating. Effects of testing load, sand content and sand size on worn volume of the three materials, and also coating surface roughness on worn volume of the brush electroplated coatings were accessed. Results show that the worn volume of all the three materials increases with increasing of testing load, sand content and sand size. In the same conditions, n-Al2 O3/Ni composite coating has the smallest worn volume while AISI1045 steel has the largest because of the n-Al2 O3 particle effects. As to n-Al2 O3/Ni and Ni coatings, the surface-polished coatings have obviously lower worn volume than the as-plated coatings. The brush electroplated n-Als O3/Ni composite coating was employed to remanufacture the sand-worn bearing seats of a heavy vehicle and good results were gained.

  2. Semi-supervised least squares support vector machine algorithm: application to offshore oil reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei-Ping; Li, Hong-Qi; Shi, Ning

    2016-06-01

    At the early stages of deep-water oil exploration and development, fewer and further apart wells are drilled than in onshore oilfields. Supervised least squares support vector machine algorithms are used to predict the reservoir parameters but the prediction accuracy is low. We combined the least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) algorithm with semi-supervised learning and established a semi-supervised regression model, which we call the semi-supervised least squares support vector machine (SLSSVM) model. The iterative matrix inversion is also introduced to improve the training ability and training time of the model. We use the UCI data to test the generalization of a semi-supervised and a supervised LSSVM models. The test results suggest that the generalization performance of the LSSVM model greatly improves and with decreasing training samples the generalization performance is better. Moreover, for small-sample models, the SLSSVM method has higher precision than the semi-supervised K-nearest neighbor (SKNN) method. The new semisupervised LSSVM algorithm was used to predict the distribution of porosity and sandstone in the Jingzhou study area.

  3. Application of Artificial Intelligence to the Prediction of the Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daynac, Mathieu; Cortes-Cabrera, Alvaro; Prieto, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    Essential oils (EOs) are vastly used as natural antibiotics in Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). Their intrinsic chemical variability and synergisms/antagonisms between its components make difficult to ensure consistent effects through different batches. Our aim is to evaluate the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for the prediction of their antimicrobial activity. Methods. The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of 49 EOs, extracts, and/or fractions was extracted from NCCLS compliant works. The fast artificial neural networks (FANN) software was used and the output data reflected the antimicrobial activity of these EOs against four common pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, and Clostridium perfringens as measured by standardised disk diffusion assays. Results. ANNs were able to predict >70% of the antimicrobial activities within a 10 mm maximum error range. Similarly, ANNs were able to predict 2 or 3 different bioactivities at the same time. The accuracy of the prediction was only limited by the inherent errors of the popular antimicrobial disk susceptibility test and the nature of the pathogens. Conclusions. ANNs can be reliable, fast, and cheap tools for the prediction of the antimicrobial activity of EOs thus improving their use in CAM.

  4. Chemometrics Methods for Specificity, Authenticity and Traceability Analysis of Olive Oils: Principles, Classifications and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messai, Habib; Farman, Muhammad; Sarraj-Laabidi, Abir; Hammami-Semmar, Asma; Semmar, Nabil

    2016-01-01

    Background. Olive oils (OOs) show high chemical variability due to several factors of genetic, environmental and anthropic types. Genetic and environmental factors are responsible for natural compositions and polymorphic diversification resulting in different varietal patterns and phenotypes. Anthropic factors, however, are at the origin of different blends’ preparation leading to normative, labelled or adulterated commercial products. Control of complex OO samples requires their (i) characterization by specific markers; (ii) authentication by fingerprint patterns; and (iii) monitoring by traceability analysis. Methods. These quality control and management aims require the use of several multivariate statistical tools: specificity highlighting requires ordination methods; authentication checking calls for classification and pattern recognition methods; traceability analysis implies the use of network-based approaches able to separate or extract mixed information and memorized signals from complex matrices. Results. This chapter presents a review of different chemometrics methods applied for the control of OO variability from metabolic and physical-chemical measured characteristics. The different chemometrics methods are illustrated by different study cases on monovarietal and blended OO originated from different countries. Conclusion. Chemometrics tools offer multiple ways for quantitative evaluations and qualitative control of complex chemical variability of OO in relation to several intrinsic and extrinsic factors. PMID:28231172

  5. Synthesis and application of phenolic resin internally toughened by chain extension polymer of epoxidized soybean oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A novel epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) internally toughened phenolic resin(ESO-IT-PR) with both good toughness and excellent thermal stability was prepared as the matrix resin of copper clad laminate (CCL).FTIR was adopted to investigate the molecular structure of modified phenolic resins and SEM was used to observe the micro morphology of their impacted intersections.The properties of CCLs prepared with these modified phenolic resins were studied to determine the optimal process and investigate the toughening mechanism.The main modifying mechanism is the etherification reaction between phenol hydroxyl and ESO catalyzed by triethanolamine and the chain extension polymerization between ESO and multi-amine gives the long-chain ESO epoxy grafting on the phenolic resin prepolymer,when the ESO content is 30% and the curing agent content is 7%,the ESO toughened phenolic resin possesses optimal performance.The flexible ESO epoxy shows significant toughening effect and it crosslinks with the phenolic resin to form an internally toughened network,which is the key factor for improving the solderleaching resistance of CCL prepared with this modified phenolic resin.

  6. Application of Microwave Moisture Sensor for Determination of Oil Palm Fruit Ripeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeow, You Kok; Abbas, Zulkifly; Khalid, Kaida

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a low cost coaxial moisture sensor for the determination of moisture content (30 % to 80 % wet-weight basis) of the oil palm fruits of various degree of fruit ripeness. The sensor operating between 1 GHz and 5 GHz was fabricated from an inexpensive 4.1 mm outer diameter SMA coaxial stub contact panel which is suitable for single fruit measurement. The measurement system consists of the sensor and a PC-controlled vector network analyzer (VNA). The actual moisture content was determined by standard oven drying method and compared with predicted value of fruit moisture content obtained using the studied sensor. The sensor was used to monitor fruit ripeness based on the measurement of the phase or magnitude of reflection coefficient and the dielectric measurement software was developed to control and acquire data from the VNA using Agilent VEE. This software was used to calculate the complex relative permittivity from the measured reflection coefficient between 1GHz and 5 GHz.

  7. Application of Lemongrass Oil-Containing Polylactic Acid Films to the Packaging of Pork Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyun-Ju; Song, Kyung Bin

    2016-01-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is a biodegradable and renewable polymer, which represents a valuable alternative to plastic packaging films, often associated with environmental problems. In this study, we tested the suitability of PLA as a biodegradable packaging film and assessed the antimicrobial activity of lemongrass oil (LO), incorporated into the PLA film in different concentrations. To obtain the optimal physical properties for PLA films, tensile strength, elongation at break, and water vapor permeability were measured under different preparation conditions. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of the LO contained in the PLA film against Listeria monocytogenes was investigated by disc diffusion and viable cell count. Among all concentrations tested, 2% LO was the most suitable in terms of antimicrobial activity and physical properties of the PLA film. Based on these results, we used the PLA film containing 2% LO to pack pork sausages; after 12 d of storage at 4℃, the population of inoculated L. monocytogenes in the sausage samples wrapped with the PLA film containing 2% LO was reduced by 1.47 Log CFU/g compared with the control samples. Our data indicate that PLA films containing 2% LO represent a valuable means for antimicrobial sausage packaging.

  8. Preparation of MCM-41 in Industrial Scale and Its Application in Heavy Oil Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A series of MCM-41 molecular sieves have been prepared on an industrial scale, and the effect of preparation factors such as aging temperature, pH values on the structure and pore distribution of the MCM-41 product have been studied by using X-ray diffraction(XRD), thermogravimetric(TG) and electron microscopy (TEM). It is shown that the pH values have a significant effect on the crystallinity of the synthesized product. Under proper conditions, the MCM-41 prepared on an industrial scale has the same performance as the samples prepared on an Lab-scale. The prepared MCM-41 was used as a modifier of zeolite Y for fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) of residual oil. It is shown that the addition of the MCM-41 in the zeolite Y catalyst increases the pore size, and surface area of the catalysts, which helps to increase the yield of gasoline and diesel and decrease the production of gaseous product and carbon deposition in the catalyst. The better performance of the MCM-41 modified zeolite Y catalyst is believed to be due to its adjustment on the acidity and increase of the pore size.

  9. Preparation and characterization of novel antibacterial castor oil-based polyurethane membranes for wound dressing application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yari, Abbas; Yeganeh, Hamid; Bakhshi, Hadi; Gharibi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Preparation of novel antibacterial and cytocompatible polyurethane membranes as occlusive dressing, which can provide moist and sterile environment over mild exudative wounds is considered in this work. In this regard, an epoxy-terminated polyurethane (EPU) prepolymer based on castor oil and glycidyltriethylammonium chloride (GTEAC) as a reactive bactericidal agent were synthesized. Polyurethane membranes were prepared through cocuring of EPU and different content of GTEAC with 1,4-butane diamine. The physical and mechanical properties, as well as cytocompatibility and antibacterial performance of prepared membranes were studied. Depending on their chemical formulations, the equilibrium water absorption and water vapor transmission rate values of the membranes were in ranges of 3-85% and 53-154g m(-2) day(-1), respectively. Therefore, these transparent membranes can maintain for a long period the moist environment over the wounds with low exudates. Detailed cytotoxicity analysis of samples against mouse L929 fibroblast and MCA-3D keratinocyte cells showed good level of cytocompatibility of membranes after purification via extraction of residual unreacted GTEAC moieties. The antibacterial activity of the membranes against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was also studied. The membrane containing 50% GTEAC exhibited an effective antibacterial activity, while showed acceptable cytocompatibility and therefore, can be applied as an antibacterial occlusive wound dressing.

  10. Tree nut oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major tree nuts include almonds, Brazil nuts, cashew nuts, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachio nuts, and walnuts. Tree nut oils are appreciated in food applications because of their flavors and are generally more expensive than other gourmet oils. Research during the last de...

  11. Immobilization of Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase on hydrophobic supports and application in biodiesel synthesis by transesterification of vegetable oils in solvent-free systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Lionete N; Oliveira, Gladson C; Rojas, Mayerlenis J; Castro, Heizir F; Da Rós, Patrícia C M; Mendes, Adriano A; Giordano, Raquel L C; Tardioli, Paulo W

    2015-04-01

    This work describes the preparation of biocatalysts for ethanolysis of soybean and babassu oils in solvent-free systems. Polystyrene, Amberlite (XAD-7HP), and octyl-silica were tested as supports for the immobilization of Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase (PFL). The use of octyl-silica resulted in a biocatalyst with high values of hydrolytic activity (650.0 ± 15.5 IU/g), immobilization yield (91.3 ± 0.3 %), and recovered activity (82.1 ± 1.5 %). PFL immobilized on octyl-silica was around 12-fold more stable than soluble PFL, at 45 °C and pH 8.0, in the presence of ethanol at 36 % (v/v). The biocatalyst provided high vegetable oil transesterification yields of around 97.5 % after 24 h of reaction using babassu oil and around 80 % after 48 h of reaction using soybean oil. The PFL-octyl-silica biocatalyst retained around 90 % of its initial activity after five cycles of transesterification of soybean oil. Octyl-silica is a promising support that can be used to immobilize PFL for subsequent application in biodiesel synthesis.

  12. Analysis on Industrial Application of Oil Vapor Absorbents%油气吸收剂及其工业应用探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘迪; 郑宗能

    2016-01-01

    This paper pointed out that the performance of absorbents was key to the technology of absorption in oil va‐por recovery ,which directly affected the recovery result .Some frequently used oil vapor absorbents were systemical‐ly introduced and their industrial application were also discussed .We summarized the technological development of oil vapor absorbents ,and forecasted that the future research on the oil vapor absorbents would lie on the optimization of the current absorbents and on the foundational and systematical investigation of the new oil vapor absorbents .%指出了在吸收法油气回收工艺中吸收剂是关键也是难点,其性能直接影响着油气的回收效果。详细阐述了吸收法油气回收技术中常用的油系列吸收剂和为油气吸收而开发的专用吸收剂,以及这些吸收剂在工业上的应用。概述了油气吸收剂的技术进展,展望了油气吸收剂正往改性优化和新吸收剂开发上发展。

  13. 两种精炼工艺在新疆棉籽油生产加工中的应用对比%Application comparison of two kinds of oil refining processes in production and processing of Xinjiang cottonseed oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩文杰; 童玉海; 李崇达; 宋建封

    2014-01-01

    Process flows and control points of two kinds of refining processes ( conventional alkali refining process and miscella refining process) were described, and indexes of cottonseed oil products produced by the two kinds of refining processes were analyzed and compared. Comparing with the conventional al-kali refining process, R value of color,acid value, saponified matter content and content of oil in soap-stock of the cottonseed oil product obtained by miscella refining process decreased by 1 . 5 - 2 . 5 , 0 . 08 mgKOH/g , 0. 015 percentage point and 10 - 20 percentage point,respectively,and the yield of refining increased by 2-6 percentage point. Miscella refining process applicated in production and processing of Xinjiang cottonseed oil had the advantages of high refining yield,light color of product oil,low power con-sumption and low maintenance cost,and the adverse effect of high content gossypol in Xinjiang cottonseed on the production of cottonseed oil was eliminated,which was suitable for the production of Xinjiang cot-tonseed oil.%阐述了两种精炼工艺(常规精炼工艺和混合油精炼工艺)的工艺流程及控制要点,并将两种工艺生产的成品棉籽油的各项指标进行对比分析。与常规精炼工艺相比,混合油精炼得到的成品棉籽油色泽R值低1.5~2.5,酸值( KOH)低0.08 mg/g,含皂量低0.015个百分点,皂脚含油低10~20个百分点,精炼得率提高2~6个百分点。混合油精炼工艺在新疆棉籽油生产加工中的应用具有精炼得率高、成品油色泽浅、动力消耗低、维护费用低等优势,解决了新疆棉籽高棉酚含量对棉籽油生产加工的不利影响,更适合于新疆棉籽油的加工。

  14. The influence of purge times on the yields of essential oil components extracted from plants by pressurized liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wianowska, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    The influence of different purge times on the yield of the main essential oil constituents of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), and chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L.) was investigated. The pressurized liquid extraction process was performed by applying different extraction temperatures and solvents. The results presented in the paper show that the estimated yield of essential oil components extracted from the plants in the pressurized liquid extraction process is purge time-dependent. The differences in the estimated yields are mainly connected with the evaporation of individual essential oil components and the applied solvent during the purge; the more volatile an essential oil constituent is, the greater is its loss during purge time, and the faster the evaporation of the solvent during the purge process is, the higher the concentration of less volatile essential oil components in the pressurized liquid extraction receptacle. The effect of purge time on the estimated yield of individual essential oil constituents is additionally differentiated by the extraction temperature and the extraction ability of the applied solvent.

  15. Produção de capítulos florais da camomila em função de populações de plantas e da incorporação ao solo de cama-de-aviário Production of capitula of chamomile as a result of plant populations and chicken manure incorporated to the soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa B.M. Ramos

    2004-09-01

    literatura para os óleos de boa qualidade e apropriados para a comercialização.This experiment was carried out in the Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, from April to September 2000, on a dystrorthox soil, clay texture. The use of semidecomposed chicken manure, morphological characteristics of plant populations, yield and essential oil quality of chamomile capitula cv. 'Mandirituba' were evaluated. The evaluated treatments, which combined, respectively, plant spacing (m and levels of chicken manure (kg m-2 were: 0.16 and 1.20; 0.24 and 1.20; 0.16 and 2.80; 0.24 and 2.80; 0.20 and 2.00; 0.11 and 1.20; 0.29 and 2.80; 0.16 and 0.20 and 0.24 and 3.80, arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. Evaluated characteristics were plant height, number and height and diameter of capitula; fresh and dry matter of capitula and qualitative analysis of capitula essential oil. Maximum average height of 'Mandirituba' chamomile plants was 0,61 m, being considered as small-sized plants. There was no significant effect of spacing among plants/chicken manure level interaction on evaluated characteristics. Production of capitula was more intensively influenced by spacing among plants than by chicken manure. The smallest space resulted in the highest number of capitula (56,573,000 ha-1 and in the highest amount of dry matter production (1,08 kg ha-1. Heights (0.71 to 0.81 cm at 100 days and 0.68 to 0.71 cm at 116 days after transplant, diameter (1.96 to 2.13 cm at 100 days and 1.83 to 1.91 cm at 116 days after transplant and average mass per capitulum (0.12 g were not influenced significantly by studied treatments. The average dry matter production of capitula (800 kg ha-1 was higher than conventional Brazilian average (500 kg ha-1. Essential oil samples extracted from capitula from the nine treatments showed intense blue color and characteristic fragrance, indicating the good quality of the oil.

  16. Synthesis of sustainable polymers from vegetable oil: Applications in coatings and nanoparticle surface modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Harjyoti

    Polymeric materials are increasing being used in many household, industrial, and health and personal care products. These materials, being either non-degradable or slow degradable, remain in the environment for a long time and are posing increasingly significant threats to the ecosystem components including mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, and crustaceans. Renewable resource based materials are the best raw materials for the development of sustainable products. Vegetable oil and polyglycol based novel copolymers have been synthesized in this research. Poly(2-VOES-r-TEGEVE) copolymers were synthesized from 2-(vinyloxyethyl) soyate (2-VEOS) and tri(ethylene glycol) ethyl vinyl ether (TEGEVE) via cationic polymerization. They were used in waterborne coating as self-dispersible polymers and as surfmers. Four different copolymers were synthesized having 2-VOES wt% as 10, 15, 25, 50 and rest being TEGEVE. In addition to that water insoluble poly(2-VOES) copolymers were synthesized from soybean oil. All copolymers were used as self-dispersible polymers and their coating property were analyzed by measuring glass transition temperature, drying time, gloss, transparency, contact angle, hysteresis, tensile strength, and hardness. Results showed that the coatings can be cured by autoxidation drying process within 6.1 to 8.2 h. Results also showed high transparency (coated in glass panel) with maximum 2% absorbance which is comparable to uncoated substrate (clean glass). Copolymer having 2-VOES wt% 15 and 50 were used as surfmers to disperse poly(2-VOES) and they were cured using autoxidation method. Results showed that the curing of film can be achieved within 2.6 to 8.0 h. High gloss and transparency confirmed that the surfmers get copolymerized with poly(2-VOES). Another set of poly(2-VOES-r-TEGEVE) copolymers with 2-VOES wt% 15, 25, 50, 75 and 85 were synthesized and then functionalized with a carboxyl group. These carboxyl functionalized polymer were used to coat nanoscale

  17. Estimating triacylglycerols from fatty acids by chemometrics. An application in Spanish virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Pulido, J.

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available The level of acceptation of "1, 3-random 2-random" pattern of acyl groups distribution in virgin olive oil glycerides has been analysed in 36 samples, by comparing the values of triacylglycerols obtained by HPLC with those reported by the cited theory. Hotelling's T2, Principal Components and Canonical Correlation Analysis have been used to study both data sets. The normality of the data distributions, the intra-and intergroup correlations of the triacylglycerols were studied before these multivariate statistical algorithms were applied. An alternative way of estimating triacylglycerols from only total fatty acids has also been studied. A Stepwise Multiple Regression procedure has been employed, and Multiple R coefficients fluctuate between 0,75 and 0,94 except for the variable SOS.

    Se ha analizado el nivel de aceptación del patrón "1, 3-al azar 2-al azar" de la distribución de los grupos acil dentro de los glicéridos del aceite de oliva. Para ello se han comparado los valores de los triglicéridos obtenidos por HPLC con los deducidos mediante esa teoría con 36 muestras de aceites de oliva españoles. Hotelling's T2, Componentes Principales y Correlación Canónica han sido los procedimientos estadísticos usados para estudiar ambos grupos de datos. Previamente se habían analizado la normalidad de la distribución de los datos y las correlaciones intra-intergrupo de triglicéridos. Se propone un camino alternativo para estimar algunos triglicéridos mediante los valores de los ácidos grasos. Se ha empleado un procedimiento de regresión múltiple por pasos, obteniéndose valores de R que fluctúan entre 0,75 y 0,94 excepto para el triglicérido SOS.

  18. Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Sara

    2004-08-01

    In vitro studies have demonstrated antibacterial activity of essential oils (EOs) against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella dysenteria, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus at levels between 0.2 and 10 microl ml(-1). Gram-negative organisms are slightly less susceptible than gram-positive bacteria. A number of EO components has been identified as effective antibacterials, e.g. carvacrol, thymol, eugenol, perillaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid, having minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.05-5 microl ml(-1) in vitro. A higher concentration is needed to achieve the same effect in foods. Studies with fresh meat, meat products, fish, milk, dairy products, vegetables, fruit and cooked rice have shown that the concentration needed to achieve a significant antibacterial effect is around 0.5-20 microl g(-1) in foods and about 0.1-10 microl ml(-1) in solutions for washing fruit and vegetables. EOs comprise a large number of components and it is likely that their mode of action involves several targets in the bacterial cell. The hydrophobicity of EOs enables them to partition in the lipids of the cell membrane and mitochondria, rendering them permeable and leading to leakage of cell contents. Physical conditions that improve the action of EOs are low pH, low temperature and low oxygen levels. Synergism has been observed between carvacrol and its precursor p-cymene and between cinnamaldehyde and eugenol. Synergy between EO components and mild preservation methods has also been observed. Some EO components are legally registered flavourings in the EU and the USA. Undesirable organoleptic effects can be limited by careful selection of EOs according to the type of food.

  19. Solid Phase Extraction: Applications to the Chromatographic Analysis of Vegetable Oils and Fats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagiotopoulout, P. M.; Tsimidou, M.

    2002-07-01

    Applications of solid-phase extraction for the isolation of certain lipid classes prior to chromatographic analysis are given. More information was found for sterols and related compounds, polar phenols and contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Detailed analytical protocols are presented and discussed in many cases. (Author) 120 refs.

  20. Antifungal activity of essential oils evaluated by two different application techniques against rye bread spoilage fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    2003-01-01

    on the application method. Larger phenolic compounds such as thymol and eugenol (thyme, cinnamon and clove) had best effect applied directly to medium, whereas smaller compounds such as allyl isothiocyanate and citral (mustard and lemongrass) were most efficient when added as volatiles.Significance and Impact...

  1. Numerical simulation and application of three-dimensional oil resources migration-accumulation of fluid dynamics in porous media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN YiRang; HAN YuJi

    2008-01-01

    Numerical simulation of oil migration and accumulation is to describe the history of oil migration and accumulation in basin evolution. It is of great value in evaluation of oil resources and determination of the location and amount of oil deposits. Based on such actual conditions as the effects of fluid mechanics in porous media and 3-dimensional geology characteristics, a kind of modified method of second order upwind finite difference fractional steps implicit interactive scheme was put forward. As for the actual problem of Dongying hollow, Huimin hollow, Tanhai re-gion and Yangxin hollow in Shengli Petroleum Oil Field, a numerical simulation test was carried out, and the result is basically coincident with the actual conditions. For the model problem, optimal order estimates were derived. Thus the well-known problem on oil resources was solved.

  2. Numerical simulation and application of three-dimensional oil resources migration-accumulation of fluid dynamics in porous media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Numerical simulation of oil migration and accumulation is to describe the history of oil migration and accumulation in basin evolution. It is of great value in evaluation of oil resources and determination of the location and amount of oil deposits. Based on such actual conditions as the effects of fluid mechanics in porous media and 3-dimensional geology characteristics,a kind of modified method of second order upwind finite difference fractional steps implicit interactive scheme was put forward. As for the actual problem of Dongying hollow,Huimin hollow,Tanhai region and Yangxin hollow in Shengli Petroleum Oil Field,a numerical simulation test was carried out,and the result is basically coincident with the actual conditions. For the model problem,optimal order estimates were derived. Thus the well-known problem on oil resources was solved.

  3. Enhancement of Shelf Life of Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Higher Basidiomycetes) by Fumigant Application of Lippia alba Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Pratima; Pandey, Abhay K; Mishra, Priyanka; Singh, Pooja; Tripathi, N N

    2015-01-01

    Eleven essential oils isolated from higher plant species were assessed against the four isolates of Verticillium fungicola found on fruiting bodies of Agaricus bisporus. Eucalyptus citriodora and Lippia alba oils were more efficacious and completely inhibited the mycelial growth of fungal isolates. L. alba oil was fungistatic and fungicidal at 10- and 20-µL concentrations against all of the isolates, respectively, and was more potent than E. citriodora oil as well as some prevalent synthetic fungicides such as benomyl, ethylene dibromide, and phosphine. Eighty microliters of L. alba oil protected 500 g of fruiting bodies of A. bisporus for up to 7 d from infection of the fungus under in vivo conditions. The findings strengthen the possibility of L. alba oil as a plant-based protectant to enhance the shelf life of A. bisporus fruiting bodies.

  4. Evaluation of Long Term Behaviour of Polymers for Offshore Oil and Gas Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Gac P.-Y.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Polymers and composites are very attractive for underwater applications, but it is essential to evaluate their long term behaviour in sea water if structural integrity of offshore structures is to be guaranteed. Accelerated test procedures are frequently required, and this paper will present three examples showing how the durability of polymers, in the form of fibres, matrix resins in fibre reinforced composites for structural elements, and thermal insulation coatings of flow-lines, have been evaluated for offshore use. The influence of the ageing medium, temperature, and hydrostatic pressure will be discussed first, then an example of the application of ageing test results to predict long term behavior of the thermal insulation coating of a flowline will be presented.

  5. The Feasibility of Wind and Solar Energy Application for Oil and Gas Offshore Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiong, Y. K.; Zahari, M. A.; Wong, S. F.; Dol, S. S.

    2015-04-01

    Renewable energy is an energy which is freely available in nature such as winds and solar energy. It plays a critical role in greening the energy sector as these sources of energy produce little or no pollution to environment. This paper will focus on capability of renewable energy (wind and solar) in generating power for offshore application. Data of wind speeds and solar irradiation that are available around SHELL Sabah Water Platform for every 10 minutes, 24 hours a day, for a period of one year are provided by SHELL Sarawak Sdn. Bhd. The suitable wind turbine and photovoltaic panel that are able to give a high output and higher reliability during operation period are selected by using the tabulated data. The highest power output generated using single wind energy application is equal to 492 kW while for solar energy application is equal to 20 kW. Using the calculated data, the feasibility of renewable energy is then determined based on the platform energy demand.

  6. Stakeholder Application of NOAA/NWS River Forecasts: Oil and Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, K.; Averyt, K.; Bardlsey, T.; Owen, G.

    2011-12-01

    The literature strongly suggests that water management seldom uses forecasts for decision making despite the proven skill of the prediction system and the obvious application of these forecasts to mitigate risk. The literature also suggests that forecast usage is motivated most strongly by risk of failure of the water management objectives. In the semi-arid western United States where water demand has grown such that it roughly equals the long term supply, risk of failure has become pervasive. In the Colorado Basin, the US National Weather Service's Colorado Basin River Forecast Center (CBRFC) has partnered with the Western Water Assessment (WWA) and the Climate Assessment for the Southwest (CLIMAS) to develop a toolkit for stakeholder engagement and application of seasonal streamflow predictions. This toolkit has been used to facilitate several meetings both in the Colorado Basin and elsewhere to assess the factors that motivate, deter, and improve the application of forecasts in this region. The toolkit includes idealized (1) scenario exercises where participants are asked to apply forecasts to real world water management problems, (2) web based exercises where participants gain experience with forecasts and other online forecast tools, and (3) surveys that assess respondents' experience with and perceptions of forecasts and climate science. This talk will present preliminary results from this effort as well as how the CBRFC has adopted the results into its stakeholder engagement strategies.

  7. Natural Plant Oils and Terpenes as Protector for the Potato Tubers against Phthorimaea operculella Infestation by Different Application Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziza Sharaby

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For protecting potato tubers from the potato tuber moth (PTM infestation during storage, different concentrations of ten natural plant oils and three commercial monoterpnes were tested, some as fumigants or dusts against adults or dusts against neonate larvae, while others as sprays on the gunny sacks in which potato tubers were stored. Tuber damage indices as well as persistence indices for tested materials were assessed. Vapors of Cymbopogon citratus, Myristica fragrans (nutmag, Mentha citrata and a-Ionone (monoterpene caused a highly significant reductions in the life span of exposed moths as well as in new adult offsprings. Other tested oils as Cinnamonium zeylanicum, Myristica. fragrans (Mace and Pelargonium graveolens caused a insignificant effect. There was no significant effect of the tested vapors on egg hatchability, except in case of oils of C. citratus, M. fragrans (nutmag and M. tragrans(Mace oil which caused high reduction in egg hatchability. According to the values of damage indices, the most effective oil vapors were arranged ascendingly as follows: Myristica (nutmag < Cymbopogon < Mentha < a - Ionone. Dusting potato tubers with 1% conc., (mixed with talcum powder of Myristica, Mentha, Cymbopogons oils and a-Ionone (monoterpene caused high reduction in egg deposition, adult emergence as well as percentage of penetrated larvae of PTM. According to their damage indices, Cymbopogon and ά-Ionone were the most protective oils, followed by Myristica and Mentha. Spraying gunnysacks with 1% conc., of the aforementioned natural oils separately elicited high reduction in PTM progeny; while their combinations did not elicit any significant synergistic effect. According to their tuber damage indices, it was found that Cymbopogon oil alone or mixed with Myristica oil showed the best protective effect, followed by Myristica oil alone and Mentha oil mixed with Cymbopogon oil. Assessment of the persistence index of various tested materials

  8. Optimizing separation conditions of 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by cyclodextrin-modified capillary electrophoresis and applications to edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferey, Ludivine; Delaunay, Nathalie; Rutledge, Douglas N; Cordella, Christophe B Y; This, Hervé; Huertas, Alain; Raoul, Yann; Gareil, Pierre

    2014-02-01

    For the first time, the separation of 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) listed as priority pollutants in environmental and food samples by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) and the European Food Safety Authority was developed in cyclodextrin (CD)-modified capillary zone electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (excitation wavelength: 325 nm). The use of a dual CD system, involving a mixture of one neutral CD and one anionic CD, enabled to reach unique selectivity. As solutes were separated based on their differential partitioning between the two CDs, the CD relative concentrations were investigated to optimize selectivity. Separation of 19 PAHs with enhanced resolutions as compared with previous studies on the 16 US-EPA PAHs and efficiencies superior to 1.5 × 10(5) were achieved in 15 min using 10mM sulfobutyl ether-β-CD and 20mM methyl-β-CD. The use of an internal standard (umbelliferone) with appropriate electrolyte and sample compositions, rinse sequences and sample vial material resulted in a significant improvement in method repeatability. Typical RSD variations for 6 successive experiments were between 0.8% and 1.7% for peak migration times and between 1.2% and 4.9% for normalized corrected peak areas. LOQs in the low µg/L range were obtained. For the first time in capillary electrophoresis, applications to real vegetable oil extracts were successfully carried out using the separation method developed here.

  9. Synthesis of CaOZnO Nanoparticles Catalyst and Its Application in Transesterification of Refined Palm Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicik Herlina Yulianti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The CaOZnO nanoparticle catalysts with Ca to Zn atomic ratios of 0.08 and 0.25 have been successfully synthesized by co-precipitation method. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD analysis provided with Rietica and Maud software, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and its properties was compared with bare CaO and ZnO catalysts. The phase composition estimated by Rietica software revealed that the CaO catalyst consists of CaO and CaCO3 phases. The estimation of the particle size by Maud software, showed that the particle size of all catalysts increased by the following order: ZnO. © 2014 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 1st January 2014; Revised: 10th March 2014; Accepted: 18th March 2014[How to Cite: Yulianti, C.H., Ediati, R., Hartanto, D., Purbaningtias, T.E., Chisaki, Y., Jalil, A.A., Hitam, C.K.N.L.C.K., Prasetyoko, D., (2014. Synthesis of CaOZnO Nanoparticles Catalyst and Its Application in Transesterification of Refined Palm Oil. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 9 (2: 100-110. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.9.2.5998.100-110][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.9.2.5998.100-110

  10. Application of surface analytical methods for hazardous situation in the Adriatic Sea: monitoring of organic matter dynamics and oil pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletikapić, Galja; Ivošević DeNardis, Nadica

    2017-01-01

    Surface analytical methods are applied to examine the environmental status of seawaters. The present overview emphasizes advantages of combining surface analytical methods, applied to a hazardous situation in the Adriatic Sea, such as monitoring of the first aggregation phases of dissolved organic matter in order to potentially predict the massive mucilage formation and testing of oil spill cleanup. Such an approach, based on fast and direct characterization of organic matter and its high-resolution visualization, sets a continuous-scale description of organic matter from micro- to nanometre scales. Electrochemical method of chronoamperometry at the dropping mercury electrode meets the requirements for monitoring purposes due to the simple and fast analysis of a large number of natural seawater samples enabling simultaneous differentiation of organic constituents. In contrast, atomic force microscopy allows direct visualization of biotic and abiotic particles and provides an insight into structural organization of marine organic matter at micro- and nanometre scales. In the future, merging data at different spatial scales, taking into account experimental input on micrometre scale, observations on metre scale and modelling on kilometre scale, will be important for developing sophisticated technological platforms for knowledge transfer, reports and maps applicable for the marine environmental protection and management of the coastal area, especially for tourism, fishery and cruiser trafficking.

  11. Antibacterial Activity of Fructus forsythia Essential Oil and the Application of EO-Loaded Nanoparticles to Food-Borne Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Guo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fructus forsythia essential oil (FEO with excellent antibacterial activity was rarely reported. The objective of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial activity and the antibacterial mechanism of FEO against two food-borne pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus in vitro. When treated FEO, the zones of inhibition (ZOI of E. coli (20.5 ± 0.25 mm and S. aureus (24.3 ± 0.21 mm were much larger than control (p < 0.05. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of FEO were 3.13 mg/mL and 1.56 mg/mL for E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. The antibacterial mechanism of FEO against E. coil was due to the changes in permeability and integrity of cell membrane leading to the leakage of nucleic acids and proteins. With the superior antibacterial activity of FEO, the nano-encapsulation method has been applied in FEO. When compared to FEO and blank chitosan nanoparticles, FEO-loaded nanoparticles (chitosan to FEO of 1:1 can effectively inhibit the growth of E. coil above 90% at room temperature. It is necessary to consider that FEO and FEO-loaded nanoparticles will become promising antibacterial additives for food preservative, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications.

  12. Antibacterial Activity of Fructus forsythia Essential Oil and the Application of EO-Loaded Nanoparticles to Food-Borne Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Na; Gai, Qing-Yan; Jiao, Jiao; Wang, Wei; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Fu, Yu-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Fructus forsythia essential oil (FEO) with excellent antibacterial activity was rarely reported. The objective of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial activity and the antibacterial mechanism of FEO against two food-borne pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in vitro. When treated FEO, the zones of inhibition (ZOI) of E. coli (20.5 ± 0.25 mm) and S. aureus (24.3 ± 0.21 mm) were much larger than control (p antibacterial mechanism of FEO against E. coil was due to the changes in permeability and integrity of cell membrane leading to the leakage of nucleic acids and proteins. With the superior antibacterial activity of FEO, the nano-encapsulation method has been applied in FEO. When compared to FEO and blank chitosan nanoparticles, FEO-loaded nanoparticles (chitosan to FEO of 1:1) can effectively inhibit the growth of E. coil above 90% at room temperature. It is necessary to consider that FEO and FEO-loaded nanoparticles will become promising antibacterial additives for food preservative, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications.

  13. Peanut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and baby care products. Sometimes the less expensive soya oil is added to peanut oil. ... are pregnant or breast-feeding. Allergy to peanuts, soybeans, and related plants: Peanut oil can cause serious ...

  14. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  15. Application of the Diatomite in Soap Removal of the Soybean Oil without Water%硅藻土在豆油脱皂中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝育忠; 李星; 徐远明

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study application of the diatomite in soap removal of the soybean oil without water.[Method] Centrifugal soap-removal oil as test sample,diatomite as adsorbent,the optimal condition of soap removal of the soybean oil without water was studied.[Result] Under 0.5% of diatomite dosage,110 ℃ of adsorption temperature and 25 min of adsorption time,residual soap amount in obtained oil sample was 68.5 mg/kg,and residual phosphorus amount was 1.317 mg/kg,which was better than oil quality after soap removal by washing in industry.[Conclusion] It was feasible to use diatomite in soap removal of the soybean oil.%[目的]研究硅藻土在豆油脱皂中的应用.[方法]以离心脱皂油为试样,硅藻土为吸附剂,研究豆油无水脱皂的最佳条件.[结果]硅藻土用量为0.5%,吸附温度为110℃,吸附时间为25 min时,所得的油样残皂为68.5 mg/kg,残磷为1.317 mg/kg,均优于工业上水洗脱皂后的油品质量.[结论]硅藻土在豆油脱皂中的应用是可行的.

  16. APPLICATION OF CHEMICALLY ACCELERATED BIOTREATMENT TO REDUCE RISK IN OIL-IMPACTED SOILS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.R. Paterek; W.W. Bogan; L.M. Lahner; A. May

    2000-04-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate integrated biological/physical/chemical co-treatment strategies for the remediation of wastes associated with the exploration and production of fossil energy. The specific objectives of this project are: chemical accelerated biotreatment (CAB) technology development for enhanced site remediation, application of the risk based analyses to define and support the rationale for environmental acceptable endpoints (EAE) for exploration and production wastes, and evaluate both the technological technologies in conjugation for effective remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils from E&P sites in the USA.

  17. APPLICATION OF CHEMICALLY ACCELERATED BIOTREATMENT TO REDUCE RISK IN OIL-IMPACTED SOILS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.R. Paterek; W.W. Bogan; L.M. Lahner; V. Trbovic; E. Korach

    2001-05-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate integrated biological/physical/chemical co-treatment strategies for the remediation of wastes associated with the exploration and production of fossil energy. The specific objectives of this project are: chemical accelerated biotreatment (CAB) technology development for enhanced site remediation, application of the risk based analyses to define and support the rationale for environmental acceptable endpoints (EAE) for exploration and production wastes, and evaluate both the technological technologies in conjugation for effective remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils from E&P sites in the USA.

  18. Modelling of associating mixtures for applications in the oil & gas and chemical industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Folas, Georgios; Muro Sunè, Nuria

    2007-01-01

    -alcohol (glycol)-alkanes and certain acid and amine-containing mixtures. Recent results include glycol-aromatic hydrocarbons including multiphase, multicomponent equilibria and gas hydrate calculations in combination with the van der Waals-Platteeuw model. This article will outline some new applications...... of the model of relevance to the petroleum and chemical industries: high pressure vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibrium in alcohol-containing mixtures, mixtures with gas hydrate inhibitors and mixtures with polar and hydrogen bonding chemicals including organic acids. Some comparisons with conventional...

  19. Application Research of Subsea Technologies in Deep Water Oil/Gas Field%世界深水油气田水下技术应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李怀印; 党学博

    2016-01-01

    水下技术是深水油气开发的重要发展方向。随着技术的进步,越来越多的水下技术和装备成功应用于海上油气田开发。深入分析了水下技术应用的8个典型油气田,包括Tordis、 Sno⁃hvit、 BC-10( Parque das Conchas)、 Cascade⁃Chinook、 Perdido、 King、 Ormen Lange 和 Tyrihans,重点总结了这些油气田采用的水下技术的特点及应用效果。这些成功开发的油气田在水下技术方面的开创性技术与应用效果,对我国海工技术方面的科研和生产具有重要的启示意义。%Subsea Technology is a major development direction of deepwater oil and gas development Withtechnical progress, more and more subsea technologies and equipment are successfully used for development of off⁃shore oil and gas fields In⁃depth analysis has been conducted on eight typical oil and gas fields for application ofsubsea technologies, including Tordis, Snohvit, BC - 10 (Parque das Conchas), Cascade⁃Chinook, Perdido,King, Ormen Lange and Tyrihans Great attention has been paid to summarizing subsea technology characteristicsand application effects Groundbreaking technology and application effects of these successfully developed oil andgas fields in subsea technologies have the important enlightenment significance on the offshore engineering technolo⁃gy research and application in China.

  20. 变频器在国内石油钻机的应用%Application of Converter in Domestic Oil Drilling Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高成海

    2001-01-01

    文章介绍了变频器在石油钻机的应用。对钻井工艺特点,控制方案,系统组成及注意事项做了简要论述。%The paper introduces the application of frequency converter in domestic oil drilling machine.It isdiscussed that the technological characteristics,control scheme,structure of system and points for attention.

  1. Application of 2k Full Factorial Design in Optimization of Solvent-Free Microwave Extraction of Ginger Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaj Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from ginger was optimized using a 23 full factorial design in terms of oil yield to determine the optimum extraction conditions. Sixteen experiments were carried out with three varying parameters, extraction time, microwave power, and type of sample for two levels of each. A first order regression equation best fits the experimental data. The predicted values calculated by the regression model were in good agreement with the experimental values. The results showed that the extraction time is the most prominent factor followed by microwave power level and sample type for extraction process. An average of 0.25% of ginger oil can be extracted using current setup. The optimum conditions for the ginger oil extraction using SFME were the extraction time 30 minutes, microwave power level 640 watts, and sample type, crushed sample. Solvent-free microwave extraction proves a green and promising technique for essential oil extraction.

  2. Synthesis of P (St-DVB)/Fe3O4 microspheres and application for oil removal in aqueous environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jianyu; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Junjun; Zhou, Shuai; Lu, Yue; Xie, Tan

    2014-10-01

    In this article, magnetic P (St-DVB)/Fe3O4 microspheres with hollow and porous structure were successfully fabricated by a seed swelling polymerization process for fast and selective absorption of oils from water surface. These microspheres, with unsinkable, magnetic, hydrophobic and oleophilic properties, were used to absorb different oils up to 8.42 times of the particles' weight while repelling water completely. More importantly, the oil-absorbed microspheres could be removed from water surface efficiently via introducing an external magnetic field. This material also shows excellent reusability after washing with ethanol and the oil-absorption capacity of the material was not sharply reduced even after the 10th cycle. The discoveries presented in this study might provide a low-cost, effective, and environmental-friendly approach for the clean-up of oils and organic solvents on the water.

  3. A Comparative Study of Diesel Oil and Soybean Oil as Oil-Based Drilling Mud

    OpenAIRE

    Okorie E. Agwu; Okon, Anietie N.; Udoh, Francis D.

    2015-01-01

    Oil-based mud (OBM) was formulated with soybean oil extracted from soybean using the Soxhlet extraction method. The formulated soybean mud properties were compared with diesel oil mud properties. The compared properties were rheological properties, yield point and gel strength, and mud density and filtration loss properties, fluid loss and filter cake. The results obtained show that the soybean oil mud exhibited Bingham plastic rheological model with applicable (low) yield point and gel stren...

  4. Composite Coatings with Ceramic Matrix Including Nanomaterials as Solid Lubricants for Oil-Less Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posmyk A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the theoretical basis of manufacturing and chosen applications of composite coatings with ceramic matrix containing nanomaterials as a solid lubricant (AHC+NL. From a theoretical point of view, in order to reduce the friction coefficient of sliding contacts, two materials are required, i.e. one with a high hardness and the other with low shear strength. In case of composite coatings AHC+NL the matrix is a very hard and wear resistant anodic oxide coating (AHC whereas the solid lubricant used is the nanomaterial (NL featuring a low shear strength such as glassy carbon nanotubes (GC. Friction coefficient of cast iron GJL-350 sliding against the coating itself is much higher (0.18-0.22 than when it slides against a composite coating (0.08-0.14. It is possible to reduce the friction due to the presence of carbon nanotubes, or metal nanowires.

  5. APPLICATIONS OF LAYERED DOUBLE HYDROXIDES IN REMOVING OXYANIONS FROM OIL REFINING AND COAL MINING WASTEWATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Jin; Paul Fallgren

    2006-03-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI), in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), conducted a study of using the layered double hydroxides (LDH) as filter material to remove microorganisms, large biological molecules, certain anions and toxic oxyanions from various waste streams, including wastewater from refineries. Results demonstrate that LDH has a high adsorbing capability to those compounds with negative surface charge. Constituents studied include model bacteria, viruses, arsenic, selenium, vanadium, diesel range hydrocarbons, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), mixed petroleum constituents, humic materials and anions. This project also attempted to modify the physical structure of LDH for the application as a filtration material. Flow characterizations of the modified LDH materials were also investigated. Results to date indicate that LDH is a cost-effective new material to be used for wastewater treatment, especially for the treatment of anions and oxyanions.

  6. 7 CFR 985.56 - Excess oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess oil. 985.56 Section 985.56 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.56 Excess oil. Oil of any class in excess of a producer's applicable annual allotment shall be identified...

  7. Application of compost of two-phase olive mill waste on olive grove: effects on soil, olive fruit and olive oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Hernández, Antonia; Roig, Asunción; Serramiá, Nuria; Civantos, Concepción García-Ortiz; Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel A

    2014-07-01

    Composting is a method for preparing organic fertilizers that represents a suitable management option for the recycling of two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) in agriculture. Four different composts were prepared by mixing TPOMW with different agro-industrial by-products (olive pruning, sheep manure and horse manure), which were used either as bulking agents or as N sources. The mature composts were added during six consecutive years to a typical "Picual" olive tree grove in the Jaén province (Spain). The effects of compost addition on soil characteristics, crop yield and nutritional status and also the quality of the olive oil were evaluated at the end of the experiment and compared to a control treated only with mineral fertilization. The most important effects on soil characteristics included a significant increase in the availability of N, P, K and an increase of soil organic matter content. The application of TPOMW compost produced a significant increase in olive oil content in the fruit. The compost amended plots had a 15% higher olive oil content than those treatment with inorganic fertilization. These organics amendments maintained the composition and quality of the olive oil.

  8. Preparation and characterization of nanostructured metal oxides for application to biomass upgrading Polar (111) metal oxide surfaces for pyrolysis oil upgrading and lignin depolymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil, or bio-oil, is one of the most promising methods to upgrade a variety of biomass to transportation fuels. Moving toward a more "green" catalytic process requires heterogeneous catalysis over homogeneous catalysis to avoid extraction solvent waste. Nanoscale catalysts are showing great promise due to their high surface area and unusual surfaces. Base catalyzed condensation reactions occur much quicker than acid catalyzed condensation reactions. However, MgO is slightly soluble in water and is susceptible to degradation by acidic environments, similar to those found in fast-pyrolysis oil. Magnesium oxide (111) has a highly active Lewis base surface, which can catalyze Claisen-Schmidt condensation reactions in the organic phase. It has been shown previously that carbon coating a catalyst, such as a metal oxide, provides integrity while leaving the catalytic activity intact. Here, carbon-coated MgO(111) will be discussed with regards to synthesis, characterization and application to bio-oil upgrading through model compounds. Raman spectroscopy and HR-TEM are used to characterize the thickness and carbon-bonding environment of the carbon coating. Propanal self-condensation reactions have been conducted in the aqueous phase with varying amounts of acetic acid present. Quantitative analysis by gas chromatography was completed to determine the catalytic activity of CC-MgO(111). ICP-OES analysis has been conducted to measure the magnesium concentration in the product solution and give insight into the leaching of the catalyst into the reaction solution.

  9. Extraction Technologies and Application of Grape Seed Oil%葡萄籽油制取工艺及产品的应用开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永斌; 邓攀博; 季祥

    2011-01-01

    Grape seed oil has high nutritional and hygienic value. This essay introduced the extraction technologies of grape seed oil, such as compression method, solvent extraction method and supercritical C02 extraction method, and analyzed advantage and disadvantage of each method.The application of grape seed oil in health care medicines, health food and cosmetics products were also reviewed to provide inspiration for deep exploitation of grape seed oil.%葡萄籽油具有较高的营养和保健价值,该文介绍了压榨法、浸出法、超临界CO2萃取法等制取葡萄籽油的工艺,分析了各种加工方法的优势和劣势,以及葡萄籽油在保健药品、保健食品和美容产品方面的应用,为葡萄籽油的深度开发提供借鉴。

  10. Comparative Analysis of the Composition and Active Property Evaluation of Certain Essential Oils to Assess their Potential Applications in Active Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Vasile

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The antifungal, antibacterial, and antioxidant activity of four commercial essential oils (EOs (thyme, clove, rosemary, and tea tree from Romanian production were studied in order to assess them as bioactive compounds for active food packaging applications. The chemical composition of the oils was determined with the Folin–Ciocâlteu method and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and flame ionization detectors, and it was found that they respect the AFNOR/ISO standard limits. The EOs were tested against three food spoilage fungi—Fusarium graminearum, Penicillium corylophilum, and Aspergillus brasiliensis—and three potential pathogenic food bacteria—Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes—using the disc diffusion method. It was found that the EOs of thyme, clove, and tea tree can be used as antimicrobial agents against the tested fungi and bacteria, thyme having the highest inhibitory effect. Concerning antioxidant activity determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2’-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS methods, it has been established that the clove oil exhibits the highest activity because of its high phenolic content. Promising results were obtained by their incorporation into chitosan emulsions and films, which show potential for food packaging. Therefore, these essential oils could be suitable alternatives to chemical additives, satisfying the consumer demand for naturally preserved food products ensuring its safety.

  11. Heavy oil recovery process: Conceptual engineering of a downhole methanator and preliminary estimate of facilities cost for application to North Slope Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondouin, M.

    1991-10-31

    The West Sak (Upper Cretaceous) sands, overlaying the Kuparuk field, would rank among the largest known oil fields in the US, but technical difficulties have so far prevented its commercial exploitation. Steam injection is the most successful and the most commonly-used method of heavy oil recovery, but its application to the West Sak presents major problems. Such difficulties may be overcome by using a novel approach, in which steam is generated downhole in a catalytic Methanator, from Syngas made at the surface from endothermic reactions (Table 1). The Methanator effluent, containing steam and soluble gases resulting from exothermic reactions (Table 1), is cyclically injected into the reservoir by means of a horizontal drainhole while hot produced fluids flow form a second drainhole into a central production tubing. The downhole reactor feed and BFW flow downward to two concentric tubings. The large-diameter casing required to house the downhole reactor assembly is filled above it with Arctic Pack mud, or crude oil, to further reduce heat leaks. A quantitative analysis of this production scheme for the West Sak required a preliminary engineering of the downhole and surface facilities and a tentative forecast of well production rates. The results, based on published information on the West Sak, have been used to estimate the cost of these facilities, per daily barrel of oil produced. A preliminary economic analysis and conclusions are presented together with an outline of future work. Economic and regulatory conditions which would make this approach viable are discussed. 28 figs.

  12. Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery -- Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. First quarterly technical progress report, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroni, M.R.

    1993-05-24

    For work during the first quarter of 1993, American Oil Recovery, Inc. targeted completion of the following specific objectives: Convene meetings of Mattoon Project subcontractors in order to plan and coordinate Project activities. Confirm organizational arrangements and plans for implementation of Mattoon Project. Complete most work on detailed analysis of reservoir geology of productive leases in the Mattoon Project. Identify first Facies Defined Subunit for initial injectivity testing to be commenced near the beginning of the second quarter. Identify additional Facies Defined Subunits for injectivity testing and characterization during the second and third quarters. Award subcontract to the Illinois State Geological Survey and commence work on preparation of a geostatistical model (STRATAMODEL) of more than 100 wells on 1,000 acres within the Mattoon Project Area. Obtain oil samples from wells in the identified Facies Subunit for reservoir rock, fluid, and CO{sub 2} compatibility testing by the Illinois State Geological Survey. Design CO{sub 2} injection pumps and injection monitoring equipment configuration. Obtain bids for required pumps and diesel motor. Accomplishments for this quarter are reported.

  13. Application of artificial intelligence to characterize naturally fractured zones in Hassi Messaoud Oil Field, Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Ouahed, Abdelkader Kouider; Mazouzi, Amine [Sonatrach, Rue Djenane Malik, Hydra, Algiers (Algeria); Tiab, Djebbar [Mewbourne School of Petroleum and Geological Engineering, The University of Oklahoma, 100 East Boyd Street, SEC T310, Norman, OK, 73019 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    In highly heterogeneous reservoirs classical characterization methods often fail to detect the location and orientation of the fractures. Recent applications of Artificial Intelligence to the area of reservoir characterization have made this challenge a possible practice. Such a practice consists of seeking the complex relationship between the fracture index and some geological and geomechanical drivers (facies, porosity, permeability, bed thickness, proximity to faults, slopes and curvatures of the structure) in order to obtain a fracture intensity map using Fuzzy Logic and Neural Network. This paper shows the successful application of Artificial Intelligence tools such as Artificial Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic to characterize naturally fractured reservoirs. A 2D fracture intensity map and fracture network map in a large block of Hassi Messaoud field have been developed using Artificial Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic. This was achieved by first building the geological model of the permeability, porosity and shale volume using stochastic conditional simulation. Then by applying some geomechanical concepts first and second structure directional derivatives, distance to the nearest fault, and bed thickness were calculated throughout the entire area of interest. Two methods were then used to select the appropriate fracture intensity index. In the first method well performance was used as a fracture index. In the second method a Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) was built. Using this FIS, static and dynamic data were coupled to reduce the uncertainty, which resulted in a more reliable Fracture Index. The different geological and geomechanical drivers were ranked with the corresponding fracture index for both methods using a Fuzzy Ranking algorithm. Only important and measurable data were selected to be mapped with the appropriate fracture index using a feed forward Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN). The neural network was then used to obtain a fracture intensity

  14. Application of thin film composite membranes with forward osmosis technology for the separation of emulsified oil-water

    KAUST Repository

    Duong, Hoang Hanh Phuoc

    2014-02-01

    Large amounts of oily wastewater have been produced from various industries. The main challenge of oily wastewater treatments is to separate the stable emulsified oil particles from water. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of forward osmosis (FO) processes to treat the stable oil-water emulsions. The FO technique has been demonstrated successfully for the treatment of a wide range of oil-water emulsions from a low to a very high concentration up to 200,000. ppm. The dependence of separation performance on oily feed concentration and flow rate has been investigated. Water can be separated from oily feeds containing 500. ppm or 200,000. ppm emulsified oil at a relatively high flux of 16.5±1.2. LMH or 11.8±1.6. LMH respectively by using a thin film composite membrane PAN-TFC and 1. M NaCl as the draw solution. Moreover, this membrane can achieve an oil rejection of 99.88% to produce water with a negligible oil level. Due to the presence of emulsified oil particles in the oily feed solutions, the membrane fouling has been addressed in this study. Better anti-fouling TFC FO membranes are needed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Application of lemon peel essential oil with edible coating agent to prolong shelf life of tofu and strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, Della; Chandra, Mega; Santoso, Stefanus; Puteri, Maria Gunawan

    2017-01-01

    The essential oil of sweet orange, lemon, and key lime peel were analyzed for their antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity of each citrus essential oil with different concentration was assessed using broth macro-dilution against Bacillus sp, Eschericia coli, Rhizopus stolonifer, and Botrytis sp which represented