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Sample records for chamomile flavonoids exposed

  1. Irrigation and organic fertilization on the production of essential oil and flavonoid in chamomile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catariny C. Aleman

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The therapeutic efficacy of herbal medicines and pesticides has increased the need to define cultivation parameters for medicinal plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the production of essential oil and flavonoids of chamomile under irrigation levels and organic fertilizer doses. The experiment was conducted in the experimental area of the Campus II of the University of Western São Paulo, in the city of Presidente Prudente, SP, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized block in triple factorial (6 x 2 x 3, corresponding to irrigation depths (150, 100, 75, 50, 25 and 0% of the reference evapotranspiration (ETo, organic fertilizers (poultry manure and cattle manure and the fertilizer doses (0, 3 and 5 kg m-2, with four replicates. The following variables were evaluated: capitulum dry matter, and content and yield of essential oil and flavonoids. For the tested conditions, it is recommended to use 5 kg m-2 poultry manure and water depth equivalent to 150% ETo for the production of essential oil and flavonoid.

  2. Chamomile: A herbal medicine of the past with bright future

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Janmejai K; Shankar, Eswar; Gupta, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Chamomile is one of the most ancient medicinal herbs known to mankind. It is a member of Asteraceae/Compositae family and represented by two common varieties viz. German Chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) and Roman Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile). The dried flowers of chamomile contain many terpenoids and flavonoids contributing to its medicinal properties. Chamomile preparations are commonly used for many human ailments such as hay fever, inflammation, muscle spasms, menstrual disorders, insomni...

  3. Chamomile: A herbal medicine of the past with bright future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Janmejai K; Shankar, Eswar; Gupta, Sanjay

    2010-11-01

    Chamomile is one of the most ancient medicinal herbs known to mankind. It is a member of Asteraceae/Compositae family and represented by two common varieties viz. German Chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) and Roman Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile). The dried flowers of chamomile contain many terpenoids and flavonoids contributing to its medicinal properties. Chamomile preparations are commonly used for many human ailments such as hay fever, inflammation, muscle spasms, menstrual disorders, insomnia, ulcers, wounds, gastrointestinal disorders, rheumatic pain, and hemorrhoids. Essential oils of chamomile are used extensively in cosmetics and aromatherapy. Many different preparations of chamomile have been developed, the most popular of which is in the form of herbal tea consumed more than one million cups per day. In this review we describe the use of chamomile in traditional medicine with regard to evaluating its curative and preventive properties, highlight recent findings for its development as a therapeutic agent promoting human health.

  4. Roman Chamomile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eczema, frostbite, diaper rash, bedsores (decubitus ulcers), and hemorrhoids. Roman chamomile is sometimes mixed with other herbs ... gums. Liver and gallbladder problems. Frostbite. Diaper rash. Hemorrhoids. Other conditions. More evidence is needed to rate ...

  5. Accumulation of metals and selected nutritional parameters in the field-grown chamomile anthodia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kováčik, J.; Grúz, Jiří; Klejdus, B.; Štork, F.; Hedbavny, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 1 (2012), s. 55-62 ISSN 0308-8146 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801; GA ČR GA525/07/0338 Keywords : Chamomile * Flavonoids * Heavy metals * Mineral nutrition * Phenolic metabolism Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.334, year: 2012

  6. LC-PDA-ESI/MS Identification of the Phenolic Components of Three Compositae Spices: Chamomile, Tarragon, and Mexican Arnica

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    Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) and Mexican arnica (Heterotheca inuoides) are common compositae spices and herbs found in the US market. They contain flavonoids and hydroxycinnamates that are potentially beneficial to human health. A standardized LC-PDA-ESI...

  7. Effect of Ionizing irradiation on microbial load and quality and sensory characteristics of chamomile (Matricaria recutita, Anthemis nobilis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.

    2014-03-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation and electron beam on microbial physical chemical and sensorial properties of chamomile. Powders of chamomile were exposed to 10 and 20 kGy of gamma irradiation and electron bean. Microbial load and moisture of powder, extraction rate physical chemical and sensorial properties of chamomile extract were evaluated immediately after treatment and after 12 months of storage. Results indicated that total microbial count of chamomile powder (control sample), including coliform were relatively high irradiation reduced the total count and total coliform. Electron beam was more effective in reducing the microbial load than gamma irradiation. No considerable changes in physico-chemical properties of extract produced from chamomile powder treated with low doses (10 kGy) while some changes were indicated in extract produced from chamomile powder treated with low doses (20 kGy) of gamma irradiation or electron beam. No differences were verified in the overall of sensorial (color, flavor, texture, and taste) properties of chamomile extracts after irradiation with 10 and 20 kGy of gamma irradiation or electron beam.(author)

  8. The antioxidants activity of flavonoids (procyanidol, quercetin, luteolin and kaempherol) in human lymphocytes exposed to ionizing radiation in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankovic, M.; Leskovac, A.; Petrovic, S.

    2007-01-01

    Phenolic components (flavonoids), may be important in prevention of DNA damage. We have tested the hypothesis that the flavonoids are protective against the DNA-damaging by γ-radiation in vitro. The study confirms strong antioxidant activity and radioprotective properties of flavonoids [sr

  9. Evidence Supports Tradition: The in Vitro Effects of Roman Chamomile on Smooth Muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Zsolt Sándor; Javad Mottaghipisheh; Katalin Veres; Judit Hohmann; Tímea Bencsik; Attila Horváth; Dezső Kelemen; Róbert Papp; Loránd Barthó; Dezső Csupor; Dezső Csupor

    2018-01-01

    The dried flowers of Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All. have been used in traditional medicine for different conditions related to the spasm of the gastrointestinal system. However, there have been no experimental studies to support the smooth muscle relaxant effect of this plant. The aim of our research was to assess the effects of the hydroethanolic extract of Roman chamomile, its fractions, four of its flavonoids (apigenin, luteolin, hispidulin, and eupafolin), and its essential oil on smooth mu...

  10. Inhibition of neutrophil elastase and metalloprotease-9 of human adenocarcinoma gastric cells by chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgari, Michela; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Colombo, Elisa; Maschi, Omar; Caruso, Donatella; Bosisio, Enrica; Dell'Agli, Mario

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated whether the antiinflammatory effect of chamomile infusion at gastric level could be ascribed to the inhibition of metalloproteinase-9 and elastase. The infusions from capitula and sifted flowers (250-1500 µg/mL) and individual flavonoids (10 µM) were tested on phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated AGS cells and human neutrophil elastase. The results indicate that the antiinflammatory activity associated with chamomile infusions from both the capitula and sifted flowers is most likely due to the inhibition of neutrophil elastase and gastric metalloproteinase-9 activity and secretion; the inhibition occurring in a concentration dependent manner. The promoter activity was inhibited as well and the decrease of metalloproteinase-9 expression was found to be associated with the inhibition of NF-kB driven transcription. The results further indicate that the flavonoid-7-glycosides, major constituents of chamomile flowers, may be responsible for the antiinflammatory action of the chamomile infusion observed here. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Chamomile an Adjunctive Herbal Remedy for Rheumatoid Arthritis Treatment

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    Afshin Gharakhani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most frequently consumed herbal remedies available today is the chamomile preparations prepared from Matricaria chamomilla (MC. The medicinal preparations of MC are composed of several classes of biological active compounds with inhibitory effects on inflammation including essential oil and flavonoids. Apigenin, quercetin and luteolin are the major flavonoids of MC which exhibit their anti-inflammatory effects through different mechanisms. Apigenin exhibits anti-inflammatory activity via inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines production, whilst luteolin suppresses production of nitric oxide (NO, prostaglandin E2 and expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 all of which are associated with inflammatory responses. However, there are also some additional components of the MC preparations which have a role on the anti-inflammatory actions of the plant through other pathways. The mentioned mechanisms are in reference with the authors' concept that MC would be of value in alleviating inflammation and pain in rheumatoid arthritis. Keywords: Essential oil; flavonoids; Matricaria chamomilla; polyphenols; rheumatoid arthritis

  12. Wild Roman chamomile extracts and phenolic compounds: enzymatic assays and molecular modelling studies with VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Calhelha, Ricardo C.; Froufe, Hugo J.C.; Abreu, Rui M.V.; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Queiroz, Maria João R.P.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a process by which new blood vessels are formed from the pre-existing vasculature, and it is a key process that leads to tumour development. Some studies have recognized phenolic compounds as chemopreventive agents; flavonoids, in particular, seem to suppress the growth of tumor cells modifying the cell cycle. Herein, the antiangiogenic activity of Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile L.) extracts (methanolic extract and infusion) and the main phenolic compounds present (apigen...

  13. Chamomile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Multimedia (Video, Images, and Audio) NCCIH Clinical Digest A monthly newsletter with evidence-based information on ... require a viewer such as the free Adobe Reader . NCCIH Publication No.: D388 Updated: September 2016 Print ...

  14. Effect of epimedium pubescen flavonoid on bone mineral status and bone turnover in male rats chronically exposed to cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shu-guang; Cheng, Ling; Li, Kang-hua; Liu, Wen-He; Xu, Mai; Jiang, Wei; Wei, Li-Cheng; Zhang, Fang-jie; Xiao, Wen-feng; Xiong, Yi-lin; Tian, Jian; Zeng, Chao; Sun, Jin-peng; Xie, Qiang; Lei, Guang-hua

    2012-06-19

    Epimedii herba is one of the most frequently used herbs in formulas that are prescribed for the treatment of osteoporosis in China and its main constituent is Epimedium pubescen flavonoid (EPF). However, it is unclear whether EPF during chronic exposure to cigarette smoke may have a protective influence on the skeleton. The present study investigated the effect of EPF on bone mineral status and bone turnover in a rat model of human relatively high exposure to cigarette smoke. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: controls, passive smoking groups and passive smoking rats administered EPF at three dosage levels (75, 150 or 300 mg/kg/day) in drinking water for 4 months. A rat model of passive smoking was prepared by breeding male rats in a cigarette-smoking box. Bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover markers, bone histomorphometric parameters and biomechanical properties were examined. Smoke exposure decreased BMC and BMD, increased bone turnover (inhibited bone formation and stimulated its resorption), affected bone histomorphometry (increased trabecular separation and osteoclast surface per bone surface; decreased trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, cortical thickness, bone formation rate and osteoblast surface per bone surface), and reduced mechanical properties. EPF supplementation during cigarette smoke exposure prevented smoke-induced changes in bone mineral status and bone turnover. The results suggest that EPF can prevent the adverse effects of smoke exposure on bone by stimulating bone formation and inhibiting bone turnover and bone resorption.

  15. Effect of epimedium pubescen flavonoid on bone mineral status and bone turnover in male rats chronically exposed to cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Shu-guang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epimedii herba is one of the most frequently used herbs in formulas that are prescribed for the treatment of osteoporosis in China and its main constituent is Epimedium pubescen flavonoid (EPF. However, it is unclear whether EPF during chronic exposure to cigarette smoke may have a protective influence on the skeleton. The present study investigated the effect of EPF on bone mineral status and bone turnover in a rat model of human relatively high exposure to cigarette smoke. Methods Fifty male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: controls, passive smoking groups and passive smoking rats administered EPF at three dosage levels (75, 150 or 300 mg/kg/day in drinking water for 4 months. A rat model of passive smoking was prepared by breeding male rats in a cigarette-smoking box. Bone mineral content (BMC, bone mineral density (BMD, bone turnover markers, bone histomorphometric parameters and biomechanical properties were examined. Results Smoke exposure decreased BMC and BMD, increased bone turnover (inhibited bone formation and stimulated its resorption, affected bone histomorphometry (increased trabecular separation and osteoclast surface per bone surface; decreased trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, cortical thickness, bone formation rate and osteoblast surface per bone surface, and reduced mechanical properties. EPF supplementation during cigarette smoke exposure prevented smoke-induced changes in bone mineral status and bone turnover. Conclusion The results suggest that EPF can prevent the adverse effects of smoke exposure on bone by stimulating bone formation and inhibiting bone turnover and bone resorption.

  16. Salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate enhance drought tolerance in chamomile plants

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    Nazarli Hossein

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The dried flowers of chamomile contain many terpenoids and flavonoids contributing to its medicinal properties. Salicylic acid (SA and methyl jasmonate (MeJA have antioxidant properties and function as direct radical scavengers. Two Matricaria chamomilla cultivars (Bodgold and Hungary breed seeds were used in this study to investigate the effects of exogenous application of SA and MeJA on protection against drought stress as well as on changes of malone dialdehyde (MDA and electrolyte leakage index (ELI, and the fluctuation of proline and soluble sugars content in the leaves under drought stress. Methods: The experiment was conducted in a factorial design based on randomized complete blocks with three replicates. Chamomile plants were treated by two levels of drought stress as well as two different levels of MeJA (i.e., 0.0 and 100 μM and SA (i.e., 0.0 and 0.5 mM solutions. Results: There was a dramatic drought induced increase in the MDA content (128% and ELI (49% in the leaves. Deleterious effect of drought stress was more severe in untreated plants than in treated ones. Treatments with SA and MeJA significantly improved drought tolerance in chamomile plants. These treatments effectively maintained membrane integrity, thereby retarding electrolyte leakage and membrane lipid peroxidation (MDA. Treatments with SA and MeJA were also effective in enhancing the antioxidant concentrations of proline and soluble sugars. Conclusion: The production of these antioxidants could have been part of a defence system against drought damage, reducing MDA and ELI and maintaining membrane stability.

  17. Evidence Supports Tradition: The in Vitro Effects of Roman Chamomile on Smooth Muscles

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    Zsolt Sándor

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The dried flowers of Chamaemelum nobile (L. All. have been used in traditional medicine for different conditions related to the spasm of the gastrointestinal system. However, there have been no experimental studies to support the smooth muscle relaxant effect of this plant. The aim of our research was to assess the effects of the hydroethanolic extract of Roman chamomile, its fractions, four of its flavonoids (apigenin, luteolin, hispidulin, and eupafolin, and its essential oil on smooth muscles. The phytochemical compositions of the extract and its fractions were characterized and quantified by HPLC-DAD, the essential oil was characterized by GC and GC-MS. Neuronally mediated and smooth muscle effects were tested in isolated organ bath experiments on guinea pig, rat, and human smooth muscle preparations. The crude herbal extract induced an immediate, moderate, and transient contraction of guinea pig ileum via the activation of cholinergic neurons of the gut wall. Purinoceptor and serotonin receptor antagonists did not influence this effect. The more sustained relaxant effect of the extract, measured after pre-contraction of the preparations, was remarkable and was not affected by an adrenergic beta receptor antagonist. The smooth muscle-relaxant activity was found to be associated with the flavonoid content of the fractions. The essential oil showed only the relaxant effect, but no contracting activity. The smooth muscle-relaxant effect was also detected on rat gastrointestinal tissues, as well as on strip preparations of human small intestine. These results suggest that Roman chamomile extract has a direct and prolonged smooth muscle-relaxant effect on guinea pig ileum which is related to its flavonoid content. In some preparations, a transient stimulation of enteric cholinergic motoneurons was also detected. The essential oil also had a remarkable smooth muscle relaxant effect in this setting. Similar relaxant effects were also detected on

  18. Evidence Supports Tradition: The in Vitro Effects of Roman Chamomile on Smooth Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sándor, Zsolt; Mottaghipisheh, Javad; Veres, Katalin; Hohmann, Judit; Bencsik, Tímea; Horváth, Attila; Kelemen, Dezső; Papp, Róbert; Barthó, Loránd; Csupor, Dezső

    2018-01-01

    The dried flowers of Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All. have been used in traditional medicine for different conditions related to the spasm of the gastrointestinal system. However, there have been no experimental studies to support the smooth muscle relaxant effect of this plant. The aim of our research was to assess the effects of the hydroethanolic extract of Roman chamomile, its fractions, four of its flavonoids (apigenin, luteolin, hispidulin, and eupafolin), and its essential oil on smooth muscles. The phytochemical compositions of the extract and its fractions were characterized and quantified by HPLC-DAD, the essential oil was characterized by GC and GC-MS. Neuronally mediated and smooth muscle effects were tested in isolated organ bath experiments on guinea pig, rat, and human smooth muscle preparations. The crude herbal extract induced an immediate, moderate, and transient contraction of guinea pig ileum via the activation of cholinergic neurons of the gut wall. Purinoceptor and serotonin receptor antagonists did not influence this effect. The more sustained relaxant effect of the extract, measured after pre-contraction of the preparations, was remarkable and was not affected by an adrenergic beta receptor antagonist. The smooth muscle-relaxant activity was found to be associated with the flavonoid content of the fractions. The essential oil showed only the relaxant effect, but no contracting activity. The smooth muscle-relaxant effect was also detected on rat gastrointestinal tissues, as well as on strip preparations of human small intestine. These results suggest that Roman chamomile extract has a direct and prolonged smooth muscle-relaxant effect on guinea pig ileum which is related to its flavonoid content. In some preparations, a transient stimulation of enteric cholinergic motoneurons was also detected. The essential oil also had a remarkable smooth muscle relaxant effect in this setting. Similar relaxant effects were also detected on other visceral

  19. Phytochemicals and bioactivity in wild German and Roman chamomiles infusions

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Calhelha, Ricardo C.; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Queiroz, Maria João R.P.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2013-01-01

    Natural matrices represent a rich source of biologically active compounds and are an example of molecular diversity, with recognized potential in drug discovery. In the present work, the infusions of Matricaria recutita L. (German chamomile) and Chamaemelum nobile L. (Roman chamomile) were submitted to an analysis of phenolic compounds and evaluation of bioactivity. Phenolic compounds were characterized by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode a...

  20. [Comparison of antioxidant activity between two species of chamomiles produced in Xinjiang by TLC-bioautography].

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    Han, Song-Lin; Li, Xin-Xia; Mian, Qiang-Hui; Lan, Wei; Liu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    To compare the antioxidant active components from two species of chamomile-matricaria and Roman chamomile produced in Xinjiang. The TLC-bioautography was used, with 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical as the experimental model. The peak areas of various antioxidant components were obtained by TLC-scanning for analyzing antioxidant active components contained in volatile oil extracts and flavone extracts from the two species of chamomiles. The total peak area was taken as the indicator for comparing the antioxidant capacities of the two types of extracts, and comparing them with the total antioxidant activity of flavone extracts of the two species of chamomiles. According to the result of TLC-bioautography in volatile oil extracts from the two species of chamomiles, volatile oil extracts from chamomile showed four white antioxidant spots, including en-yne-dicycloether, and volatile oil extracts from Roman chamomile showed only one white antioxidant spot. The TLC-scanning result showed that the peak area of antioxidant spots of volatile oil extracts from chamomile was significantly larger than that of volatile oil extracts from Roman chamomile. According to the test on the antioxidant activity of the two species of chamomiles with ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, the concentration of chamomile after scavenging 50% of DPPH radicals was 0.66 g x L(-1), whereas the figure for Roman chamomile was 0.33 g x L(-1). According to the result of TLC-bioautography in flavone extracts from the two species of chamomiles, flavone extracts from chamomile showed seven yellowish antioxidant spots, including apigenin and apigenin-7-glucoside, and flavone extracts of Roman chamomile showed eight yellowish antioxidant spots, including apigenin and apigenin-7-glucoside. The TLC-scanning results showed that the peak area of antioxidant spots of flavone extracts from Roman chamomile was significantly larger than that of flavone extracts from chamomile. Volatile oil extracts

  1. Metabolic Profiling of Hoodia, Chamomile, Terminalia Species and Evaluation of Commercial Preparations Using Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

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    Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Isaac, Giorgis; Yuk, Jimmy; Wrona, Mark; Yu, Kate; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2017-11-01

    Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QToF-MS) profiling was used for the identification of marker compounds and generation of metabolic patterns that could be interrogated using chemometric modeling software. UHPLC-QToF-MS was used to generate comprehensive fingerprints of three botanicals ( Hoodia, Terminalia , and chamomile), each having different classes of compounds. Detection of a broad range of ions was carried out in full scan mode in both positive and negative modes over the range m/z 100-1700 using high-resolution mass spectrometry. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to extract relevant chemical information from the data to easily differentiate between Terminalia species, chamomile varieties, and quality control of Hoodia products. Using nontargeted analysis, identification of 37 compounds contributed to the differences between Terminalia species, 26 flavonoids were identified to show the differences between German and Roman chamomile, and 43 pregnane glycosides were identified from Hoodia gordonii samples. The UHPLC-QToF-MS-based chemical fingerprinting with principal component analysis was able to correctly distinguish botanicals and their commercial products. This work can be used as a basis to assure the quality of botanicals and commercial products. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Inhibitory effect of aromatic herbs, lavender, sage and chamomile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study demonstrated anti-herpes simplex virus (HSV) activity of lavender, sage and chamomile extracts. Green monkey kidney cells were protected from HSV-2 infection by dichloromethane and methanol extract of lavender with therapeutic indices (TI) of 1.98 and 2.90, respectively when the cells were treated before ...

  3. Protective effects of dietary chamomile tea on diabetic complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Atsushi; Minoshima, Yuka; Yamamoto, Jo; Adachi, Isao; Watson, Alison A; Nash, Robert J

    2008-09-10

    Matricaria chamomilla L., known as "chamomile", has been used as an herbal tea or supplementary food all over the world. We investigated the effects of chamomile hot water extract and its major components on the prevention of hyperglycemia and the protection or improvement of diabetic complications in diabetes mellitus. Hot water extract, esculetin (3) and quercetin (7) have been found to show moderate inhibition of sucrase with IC50 values of 0.9 mg/mL and 72 and 71 microM, respectively. In a sucrose-loading test, the administration of esculetin (50 mg/kg body weight) fully suppressed hyperglycemia after 15 and 30 min, but the extract (500 mg/kg body weight) and quercetin (50 mg/kg body weight) were less effective. On the other hand, a long-term feed test (21 days) using a streptozotocin-induced rat diabetes model revealed that the same doses of extract and quercetin showed significant suppression of blood glucose levels. It was also found that these samples increased the liver glycogen levels. Moreover, chamomile extract showed potent inhibition against aldose reductase (ALR2), with an IC50 value of 16.9 microg/mL, and its components, umbelliferone (1), esculetin (3), luteolin (6), and quercetin (7), could significantly inhibit the accumulation of sorbitol in human erythrocytes. These results clearly suggested that daily consumption of chamomile tea with meals could contribute to the prevention of the progress of hyperglycemia and diabetic complications.

  4. Quantitative determination of seven chemical constituents and chemo-type differentiation of chamomiles using high-performance thin-layer chromatography.

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    Sagi, Satyanarayanaraju; Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Zhao, Jianping; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2014-10-01

    A simple and rapid high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method was developed for the separation and determination of six flavonoids (rutin, luteolin-7-O-β-glucoside, chamaemeloside, apigenin-7-O-β-glucoside, luteolin, apigenin) and one coumarin, umbelliferone from chamomile plant samples and dietary supplements. The separation was achieved on amino silica stationary phase using dichloromethane/acetonitrile/ethyl formate/glacial acetic acid/formic acid (11:2.5:3:1.25:1.25 v/v/v/v/v) as the mobile phase. The quantitation of each compound was carried out using densitometric reflection/absorption mode at their respective absorbance maxima after postchromatographic derivatization using natural products reagent (1% w/v methanolic solution of diphenylboric acid-β-ethylamino ester). The method was validated for specificity, limits of detection and quantification, precision (intra- and interday) and accuracy. The limits of detection and quantification were found to be in the range from 6-18 and 16-55 ng/band for six flavonoids and one coumarin, respectively. The intra- and interday precision was found to be 90%. The data acquired from high-performance thin-layer chromatography was processed by principal component analysis using XLSTAT statistical software. Application of principal component analysis and agglomerative hierarchial clustering was successfully able to differentiate two chamomiles (German and Roman) and Chrysanthemum. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Nutrients, phytochemicals and bioactivity of wild Roman chamomile: a comparison between the herb and its preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Queiroz, Maria João R P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2013-01-15

    Roman chamomile, Chamaemelum nobile L. (Asteraceae), has been used for medicinal applications, mainly through oral dosage forms (decoctions and infusions). Herein, the nutritional characterisation of C. nobile was performed, and herbal material and its decoction and infusion were submitted to an analysis of phytochemicals and bioactivity evaluation. The antioxidant activity was determined by free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation, the antitumour potential was tested in human tumour cell lines (breast, lung, colon, cervical and hepatocellular carcinomas), and the hepatotoxicity was evaluated using a porcine liver primary cell culture. C. nobile proved to be an equilibrated valuable herb rich in carbohydrates and proteins, and poor in fat, providing tocopherols, carotenoids and essential fatty acids (C18:2n6 and C18:3n3). Moreover, the herb and its infusion are a source of phenolic compounds (flavonoids such as flavonols and flavones, phenolic acids and derivatives) and organic acids (oxalic, quinic, malic, citric and fumaric acids) that showed antioxidant and antitumour activities, without hepatotoxicity. The most abundant compounds in the plant extract and infusion were 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and an apigenin derivative. These, as well as other bioactive compounds, are affected in C. nobile decoction, leading to a lower antioxidant potential and absence of antitumour potential. The plant bioactivity could be explored in the medicine, food, and cosmetic industries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Vermicompost Application on Flower Yield and Essential Oil of Chamomile (Matricaria Chamomile L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Haj Seyed Hadi; Mohsen Abarghooei Fallah; Mohammad Taghi Darzi

    2015-01-01

       This study was performed to assess the effects of nitrogen fertilizer and vermicompost on qualitative and quantitative yield of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.). It was conducted at the Research Fields of Ran Company located in Firouzkouh, Iran, in 2013. Treatments were consisted of 1) Control, 2) 100% nitrogen from urea, 3) 100% nitrogen from ammonium nitrate, 4) 75% nitrogen from urea and 25% from vermicompost, 5) 75% nitrogen from ammonium nitrate and 25% from vermicompost, 6) 50% n...

  7. Chamomile infusion cryotherapy to prevent oral mucositis induced by chemotherapy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Paula Elaine Diniz; Ciol, Marcia A; de Melo, Nilce Santos; Figueiredo, Paulo Tadeu de Souza; Leite, André Ferreira; Manzi, Natália de Melo

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is to compare cryotherapy made only with water and cryotherapy made with chamomile infusion for prevention and reduction of intensity of oral mucositis in patients with cancer receiving 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin. This is a randomized pilot study with two groups: cryotherapy made only with water (control group, n = 18) and cryotherapy made with chamomile infusion (chamomile group, n = 20). Both groups were instructed to swish the ice around in their oral cavity for at least 30 min during chemotherapy. Assessment of oral mucosa occurred on days 8, 15, and 22 after the first day of chemotherapy. Fifty percent of the patients in the control and 30 % in the chamomile group developed oral mucositis. Mouth pain score was higher in patients in the control group on all evaluations (p = 0.02 for day 8, p = 0.09 for day 15, and p = 0.14 for day 22). Patients in the chamomile group never developed mucositis with grade 2 or higher. Presence of ulceration was statistically significant on day 8 (16 % in the control vs. 0 % in the chamomile group, p = 0.10), but not in days 15 and 22, although 11 % still had ulcerations in the control group and none in the chamomile group. The occurrence of oral mucositis was lower in patients in the chamomile group than in the control group. When compared to the controls, the chamomile group presented less mouth pain and had no ulcerations. Cryotherapy was well tolerated by both groups, and no toxicity related to chamomile was identified.

  8. Effect of chamomile extract on the welfare of laying Japanese quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Isabela Tenório

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of chamomile extract on Japanese quail on their performance, animal behavior, tonic immobility, body injuries, and surface temperature. The trial was conducted using 108 quail distributed in a completely randomized experimental design, with three treatments (0, 2.5, and 5.0 g chamomile/kg of feed, six replicates, and six birds per treatment, evaluated in six measures repeated in time (14, 28, 42, 56, 70, and 84 days of trial. The inclusion of chamomile presented a quadratic effect on sitting behavior, estimating the inclusion of 1.8 g chamomile/kg to maximize this behavior. There was a decreasing linear effect for aggressive pecking, that is, the higher the inclusion of chamomile in the diet, the lower the expression of this behavior. The inclusion of 1.8-5.0 g chamomile/kg in a Japanese quail diet reduces the behavior of aggressive pecking, in addition to keeping the birds seated longer. These results are innovative because they show in the literature for the first time that chamomile supplemented in Japanese quail diets has the capacity to modulate the behavior of the quail, leading to an improvement in the welfare of quail raised in cages.

  9. Phenolic compounds and bioactive properties of wild German and Roman chamomiles

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Calhelha, Ricardo C.; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Queiroz, Maria João R.P.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2012-01-01

    Natural products represent a rich source of biologically active compounds and are an example of molecular diversity, with recognized potential in drug discovery. In the present work, methanolic extracts of Matricaria recutita L. (German chamomile) and Chamaemelum nobile L. (Roman chamomile) and their decoction and infusion (the most consumed preparations of these herbs) were submitted to an analysis of phenolic compounds and bioactivity evaluation. Phenolic compounds were characterized by HPL...

  10. Antioxidative properties of flavonoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowedes, T.C.F.; Luttikhold, J.; Stijn, van M.F.M.; Visser, M.; Norren, van K.; Vermeulen, M.A.R.; Leeuwen, P.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence accumulates that a family of plant compounds, known as flavonoids, can prevent or slow down the progression of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Flavonoids are considered beneficial, this is often attributed to their powerful antioxidant

  11. Antimicrobial activity of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L. and feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Izadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: The essential oil of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L. and feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L. are frequently used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of the essential oils of chamomile and chamomile and feverfew. Methods: This experimental study was conducted in 2012 at Hamedan University of Medical Sciences. Essential oils of two medicinal plants species including chamomile and feverfew were obtained by hydrodistillation their constituents were analyzed by GC and GC/MS using retention indices and fragmentation patterns. The antimicrobial effects (MIC and MBC of the essential oils were assessed on a number of microorganisms including gram positive and gram negative bacteria by microdilution technique. The interaction of plant essential oils against microorganisms through differential inhibition index was also evaluated. Data were analyzed by Duncan's multiple range test statistic Results: The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the oils were 0.22-4 and 0.09-1 mg/mlfor chamomile and feverfew respectively. Moreover, the combination of the plants essential oils confirmed synergistic against L. monocytogenes, B. subtilis and B. cereus and additive activities against S. aureus, E. coli and S. typhimorium. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the application of these essential oils is recommended in combination as an efficients and complementary method for controlling microorganisms. Key words: Chamomile, Feverfew, Antimicrobial Effect

  12. Investigating sub-2 μm particle stationary phase supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry for chemical profiling of chamomile extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael D; Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Lu, Lu; Zhao, Jianping; Avonto, Cristina; Isaac, Giorgis; Meeker, Larry; Yu, Kate; Legido-Quigley, Cristina; Smith, Norman; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2014-10-17

    Roman and German chamomile are widely used throughout the world. Chamomiles contain a wide variety of active constituents including sesquiterpene lactones. Various extraction techniques were performed on these two types of chamomile. A packed-column supercritical fluid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was designed for the identification of sesquiterpenes and other constituents from chamomile extracts with no derivatization step prior to analysis. Mass spectrometry detection was achieved by using electrospray ionization. All of the compounds of interest were separated within 15 min. The chamomile extracts were analyzed and compared for similarities and distinct differences. Multivariate statistical analysis including principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were used to differentiate between the chamomile samples. German chamomile samples confirmed the presence of cis- and trans-tonghaosu, chrysosplenols, apigenin diglucoside whereas Roman chamomile samples confirmed the presence of apigenin, nobilin, 1,10-epioxynobilin, and hydroxyisonobilin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Wild Roman chamomile extracts and phenolic compounds: enzymatic assays and molecular modelling studies with VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Froufe, Hugo J C; Abreu, Rui M V; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Queiroz, Maria João R P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a process by which new blood vessels are formed from the pre-existing vasculature, and it is a key process that leads to tumour development. Some studies have recognized phenolic compounds as chemopreventive agents; flavonoids, in particular, seem to suppress the growth of tumor cells modifying the cell cycle. Herein, the antiangiogenic activity of Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile L.) extracts (methanolic extract and infusion) and the main phenolic compounds present (apigenin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, luteolin, and luteolin-7-O-glucoside) was evaluated through enzymatic assays using the tyrosine kinase intracellular domain of the Vascular Endothelium Growth Factor Receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), which is a transmembrane receptor expressed fundamentally in endothelial cells involved in angiogenesis, and molecular modelling studies. The methanolic extract showed a lower IC50 value (concentration that provided 50% of VEGFR-2 inhibition) than the infusion, 269 and 301 μg mL(-1), respectively. Regarding phenolic compounds, luteolin and apigenin showed the highest capacity to inhibit the phosphorylation of VEGFR-2, leading us to believe that these compounds are involved in the activity revealed by the methanolic extract.

  14. Influence of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Vermicompost Application on Flower Yield and Essential Oil of Chamomile (Matricaria Chamomile L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Haj Seyed Hadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available    This study was performed to assess the effects of nitrogen fertilizer and vermicompost on qualitative and quantitative yield of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.. It was conducted at the Research Fields of Ran Company located in Firouzkouh, Iran, in 2013. Treatments were consisted of 1 Control, 2 100% nitrogen from urea, 3 100% nitrogen from ammonium nitrate, 4 75% nitrogen from urea and 25% from vermicompost, 5 75% nitrogen from ammonium nitrate and 25% from vermicompost, 6 50% nitrogen from urea and 25% from vermicompost , 7 50% nitrogen from ammonium nitrate and 25% from vermicompost, 8 25% nitrogen from urea and 25% from vermicompost, 9 25% nitrogen from ammonium nitrate and 25% from vermicompost, and 10 100% nitrogen from vermicompost. The maximum plant height (67.03 cm and plant weight (93.21 g/plant were obtained at N2 treatment (200 kg ha-1 urea. N5 treatment (202.5 kg ha-1 ammonium nitrate + 1.5 ton vermicompost ha-1 caused maximum flower diameter. The highest fresh flower yield (7539.45 kg ha-1, dry flower yield (1715.93 kg ha-1 and essential oil yield (6.95 kg ha-1 obtained in plots, which received 135 kg ha-1 nitrate ammonium + 3 ton vermicompost ha-1. It seems using biofertilizers such as vermicompost could enhance quantitative and qualitative characteristics of chamomile. Moreover, by substituting chemical fertilizers by biofertilizers, ecosystem health and quality of life will increase which it is the most important goals of sustainable developments. 

  15. Flavonoids and the CNS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäger, Anna Katharina; Saaby, Lasse

    2011-01-01

    Flavonoids are present in almost all terrestrial plants, where they provide UV-protection and colour. Flavonoids have a fused ring system consisting of an aromatic ring and a benzopyran ring with a phenyl substituent. The flavonoids can be divided into several classes depending on their structure....... Flavonoids are present in food and medicinal plants and are thus consumed by humans. They are found in plants as glycosides. Before oral absorption, flavonoids undergo deglycosylation either by lactase phloridzin hydrolase or cytosolic ß-glucocidase. The absorbed aglycone is then conjugated by methylation......, sulphatation or glucuronidation. Both the aglycones and the conjugates can pass the blood-brain barrier. In the CNS several flavones bind to the benzodiazepine site on the GABA(A)-receptor resulting in sedation, anxiolytic or anti-convulsive effects. Flavonoids of several classes are inhibitors of monoamine...

  16. Identification of a compound isolated from German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) with dermal sensitization potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avonto, Cristina; Rua, Diego; Lasonkar, Pradeep B.; Chittiboyina, Amar G.; Khan, Ikhlas A.

    2017-01-01

    German chamomile is one of the most popular herbal ingredients used in cosmetics and personal care products. Allergic skin reactions following topical application of German chamomile have been occasionally reported, although it is not fully understood which of the chemical constituents is responsible for this adverse effect. In the present work, three candidate sensitizers were isolated from German chamomile based on activity-guided fractionation of chamomile extracts tested using the in vitro KeratinoSens™ assay. The compounds were identified as the polyacetylene tonghaosu (1), and both trans- and cis-glucomethoxycinnamic acids (2 and 3). These three compounds were classified as non- to weakly reactive using in chemico methods; however, aged tonghaosu was found to be more reactive when compared to freshly isolated tonghaosu. The polyacetylene (1) constituent was determined to be chemically unstable, generating a small electrophilic spirolactone, 1,6-dioxaspiro[4.4]non-3-en-2-one (4), upon aging. This small lactone (4) was strongly reactive in both in chemico HTS- and NMR-DCYA methods and further confirmed as a potential skin sensitizer by Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA). - Highlights: • Fractions of German chamomile tested positive in the KeratinoSens™ assay. • Three compounds containing structural alerts were isolated and tested with in chemico methods. • The polyacetylene tonghaosu was found to be unstable and categorized as potential pre-hapten. • A degradation product of tonghaosu tested as positive dermal sensitizer in animal studies.

  17. Identification of a compound isolated from German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) with dermal sensitization potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avonto, Cristina [National Center for Natural Products Research, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, The University of Mississippi, MS 38677 (United States); Rua, Diego [The Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, US Food and Drug Administration, College Park, MD 20740 (United States); Lasonkar, Pradeep B.; Chittiboyina, Amar G. [National Center for Natural Products Research, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, The University of Mississippi, MS 38677 (United States); Khan, Ikhlas A., E-mail: ikhan@olemiss.edu [National Center for Natural Products Research, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, The University of Mississippi, MS 38677 (United States); Division of Pharmacognosy, Department of BioMolecular Sciences, School of Pharmacy, The University of Mississippi, MS 38677 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    German chamomile is one of the most popular herbal ingredients used in cosmetics and personal care products. Allergic skin reactions following topical application of German chamomile have been occasionally reported, although it is not fully understood which of the chemical constituents is responsible for this adverse effect. In the present work, three candidate sensitizers were isolated from German chamomile based on activity-guided fractionation of chamomile extracts tested using the in vitro KeratinoSens™ assay. The compounds were identified as the polyacetylene tonghaosu (1), and both trans- and cis-glucomethoxycinnamic acids (2 and 3). These three compounds were classified as non- to weakly reactive using in chemico methods; however, aged tonghaosu was found to be more reactive when compared to freshly isolated tonghaosu. The polyacetylene (1) constituent was determined to be chemically unstable, generating a small electrophilic spirolactone, 1,6-dioxaspiro[4.4]non-3-en-2-one (4), upon aging. This small lactone (4) was strongly reactive in both in chemico HTS- and NMR-DCYA methods and further confirmed as a potential skin sensitizer by Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA). - Highlights: • Fractions of German chamomile tested positive in the KeratinoSens™ assay. • Three compounds containing structural alerts were isolated and tested with in chemico methods. • The polyacetylene tonghaosu was found to be unstable and categorized as potential pre-hapten. • A degradation product of tonghaosu tested as positive dermal sensitizer in animal studies.

  18. Effect of a 2% topical chamomile application for treating burning mouth syndrome: a controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Sara; Pons-Fuster, Alvaro; López-Jornet, Pia

    2016-08-01

    The treatments for burning mouth syndrome (BMS) proposed to date have been varied but have only achieved limited efficacy. Chamomile has analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of topical applications of 2% chamomile gel in comparison with a placebo for the treatment of BMS. The study was designed as a prospective randomized placebo-controlled double-blind monocentric study. A total of 62 patients with idiopathic BMS were divided into two groups: Group A received applications of a 2% chamomile gel, and Group B (placebo) were administered a placebo; both treatments were applied twice daily for 1 month. Three variables were evaluated at base line, 15 and 30 days: pain (assessed using a visual analogue scale [VAS]), xerostomia severity (Xerostomia Inventory), and oral quality of life (assessed by means of the Oral Health Impact Profile-14). A total of 57 patients completed the study. Pain, xerostomia, and quality of life underwent improvements with statistical significance at 15 and 30 days in both groups (P < 0.001). But when the two groups were compared, differences in VAS pain were not significant (P = 0.847), nor were xerostomia severity (P = 0.536), or oral quality of life (P = 0.076). The chamomile gel product was well tolerated. As treatment with chamomile and the placebo produced similar outcomes, the efficacy of 2% chamomile gel for treating BMS appears questionable. However, further studies with larger patient samples are needed to confirm this. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Diurnal changes in flavonoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veit, M.; Bilger, W.; Mühlbauer, T.; Brummet, W.; Winter, K.

    1996-01-01

    Field studies of a tropical tree, Anacardium excelsum, and a northern hemisphere high altitude fern, Cryptogramma crispa, revealed marked diurnal changes in soluble flavonoid content of leaves and fronds, respectively. The flavonoid content increased during the morning and decreased during the afternoon. In plants of C. crispa covered with UV-B absorbing filters, the flavonoid content remained at a constant level throughout the day/night cycle. Upon removal of UV-B absorbing filters (at night), the flavonoid content increased the next morning in a fashion similar to that observed in control plants maintained without filters. Decreases in photosystem II photochemical efficiency upon exposure of C. crispa to natural daylight were similar in plants previously covered with UV-B absorbing filters and in control plants, probably owing to the observed ability of plants to rapidly accumulate UV-B protective flavonoids. (author)

  20. An integrated approach utilising chemometrics and GC/MS for classification of chamomile flowers, essential oils and commercial products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei; Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Zhao, Jianping; Avonto, Cristina; Parcher, Jon F; Raman, Vijayasankar; Zweigenbaum, Jerry A; Wylie, Philip L; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2014-01-01

    As part of an ongoing research program on authentication, safety and biological evaluation of phytochemicals and dietary supplements, an in-depth chemical investigation of different types of chamomile was performed. A collection of chamomile samples including authenticated plants, commercial products and essential oils was analysed by GC/MS. Twenty-seven authenticated plant samples representing three types of chamomile, viz. German chamomile, Roman chamomile and Juhua were analysed. This set of data was employed to construct a sample class prediction (SCP) model based on stepwise reduction of data dimensionality followed by principle component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The model was cross-validated with samples including authenticated plants and commercial products. The model demonstrated 100.0% accuracy for both recognition and prediction abilities. In addition, 35 commercial products and 11 essential oils purported to contain chamomile were subsequently predicted by the validated PLS-DA model. Furthermore, tentative identification of the marker compounds correlated with different types of chamomile was explored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Flavonoids and the CNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K. Jäger

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are present in almost all terrestrial plants, where they provide UV-protection and colour. Flavonoids have a fused ring system consisting of an aromatic ring and a benzopyran ring with a phenyl substituent. The flavonoids can be divided into several classes depending on their structure. Flavonoids are present in food and medicinal plants and are thus consumed by humans. They are found in plants as glycosides. Before oral absorption, flavonoids undergo deglycosylation either by lactase phloridzin hydrolase or cytosolic β-glucocidase. The absorbed aglycone is then conjugated by methylation, sulphatation or glucuronidation. Both the aglycones and the conjugates can pass the blood-brain barrier. In the CNS several flavones bind to the benzodiazepine site on the GABAA-receptor resulting in sedation, anxiolytic or anti-convulsive effects. Flavonoids of several classes are inhibitors of monoamine oxidase A or B, thereby working as anti-depressants or to improve the conditions of Parkinson’s patients. Flavanols, flavanones and anthocyanidins have protective effects preventing inflammatory processes leading to nerve injury. Flavonoids seem capable of influencing health and mood.

  2. The Role of Flavonoids as Potential Radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkovic, V.; Djikic, D.; Horvat Knezevic, A.; Lisicic, D.; Orsolic, N.; Kopjar, N.

    2011-01-01

    radioprotection on the level of DNA. Obtained results suggest that flavonoids should be considered as promising non-toxic dietary supplements to be further tested for administration in patients exposed to radiation as well as to subjects working in hazardous occupational settings. (author)

  3. Chamomile tea improves glycemic indices and antioxidants status in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemestani, Maryam; Rafraf, Maryam; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a major factor in the pathogenesis of diabetes complications. The objectives were to investigate the effects of chamomile tea consumption on glycemic control and antioxidant status in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2 DM). This single-blind randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 64 subjects with T2 DM (males and females) ages 30 to 60 y. The intervention group (n = 32) consumed chamomile tea (3 g/150 mL hot water) 3 times per day immediately after meals for 8 wk. The control group (n = 32) followed a water regimen for same intervention period. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric measurements, and 3-d, 24-h dietary recalls were collected at the baseline and at the end of the trial. Data were analyzed by independent t test, paired t test, and analysis of covariance. Chamomile tea significantly decreased concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin, serum insulin levels, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance, and serum malondialdehyde, compared with control group (all P 1%, 26.16 %, 36.71 % and 45.06% respectively in chamomile group compared with these variables in control group at the end of the intervention (all P 16 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Recent patents on flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamta, Gokhale; Bansal, Y K; Sandhu, S S

    2013-12-01

    Flavonoids are substances which are widely distributed in the plant kingdom. They occur in considerable quantities in common food products, spices and beverages. Interest of researchers has been greatly enhanced towards therapeutic potential of flavonoids in last some years. This review summarizes important patents pertaining to recent biotechnological techniques applied for the production, analysis of biosynthetic pathways, effects and applications of different flavonoids. For systematic studies investigations which have been published in the form of patents, are classified in different sectors like biosynthesis, medical application, antimicrobial activity, alteration of flower color, industrial application, cosmetics, food and plant tissue culture. A number of activities have been observed in each sector with vast area of research on flavonoids.

  5. The Effect of Phosphorus and Zinc Fertilizers on Nutrient Content and Essential Oil Yield of German Chamomile under Drought Stress (Matricaria recutita L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghaedi Jeshni

    2016-07-01

    selectively collected on 27 April, 30 April, 4 May, 8 May, and 12 May 2013. German chamomile essential oil was extracted from the dried flowers and using Clevenger system. In the study, the content of potassium, sodium, zinc, phosphorus, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and essential oil yield were measured. Statistical analysis was carried out using SAS software (version 9.1. Significant difference was set at P ≤ 0.05 and determined using the Duncan's multiple-range test. Results and Discussion: The results showed that exposing chamomile plants to soil moisture stress during its life cycle might lead to a significant effect on essential oil yield and the nutrient content except zinc and phosphorus. The phosphorus fertilizer also affected the content of potassium, sodium, zinc, phosphorus, chlorophyll and essential oil yield while the zinc fertilizer just affected zinc and phosphorus content, chlorophyll b and essential oil yield significantly. Also, we observed that high application of phosphorus fertilizer (300 kg ha-1 had a negative effect on yield of chamomile. This plant growth disorder is maybe because of interaction between P and Zn that is usually termed ‘P-induced-Zn deficiency’. This disorder in plant growth is associated with high levels of available P or with application of P to soil. Thus, it is important that the application of nutrients to be in balance. Having a good nutrient balance is therefore an important factor to improve plant growth by indicating the actual amount and the combination of nutrients that the production needs. Also, this is a good way to save money. In summary, the results of this study indicated that drought stress caused significant effects on physiological traits, essential oil yield and nutrient content. The results showed that optimum amount of Zn and P can improve the studied traits of chamomile. According to the results of this experiment, it seems that the application of Zn under drought stress condition can decrease damage of

  6. Rapid evaluation and comparison of natural products and antioxidant activity in calendula, feverfew, and German chamomile extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agatonovic-Kustrin, Snezana; Babazadeh Ortakand, Davoud; Morton, David W; Yusof, Ahmad P

    2015-03-13

    The present study describes a simple high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for the simultaneous quantification of apigenin, chamazulene, bisabolol and the use of DPPH free radical as a post-chromatographic derivatization agent to compare the free radical scavenging activities of these components in leaf and flower head extracts from feverfew, German chamomile and marigold from the Asteraceae family. Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) leaves have been traditionally used in the treatment of migraine with parthenolide being the main bioactive compound. However, due to similar flowers, feverfew is sometimes mistaken for the German chamomile (Matricaria recutita). Bisabolol and chamazulene are the main components in chamomile essential oil. Marigold (Calendula officinalis) was included in the study for comparison, as it belongs to the same family. Parthenolide was found to be present in all leaf extracts but was not detected in calendula flower extract. Chamazulene and bisabolol were found to be present in higher concentrations in chamomile and Calendula flowers. Apigenin was detected and quantified only in chamomile extracts (highest concentration in flower head extracts). Antioxidant activity in sample extracts was compared by superimposing the chromatograms obtained after post-chromatographic derivatization with DPPH and post-chromatographic derivatization with anisaldehyde. It was found that extracts from chamomile flower heads and leaves have the most prominent antioxidant activity, with bisabolol and chamazulene being the most effective antioxidants. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Neuroprotection by flavonoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajas F.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The high morbidity, high socioeconomic costs and lack of specific treatments are key factors that define the relevance of brain pathology for human health and the importance of research on neuronal protective agents. Epidemiological studies have shown beneficial effects of flavonoids on arteriosclerosis-related pathology in general and neurodegeneration in particular. Flavonoids can protect the brain by their ability to modulate intracellular signals promoting cellular survival. Quercetin and structurally related flavonoids (myricetin, fisetin, luteolin showed a marked cytoprotective capacity in in vitro experimental conditions in models of predominantly apoptotic death such as that induced by medium concentrations (200 µM of H2O2 added to PC12 cells in culture. Nevertheless, quercetin did not protect substantia nigra neurons in vivo from an oxidative insult (6-hydroxydopamine, probably due to difficulties in crossing the blood-brain barrier. On the other hand, treatment of permanent focal ischemia with a lecithin/quercetin preparation decreased lesion volume, showing that preparations that help to cross the blood-brain barrier may be critical for the expression of the effects of flavonoids on the brain. The hypothesis is advanced that a group of quercetin-related flavonoids could become lead molecules for the development of neuroprotective compounds with multitarget anti-ischemic effects.

  8. Flavonoids and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toshio; Takahashi, Ryo

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease, characterized by airway inflammation, airflow limitation, hyper-reactivity and airway remodeling. It is believed that asthma is caused by the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. The prevalence of allergic diseases, including asthma, has increased worldwide during the past two decades. Although the precise reasons that have caused this increase remain unknown, dietary change is thought to be one of the environmental factors. Flavonoids, which are polyphenolic plant secondary metabolites ubiquitously present in vegetables, fruits and beverages, possess antioxidant and anti-allergic traits, as well as immune-modulating activities. Flavonoids are powerful antioxidants and anti-allergic nutrients that inhibit the release of chemical mediators, synthesis of Th2 type cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, and CD40 ligand expression by high-affinity immunoglobulin E (IgE) receptor-expressing cells, such as mast cells and basophils. They also inhibit IL-4-induced signal transduction and affect the differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells into effector T-cells through their inhibitory effect on the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Various studies of flavonoids in asthmatic animal models have demonstrated their beneficial effects. The results of several epidemiological studies suggest that an increase in flavonoid intake is beneficial for asthma. Moreover, clinical trials of flavonoids have shown their ameliorative effects on symptoms related to asthma. However, these human studies are currently limited; further validation is required to clarify whether an appropriate intake of flavonoids may constitute dietary treatment and for part of a preventive strategy for asthma. PMID:23752494

  9. Dietary flavonoids and iodine Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elst, van der J.P.; Smit, J.W.A.; Romijn, H.A.; Heide, van der D.

    2003-01-01

    Flavonoids have inhibiting effects on the proliferation of cancer cells, including thyroidal ones. In the treatment of thyroid cancer the uptake of iodide is essential. Flavonoids are known to interfere with iodide organification ill vitro, and to cause goiter. The influence of flavonoids on iodine

  10. Role of Some Medicinal Herbs Plants (Anise and Chamomile) in Male Rats Intoxicated with Metacide Pesticide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afifi, E.A.A.; Ali, S.E.; Hafez, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    This present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of some medicinal herbs plants such as anise and chamomile (300 mg/kg b.wl) for five weeks on some biochemical changes induced in rats administrated daily oral dose of organophosphorus pesticide metacide at level of 1.4 mg/kg b.wt for live weeks. The data showed that the metacide pesticides caused disturbance in liver and kidney function revealed as significant increased in serum total lipids, triglycerides, total free amino, biliburine, total cholesterol, creatinine, urea and uric acid. Moreover, a significant decreased in total proteins. Also thyroxine hormone (T4) was increased while triiodothyronine (T 3) was decreased. The results also revealed that both anise and chamomile exhibited an improvement and highly affective in attenuation of metacide pesticide caused oxidative damage, disturbance and injury induced in liver, kidney and thyroid hormone function

  11. Removal of 14C-Prothiofos Insecticide from Chamomile Oil Using Agricultural and Industrial Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazi, B.; Abdel-Gawad, H.; Zayed, S.M.D.; Nowwar, G.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The removal of prothiofos from chamomile oil has been investigated as a function of adsorbent type, adsorbent concentration, time and temperature. Therefore, 14 C-prothiofos was prepared in our laboratory. Low cost adsorbent such as agricultural wastes (Rice bran, rice husk, and watermelon peels), industrial by-products (sawdust-bagasse) in addition to calcium oxide as a chemical adsorbent were used. It was found that, the best adsorbent concentration for the insecticide removal is 0.016 g adsorbent/g oil. The maximum removal of prothiofos from chamomile oil was 87%, 90% by using calcium oxide and watermelon peels, respectively at 30 degree C for 2 hours. Saw dust, bagasse and rice bran proved to be better for the insecticide removal at 40 degree C

  12. Different biosynthesis patterns among flavonoid 3-glycosides with distinct effects on accumulation of other flavonoid metabolites in pears (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhai

    Full Text Available Flavonoid biosynthesis profile was clarified by fruit bagging and re-exposure treatments in the green Chinese pear 'Zaosu' (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. and its red mutant 'Red Zaosu'. Two distinct biosynthesis patterns of flavonoid 3-glycosides were found in 'Zaosu' pear. By comparison with 'Red Zaosu', the biosynthesis of flavonoid 3-galactosides and flavonoid 3-arabinosides were inhibited by bagging and these compounds only re-accumulated to a small degree in the fruit peel of 'Zaosu' after the bags were removed. In contrast, the biosynthesis of flavonoid 3-gluctosides and flavonoid 3-rutinosides was reduced by bagging and then increased when the fruits were re-exposed to sunlight. A combination of correlation, multicollinearity test and partial-correlation analyses among major flavonoid metabolites indicated that biosynthesis of each phenolic compound was independent in 'Zaosu' pear, except for the positive correlation between flavonoid 3-rutincosides and flavanols. In contrast with the green pear cultivar, almost all phenolic compounds in the red mutant had similar biosynthesis patterns except for arbutin. However, only the biosynthesis of flavonoid 3-galactosides was relatively independent and strongly affected the synthesis of the other phenolic compounds. Therefore, we propose a hypothesis that the strong accumulation of flavonoid 3-galactosides stimulated the biosynthesis of other flavonoid compounds in the red mutant and, therefore, caused systemic variation of flavonoid biosynthesis profiles between 'Zaosu' and its red mutant. This hypothesis had been further demonstrated by the enzyme activity of UFGT, and transcript levels of flavonoid biosynthetic genes and been well tested by a stepwise linear regression forecasting model. The gene that encodes flavonoid 3-galacosyltransferase was also identified and isolated from the pear genome.

  13. Flavonoids and thyroid disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, van der D.; Kastelijn, J.; Schroder-van der Elst, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    The most potent natural plant-derived compounds that can affect thyroid function, thyroid hormone secretion and availability to tissues is the group of flavonoids, i.e. plant pigments. They are present in our daily food, such as vegetables, fruits, grains, nuts, wine, and tea. Epidemiological

  14. Flavonoids Fight Diseases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 2. Flavonoids Fight Diseases. G Nagendrappa. Article-in-a-Box Volume 9 Issue 2 February 2004 pp 5-5. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/02/0005-0005. Author Affiliations.

  15. Assessment of Direct Regeneration in Germany (Matricaria chamomilla L.) and Shirazi Chamomiles (Matricaria recutita L.)

    OpenAIRE

    A. Masoumiasl; A. Aryiaeineghad; M. Dehdeari

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: German (Matricaria chamomilla L.) and Shirazi (Matricaria recutita L.) chamomiles are the most important medicinal plants of the Astraceae family which are used in the pharmaceutical, health, food and cosmetics industries. Production of this plant has been undertaken in Iran mainly in Isfahan, Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad, Golestan and Hamedan provinces. In vitro propagation of plants have higher potential to produce qualified natural products, restoring and preserving of endangere...

  16. Nutrients, phytochemicals and bioactivity of wild Roman chamomile: a comparison between the herb and its preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Calhelha, Ricardo C.; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Queiroz, Maria João R.P.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2013-01-01

    Roman chamomile, Chamaemelum nobile L. (Asteraceae), has been used for medicinal applications, mainly through oral dosage forms (decoctions and infusions). Herein, the nutritional characterization of C. nobile was performed, and herbal material and its decoction and infusion were submitted to an analysis of phytochemicals and bioactivity evaluation. The antioxidant activity was determined by free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation, the antitumour...

  17. Assessment of Direct Regeneration in Germany (Matricaria chamomilla L. and Shirazi Chamomiles (Matricaria recutita L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Masoumiasl

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: German (Matricaria chamomilla L. and Shirazi (Matricaria recutita L. chamomiles are the most important medicinal plants of the Astraceae family which are used in the pharmaceutical, health, food and cosmetics industries. Production of this plant has been undertaken in Iran mainly in Isfahan, Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad, Golestan and Hamedan provinces. In vitro propagation of plants have higher potential to produce qualified natural products, restoring and preserving of endangered plants, induction of somaclonal variation, industrial reproduction, valuable secondary metabolites and increased active ingredients. Researchers reported successful micropropagation system for five chamomile varieties on MS medium contained 0.01 mg/l NAA and 2.5 mg/l kinetin. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of stem (with and without node, leaf and cotyledon explants and different plant growth regulators on direct regeneration of German and Shirazi chamomiles. Although the Shirazi chamomile is native to Iran, but German chamomile is Iran non-indigenous cultivar. By our knowledge, there have been no comparison reports about responses of these cultivars to tissue culture. Materials and Methods: This research was performed in the central laboratory of Agriculture Faculty in Yasouj University. Seeds were provided from Pakan-Bazr institute, Isfahan. Chamomile seeds were disinfected by ethanol (70% for 5-10 min and sodium hypocholorite 3% for 5-12 min and then washed for several times by distilled water. Then, seeds were sown on MS medium for germination. After 2-3 weeks, seedlings were grown and then planted in MS medium supplemented with hormonal combinations of NAA at two levels (0.1 and 0.5 mg/l, kinetin at three levels (2, 2.5 and 3 mg/l and Zeatin, BAP and 2ip at three levels (0.5, 1 and 1.5 mg/l. The experiment was performed in a completely randomized design with four replications. Factors included explants, cultivars and hormonal

  18. Effects of chlorhexidine, essential oils and herbal medicines (Salvia, Chamomile, Calendula) on human fibroblast in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyganowska-Swiatkowska, Marzena; Urbaniak, Paulina; Szkaradkiewicz, Anna; Jankun, Jerzy; Kotwicka, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Antiseptic rinses have been successfully used in inflammatory states of the gums and oral cavity mucosa. Antibacterial effects of chlorhexidine, essential oils and some herbs are well documented. Reaction of host tissue to these substances has much poorer documentation. The aim of the study was to analyse the influence of chlorhexidine (CHX), essential oil (EO: thymol, 0.064%; eucalyptol, 0.092%; methyl salicylate, 0.060%; menthol, 0.042%) mouth rinses and salvia, chamomile and calendula brews on fibroblast biology in vitro. The human fibroblast CCD16 line cells were cultured in incubation media which contained the examined substances. After 24 and 48 hours, the cell morphology, relative growth and apoptosis were evaluated. Exposure of fibroblasts to CHX, EO or salvia caused various changes in cell morphology. Cells cultured for 48 hours with CHX revealed a noticeably elongated shape of while cells cultured in high EO concentration or with salvia were considerably smaller and contracted with fewer projections. Chlorhexidine, EO and salvia reduced the fibroblast proliferation rate and stimulated cell death. Both reactions to EO were dose dependent. Cells exposure to chamomile or calendula brews did not change morphology or proliferation of fibroblasts. The results of this in vitro study showed that in contrast to chamomile and calendula, the brews of EO, CHX or salvia had a negative influence on fibroblast biology.

  19. Metabolomics analysis reveals the metabolic and functional roles of flavonoids in light-sensitive tea leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qunfeng; Liu, Meiya; Ruan, Jianyun

    2017-03-20

    As the predominant secondary metabolic pathway in tea plants, flavonoid biosynthesis increases with increasing temperature and illumination. However, the concentration of most flavonoids decreases greatly in light-sensitive tea leaves when they are exposed to light, which further improves tea quality. To reveal the metabolism and potential functions of flavonoids in tea leaves, a natural light-sensitive tea mutant (Huangjinya) cultivated under different light conditions was subjected to metabolomics analysis. The results showed that chlorotic tea leaves accumulated large amounts of flavonoids with ortho-dihydroxylated B-rings (e.g., catechin gallate, quercetin and its glycosides etc.), whereas total flavonoids (e.g., myricetrin glycoside, epigallocatechin gallate etc.) were considerably reduced, suggesting that the flavonoid components generated from different metabolic branches played different roles in tea leaves. Furthermore, the intracellular localization of flavonoids and the expression pattern of genes involved in secondary metabolic pathways indicate a potential photoprotective function of dihydroxylated flavonoids in light-sensitive tea leaves. Our results suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and the antioxidation effects of flavonoids help chlorotic tea plants survive under high light stress, providing new evidence to clarify the functional roles of flavonoids, which accumulate to high levels in tea plants. Moreover, flavonoids with ortho-dihydroxylated B-rings played a greater role in photo-protection to improve the acclimatization of tea plants.

  20. Quercetin: a versatile flavonoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Deepak Kumar Rai

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Associative evidence from observational and intervention studies in human subjects shows that a diet including plant foods (particularly fruit and vegetables rich in antioxidants conveys health benefits. There is no evidence that any particular nutrient or class of bioactive substances makes a special contribution to these benefits. Flavonoids occur naturally in fruits, vegetables and beverages such as tea and wine. Quercetin is the major flavonoid which belongs to the class called flavonols. Quercetin is found in many common foods including apples, tea, onions, nuts, berries, cauliflower, cabbage and many other foods. Quercetin provides many health promoting benefits, including improvement of cardiovascular health, eye diseases, allergic disorders, arthritis, reducing risk for cancers and many more. The main aim of this review is to obtain a further understanding of the reported beneficial health effects of Quercetin, its pharmacological effects, clinical application and also to evaluate its safety.

  1. Flavonoids of Steganotaenia araliacea

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Omolo, JJ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Communication www.usa-journals.com Omolo, et al., 2014: Vol 2(8) 52 ajrc.journal@gmail.com Flavonoids of Steganotaenia araliacea 1,2,3*Omolo J.J., 2Maharaj V., 2... Communication www.usa-journals.com Omolo, et al., 2014: Vol 2(8) 53 ajrc.journal@gmail.com Introduction The Tanga Aids Working Group (TAWG) in collaboration...

  2. Lettuce flavonoids screening and phenotyping by chlorophyll fluorescence excitation ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivcak, Marek; Brückova, Klaudia; Sytar, Oksana; Brestic, Marian; Olsovska, Katarina; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I

    2017-06-01

    Environmentally induced variation and the genotypic differences in flavonoid and phenolic content in lettuce can be reliably detected using the appropriate parameters derived from the records of rapid non-invasive fluorescence technique. The chlorophyll fluorescence excitation ratio method was designed as a rapid and non-invasive tool to estimate the content of UV-absorbing phenolic compounds in plants. Using this technique, we have assessed the dynamics of accumulation of flavonoids related to developmental changes and environmental effects. Moreover, we have tested appropriateness of the method to identify the genotypic differences and fluctuations in total phenolics and flavonoid content in lettuce. Six green and two red genotypes of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) grown in pots were exposed to two different environments for 50 days: direct sunlight (UV-exposed) and greenhouse conditions (low UV). The indices based on the measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence after red, green and UV excitation indicated increase of the content of UV-absorbing compounds and anthocyanins in the epidermis of lettuce leaves. In similar, the biochemical analyses performed at the end of the experiment confirmed significantly higher total phenolic and flavonoid content in lettuce plants exposed to direct sun compared to greenhouse conditions and in red compared to green genotypes. As the correlation between the standard fluorescence indices and the biochemical records was negatively influenced by the presence of red genotypes, we proposed the use of a new parameter named Modified Flavonoid Index (MFI) taking into an account both absorbance changes due to flavonol and anthocyanin content, for which the correlation with flavonoid and phenolic content was relatively good. Thus, our results confirmed that the fluorescence excitation ratio method is useful for identifying the major differences in phenolic and flavonoid content in lettuce plants and it can be used for high-throughput pre

  3. Determination of linuron in chamomile by LC-MS/MS using the QuEChERS extraction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana D. Špirović Trifunović

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Linuron is a selective herbicide used for the control of broadleaf weeds. Its mode of action is the inhibition of photosynthesis. The QuEChERS method for extraction of linuron residues from chamomile was used. The LC–MS/MS method was used for determination of linuron residues. Its linearity was studied in a range of 0.025-0.50 μg/ml using matrix-matched calibration, and the determination coefficient (R2 was higher than 0.99. Blank chamomile samples were spiked with linuron solution at three concentration levels yielding recoveries of over 90%. The internal standard added in all samples was isoproturon–d6. There were no linuron residues in chamomile flowers, while the residues ranged from 0.010 to 0.040 mg/kg in the flower stalk samples.

  4. Effect of Ginger and Chamomile on Nausea and Vomiting Caused by Chemotherapy in Iranian Women with Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaati, Fateme; Najafi, Safa; Kashaninia, Zahra; Sadeghi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) places a significant burden on the patient. Herbal agents are the most commonly complementary therapies used among the public. This study was done to determine the effect of ginger and chamomile capsules on nausea and vomiting in cases undergoing chemotherapy for breast cancer (BC). In a randomized, double-blind and clinical trial study, 65 women with BC undergoing chemotherapy were referred to Breast Cancer Research Center, Tehran, Iran, between May 2013 to June 2014. Regimen for ginger group for 5 days before and 5 days after chemotherapy was: 2 times a day and 500 mg capsules of powdered ginger root in addition to a routine antiemetic regimen consisting of dexamethasone, metoclopramide and aprepitant (DMA) capsules. Chamomile group similarly was: 2 times a day and 500 mg capsules of Matricaria chamomilla extract in addition to a routine antiemetic regimen consisting of DMA capsules. Control group, routine antiemetic regimen consisting of DMA capsules. There were no significant differences between the ginger, chamomile and control groups regarding age. Drugs used for chemotherapy were identical and duration of disease was also matched (1-4 months). Ginger and chamomile were both significantly effective for reducing the frequency of vomiting, there being no significant difference between the ginger and chamomile groups. Moreover, unlike the chamomile, ginger significantly influenced the frequency of nausea. According to the findings of this study, it should be declared that taking ginger capsules (1 g/day) might relieve CINV safely. Nurses dealing directly with cancer patients should be responsible for providing educational programs for patients and their families about how to deal with their drug regimens and associated side effects.

  5. Comparative Developmental Toxicity of Flavonoids Using an Integrative Zebrafish System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugel, Sean M; Bonventre, Josephine A; Tanguay, Robert L

    2016-11-01

    Flavonoids are a large, structurally diverse class of bioactive naturally occurring chemicals commonly detected in breast milk, soy based infant formulas, amniotic fluid, and fetal cord blood. The potential for pervasive early life stage exposures raises concerns for perturbation of embryogenesis, though developmental toxicity and bioactivity information is limited for many flavonoids. Therefore, we evaluated a suite of 24 flavonoid and flavonoid-like chemicals using a zebrafish embryo-larval toxicity bioassay-an alternative model for investigating developmental toxicity of environmentally relevant chemicals. Embryos were exposed to 1-50 µM of each chemical from 6 to 120 h postfertilization (hpf), and assessed for 26 adverse developmental endpoints at 24, 72, and 120 hpf. Behavioral changes were evaluated in morphologically normal animals at 24 and 72 hpf, at 120 hpf using a larval photomotor response (LPR) assay. Gene expression was comparatively evaluated for all compounds for effects on biomarker transcripts indicative of AHR (cyp1a) and ER (cyp19a1b, esr1, lhb, vtg) pathway bioactivity. Overall, 15 of 24 flavonoids elicited adverse effects on one or more of the developmental or behavioral endpoints. Hierarchical clustering and principle component analyses compared toxicity profiles and identified 3 distinct groups of bioactive flavonoids. Despite robust induction of multiple estrogen-responsive biomarkers, co-exposure with ER and GPER antagonists did not ameliorate toxicity, suggesting ER-independence and alternative modes of action. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that development is sensitive to perturbation by bioactive flavonoids in zebrafish that are not related to traditional estrogen receptor mode of action pathways. This integrative zebrafish platform provides a useful framework for evaluating flavonoid developmental toxicity and hazard prioritization. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of

  6. Distinct mechanisms of relaxation to bioactive components from chamomile species in porcine isolated blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.E.; Allen, S.; Chang, A.P.Y.; Henderson, H.; Hobson, G.C.; Karania, B.; Morgan, K.N.; Pek, A.S.Y.; Raghvani, K.; Shee, C.Y.; Shikotra, J.; Street, E.; Abbas, Z.; Ellis, K.; Heer, J.K.; Alexander, S.P.H.

    2013-01-01

    German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), a widely-used herbal medicine, has been reported to have a wide range of biological effects, including smooth muscle relaxation. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of representative compounds from chamomile (apigenin, luteolin, (−)-α-bisabolol, farnesene, umbelliferone; 3–30 μM) on vascular tone using porcine coronary and splenic arteries mounted for isometric tension recording in isolated tissue baths and precontracted with the thromboxane-mimetic U46619. Apigenin, luteolin, and (−)-α-bisabolol produced slow, concentration-dependent relaxations in both the coronary and splenic arteries that were not blocked by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase or potassium channels. Removal of extracellular calcium inhibited the relaxations to all three compounds, and these compounds also inhibited calcium re-addition-evoked contractions, indicating that the relaxation response may be mediated through inhibition of calcium influx. Apigenin and luteolin, but not (−)-α-bisabolol, enhanced the relaxation to the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside, indicating that apigenin and luteolin may act to regulate cyclic GMP levels. Umbelliferone produced a rapid, transient relaxation in the splenic artery, but not the coronary artery, that was inhibited by L-NAME and removal of the endothelium, suggesting an influence on nitric oxide production. Farnesene, at concentrations up to 30 μM, was without effect in either blood vessel. In conclusion, hydroxylated compounds (apigenin, luteolin and (−)-α-bisabolol) found in chamomile all caused a slow relaxation of isolated blood vessels through an effect on calcium influx. Umbelliferone, on the other hand, produced a rapid, transient relaxation dependent upon release of nitric oxide from the endothelium. - Highlights: • Apigenin, luteolin, and (-)-α-bisabolol are present in chamomile. • They produced slow, concentration-dependent relaxations in arteries. • These

  7. Distinct mechanisms of relaxation to bioactive components from chamomile species in porcine isolated blood vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R.E., E-mail: Richard.roberts@nottingham.ac.uk; Allen, S.; Chang, A.P.Y.; Henderson, H.; Hobson, G.C.; Karania, B.; Morgan, K.N.; Pek, A.S.Y.; Raghvani, K.; Shee, C.Y.; Shikotra, J.; Street, E.; Abbas, Z.; Ellis, K.; Heer, J.K.; Alexander, S.P.H., E-mail: steve.alexander@nottingham.ac.uk

    2013-11-01

    German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), a widely-used herbal medicine, has been reported to have a wide range of biological effects, including smooth muscle relaxation. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of representative compounds from chamomile (apigenin, luteolin, (−)-α-bisabolol, farnesene, umbelliferone; 3–30 μM) on vascular tone using porcine coronary and splenic arteries mounted for isometric tension recording in isolated tissue baths and precontracted with the thromboxane-mimetic U46619. Apigenin, luteolin, and (−)-α-bisabolol produced slow, concentration-dependent relaxations in both the coronary and splenic arteries that were not blocked by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase or potassium channels. Removal of extracellular calcium inhibited the relaxations to all three compounds, and these compounds also inhibited calcium re-addition-evoked contractions, indicating that the relaxation response may be mediated through inhibition of calcium influx. Apigenin and luteolin, but not (−)-α-bisabolol, enhanced the relaxation to the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside, indicating that apigenin and luteolin may act to regulate cyclic GMP levels. Umbelliferone produced a rapid, transient relaxation in the splenic artery, but not the coronary artery, that was inhibited by L-NAME and removal of the endothelium, suggesting an influence on nitric oxide production. Farnesene, at concentrations up to 30 μM, was without effect in either blood vessel. In conclusion, hydroxylated compounds (apigenin, luteolin and (−)-α-bisabolol) found in chamomile all caused a slow relaxation of isolated blood vessels through an effect on calcium influx. Umbelliferone, on the other hand, produced a rapid, transient relaxation dependent upon release of nitric oxide from the endothelium. - Highlights: • Apigenin, luteolin, and (-)-α-bisabolol are present in chamomile. • They produced slow, concentration-dependent relaxations in arteries. • These

  8. Flavonoids from Lonchocarpus muehlbergianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães Aderbal F.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The light petroleum extract from the roots of Lonchocarpus muehlbergianus Hassl contained nine flavonoids, including six new ones. These are 2,4-cis-2,4,5,8-tetramethoxy-(2,3:6,7-furanoflavan; 2,4-cis-4-hydroxy-2,5,8-trimethoxy-(2,3:6,7-furanoflavan; 2,4-cis-2-prenyloxy-4,5,8-trimethoxy-(2,3:6,7-fu-ranoflavan; 2,4-cis-2-prenyloxy-4-hydroxy-5,8-dimethoxy-(2,3:6,7-furanoflavan; 2',5',6'-trimethoxy-9-(1,1-dimethylallyoxy-[2,3:3,4]-furanochalcone; 5,6-dimethoxy-(2,3:7,8-furanoflavone, identi-fied by analysis of their spectral data (UV, IR, ¹H and 13C NMR, 2D-NMR, NOE and MS. The natural occurrence of 2,4-dioxygenated flavan derivatives is being reported for the first time. Quantitative analysis of the petrol extract, by using reversed-phase HPLC, showed that the most abundant flavonoid in the extract is 2,4-cis-2,4,5,8- tetramethoxy-(2,3:6,7-furanoflavan.

  9. Recent discoveries of anticancer flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffa, Demetrio; Maggio, Benedetta; Raimondi, Maria Valeria; Plescia, Fabiana; Daidone, Giuseppe

    2017-12-15

    In this review we report the recent advances in anticancer activity of the family of natural occurring flavonoids, covering the time span of the last five years. The bibliographic data will be grouped, on the basis of biological information, in two great categories: reports in which the extract plants bioactivity is reported and the identification of each flavonoid is present or not, and reports in which the anticancer activity is attributable to purified and identified flavonoids from plants. Wherever possible, the targets and mechanisms of action as well as the structure-activity relationships of the molecules will be reported. Also, in the review it was thoroughly investigated the recent discovery on flavonoids containing the 2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one system even if some examples of unusual flavonoids, bearing a non-aromatic B-ring or other ring condensed to the base structure are reported. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of chamomile supplements to feeding doses on antimicrobial parameters in poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Jakubcova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to a ban of use of antibiotic growth promoters in the poultry industry it is necessary to look for alternative solutions. The use of some herbs showing antimicrobial effects can be one of such alternatives. In this experiment, effects of three different concentrations of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla extract, (0.3%; 0.6% and 1.2% in feeding doses on the microbial population in the gastrointestinal tract of growing broiler chickens were studied. The main attention was paid to the population of Clostridium perfringens and to numbers of coliform microbes. Clostridia were cultivated under anaerobic conditions at 46 °C on the Tryptone Sulfite Neomycin (TSN agar for a period of 24 hours. Coliform microbes were grown on the violet red bile lactose (VRBL agar at 37 °C for a period of 24 hours. The experiment lasted 39 days and involved 80 chicks that were slaughtered in the course of their growth period at the age of 18, 25, 32 and 39 days; there were 5 chicks in each group. The obtained results indicated that increasing doses of chamomile in the feeding ration decreased numbers of coliform microbes in the digestive tract of chicks and also reduced the population of C. perfingens.

  11. CHAMOMILE PRODUCTION USING SUPPLEMENTARY IRRIGATION AND ORGANIC FERTILIZATION IN SANDY SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CATARINY CABRAL ALEMAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of medicinal plants in the herbal medicine of Brazilian Health System has intensified production and the need for developing efficient agricultural techniques that promote greater productivity of these species. The objective of this work was to evaluate the chamomile production at field conditions as a function of irrigation depths and organic fertilizer rates. The experiment was conducted in the Universidade do Oeste Paulista (Campus II experimental area, in Presidente Prudente, São Paulo State, Brazil. A triple factorial experimental design was used, consisting of irrigation rates (150, 100, 75, 50, 25 and 0% of the reference evapotranspiration - ETo, organic manure types (poultry and cattle manure and manure rates (0, 3 and 5 kg m-2, with four replications. The capitula production per plant, capitula dry weight and yield per water input (water use efficiency were evaluated. The supplementary irrigation combined with organic manure fertilization provided the highest capitula yield for chamomile crop in the Presidente Prudente region. The combination of poultry manure at rate of 5 kg m-2 with water depth equal to 150% of the ETo resulted in higher average values of capitula fresh and dry weight and water use efficiency.

  12. Octulosonic acid derivatives from Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile) with activities against inflammation and metabolic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianping; Khan, Shabana I; Wang, Mei; Vasquez, Yelkaira; Yang, Min Hye; Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Avonto, Cristina; Smillie, Troy J; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2014-03-28

    Six new octulosonic acid derivatives (1-6) were isolated from the flower heads of Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile). Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic interpretation. The biological activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated toward multiple targets related to inflammation and metabolic disorder such as NAG-1, NF-κB, iNOS, ROS, PPARα, PPARγ, and LXR. Similar to the action of NSAIDs, all the six compounds (1-6) increased NAG-1 activity 2-3-fold. They also decreased cellular oxidative stress by inhibiting ROS generation. Compounds 3, 5, and 6 activated PPARγ 1.6-2.1-fold, while PPARα was activated 1.4-fold by compounds 5 and 6 only. None of the compounds showed significant activity against iNOS or NF-κB. This is the first report of biological activity of octulosonic acid derivatives toward multiple pathways related to inflammation and metabolic disorder. The reported anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, antiedemic, and antioxidant activities of Roman chamomile could be partly explained as due to the presence of these constituents.

  13. Inhalation of Roman chamomile essential oil attenuates depressive-like behaviors in Wistar Kyoto rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yingying; Wang, Ting; Wang, Rong; Ma, Yichuan; Song, Shanshan; Liu, Juan; Hu, Weiwei; Li, Shengtian

    2017-06-01

    The idea of aromatherapy, using essential oils, has been considered as an alternative antidepressant treatment. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Roman chamomile essential oil inhalation for two weeks on depressive-like behaviors in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. We found that inhalation of either Roman chamomile or one of its main components α-pinene, attenuated depressive-like behavior in WKY rats in the forced swim test. Using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation analysis (iTRAQ), we found that inhalation of α-pinene increased expression of proteins that are involved in oxidative phosphorylation, such as cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6C-2, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 7A2, ATPase inhibitor in the hippocampus, and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6C-2, ATP synthase subunit e, Acyl carrier protein, and Cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit 6 in the PFC (prefrontal cortex). In addition, using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction technique, we confirmed an increase of parvalbumin mRNA expression in the hippocampus, which was shown to be upregulated by 2.8-fold in iTRAQ analysis, in α-pinene treated WKY rats. These findings collectively suggest the involvement of mitochondrial functions and parvalbumin-related signaling in the antidepressant effect of α-pinene inhalation.

  14. Flavonoids from Pseudotsuga menziesii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauze-Baranowska, Mirosława; Sowiński, Paweł; Kawiak, Anna; Sparzak, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Four O-acylated flavonol glycosides, new in the plant kingdom, were isolated from the needles of Pseudotsuga menziesii. Their structures were established by 1D and 2D NMR and MS data as: daglesioside I [kaempferol 3-O-[2",5"-O-(4''',4(IV)-dihydroxy)-beta-truxinoyl]-alpha-L-arabinofuranoside] (1), daglesioside II [kaempferol 3-O-[2",5"-O-(4"'-hydroxy)-beta-truxinoyl]-alpha-L-arabinofuranoside] (2), daglesioside III [kaempferol 3-O-[2",5"-di-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl]-alpha-L-arabinofuranoside] (3), and daglesioside IV [kaempferol 3-O-[3",6"-di-O-(E)-cinnamoyl]-beta-D-glucopyranoside] (4). In addition, the known flavonoids (E)-tiliroside, (E)-ditiliroside, astragalin (kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside), isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin were identified. The cytotoxic activity of compounds 1 and 3 was evaluated towards the HL-60, HeLa, and MDA-MB468 cell lines.

  15. Evaluation of proline, chlorophyll, soluble sugar content and uptake of nutrients in the German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L. under drought stress and organic fertilizer treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Salehi

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Totally, organic fertilization by vermicompost could partly alleviate the effect of drought stress on chamomile by increasing N, P and K uptake and leaf soluble sugar, especially in stressed treatments.

  16. Antiartherosclerotic Effects of Plant Flavonoids

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    Shamala Salvamani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is the process of hardening and narrowing the arteries. Atherosclerosis is generally associated with cardiovascular diseases such as strokes, heart attacks, and peripheral vascular diseases. Since the usage of the synthetic drug, statins, leads to various side effects, the plants flavonoids with antiartherosclerotic activity gained much attention and were proven to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis in vitro and in vivo based on different animal models. The flavonoids compounds also exhibit lipid lowering effects and anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic properties. The future development of flavonoids-based drugs is believed to provide significant effects on atherosclerosis and its related diseases. This paper discusses the antiatherosclerotic effects of selected plant flavonoids such as quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, rutin, naringenin, catechin, fisetin, and gossypetin.

  17. Flavonoid intake and all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Kerry L; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Croft, Kevin D; Lewis, Joshua R; Prince, Richard L

    2015-05-01

    Flavonoids are bioactive compounds found in foods such as tea, chocolate, red wine, fruit, and vegetables. Higher intakes of specific flavonoids and flavonoid-rich foods have been linked to reduced mortality from specific vascular diseases and cancers. However, the importance of flavonoids in preventing all-cause mortality remains uncertain. The objective was to explore the association between flavonoid intake and risk of 5-y mortality from all causes by using 2 comprehensive food composition databases to assess flavonoid intake. The study population included 1063 randomly selected women aged >75 y. All-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular mortalities were assessed over 5 y of follow-up through the Western Australia Data Linkage System. Two estimates of flavonoid intake (total flavonoidUSDA and total flavonoidPE) were determined by using food composition data from the USDA and the Phenol-Explorer (PE) databases, respectively. During the 5-y follow-up period, 129 (12%) deaths were documented. Participants with high total flavonoid intake were at lower risk [multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI)] of 5-y all-cause mortality than those with low total flavonoid consumption [total flavonoidUSDA: 0.37 (0.22, 0.58); total flavonoidPE: 0.36 (0.22, 0.60)]. Similar beneficial relations were observed for both cardiovascular disease mortality [total flavonoidUSDA: 0.34 (0.17, 0.69); flavonoidPE: 0.32 (0.16, 0.61)] and cancer mortality [total flavonoidUSDA: 0.25 (0.10, 0.62); flavonoidPE: 0.26 (0.11, 0.62)]. Using the most comprehensive flavonoid databases, we provide evidence that high consumption of flavonoids is associated with reduced risk of mortality in older women. The benefits of flavonoids may extend to the etiology of cancer and cardiovascular disease. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Microbial biotransformation of bioactive flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hui; Chen, Xiaoqing; Jassbi, Amir Reza; Xiao, Jianbo

    2015-01-01

    The bioactive flavonoids are considered as the most important phytochemicals in food, which exert a wide range of biological benefits for human being. Microbial biotransformation strategies for production of flavonoids have attracted considerable interest because they allow yielding novel flavonoids, which do not exist in nature. In this review, we summarize the existing knowledge on the production and biotransformation of flavonoids by various microbes. The main reactions during microbial biotransformation are hydroxylation, dehydroxylation, O-methylation, O-demethylation, glycosylation, deglycosylation, dehydrogenation, hydrogenation, C ring cleavage of the benzo-γ-pyrone system, cyclization, and carbonyl reduction. Cunninghamella, Penicillium, and Aspergillus strains are very popular to biotransform flavonoids and they can perform almost all the reactions with excellent yields. Aspergillus niger is one of the most applied microorganisms in the flavonoids' biotransformation; for example, A. niger can transfer flavanone to flavan-4-ol, 2'-hydroxydihydrochalcone, flavone, 3-hydroxyflavone, 6-hydroxyflavanone, and 4'-hydroxyflavanone. The hydroxylation of flavones by microbes usually happens on the ortho position of hydroxyl group on the A ring and C-4' position of the B ring and microbes commonly hydroxylate flavonols at the C-8 position. The microorganisms tend to hydroxylate flavanones at the C-5, 6, and 4' positions; however, for prenylated flavanones, dihydroxylation often takes place on the C4α=C5α double bond on the prenyl group (the side chain of A ring). Isoflavones are usually hydroxylated at the C-3' position of the B ring by microorganisms. The microbes convert flavonoids to their 7-O-glycosides and 3-O-glycosides (when flavonoids have a hydroxyl moiety at the C-3 position). The demethylation of multimethoxyl flavonoids by microbes tends to happen at the C-3' and C-4' positions of the B ring. Multimethoxyl flavanones and isoflavone are demethylated at

  19. Flavonoids from Teucrium fruticans L.

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    Wanda Kisiel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available From aerial parts of Teucrium fncticans L. three flavonoids were isolated and identified as 5-hydroxy-6, 7, 3', 4'-tetramethoxyflavone, 5, 4'-dihydroxy-6, 7, 3'-trimethoxyflavone (cirsilineol and 5, 4'-dihydroxy-6, 7-dimethoxyflavone (cirsimaritin. The former compound was found to be a predominant flavone aglycone constituent of the plant material. This is the first report on the isolation of flavonoids from the plant.

  20. A novel topical association with zinc oxide, chamomile and aloe vera extracts - stability and safety studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Reis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, natural products show an enormous potential for pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. The goals of this study were to formulate and to characterise a novel combination of natural products. Formulations were 1 an oil-in-water emulsion, 2 a water-in-oil emulsion and 3 a cleansing solution. Zinc oxide was chosen as an active ingredient due to its healing properties, and chamomile and aloe vera extracts were chosen due to their antiseptic, anti-inflammatory and tissue regenerating properties. Organoleptic characteristics, pH, viscosity and in vitro efficacy for the most common bacteria and yeast of human skin were evaluated. Preliminary and accelerated stability studies and safety tests were also performed. All optimized products were stable, smooth in texture, effective against bacteria and yeast, and safe, justifying further studies. Results suggest that these novel products might be a promising source of natural compounds with soothing and regenerative properties for skin care.

  1. Energy analyses and drying kinetics of chamomile leaves in microwave-convective dryer

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    Ali Motevali

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drying characteristics and energy aspects as well as mathematical modeling of thin layer drying kinetics of chamomile in a microwave-convective dryer are reported in this article. Drying experiments were carried out at 8 microwave power levels (200–900 W, air temperature of 50 °C, and air velocity of 0.5 m/s. Increasing the microwave output power from 200 to 900 W, decreased the drying time from 40 to 10 min. The drying process took place in the falling rate period. The Midilli et al. model showed the best fit to the experimental drying data. Moisture diffusivity values increase with decreasing moisture content down to 1.70 (kg water kg−1 dry matter but decrease with a further decrease in moisture content from 1.72 to 0.96 (kg water kg−1 dry matter. The average values of Deff increased with microwave power from 5.46 to 39.63 × 10−8 (m2 s−1. Energy consumption increased and energy efficiency decreased with moisture content of chamomile samples. Average specific energy consumption, energy efficiency and energy loss varied in the range 18.93–28.15 MJ kg−1 water, 8.25–13.07% and 16.79–26.01 MJ kg−1 water, respectively, while the best energy results were obtained at 400 W, 50 °C and 0.5 m s−1.

  2. Effects of bacterial inoculants on the indigenous microbiome and secondary metabolites of chamomile plants

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    Ruth eSchmidt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant-associated bacteria fulfil important functions for plant growth and health of their host. However, our knowledge about the impact of bacterial treatments on the host’s microbiome and physiology is limited. The present study was conducted to assess the impact of bacterial inoculants on the microbiome of chamomile plants Chamomilla recutita (L. Rauschert grown in a field under organic management in Egypt. Chamomile seedlings were inoculated with three indigenous Gram-positive strains (Streptomyces subrutilus Wbn2-11, Bacillus subtilis Co1-6, Paenibacillus polymyxa Mc5Re-14 from Egypt and three European Gram-negative strains (Pseudomonas fluorescens L13-6-12, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila P69, Serratia plymuthica 3Re4-18 already known for their beneficial plant-microbe interaction. Molecular fingerprints of 16S rRNA gene as well as real-time PCR analyses did not show statistically significant differences for all applied bacterial antagonists compared to the control. In contrast, a pyrosequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene libraries revealed significant differences in the community structure of bacteria between the treatments. These differences could be clearly shown by a shift within the community structure and corresponding beta-diversity indices. Moreover, B. subtilis Co1-6 and P. polymyxa Mc5Re-14 showed an enhancement of the bioactive secondary metabolite apigenin-7-O-glucoside. This indicates a possible new function of bacterial inoculants: to interact with the plant microbiome as well as with the plant metabolome.

  3. Structure, bioactivity, and synthesis of methylated flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Lingrong; Jiang, Yueming; Yang, Jiali; Zhao, Yupeng; Tian, Miaomiao; Yang, Bao

    2017-06-01

    Methylated flavonoids are an important type of natural flavonoid derivative with potentially multiple health benefits; among other things, they have improved bioavailability compared with flavonoid precursors. Flavonoids have been documented to have broad bioactivities, such as anticancer, immunomodulation, and antioxidant activities, that can be elevated, to a certain extent, by methylation. Understanding the structure, bioactivity, and bioavailability of methylated flavonoids, therefore, is an interesting topic with broad potential applications. Though methylated flavonoids are widely present in plants, their levels are usually low. Because developing efficient techniques to produce these chemicals would likely be beneficial, we provide an overview of their chemical and biological synthesis. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. EFFECT OF USING SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS (ANISE, CHAMOMILE AND GINGER) ON PRODUCTIVE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE OF JAPANESE QUAIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABU TALEB, A.M.; HAMODI, S.J.; EL AFIFI, SH.F.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding medicinal plants to Japanese quail diet on their performance and some metabolic functions. Four hundred, one day old, unsexed Japanese quails were used in this study. Quails were divided equally into four groups of 100 birds each according to medicinal plant additives. Group one was control (without additives, and the other groups contained 0.3% from anise (group 2), chamomile (group 3) and ginger (group 4). The end of the experiment was terminated when birds were 6 weeks old. Body weight, feed intake, some organs weight and some blood parameters were measured.The results indicated that addition of medicinal plants (anise, chamomile and ginger) improved growth rate, carcass and the relative weights of spleen, ovary and testis. Also, significant increases were observed in RBC, WBC, Hb, PCV, total protein and globulin. There was reduction in cholesterol in treated groups as compared to the control.The present results confirmed the beneficial effects of dietary medicinal plants (anise, chamomile and ginger) to improve the health condition as well as the productive and physiological characteristics of quails

  5. Effects of Chamomile Hydro-Alcoholic Extract (Matricaria chamomilla on the Aborted Fetuses, Serum Sex Hormones and Ovarian Follicles in Adult Female Rats

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    Zahra Mirzakhani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Nowadays, female infertility and abortion is considered one of the most important issues in the medical world. Due to high consumption of chamomile as a medicinal herb, this study aimed to investigate the effects of chamomile consumption on abortion, estrogen, progesterone, FSH, LH hormones and ovarian follicles in adult female rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 80 adult female rats were divided to 2 categories in 5 groups of 8 pregnant and non-pregnant rats, including control groups, sham group and groups receiving intraperitoneal doses of 30, 60 and 120 mg/kg chamomile hydro-alcoholic extract. At the end of the day 16 of pregnancy, aborted fetuses in pregnant groups were counted, and in day 21, the number of follicles and corpora-lutea in non-pregnant groups was obtained by separating ovaries, and sexual hormone levels were measured after phlebotomizing the samples. The results were analyzed by SPSS software (Ver.18 using ANOVA and Tukey tests. Significant difference of data was set at p≤0.05. Results: The results of this study showed that chamomile caused a significant increase in the number of aborted fetuses and follicle atresia and a significant decrease (p≤0.05 in serum level of estrogen, progesterone, FSH and LH hormones as well as the number of pre-antral follicle, antral follicles, graph and corpora-lutea. Conclusion: The results showed chamomile extract decreased LH and FSH, thereby decreasing ovarian follicles, sexual hormones and aborted fetuses.

  6. Modification of flavonoid biosynthesis in crop plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijlen, E.G.W.M.; Vos, de C.H.; Tunen, van A.J.; Bovy, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    Flavonoids comprise the most common group of polyphenolic plant secondary metabolites. In plants, flavonoids play an important role in biological processes. Beside their function as pigments in flowers and fruits, to attract pollinators and seed dispersers, flavonoids are involved in UV-scavenging,

  7. Analysis and health effects of flavonoids.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollman, P.C.H.; Hertog, M.G.L.; Katan, M.B.

    1996-01-01

    Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that occur ubiquitously in foods of plant origin. Over 4000 different flavonoids have been described. Flavonoids have a variety of biological effects in numerous mammalian cell systems, in vitro as well as in vivo. Recently much attention has been paid to their

  8. Flavonoids and terpenoids from Helichrysum forskahlii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rehaily, Adnan J; Albishi, Omar A; El-Olemy, Mahmoud M; Mossa, Jaber S

    2008-06-01

    Three new flavonoids, namely helichrysone A (1), helichrysone B (2) and helichrysone C (3) were isolated from the aerial parts of Helichrysum forskahlii, together with 10 known flavonoids, three triterpenes, and one sesquiterpene. The structures of the new flavonoids 1-3 were established by 1D and 2D NMR spectral data. In addition, the antimicrobial activities of the isolated compounds were determined.

  9. Antioxidant activity of banana flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, S; Presannakumar, G; Vijayalakshmi, N R

    2008-06-01

    The antioxidant activity of flavonoids from banana (Musa paradisiaca) was studied in rats fed normal as well as high fat diets. Concentrations of peroxidation products namely malondialdehyde, hydroperoxides and conjugated diens were significantly decreased whereas the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase were enhanced significantly. Concentrations of glutathione were also elevated in the treated animals.

  10. Catalase inhibition an anti cancer property of flavonoids: A kinetic and structural evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Debashis; Das, Asmita; Saha, Chabita

    2017-11-01

    Flavonoids are dietary polyphenols that present abundantly in fruits and vegetables. Flavonoids have inhibitory effects on enzymes and catalase is one among them. Catalase is a common enzyme ubiquitously found in all living organisms exposed to oxygen. It catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen (2H 2 O 2 →2H 2 O+O 2 ) . Inhibition of pure and cellular catalase from K562 cells by flavonoids was similar and exhibited the following efficacy; Myrecetin>Quercetin>Kaempferol and Quercetin>Luteolin>Apigenin demonstrating structure activity relationship. Circular Dichroism (CD) spectra have shown distinct loss in α-helical structure of the catalase on interaction with the flavonoids. All flavonoids inhibited the catalase activity by uncompetitive mechanism. The K m and V max values of pure catalase were observed to be 294mM -1 and 0.222mM -1 s -1 respectively and on inhibition with myrecetin the values decreased to a minimum of 23mM -1 and 0.014mM -1 s -1 respectively. Inhibition of catalase will directly results in increased production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and pro-oxidant property of flavonoids. This inhibition was reversed in presence of Cu 2+ ions because of the chelating affect of flavonoids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of German chamomile oil application on alleviating atopic dermatitis-like immune alterations in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon-Hee; Heo, Yong

    2010-01-01

    Historically, German chamomile (GC) oil has been used for treatment of skin disorders. BALB/c mice were sensitized twice a week with 100 µL of 1% 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and challenged twice the following week with 100 µL of 0.2% DNCB for atopic dermatitis induction. Thereafter, 3% GC oil was applied daily (70 µL, 6 times week) on the dorsal skin for 4 weeks. Saline or jojoba oil was used for the control mice. Blood was collected after second DNCB challenge, and at 2 and 4 weeks after initiating oil application. Serum IgE levels were significantly lowered in the GC oil application group at the end of the 4-week application period. The GC oil application for 4 weeks resulted in reduction in serum IgG1 level compared with that after 2-week application. The GC oil application group showed a significantly lower serum histamine level than the control group 2 weeks after oil application. Scratching frequency of the GC oil application group was significantly lower than either control groups. This study is to demonstrate GC oil's immunoregulatory potential for alleviating atopic dermatitis through influencing of Th2 cell activation. PMID:20195063

  12. Modification of abomasum contractility by flavonoids present in ruminants diet: in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, M; Chłopecka, M; Dziekan, N; Karlik, W

    2016-09-01

    Flavonoid supplementation is likely to be beneficial in improving rumen fermentation and in reducing the incidence of rumen acidosis and bloat. Flavonoids are also said to increase the metabolic performance during the peripartum period. Ruminants are constantly exposed to flavonoids present in feed. However, it is not clear if these phytochemicals can affect the activity of the gut smooth muscle. Therefore, the aim of the study was to verify the effect of three flavonoids on bovine isolated abomasum smooth muscle. The study was carried out on bovine isolated circular and longitudinal abomasal smooth muscle specimens. All experiments were conducted under isometric conditions. The effect of apigenin, luteolin and quercetin (0.001 to 100 µM) was evaluated on acetylcholine-precontracted preparations. The effect of multiple, but not cumulative, treatment and single treatment with each flavonoid on abomasum strips was compared. Apigenin (0.1 to 100 µM) dose-dependently showed myorelaxation effects. Luteolin and quercetin applied in low doses increased the force of the ACh-evoked reaction. However, if used in high doses in experiments testing a wide range of concentrations, their contractile effect either declined (luteolin) or was replaced by an antispasmodic effect (quercetin). Surprisingly, the reaction induced by flavonoids after repeated exposure to the same phytochemical was not reproducible in experiments testing only single exposure of abomasum strips to the same flavonoid used in a high concentration. Taking into account the physicochemical properties of flavonoids, this data suggests the ability of flavonoids to interfere with cell membranes and, subsequently, to modify their responsiveness. Assuming ruminant supplementation with luteolin or quercetin or their presence in daily pasture, a reduction of the likelihood of abomasum dysmotility should be expected.

  13. An exploratory study of salivary cortisol changes during chamomile extract therapy of moderate to severe generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, John R; Guo, Wensheng; Li, Qing S; Amsterdam, Jay D; Mao, Jun J

    2018-01-01

    Dysfunctions in stress biology are hypothesized to contribute to anxiety disorders, and to be ameliorated during successful treatment, but limited clinical data exist to support this hypothesis. We evaluated whether increases in morning cortisol and the diurnal cortisol slope, markers of stress biology, are associated with clinical response to chamomile therapy among subjects with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Among 45 subjects with DSM-IV diagnosed GAD in an open-label clinical trial of chamomile, salivary cortisol was assessed for three days each pre- and post-treatment, at 8am, 12pm, 4pm, and 8pm. Mixed model analyses assessed whether GAD symptom change predicted the degree to which cortisol levels changed during treatment. Symptom improvement during treatment was significantly associated with pre-to-post treatment changes in cortisol. Subjects who experienced more symptomatic improvement experienced significant increases in their morning salivary cortisol (β = 0.48, p < 0.001), and a greater decrease in cortisol from morning to the rest of the day (β = 0.55, p < 0.001). In addition, at baseline a lower cortisol level (β = -0.24, p = 0.023) and a lesser decrease in cortisol after morning (β = 0.30, p = 0.003) were associated with greater symptomatic improvement. Increases in morning salivary cortisol and the diurnal cortisol slope are associated with symptom improvement in chamomile treatment of GAD. Response to treatment for GAD could partially stem from normalization of stress biology dysfunction, but further work involving establishing abnormalities within-sample, ruling out of confounds (e.g., sleep), and a placebo control is necessary to conclude an amelioration effect. NCT01072344. URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01072344. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Adequacy and validation of an analytical method for the quantification of lead in chamomile tisanes produced in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Barrantes, Jeimy

    2014-01-01

    An analytical methodology is developed and validated to quantify lead in chamomile tisanes. Lead is quantified by utilizing the technique of flame atomic absorption spectroscopy in three brands of chamomile tisanes sold in Costa Rica to determine its safety and quality based on international standards. A method of sample preparation is established through a comparison of different forms of extraction. The acid digestion extraction method has been the procedure utilized, reaching an average recovery percentage of 97,1%, with a standard deviation of 2,3%. The optimization of the chosen analytical procedure and complete validation is performed. The results obtained in the validation of the analytical procedure have shown that the interval where is generated the best calibration curve in terms of the correlation coefficient and the value of the statistically significant intercept equal to zero, have been the comprised between (0,2-3,2) μg/mL (r 2 =0,9996), corresponding to a range between 20% to 320% of the maximum allowed limit. In addition, the procedure has been adequate in terms of accuracy (average recovery percentage 101,1%) and precision under repeatability and intermediate precision (RSD max. 9,3%) and limit of quantification (0,2551 μg/mL). The safety criterion of World Health Organization (WHO) is determined with respect to the concentration of lead in the analyzed products. The 9 analyzed samples of products to prepare chamomile tisanes have stayed without evidencing concentrations of lead above the limit value of 10 μg/g suggested for medicinal herbs by WHO [es

  15. Flavonoid Bioavailability and Attempts for Bioavailability Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilakarathna, Surangi H.; Rupasinghe, H. P. Vasantha

    2013-01-01

    Flavonoids are a group of phytochemicals that have shown numerous health effects and have therefore been studied extensively. Of the six common food flavonoid classes, flavonols are distributed ubiquitously among different plant foods whereas appreciable amounts of isoflavones are found in leguminous plant-based foods. Flavonoids have shown promising health promoting effects in human cell culture, experimental animal and human clinical studies. They have shown antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, anti-inflammatory effects as well as ability to modulate cell signaling and gene expression related disease development. Low bioavailability of flavonoids has been a concern as it can limit or even hinder their health effects. Therefore, attempts to improve their bioavailability in order to improve the efficacy of flavonoids are being studied. Further investigations on bioavailability are warranted as it is a determining factor for flavonoid biological activity. PMID:23989753

  16. Cancer chemoprevention through dietary flavonoids: what's limiting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amawi, Haneen; Ashby, Charles R; Tiwari, Amit K

    2017-06-19

    Flavonoids are polyphenols that are found in numerous edible plant species. Data obtained from preclinical and clinical studies suggest that specific flavonoids are chemo-preventive and cytotoxic against various cancers via a multitude of mechanisms. However, the clinical use of flavonoids is limited due to challenges associated with their effective use, including (1) the isolation and purification of flavonoids from their natural resources; (2) demonstration of the effects of flavonoids in reducing the risk of certain cancer, in tandem with the cost and time needed for epidemiological studies, and (3) numerous pharmacokinetic challenges (e.g., bioavailability, drug-drug interactions, and metabolic instability). Currently, numerous approaches are being used to surmount some of these challenges, thereby increasing the likelihood of flavonoids being used as chemo-preventive drugs in the clinic. In this review, we summarize the most important challenges and efforts that are being made to surmount these challenges.

  17. Impacts of simulated drought stress and artificial damage on concentrations of flavonoids in Jatropha curcas (L.), a biofuel shrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Ang Dawa; Kim, Jorma; Martiskainen, Olli; Klemola, Tero; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Tyystjärvi, Esa; Niemelä, Pekka; Vuorisalo, Timo

    2016-11-01

    We studied the possible roles of flavonoids in the antioxidant and antiherbivore chemistry in Jatropha curcas (L.), a Latin American shrub that holds great potential as a source of biofuel. Changes in flavonoid concentrations in the leaves of J. curcas seedlings exposed to artificial damage and to different rainfall patterns were assessed by applying a 3 2 -factorial experiment in a greenhouse. The concentrations of different flavonoids in the leaves of seedlings were significantly affected by interaction effects of artificial damage, drought stress and age of the seedling. The highest flavonoid concentrations were obtained in seedlings imposed to the highest percentage of artificial damage (50 %) and grown under extreme drought stress (200 mm year -1 ). In this treatment combination, flavonoid concentrations were three-fold as compared to seedlings exposed to the same level of artificial damage but grown in 1900 mm year -1 rainfall application. Without artificial damage, the concentration of flavonoids in the seedlings grown in 200 mm year -1 rainfall application was still two-fold compared to seedlings grown in higher (>800 mm year -1 ) rainfall applications. Thus, the observed flavonoid concentration patterns in the leaves of J. curcas seedlings were primarily triggered by drought stress and light rather than by artificial damage, suggesting that drought causes oxidative stress in J. curcas.

  18. Flavonoids: promising natural compounds against viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaryan, Hovakim; Arabyan, Erik; Oo, Adrian; Zandi, Keivan

    2017-09-01

    Flavonoids are widely distributed as secondary metabolites produced by plants and play important roles in plant physiology, having a variety of potential biological benefits such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activity. Different flavonoids have been investigated for their potential antiviral activities and several of them exhibited significant antiviral properties in in vitro and even in vivo studies. This review summarizes the evidence for antiviral activity of different flavonoids, highlighting, where investigated, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of action on viruses. We also present future perspectives on therapeutic applications of flavonoids against viral infections.

  19. In vivo Antibacterial and Wound Healing Activities of Roman Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemian, Hossein; Ghafourian, Sobhan; Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda; Houshmandfar, Reza; Badakhsh, Behzad; Taji, Asieh; Shavalipour, Aref; Mohebi, Reza; Ebrahim-Saraie, Hadi Sedigh; Houri, Hamidreza; Heidari, Hamid

    2018-01-01

    Today considerable number of drugs are produced from plants. Several plants with antibacterial and healing applications are used in medicine such as Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile L.). Wound infection is one of the most prevalent infections among infectious diseases around the world. Due to appearance of drug resistance, researchers are now paying attention to medicinal plants. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the antimicrobial and wound healing properties of C. nobile against Pseudomonas aeruginosa using in vivo conditions. Ethanolic extract of C. nobile was provided using standard method. The 5% C. nobile ointment was prepared by dissolving lyophilized extract in eucerin. Forty five male rats were obtained from Ilam university. After anesthetization and wound creation, wounds were infected by P. aeruginosa. The rats were divided into three groups, group I was treated with C. nobile ointment, group II was treated with tetracycline ointment and the third group was treated with base gel as control group. Antibacterial and wound healing activities of C. nobile ointment were more than tetracycline ointment significantly. Our results indicated that extract of C. nobile had effective antibacterial activity and accelerated the progression of wound healing. Our study indicated that antibacterial and wound healing activities of C. nobile ointment were notable. C. nobile therapy in combination with antibiotics can also be useful because medicinal plants contents operate in synergy with antibiotics. These results revealed the value of plant extracts to control antibiotic resistant bacteria in wound infections. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Effects of Plant Density and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Dry Flower Yield and Essential Oil Content of Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Sharafi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chamomile is a valuable medicinal plant and is used as spice and herbal medicine. Application of agronomical methods has important role in increasing quantitative and qualitative traits of this medicinal plant. Fertilizer management is an important factor in successful cultivation of medicinal plants, which could have positive effects on their quantitative and qualitative indices. This experiment was conducted in order to determine the effects of plant density and nitrogen (N fertilizer on dry flower yield and essential oil content of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla using factorial randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Three N rates from urea source (0, 100 and 200 kg/ha and three plant densities (28.6, 40 and 66.7 plants per m2 were considered. The results showed that the highest single plant yield was produced in the lowest plant density (28.6 plants per m2 and application of 100 kg/ha N. The highest dry flower yield of 474.1 kg/ha and essential oil content of 0.2% was produced in 25 cm row width and fixed plant spacing of 10 cm (40 plants per m2 and application of 100 kg/ha N.

  1. Comparison the effects of nitric oxide and spermidin pretreatment on alleviation of salt stress in chamomile plant (Matricaria recutita L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazelian Nasrin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress is an important environmental stress that produces reactive oxygen species in plants and causes oxidative injuries. In this investigation, salt stress reduced the shoot and root length, while increased the content of malondealdehyde, Hydrogen peroxide, and the activity of Ascorbate peroxidase andguaiacol peroxidase. Pretreatment of chamomile plants under salt stress with sodium nitroprussideand Spermidin caused enhancement of growth parameters and reduction of malondealdehyde and Hydrogen peroxide content. Pretreatment of plants with sodium nitroprusside remarkably increased Ascorbate peroxidase activity, while Spermidin pre-treatment significantly increased guaiacol peroxidase activity. Application of sodium nitroprusside or Spermidin with Methylene blue which is known to block cyclic guanosine monophosphate signaling pathway, reduced the protective effects of sodium nitroprussideand Spermidin in plants under salinity condition. The result of this study indicated that Methylene blue could partially and entirely abolish the protective effect of Nitric oxide on some physiological parameter. Methylene blue also has could reduce the alleviation effect of Spermidin on some of parameters in chamomile plant under salt stress, so with comparing the results of this study it seems that Spermidin probably acts through Nitric oxide pathway, but the use of 2-4- carboxyphenyl- 4,4,5,5- tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide is better to prove.

  2. Comparative effect of different concentrations of hydro-ethanolic extract of chamomile on freeze-thawn semen quality of rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hossein daghighkia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress during freeze-thawing process causes reduction in motility, viability, membrane functions and finally sperm fertility. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Chamomile extract as natural antioxidant on quality of cryopreserved ram sperm. In this study semen was collected from five mature rams twice a week using an artificial vagina and the ejaculates were pooled equally in order to eliminate the individual effects. Different levels of extract of Chamomile (0, 50, 66.66, 100 and 200 ml/dl of diluent solution were added to diluent based tris-egg yolk. After cooling, filling and sealing of the samples, they were frozen with nitrogen vapor and immersed in liquid nitrogen and were stored until evaluation time. After thawing, results showed that addition of 66.66 ml/dl of extract increased total motility, progressive motility, curvilinear velocity, straight–line velocity, linearity, viability and plasma membrane integrity of sperm compared to the control and other treatment groups (p

  3. Wine Flavonoids in Health and Disease Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Iva; Pérez-Gregorio, Rosa; Soares, Susana; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor

    2017-02-14

    Wine, and particularly red wine, is a beverage with a great chemical complexity that is in continuous evolution. Chemically, wine is a hydroalcoholic solution (~78% water) that comprises a wide variety of chemical components, including aldehydes, esters, ketones, lipids, minerals, organic acids, phenolics, soluble proteins, sugars and vitamins. Flavonoids constitute a major group of polyphenolic compounds which are directly associated with the organoleptic and health-promoting properties of red wine. However, due to the insufficient epidemiological and in vivo evidences on this subject, the presence of a high number of variables such as human age, metabolism, the presence of alcohol, the complex wine chemistry, and the wide array of in vivo biological effects of these compounds suggest that only cautious conclusions may be drawn from studies focusing on the direct effect of wine and any specific health issue. Nevertheless, there are several reports on the health protective properties of wine phenolics for several diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, some cancers, obesity, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, allergies and osteoporosis. The different interactions that wine flavonoids may have with key biological targets are crucial for some of these health-promoting effects. The interaction between some wine flavonoids and some specific enzymes are one example. The way wine flavonoids may be absorbed and metabolized could interfere with their bioavailability and therefore in their health-promoting effect. Hence, some reports have focused on flavonoids absorption, metabolism, microbiota effect and overall on flavonoids bioavailability. This review summarizes some of these major issues which are directly related to the potential health-promoting effects of wine flavonoids. Reports related to flavonoids and health highlight some relevant scientific information. However, there is still a gap between the knowledge of wine flavonoids bioavailability and their health

  4. Flavonoid variation in Eurasian Sedum and Sempervivum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, J.F; 't Hart, H; Elema, E.T; Bolck, A

    Flavonoids from vegetative parts of 29 species of Eurasian Sedum, Sedum meyeri-johannis from central East Africa, 34 species of Sempervivum, and Jovibarba heuffelii have been identified after acid hydrolysis. Ten flavonoid aglycones were detected, i.e. kaempferol, herbacetin, sexangularetin,

  5. Antimicrobial action of purified raspberry flavonoid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-02-07

    Feb 7, 2012 ... numerous research groups have sought to elucidate the antibacterial mechanisms of action of selected flavonoids. *Corresponding author. E-mail: bdsunjinxu@163.com. (Cushnie et al., 2005), but there have been no reports on the bacteriostatic and bactericidal action of raspberry flavonoid. In this paper ...

  6. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... Key words: Astragalus squarrosus, antioxidant, phenolics, flavonoids. INTRODUCTION ... Phenolic and flavonoid compounds are widely distri- buted plant constituents. ..... Antioxidant effects of some ginger constituents.

  7. Flavonoids as fruit and vegetable intake biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz

    of fruit and vegetable intakes. In Paper I, the urinary recovery of the 7 flavonoids in morning spot urine (i.e. all urine voids from midnight including the first morning void) was also found to respond to moderate increases in the intake of fruits and vegetables. However, the association was somewhat...... weaker than in 24h urine samples, indicating that the 24h urinary recovery of the 7 flavonoids is a stronger biomarker of the intake of fruit and vegetables than the urinary recovery of the 7 flavonoids in morning spot urine. In Paper II, the biokinetic profiles of some of the most important dietary......-individual variation in the absorption and urinary recovery of the flavonoids, and this makes it very difficult to separate individuals according to intake by use of the flavonoid biomarker in urine. The intra-individual variation was on the contrary low, and Paper II therefore supports the assumption, that 24h...

  8. Marine natural flavonoids: chemistry and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Beatriz T; Correia da Silva, Marta; Pinto, Madalena; Cidade, Honorina; Kijjoa, Anake

    2018-05-04

    As more than 70% of the world's surface is covered by oceans, marine organisms offer a rich and unlimited resource of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. These organisms have developed unique properties and bioactive compounds that are, in majority of them, unparalleled by their terrestrial counterparts due to the different surrounding ecological systems. Marine flavonoids have been extensively studied in the last decades due to a growing interest concerning their promising biological/pharmacological activities. The most common classes of marine flavonoids are flavones and flavonols, which are mostly isolated from marine plants. Although most of flavonoids are hydroxylated and methoxylated, some marine flavonoids possess an unusual substitution pattern, not commonly found in terrestrial organisms, namely the presence of sulphate, chlorine, and amino groups. This review presents, for the first time in a systematic way, the structure, natural occurrence, and biological activities of marine flavonoids.

  9. Cycle Time Optimization of Chamomile Package 120 MI Product at Blow Molding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Hermawan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Chamomile is a package which is applied for cosmetic. In industry this package is being processed by blow molding. Thereare many parameters that influence cycle time during production; in this project only three of them were varied, i.e. blowingpressure, blowing time and stopping time. Each parameter is determined three chosen level. Middle level is taken fromstandard setting of machining which is being used by industry. Top and bottom level is randomized. Three stopping time are0.1, 0.55, and 1.0 second. Blowing time are 10.5, 11.5 and 12.5 second. Where as, blowing pressures is 4, 5 and 6 bar.Combination of among levels is based on Box Behnken design. Those three parameters are called variable process. In theother hand, variable responses are cycle time and net weight. Each combination is replicated 5 times and then averaged. Thedata then is processed by using Minitab version 14th. Square regression of the model for cycle time is ?CT = 21,1300 - 0,0912X1 + 0,2000 X2 + 0,6313 X3 + 0,6100 X12 + 0,6975 X22 – 0,1000 X1 X2 – 0,1725 X1 X3 + 0,1100 X2 X3 and Net = 19,2933 –0,0088 X1 + 0,0175 X2 + 0,0712 X3 + 0,0133 X 21 + 0.0158 X22- 0.0217 X 23 + 0.0125 X1X2 - 0,0150 X1 X3 for product netweight. Where X1 is blowing pressure, X2 is blowing time and X3 is stopping time.The model developed then tested by lack offit testing, variance by ANOVA and R square. Second stage of model testing is residual test. Three tests are carry out, i.e.identically test and independency test and normality. Optimization of both values, cycle time and net weight, are searched byResponse Surface Method. By the method it is found that the optimum condition of cycle time is 20.5 seconds and net weightis 19.19 grams. The optimum condition is achieved when stopping is 0.1 second, blowing time 11.35 second and blowingpressure 5.1 bars.

  10. Flavonoids in Kidney Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Vargas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the latest advances in knowledge on the effects of flavonoids on renal function in health and disease. Flavonoids have antihypertensive, antidiabetic, and antiinflammatory effects, among other therapeutic activities. Many of them also exert renoprotective actions that may be of interest in diseases such as glomerulonephritis, diabetic nephropathy, and chemically-induced kidney insufficiency. They affect several renal factors that promote diuresis and natriuresis, which may contribute to their well-known antihypertensive effect. Flavonoids prevent or attenuate the renal injury associated with arterial hypertension, both by decreasing blood pressure and by acting directly on the renal parenchyma. These outcomes derive from their interference with multiple signaling pathways known to produce renal injury and are independent of their blood pressure-lowering effects. Oral administration of flavonoids prevents or ameliorates adverse effects on the kidney of elevated fructose consumption, high fat diet, and types I and 2 diabetes. These compounds attenuate the hyperglycemia-disrupted renal endothelial barrier function, urinary microalbumin excretion, and glomerular hyperfiltration that results from a reduction of podocyte injury, a determinant factor for albuminuria in diabetic nephropathy. Several flavonoids have shown renal protective effects against many nephrotoxic agents that frequently cause acute kidney injury (AKI or chronic kidney disease (CKD, such as LPS, gentamycin, alcohol, nicotine, lead or cadmium. Flavonoids also improve cisplatin- or methotrexate-induced renal damage, demonstrating important actions in chemotherapy, anticancer and renoprotective effects. A beneficial prophylactic effect of flavonoids has been also observed against AKI induced by surgical procedures such as ischemia/reperfusion (I/R or cardiopulmonary bypass. In several murine models of CKD, impaired kidney function was significantly improved by

  11. Effect of some plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and nitrogen fertilizer on morphological characteristics of german chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dastborhan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available .In order to investigate the effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and nitrogen fertilizer on morphological traits of german chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L., a field experiment was carried out as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications in Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran, during 2007-2008. Factors were inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (B0: no-inoculation, B1: inoculation with Azotobacter chroocuccum, B2: inoculation with Azospirillum lipoferum and B3: inoculation with a mixture of two bacteria and nitrogen fertilizer (N0:0, N1:50, N2:100 and N3:150 kgN.ha-1. Results showed that inoculation with bacteria significantly improved plant height, stem diameter, number of lateral branches, number of flowers per plant, dry weight of flowers, stems, leaves and total dry weight per plant. These traits were significantly similar for inoculation with Azotobacter, inoculation with Azospirillum and inoculation with a mixture of two bacteria. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on all traits (except number of lateral branches was positive, but there were no significant differences among 50, 100 and 150 kg.ha-1 nitrogen. The highest and the lowest number and weight of flowers per plant were recorded for inoculation + 50 kg.ha-1 nitrogen application and no-inoculation + no-fertilizer, respectively. In general, application of biofertilizers had positive and significant effects on morphological traits of german chamomile. In addition, with adding 50 kg N.ha-1 the performance of bacteria increased and the highest flower yield were produced.

  12. Pyrrolizidine and tropane alkaloids in teas and the herbal teas peppermint, rooibos and chamomile in the Israeli market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimshoni, Jakob Avi; Duebecke, Arne; Mulder, Patrick P J; Cuneah, Olga; Barel, Shimon

    2015-01-01

    Dehydro pyrrolizidine alkaloids (dehydro PAs) are carcinogenic phytotoxins prevalent in the Boraginaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae families. Dehydro PAs enter the food and feed chain by co-harvesting of crops intended for human and animal consumption as well as by carry-over into animal-based products such as milk, eggs and honey. Recently the occurrence of dehydro PAs in teas and herbal teas has gained increasing attention from the EU, due to the high levels of dehydro PAs found in commercially available teas and herbal teas in Germany and Switzerland. Furthermore, several tropane alkaloids (TAs, e.g. scopolamine and hyoscyamine) intoxications due to the consumption of contaminated herbal teas were reported in the literature. The aim of the present study was to determine the dehydro PAs and TAs levels in 70 pre-packed teabags of herbal and non-herbal tea types sold in supermarkets in Israel. Chamomile, peppermint and rooibos teas contained high dehydro PAs levels in almost all samples analysed. Lower amounts were detected in black and green teas, while no dehydro PAs were found in fennel and melissa herbal teas. Total dehydro PAs concentrations in chamomile, peppermint and rooibos teas ranged from 20 to 1729 μg/kg. Except for black tea containing only mono-ester retrorsine-type dehydro PAs, all other teas and herbal teas showed mixed patterns of dehydro PA ester types, indicating a contamination by various weed species during harvesting and/or production. The TA levels per teabag were below the recommended acute reference dose; however, the positive findings of TAs in all peppermint tea samples warrant a more extensive survey. The partially high levels of dehydro PAs found in teas and herbal teas present an urgent warning letter to the regulatory authorities to perform routine quality control analysis and implement maximum residual levels for dehydro PAs.

  13. Differential accumulation of flavonoids by tomato (Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-12-29

    Dec 29, 2014 ... Objective: Little is known about physiological functions of flavonoids, specifically in the course of maturation ... epicarp (especially naringenin) with the onset of the ripening. ..... the University of Chemical Technology and.

  14. Structure-cytotoxicity relationships for dietary flavonoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, V.; Dragsted, L.O.

    1998-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of a large series of dietary flavonoids was tested in a non-tumorigenic mouse and two human cancer cell lines, using the neutral red dye exclusion assay. All compounds tested exhibited a concentration-dependent cytotoxic action in the employed cell lines. The relative cytotoxicity...... of the flavonoids, however, Tvas found to vary greatly among the different cell Lines. With a few exceptions, the investigated flavonoids were more cytotoxic to the human cancer cell lines, than the mouse cell line. The differences in cytotoxicity were accounted for in part by differences in cellular uptake...... and metabolic capacity among the different cell types. In 3T3 cells fairly consistent structure-cytotoxicity relationships were found. The most cytotoxic structures tested in 3T3 cells were flavonoids with adjacent 3',4' hydroxy groups on the B-ring, such as luteolin, quercetin, myricetin, fisetin, eriodictyol...

  15. Flavonoids as fruit and vegetable intake biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz

    calculation of the bivariate correlation coefficients is the common approach when using only one reference method. Back in 2002, a strictly controlled dietary intervention study indicated that the sum of 7 different flavonoid aglycones excreted in 24h urine samples potentially could be used as a biomarker...... and cohort studies. The Ph.D. thesis contains four scientific papers. Paper I provides evidence that the sum of 7 flavonoids in 24h urine respond in a linear and sensitive manner to moderate increases in the intake of fruits and vegetables, and thus consolidates that the flavonoids are a valid biomarker...... of fruit and vegetable intakes. In Paper I, the urinary recovery of the 7 flavonoids in morning spot urine (i.e. all urine voids from midnight including the first morning void) was also found to respond to moderate increases in the intake of fruits and vegetables. However, the association was somewhat...

  16. Flavonoids as scavengers of nitric oxide radical.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Acker, S.A.B.E.; Tromp, M.N.J.L.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.; van der Vijgh, W.J.F.; Bast, A.

    1995-01-01

    Flavonoids are a group of naturally occurring compounds used, e.g., in the treatment of vascular endothelial damage. They are known to be excellent scavengers of oxygen free radicals. Since the nitric oxide radical (

  17. Wine Flavonoids in Health and Disease Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Fernandes

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wine, and particularly red wine, is a beverage with a great chemical complexity that is in continuous evolution. Chemically, wine is a hydroalcoholic solution (~78% water that comprises a wide variety of chemical components, including aldehydes, esters, ketones, lipids, minerals, organic acids, phenolics, soluble proteins, sugars and vitamins. Flavonoids constitute a major group of polyphenolic compounds which are directly associated with the organoleptic and health-promoting properties of red wine. However, due to the insufficient epidemiological and in vivo evidences on this subject, the presence of a high number of variables such as human age, metabolism, the presence of alcohol, the complex wine chemistry, and the wide array of in vivo biological effects of these compounds suggest that only cautious conclusions may be drawn from studies focusing on the direct effect of wine and any specific health issue. Nevertheless, there are several reports on the health protective properties of wine phenolics for several diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, some cancers, obesity, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, allergies and osteoporosis. The different interactions that wine flavonoids may have with key biological targets are crucial for some of these health-promoting effects. The interaction between some wine flavonoids and some specific enzymes are one example. The way wine flavonoids may be absorbed and metabolized could interfere with their bioavailability and therefore in their health-promoting effect. Hence, some reports have focused on flavonoids absorption, metabolism, microbiota effect and overall on flavonoids bioavailability. This review summarizes some of these major issues which are directly related to the potential health-promoting effects of wine flavonoids. Reports related to flavonoids and health highlight some relevant scientific information. However, there is still a gap between the knowledge of wine flavonoids

  18. Foliar flavonoids of nine species of Bauhinia

    OpenAIRE

    SALATINO, ANTONIO; BLATT, CECÍLIA T.T.; SANTOS, DÉBORAH Y.A.C. DOS; VAZ, ANGELA M.S.F.

    1999-01-01

    Foliar flavonoids of nine species of Bauhinia were isolated and identified. All the compounds correspond to glycosides derived from kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin and myricetin. Derivatives of the latter aglyconhe seem to be rare in Bauhinia. Derivatives of isorhamnetin are commonly found in species of subgenus Bauhinia and were not detected in the two species of subgenus Phanera. Flavonoid patterns of species of the former subgenus are in general more complex than those of the latter. ...

  19. Antioxidant flavonoids bind human serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakis, C. D.; Tarantilis, P. A.; Polissiou, M. G.; Diamantoglou, S.; Tajmir-Riahi, H. A.

    2006-10-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is a principal extracellular protein with a high concentration in blood plasma and carrier for many drugs to different molecular targets. Flavonoids are powerful antioxidants and prevent DNA damage. The antioxidative protections are related to their binding modes to DNA duplex and complexation with free radicals in vivo. However, flavonoids are known to inhibit the activities of several enzymes such as calcium phospholipid-dependent protein kinase, tyrosine protein kinase from rat lung, phosphorylase kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and DNA topoisomerases that exhibit the importance of flavonoid-protein interaction. This study was designed to examine the interaction of human serum albumin (HSA) with quercetin (que), kaempferol (kae) and delphinidin (del) in aqueous solution at physiological conditions, using constant protein concentration of 0.25 mM (final) and various drug contents of 1 μM-1 mM. FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopic methods were used to determine the polyphenolic binding mode, the binding constant and the effects of flavonoid complexation on protein secondary structure. The spectroscopic results showed that flavonoids are located along the polypeptide chains through H-bonding interactions with overall affinity constant of Kque = 1.4 × 10 4 M -1, Kkae = 2.6 × 10 5 M -1 and Kdel = 4.71 × 10 5 M -1. The protein secondary structure showed no alterations at low pigment concentration (1 μM), whereas at high flavonoid content (1 mM), major reduction of α-helix from 55% (free HSA) to 42-46% and increase of β-sheet from 15% (free HSA) to 17-19% and β-anti from 7% (free HSA) to 10-20% occurred in the flavonoid-HSA adducts. The major reduction of HSA α-helix is indicative of a partial protein unfolding upon flavonoid interaction.

  20. Biotypes of scentless chamomile Matricaria maritima (L.) ssp. inodora (L.) Dostal and common poppy Papaver rhoeas (L.) resistant to tribenuron methyl, in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Adamczewski Kazimierz; Kierzek Roman; Matysiak Kinga

    2014-01-01

    Scentless chamomile Matricaria maritima (L.) ssp. inodora (L.) Dostal and common poppy Papaver rhoeas (L.) are species which very often infest winter cereal and winter rape crops. Inhibitors of acetolactate synthase (ALS) are commonly used for control of these weeds. The herbicides are characterised by a single site of action in the plant, which has an influence on selection of the weed population and may result in a rapid development of resistance. In 2012, five seed samples of scen...

  1. Radioprotective effect of flavonoid quercetin on human lymphocytic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueira, Williams N.; Melo, Larissa S.A.; Lima, Maíra V.; Luna Filho, Ricardo L.C.; Melo, Ana M.M.A.; Silva, Edvane B.

    2017-01-01

    Several substances of synthetic and natural origin have been studied in relation to their ability to protect the body from damage caused by ionizing radiation. Among these substances, quercetin has been shown to be a molecule of natural origin with high radioprotective potential due to its antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to determine, in vitro, the radioprotective effect of quercetin on human lymphocytes exposed to gamma radiation. Blood was irradiated at the 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5 Gy doses and then lymphocyte culture with quercetin at preselected concentrations of 37.5 and 75 μM. Subsequently, slides were prepared for analysis and quantification of the metaphases present in lymphocyte cells. The results demonstrated that irradiated lymphocytes and later exposed to quercetin presented a lower number of chromosomal alterations compared to the control group which was irradiated and not exposed to quercetin. Therefore, the results suggest a radioprotective effect of flavonoid quercetin on human lymphocytes exposed, in vitro, to ionizing radiation

  2. Exposing diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørtoft, Kamilla; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    professionals´ meetings with patients and relatives. In the paper we draw data from focus group discussions with interdisciplinary groups of health care professionals working in the area of care for older people. The video narratives used to initiate discussions are developed through ethnographic fieldwork...... in the homes of older people and in pedagogical institutions targeting older people. In the paper we look at the potentials and challenges in working with ethnographic video narratives as a pedagogical tool. Our findings indicate that the use of video narratives has the potential to expose the diversity...... focus on their own professional discipline and its tasks 2) stimulates collaborative learning when they discuss their different interpretations of the ethnographic video narratives and achieve a deeper understanding of each other’s work and their clients’ lifeworlds, which might lead to a better...

  3. Flavonoids, Flavonoid Subclasses, and Esophageal Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiologic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lingling; Liu, Xinxin; Tian, Yalan; Xie, Chen; Li, Qianwen; Cui, Han; Sun, Changqing

    2016-06-08

    Flavonoids have been suggested to play a chemopreventive role in carcinogenesis. However, the epidemiologic studies assessing dietary intake of flavonoids and esophageal cancer risk have yielded inconsistent results. This study was designed to examine the association between flavonoids, each flavonoid subclass, and the risk of esophageal cancer with a meta-analysis approach. We searched for all relevant studies with a prospective cohort or case-control study design published from January 1990 to April 2016, using PUBMED, EMBASE, and Web of Science. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using fixed or random-effect models. In total, seven articles including 2629 cases and 481,193 non-cases were selected for the meta-analysis. Comparing the highest-intake patients with the lowest-intake patients for total flavonoids and for each flavonoid subclass, we found that anthocyanidins (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.49-0.74), flavanones (OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.49-0.86), and flavones (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.64-0.95) were inversely associated with the risk of esophageal cancer. However, total flavonoids showed marginal association with esophageal cancer risk (OR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59-1.04). In conclusion, our study suggested that dietary intake of total flavonoids, anthocyanidins, flavanones, and flavones might reduce the risk of esophageal cancer.

  4. Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation as an elicitor of flavonoid production in callus cultures of jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvero-Bascos, E.M.; Ungson, L.B.

    2012-01-01

    Callus cultures of jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) grown in Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA, 20 microM) and 6-furfurylaminopurine (kinetin, 20 microM) were exposed to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation to investigate its potential as an abiotic elicitor of flavonoid production. Prior to irradiation, the levels of the flavonoids, apigenin, vitexin and isovitexin in the leaf and callus extracts were determined through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that vitexin and isovitexin were the dominant flavonoids in the leaves while only apigenin was detected in the calli, suggesting a correlation between the degree of differentiation and biosynthesis of flavonoids in plant tissues. Irradiation of callus cultures for 7 d using two UV-B doses (12.6 and 25.3 kJ/sq m) induced synthesis of all three flavonoids (up to 780 micro g/g dw increase) to levels similar to or higher than those found in whole leaves. The combined levels of the three flavonoids in the cultures treated with the higher UV-B dose were 20-fold higher than the control and were comparable to concentrations found in leaves while a 10-fold increase in combined flavonoid levels was observed in calli irradiated with the lower UV-B dose. Furthermore, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses of DNA extracts from the leaves and calli revealed that UV-B irradiation enhanced flavonoid synthesis without altering DNA sequence. These results further support the supposed involvement of UV-B in the transcriptional regulation of the expression of flavonoid biosysnthetic genes. Overall, the findings showed that elicitation through UV-B irradiation is an effective strategy to induce flavonoid production in dedifferentiated J. curcas cultures that have lost their capacity to produce the flavonoids normally synthesized in intact organs. (author)

  5. [Advance in flavonoids biosynthetic pathway and synthetic biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Li-Qiu; Wang, Cai-Xia; Kuang, Xue-Jun; Li, Ying; Sun, Chao

    2016-11-01

    Flavonoids are the valuable components in medicinal plants, which possess a variety of pharmacological activities, including anti-tumor, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. There is an unambiguous understanding about flavonoids biosynthetic pathway, that is,2S-flavanones including naringenin and pinocembrin are the skeleton of other flavonoids and they can transform to other flavonoids through branched metabolic pathway. Elucidation of the flavonoids biosynthetic pathway lays a solid foundation for their synthetic biology. A few flavonoids have been produced in Escherichia coli or yeast with synthetic biological technologies, such as naringenin, pinocembrin and fisetin. Synthetic biology will provide a new way to get valuable flavonoids and promote the research and development of flavonoid drugs and health products, making flavonoids play more important roles in human diet and health. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  6. Vigilância de fitoterápicos em Minas Gerais. Verificação da qualidade de diferentes amostras comerciais de camomila Surveillance of phytotherapeutic drugs in the State of Minas Gerais. Quality assessment of commercial samples of chamomile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G. Lins Brandão

    1998-07-01

    produce antiinflammatory activity. Flavonoids and other phenolic constituents with a spasmolytic effect were detected in only 20% of the samples from each group. Results with chamomile indicated the poor quality with which medicinal plants and phytotherapeutic products are marketed and confirm the need for surveillance of such products in Brazil.

  7. Flavonoids from leaves of Mauritia flexuosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalma M. de Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The chromatographic fractionation of the Mauritia flexuosa L. f., Arecaceae, leaves extract, a plant known by the name of buriti palm tree, resulted in the isolation of six flavonoids: tricin-7-O-rutinoside, apigenin-6-C-arabinoside, 8-C-glucoside (isoschaftoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (nicotiflorine, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin, luteolin-8-C-glucoside (orientin and luteolin-6-C-glucoside (isoorientin. The flavonoids were found out and previously reported as constituents of the Arecaceae family plants, but the occurrence of C-glucoside flavonoids, in the species being analyzed, is described for the first time on this study. The structural elucidations of all of the isolated compounds were performed by means of the comparison of their spectral data (¹H and 13C NMR, UV and ESI-MS with those ones of the literature.

  8. Flavonoids in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezza, Teresa; Rodríguez-Nogales, Alba; Algieri, Francesca; Utrilla, Maria Pilar; Rodriguez-Cabezas, Maria Elena; Galvez, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the intestine that compromises the patients’ life quality and requires sustained pharmacological and surgical treatments. Since their etiology is not completely understood, non-fully-efficient drugs have been developed and those that have shown effectiveness are not devoid of quite important adverse effects that impair their long-term use. In this regard, a growing body of evidence confirms the health benefits of flavonoids. Flavonoids are compounds with low molecular weight that are widely distributed throughout the vegetable kingdom, including in edible plants. They may be of great utility in conditions of acute or chronic intestinal inflammation through different mechanisms including protection against oxidative stress, and preservation of epithelial barrier function and immunomodulatory properties in the gut. In this review we have revised the main flavonoid classes that have been assessed in different experimental models of colitis as well as the proposed mechanisms that support their beneficial effects. PMID:27070642

  9. Flavonoids in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Vezza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is characterized by chronic inflammation of the intestine that compromises the patients’ life quality and requires sustained pharmacological and surgical treatments. Since their etiology is not completely understood, non-fully-efficient drugs have been developed and those that have shown effectiveness are not devoid of quite important adverse effects that impair their long-term use. In this regard, a growing body of evidence confirms the health benefits of flavonoids. Flavonoids are compounds with low molecular weight that are widely distributed throughout the vegetable kingdom, including in edible plants. They may be of great utility in conditions of acute or chronic intestinal inflammation through different mechanisms including protection against oxidative stress, and preservation of epithelial barrier function and immunomodulatory properties in the gut. In this review we have revised the main flavonoid classes that have been assessed in different experimental models of colitis as well as the proposed mechanisms that support their beneficial effects.

  10. Effects of soil and foliar applications of iron and zinc on flowering and essential oil of chamomile at greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef NASIRI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of soil and foliar applications of iron (Fe and zinc (Zn on flowering, flower yield and essential oil production of German chamomile a pot experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions at the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran in 2012. The experiment was arranged as completely randomized design with 12 treatments and three replications. Treatments were as follow: T1: control – without Fe or Zn fertilizers, T2: 30 mg FeSO4.7H2O kg-1 dry soil, T3: 22 mg ZnSO4.7H2O kg-1 dry soil, T4: 30 mg FeSO4.7H2O + 22 mg ZnSO4.7H2O kg-1 dry soil, T5: foliar spraying of FeSO4.7H2O (3.5 g L-1, T6: foliar spraying of FeSO4.7H2O (7.0 g L-1, T7: foliar spraying of ZnSO4.7H2O (2.5 g L-1, T8: foliar spraying of ZnSO4.7H2O (5.0 g L-1, T9: T5+T7, T10: T5+T8, T11: T6+T7, T12: T6+T8. The foliar spraying was done two times during the growing period. The results revealed that the flower number, flower yield, essential oil content and essential oil yield were significantly increased by soil and foliar applications of Fe + Zn, compared with the control (untreated. The highest flower number (477 plant-1, flower yield (11.6 g pot-1, essential oil content (0.88 % and essential oil yield (119 mg pot-1 were recorded for the soil application of Fe + Zn (T4 by 58, 68, 21.4 and 105 % increment compared to the control, respectively. Foliar application of Fe + Zn (T12 was placed at the next rank; however this treatment had no significant difference with the soil application of Fe + Zn (T4. Other treatments did not show significant differences with the control. Generally, the results showed that soil or foliar application of Fe + Zn can be effective on increase or improve of quantity and quality of chamomile yield. Moreover, use of foliar application as a low cost method especially in areas with alkaline or calcareous soils can be recommended.

  11. Association of flavonoid-rich foods and flavonoids with risk of all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Kerry L; Jensen, Majken K; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Eliassen, A Heather; Cassidy, Aedín; Rimm, Eric B

    2017-05-01

    Flavonoids are bioactive compounds found in foods such as tea, red wine, fruits and vegetables. Higher intakes of specific flavonoids, and flavonoid-rich foods, have been linked to reduced mortality from specific vascular diseases and cancers. However, the importance of flavonoid-rich foods, and flavonoids, in preventing all-cause mortality remains uncertain. As such, we examined the association of intake of flavonoid-rich foods and flavonoids with subsequent mortality among 93 145 young and middle-aged women in the Nurses' Health Study II. During 1 838 946 person-years of follow-up, 1808 participants died. When compared with non-consumers, frequent consumers of red wine, tea, peppers, blueberries and strawberries were at reduced risk of all-cause mortality (Pflavonoid intake were at reduced risk of all-cause mortality in the age-adjusted model; 0·81 (95 % CI 0·71, 0·93). However, this association was attenuated following multivariable adjustment; 0·92 (95 % CI 0·80, 1·06). Similar results were observed for consumption of flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins. Flavonols, flavanones and flavones were not associated with all-cause mortality in any model. Despite null associations at the compound level and select foods, higher consumption of red wine, tea, peppers, blueberries and strawberries, was associated with reduced risk of total and cause-specific mortality. These findings support the rationale for making food-based dietary recommendations.

  12. Evaluation of Drought Stress Effect on Growth, Essential Oil Percentage and Essential Oil Yield of Chamomile (Matricaria recutita L. Presov cultivar and Chicory (Cichorium intybus L. local cultivar in the North of Khuzestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    roozbeh farhoudi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iran’s climate is mostly arid and semi-arid, where water availability is a major problem. Water stress substantially alters plant metabolism, decreasing plant growth and photosynthesis and profoundly affecting ecosystems and agriculture, as well as human societies. Unfortunately, water deficiency is increasingly becoming a serious problem in agriculture in Iran whereas the national average annual precipitation is less than 249 mm. Recently, medicinal and aromatic plants have received much attention in several fields such as agroalimentary, perfumes, pharmaceutical industries and natural cosmetic products. Although, secondary metabolites in the medicinal and aromatic plants impressed conventionally by their genetic makeup; moreover their biosynthesis is strongly influenced by environmental factors. It means biotic and abiotic environmental factors affect growth parameter, essential oil yield and constituents. Abiotic environmental stresses like drought have the most effect on medicinal plants. In arid and semi-arid regions like south of Iran where water availability is a major limitation, using plants with low water consumption is one way to manage available water efficiently. Chamomile (Matricaria recutita L. and chicory (Cichorium intybus are annual plants belonging to Asteraceae family naturally widespread in west, northwest and south of Iran and their consumption has a long history in Iranian folklore medicine. Over 120 components have been identified in these plants essential oil, while, chamazulene, camphor, bisabolol oxides A and B, farnesene and ά- bisabolonoxide are the most important ones. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in Research Farm of Islamic Azad University, Shoshtar Branch, Iran during 2010-2011 in order to evaluate the effects of water stress levels on growth, photosynthesis and essential oil yield of German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L. and chicory (Cichorium intybus. Two water stress

  13. Flavonoids – Small Molecules, High Hopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandu Mariana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This brief review takes a look at flavonoids, a wide class of polyphenols, which are regarded as plant secondary metabolites. Their roles in plants are diverse and little understood. They can act as growth hormone modulators, phytoalexins, they offer UV protection, contribute to pollen viability and can function as signaling molecules in establishing symbiotic relationships. Flavonoids were also found to have a range of beneficial effects for the human body. Their anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective activity, as well as their antibacterial, antiviral and antihelmintic properties make them promising candidates for the design of new drugs.

  14. Flavonoids and terpenoids from Croton muscicarpa (Euphorbiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Milena B.; Gomes, Clerton L.; Freitas, Joao Vito B. de; Pinto, Francisco das Chagas L.; Silveira, Edilberto R.; Gramosa, Nilce V., E-mail: nilce@dqoi.ufc.br [Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Centro de Ciencias, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza (Brazil); Torres, Daniela S. Carneiro [Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas Jequie, Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Jequie, BA (Brazil)

    2013-09-01

    A new sesquiterpene and twelve known compounds comprising eight flavonoids and four terpenoids, were isolated from the leaves, stems, roots and exudate of Croton muscicarpa Muell.. Arg.. Their structures were identified as the terpenoids 6{alpha}-methoxy-cyperene, dammaradienol, squalene, acetyl aleuritolic acid and spathulenol, and as the flavonoids retusin, 3,7,4'-trimethoxy kaempferol, ombuine, pachipodol, kaempferol, casticin, 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone and artemetin. All isolated compounds were characterized based on IR, MS, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, including 2D analyses (COSY, HSQC, HMBC, NOESY) and comparison with data from the literature. (author)

  15. Flavonoids and terpenoids from Croton muscicarpa (Euphorbiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreto, Milena B.; Gomes, Clêrton L.; Freitas, João Vito B. de; Pinto, Francisco das Chagas L.; Silveira, Edilberto R.; Gramosa, Nilce V.; Torres, Daniela S. Carneiro

    2013-01-01

    A new sesquiterpene and twelve known compounds comprising eight flavonoids and four terpenoids, were isolated from the leaves, stems, roots and exudate of Croton muscicarpa Müll.. Arg.. Their structures were identified as the terpenoids 6α-methoxy-cyperene, dammaradienol, squalene, acetyl aleuritolic acid and spathulenol, and as the flavonoids retusin, 3,7,4’-trimethoxy kaempferol, ombuine, pachipodol, kaempferol, casticin, 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,4’-tetramethoxyflavone and artemetin. All isolated compounds were characterized based on IR, MS, 1 H and 13 C NMR, including 2D analyses (COSY, HSQC, HMBC, NOESY) and comparison with data from the literature. (author)

  16. [Study on Flavonoids in Buddleja lindleyana Fruits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao; Ren, Ya-shuo; Wu, De-ling; Xu, Feng-qing; Zhang, Wei

    2015-04-01

    To study the flavonoids in the fruits of Buddleja lindleyana. The compounds were separated by repeated silica gel, RP-18 and Sephadex LH-20. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical evidence and spectral data. Five flavonoids were isolated and identified as luteolin (1), tricin (2), acacetin (3), acacetin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4) and linarin(5). Compounds 3,4 and 5 are isolated from fruits of Buddleja lindleyana for the first time. Compound 2 is isolated from fruits of Buddleja lindleyana for the first time.

  17. Quantitation of flavonoid constituents in citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaii, S; Tomono, Y; Katase, E; Ogawa, K; Yano, M

    1999-09-01

    Twenty-four flavonoids have been determined in 66 Citrus species and near-citrus relatives, grown in the same field and year, by means of reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Statistical methods have been applied to find relations among the species. The F ratios of 21 flavonoids obtained by applying ANOVA analysis are significant, indicating that a classification of the species using these variables is reasonable to pursue. Principal component analysis revealed that the distributions of Citrus species belonging to different classes were largely in accordance with Tanaka's classification system.

  18. Flavonoides e terpenoides de Croton muscicarpa (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena B. Barreto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new sesquiterpene and twelve known compounds comprising eight flavonoids and four terpenoids, were isolated from the leaves, stems, roots and exudate of Croton muscicarpa Müll. Arg.. Their structures were identified as the terpenoids 6α-methoxy-cyperene, dammaradienol, squalene, acetyl aleuritolic acid and spathulenol, and as the flavonoids retusin, 3,7,4'-trimethoxy kaempferol, ombuine, pachipodol, kaempferol, casticin, 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone and artemetin. All isolated compounds were characterized based on IR, MS, ¹H and 13C NMR, including 2D analyses (COSY, HSQC, HMBC, NOESY and comparison with data from the literature.

  19. Flavonoids and terpenoids from Croton muscicarpa (Euphorbiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Milena B.; Gomes, Clerton L.; Freitas, Joao Vito B. de; Pinto, Francisco das Chagas L.; Silveira, Edilberto R.; Gramosa, Nilce V., E-mail: nilce@dqoi.ufc.br [Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Centro de Ciencias, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza (Brazil); Torres, Daniela S. Carneiro [Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas Jequie, Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Jequie, BA (Brazil)

    2013-09-01

    A new sesquiterpene and twelve known compounds comprising eight flavonoids and four terpenoids, were isolated from the leaves, stems, roots and exudate of Croton muscicarpa Muell.. Arg.. Their structures were identified as the terpenoids 6{alpha}-methoxy-cyperene, dammaradienol, squalene, acetyl aleuritolic acid and spathulenol, and as the flavonoids retusin, 3,7,4'-trimethoxy kaempferol, ombuine, pachipodol, kaempferol, casticin, 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone and artemetin. All isolated compounds were characterized based on IR, MS, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, including 2D analyses (COSY, HSQC, HMBC, NOESY) and comparison with data from the literature. (author)

  20. Strains for the production of flavonoids from glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Santos, Christine; Koffas, Mattheos

    2015-11-13

    The invention relates to the production of flavonoids and flavonoid precursors in cells through recombinant expression of tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL), 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4CL), chalcone synthase (CHS), and chalcone isomerase (CHI).

  1. Protective effects of flavonoids from corn silk on oxidative stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective effects of flavonoids from corn silk on oxidative stress induced by ... The present study aims at exploring the effects of flavonoids from corn silk (FCS) on oxidative stress induced by exhaustive exercise in mice. ... from 32 Countries:.

  2. Induction of phenolic metabolites and physiological changes in chamomile plants in relation to nitrogen nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováčik, Jozef; Klejdus, Bořivoj

    2014-01-01

    Alternative tools, such as the manipulation of mineral nutrition, may affect secondary metabolite production and thus the nutritional value of food/medicinal plants. We studied the impact of nitrogen (N) nutrition (nitrate/NO3(-) or ammonium/NH4(+) nitrogen) and subsequent nitrogen deficit on phenolic metabolites and physiology in Matricaria chamomilla plants. NH4(+)-fed plants revealed a strong induction of selected phenolic metabolites but, at the same time, growth, Fv/Fm, tissue water content and soluble protein depletion occurred in comparison with NO3(-)-fed ones. On the other hand, NO3(-)-deficient plants also revealed an increase in phenolic metabolites but growth depression was not observed after the given exposure period. Free amino acids were more accumulated in NH4(+)-fed shoots (strong increase in arginine and proline mainly), while the pattern of roots' accumulation was independent of N form. Among phenolic acids, NH4(+) strongly elevated mainly the accumulation of chlorogenic acid. Within flavonoids, flavonols decreased while flavones strongly increased in response to N deficiency. Coumarin-related metabolites revealed a similar increase in herniarin glucosidic precursor in response to N deficiency, while herniarin was more accumulated in NO3(-)- and umbelliferone in NH4(+)-cultured plants. These data indicate a negative impact of NH4(+) as the only source of N on physiology, but also a higher stimulation of some valuable phenols. Nitrogen-induced changes in comparison with other food/crop plants are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ultraviolet light assisted extraction of flavonoids and allantoin from aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Symphytum officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nimer, Marwan S M; Wahbee, Zainab

    2017-01-01

    Symphytum officinale (comfrey) is a medicinal plant commonly used in decoction and to treat ailments. It protects the skin against ultraviolet (UV)-irradiation. UV irradiation may induce variable effects on the constituents of herbal extracts and thereby may limit or improve the advantages of using these extracts as medicinal supplements. This study aimed to assess the effect of UV radiations including UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C on the constituents of S. officinale aqueous and alcoholic extracts. Comfrey extracts (1% w/v) were prepared using distilled water, ethanol, and methanol. They were exposed to wavelengths of UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C for 10 min. The principal peak on the UV-spectroscopy scanning, the flavonoids, reducing power, and the allantoin levels were determined before and after irradiation. UV irradiation reduces the magnitude of the principle peak at 355 nm wavelength of the aqueous infusion and methanol extracts. It improves the levels of flavonoids and reducing power of the aqueous extracts and increases the levels of allanotoin in aqueous and methanol extracts. UV-radiation enhances the yields of active ingredient of comfrey extracted with methanol, whereas improves the flavonoids, reducing power, and allantoin levels of comfrey extracted by the aqueous infusion method. UV-radiation reduces the levels of flavonoids, reducing power and allantoin when the comfrey extracted by alcohols.

  4. Purification of Flavonoids from Black Currant Juice by Nanodiafiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Busch; Christensen, Knud Villy; Norddahl, Birgir

    2009-01-01

      Various compounds of the flavonoid group have been reported to possess therapeutic effects towards cancer [1]. Thus there is a large potential in identifying, purifying and quantifying flavonoids from different natural sources in order to screen the pharmaceutical values of these. The flavonoid...

  5. Absorption, metabolism and health effects of dietary flavonoids in man.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollman, P.C.H.; Katan, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that occur ubiquitously in foods of plant origin. Over 4,000 different flavonoids have been described, and they are categorized into flavonols, flavones, catechins, flavanones, anthocyanidins and isoflavonoids. Flavonoids have a variety of biological effects in

  6. THE SYSTEMATIC AND EVOLUTIONARY SIGNIFICANCE OF EXUDATE FLAVONOIDS IN AEONIUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEVENS, JF; HART, HT; WOLLENWEBER, E

    Leaf exudates of 32 species of Aeonium were examined for the presence of flavonoids. Thirty two flavonoids were detected in exudates of half of the species. The flavonoids were identified as methyl ethers of kaempferol, 6-hydroxykaempferol, quercetin, myricetin and scutellarein. The distribution of

  7. Genotypic variation in tree growth and selected flavonoids in leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth and flavonoid content varied significantly among different families, and isoquercitrin was the main component of the individual flavonoids, followed by kaempferol and quercetin. Both total and individual flavonoids showed seasonal variation, with the mean highest contents of quercetin and isoquercitrin in July but the ...

  8. Flavonoid-membrane Interactions: A Protective Role of Flavonoids at the Membrane Surface?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia I. Oteiza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids can exert beneficial health effects through multiple mechanisms. In this paper, we address the important, although not fully understood, capacity of flavonoids to interact with cell membranes. The interactions of polyphenols with bilayers include: (a the partition of the more non-polar compounds in the hydrophobic interior of the membrane, and (b the formation of hydrogen bonds between the polar head groups of lipids and the more hydrophilic flavonoids at the membrane interface. The consequences of these interactions are discussed. The induction of changes in membrane physical properties can affect the rates of membrane lipid and protein oxidation. The partition of certain flavonoids in the hydrophobic core can result in a chain breaking antioxidant activity. We suggest that interactions of polyphenols at the surface of bilayers through hydrogen bonding, can act to reduce the access of deleterious molecules (i.e. oxidants, thus protecting the structure and function of membranes.

  9. Interactions Between Flavonoid-Rich Extracts and Sodium Caseinate Modulate Protein Functionality and Flavonoid Bioaccessibility in Model Food Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elegbede, Jennifer L; Li, Min; Jones, Owen G; Campanella, Osvaldo H; Ferruzzi, Mario G

    2018-05-01

    With growing interest in formulating new food products with added protein and flavonoid-rich ingredients for health benefits, direct interactions between these ingredient classes becomes critical in so much as they may impact protein functionality, product quality, and flavonoids bioavailability. In this study, sodium caseinate (SCN)-based model products (foams and emulsions) were formulated with grape seed extract (GSE, rich in galloylated flavonoids) and green tea extract (GTE, rich in nongalloylated flavonoids), respectively, to assess changes in functional properties of SCN and impacts on flavonoid bioaccessibility. Experiments with pure flavonoids suggested that galloylated flavonoids reduced air-water interfacial tension of 0.01% SCN dispersions more significantly than nongalloylated flavonoids at high concentrations (>50 μg/mL). This observation was supported by changes in stability of 5% SCN foam, which showed that foam stability was increased at high levels of GSE (≥50 μg/mL, P < 0.05) but was not affected by GTE. However, flavonoid extracts had modest effects on SCN emulsion. In addition, galloylated flavonoids had higher bioaccessibility in both SCN foam and emulsion. These results suggest that SCN-flavonoid binding interactions can modulate protein functionality leading to difference in performance and flavonoid bioaccessibility of protein-based products. As information on the beneficial health effects of flavonoids expands, it is likely that usage of these ingredients in consumer foods will increase. However, the necessary levels to provide such benefits may exceed those that begin to impact functionality of the macronutrients such as proteins. Flavonoid inclusion within protein matrices may modulate protein functionality in a food system and modify critical consumer traits or delivery of these beneficial plant-derived components. The product matrices utilized in this study offer relevant model systems to evaluate how fortification with flavonoid

  10. Antidepressant screening and flavonoids isolation from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eremostachys laciniata (L) Bunge (Lamiaceae), a rich source of flavonoids, has been investigated for chemical constituents and in vivo antidepressant property using forced swim test (FST) model. Five important compounds were isolated, including luteolin (1), apigenin (2), 5,8-dihydroxy-6,7- dimethoxyflavone (3), 5 ...

  11. Flavonoids and platelet aggregation: A brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggio, Caterina; Sureda, Antoni; Morabito, Silvia; Sanches-Silva, Ana; Mocan, Andrei; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2017-07-15

    Platelets are small anucleated fragments derived from a megakaryocyte precursor. Platelets play a key role in many physiological functions especially in hemostasis and wound healing processes in order to maintain the integrity of the circulatory system. In addition, activated platelets release cytokines and chemokines which modulate the immune response and, in some cases of hyperactivation, they could be associated to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds ubiquosly found in plants known to be potent antioxidants with positive effects against diverse diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative or cardiovascular disease. It has been reported that some flavonoids possess anti-platelet aggregation effects though different pathways, being the inhibition of the arachidonic acid-based pathway the most representative mechanism of action. In the present review, the main sources of flavonoids, as well as their bioavailability and metabolism are summarized. Moreover, the available data about the anti-aggregation effects of flavonoids and the different mechanisms of action that has been proposed until now are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Flavonoids protecting food and beverages against light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huvaere, Kevin; Skibsted, Leif H

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoids, which are ubiquitously present in the plant kingdom, preserve food and beverages at the parts per million level with minor perturbation of sensory impressions. Additionally, they are safe and possibly contribute positive health effects. Flavonoids should be further exploited for the protection of food and beverages against light-induced quality deterioration through: (1) direct absorption of photons as inner filters protecting sensitive food components; (2) deactivation of (triplet-)excited states of sensitisers like chlorophyll and riboflavin; (3) quenching of singlet oxygen from type II photosensitisation; and (iv) scavenging of radicals formed as reaction intermediates in type I photosensitisation. For absorption of light, combinations of flavonoids, as found in natural co-pigmentation, facilitate dissipation of photon energy to heat thus averting photodegradation. For protection against singlet oxygen and triplet sensitisers, chemical quenching gradually decreases efficiency hence the pathway to physical quenching should be optimised through product formulation. The feasibility of these protection strategies is further supported by kinetic data that are becoming available, allowing for calculation of threshold levels of flavonoids to prevent beer and dairy products from going off. On the other hand, increasing understanding of the interplay between light and matrix physicochemistry, for example the effect of aprotic microenvironments on phototautomerisation of compounds like quercetin, opens up for engineering better light-to-heat converting channels in processed food to eventually prevent quality loss. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. [Contents of total flavonoids in Rhizoma Arisaematis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, S S; Lin, H Y; Zhou, Y X; Wei, L X

    2001-06-01

    Comparing the contents of total flavonoides of Rhizoma Arisaematis, which collected in different time, regions, different varieties and processed. Determining the contents by ultraviolet spectro-photometry. The contents were found in the following sequence: 1. the end of July, the begin of July, August, September; 2. Beijing, Shanxi, Sichuan, Anhui; 3. Arisaema erubenscens, A. heterophyllum, A. amurense; 4. unprocessed product, processed product.

  14. Antiplasmodial and larvicidal flavonoids from Derris trifoliata

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT. ABSTRACT. From the dichloromethane-methanol (1:1) extract of the seed pods of Derris trifoliata, a new flavanone derivative (S)-lupinifolin 4´-methyl ether was isolated. In addition, the known flavonoids lupinifolin and rotenone were identified. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic ...

  15. Flavonoids as Inhibitors of Human Butyrylcholinesterase Variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Katalinić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, EC 3.1.1.8 appears to be of interest in treating diseases with symptoms of reduced neurotransmitter levels, such as Alzheimer’s disease. However, BCHE gene polymorphism should not be neglected in research since it could have an effect on the expected outcome. Several well-known cholinergic drugs (e.g. galantamine, huperzine and rivastigmine originating from plants, or synthesised as derivatives of plant compounds, have shown that herbs could serve as a source of novel target-directed compounds. We focused our research on flavonoids, biologically active polyphenolic compounds found in many plants and plant-derived products, as BChE inhibitors. All of the tested flavonoids: galangin, quercetin, fisetin and luteolin reversibly inhibited usual, atypical, and fluoride-resistant variants of human BChE. The inhibition potency increased in the following order, identically for all three BChE variants: luteolinflavonoids exists in view of BChE polymorphism. Our results suggested that flavonoids could assist the further development of new BChE-targeted drugs for treating symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases and dementia.

  16. Flavonoid, hesperidine, total phenolic contents and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Additionally, the antioxidant activities were also determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. C. hystrix had the highest flavonoid and total phenolic contents while C. aurantifolia had the highest hesperidine content. The antioxidant activity of ...

  17. Pectolinarigenin - A Flavonoid Compound from Cirsium Japonicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    /tjpr.v13i2.9. Original Research Article. Pectolinarigenin - A Flavonoid Compound from Cirsium. Japonicum with Potential Anti-proliferation Activity in MCF-. 7 Breast Cancer Cell. Mingqian Lu. 1,2,3. , Qingzhi Kong. 1,4. *, Xinhua Xu. 2,3.

  18. Association among Dietary Flavonoids, Flavonoid Subclasses and Ovarian Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ruxu; Yang, Yu; Liao, Jing; Chen, Dongsheng; Yu, Lixiu

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have indicated that intake of dietary flavonoids or flavonoid subclasses is associated with the ovarian cancer risk, but presented controversial results. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to derive a more precise estimation of these associations. Methods We performed a search in PubMed, Google Scholar and ISI Web of Science from their inception to April 25, 2015 to select studies on the association among dietary flavonoids, flavonoid subclasses and ovarian cancer risk. The information was extracted by two independent authors. We assessed the heterogeneity, sensitivity, publication bias and quality of the articles. A random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled risk estimates. Results Five cohort studies and seven case-control studies were included in the final meta-analysis. We observed that intake of dietary flavonoids can decrease ovarian cancer risk, which was demonstrated by pooled RR (RR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.68–0.98). In a subgroup analysis by flavonoid subtypes, the ovarian cancer risk was also decreased for isoflavones (RR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.50–0.92) and flavonols (RR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.58–0.80). While there was no compelling evidence that consumption of flavones (RR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.71–1.03) could decrease ovarian cancer risk, which revealed part sources of heterogeneity. The sensitivity analysis indicated stable results, and no publication bias was observed based on the results of Funnel plot analysis and Egger’s test (p = 0.26). Conclusions This meta-analysis suggested that consumption of dietary flavonoids and subtypes (isoflavones, flavonols) has a protective effect against ovarian cancer with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer except for flavones consumption. Nevertheless, further investigations on a larger population covering more flavonoid subclasses are warranted. PMID:26960146

  19. Impact of certain flavonoids on lipid profiles--potential action of Garcinia cambogia flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, A S; Vijayalakshmi, N R

    2001-08-01

    Flavonoids from Cocos nucifera, Myristica fragrance, Saraka asoka and Garcinia cambogia exerted hypolipidaemic activity in rats. Lipid lowering activity was maximum in rats administered flavonoids (10 mg/kg BW/day) from Garcinia cambogia. A dose response study revealed biphasic activity. Higher doses were less effective in reducing lipid levels in serum and tissues, although devoid of toxic effects. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Flavonoids of Calligonum polygonoides and their cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hayam; Moawad, Abeer; Owis, Asmaa; AbouZid, Sameh; Ahmed, Osama

    2016-10-01

    Context Calligonum polygonoides L. subsp. comosum L' Hér. (Polygonaceae), locally known as "arta", is a slow-growing small leafless desert shrub. Objective Isolation, structure elucidation and evaluation of cytotoxic activity of flavonoids from C. polygonoides aerial parts. Materials and methods Flavonoids in the hydroalcoholic extract of the of C. polygonoides were isolated and purified using column chromatography and preparative HPLC. The structures of the isolated flavonoids were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data including 2D NMR techniques. The cytotoxic activity of the isolated flavonoids (6.25, 25, 50 and 100 μg/mL) was evaluated against liver HepG2 and breast MCF-7 cancer cell lines using sulphorhodamine-B assay. Results A new flavonoid, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-(6″-n-butyl glucuronide) (1), and 13 known flavonoids, quercetin 3-O-β-D-(6″-n-butyl glucuronide) (2), kaempferol-3-O-β-D-(6″-methyl glucuronide) (3), quercetin-3-O-β-D-(6″-methyl glucuronide) (4), quercetin-3-O-glucuronide (5), kaempferol-3-O-glucuronide (6), quercetin-3-O-α-rhamnopyranoside (7), astragalin (8), quercetin-3-O-glucopyranoside (9), taxifolin (10), (+)-catechin (11), dehydrodicatechin A (12), quercetin (13), and kaempferol (14), were isolated from the aerial parts of C. polygonoides. Quercetin showed significant cytotoxic activity against HepG2 and MCF-7 cell lines with IC50 values of 4.88 and 0.87 μg/mL, respectively. Structure-activity relationships were analyzed by comparing IC50 values of several pairs of flavonoids differing in one structural element. Discussion and conclusion The activity against breast cancer cell lines decreased by glycosylation at C-3. The presence of 2,3-double bond in ring C, carbonyl group at C-4 and 3',4'-dihydroxy substituents in ring B are essential structural requirements for the cytotoxic activity against breast cancer cells.

  1. Flavonoids and heart health: Proceedings of the ILSI North America Flavonoids Workshop may 31-june 1, 2005, Washington DC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erdman, J.W.; Balentine, D.; Arab, L.; Beecher, G.; Dwyer, J.T.; Folts, J.; Harnly, J.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Keen, C.L.; Mazza, G.; Messina, M.; Scalbert, A.; Vita, J.; Williamson, G.; Burrows, J.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview of current research on flavonoids as presented during a workshop entitled, "Flavonoids and Heart Health," held by the ILSI North America Project Committee on Flavonoids in Washington, DC, May 31 and June 1, 2005. Because a thorough knowledge and understanding about

  2. Analysis of flavonoids and the flavonoid structural genes in brown fiber of upland cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie Feng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As a result of changing consumer preferences, cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L. from varieties with naturally colored fibers is becoming increasingly sought after in the textile industry. The molecular mechanisms leading to colored fiber development are still largely unknown, although it is expected that the color is derived from flavanoids. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Firstly, four key genes of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway in cotton (GhC4H, GhCHS, GhF3'H, and GhF3'5'H were cloned and studied their expression profiles during the development of brown- and white cotton fibers by QRT-PCR. And then, the concentrations of four components of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, naringenin, quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin in brown- and white fibers were analyzed at different developmental stages by HPLC. RESULT: The predicted proteins of the four flavonoid structural genes corresponding to these genes exhibit strong sequence similarity to their counterparts in various plant species. Transcript levels for all four genes were considerably higher in developing brown fibers than in white fibers from a near isogenic line (NIL. The contents of four flavonoids (naringenin, quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin were significantly higher in brown than in white fibers and corresponding to the biosynthetic gene expression levels. CONCLUSIONS: Flavonoid structural gene expression and flavonoid metabolism are important in the development of pigmentation in brown cotton fibers.

  3. Potential ecological roles of flavonoids from Stellera chamaejasme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhiqiang; Zeng, Liming; Jin, Hui; Qin, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Stellera chamaejasme L. (Thymelaeaceae), a perennial weed, distributes widely in the grasslands of Russia, Mongolia and China. The plant synthesizes various secondary metabolites including a group of flavonoids. To our knowledge, flavonoids play important roles in the interactions between plants and the environment. So, what are the benefits to S. chamaejasme from producing these flavonoids? Here, we discuss the potential ecological role of flavonoids from S. chamaejasme in protecting the plant from insects and other herbivores, as well as pathogens and competing plant species, and new data are provided on the phytotoxicity of flavonoids from S. chamaejasme toward Poa annua L.

  4. The Effect of Plant Growth Regulators and Different Explants on the Response of Tissue Culture and Cell Suspension Cultures of German Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Koohi,

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L. is one of the most important medicinal plants that its essential oils used in different medicinal industries. In this study which was carried out in 2013 growing season at the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences of the University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, the in vitro response of leaf and hypocotyl explants of German Chamomile in B5 medium supplemented with different levels of plant growth regulators including 2,4-D, naphthalene acetic acid (NAA, kinetin and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP were investigated in a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design (CRD.In addition, cell suspension cultures were established and characterized. Hypocotyl and leaf explants exhibited cell proliferation and produced callus within 1-2 weeks. The highest fresh weight of the callus (264.1 mg was produced by leaf explants in the medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l 2,4-D and 1 mg/l BAP. However, the leaf explants cultured on medium containing 1.5 mg/l 2,4-D showed the lowest cell proliferation and callus yield (40.42 mg. The highest percentage of root induction from leaf explants (58.73% was observed on the medium containing 4 mg/l 2,4-D and 1 mg/l Kin, and from hypocotyl explants (48.61% was observed on medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/l NAA. The 42.22% of calli derived from hypocotyl explants on B5 medium supplemented with 4 mg/l NAA and 3 mg/l BAP, were friable. Cell suspension cultures of German chamomile were established by transferring of hypocotyl-derived friable calli into the MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/l 2,4-D and 1 mg/l kinetin. The growth curve of cell proliferations started 4 days after culture and continued to grow until day 13th, where the cells entered stationary phase.

  5. Efficacy of topical chamomile on the incidence of phlebitis due to an amiodarone infusion in coronary care patients: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi-Ardani, Maryam; Yekefallah, Leili; Asefzadeh, Saeed; Nassiri-Asl, Marjan

    2017-09-01

    Amiodarone is a useful antiarrhythmic drug. Phlebitis, caused by intravenous amiodarone, is common in patients in coronary care units (CCUs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of topical chamomile on the incidence of phlebitis due to the administration of an amiodarone infusion into the peripheral vein. This was a randomized, double-blind clinical trial, conducted on 40 patients (n = 20 per group) in two groups-an intervention group (chamomile ointment) and a control group (lanoline, as a placebo), hospitalized in the CCUs and undergoing an amiodarone infusion into the peripheral vein over 24 h. Following the cannulation and commencement of the infusion, placebo or chamomile ointment was rubbed in, up to 10 cm superior to the catheter and repeated every eight hours for three days. The cannula site was then assessed based on the phlebitis checklist. The incidence and time of occurrence of phlebitis, relative risk, severity of phlebitis were the main outcome measures. Nineteen patients (19/20) in the control group had phlebitis on the first day of the study and one patient (20/20) on the second day. In the intervention group, phlebitis occurred in 13 cases (13/20) on the first day and another two (2/7) was found on the second day. The incidence of phlebitis was significantly different between two groups (P = 0.023). The cumulative incidence of phlebitis in the intervention group (15/20) is significantly later and lower than that in the control group (20/20) during two days (P = 0.008). Two patients in the intervention group did not develop phlebitis at all during the 3-day study. Also, the relative risk of phlebitis in the two groups was 0.68 (P = 0.008 5). A significant difference was not observed with regard to phlebitis severity in both groups. It seems that phlebitis occurred to a lesser extent and at a later time frame in the intervention group compared to control group. Topical chamomile may be effective in decreasing the incidence of phlebitis

  6. Metode Cepat Identifikasi Flavonoid dari Daun Ocimum sanctum L. (Selasih

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Dhianawaty

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A plant’s effectiveness as a herbal drug comes from its chemical content such as flavonoids. Flavonoids are useful for human body health. Therefore flavonoids content can be used as a marker from the usefulness of a plant, and rapid identification method of flavonoid is needed. The objective of the research was to get a rapid method of flavonoid content identification from Ocimum sanctum. The extraction, isolation and identification of flavonoids from Ocimum sanctum leaves has been done at Medical Chemistry laboratory Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran in 2005. Flavonoids were extracted continually by 95% ethanol, were isolated with paper chromatography/cellulose TLC and 2% acetic acid, then continued with elucidation reagents: n-butanol–acetic acid–water, chloroform–acetic acid–water, forestall, 5%, 15%, 35% and 50% acetic acids. Flavonoids were identified with diagnostic reagents and ultraviolet light. Isolation with 2% and 35% acetic acids respectively gave two spots of flavonoids as flavon, FOAc-1 had Rf=0.69 and FOAc-2 had Rf=0.57. The other elucidation reagents gave one spot of flavonoid. In conclusion, isolation with 2% and 35% acetic acids respectively and identification with diagnostic reagent and ultraviolet light is a rapid method for identification of flavonoids content in Ocimum sanctum

  7. Natural Flavonoids as Promising Analgesic Candidates: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao; Wang, Xiaoyu; Gui, Xuan; Chen, Lu; Huang, Baokang

    2016-11-01

    Due to the chemical structural diversity and various analgesic mechanisms, an increasing number of studies indicated that some flavonoids from medicinal plants could be promising candidates for new natural analgesic drugs, which attract high interests of advanced users and academic researchers. The aim of this systematic review is to report flavonoids and its derivatives as new analgesic candidates based on the pharmacological evidences. Sixty-four papers were found concerning the potential analgesic activity of 46 flavonoids. In this case, the evidence for analgesic activity of flavonoids and total flavonoids was investigated. Meanwhile, the corresponding analgesic mechanism of flavonoids was discussed by generalizing and analyzing the current publications. Based on this review, the conclusion can be drawn that some flavonoids are promising candidates for painful conditions and deserve particular attention in further research and development. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  8. Bioavailability, metabolism and potential health protective effects of dietary flavonoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredsdorff, Lea

    Dietary flavonoids constitute an important group of potential health protective compounds from fruits, vegetables, and plant-based products such as tea and wine. The beneficial effects of a diet high in flavonoids on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) have been shown in several...... epidemiological studies but the evidence is inconclusive. One major obstacle for epidemiological studies investigating associations between flavonoid intake and risk of CHD is the estimation of flavonoid intake. There is a vast variety of flavonoids in commonly eaten food products but only limited knowledge...... of their content. In addition, variation in individual metabolic genotype and microflora may greatly affect the actual flavonoid exposure. The preventive effects of flavonoids on CHD are mainly ascribed to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Several mechanisms of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant...

  9. Genetic diversity of flavonoid content in leaf of hawthorn resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y.; Wang, G.; Liu, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Hawthorn (Cratageus spp.) are important medicinal plants. Flavonoids are the main active ingredient in hawthorn. With the help of hawthorn leaf flavonoids efficient detection system, vitexin, rhamnosylvitexin, hyperin, rutin and quercetin of 122 hawthorn resources was precisely measured.The flavonoid contents of 10 hawthorn species were explicited. The comparation of flavonoids revealed the abundant genetic diversity of hawthorn flavones. Large variable coefficient has been observed among 5 flavonoid monomer traits. The coefficients of variation were 44.17%, 132.2%, 157.08%, 113.91% and 31.05 for Vitexin, Rhamnosylvitexin, Hyperoside, Rutin and Quercetin respectively. The sum of these 5 flavonoid monomer contents represented the total flavonoids in hawthorn. The total coefficients of variation was 44.01%. Some high-content-flavone and valuable leaf resources were found. This research could provide accurate date for further production, breeding and the effective use of medicinal resources. (author)

  10. Flavonoids from the leaves of Deguelia utilis (Leguminosae): structural elucidation and neuroprotective properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Dalglish G. de; Almeida, Cecilia M.C. de; Silva, Consuelo Y.Y. e; Arruda, Mara S.P.; Arruda, Alberto C.; Silva, Milton N. da; Lopes, Dielly C.F.; Yamada, Elizabeth S.; Costa, Edmar T. da; MFilho, Arnaldo Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Five new flavonoids, 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-2'',2''dimethylchromene-(5''6'':6,7)- dihydroflavonol (1), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylallyl-dihydroflavonol (2), 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-allyl-2'',2''-dimethylchromene-(5'',6'':6,7) flavanone (3), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylallyl-flavanone (4), 3,5,3'-trihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy- 6,8-dimethylallyl-flavanol (5), together with the stilbenes 4-methoxylonchocarpene (6) and lonchocarpene (7) were isolated from the leaves of Deguelia utilis. Their chemical structures were established on the basis of NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectral data and HRESITOF-MS (electrospray ionization-high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry). Also, in order to investigate potential cytoprotective effects of these flavonoids, we used a fraction eluted with hexane:EtOAc containing all seven flavonoids, in an in vitro model of neurodegeneration, using hippocampal primary cultures from neonatal (PND2-P3) rats exposed to rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor. There was a significant reduction in cell viability (19.4 ± 1.6%) when the cultures were exposed to 30 nmol L -1 rotenone for 72 h. Concomitant exposure of the cultures to the FR3 (5 μg mL -1 ) and 30 nmol L -1 rotenone resulted in values of cell viability similar to control groups (99.6 ± 4.8%), strongly suggesting a cytoprotective effect for this flavonoid-rich fraction. (author)

  11. Flavonoids from the leaves of Deguelia utilis (Leguminosae): structural elucidation and neuroprotective properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Dalglish G. de; Almeida, Cecilia M.C. de; Silva, Consuelo Y.Y. e; Arruda, Mara S.P.; Arruda, Alberto C.; Silva, Milton N. da, E-mail: yumilton@yahoo.com.br [Laboratorio de Cromatografia Liquida, Universidade Federal do Para, Guama, Belem-PA (Brazil); Lopes, Dielly C.F.; Yamada, Elizabeth S.; Costa, Edmar T. da; MFilho, Arnaldo Jorge [Laboratorio de Neuropatologia Experimental, Hospital Universitario Barros Barreto, Guama, Belem-PA (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    Five new flavonoids, 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-2'',2''dimethylchromene-(5''6'':6,7)- dihydroflavonol (1), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylallyl-dihydroflavonol (2), 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-allyl-2'',2''-dimethylchromene-(5'',6'':6,7) flavanone (3), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylallyl-flavanone (4), 3,5,3'-trihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy- 6,8-dimethylallyl-flavanol (5), together with the stilbenes 4-methoxylonchocarpene (6) and lonchocarpene (7) were isolated from the leaves of Deguelia utilis. Their chemical structures were established on the basis of NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectral data and HRESITOF-MS (electrospray ionization-high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry). Also, in order to investigate potential cytoprotective effects of these flavonoids, we used a fraction eluted with hexane:EtOAc containing all seven flavonoids, in an in vitro model of neurodegeneration, using hippocampal primary cultures from neonatal (PND2-P3) rats exposed to rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor. There was a significant reduction in cell viability (19.4 {+-} 1.6%) when the cultures were exposed to 30 nmol L{sup -1}rotenone for 72 h. Concomitant exposure of the cultures to the FR3 (5 {mu}g mL{sup -1}) and 30 nmol L{sup -1} rotenone resulted in values of cell viability similar to control groups (99.6 {+-} 4.8%), strongly suggesting a cytoprotective effect for this flavonoid-rich fraction. (author)

  12. Flavonoids from the leaves of Deguelia utilis (Leguminosae): structural elucidation and neuroprotective properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Dalglish G. de; Almeida, Cecilia M.C. de; Silva, Consuelo Y.Y. e; Arruda, Mara S.P.; Arruda, Alberto C., E-mail: yumilton@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Cromatografia Liquida; Lopes, Dielly C.F.; Yamada, Elizabeth S.; Costa, Edmar T. da; Silva, Milton N. da [Hospital Universitario Barros Barreto, Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Neuropatologia Experimental

    2012-10-15

    Five new flavonoids, 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-2{sup ,}2{sup -}dimethylchromene-(5''6''6,7)- dihydroflavonol (1), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylallyl-dihydroflavonol (2), 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-allyl-2'', 2''-dimethylchromene-(5{sup ,}6{sup :}6,7) flavanone (3), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylallyl-flavanone (4), 3,5,3'-trihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy- 6,8-dimethylallyl-flavanol (5), together with the stilbenes 4-methoxylonchocarpene (6) and lonchocarpene (7) were isolated from the leaves of Deguelia utilis. Their chemical structures were established on the basis of NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectral data and HRESITOF-MS (electrospray ionization-high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry). Also, in order to investigate potential cytoprotective effects of these flavonoids, we used a fraction eluted with hexane:EtOAc containing all seven flavonoids, in an in vitro model of neurodegeneration, using hippocampal primary cultures from neonatal (PND2-P3) rats exposed to rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor. There was a significant reduction in cell viability (19.4 {+-} 1.6%) when the cultures were exposed to 30 nmol L{sup -1} rotenone for 72 h. Concomitant exposure of the cultures to the FR3 (5 {mu}g mL{sup -1}) and 30 nmol L{sup -1} rotenone resulted in values of cell viability similar to control groups (99.6 {+-} 4.8%), strongly suggesting a cytoprotective effect for this flavonoid-rich fraction. (author)

  13. Survival of Salmonella on chamomile, peppermint, and green tea during storage and subsequent survival or growth following tea brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Susanne E; Stam, Christina N; Gradl, Dana R; Chen, Zhengzai; Larkin, Emily L; Pickens, Shannon R; Chirtel, Stuart J

    2015-04-01

    The survival of Salmonella on dried chamomile flowers, peppermint leaves, and green tea leaves stored under different conditions was examined. Survival and growth of Salmonella was also assessed after subsequent brewing using dried inoculated teas. A Salmonella enterica serovar cocktail was inoculated onto different dried tea leaves or flowers to give starting populations of approximately 10 log CFU/g. The inoculum was allowed to dry (at ambient temperature for 24 h) onto the dried leaves or flowers prior to storage under 25 and 35 °C at low (90% RH) humidity levels. Under the four storage conditions tested, survival followed the order 25 °C with low RH > 35 °C with low RH > 25 °C with high RH > 35 °C with high RH. Salmonella losses at 25 °C with low RH occurred primarily during drying, after which populations showed little decline over 6 months. In contrast, Salmonella decreased below detection after 45 days at 35 °C and high RH in all teas tested. The thermal resistance of Salmonella was assessed at 55 °C immediately after inoculation of tea leaves or flowers, after drying (24 h) onto tea leaves or flowers, and after 28 days of storage at 25 °C with low RH. All conditions resulted in similar D-values (2.78 ± 0.12, 3.04 ± 0.07, and 2.78 ± 0.56, at 0 h, 24 h, and 28 days, respectively), indicating thermal resistance of Salmonella in brewed tea did not change after desiccation and 28 days of storage. In addition, all brewed teas tested supported the growth of Salmonella. If Salmonella survives after storage, it may also survive and grow after a home brewing process.

  14. Flavonoides e sesquiterpenos de Croton pedicellatus Kunth

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Elton Luz; Andrade Neto, Manoel; Silveira, Edilberto Rocha; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdênia Loiola; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2012-01-01

    The chemical investigation of the ethanolic extract from leaves of Croton pedicellatus yielded the bis-nor-sesquiterpenes blumenol A and blumenol A glucoside, along with the flavonoids: tiliroside, 6"-O-p-coumaroyl-β-galactopyranosyl- kaempferol, 6"-O-p-coumaroyl-β-glucopyranosyl-3"-methoxy- kaempferol, kaempferol, 3-glucopyranosyl-quercetin and alpinumisoflavone, as well as 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid. The identification of all isolated compounds was performed by spectrometric method...

  15. Chemistry and Biological Activities of Flavonoids: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shashank; Pandey, Abhay K.

    2013-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in the research on flavonoids from plant sources because of their versatile health benefits reported in various epidemiological studies. Since flavonoids are directly associated with human dietary ingredients and health, there is need to evaluate structure and function relationship. The bioavailability, metabolism, and biological activity of flavonoids depend upon the configuration, total number of hydroxyl groups, and substitution of functional groups about their nuclear structure. Fruits and vegetables are the main dietary sources of flavonoids for humans, along with tea and wine. Most recent researches have focused on the health aspects of flavonoids for humans. Many flavonoids are shown to have antioxidative activity, free radical scavenging capacity, coronary heart disease prevention, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities, while some flavonoids exhibit potential antiviral activities. In plant systems, flavonoids help in combating oxidative stress and act as growth regulators. For pharmaceutical purposes cost-effective bulk production of different types of flavonoids has been made possible with the help of microbial biotechnology. This review highlights the structural features of flavonoids, their beneficial roles in human health, and significance in plants as well as their microbial production. PMID:24470791

  16. Citrus Flavonoids as Regulators of Lipoprotein Metabolism and Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvihill, Erin E; Burke, Amy C; Huff, Murray W

    2016-07-17

    Citrus flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds with significant biological properties. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding the ability of citrus flavonoids to modulate lipid metabolism, other metabolic parameters related to the metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis. Citrus flavonoids, including naringenin, hesperitin, nobiletin, and tangeretin, have emerged as potential therapeutics for the treatment of metabolic dysregulation. Epidemiological studies reveal an association between the intake of citrus flavonoid-containing foods and a decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease. Studies in cell culture and animal models, as well as a limited number of clinical studies, reveal the lipid-lowering, insulin-sensitizing, antihypertensive, and anti-inflammatory properties of citrus flavonoids. In animal models, supplementation of rodent diets with citrus flavonoids prevents hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance primarily through inhibition of hepatic fatty acid synthesis and increased fatty acid oxidation. Citrus flavonoids blunt the inflammatory response in metabolically important tissues including liver, adipose, kidney, and the aorta. The mechanisms underlying flavonoid-induced metabolic regulation have not been completely established, although several potential targets have been identified. In mouse models, citrus flavonoids show marked suppression of atherogenesis through improved metabolic parameters as well as through direct impact on the vessel wall. Recent studies support a role for citrus flavonoids in the treatment of dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, obesity, and atherosclerosis. Larger human studies examining dose, bioavailability, efficacy, and safety are required to promote the development of these promising therapeutic agents.

  17. Chemistry and Biological Activities of Flavonoids: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been increasing interest in the research on flavonoids from plant sources because of their versatile health benefits reported in various epidemiological studies. Since flavonoids are directly associated with human dietary ingredients and health, there is need to evaluate structure and function relationship. The bioavailability, metabolism, and biological activity of flavonoids depend upon the configuration, total number of hydroxyl groups, and substitution of functional groups about their nuclear structure. Fruits and vegetables are the main dietary sources of flavonoids for humans, along with tea and wine. Most recent researches have focused on the health aspects of flavonoids for humans. Many flavonoids are shown to have antioxidative activity, free radical scavenging capacity, coronary heart disease prevention, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities, while some flavonoids exhibit potential antiviral activities. In plant systems, flavonoids help in combating oxidative stress and act as growth regulators. For pharmaceutical purposes cost-effective bulk production of different types of flavonoids has been made possible with the help of microbial biotechnology. This review highlights the structural features of flavonoids, their beneficial roles in human health, and significance in plants as well as their microbial production.

  18. Effect of Salinity Stress and Foliar Application of Methyl Jasmonate on Photosynthetic Rate, Stomatal Conductance, Water Use Efficiency and Yield of German Chamomile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh Salimi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Jasmonate is new plant growth regulator that plays an essential role at increasing plants resistance to the environmental stresses like salinity stress. Hence, in this research the effect of foliar application of methyl jasmonate on some physiological indices and yield of German chamomile under salinity conditions was studied. A factorial experiment was laid out based on randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications in the greenhouse condition. Foliar application of methyl jasmonate was five levels (MJ1; 0, MJ2; 75, MJ3; 150, MJ4; 225 and MJ5; 300 μM and salinity stress was four levels (S1; 2, S2; 6, S3; 10, S4; 14 dS m-1. The effect of methyl jasmonate, salinity condition treatments and their interaction was significant for traits of photosynthesis rate, stomata conductance, transpiration rate, carboxylation efficiency, intercellular CO2 concentration and yield of flower. The highest values of photosynthetic rate, stomata conductance, transpiration rate, carboxylation efficiency and yield of flower (3.76 g pot-1 and the lowest intercellular CO2 concentration were achieved at MJ×S treatment. Maximum value of photosynthetic water use efficiency was revealed at MJ5×S2 treatment. With decreasing stomata conductance, photosynthetic water use efficiency and intercellular CO2 concentration were increased. In general, it seems that application of methyl jasmonate by lower dose (MJ2 under salinity conditions especially mild salinity stress (S2 can improve physiological indices and yield of chamomile.

  19. Flavonoids from each of the six structural groups reactivate BRM, a possible cofactor for the anticancer effects of flavonoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahali, Bhaskar; Marquez, Stefanie B.; Thompson, Kenneth W.; Yu, Jinlong; Gramling, Sarah J.B.; Lu, Li; Aponick, Aaron; Reisman, David

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids have been extensively studied and are well documented to have anticancer effects, but it is not entirely known how they impact cellular mechanisms to elicit these effects. In the course of this study, we found that a variety of different flavonoids readily restored Brahma (BRM) in BRM-deficient cancer cell lines. Flavonoids from each of the six different structural groups were effective at inducing BRM expression as well as inhibiting growth in these BRM-deficient cancer cells. By blocking the induction of BRM with shRNA, we found that flavonoid-induced growth inhibition was BRM dependent. We also found that flavonoids can restore BRM functionality by reversing BRM acetylation. In addition, we observed that an array of natural flavonoid-containing products both induced BRM expression as well as deacetylated the BRM protein. We also tested two of the BRM-inducing flavonoids (Rutin and Diosmin) at both a low and a high dose on the development of tumors in an established murine lung cancer model. We found that these flavonoids effectively blocked development of adenomas in the lungs of wild-type mice but not in that of BRMnull mice. These data demonstrate that BRM expression and function are regulated by flavonoids and that functional BRM appears to be a prerequisite for the anticancer effects of flavonoids both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24876151

  20. Transgenic rice seed expressing flavonoid biosynthetic genes accumulate glycosylated and/or acylated flavonoids in protein bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogo, Yuko; Mori, Tetsuya; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Saito, Kazuki; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    Plant-specialized (or secondary) metabolites represent an important source of high-value chemicals. In order to generate a new production platform for these metabolites, an attempt was made to produce flavonoids in rice seeds. Metabolome analysis of these transgenic rice seeds using liquid chromatography-photodiode array-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was performed. A total of 4392 peaks were detected in both transgenic and non-transgenic rice, 20–40% of which were only detected in transgenic rice. Among these, 82 flavonoids, including 37 flavonols, 11 isoflavones, and 34 flavones, were chemically assigned. Most of the flavonols and isoflavones were O-glycosylated, while many flavones were O-glycosylated and/or C-glycosylated. Several flavonoids were acylated with malonyl, feruloyl, acetyl, and coumaroyl groups. These glycosylated/acylated flavonoids are thought to have been biosynthesized by endogenous rice enzymes using newly synthesized flavonoids whose biosynthesis was catalysed by exogenous enzymes. The subcellular localization of the flavonoids differed depending on the class of aglycone and the glycosylation/acylation pattern. Therefore, flavonoids with the intended aglycones were efficiently produced in rice seeds via the exogenous enzymes introduced, while the flavonoids were variously glycosylated/acylated by endogenous enzymes. The results suggest that rice seeds are useful not only as a production platform for plant-specialized metabolites such as flavonoids but also as a tool for expanding the diversity of flavonoid structures, providing novel, physiologically active substances. PMID:26438413

  1. Flavonoids, flavonoid-rich foods, and cardiovascular risk: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Lee; Kroon, Paul A; Rimm, Eric B; Cohn, Jeffrey S; Harvey, Ian; Le Cornu, Kathryn A; Ryder, Jonathan J; Hall, Wendy L; Cassidy, Aedín

    2008-07-01

    The beneficial effects of flavonoid consumption on cardiovascular risk are supported by mechanistic and epidemiologic evidence. We aimed to systematically review the effectiveness of different flavonoid subclasses and flavonoid-rich food sources on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and risk factors--ie, lipoproteins, blood pressure, and flow-mediated dilatation (FMD). Methods included a structured search strategy on MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases; formal inclusion or exclusion, data extraction, and validity assessment; and meta-analysis. One hundred thirty-three trials were included. No randomized controlled trial studied effects on CVD morbidity or mortality. Significant heterogeneity confirmed differential effects between flavonoid subclasses and foods. Chocolate increased FMD after acute (3.99%; 95% CI: 2.86, 5.12; 6 studies) and chronic (1.45%; 0.62, 2.28; 2 studies) intake and reduced systolic (-5.88 mm Hg; -9.55, -2.21; 5 studies) and diastolic (-3.30 mm Hg; -5.77, -0.83; 4 studies) blood pressure. Soy protein isolate (but not other soy products or components) significantly reduced diastolic blood pressure (-1.99 mm Hg; -2.86, -1.12; 9 studies) and LDL cholesterol (-0.19 mmol/L; -0.24, -0.14; 39 studies). Acute black tea consumption increased systolic (5.69 mm Hg; 1.52, 9.86; 4 studies) and diastolic (2.56 mm Hg; 1.03, 4.10; 4 studies) blood pressure. Green tea reduced LDL (-0.23 mmol/L; -0.34, -0.12; 4 studies). For many of the other flavonoids, there was insufficient evidence to draw conclusions about efficacy. To date, the effects of flavonoids from soy and cocoa have been the main focus of attention. Future studies should focus on other commonly consumed subclasses (eg, anthocyanins and flavanones), examine dose-response effects, and be of long enough duration to allow assessment of clinically relevant endpoints.

  2. On flavonoid accumulation in different plant parts: Variation patterns among individuals and populations in the shore campion (Silene littorea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Del Valle

    2015-10-01

    flavonoids towards southern latitudes was observed in calyxes and leaves. This pattern corresponds to a gradual increase of UV-B radiation and temperature, and a decrease of rainfall toward the south. However, populations along the southern coast exposed to similar climatic stressors showed highly variable flavonoid contents, implying that other factors may play a role in flavonoid accumulation.

  3. Highly Oxygenated Flavonoids from the Leaves of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia (Solanaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Shafiullah Shajib; Bidyut Kanti Datta; Md. Hossain Sohrab; Mohammad Abdur Rashid; Lutfun Nahar; Satyajit Dey Sarker

    2017-01-01

    Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Viv. is an annual herb of the family Solanaceae, which grows abundantly in the weedy lands of Bangladesh . This plant possesses analgesic, antibacterial, anti-anxiety and hepatoprotective properties, and produces various phenolic compounds including flavonoids. The present study afforded determination of total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and for the first time, the isolation and characterization of highly oxygenated flavonoids, e.g., 3,3' ,5,6,7,8-hexamethoxy- 4...

  4. Molecular Link between Leaf Coloration and Gene Expression of Flavonoid and Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Camellia sinensis Cultivar ‘Huangjinya’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubin Song

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ‘Huangjinya’ is an excellent albino tea germplasm cultivated in China because of its bright color and high amino acid content. It is light sensitive, with yellow leaves under intense light while green leaves under weak light. As well, the flavonoid and carotenoid levels increased after moderate shading treatment. However, the mechanism underlying this interesting phenomenon remains unclear. In this study, the transcriptome of ‘Huangjinya’ plants exposed to sunlight and shade were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing followed by de novo assembly. Shading ‘Huangjinya’ made its leaf color turn green. De novo assembly showed that the transcriptome of ‘Huangjinya’ leaves comprises of 127,253 unigenes, with an average length of 914 nt. Among the 81,128 functionally annotated unigenes, 207 differentially expressed genes were identified, including 110 up-regulated and 97 down-regulated genes under moderate shading compared to full light. Gene ontology (GO indicated that the differentially expressed genes are mainly involved in protein and ion binding and oxidoreductase activity. Antioxidation-related pathways, including flavonoid and carotenoid biosynthesis, were highly enriched in these functions. Shading inhibited the expression of flavonoid biosynthesis-associated genes and induced carotenoid biosynthesis-related genes. This would suggest that decreased flavonoid biosynthetic gene expression coincides with increased flavonoids (e.g., catechin content upon moderate shading, while carotenoid levels and biosynthetic gene expression are positively correlated in ‘Huangjinya.’ In conclusion, the leaf color changes in ‘Huangjinya’ are largely determined by the combined effects of flavonoid and carotenoid biosynthesis.

  5. Naturally occurring flavonoids against human norovirus surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaowei; D'Souza, Doris H

    2013-06-01

    Naturally occurring plant-derived flavonoids are reported to have antibacterial, antiviral, and pharmacological activities. The objectives of this study were to determine the antiviral effects of four flavonoids (myricetin, L-epicatechin, tangeretin, and naringenin) on the infectivity of food borne norovirus surrogates after 2 h at 37 °C. The lab-culturable surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV-F9) at titers of ~7 log₁₀ PFU/ml (high titer) or ~5 log₁₀ PFU/ml (low titer) and murine norovirus (MNV-1) at ~5 log₁₀ PFU/ml, were mixed with equal volumes of myricetin, L-epicatechin, tangeretin, or naringenin at concentrations of 0.5 or 1 mM, and incubated for 2 h at 37 °C. Treatments of viruses were neutralized in cell culture medium containing 10 % heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum, serially diluted, and plaque assayed. Each treatment was replicated thrice and assayed in duplicate. FCV-F9 (low titer) was not found to be reduced by tangeretin or naringenin, but was reduced to undetectable levels by myricetin at both concentrations. Low titer FCV-F9 was also decreased by 1.40 log₁₀ PFU/ml with L-epicatechin at 0.5 mM. FCV-F9 at high titers was decreased by 3.17 and 0.72 log₁₀ PFU/ml with myricetin and L-epicatechin at 0.5 mM, and 1.73 log10 PFU/ml with myricetin at 0.25 mM, respectively. However, MNV-1 showed no significant inactivation by the four tested treatments. The antiviral effects of the tested flavonoids are dependent on the virus type, titer, and dose. Further research will focus on understanding the antiviral mechanism of myricetin and L-epicatechin.

  6. Flavonoids from the roots of Artocarpus heterophyllus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wen-Jun; Yuan, Jin-Bin; Peng, Jia-Bing; Ding, Yuan-Qing; Zhu, Ji-Xiao; Ren, Gang

    2017-03-01

    Four new flavonoids, artoheteroids A-D (1-4), together with six known ones (5-10), were isolated from the roots of Artocarpus heterophyllus. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR, UV, IR, CD, and HR-ESI-MS. All isolated compounds were screened for their inhibitory abilities against cathepsin K (CatK). Among them, compounds 1-2, 4-6, and 10 were found to have suppression capabilities against CatK with IC 50 values ranging from 1.4 to 93.9μM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Flavonoids and sesquiterpenes of Croton pedicellatus Kunth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Elton Luz; Andrade Neto, Manoel; Silveira, Edilberto Rocha; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia Loiola; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2012-01-01

    The chemical investigation of the ethanolic extract from leaves of Croton pedicellatus yielded the bis-nor-sesquiterpenes blumenol A and blumenol A glucoside, along with the flavonoids: tiliroside, 6 - O-p-coumaroyl-β-galactopyranosyl- kaempferol, 6 - O-p-coumaroyl-β-glucopyranosyl-3 - methoxy- kaempferol, kaempferol, 3-glucopyranosyl-quercetin and alpinumisoflavone, as well as 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid. The identification of all isolated compounds was performed by spectrometric methods, including HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR experiments, and by comparison with previously-described physical and spectral data. (author)

  8. Flavonoides e sesquiterpenos de Croton pedicellatus Kunth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton Luz Lopes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical investigation of the ethanolic extract from leaves of Croton pedicellatus yielded the bis-nor-sesquiterpenes blumenol A and blumenol A glucoside, along with the flavonoids: tiliroside, 6"-O-p-coumaroyl-β-galactopyranosyl- kaempferol, 6"-O-p-coumaroyl-β-glucopyranosyl-3"-methoxy- kaempferol, kaempferol, 3-glucopyranosyl-quercetin and alpinumisoflavone, as well as 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid. The identification of all isolated compounds was performed by spectrometric methods, including HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR experiments, and by comparison with previously-described physical and spectral data.

  9. Mechanisms of carcinogenesis prevention by flavonoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Belitsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of anticancerogenic effects of flavanoids and isocyanates from the plants widely consumed in the midland belt of Russia were reviewed. Data of studies both in vitro and in vivo were analyzed. Special attention was paid to inhibition of targets responsible for carcinogen metabolic activation, carcinogenesis promotion and tumor progression as well as neoangiogenesis. Besides that the antioxidant properties of flavonoids and their effects on cell cycle regulation, apoptosis initiation and cell mobility were considered.

  10. Flavonoid intake and cardiovascular disease mortality in a prospective cohort of US adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Flavonoids are plant-based phytochemicals with cardiovascular protective properties. Few studies have comprehensively examined flavonoid classes in relation to cardiovascular disease mortality. We examined the association between flavonoid intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortalit...

  11. Camomila como aditivo fitoterápico para codornas na fase de postura Chamomile herbal medicine as an additive for quails in the laying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danísio Prado Munari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da camomila (Matricaria chamomila sobre codornas na fase de postura através da análise dos parâmetros de desempenho, comportamento e indicadores fisiológicos de estresse. Foram utilizadas 192 codornas com 45 dias de idade, distribuídas em blocos casualizados, submetidas às dietas com 0; 250; 500 e 750mg de camomila /kg de ração, no total de quatro tratamentos com oito repetições e seis aves por parcela, em um período experimental que foi dos 45 aos 143 dias de idade das aves, no total de sete ciclos de 14 dias cada. Foram avaliados parâmetros de desempenho (consumo diário de ração, conversão alimentar/dúzia e kg de ovos, porcentagem de postura, viabilidade e peso dos ovos, comportamentais (tempo em imobilidade tônica, ferimentos corporais e agressividade e indicadores fisiológicos de estresse (concentração plasmática de corticosterona e relação heterófilo: linfócito. Os resultados mostraram que as diferentes inclusões de camomila na ração de codornas não influenciaram o desempenho, assim como os indicadores fisiológicos de estresse e comportamentais.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chamomile (Matricaria chamomile on the stress of laying Japanese quails, analyzing the performance, behavior and physiological indicators. A total of 192 quails was used with 45 days of age, distributed in randomized blocks, feed with 0, 250, 500 and 750mg chamomila/kg feed, with of four treatments, eight replicates and six birds per cage. The trial period was from 45 to 143 days of age, totaling seven cycles with 14 days. Were evaluated performance parameters (feed intake, feed/kg and dozen eggs, egg production, viability and egg weight, behavioral (time in tonic immobility, body injury and aggression and physiological (plasma corticosterone and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio. The results showed that the different inclusions of chamomile in the quail diet did not affect performance

  12. Quantitative determination of phenolic compounds by UHPLC-UV-MS and use of partial least-square discriminant analysis to differentiate chemo-types of Chamomile/Chrysanthemum flower heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Wang, Mei; Avonto, Cristina; Zhao, Jianping; Smillie, Troy J; Rua, Diego; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2014-01-01

    A new rapid UHPLC-UV-QTOF/MS method has been developed for the simultaneous analysis of nine phenolic compounds [(Z)-2-β-d-glucopyranosyloxy-4-methoxycinnamic acid (cis-GMCA), chlorogenic acid, (E)-2-β-d-glucopyranosyloxy-4-methoxycinnamic acid (trans-GMCA), quercetagetin-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, luteolin-7-O-β-d-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-β-d-glucoside, chamaemeloside, apigenin 7-O-(6″-O-acetyl-β-d-glucopyranoside), apigenin] and one polyacetylene (tonghaosu) from the flower heads of Chamomile/Chrysanthemum samples. The chromatographic separation was achieved using a reversed phase C18 column with a mobile phase of water and acetonitrile, both containing 0.05% formic acid. The ten compounds were completely separated within 15min at a flow rate of 0.25mL/min with a 2μL injection volume. The different chemo-types of Chamomiles/Chrysanthemum displayed variations in the presence of chemical constituents. German Chamomile samples confirmed the presence of cis-GMCA, trans-GMCA, apigenin-7-O-β-d-glucoside and tonghaosu as major constituents whereas Roman chamomile samples confirmed the presence of chamamaeloside and apigenin as major compounds. The Chrysanthemum morifolium samples showed the presence of luteolin-7-O-β-d-glucose as the major compound. The method was applied for the analysis of various commercial products including capsules, tea bags, body and hair care products. LC-mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI) interface method is described for the evaluation of ten compounds in plant samples and commercial products. This method involved the detection of [M+Na](+) and [M+H](+) ions in the positive mode. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to visualize commercial samples quality and may be of value for discriminating between chamomile types and Chrysanthemum with regards to the relative content of individual constituents. The results indicated that the method is suitable as a quality control test for various

  13. Gastroprotective effects of flavonoids in plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayachkivska, O S; Konturek, S J; Drozdowicz, D; Konturek, P C; Brzozowski, T; Ghegotsky, M R

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to overview the relations between plant-originated substances and their bioactivity measured in terms of antioxidant, cytoprotective and antiulcer activities. In addition, we assessed whether these compounds are capable of affecting the gastric mucosal lesions induced by absolute ethanol applied intragastrically (i.g.). The following plant-originated flavonoid substances were considered; Solon (Sophoradin extract), Amaranth seed extract, grapefruit-seed extract (GSE) and capsaicin (extract of chilly pepper). The area of gastric mucosa lesions and gastric blood flow were measured in rats with ethanol-induced lesions without (control) and with one of the tested substances without and with capsaicin denervation of afferent nerves or administration of L-nitro-arginine (L-NNA), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Male Wistar rats, weighing 180-220 g fasted for 24 h before the study where used 100% ethanol was applied i.g. to induce gastric lesions, whose area was determined by planimetry. Gastric blood flow was assessed using electrolytic regional blood flowmeter. All tested plant-originated substances afforded gastroprotection against ethanol-induced damage and this was accompanied by increase in gastric microcirculation, both changes being reversed by pretreatment with neurotoxic dose of capsaicin or by pretreatment with L-NNA. We conclude that plant-originated flavonoid substances are highly gastroprotective probably due to enhancement of the expression of constitutive NOS and release of NO and neuropeptides such as calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) released from sensory afferent nerves increasing gastric microcirculation.

  14. Cytoprotective effects of dietary flavonoids against cadmium-induced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Jiang, Xinwei; Sun, Jianxia; Zhu, Cuijuan; Li, Xiaoling; Tian, Lingmin; Liu, Liu; Bai, Weibin

    2017-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) damages the liver, kidney, bones, reproductive system, and other organs. Flavonoids, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, which are commonly found in plant foods, have shown protective effects against Cd-induced damage. The cytoprotective effects of flavonoids against Cd-induced diseases are mainly attributable to three mechanisms. First, flavonoids clear reactive oxygen species, thereby reducing lipid peroxide production and improving the activity of antioxidation enzymes. Second, flavonoids chelate Cd, thus reducing the accumulation of Cd and altering the levels of other essential metal ions in vivo. Third, flavonoids reduce DNA damage and inhibit apoptosis. In addition, flavonoids were found to inhibit inflammation and fibrosis and improve glycometabolism and the secretion of reproductive hormones. We introduce the daily dosage and absorption rate of flavonoids and then focus on their bioactive effects against Cd-induced toxicity and reveal the underlying metabolic pathway, which provides a basis for further study of the nutritional prevention of Cd-induced injury. In particular, a better understanding is needed of the structure-activity relationship of flavonoids against Cd toxicity, which has not yet been reported. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and diuretic effect of flavonoids from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dried leaves of Marchantia convoluta are largely used to protect livers, and to treat tumefaction of skins in China. Flavonoids from Marchantia convoluta (MCF) were the active components against hepatitis B virus. In this study, the pharmacological properties of MCF consisting of flavonoids determined by HPLC were ...

  16. Dietary supplementation with mulberry leaf flavonoids inhibits methanogenesis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tao; Chen, Dan-Dan; Tu, Yan; Zhang, Nai-Feng; Si, Bing-Wen; Diao, Qi-Yu

    2017-01-01

    The effects of flavonoids on methanogenesis and microbial flora in Dorper × thin-tailed Han crossbred ewes were evaluated in two experiments. To investigate the effects of flavonoids on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance, 18 ewes (60.0 ± 1.73 kg body weight (BW)) were allotted to two dietary treatments in experiment one, a control diet and the control diet supplemented with flavonoids (2 g/head/day). In experiment two, the effects of supplementary flavonoids on ruminal fermentation and microbial flora were investigated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction with six ewes (67.2 ± 0.79 kg BW) with ruminal cannula assigned to the identical dietary treatments used in experiment one. Supplementary flavonoids improved the apparent digestibility of nitrogen (N, P flavonoids, whereas the total volatile fatty acid (VFA) content increased (P = 0.037). Supplementary flavonoids decreased ruminal populations of protozoans (P = 0.002) and methanogens (P flavonoids improved the digestibility of organic matter and reduced CH 4 output by inhibiting the populations of microbes involved in methanogenesis. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Cytotoxic flavonoids from Erythrina caffra Thunb | Y. Desta | Bulletin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erythrina caffra is an important medicinal plant native to South Africa. Its stem bark was investigated for the flavonoid constituents and biological activity. Some isolated flavonoids, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15 and 16 were found to be active against the human cervix carcinoma KB-3-1 cells with IC50 values in the ...

  18. Brosimacutins A-I, nine new flavonoids from Brosimum acutifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Junko; Ohsaki, Ayumi

    2002-12-01

    Nine new flavonoids, brosimacutins A-I (1-9), and four known flavonoids were isolated from the bark of Brosimum acutifolium, a Brazilian folk medicine ("Mururé"). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including 2D NMR. Brosimacutins A-I possess differentially functionalized isoprene units at C-8.

  19. Efficacy of Food Proteins as Carriers for Flavonoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohin, M.C.; Vincken, J.P.; Hijden, H.T.W.M.; Gruppen, H.

    2012-01-01

    Enrichment of flavonoids in food is often limited by their off-tastes, which might be counteracted by the use of food proteins as carriers of flavonoids. Various milk proteins, egg proteins, and gelatin hydrolysates were compared for their binding characteristics to two flavan-3-ols. Among the

  20. Automated Annotation of Microbial and Human Flavonoid-Derived Metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihaleva, V.V.; Ünlü, F.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Ridder, L.O.

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoids are a class of natural compounds essentially produced by plants that are part of animal and human diets and have assumed health-promoting benefits. Upon human consumption, these flavonoids are to a modest extent absorbed in the small intestines. The major part arrives in the colon where

  1. Metabolic engineering of yeast for fermentative production of flavonoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez Prado, Edith Angelica; Strucko, Tomas; Stahlhut, Steen Gustav

    2017-01-01

    Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered for de novo production of six different flavonoids (naringenin, liquiritigenin, kaempferol, resokaempferol, quercetin, and fisetin) directly from glucose, without supplementation of expensive intermediates. This required reconstruction of long...... demonstrates the potential of flavonoid-producing yeast cell factories....

  2. Antimicrobial potential of alkaloids and flavonoids extracted from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Alkaloids and flavonoids are secondary metabolites extracted from different medicinal plants. Tamarix aphylla a traditionally valuable medicinal plant; was used for the extraction of alkaloids and flavonoids in order to evaluate their antibacterial activity. Methodology: The leaves of the plant were collected from ...

  3. Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction and Antioxidant Activity of Flavonoids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To identify the main flavonoid in Adinandra nitida leaf, employ response surface methodology to optimize its ultrasonic-assisted extraction, and determine the antioxidant activity of the obtained extract. Methods: The main flavonoid in Adinandra nitida leaf was obtained by traditional solvent extraction and ...

  4. FLAVONOID NATURAL SOURCES AND THEIR IMPORTANCE IN THE HUMAN DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Danihelová

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids as natural bioactive compounds are present in almost every sort of fruits, vegetables and from them derived products. Flavonols may be found mainly in fruits and vegetables, while flavones are abundant in herbs and spices. Rich natural sources of flavanols are tea, cocoa, grape seeds or apple skin. Flavanones are primarily found in a variety of citrus fruits and anthocyanidins in many coloured berries. Soy is rich in isoflavonoids. Average daily intake of flavonoids is approximately in the range of 150 to 300 mg. It strongly depends on individual, country and culture usages. In west countries main dietary sources of flavonoids consist of tea, wine and fruits, while in east countries there is consumed mainly soy with high isoflavonoid content. Many studies have shown, that intake of fruits and vegetables with high flavonoid content is associated with lowered risk of incidence of some diseases such as cardiovascular or cancer. These findings are attributed to experimentally confirmed biological effects of flavonoids - antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anticancer or cardioprotective. The final effect is however depending on their bioavailability, which is in the case of flavonoids not high, because in the nature dominating flavonoid glycosides can poorly penetrate through lipophilic cell membranes. Final effective molecules are flavonoid metabolites, that more or less retain their biological activities. doi: 10.5219/160

  5. Flavonoids patterns of French honeys with different floral origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler, C.; Gil, M.I.; Garcia-Viguera, C.; Tomás-Barberán, F.A.

    1995-01-01

    The flavonoid profiles of 12 different unifloral French honey samples were analysed by HPLC to evaluate if these substances could be used as markers of the floral origin of honey. In this analysis, the characteristic flavonoids from propolis and/or beeswax (chrysin, galangin, tectochrysin,

  6. Quantification of Tea Flavonoids by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jessica D.; Niemeyer, Emily D.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a laboratory experiment that uses high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify flavonoid levels in a variety of commercial teas. Specifically, this experiment analyzes a group of flavonoids known as catechins, plant-derived polyphenolic compounds commonly found in many foods and beverages, including green and black…

  7. Extraction and Purification of Flavonoids from Radix Puerariae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    content of puerarin and flavonoids in the samples were tested by a HPLC and a UV-Vis. Spectrophotometer, respectively. ... the weight of the crude drug), the volume of loading sample is 2 BV (bed volume). The mobile phases of desorption are ... flavonoids, they have a variety of biological activities [1-3] including improving ...

  8. Quantification and antibacterial activity of flavonoids in coffee samples

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Flavonoids are the phenolic substances widely found in fruits, vegetables, grains, bark, roots, stems, flowers, tea and coffee. Methodology: In the current study quantity of flavonoids and antibacterial activities were determined in different coffee samples namely Nescafe classic, Nescafe gold, Nescafe martina, ...

  9. The therapeutic potential of plant flavonoids on rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Samuel D; Ketheesan, Natkunam; Haleagrahara, Nagaraja

    2017-11-22

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune condition that mainly affects peripheral joints. Although immunosuppressive drugs and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used to treat this condition, these drugs have severe side effects. Flavonoids are the most abundant phenolic compounds which exhibit anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. Many bioactive flavonoids have powerful anti-inflammatory effects. However, a very few have reached clinical use. Dietary flavonoids have been reported to control joint inflammation and alleviate arthritis symptoms in both human RA and animal models of arthritis. There is little scientific evidence about their mechanism of actions in RA. We review the therapeutic effects of different groups of flavonoids belonging to the most common and abundant groups on RA. In particular, the probable mechanisms of major flavonoids on cells and chemical messengers involved in the inflammatory signaling components of RA are discussed in detail.

  10. Flavonoids in the development of functional meat products: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod K. Singh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids or bioflavonoids are unique low molecular weight ubiquitous polyphenolic compounds produced by plants during their metabolic activities as a secondary metabolites and responsible for major organoleptic characteristics and health benefits of plant derived foods. The flavonoids are potent antioxidants agents and protect the cells by scavenging and inhibiting the production and initiation of free radicals, superoxide anions and lipid peroxy radicals. Besides potent antioxidant capacity, flavonoids also shows antimicrobial, antimutagenic, antidiabetic, antithrombosis, antirheumatic, antiatherosclerotic, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, antiulcers and hepatoprotectives and better termed as neutraceuticals. The antioxidant capacity of meat is very low and this can be increased by adding flavonoids in meat during processing in the form of plant parts rich in flavonoids such as seeds, fruit skin or peel, bark and flower as raw or in extract form without comprising the sensory attributes of meat and meat products. [Vet World 2013; 6(8.000: 573-578

  11. The flavonoid biosynthetic pathway in plants: function and evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koes, R.E.; Quattrocchio, F.; Mol, J.N.M.

    1994-01-01

    Flavonoids are a class of low molecular weight phenolic compounds that is widely distributed in the plant kingdom. They exhibit a diverse spectrum of biological functions and play an important role in the interaction between plants and their environment. Flavonoids not only protect the plant from the harmful effects of UV irradiation but also play a crucial role in the sexual reproduction process. A special class of flavonoid polymers, the tannins, plays a structural role in the plant. Yet other classes of flavonoids, flavonols and anthocyanins, have been implicated in the attraction of pollinators. Certain flavonoids participate in the interaction between plants and other organisms such as symbiotic bacteria and parasites. This raises the intriguing question as to how these different compounds arose and evolved. Based on taxonomy and molecular analysis of gene expression patterns it is possible to deduce a putative sequence of acquisition of the different branches of the biosynthetic pathway and their regulators. (author)

  12. UV radiation dependent flavonoid accumulation of Cistus laurifolius L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, T.; Gülz, P.-G.; Reznik, H.

    1991-01-01

    Epicuticular and intracellular flavonoids of Cistus laurifolius grown with and without UV radiation in a phytotron as well as under natural garden conditions in the field were studied. The amount of intracellular flavonoid glycosides of leaves receiving UV-A radiation was two fold higher than that measured in the absence o f UV-A radiation, whether grown in the phytotron or in the field. Exposure of previously protected leaves to UV-A radiation increased the intracellular flavonoid glycoside content to that of unprotected leaves. The qualitative composition of intracellular flavonoid glycosides showed a reduced amount of quercetin-3-galactoside to the myricetin monosides when the leaves were grown without UV-A radiation in the field and in the phytotron. Epicuticular flavonoid aglycones were not influenced by UV radiation significantly. (author)

  13. Floral flavonoids and ultraviolet patterns in Viguiera (Compositae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieseberg, L.H.; Schilling, E.E.

    1985-01-01

    Variation occurs among species of Viguiera series Viguiera for ultraviolet (UV) absorption/reflection patterns of ligules. Floral flavonoids that cause UV absorption occur in epidermal papillae. Flavonoids are further localized to the proximal portion of the ligule in the seven taxa that have only proximal UV absorption. Floral flavonoids involved in UV absorption consist of flavone, flavonol, and anthochlor (chalcone/aurone) glycosides. Quercetin 3-methyl ether glycosides characterize the ligules of 10 taxa occurring in Baja California, Mexico, and nearby areas, and these taxa appear to form one taxonomic group. The anthochlor pair, marein/maritimein, characterizes V. dentata, and the lack of ligule flavonoids distinguishes V. potosina from the remaining taxa. The presence of the anthochlor pair, marein/maritimein, only in V. dentata and the lack of ligule flavonoids in V. potosina concur with other data to indicate that these species are not correctly placed with each other or with the other species currently included in series Viguiera. (author)

  14. The flavonoid biosynthetic pathway in plants: function and evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koes, R. E.; Quattrocchio, F.; Mol, J. N.M. [Department of Genetics, Institute for Molecular Biological Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, BioCentrum Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1994-07-01

    Flavonoids are a class of low molecular weight phenolic compounds that is widely distributed in the plant kingdom. They exhibit a diverse spectrum of biological functions and play an important role in the interaction between plants and their environment. Flavonoids not only protect the plant from the harmful effects of UV irradiation but also play a crucial role in the sexual reproduction process. A special class of flavonoid polymers, the tannins, plays a structural role in the plant. Yet other classes of flavonoids, flavonols and anthocyanins, have been implicated in the attraction of pollinators. Certain flavonoids participate in the interaction between plants and other organisms such as symbiotic bacteria and parasites. This raises the intriguing question as to how these different compounds arose and evolved. Based on taxonomy and molecular analysis of gene expression patterns it is possible to deduce a putative sequence of acquisition of the different branches of the biosynthetic pathway and their regulators. (author)

  15. A fluorescence quenching test for the detection of flavonoid transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoefer, L; Braune, A; Blaut, M

    2001-11-13

    A novel fluorescence quenching test for the detection of flavonoid degradation by microorganisms was developed. The test is based on the ability of the flavonoids to quench the fluorescence of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH). Several members of the anthocyanidins, flavones, isoflavones, flavonols, flavanones, dihydroflavanones, chalcones, dihydrochalcones and catechins were tested with regard to their quenching properties. The anthocyanidins were the most potent quenchers of DPH fluorescence, while the flavanones, dihydroflavanones and dihydrochalcones, quenched the fluorescence only weakly. The catechins had no visible impact on DPH fluorescence. The developed test allows a quick and easy differentiation between flavonoid-degrading and flavonoid-non-degrading bacteria. The investigation of individual reactions of flavonoid transformation with the developed test system is also possible.

  16. Extraction, isolation and identification of flavonoid from Euphorbia neriifolia leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Sharma

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The flavonoids contained in Euphorbia neriifolia leaves were extracted, identified and characterized. Direct and sequential soxhlet extraction and its concentrated fractions were subjected to thin layer chromatography and high performance thin layer chromatography. The results showed that maximum yield of the flavonoid (6.53 g was obtained from ethanolic extract. The Rf value of isolated flavonoid and phytochemical screening has been compared with standard Quercetin. Characterization of isolated flavonoid was done by IR, 1H NMR, and MS. On the basis of chemical and spectral analysis structure was elucidated as 2-(3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-phenyl-3,5-dihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxychromen-4-one, a flavonoid. This compound was isolated for the first time from this plant.

  17. Total phenolics and total flavonoids in selected Indian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, C T; Balachandran, Indira

    2012-05-01

    Plant phenolics and flavonoids have a powerful biological activity, which outlines the necessity of their determination. The phenolics and flavonoids content of 20 medicinal plants were determined in the present investigation. The phenolic content was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The total flavonoids were measured spectrophotometrically by using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay. The results showed that the family Mimosaceae is the richest source of phenolics, (Acacia nilotica: 80.63 mg gallic acid equivalents, Acacia catechu 78.12 mg gallic acid equivalents, Albizia lebbeck 66.23 mg gallic acid equivalents). The highest total flavonoid content was revealed in Senna tora which belongs to the family Caesalpiniaceae. The present study also shows the ratio of flavonoids to the phenolics in each sample for their specificity.

  18. Antidiabetic effects of chamomile flowers extract in obese mice through transcriptional stimulation of nutrient sensors of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Weidner

    Full Text Available Given the significant increases in the incidence of metabolic diseases, efficient strategies for preventing and treating of these common disorders are urgently needed. This includes the development of phytopharmaceutical products or functional foods to prevent or cure metabolic diseases. Plant extracts from edible biomaterial provide a potential resource of structurally diverse molecules that can synergistically interfere with complex disorders. In this study we describe the safe application of ethanolic chamomile (Matricaria recutita flowers extract (CFE for the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes and associated disorders. We show in vitro that this extract activates in particular nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ and its isotypes. In a cellular context, in human primary adipocytes CFE administration (300 µg/ml led to specific expression of target genes of PPARγ, whereas in human hepatocytes CFE-induced we detected expression changes of genes that were regulated by PPARα. In vivo treatment of insulin-resistant high-fat diet (HFD-fed C57BL/6 mice with CFE (200 mg/kg/d for 6 weeks considerably reduced insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, plasma triacylglycerol, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA and LDL/VLDL cholesterol. Co-feeding of lean C57BL/6 mice a HFD with 200 mg/kg/d CFE for 20 weeks showed effective prevention of fatty liver formation and hepatic inflammation, indicating additionally hepatoprotective effects of the extract. Moreover, CFE treatment did not reveal side effects, which have otherwise been associated with strong synthetic PPAR-targeting molecules, such as weight gain, liver disorders, hemodilution or bone cell turnover. Taken together, modulation of PPARs and other factors by chamomile flowers extract has the potential to prevent or treat type 2 diabetes and related disorders.

  19. Effects of the Rabdosia rubescens total flavonoids on focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion model in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingsan Miao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the Rabdosia rubescens total flavonoids on focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion model in rats was observed. The model group, nimodipine group, cerebral collateral group, and large, medium and small dose group of the Rabdosia rubescens total flavonoids were administered with corresponding drugs but sham operation group and model group were administered the same volume of 0.5%CMC, 1 times a day, continuous administration of 7 d. After 1 h at 7 d to medicine, left incision in the middle of the neck of rats after anesthesia, we can firstly expose and isolate the left common carotid artery (CCA, and then expose external carotid artery (ECA and internal carotid artery (ICA. The common carotid artery and the external carotid artery are ligated. Then internal carotid artery with arterial clamp is temporarily clipped. Besides, cut the incision of 0.2 mm from 5 cm of the bifurcation of the common carotid artery. A thread Line bolt is inserted with more than 18–20 mm from bifurcation of CCA into the internal carotid artery until there is resistance. Then the entrance of the middle cerebral artery is blocked and internal carotid artery is ligated (the blank group only exposed the left blood vessel without Plugging wire. Finally it is gently pulled out the plug line after 2 h. Results: Compared with the model mice, Rabdosia rubescens total flavonoids can significantly relieve the injury of brain in hippocampus and cortex nerve cells; experimental rat focal cerebral ischemia was to improve again perfusion model of nerve function defect score mortality; significantly reduce brain homogenate NOS activity and no content, MDA, IL-1, TNF-a, ICAM-1 content; increase in brain homogenate SOD and ATPase activity (P < 0.05, P < 0.01; and reduce the serum S-100β protein content. Each dose group of the Rabdosia rubescens total flavonoids has a better Improvement effect on focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion model in rats.

  20. Buildings exposed to fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 24 lectures presented to the colloquium cover the following subject fields: (1) Behaviour of structural components exposed to fire; (2) Behaviour of building materials exposed to fire; (3) Thermal processes; (4) Safety related, theoretical studies. (PW) [de

  1. Prenylated flavonoids from maclura tinctoria fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Sayuri de Oliveira; Souza, Luiz Antonio de; Baldoqui, Debora Cristina; Sarragiotto, Maria Helena; Silva, Adriano Antônio

    2013-01-01

    A phytochemical investigation of Maclura tinctoria fruits yielded five flavonoids, including one prenylated flavonol (licoflavonol) and four prenylated isoflavones (wighteone, derrone, alpinum isoflavone, and 6-(2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromen-6-yl)-2-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl) -2,3-dihydro-5H-furo[3,2-g]chromen-5-one). The structures of the isolates were established by analyzing their spectroscopic data. Compound 6-(2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromen-6-yl) -2-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-2,3-ihydro-5H-furo[3,2-g]chromen-5-one is new and the other isolates are described for the first time in this species. (author)

  2. [Studies on the flavonoids from Dendranthema lavandulifolium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y X; Quan, L H; Guan, L; Chen, J M

    1997-06-01

    From the whole plant of Dendranthema lavandulifolium, two flavonoides (I, II) and two flavone glycosides (III, IV) were isolated. They were identified as luteolin (I), apigenin (II), 5-hydroxy-4'-methoxy-flavone-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->6)-beta- D-glucopyranosyl (acaciin III) and 5-hydroxy-4'-methoxy-flavone-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->6) [2-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->2)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (IV) by means of IR, UV, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, EI-MS, HRFAB, etc. Among these four compounds, I, II were isolated for the first time from this plant, IV is a new compound.

  3. Phytotoxic activity of flavonoids from Dicranostyles ampla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Amaya; Cantrell, Charles L; Hale, Amber L; Duke, Stephen O

    2010-08-01

    Crude extracts from over 16 species of plants from the family Convolvulaceae were evaluated for phytotoxic activity against Agrostis stolonifera (bentgrass) and Lactuca sativa (lettuce) at 1000 microg/mL. Ethanol extracts of Dicranostyles ampla Ducke were among the most active of those species tested. Systematic bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanol extract of the aerial parts from this species was performed to identify specifically the phytotoxic compounds. Two phytotoxic flavonoids, dihydromyricetin (1) and myricetin-3-O-alpha-rhamnoside or myricetrin (2), were found to be responsible for much of the activity of the extract as a whole in the A. stolonifera and L. sativa bioassay. In a Lemna paucicostata bioassay, 1 and 2 had no activity at 100 microM.

  4. Prenylated flavonoids from maclura tinctoria fruits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Sayuri de Oliveira; Souza, Luiz Antonio de [Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil); Baldoqui, Debora Cristina; Sarragiotto, Maria Helena [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil); Silva, Adriano Antonio, E-mail: aasilva@ufac.br [Departamento de Ciencias da Natureza, Universidade Federal do Acre, AC (Brazil)

    2013-09-01

    A phytochemical investigation of Maclura tinctoria fruits yielded five flavonoids, including one prenylated flavonol (licoflavonol) and four prenylated isoflavones (wighteone, derrone, alpinum isoflavone, and 6-(2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromen-6-yl)-2-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl) -2,3-dihydro-5H-furo[3,2-g]chromen-5-one). The structures of the isolates were established by analyzing their spectroscopic data. Compound 6-(2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromen-6-yl) -2-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-2,3-ihydro-5H-furo[3,2-g]chromen-5-one is new and the other isolates are described for the first time in this species. (author)

  5. Flavonoids from Twigs of Millettia leptobotrya Dunn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Na

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A new furanoisoflavone, 2 ' -methoxy-4 ' ,5 ' -methylenedioxy-[2 '' ,3 '' :7,8 ] furanoisoflavone, leptobotryanone ( 1 , and a new natural O-prenylated isoflavone, 4 ' -γ,γ-dimethylallyloxy-5,7-dihydroxyisoflavone ( 2 , were isolated from the twig s of Millettia leptobotrya, together with twelve known flavonoids, 4 ' -γ,γ-dimethylallyloxy-5-hydroxy-7-methoxyisoflavone ( 3 , 2 ' ,6,7-trimethoxy-4 ' ,5 ' -methylenedioxy- isoflavone (4, 2 ' ,7-dimethoxy-4 ' ,5 ' -methylenedioxyisoflavone (5, maximaisoflavone B (6, medicarpin (7 , maackiain (8, genistein (9, biochanin A (10, prunetin (11, chrysoeriol (12 , kaempferol (13 and desmoxyphyllin A (14 The structures of new compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation , including 1D and 2D NMR and HREIMS. Th is is the first phytochemical investigation of this plant.

  6. Flavonoids as modulators of metabolic enzymes and drug transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Anca; Aprotosoaie, Ana Clara; Trifan, Adriana; Xiao, Jianbo

    2017-06-01

    Flavonoids, natural compounds found in plants and in plant-derived foods and beverages, have been extensively studied with regard to their capacity to modulate metabolic enzymes and drug transporters. In vitro, flavonoids predominantly inhibit the major phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme CYP450 3A4 and the enzymes responsible for the bioactivation of procarcinogens (CYP1 enzymes) and upregulate the enzymes involved in carcinogen detoxification (UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs)). Flavonoids have been reported to inhibit ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (multidrug resistance (MDR)-associated proteins, breast cancer-resistance protein) that contribute to the development of MDR. P-glycoprotein, an ABC transporter that limits drug bioavailability and also induces MDR, was differently modulated by flavonoids. Flavonoids and their phase II metabolites (sulfates, glucuronides) inhibit organic anion transporters involved in the tubular uptake of nephrotoxic compounds. In vivo studies have partially confirmed in vitro findings, suggesting that the mechanisms underlying the modulatory effects of flavonoids are complex and difficult to predict in vivo. Data summarized in this review strongly support the view that flavonoids are promising candidates for the enhancement of oral drug bioavailability, chemoprevention, and reversal of MDR. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. Flavonoid accumulation patterns of transparent testa mutants of arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, W. A.; Brown, D. E.; Tague, B. W.; Muday, G. K.; Taiz, L.; Murphy, A. S.

    2001-01-01

    Flavonoids have been implicated in the regulation of auxin movements in Arabidopsis. To understand when and where flavonoids may be acting to control auxin movement, the flavonoid accumulation pattern was examined in young seedlings and mature tissues of wild-type Arabidopsis. Using a variety of biochemical and visualization techniques, flavonoid accumulation in mature plants was localized in cauline leaves, pollen, stigmata, and floral primordia, and in the stems of young, actively growing inflorescences. In young Landsberg erecta seedlings, aglycone flavonols accumulated developmentally in three regions, the cotyledonary node, the hypocotyl-root transition zone, and the root tip. Aglycone flavonols accumulated at the hypocotyl-root transition zone in a developmental and tissue-specific manner with kaempferol in the epidermis and quercetin in the cortex. Quercetin localized subcellularly in the nuclear region, plasma membrane, and endomembrane system, whereas kaempferol localized in the nuclear region and plasma membrane. The flavonoid accumulation pattern was also examined in transparent testa mutants blocked at different steps in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. The transparent testa mutants were shown to have precursor accumulation patterns similar to those of end product flavonoids in wild-type Landsberg erecta, suggesting that synthesis and end product accumulation occur in the same cells.

  8. Dietary Flavonoids and Gastric Cancer Risk in a Korean Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Dong Woo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is the most common cancer among men in Korea, and dietary factors are closely associated with gastric cancer risk. We performed a case-control study using 334 cases and 334 matched controls aged 35–75 years. Significant associations were observed in total dietary flavonoids and their subclasses, with the exception of anthocyanidins and isoflavones (OR (95% CI: 0.49 (0.31–0.76, p trend = 0.007 for total flavonoids. However, these associations were not significant after further adjustment for fruits and vegetable consumption (OR (95% CI: 0.62 (0.36–1.09, p trend = 0.458 for total flavonoids. Total flavonoids and their subclasses, except for isoflavones, were significantly associated with a reduced risk gastric cancer in women (OR (95% CI: 0.33 (0.15–0.73, p trend = 0.001 for total flavonoids but not in men (OR (95% CI: 0.70 (0.39–1.24, p trend = 0.393 for total flavonoids. A significant inverse association with gastric cancer risk was observed in flavones, even after additional adjustment for fruits and vegetable consumption in women. No significantly different effects of flavonoids were observed between H. pylori-positive and negative subjects. In conclusion, dietary flavonoids were inversely associated with gastric cancer risk, and these protective effects of dietary flavonoids were prominent in women. No clear differences were observed in the subgroup analysis of H. pylori and smoking status.

  9. Synthesis of Phenolics and Flavonoids in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe and Their Effects on Photosynthesis Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmah Rahmat

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between phenolics and flavonoids synthesis/accumulation and photosynthesis rate was investigated for two Malaysian ginger (Zingiber officinale varieties grown under four levels of glasshouse light intensity, namely 310, 460, 630 and 790 μmol m−2s−1. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was employed to identify and quantify the polyphenolic components. The results of HPLC analysis indicated that synthesis and partitioning of quercetin, rutin, catechin, epicatechin and naringenin were high in plants grown under 310 µmol m−2s−1. The average value of flavonoids synthesis in leaves for both varieties increased (Halia Bentong 26.1%; Halia Bara 19.5% when light intensity decreased. Photosynthetic rate and plant biomass increased in both varieties with increasing light intensity. More specifically, a high photosynthesis rate (12.25 µmol CO2 m−2s−1 in Halia Bara and plant biomass (79.47 g in Halia Bentong were observed at 790 µmol m−2s−1. Furthermore, plants with the lowest rate of photosynthesis had highest flavonoids content. Previous studies have shown that quercetin inhibits and salicylic acid induces the electron transport rate in photosynthesis photosystems. In the current study, quercetin was an abundant flavonoid in both ginger varieties. Moreover, higher concentration of quercetin (1.12 mg/g dry weight was found in Halia Bara leaves grown under 310 µmol m−2s−1 with a low photosynthesis rate. Furthermore, a high content of salicylic acid (0.673 mg/g dry weight was detected in Halia Bara leaves exposed under 790 µmol m−2s−1 with a high photosynthesis rate. No salicylic acid was detected in gingers grown under 310 µmol m−2s−1. Ginger is a semi-shade loving plant that does not require high light intensity for photosynthesis. Different photosynthesis rates at different light intensities may be related to the absence or presence of some flavonoid and phenolic compounds.

  10. Synthesis of Phenolics and Flavonoids in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and Their Effects on Photosynthesis Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Rahmat, Asmah

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between phenolics and flavonoids synthesis/accumulation and photosynthesis rate was investigated for two Malaysian ginger (Zingiber officinale) varieties grown under four levels of glasshouse light intensity, namely 310, 460, 630 and 790 μmol m−2s−1. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed to identify and quantify the polyphenolic components. The results of HPLC analysis indicated that synthesis and partitioning of quercetin, rutin, catechin, epicatechin and naringenin were high in plants grown under 310 μmol m−2s−1. The average value of flavonoids synthesis in leaves for both varieties increased (Halia Bentong 26.1%; Halia Bara 19.5%) when light intensity decreased. Photosynthetic rate and plant biomass increased in both varieties with increasing light intensity. More specifically, a high photosynthesis rate (12.25 μmol CO2 m−2s−1 in Halia Bara) and plant biomass (79.47 g in Halia Bentong) were observed at 790 μmol m−2s−1. Furthermore, plants with the lowest rate of photosynthesis had highest flavonoids content. Previous studies have shown that quercetin inhibits and salicylic acid induces the electron transport rate in photosynthesis photosystems. In the current study, quercetin was an abundant flavonoid in both ginger varieties. Moreover, higher concentration of quercetin (1.12 mg/g dry weight) was found in Halia Bara leaves grown under 310 μmol m−2s−1 with a low photosynthesis rate. Furthermore, a high content of salicylic acid (0.673 mg/g dry weight) was detected in Halia Bara leaves exposed under 790 μmol m−2s−1 with a high photosynthesis rate. No salicylic acid was detected in gingers grown under 310 μmol m−2s−1. Ginger is a semi-shade loving plant that does not require high light intensity for photosynthesis. Different photosynthesis rates at different light intensities may be related to the absence or presence of some flavonoid and phenolic compounds. PMID:21151455

  11. Physiological Studies on Pea Tendrils. IV. Flavonoids and Contact Coiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, M. J.; Galston, A. W.

    1967-01-01

    Pea tendrils contain high concentrations of flavonoids, mainly quercetin-triglucosyl-p-coumarate (QGC). QGC is most abundant near the highly responsive apex of the tendril, and least abundant at the base. After mechanical stimulation, and during coiling of the tendril, the QGC titer drops to about 30% of its original value. The kinetics of flavonoid disappearance are significantly correlated with the kinetics of coiling. Aqueous extracts of unstimulated pea tendrils or 10 μm QGC inhibit contact coiling of excised tendrils. Extracts of coiled tendrils do not. The evidence indicates a possible regulatory role for flavonoids in contact coiling. PMID:16656581

  12. Flavonoids as Important Molecules of Plant Interactions with the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Mierziak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are small molecular secondary metabolites synthesized by plants with various biological activities. Due to their physical and biochemical properties, they are capable of participating in plants’ interactions with other organisms (microorganisms, animals and other plants and their reactions to environmental stresses. The majority of their functions result from their strong antioxidative properties. Although an increasing number of studies focus on the application of flavonoids in medicine or the food industry, their relevance for the plants themselves also deserves extensive investigations. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the functions of flavonoids in the physiology of plants and their relations with the environment.

  13. Flavonoids in Helichrysum pamphylicum inhibit mammalian type I DNA topoisomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcu, Zeki; Ozturk, Bintug; Kucukoglu, Ozlem; Kilinc, Emrah

    2008-01-01

    DNA topoisomerases are important targets for cancer chemotherapy. We investigated the effects of a methanolic extract of Helichrysum pamphylicum on mammalian DNA topoisomerase I via in vitro plasmid supercoil relaxation assays. The extracts manifested a considerable inhibition of the enzyme's activity in a dose-dependent manner. We also performed a HPLC analysis to identify the flavonoid content of the H. pamphylicum extract and tested the identified flavonoids; luteolin, luteolin-4-glucoside, naringenin, helichrysinA and isoquercitrin, on DNA topoisomerase I activity. The measurement of the total antioxidant capacity of the flavonoid standards suggested that the topoisomerase inhibition might be correlated with the antioxidant capacity of the plant.

  14. Intrinsic bitterness of flavonoids and isoflavonoids and masking of their taste activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roland, W.S.U.

    2014-01-01

    Many flavonoids and isoflavonoids have been associated with beneficial health effects. Therefore, consumption of (iso)flavonoid-rich food products, and enrichment of foods with (iso)flavonoids is becoming increasingly popular. However, several (iso)flavonoids have been reported as bitter.

  15. Flavonoids in baby spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.): Changes during plant growth and storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergquist, S. Å. M.; Gertsson, U. E.; Knuthsen, Pia

    2005-01-01

    were analyzed by reversed phase HPLC. Twelve flavonoid peaks were detected. The main flavonoid, making up on average 43% of the total flavonoid concentration, was identified as 5,3',4'-trihydroxy-3-methoxy-6:7-methylenedioxyflavone-4'-glucuronide. Four other flavonoids each contributed 7......The variation in flavonoid concentration and composition was investigated in baby spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) cv. Emilia sown on three occasions, each harvested at three growth stages at 6-day intervals. After harvest, leaves were stored in polypropylene bags at 2 or 10 degrees C. Flavonoids......-12% of the total flavonoid content. Total flavonoid content was relatively stable during normal retail storage conditions, although some of the individual flavonoid compounds showed considerable variation. The youngest plants had the highest flavonoid concentration, indicating that by harvesting the baby spinach...

  16. Quercetin - A Flavonoid Compound from Sarcopyramis bodinieri var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The flavonoid compound was identified as quercetin by 1H-. NMR and ESI-MS ... phenolic compounds were isolated, and their .... scored under a fluorescence microscope (Carl. Zeiss .... Antioxidant Properties of Sarcopyramis bodinieri.

  17. Flavonoid Functions in Plants and Their Interactions with Other Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Mathesius

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are structurally diverse secondary metabolites in plants, with a multitude of functions. These span from functions in regulating plant development, pigmentation, and UV protection, to an array of roles in defence and signalling between plants and microorganisms. Because of their prevalence in the human diet, many flavonoids constitute important components of medicinal plants and are used in the control of inflammation and cancer prevention. Advances in the elucidation of flavonoid biosynthesis and its regulation have led to an increasing number of studies aimed at engineering the flavonoid pathway for enhancing nutritional value and plant defences against pathogens and herbivores, as well as modifying the feeding value of pastures. Many future opportunities await for the exploitation of this colourful pathway in crops, pastures, and medicinal plants.

  18. Intervention of Prostate Cancer by a Flavonoid Antioxidant Silymarin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agarwal, Rajesh

    1999-01-01

    ...). We rationalized that targeting this pathway would be useful for PCA intervention, and showed recently that a flavonoid antioxidant silymarin inhibits erbB 1 activation followed by a G 1 arrest...

  19. Isolation and identification of flavonoids from anticancer and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation and identification of flavonoids from anticancer and neuroprotective extracts of Trigonella foenum graecum. Shabina Ishtiaq Ahmed, Muhammad Qasim Hayat, Saadia Zahid, Muhammad Tahir, Qaisar Mansoor, Muhammad Ismail, Kristen Keck, Robert Bates ...

  20. Effects of UV light and chromium ions on wood flavonoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnárné Hamvas, L.; Németh, K.; Stipta, J.

    2003-01-01

    The individual and simultaneous effect of UV light and chromium ions was investigated by spectrophotometric methods on inert surfaces impregnated with quercetin or robinetin. The UV-VIS spectra of the silica gel plates impregnated with these flavonoids were modified characteristically after irradiating ultraviolet light. Even a half an hour of irradiation has caused irreversible changes in the molecule structure. A certain chemical - presumably complexation - was concluded from the change of spectral bands assigned to flavonoids when impregnated with chromic ions. Hexavalent chromium caused more complex changes in the absorption spectra. The differences in the spectra could indicate either the oxidation and decomposition of flavonoids, or some kind of coordination process and the reduction of hexavalent chromium. The simultaneous application of UV light and chromium ions caused more pronounced effects. The complexation process between chromium(III) and flavonoid was completed

  1. Extraction and Purification of Flavonoids from Radix Puerariae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and preparations are now on sale. ... significant for optimization of extraction, resin selection and ... and flavonoids as indexes, optimize the proper density. ..... system. Sep Purif Technol. 2008; 62: 590-595. 12. Chen JH, Liau BC, Jong TT.

  2. Study the active site of flavonoid applying radiation chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Jilan; Sun Gang; Zhang Fugen; He Yongke; Li Jiuqiang [Department of Technical Physics, Peking Univ., Beijing (China)

    2000-03-01

    Flavonoid are a large and important class of naturally occurring, low molecular weight benzo-{gamma}-pyrone derivatives which are reported to have a myriad of biological activities, but the study on the active sites of flavonoids is still ambiguous. In this paper, rutin, quercetin and baicalin have been selected as model compounds. It is well known that rutin is used in inhibiting arteriosclerosis and baicalin is antibacterial and antiviral. They have similar basic structure, but their medicinal properties are so different, why? As most flavonoids contain carbonyl group, which can capture electron effectively, we predict that flavonoids can capture electron to form radical anion. The formation of anion radical may have influence on the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The difference in the ability of forming anion radical may cause the difference in their medicinal effects. (author)

  3. Study the active site of flavonoid applying radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jilan; Sun Gang; Zhang Fugen; He Yongke; Li Jiuqiang

    2000-01-01

    Flavonoid are a large and important class of naturally occurring, low molecular weight benzo-γ-pyrone derivatives which are reported to have a myriad of biological activities, but the study on the active sites of flavonoids is still ambiguous. In this paper, rutin, quercetin and baicalin have been selected as model compounds. It is well known that rutin is used in inhibiting arteriosclerosis and baicalin is antibacterial and antiviral. They have similar basic structure, but their medicinal properties are so different, why? As most flavonoids contain carbonyl group, which can capture electron effectively, we predict that flavonoids can capture electron to form radical anion. The formation of anion radical may have influence on the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The difference in the ability of forming anion radical may cause the difference in their medicinal effects. (author)

  4. Quantitative study of flavonoids in leaves of citrus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaii, S; Tomono, Y; Katase, E; Ogawa, K; Yano, M; Koizumi, M; Ito, C; Furukawa, H

    2000-09-01

    Leaf flavonoids were quantitatively determined in 68 representative or economically important Citrus species, cultivars, and near-Citrus relatives. Contents of 23 flavonoids including 6 polymethoxylated flavones were analyzed by means of reversed phase HPLC analysis. Principal component analysis revealed that the 7 associations according to Tanaka's classification were observed, but some do overlap each other. Group VII species could be divided into two different subgroups, namely, the first-10-species class and the last-19-species class according to Tanaka's classification numbers.

  5. Plant flavonoids in cancer chemoprevention: role in genome stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Vazhappilly Cijo; Dellaire, Graham; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2017-07-01

    Carcinogenesis is a multistage process that involves a series of events comprising of genetic and epigenetic changes leading to the initiation, promotion and progression of cancer. Chemoprevention is referred to as the use of nontoxic natural compounds, synthetic chemicals or their combinations to intervene in multistage carcinogenesis. Chemoprevention through diet modification, i.e., increased consumption of plant-based food, has emerged as a most promising and potentially cost-effective approach to reducing the risk of cancer. Flavonoids are naturally occurring polyphenols that are ubiquitous in plant-based food such as fruits, vegetables and teas as well as in most medicinal plants. Over 10,000 flavonoids have been characterized over the last few decades. Flavonoids comprise of several subclasses including flavonols, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanins, flavanones, flavones, isoflavones and proanthocyanidins. This review describes the most efficacious plant flavonoids, including luteolin, epigallocatechin gallate, quercetin, apigenin and chrysin; their hormetic effects; and the molecular basis of how these flavonoids contribute to the chemoprevention with a focus on protection against DNA damage caused by various carcinogenic factors. The present knowledge on the role of flavonoids in chemoprevention can be used in developing effective dietary strategies and natural health products targeted for cancer chemoprevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Bioavailability, metabolism and potential health protective effects of dietary flavonoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredsdorff, Lea

    Dietary flavonoids constitute an important group of potential health protective compounds from fruits, vegetables, and plant-based products such as tea and wine. The beneficial effects of a diet high in flavonoids on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) have been shown in several epidemiologi......Dietary flavonoids constitute an important group of potential health protective compounds from fruits, vegetables, and plant-based products such as tea and wine. The beneficial effects of a diet high in flavonoids on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) have been shown in several...... of their content. In addition, variation in individual metabolic genotype and microflora may greatly affect the actual flavonoid exposure. The preventive effects of flavonoids on CHD are mainly ascribed to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Several mechanisms of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant...... effective absorption of hesperetin and naringenin from the small intestine when consumed as glucosides compared to absorption in the colon VII after microbial degradation of the rhamnoglucosides. In addition it was shown that the conjugate profile was neither affected by the absorption site nor by a 3-fold...

  7. Flavonoid-surfactant interactions: A detailed physicochemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Onkar; Kaur, Rajwinder; Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study the interactions between flavonoids and surfactants with attention of finding the probable location of flavonoids in micellar media that can be used for controlling their antioxidant behavior. In present study, the micellar and interfacial behavior of twin tailed anionic surfactants viz. sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT) and sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate (NaDEHP) in the presence of two flavonoids, namely quercetin (QUE) and kaempferol (KFL) have been studied by surface tension measurements. UV-visible, fluorescence and differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) measurements have been employed to predict the probable location of flavonoids (QUE/KFL) within surfactant (AOT/NaDEHP) aggregates. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements further confirmed the solubilization of QUE/KFL in AOT/NaDEHP aggregates deduced from increased hydrodynamic diameter (Dh) of aggregates in the presence of flavonoids. Both radical scavenging activity (RSA) and degradation rate constant (k) of flavonoids are found to be higher in NaDEHP micelles as compared to AOT micelles.

  8. The biochemistry and medical significance of the flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havsteen, Bent H

    2002-01-01

    Flavonoids are plant pigments that are synthesised from phenylalanine, generally display marvelous colors known from flower petals, mostly emit brilliant fluorescence when they are excited by UV light, and are ubiquitous to green plant cells. The flavonoids are used by botanists for taxonomical classification. They regulate plant growth by inhibition of the exocytosis of the auxin indolyl acetic acid, as well as by induction of gene expression, and they influence other biological cells in numerous ways. Flavonoids inhibit or kill many bacterial strains, inhibit important viral enzymes, such as reverse transcriptase and protease, and destroy some pathogenic protozoans. Yet, their toxicity to animal cells is low. Flavonoids are major functional components of many herbal and insect preparations for medical use, e.g., propolis (bee's glue) and honey, which have been used since ancient times. The daily intake of flavonoids with normal food, especially fruit and vegetables, is 1-2 g. Modern authorised physicians are increasing their use of pure flavonoids to treat many important common diseases, due to their proven ability to inhibit specific enzymes, to simulate some hormones and neurotransmitters, and to scavenge free radicals.

  9. Flavonoids and sesquiterpenes of Croton pedicellatus Kunth; Flavonoides e sesquiterpenos de Croton pedicellatus Kunth.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Elton Luz; Andrade Neto, Manoel; Silveira, Edilberto Rocha; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia Loiola [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    The chemical investigation of the ethanolic extract from leaves of Croton pedicellatus yielded the bis-nor-sesquiterpenes blumenol A and blumenol A glucoside, along with the flavonoids: tiliroside, 6{sup -}O-p-coumaroyl-{beta}-galactopyranosyl- kaempferol, 6{sup -}O-p-coumaroyl-{beta}-glucopyranosyl-3{sup -}methoxy- kaempferol, kaempferol, 3-glucopyranosyl-quercetin and alpinumisoflavone, as well as 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid. The identification of all isolated compounds was performed by spectrometric methods, including HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR experiments, and by comparison with previously-described physical and spectral data. (author)

  10. Antioxidant Flavonoids from Nepeta floccosa Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liaqat Ali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are the substances which significantly delay or prevent the development of age-related degenerative and chronic diseases caused by oxidative damage. Due to this, there is a considerable interest in the identification of lead molecules, which can inhibit the oxidation process or slow it down considerably. Based on the spectrofluorimetric analysis of superoxide and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging ability, the bio-assay guided isolation of methanolic extract of Nepeta floccosa Benth. was carried out. As a result of this study, one new flavanonol named nepetavanol (1 and four known flavonoids; dihydrokaempferol (2, naringenin (3, caulesnarinside (4, and poncirin (5 have been isolated. The structure of the new flavanonol was assigned on the basis of 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra including two-dimensional NMR techniques such as COSY, HMQC, and HMBC experiments and FABMS, EIMS, HR-MS data. Compound 1 , 2, and 3 showed significant activity whereas compounds 4 and 5 showed moderate activity against antioxidant assays.

  11. Flavonoid Regulation of HCN2 Channels*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Anne E.; Rosenbaum, Joel C.; Brelidze, Tinatin I.; Klevit, Rachel E.; Zagotta, William N.

    2013-01-01

    The hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-modulated (HCN) channels are pacemaker channels whose currents contribute to rhythmic activity in the heart and brain. HCN channels open in response to hyperpolarizing voltages, and the binding of cAMP to their cyclic nucleotide-binding domain (CNBD) facilitates channel opening. Here, we report that, like cAMP, the flavonoid fisetin potentiates HCN2 channel gating. Fisetin sped HCN2 activation and shifted the conductance-voltage relationship to more depolarizing potentials with a half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 1.8 μm. When applied together, fisetin and cAMP regulated HCN2 gating in a nonadditive fashion. Fisetin did not potentiate HCN2 channels lacking their CNBD, and two independent fluorescence-based binding assays reported that fisetin bound to the purified CNBD. These data suggest that the CNBD mediates the fisetin potentiation of HCN2 channels. Moreover, binding assays suggest that fisetin and cAMP partially compete for binding to the CNBD. NMR experiments demonstrated that fisetin binds within the cAMP-binding pocket, interacting with some of the same residues as cAMP. Together, these data indicate that fisetin is a partial agonist for HCN2 channels. PMID:24085296

  12. Inhibition of transmembrane member 16A calcium-activated chloride channels by natural flavonoids contributes to flavonoid anticancer effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Li, Honglin; Zhang, Huiran; Liu, Yani; Huo, Lifang; Jia, Zhanfeng; Xue, Yucong; Sun, Xiaorun; Zhang, Wei

    2017-07-01

    Natural flavonoids are ubiquitous in dietary plants and vegetables and have been proposed to have antiviral, antioxidant, cardiovascular protective and anticancer effects. Transmembrane member 16A (TMEM16A)-encoded Ca 2+ -activated Cl - channels play a variety of physiological roles in many organs and tissues. Overexpression of TMEM16A is also believed to be associated with cancer progression. Therefore, inhibition of TMEM16A current may be a potential target for cancer therapy. In this study, we screened a broad spectrum of flavonoids for their inhibitory activities on TMEM16A currents. A whole-cell patch technique was used to record the currents. The BrdU assay and transwell technique were used to investigate cell proliferation and migration. At a concentration of 100 μM, 10 of 20 compounds caused significant (>50%) inhibition of TMEM16A currents. The four most potent compounds - luteolin, galangin, quercetin and fisetin - had IC 50 values ranging from 4.5 to 15 μM). To examine the physiological relevance of these findings, we also studied the effects of these flavonoids on endogenous TMEM16A currents in addition to cell proliferation and migration in LA795 cancer cells. Among the flavonoids tested, we detected a highly significant correlation between TMEM16A current inhibition and cell proliferation or reduction of migration. This study demonstrates that flavonoids inhibit TMEM16A currents and suggests that flavonoids could have anticancer effects via this mechanism. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. Study of the radioprotective effect of flavonoid quercetin on human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueira, Williams Nascimento de

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has been used in various fields of study, as medicine, industry, energy production, surgical materials sterilization, preservation and sterilization of foods, among others. These radiations may be responsible for adverse effects at molecular level in living organisms, where most important damage occurs in deoxyribonucleic acid molecule, DNA. These harmful effects caused by radiation highlights the importance of acquiring knowledge about radioprotector substances because they can act as protector of living tissue of those effects. In this research was investigated the possible radioprotective effect 'in vitro' of the flavonoid quercetin in human lymphocytes exposed to gamma radiation. At first, test was performed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of quercetin by capturing DPPH free radical molecules. Then, it was collected peripheral blood of volunteers donors. Then the samples were irradiated from linear accelerator (Siemens Primus - energy of 6 MeV and dose rate of 200 cGy/min from IMIP-PE). After samples irradiation, lymphocytes were isolated from whole blood and then the culture was carried out to obtain lymphocyte in metaphases and subsequent, analysis of chromosomal abnormalities were done at optical microscope. Statistical analysis was used Student 't' test. The results showed that quercetin at a concentration of 37.5 μM presented radioprotective against damage from gamma radiation on human lymphocytes in vitro. Have been also observed that the irradiated lymphocytes showed morphologically unchanged after undergoing the presence of the flavonoid quercetin. (author)

  14. Apple Flavonoids Suppress Carcinogen-Induced DNA Damage in Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vazhappilly Cijo George

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scope. Human neoplastic transformation due to DNA damage poses an increasing global healthcare concern. Maintaining genomic integrity is crucial for avoiding tumor initiation and progression. The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of an apple flavonoid fraction (AF4 against various carcinogen-induced toxicity in normal human bronchial epithelial cells and its mechanism of DNA damage response and repair processes. Methods and Results. AF4-pretreated cells were exposed to nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketones (NNK, NNK acetate (NNK-Ae, methotrexate (MTX, and cisplatin to validate cytotoxicity, total reactive oxygen species, intracellular antioxidants, DNA fragmentation, and DNA tail damage. Furthermore, phosphorylated histone (γ-H2AX and proteins involved in DNA damage (ATM/ATR, Chk1, Chk2, and p53 and repair (DNA-PKcs and Ku80 mechanisms were evaluated by immunofluorescence and western blotting, respectively. The results revealed that AF4-pretreated cells showed lower cytotoxicity, total ROS generation, and DNA fragmentation along with consequent inhibition of DNA tail moment. An increased level of γ-H2AX and DNA damage proteins was observed in carcinogen-treated cells and that was significantly (p≤0.05 inhibited in AF4-pretreated cells, in an ATR-dependent manner. AF4 pretreatment also facilitated the phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs and thus initiation of repair mechanisms. Conclusion. Apple flavonoids can protect in vitro oxidative DNA damage and facilitate repair mechanisms.

  15. Enhancing Human Cognition with Cocoa Flavonoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Socci

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing cognitive abilities has become a fascinating scientific challenge, recently driven by the interest in preventing age-related cognitive decline and sustaining normal cognitive performance in response to cognitively demanding environments. In recent years, cocoa and cocoa-derived products, as a rich source of flavonoids, mainly the flavanols sub-class, have been clearly shown to exert cardiovascular benefits. More recently, neuromodulation and neuroprotective actions have been also suggested. Here, we discuss human studies specifically aimed at investigating the effects of acute and chronic administration of cocoa flavanols on different cognitive domains, such as executive functions, attention and memory. Through a variety of direct and indirect biological actions, in part still speculative, cocoa and cocoa-derived food have been suggested to possess the potential to counteract cognitive decline and sustain cognitive abilities, particularly among patients at risk. Although still at a preliminary stage, research investigating the relations between cocoa and cognition shows dose-dependent improvements in general cognition, attention, processing speed, and working memory. Moreover, cocoa flavanols administration could also enhance normal cognitive functioning and exert a protective role on cognitive performance and cardiovascular function specifically impaired by sleep loss, in healthy subjects. Together, these findings converge at pointing to cocoa as a new interesting nutraceutical tool to protect human cognition and counteract different types of cognitive decline, thus encouraging further investigations. Future research should include complex experimental designs combining neuroimaging techniques with physiological and behavioral measures to better elucidate cocoa neuromodulatory properties and directly compare immediate versus long-lasting cognitive effects.

  16. Inhibition effect on lipid oxidation of irradiated pork by adding hawthorn flavonoid extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoming; Liu Chao; Cao Lei; Li Kexi

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of hawthorn flavonoid extract and its inhibition effect on irradiated pork lipid oxidant were investigated. The results showed that hawthorn flavonoids had efficient scavenging effect on DPPH free radicals (DPPH ·), and the scavenging rate reached 56% while 2 ml of 0.035 mg/ml hawthorn flavonoid extract was added. Hawthorn flavonoid extract can inhibition the lipid oxidation of irradiated pork effectively and it showed a stronger inhibition ability while the hawthorn flavonoid extract were used together with Vc. It is concluded that can decrease the lipid oxidation of pork, hawthorn flavonoid extract is a remarkable natural antioxidant. (authors)

  17. Flavonoids, Thyroid Iodide Uptake and Thyroid Cancer-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Carlos F L; de Freitas, Mariana L; Ferreira, Andrea C F

    2017-06-12

    Thyroid cancer is the most common malignant tumor of the endocrine system and the incidence has been increasing in recent years. In a great part of the differentiated carcinomas, thyrocytes are capable of uptaking iodide. In these cases, the main therapeutic approach includes thyroidectomy followed by ablative therapy with radioiodine. However, in part of the patients, the capacity to concentrate iodide is lost due to down-regulation of the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), the protein responsible for transporting iodide into the thyrocytes. Thus, therapy with radioiodide becomes ineffective, limiting therapeutic options and reducing the life expectancy of the patient. Excessive ingestion of some flavonoids has been associated with thyroid dysfunction and goiter. Nevertheless, studies have shown that some flavonoids can be beneficial for thyroid cancer, by reducing cell proliferation and increasing cell death, besides increasing NIS mRNA levels and iodide uptake. Recent data show that the flavonoids apingenin and rutin are capable of increasing NIS function and expression in vivo. Herein we review literature data regarding the effect of flavonoids on thyroid cancer, besides the effect of these compounds on the expression and function of the sodium-iodide symporter. We will also discuss the possibility of using flavonoids as adjuvants for therapy of thyroid cancer.

  18. Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Beneficial Effects of Flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Masoumeh

    2016-10-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been known as the hepatic feature of metabolic syndrome. Extra fat depots, especially in visceral areas, develop insulin resistance as a result of mild oxidation and inflammation. Insulin resistance induces lipolysis and releases free fatty acids into the circulation, where they are transported to the liver. In the liver, free fatty acids are converted to triglycerides and accumulate, causing simple steatosis that, if left untreated, can lead to steatohepatitis, and subsequently liver necrosis and cirrhosis.Flavonoids, a group of plant compounds with incredible biological characteristics, have shown advantages in pathological conditions. Beneficial effects of flavonoids against NAFLD and its related disorders have been observed in both animal and human studies. Various mechanisms have been found for their protection. Flavonoids prevent hepatosteatosis by increasing fatty acid oxidation in the liver. They can also reduce caloric intake and decrease body weight and fat deposition in visceral tissues. Flavonoids are unique antioxidants that exert their beneficial effects through inhibition of nuclear factor κB, thereby attenuating release of inflammatory cytokines, which are triggers of insulin resistance. Finally, flavonoids have shown to increase adiponectin, improve insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, correct dyslipidemia, and reduce blood pressure in patients with NAFLD. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Chlorinated Flavonoids Modulate the Inflammatory Process in Human Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proença, Carina; Ribeiro, Daniela; Soares, Tânia; Tomé, Sara M; Silva, Artur M S; Lima, José L F C; Fernandes, Eduarda; Freitas, Marisa

    2017-08-01

    Flavonoids are known to react with neutrophil-generated hypochlorous acid (HOCl) at inflammation loci to form stable mono- and dichlorinated products. Some of these products have been shown to retain or even enhance their inflammatory potential, but further information is required in a broader approach to inflammatory mechanisms. In that sense, we performed an integrated evaluation on the anti-inflammatory potential of a panel of novel chlorinated flavonoids and their parent compounds, in several steps of the complex inflammatory cascade, namely, in the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2, and in the production of cytokines [interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)], and the chemokine, IL-8, as well as in the production of reactive species, using human whole blood as a representative in vitro model, establishing, whenever possible, a structure-activity relationship. Although luteolin was the most active compound, chlorinated flavonoids demonstrated a remarkable pattern of activity for the resolution of the inflammatory processes. Our results demonstrated that 6-chloro-3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone deserves scientific attention due to its ability to modulate the reactive species and cytokines/chemokine production. In this regard, the therapeutic potential of flavonoids' metabolites, and in this particular case the chlorinated flavonoids, should not be neglected.

  20. Flavonoids, Thyroid Iodide Uptake and Thyroid Cancer—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Carlos F. L.; de Freitas, Mariana L.; Ferreira, Andrea C. F.

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common malignant tumor of the endocrine system and the incidence has been increasing in recent years. In a great part of the differentiated carcinomas, thyrocytes are capable of uptaking iodide. In these cases, the main therapeutic approach includes thyroidectomy followed by ablative therapy with radioiodine. However, in part of the patients, the capacity to concentrate iodide is lost due to down-regulation of the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), the protein responsible for transporting iodide into the thyrocytes. Thus, therapy with radioiodide becomes ineffective, limiting therapeutic options and reducing the life expectancy of the patient. Excessive ingestion of some flavonoids has been associated with thyroid dysfunction and goiter. Nevertheless, studies have shown that some flavonoids can be beneficial for thyroid cancer, by reducing cell proliferation and increasing cell death, besides increasing NIS mRNA levels and iodide uptake. Recent data show that the flavonoids apingenin and rutin are capable of increasing NIS function and expression in vivo. Herein we review literature data regarding the effect of flavonoids on thyroid cancer, besides the effect of these compounds on the expression and function of the sodium-iodide symporter. We will also discuss the possibility of using flavonoids as adjuvants for therapy of thyroid cancer. PMID:28604619

  1. Radioprotective effects of antioxidative plant flavonoids in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoi, Kayoko; Masuda, Shuichi; Shen, Bingrong; Furugori, Michiyo; Kinae, Naohide

    1996-01-01

    Radioprotective effects of tea infusions and plant flavonoids were investigated by using the micronucleus test for anticlastogenic activity and the thiobarbituric acid assay for antioxidative activity. A single gastric intubation of rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis) infusion at 1 ml per mouse 2 h prior to γ-ray irradiation (1.5 Gy) reduced the frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes (MNRETs). After the fractionation of rooibos tea infusion, the flavonoid fraction was found to be most anticlastogenic and antioxidative. From this fraction, luteolin was isolated as an effective component. Then, anticlastogenic effects of 12 flavonoids containing luteolin and their antioxidative activities against lipid peroxidation by Fenton's reagent were examined. A good correlation (r=0.717) was observed between both activities. Luteolin showed the most effective potency. A gastric intubation of luteolin (10 μmol/kg) 2 h prior to γ-ray irradiation (6 Gy) suppressed lipid peroxidation in mouse bone marrow and spleen and a trend of protective effect of luteolin against the decrease of endogenous ascorbic acid in mouse bone marrow after γ-ray irradiation (3 Gy) was observed. These results suggest that plant flavonoids, which show antioxidative potency in vitro, work as antioxidants in vivo and their radioprotective effects may be attributed to their scavenging potency towards free radicals such as hydroxyl radicals. Therefore, the flavonoids contained in tea, vegetables and fruits seem to be important as antioxidants in the human diet

  2. Luteolin, a flavonoid, inhibits AP-1 activation by basophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Toru; Higa, Shinji; Arimitsu, Junsuke; Naka, Tetsuji; Ogata, Atsushi; Shima, Yoshihito; Fujimoto, Minoru; Yamadori, Tomoki; Ohkawara, Tomoharu; Kuwabara, Yusuke; Kawai, Mari; Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Maezaki, Naoyoshi; Tanaka, Tetsuaki; Kawase, Ichiro; Tanaka, Toshio

    2006-01-01

    Flavonoids including luteolin, apigenin, and fisetin are inhibitors of IL-4 synthesis and CD40 ligand expression by basophils. This study was done to search for compounds with greater inhibitory activity of IL-4 expression and to clarify the molecular mechanisms through which flavonoids inhibit their expression. Of the 37 flavonoids and related compounds examined, ayanin, luteolin, and apigenin were the strongest inhibitors of IL-4 production by purified basophils in response to anti-IgE antibody plus IL-3. Luteolin did not suppress Syk or Lyn phosphorylation in basophils, nor did suppress p54/46 SAPK/JNK, p38 MAPK, and p44/42 MAPK activation by a basophilic cell line, KU812 cells, stimulated with A23187 and PMA. However, luteolin did inhibit phosphorylation of c-Jun and DNA binding activity of AP-1 in nuclear lysates from stimulated KU812 cells. These results provide a fundamental structure of flavonoids for IL-4 inhibition and demonstrate a novel action of flavonoids that suppresses the activation of AP-1

  3. Phytochemical studies of flavonoids from polygonum glabrum L of Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, Intisar Sirour [Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1996-01-01

    A semi- aquatic plant, Polygnum glabrum wild of the family polygonaceae was reported in traditional medicine of Sudan as anthelmintic and as a remedy against intestinal colics.The literature reported the isolation and structure elucidation of the bioactive agents as being sequi terpenes. The flavonoids of the Sudanese species were not investigated before. The present work consisted of phyto chemical study of the leaves of Polygonum galbrum wild. Before experimentation, a through authentication of the plant was done to correct previously reported errors. In the first stages a phyto chemical screening was made which confirmed the presence of flavonoid compounds in higher amounts than the other classes of natural products present in the plant. Different chromatographic techniques of isolation were assayed but the fractionation of flavonoids was successfully done with preparative thin layer chromatographic techniques. Yellow crystals, namely (two compounds) were obtained in pure form and identified as being flavonoids. Spectral studies were performed on Infra-Red and Ultra- Violet spectrophotometers. The computerized Ultra- Violet spectrophotometer allowed us to obtain complete data about the studied compounds. Structure elucidation was attempted and the structure of the isolated flavonoids were suggested as being Isorhamnetin and Diosmetin. (Author)

  4. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities of Flavonoids from Bauhinia hookeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Al-Sayed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, the total ethanol extract of Bauhinia hookeri showed a significant hepatoprotective effect in CCl 4-induced toxicity model in mice. However, the active components responsible for the activity were not identified. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine if the activity of B. hookeri extract is due to its flavonoid content. The hepatoprotective activity of B. hookeri flavonoids was determined by measuring the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST in the culture medium of HepG2 cells challenged with CCl 4. The lipid peroxidation and antioxidant parameters, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione (GSH were estimated in the cell lysates. The isolated flavonoids were identified by mass, UV and NMR spectral data. This study revealed that B. hookeri flavonoid fraction and its pure compounds ( kaempferol 3-O-β- D-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-β- D-glucoside and c atechin 3-O-α- L-rhamnoside possess a promising hepatoprotective activity as evidenced from the normalized levels of ALT and AST. This was attributed partly to their potent antioxidant activity as demonstrated by the increased GSH levels, SOD activity and reduced lipid peroxidation. The whole flavonoid fraction showed the highest cytoprotective activity and was more effective than silymarin. This study highlights a promising natural hepatoprotective remedy derived from B. hookeri.

  5. Highly Oxygenated Flavonoids from the Leaves of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia (Solanaceae

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    Md. Shafiullah Shajib

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Viv. is an annual herb of the family Solanaceae, which grows abundantly in the weedy lands of Bangladesh . This plant possesses analgesic, antibacterial, anti-anxiety and hepatoprotective properties, and produces various phenolic compounds including flavonoids. The present study afforded determination of total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and for the first time, the isolation and characterization of highly oxygenated flavonoids, e.g., 3,3' ,5,6,7,8-hexamethoxy- 4',5'-methylenedioxyflavone (1, 3,3' ,4' ,5',5,6,7,8-octamethoxyflavone (2, exoticin, 6,7,4',5'-dimethylenedioxy-3,5,3'-trimethoxyflavone (3 and ( 3,3' ,4',5,5',8-hexamethoxy-6,7-methylenedioxyflavone (4 from the leaves of N. plumbaginifolia . All these flavonoids are rather rare natural products, and only found in a few genera, e.g.,Polygonum and Murraya. The structures of the isolated flavonoids were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses, e.g., UV, 1H, 13C NMR, DEPT, HSQC, HMBC and MS.

  6. Flavonoids Inhibit the Respiratory Burst of Neutrophils in Mammals

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    Milan Ciz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils represent the front-line defence cells in protecting organisms against infection and play an irreplaceable role in the proper performance of the immune system. As early as within the first minutes of stimulation, neutrophilic NADPH oxidase is activated, and cells release large quantities of highly toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS. These oxidants can be highly toxic not only for infectious agents but also for neighboring host tissues. Since flavonoids exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, they are subjects of interest for pharmacological modulation of ROS production. The present paper summarizes contemporary knowledge on the effects of various flavonoids on the respiratory burst of mammalian neutrophils. It can be summarized that the inhibitory effects of flavonoids on the respiratory burst of phagocytes are mediated via inhibition of enzymes involved in cell signaling as well as via modulation of redox status. However, the effects of flavonoids are even more complex, and several sites of action, depending upon the flavonoid structure and way of application, are included.

  7. Regulation of Flavonoid Biosynthetic Genes in Germinating Arabidopsis Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubasek, WL; Shirley, BW; McKillop, A; Goodman, HM; Briggs, W; Ausubel, FM

    1992-01-01

    Many higher plants, including Arabidopsis, transiently display purple anthocyanin pigments just after seed germination. We observed that steady state levels of mRNAs encoded by four flavonoid biosynthetic genes, PAL1 (encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 1), CHS (encoding chalcone synthase), CHI (encoding chalcone isomerase), and DFR (encoding dihydroflavonol reductase), were temporally regulated, peaking in 3-day-old seedlings grown in continuous white light. Except for the case of PAL1 mRNA, mRNA levels for these flavonoid genes were very low in seedlings grown in darkness. Light induction studies using seedlings grown in darkness showed that PAL1 mRNA began to accumulate before CHS and CHI mRNAs, which, in turn, began to accumulate before DFR mRNA. This order of induction is the same as the order of the biosynthetic steps in flavonoid biosynthesis. Our results suggest that the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway is coordinately regulated by a developmental timing mechanism during germination. Blue light and UVB light induction experiments using red light- and dark-grown seedlings showed that the flavonoid biosynthetic genes are induced most effectively by UVB light and that blue light induction is mediated by a specific blue light receptor. PMID:12297632

  8. The influence of light quality on the accumulation of flavonoids in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Bo; Ji, Xiaoming; Zhao, Mingqin; He, Fan; Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Yiding; Liu, Pengfei; Niu, Lu

    2016-09-01

    Flavonoids are important secondary metabolites in plants regulated by the environment. To analyze the effect of light quality on the accumulation of flavonoids, we performed a rapid analysis of flavonoids in extracts of tobacco leaves using UHPLC-QTOF. A total of 12 flavonoids were detected and identified in tobacco leaves, which were classified into flavonoid methyl derivatives and flavonoid glycoside derivatives according to the groups linked to the flavonoid core. Correlation analysis was further conducted to investigate the effect of different wavelengths of light on their accumulation. The content of flavonoid methyl derivatives was positively correlated with the proportions of far-red light (FR; 716-810nm) and near-infrared light (NIR; 810-2200nm) in the sunlight spectrum and negatively correlated with the proportion of ultraviolet (UV-A; 350-400nm) and the red/far-red ratio (R/FR). By contrast, the content of flavonoid glycoside derivatives was positively correlated with the proportion of UV-A and the R/FR, and negatively correlated with FR and NIR. The results indicated that light quality with higher proportions of FR and NIR increases the activity of flavonoid methyltransferases but suppresses the activity of flavonoid glycoside transferases. While a high proportion of UV-A and a high R/FR can increase flavonoid glycoside transferase activity but suppress flavonoid methyltransferase activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Radioprotective effects of flavonoids against to chromosomal damage: relation between the structure and activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz, M.; Acevedo, C.; Benavente-Garcia, O.; Castillo, J.; Vicente, V.; Canteras, M.

    2004-07-01

    Protective effects of grape (Vitis vinifera) seed (GSE), Citrus spp. fruits (CE) and olive Olea europaea L) leaf (OL) extracts, the flavonoids diosmin and rutin, widely used as pharmaceuticals, and diemthyl sulphoxide (DMSO) against chromosomal damage induced by X-rays and g radiation were determined by using two different micronucleus test for anti genotoxic activity. The quantitative distribution of several flavones-3-ols was determined using HPLC in a grape (Vitis vinifera), seed extract (GSE) and Olea european (OL) of four cultivars grown in the region of Murcia. Polymer>C4 units made up the largest group of procyanidins in the GSE (90,92%, expressed as HPLC% area). The antioxidant activity of GSE and other reference compounds was investigated by measuring theirs ability to scavenge the ABTS+ radical cation (TEAC). The most effective compounds were in order: GSE >rutin>(+)-catechin>OL>diosmina>ascorbic acid. The radioprotective effects of GSE and other reference compounds were determined by using the micronucleus test for anticlastogenic activity, any reduction of the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (mnOCEs) being evaluated in the bone marrow of mouse exposed to X rays; and evaluating the reduction in the frequency of micronuclei in citokinesis-blocked cells of human lymphocytes exposed to g-rays. The most effective compounds were, in order: GSE>rutin>dimetylsufoxide (DMSO)>ascorbic acid>OL>6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil-6c (PTU)>disomin. The higher ABTS scavenging capacity and antigenotoxic activity of GSE can be explained, structurally, by the high number of conjugated structures between the catechol groups in the B-rings ant the 3-OH free groups of the polymeric polyphenolic skeleton and, in addition, by the stability of the aroxyl flavonoide radical generated in the above processes. (Author)

  10. Radioprotective effects of flavonoids against to chromosomal damage: relation between the structure and activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, M.; Acevedo, C.; Benavente-Garcia, O.; Castillo, J.; Vicente, V.; Canteras, M.

    2004-01-01

    Protective effects of grape (Vitis vinifera) seed (GSE), Citrus spp. fruits (CE) and olive Olea europaea L) leaf (OL) extracts, the flavonoids diosmin and rutin, widely used as pharmaceuticals, and diemthyl sulphoxide (DMSO) against chromosomal damage induced by X-rays and g radiation were determined by using two different micronucleus test for anti genotoxic activity. The quantitative distribution of several flavones-3-ols was determined using HPLC in a grape (Vitis vinifera), seed extract (GSE) and Olea european (OL) of four cultivars grown in the region of Murcia. Polymer>C4 units made up the largest group of procyanidins in the GSE (90,92%, expressed as HPLC% area). The antioxidant activity of GSE and other reference compounds was investigated by measuring theirs ability to scavenge the ABTS+ radical cation (TEAC). The most effective compounds were in order: GSE >rutin>(+)-catechin>OL>diosmina>ascorbic acid. The radioprotective effects of GSE and other reference compounds were determined by using the micronucleus test for anticlastogenic activity, any reduction of the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (mnOCEs) being evaluated in the bone marrow of mouse exposed to X rays; and evaluating the reduction in the frequency of micronuclei in citokinesis-blocked cells of human lymphocytes exposed to g-rays. The most effective compounds were, in order: GSE>rutin>dimetylsufoxide (DMSO)>ascorbic acid>OL>6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil-6c (PTU)>disomin. The higher ABTS scavenging capacity and antigenotoxic activity of GSE can be explained, structurally, by the high number of conjugated structures between the catechol groups in the B-rings ant the 3-OH free groups of the polymeric polyphenolic skeleton and, in addition, by the stability of the aroxyl flavonoide radical generated in the above processes. (Author)

  11. Leishmanicidal Activity of Nine Novel Flavonoids from Delphinium staphisagria

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    Inmaculada Ramírez-Macías

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the in vitro leishmanicidal activity of nine flavonoid derivatives from Delphinium staphisagria against L. infantum and L. braziliensis. Design and Methods. The in vitro activity of compounds 1–9 was assayed on extracellular promastigote and axenic amastigote forms and on intracellular amastigote forms of the parasites. Infectivity and cytotoxicity tests were carried on J774.2 macrophage cells using Glucantime as the reference drug. The mechanisms of action were analysed performing metabolite excretion and transmission electronic microscope ultrastructural alteration studies. Results. Nine flavonoids showed leishmanicidal activity against promastigote as well as amastigote forms of Leishmania infantum and L. braziliensis. These compounds were nontoxic to mammalian cells and were effective at similar concentrations up to or lower than that of the reference drug (Glucantime. The results showed that 2″-acetylpetiolaroside (compound 8 was clearly the most active. Conclusion. This study has demonstrated that flavonoid derivatives are active against L. infantum and L. braziliensis.

  12. Buckwheat seedling flavonoids do not undergo rapid turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margna, U.; Vainjaerv, T.

    1981-01-01

    Pulse-labelling with exogenous [1- 14 C]-L-phenylalanine showed that of all flavonoids of buckwheat seedling cotyledons only anthocyanins underwent a slow turnover (not more than 6-8 per cent a day) whilst the major flavonoids, rutin and four C-glycosylflavones, remained metabolically stable within at least 7 days. From excised hypocotyls pulse-labelled flavonoids (anthocyanins and rutin) began to disappear gradually beginning with the second day of incubation. As hypocotyls, however, during prolonged incubation soon began to autolyse a considerable part of that loss was obviously due to abnormal shifts in cell metabolic activities with a possibility that some microbial process was also involved. In hypocotyls of intact seedlings pulse-labelled rutin, similar to rutin in cotyledons, showed no signs of turnover. (author)

  13. Diamond-like nanoparticles influence on flavonoids transport: molecular modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastun, Inna L.; Agandeeva, Ksenia E.; Bokarev, Andrey N.; Zenkin, Nikita S.

    2017-03-01

    Intermolecular interaction of diamond-like nanoparticles and flavonoids is investigated by numerical simulation. Using molecular modelling by the density functional theory method, we analyze hydrogen bonds formation and their influence on IR - spectra and structure of molecular complex which is formed due to interaction between flavonoids and nanodiamonds surrounded with carboxylic groups. Enriched adamantane (1,3,5,7 - adamantanetetracarboxylic acid) is used as an example of diamond-like nanoparticles. Intermolecular forces and structure of hydrogen bonds are investigated. IR - spectra and structure parameters of quercetin - adamantanetetracarboxylic acid molecular complex are obtained by numerical simulation using the Gaussian software complex. Received data coincide well with experimental results. Intermolecular interactions and hydrogen bonding structure in the obtained molecular complex are examined. Possibilities of flavonoids interaction with DNA at the molecular level are also considered.

  14. Phyto chemical study of the flavonoids of khaya senegalensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakir, S. H.

    2005-03-01

    Phyto chemical screening of the leaves of Khaya senegalensis revealed the presence of flavonoids. Crushed air-dried leaves of Khaya senegalensis were extracted at ambient temperature with ethanol. The crude product obtained after removal of the solvent was subjected to chromatographic fractionation. Using silica gel and the solvent system: butanol: acetic acid: water (3:1:6 ; V:V:V) a pure flavonoid was isolated. The colour reactions and the UV spectra of the isolated flavonoid clearly indicated that it is a flavone. The hydroxylation pattern of the isolated flavone was studies using shift reagents. The structural features were further elucidated via IR, NMR and Mass spectrophotometry. The following tentative structure was proposed.(Author)

  15. In vitro biotransformation of flavonoids by rat liver microsomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S. E.; Breinholt, V.; Justesen, U.

    1998-01-01

    1. Sixteen naturally occurring flavonoids were investigated as substrates for cytochrome P450 in uninduced and Aroclor 1254-induced rat liver microsomes. Naringenin, hesperetin, chrysin, apigenin, tangeretin, kaempferol, galangin and tamarixetin were all metabolized extensively by induced rat liver...... pathway leading to the corresponding 3',4'-dihydroxylated flavonoids either by hydroxylation or demethylation. Structural requirements for microsomal hydroxylation appeared to be a single or no hydroxy group on the B-ring of the flavan nucleus. The presence of two or more hydroxy groups on the B......-ring seemed to prevent further hydroxylation. The results indicate that demethylation only occurs in the B-ring when the methoxy group is positioned at C-4'-, and not at the C-3'-position. 3. The CYP1A isozymes were found to be the main enzymes involved in flavonoid hydroxylation, whereas other cytochrome P...

  16. Novel Investigations of Flavonoids as Chemopreventive Agents for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yi Liao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We would like to highlight the application of natural products to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. We will focus on the natural products known as flavonoids, which target this disease at different stages of hepatocarcinogenesis. In spite of the use of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in treating HCC, patients with HCC still face poor prognosis because of the nature of multidrug resistance and toxicity derived from chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Flavonoids can be found in many vegetables, fruits, and herbal medicines that exert their different anticancer effects via different intracellular signaling pathways and serve as antioxidants. In this review, we will discuss seven common flavonoids that exert different biological effects against HCC via different pathways.

  17. Flavonoid electrochemistry: a review on the electroanalytical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S. Gil

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds widespread in vegetal kingdom. They present a C-15 skeleton, which is divided into three units A, B and C. Unit C is an oxygen containing heterocyclic, whose oxidation state and saturation level define major subclasses. Units A and B are aromatic rings, in which four major types of substituents, i. e. hydroxyl, methoxyl, prenyl and glycosides, lead to over 8000 different flavonoids. The great healthy-protecting value of these phytochemical biomarkers has attracted the attention of scientific community. Their main biological actions include anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties, which are strictly linked to antioxidant activities. So that, electroanalysis have been extensively applied on mechanistic studies and also for analytical determinations. This review presents the state of the art regarding the main applications of electroanalysis on the flavonoid research. The approaches on redox behavior characterization leading to a better understanding of structure antioxidant activity relationships are highlighted.

  18. Flavonoid electrochemistry: a review on the electroanalytical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S. Gil

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds widespread in vegetal kingdom. They present a C-15 skeleton, which is divided into three units A, B and C. Unit C is an oxygen containing heterocyclic, whose oxidation state and saturation level define major subclasses. Units A and B are aromatic rings, in which four major types of substituents, i. e. hydroxyl, methoxyl, prenyl and glycosides, lead to over 8000 different flavonoids. The great healthy-protecting value of these phytochemical biomarkers has attracted the attention of scientific community. Their main biological actions include anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties, which are strictly linked to antioxidant activities. So that, electroanalysis have been extensively applied on mechanistic studies and also for analytical determinations. This review presents the state of the art regarding the main applications of electroanalysis on the flavonoid research. The approaches on redox behavior characterization leading to a better understanding of structure antioxidant activity relationships are highlighted.

  19. Determination of Flavonoids in Wine by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Queija, Celeste; Queirós, M. A.; Rodrigues, Ligia M.

    2001-02-01

    The experiment presented is an application of HPLC to the analysis of flavonoids in wines, designed for students of instrumental methods. It is done in two successive 4-hour laboratory sessions. While the hydrolysis of the wines is in progress, the students prepare the calibration curves with standard solutions of flavonoids and calculate the regression lines and correlation coefficients. During the second session they analyze the hydrolyzed wine samples and calculate the concentrations of the flavonoids using the calibration curves obtained earlier. This laboratory work is very attractive to students because they deal with a common daily product whose components are reported to have preventive and therapeutic effects. Furthermore, students can execute preparative work and apply a more elaborate technique that is nowadays an indispensable tool in instrumental analysis.

  20. Flavonoid rutin increases thyroid iodide uptake in rats.

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    Carlos Frederico Lima Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Thyroid iodide uptake through the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS is not only an essential step for thyroid hormones biosynthesis, but also fundamental for the diagnosis and treatment of different thyroid diseases. However, part of patients with thyroid cancer is refractory to radioiodine therapy, due to reduced ability to uptake iodide, which greatly reduces the chances of survival. Therefore, compounds able to increase thyroid iodide uptake are of great interest. It has been shown that some flavonoids are able to increase iodide uptake and NIS expression in vitro, however, data in vivo are lacking. Flavonoids are polyhydroxyphenolic compounds, found in vegetables present in human diet, and have been shown not only to modulate NIS, but also thyroperoxidase (TPO, the key enzyme in thyroid hormones biosynthesis, besides having antiproliferative effect in thyroid cancer cell lines. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of some flavonoids on thyroid iodide uptake in Wistar rats in vivo. Among the flavonoids tested, rutin was the only one able to increase thyroid iodide uptake, so we decided to evaluate the effect of this flavonoid on some aspects of thyroid hormones synthesis and metabolism. Rutin led to a slight reduction of serum T4 and T3 without changes in serum thyrotropin (TSH, and significantly increased hypothalamic, pituitary and brown adipose tissue type 2 deiodinase and decreased liver type 1 deiodinase activities. Moreover, rutin treatment increased thyroid iodide uptake probably due to the increment of NIS expression, which might be secondary to increased response to TSH, since TSH receptor expression was increased. Thus, rutin might be useful as an adjuvant in radioiodine therapy, since this flavonoid increased thyroid iodide uptake without greatly affecting thyroid function.

  1. Dietary PUFA and flavonoids as deterrents for environmental pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Bruce A; Hannon, Kevin; Ferruzzi, Mario; Li, Yong

    2007-03-01

    Various nutrients and plant-derived phytochemicals are associated with a reduced risk of many diet-related chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, arthritis and osteoporosis. A common theme that links many chronic diseases is uncontrolled inflammation. The long-chain (LC) omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and flavonoids are known to possess anti-inflammatory actions in cell cultures, animal models and humans. Minimizing the condition of persistent inflammation has been a primary aim for drug development, but understanding how food components attenuate this process is at the nexus for improving the human condition. The prevalence of environmental toxins such as heavy metals and organics that contribute to diminished levels of antioxidants likely aggravates inflammatory states when intakes of omega-3 PUFA and flavonoids are marginal. Scientists at Purdue University have formed a collaboration to better understand the metabolism and physiology of flavonoids. This new effort is focused on determining how candidate flavonoids and their metabolites affect gene targets of inflammation in cell culture and animal models. The challenge of this research is to understand how LC omega-3 PUFA and flavonoids affect the biology of inflammation. The goal is to determine how nutrients and phytochemicals attenuate chronic inflammation associated with a number of diet-related diseases that occur throughout the life cycle. The experimental approach involves molecular, biochemical and physiological endpoints of aging, cancer, obesity and musculoskeletal diseases. Examples include investigations on the combined effects of PUFA and cyanidins on inflammatory markers in cultures of human cancer cells. The actions of catechins and PUFA on muscle loss and osteopenia are being studied in a rodent model of disuse atrophy to explain how muscle and bone communicate to prevent tissue loss associated with injury, disease and aging. The purpose of this review is

  2. Quantitative determination of sage-leaved rockrose (Cistus salviifolius flavonoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Elkaib

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The widespread use of bioflavonoids, due to their antimicrobial activity and antioxidant properties, necessitates their separate determination in a joint presence. It is noted that the total content of flavonoids, determined by different spectrophotometric methods in the same samples, differs and depends on the structure of the individual flavonoids that make up the samples. The paper presents the results of studies to determine the content of flavonoids in the fraction of the dry extract of shalfeeloid canthus (Cistus salviifolius, which has antimicrobial activity against bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas, which causes damage to protein-containing food products. Curing flavonoids by sequential extraction with aqueous alcohol solutions, filtering and dissolving the dry residue in isopropyl alcohol followed by passing through the gel layers. The following methods for the determination of flavonoids are considered: reaction with Folin-Chikalteu reagent (using quercetin as standard, reaction with aluminum chloride and 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. When oxidized in alkaline medium by the Folin-Chikalteu reagent, which is the phospho-molybdotungstate heteropolycomplexes of flavonols, flavin-3-ol and flavones can be converted into quinoid compounds having absorption bands in the visible region of the spectrum. Only flavones and flavones having hydroxyl groups at positions 3 and 5 can interact with AlCl3. 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine only interacts with flavonols. The obtained calibration curves and structural formulas of flavonoids are given, which can be determined by the methods presented. It was found to contain flavonols 0.21 mg / mg, flavones 0.17 mg / mg and flavin-3-ol 0.06 mg/mg.

  3. Flavonoids and a neolignan glucoside from Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Cristiane; Barreto Junior, Cleber Bomfim; Kuster, Ricardo Machado; Simas, Naomi Kato; Sakuragui, Cassia Monica; Porzel, Andrea; Wessjohann, Ludger

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the phytochemical study of the methanol extract obtained from leaves of Guarea macrophylla, leading to the isolation and identification of three flavonoid glycosides (quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-b-D-galactopyranoside, kaempferol 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside) and a neolignan glucoside, dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol-4-b-D-glucoside. All compounds were identified by a combination of spectroscopic methods ( 1 H, 1D, 2D NMR, 13 C and UV), ESI-MS and comparison with the literature data. This is the first report of flavonoids in the genus Guarea and of a neolignan glucoside in the Meliaceae family. (author)

  4. Dietary flavonoid intake at midlife and healthy aging in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samieri, Cécilia; Sun, Qi; Townsend, Mary K; Rimm, Eric B; Grodstein, Francine

    2014-12-01

    Dietary flavonoids have been related to lower risks of various chronic diseases, but it is unclear whether flavonoid intake in midlife helps to maintain good health and wellbeing in aging. We examined the relation of flavonoid intake in midlife with the prevalence of healthy aging. We included 13,818 women from the Nurses' Health Study with dietary data and no major chronic diseases in 1984-1986 when they were aged in their late 50s (median age: 59 y); all women provided information on multiple aspects of aging an average of 15 y later. Intakes of 6 major flavonoid subclasses in midlife were ascertained on the basis of averaged intakes of flavonoid-rich foods from 2 food-frequency questionnaires (1984-1986). We defined healthy compared with usual aging as of age 70 y; healthy aging was based on survival to ≥70 y with maintenance of 4 health domains (no major chronic diseases or major impairments in cognitive or physical function or mental health). Of women who survived until ≥70 y of age, 1517 women (11.0%) met our criteria for healthy aging. Compared with women in the lowest quintile of intake, women in the highest quintile of intake of several flavonoid subclasses at midlife had greater odds of healthy aging. After multivariable adjustment, ORs were as follows: flavones, 1.32 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.58); flavanone, 1.28 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.53); anthocyanin, 1.25 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.50); and flavonol, 1.18 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.42) (all P-trend ≤ 0.02). Consistently, greater intakes of major sources of these flavonoids (i.e., oranges, berries, onions, and apples) were associated with increased odds of healthy aging. We showed no association with flavan-3-ol monomers (P-trend = 0.80) or polymers (P-trend = 0.63). Higher intake of flavonoids at midlife, specifically flavones, flavanones, anthocyanins, and flavonols, is associated with greater likelihood of health and wellbeing in individuals surviving to older ages. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Triterpenes and flavonoids from the roots of Mauritia flexuosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector H. F. Koolen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Mauritia flexuosa L. f., Arecaceae, is an endemic species of South America. This species was studied with the intent to isolate the constituents of its roots. After the fractionation of the n-hexane and methanolic extracts from the roots of M. flexuosa, six triterpenes were obtained: friedelin, taraxerone, lupenyl acetate, lupenone, betulin and betulinic acid, along with three flavonoids: rutin, quercitrin and quercetin. All the compounds were identified by analysis of NMR and MS data and comparison with the literature. All those compounds are been reported for the first time in Mauritia, and the chemosystematic significance of the flavonoids isolated in this genus is discussed.

  6. Triterpenes and flavonoids from the roots of Mauritia flexuosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector H. F. Koolen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mauritia flexuosa L. f., Arecaceae, is an endemic species of South America. This species was studied with the intent to isolate the constituents of its roots. After the fractionation of the n-hexane and methanolic extracts from the roots of M. flexuosa, six triterpenes were obtained: friedelin, taraxerone, lupenyl acetate, lupenone, betulin and betulinic acid, along with three flavonoids: rutin, quercitrin and quercetin. All the compounds were identified by analysis of NMR and MS data and comparison with the literature. All those compounds are been reported for the first time in Mauritia, and the chemosystematic significance of the flavonoids isolated in this genus is discussed.

  7. Dirhamnosyl flavonoid and other constituents from Brillantaisia palisatii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrondo, Luciane Fatima; Gabriel, Felipe Teixeira; Fernandes, Sidney Bessa de; Menezes, Fabio de Sousa [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia. Dept. de Produtos Naturais e Alimentos]. E-mail: fsmenezes@pharma.ufrj.br; Moreira, Davyson de Lima [Universidade de Barra Mansa, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia

    2003-12-01

    A mixture containing sitosterol and stigmasterol; a new triterpene 3-epi-ursolic acid; another triterpene mixture comprising {alpha}-amyrin, {beta}-amyrin and lupeol; verbascoside, a phenylpropanoid glycoside; and lespedin, a glycosyl flavonoid, were isolated. The less polar compounds (steroids and triterpenoids) were isolated from the hexane partition of the crude ethanolic extract while the more polar ones (phenylpropanoid glycoside and glycosyl flavonoid) were isolated from the ethyl acetate partition of the same extract. The structures of all compounds were established using modern spectrometric methods of elucidation. The spectroscopic data of Lespedin, a rare dirhamnosylflavonol with hypotensor activity and of the triterpene, 3-epi-ursolic acid, are also reported. (author)

  8. Primula latifolia Lapeyr. and Primula vulgaris Hudson flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Paola S; Flamini, Guido; Fico, Gelsomina

    2014-01-01

    Three flavonoids were isolated from the leaf MeOH extracts of Primula latifolia Lapeyr. and Primula vulgaris Hudson collected from Italian Alps: rutin (1) and kaempferol 3-neohesperidoside (2) from P. latifolia, and kaempferol 3-β-O-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2) gentiobioside (3) from P. vulgaris. The structures were assigned on the basis of their (1)H and (13)C NMR data, including those derived from 2D NMR, as well as on HPLC-MS results. This article is the first to report on P. vulgaris tissue flavonoids after Harborne's study in 1968 and the first work ever on these compounds from P. latifolia.

  9. Flavonoids and a neolignan glucoside from Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the phytochemical study of the methanol extract obtained from leaves of Guarea macrophylla, leading to the isolation and identification of three flavonoid glycosides (quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-b-D-galactopyranoside, kaempferol 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and a neolignan glucoside, dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol-4-β-D-glucoside. All compounds were identified by a combination of spectroscopic methods (¹H, 1D, 2D NMR, 13C and UV, ESI-MS and comparison with the literature data. This is the first report of flavonoids in the genus Guarea and of a neolignan glucoside in the Meliaceae family.

  10. Effects of dietary flavonoids intake in Saudi patients with coronary heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A Alsaif

    2007-01-01

    Conclusions: The findings of the study support a potential protective effect of dietary flavonoids in relation to CHD. The study showed that consuming more Flavonoids may have positive effect on lowering blood lipids.

  11. Composition of flavonoids in fresh herbs and calculation of flavonoid intake by use of herbs in traditional Danish dishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, U.; Knuthsen, Pia

    2001-01-01

    , coriander, cress, dill, lemon balm, lovage, oregano, parsley, rosemary, sage, spearmint, tarragon, thyme, and watercress) were analysed by HPLC and mass spectrometry. Five major flavonoid aglycones were detected and quantified by HPLC after acid hydrolysis: apigenin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, luteolin......Many herbs are known as excellent sources of natural antioxidants, and consumption of fresh herbs in the diet may therefore contribute to the daily antioxidant intake. The present study was performed in order to quantify flavonoids in commonly eaten fresh herbs. Fifteen fresh herbs (basil, chives......, and quercetin. The highest levels of flavonoids were found in parsley (510-630 mg apigenin /100 g), lovage (170 mg quercetin/100g), mint (18-100 mg apigenin/ 100 g), and dill (48-110 mg quercetin/100 g). Mass spectrometric detection, using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI), was used to verify...

  12. Physico-chemical study of flavonoids from different matureness corn silk material

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Peng; Lapčík, Lubomír; Lapčíková, Barbora; Kalytchuk, Sergii

    2018-01-01

    There was tested a simple extraction procedure of flavonoids separation from the original corn silk (CS) material. It was found, that the total flavonoids content differs with the extraction time and extraction temperature. There were found different flavonoids contents in extracts prepared from different maturity stages of the original corn silk material (silking stage (CS-S), milky stage (CS-M)). Extracted flavonoids content was quantified by the lutin standardization method by means of col...

  13. Changes in flavonoid content of grapefruit juice caused by thermal treatment and storage

    OpenAIRE

    Igual Ramo, Marta; García Martínez, Eva María; Camacho Vidal, Mª Mar; Martínez Navarrete, Nuria

    2011-01-01

    The effect of conventional and microwave pasteurization on the main flavonoids present in grapefruit juice and their stability throughout 2 months of refrigerated and frozen storage was evaluated. Individual flavonoids were analyzed by HPLC. The results showed that naringin, narirutin, quercetin and naringenin were the most abundant flavonoids in grapefruit juice. In general, although every pasteurization treatment caused a significant reduction in the content of all the studied flavonoids, t...

  14. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.E.J.; Soetens, F.

    2005-01-01

    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical

  15. Total flavonoid concentrations of bryophytes from Tianmu Mountain, Zhejiang Province (China: Phylogeny and ecological factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    Full Text Available The flavonoids in bryophytes may have great significance in phylogeny and metabolism research. However, to date there has been little research on bryophyte metabolites, especially flavonoids. To redress this somewhat, we determined flavonoid concentrations of bryophytes from Tianmu Mountain through a colorimetric assay and considered the factors influencing the results. This is the first time that the flavonoid contents of bryophytes have been examined in detail. The results revealed a range of total flavonoid concentrations in 90 samples collected from Tianmu Mountain from 1.8 to 22.3 mg/g (w/w. The total flavonoid contents of liverworts were generally higher than those of mosses; acrocarpous mosses had generally higher values than that of pleurocarpous mosses. The total flavonoid contents of bryophytes growing at lower light levels were general higher than those growing in full-sun. The total flavonoid contents of epiphytic bryophytes were highest, while those of aquatic bryophytes were the lowest. Total flavonoid contents of species growing at low-latitudes were much higher than those at high-latitude individuals. In conclusion, total flavonoid contents of bryophytes have some connection with plant phylogeny; more flavonoids might be contained in relatively primitive bryophytes. Meanwhile, the effects of ecological factors on total flavonoid contents of bryophytes exist; light and habitat (especially tree habitat and river habitat might be representative factor.

  16. Antiherpetic activity of a flavonoid fraction from Ocotea notata leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Garrett

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the isolation of a flavonoid fraction from leaves of Ocotea notata (Nees & Mart. Mez, Lauraceae, the identification of six major compounds (an A-type proanthocyanidin trimer [3], isoquercitrin [4], reynoutrin [5], miquelianin [6], quercitrin [7], afzelin [8] and four minor compounds (catechin [1], epicatechin [2], quercetin [9], kaempferol [10] present in the fraction and its activity against the Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 and type 2 (HSV-2. The 50% effective concentrations values (EC50 calculated from the dose-response curve and the selectivity indices (SI against the virus were: EC50 35.8 µg/mL and SI 5.5 to HSV-1 and EC50 23.5 µg/mL and SI 8.5 to HSV-2. The flavonoid fraction was more active against HSV-2 than HSV-1. The mechanisms of antiviral action of the flavonoid fraction against the virus were also evaluated. The percentage inhibition (PI obtained for HSV-2 was higher than 90% in the following assays: virucidal, pre-treatment of cells, treatment of cells after viral adsorption and treatment of cells after viral penetration. For HSV-1, the flavonoid fraction had no effect in pre-treatment of cells and showed 60% of inhibition in virucidal assay.

  17. Antiherpetic activity of a flavonoid fraction from Ocotea notata leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Garrett

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the isolation of a flavonoid fraction from leaves of Ocotea notata (Nees & Mart. Mez, Lauraceae, the identification of six major compounds (an A-type proanthocyanidin trimer [3], isoquercitrin [4], reynoutrin [5], miquelianin [6], quercitrin [7], afzelin [8] and four minor compounds (catechin [1], epicatechin [2], quercetin [9], kaempferol [10] present in the fraction and its activity against the Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 and type 2 (HSV-2. The 50% effective concentrations values (EC50 calculated from the dose-response curve and the selectivity indices (SI against the virus were: EC50 35.8 µg/mL and SI 5.5 to HSV-1 and EC50 23.5 µg/mL and SI 8.5 to HSV-2. The flavonoid fraction was more active against HSV-2 than HSV-1. The mechanisms of antiviral action of the flavonoid fraction against the virus were also evaluated. The percentage inhibition (PI obtained for HSV-2 was higher than 90% in the following assays: virucidal, pre-treatment of cells, treatment of cells after viral adsorption and treatment of cells after viral penetration. For HSV-1, the flavonoid fraction had no effect in pre-treatment of cells and showed 60% of inhibition in virucidal assay.

  18. Cocoa and chocolate flavonoids: implications for cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Francene M; Bearden, Monica M; Keen, Carl L

    2003-02-01

    This paper offers a review of current scientific research regarding the potential cardiovascular health benefits of flavonoids found in cocoa and chocolate. Recent reports indicate that the main flavonoids found in cocoa, flavan-3-ols and their oligomeric derivatives, procyanidins, have a variety of beneficial actions, including antioxidant protection and modulation of vascular homeostasis. These findings are supported by similar research on other flavonoid-rich foods. Other constituents in cocoa and chocolate that may also influence cardiovascular health are briefly reviewed. The lipid content of chocolate is relatively high; however, one third of the lipid in cocoa butter is composed of the fat stearic acid, which exerts a neutral cholesterolemic response in humans. Cocoa and chocolate contribute to trace mineral intake, which is necessary for optimum functioning of all biologic systems and for vascular tone. Thus, multiple components in chocolate, particularly flavonoids, can contribute to the complex interplay of nutrition and health. Applications of this knowledge include recommendations by health professionals to encourage individuals to consume a wide range of phytochemical-rich foods, which can include dark chocolate in moderate amounts.

  19. Ultrasonic extraction of flavonoids and phenolics from loquat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethanol was used to extract flavonoids and phenolics from loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. cv. Ruantiaobaisha) flowers with ultrasonic pharmaceutical managing machine. Single-factor and orthogonal experiment were used to investigate the optimum extraction condition. The results showed that, the combination of 30°C, ...

  20. Flavonoids inhibit the respiratory burst of neutrophils in mammals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Číž, Milan; Denev, P.; Kratchanova, M.; Vašíček, Ondřej; Ambrožová, Gabriela; Lojek, Antonín

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2012, č. 2012 (2012), ID 181295 ISSN 1942-0900 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/08/1753 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : flavonoids * neutrophils * respiratory burst Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.393, year: 2012

  1. Health benefits of orange juice and citrus flavonoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The main flavonoids found in orange juice are hesperidin and naringenin, which can affect several metabolic routes that improve blood serum antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory performance, while decreasing insulin resistance protecting against diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In addition, or...

  2. Extraction and Purification of Flavonoids from Radix Puerariae | Li ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop an efficient method for the purification of flavonoids from Radix puerariae. Methods: Optimal extraction technology was obtained using orthogonal test. Through adsorption and desorption tests, 8 resins with different polarity, diameter, and surface area were studied. Finally, a novel macroporous resin, ...

  3. Antioxidant and Anti-Fatigue Activities of Flavonoids from Puerariae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the antioxidant and anti-fatigue activities of flavonoids from Puerariae radix (FPR). In vitro antioxidant activities of FPR were investigated through hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activities. In vivo anti-fatigue activity of FPR was investigated through loaded swimming exercise of mice. Results ...

  4. Singlet oxygen reactions with flavonoids. A theoretical-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Javier; Günther, Germán; Zanocco, Antonio L; Lemp, Else

    2012-01-01

    Detection of singlet oxygen emission, λ(max) = 1270 nm, following laser excitation and steady-state methods were employed to measure the total reaction rate constant, k(T), and the reactive reaction rate constant, k(r), for the reaction between singlet oxygen and several flavonoids. Values of k(T) determined in deuterated water, ranging from 2.4×10(7) M(-1) s(-1) to 13.4×10(7) M(-1) s(-1), for rutin and morin, respectively, and the values measured for k(r), ranging from 2.8×10(5) M(-1) s(-1) to 65.7×10(5) M(-1) s(-1) for kaempferol and morin, respectively, being epicatechin and catechin chemically unreactive. These results indicate that all the studied flavonoids are good quenchers of singlet oxygen and could be valuable antioxidants in systems under oxidative stress, in particular if a flavonoid-rich diet was previously consumed. Analysis of the dependence of rate constant values with molecular structure in terms of global descriptors and condensed Fukui functions, resulting from electronic structure calculations, supports the formation of a charge transfer exciplex in all studied reactions. The fraction of exciplex giving reaction products evolves through a hydroperoxide and/or an endoperoxide intermediate produced by singlet oxygen attack on the double bond of the ring C of the flavonoid.

  5. Flavonoids as Nutraceuticals: A Review | Tapas | Tropical Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to the variety of pharmacological activities in the mammalian body, flavonoids are more correctly referred as “nutraceuticals”. Keywords: Bioflavonoids, Structure-Classification, Nutraceuticals, Antimicrobial activities, Anti-oxidant activity, Metabolic effects. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 7 (3) 2008: pp.

  6. Flavonoids as Chemopreventive and Therapeutic Agents Against Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Cabrera

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present review is to study the relationship between flavonoids and lung cancer, proposing that their regular consumption in Western diets could be beneficial for protecting patients against lung cancer. An extensive search of the scientific literature was performed in the following electronic specialized databases (PubMed central (PMC-NBCI, Elsevier Journal, SciELO Spain, Scirus, Science Direct, including studies in animals, cells, and humans, in order to establish the effect of flavonoids in the prevention and development of lung cancer. Although in vitro and animal studies show the potential ability of flavonoids to act against different types of cancers, especially against lung cancers, the diverse results reported within epidemiological studies, together with the lack of experiments in humans, are the major factors in limiting making dietary recommendations based on scientific evidence for the management of patients with lung cancer. Therefore, the authors of the present study recommend following the dietary health practice guidelines which promotes the consumption of food enriched in flavonoids and reflects the current state of knowledge of an effective and appropriate diet in lung cancer patients.Erratum in: Rev Esp Nutr Hum Diet. 2013;17(2:91-92Link: http://www.renhyd.org/index.php/renhyd/article/view/6/17

  7. Microbial production of the flavonoids garbanzol, resokaempferol and fisetin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The invention provides a genetically modified micro-organism comprising one or more transgene for the production of one or more of the flavonoids garbanzol, resokaempferol and fisetin. The micro-organism may be a bacterial or yeast cell engineered to express a metabolic pathway for garbanzol...

  8. Antioxidant and Anti-proliferative Activities of Flavonoids from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    significant growth inhibitory effect on RKO cells with IC50 of 39.08 μmol/L and 17.68 μmol/L, respectively ..... YJ.. Essential oil from rhizomes of Ligusticum chuanxiong induces apoptosis in hypertrophic scar ... Liu H, Mou Y, Zhao J, Wang J, Zhou L, Wang M, Wang. D, Han J, Yu Z, Yang F. Flavonoids from Halostachys.

  9. Flavonoid biosynthesis controls fiber color in naturally colored cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Feng Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The existence of only natural brown and green cotton fibers (BCF and GCF, respectively, as well as poor fiber quality, limits the use of naturally colored cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.. A better understanding of fiber pigment regulation is needed to surmount these obstacles. In this work, transcriptome analysis and quantitative reverse transcription PCR revealed that 13 and 9 phenylpropanoid (metabolic pathway genes were enriched during pigment synthesis, while the differential expression of phenylpropanoid (metabolic and flavonoid metabolic pathway genes occurred among BCF, GCF, and white cotton fibers (WCF. Silencing the chalcone flavanone isomerase gene in a BCF line resulted in three fiber phenotypes among offspring of the RNAi lines: BCF, almost WCF, and GCF. The lines with almost WCF suppressed chalcone flavanone isomerase, while the lines with GCF highly expressed the glucosyl transferase (3GT gene. Overexpression of the Gh3GT or Arabidopsis thaliana 3GT gene in BCF lines resulted in GCF. Additionally, the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid metabolites of BCF and GCF were significantly higher than those of WCF as assessed by a metabolomics analysis. Thus, the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway controls both brown and green pigmentation processes. Like natural colored fibers, the transgenic colored fibers were weaker and shorter than WCF. This study shows the potential of flavonoid pathway modifications to alter cotton fibers’ color and quality.

  10. A quantum chemical explanation of the antioxidant activity af flavonoids.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Acker, S.A.B.E.; de Groot, M.J.; van den Berg, D.J.; Tromp, M.N.J.L.; Donné-Op den Kelder, G.M.; van der Vijgh, W.J.F.; Bast, A.

    1996-01-01

    Flavonoids are a group of naturally occurring antioxidants, which over the past years have gained tremendous interest because of their possible therapeutic applicability. The mechanism of their antioxidant activity has been extensively studied over several decades. However, there is still much

  11. Quantification of alkaloids, phenols and flavonoids in sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allelochemicals in leaves, stems and roots of sunflower (cv Hysun 38) were determined using thin layer chromatography (TLC) for alkaloids and spectrophotometry for phenols and flavonoids. In the TLC, the highest Rf value was recorded in leaves, followed by roots and stems, a sequence that held true also for the quantity ...

  12. Dietary Antioxidant and Flavonoid Intakes Are Reduced in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Elżbieta Zujko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine sources and patterns of antioxidant and flavonoid intakes in the elderly (61–74 yrs in comparison with young (20–40 yrs and middle age (41–60 yrs groups in a cross-sectional study. More than 6000 subjects of both genders, aged 20–74 years, participants of the National Multicenter Health Survey (WOBASZ took part in this study. Daily food consumption was estimated by the single 24-hour dietary recall. Dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC and flavonoid content (FC were calculated according to the amount of food consumed by the participants combined with antioxidant capacity and flavonoid contents in foods. Food consumption, dietary TAC, and FC were significantly lower in the elderly, especially elderly women in comparison to the young and middle age groups. The consumption of tea, coffee, and apples was associated with the largest contribution to dietary TAC and FC in all participants. Despite high nutrient density of the energy-adjusted diet of ageing people, the elderly consumed the lowest amounts of antioxidants and flavonoids due to the lowest food intake.

  13. Effect of citrus flavonoids on HL-60 cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaii, S; Tomono, Y; Katase, E; Ogawa, K; Yano, M

    1999-01-01

    Twenty-seven Citrus flavonoids were examined for their activity of induction of terminal differentiation of human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) by nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) reducing, nonspecific esterase, specific esterase, and phagocytic activities. 10 flavonoids were judged to be active (percentage of NBT reducing cells was more than 40% at a concentration of 40 microM), and the rank order of potency was natsudaidain, luteolin, tangeretin, quercetin, apigenin, 3, 3, '4, '5, 6, 7, 8-heptamethoxyflavone, nobiletin, acacetin, eriodictyol, and taxifolin. These flavonoids exerted their activity in a dose-dependent manner. HL-60 cells treated with these flavonoids differentiated into mature monocyte/macrophage. The structure-activity relationship established from comparison between flavones and flavanones revealed that ortho-catechol moiety in ring B and C2-C3 double bond had an important role for induction of differentiation of HL-60. In polymethoxylated flavones, hydroxyl group at C3 and methoxyl group at C8 enhanced the differentiation-inducing activity.

  14. Main flavonoids in needles of Larix decidu A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemann, Gerard J.

    Present work. Freeze-dried needles were extracted with acetone-water. Ether and butanol fractions were separated by repeated banding on paper. Nine major flavonoids were isolated (in solution) and identified by chromatographic and UV spectral data of both the original and alkaline and/or acid

  15. Kaempferol, a flavonoid compound from Gynura medica induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Kaempferol, a natural flavonoid, has been shown to induce cancer cell apoptosis and cell growth inhibition in several tumors. Previously we have conducted a full investigation on the chemical constituents of Gynura medica, kaempferol and its glycosides are the major constituents of G. medica. Here we ...

  16. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antioxidant capacity of the flowering aerial parts of Astragalus squarrosus was determined by 1,1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and ferric thiocyanate methods. The phenolic and flavonoid content was also measured. A. squarrosus showed weak free radical scavenging activity with the DPPH ...

  17. Singlet Oxygen Reactions with Flavonoids. A Theoretical – Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Javier; Günther, Germán; Zanocco, Antonio L.; Lemp, Else

    2012-01-01

    Detection of singlet oxygen emission, λmax = 1270 nm, following laser excitation and steady-state methods were employed to measure the total reaction rate constant, kT, and the reactive reaction rate constant, kr, for the reaction between singlet oxygen and several flavonoids. Values of kT determined in deuterated water, ranging from 2.4×107 M−1s−1 to 13.4×107 M−1s−1, for rutin and morin, respectively, and the values measured for kr, ranging from 2.8×105 M−1s−1 to 65.7×105 M−1s−1 for kaempferol and morin, respectively, being epicatechin and catechin chemically unreactive. These results indicate that all the studied flavonoids are good quenchers of singlet oxygen and could be valuable antioxidants in systems under oxidative stress, in particular if a flavonoid-rich diet was previously consumed. Analysis of the dependence of rate constant values with molecular structure in terms of global descriptors and condensed Fukui functions, resulting from electronic structure calculations, supports the formation of a charge transfer exciplex in all studied reactions. The fraction of exciplex giving reaction products evolves through a hydroperoxide and/or an endoperoxide intermediate produced by singlet oxygen attack on the double bond of the ring C of the flavonoid. PMID:22802966

  18. Singlet oxygen reactions with flavonoids. A theoretical-experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Morales

    Full Text Available Detection of singlet oxygen emission, λ(max = 1270 nm, following laser excitation and steady-state methods were employed to measure the total reaction rate constant, k(T, and the reactive reaction rate constant, k(r, for the reaction between singlet oxygen and several flavonoids. Values of k(T determined in deuterated water, ranging from 2.4×10(7 M(-1 s(-1 to 13.4×10(7 M(-1 s(-1, for rutin and morin, respectively, and the values measured for k(r, ranging from 2.8×10(5 M(-1 s(-1 to 65.7×10(5 M(-1 s(-1 for kaempferol and morin, respectively, being epicatechin and catechin chemically unreactive. These results indicate that all the studied flavonoids are good quenchers of singlet oxygen and could be valuable antioxidants in systems under oxidative stress, in particular if a flavonoid-rich diet was previously consumed. Analysis of the dependence of rate constant values with molecular structure in terms of global descriptors and condensed Fukui functions, resulting from electronic structure calculations, supports the formation of a charge transfer exciplex in all studied reactions. The fraction of exciplex giving reaction products evolves through a hydroperoxide and/or an endoperoxide intermediate produced by singlet oxygen attack on the double bond of the ring C of the flavonoid.

  19. FLAVONOIDS IN THE GRASS OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Khudenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents active parts of Tribulus terrestris L. as a perspective sample for study. We have provided an example of flavo-noids determination with high-performance liquid chromatography / MS at the Waters Acquility chromatographer with tandem quad-rupolar MS-detector TQD (Waters.

  20. Quercitrin: an antileishmanial flavonoid glycoside from Kalanchoe pinnata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzitano, Michelle F; Cruz, Elaine A; de Almeida, Ana Paula; Da Silva, Silvia A G; Kaiser, Carlos R; Guette, Catherine; Rossi-Bergmann, Bartira; Costa, Sônia S

    2006-01-01

    Quercitrin (quercetin 3- O-alpha- L-rhamnopyranoside), one of the constituents of the biologically active aqueous extract obtained from Kalanchoe pinnata, is demonstrated to be a potent antileishmanial compound (IC50 approximately 1 microg/mL) with a low toxicity profile. This is the first time that antileishmanial activity is demonstrated for a flavonoid glycoside.

  1. The antileishmanial activity assessment of unusual flavonoids from Kalanchoe pinnata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzitano, Michelle F; Tinoco, Luzineide W; Guette, Catherine; Kaiser, Carlos R; Rossi-Bergmann, Bartira; Costa, Sônia S

    2006-09-01

    The importance of flavonoids for the antileishmanial activity of Kalanchoe pinnata was previously demonstrated by the isolation of quercitrin, a potent antileishmanial flavonoid. In the present study, the aqueous leaf extract from the medicinal plant K. pinnata (Crassulaceae) afforded a kaempferol di-glycoside, named kapinnatoside, identified as kaempferol 3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl (1-->2) alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (1). In addition, two unusual flavonol and flavone glycosides already reported, quercetin 3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl (1-->2) alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (2) and 4',5-dihydroxy-3',8-dimethoxyflavone 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), have been isolated. Their structures were determined via analyses of mono and bi-dimensional (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic experiments and HR-MALDI mass spectra. Because of its restricted occurrence and its abundance in K. pinnata, flavonoid (2) may be a chemical marker for this plant species of high therapeutic potential. The three flavonoids were tested separately against Leishmania amazonenis amastigotes in comparison with quercitrin, quercetin and afzelin. The quercetin aglycone - type structure, as well as a rhamnosyl unit linked at C-3, seem to be important for antileishmanial activity.

  2. Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction and Antioxidant Activity of Flavonoids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lee WC, Yusof Y, Hamid NSA, Baharin BS. Optimizing conditions for hot water extraction of banana juice using response surface methodology (RSM). J Food. Eng 2006; 75: 473-479. 11. Proestos C, Sereli D, Komaitis M. Analysis of flavonoids and phenolic acids in Greek aromatic plants: Investigation of their antioxidant ...

  3. Total Phenol amd Flavonoid contents of Crude Extract and Fractions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenolic compounds are numerous in plants and are essential part of human diet. Picralima nitida has been extensively used in African folk medicine especially in West Africa. The present study evaluated the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extract and fractions of Picralima nitida. The methanol extracts of P.

  4. Influence of Flavonoids on Mechanism of Modulation of Insulin Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Juliana Mikaelly Dias; Pereira Leal, Ana Ediléia Barbosa; Silva, Juliane Cabral; Almeida, Jackson R G S; de Oliveira, Helinando Pequeno

    2017-01-01

    The development of alternatives for insulin secretion control in vivo or in vitro represents an important aspect to be investigated. In this direction, natural products have been progressively explored with this aim. In particular, flavonoids are potential candidates to act as insulin secretagogue. To study the influence of flavonoid on overall modulation mechanisms of insulin secretion. The research was conducted in the following databases and platforms: PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge, SciELO, LILACS, and ScienceDirect, and the MeSH terms used for the search were flavonoids, flavones, islets of Langerhans, and insulin-secreting cells. Twelve articles were included and represent the basis of discussion on mechanisms of insulin secretion of flavonoids. Papers in ISI Web of Knowledge were in number of 1, Scopus 44, PubMed 264, ScienceDirect 511, and no papers from LILACS and SciELO databases. According to the literature, the majority of flavonoid subclasses can modulate insulin secretion through several pathways, in an indication that corresponding molecule is a potential candidate for active materials to be applied in the treatment of diabetes. The action of natural products on insulin secretion represents an important investigation topic due to their importance in the diabetes controlIn addition to their typical antioxidant properties, flavonoids contribute to the insulin secretionThe modulation of insulin secretion is induced by flavonoids according to different mechanisms. Abbreviations used: K ATP channels: ATP-sensitive K + channels, GLUT4: Glucose transporter 4, ERK1/2: Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2, L-VDCCs: L-type voltage-dependent Ca +2 channels, GLUT1: Glucose transporter 1, AMPK: Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, PTP1B: Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, GLUT2: Glucose transporter 2, cAMP: Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, PKA: Protein kinase A, PTK: Protein tyrosine kinase, CaMK II: Ca 2+ /calmodulin

  5. Impact of Plant-Derived Flavonoids on Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Silvia Lima; Silva, Victor Diogenes Amaral; Dos Santos Souza, Cleide; Santos, Cleonice Creusa; Paris, Irmgard; Muñoz, Patricia; Segura-Aguilar, Juan

    2016-07-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders have a common characteristic that is the involvement of different cell types, typically the reactivity of astrocytes and microglia, characterizing gliosis, which in turn contributes to the neuronal dysfunction and or death. Flavonoids are secondary metabolites of plant origin widely investigated at present and represent one of the most important and diversified among natural products phenolic groups. Several biological activities are attributed to this class of polyphenols, such as antitumor activity, antioxidant, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory, among others, which give significant pharmacological importance. Our group have observed that flavonoids derived from Brazilian plants Dimorphandra mollis Bent., Croton betulaster Müll. Arg., e Poincianella pyramidalis Tul., botanical synonymous Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. also elicit a broad spectrum of responses in astrocytes and neurons in culture as activation of astrocytes and microglia, astrocyte associated protection of neuronal progenitor cells, neuronal differentiation and neuritogenesis. It was observed the flavonoids also induced neuronal differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells and human pluripotent stem cells. Moreover, with the objective of seeking preclinical pharmacological evidence of these molecules, in order to assess its future use in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, we have evaluated the effects of flavonoids in preclinical in vitro models of neuroinflammation associated with Parkinson's disease and glutamate toxicity associated with ischemia. In particular, our efforts have been directed to identify mechanisms involved in the changes in viability, morphology, and glial cell function induced by flavonoids in cultures of glial cells and neuronal cells alone or in interactions and clarify the relation with their neuroprotective and morphogetic effects.

  6. Habitual intake of dietary flavonoids and risk of Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X; Cassidy, A; Schwarzschild, M A; Rimm, E B; Ascherio, A

    2012-04-10

    To prospectively examine whether higher intakes of total flavonoids and their subclasses (flavanones, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, flavonols, flavones, and polymers) were associated with a lower risk of developing Parkinson disease (PD). In the current analysis, we included 49,281 men in the Health Professional Follow-up Study and 80,336 women from the Nurses' Health Study. Five major sources of flavonoid-rich foods (tea, berry fruits, apples, red wine, and orange/orange juice) were also examined. Flavonoid intake was assessed using an updated food composition database and a validated food frequency questionnaire. We identified 805 participants (438 men and 367 women) who developed PD during 20-22 years of follow-up. In men, after adjusting for multiple confounders, participants in the highest quintile of total flavonoids had a 40%lower PD risk than those in the lowest quintile (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.60; 95% confidence interval 0.43, 0.83; p trend = 0.001). No significant relationship was observed in women (p trend = 0.62) or in pooled analyses (p trend = 0.23). In the pooled analyses for the subclasses, intakes of anthocyanins and a rich dietary source, berries, were significantly associated with a lower PD risk (HR comparing 2 extreme intake quintiles were 0.76 for anthocyanins and 0.77 for berries, respectively; p trend < 0.02 for both). Our findings suggest that intake of some flavonoids may reduce PD risk, particularly in men, but a protective effect of other constituents of plant foods cannot be excluded.

  7. [Seasonal changes and response to stress of total flavonoids content of Farfugium japonicum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Dalian; Ma, Yuxin

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the seasonal variation of total flavonoid content of Farfugium japonicum and its response to stress. The total flavonoids of Farfugium japonicum were determined by spectrophotometry in different seasons and under various stressful factors. The total flavonoid content in Farfugium japonicum leaves was the highest, followed by the petiole, and rhizomes (Pseasons (Pwater stress, the total flavonoid content in Farfugium japonicum leaves gradually increased, that in petiole first increased and then decreased,while that in rhizomes decreased (Pstress, the total flavonoid content in leaves, petioles and rhizomes of Farfugium japonicum showed a decreasing trend (Pseasons and that in different parts of the plant has different responses to ecological stressful factors.

  8. Interaction of flavonoids, the naturally occurring antioxidants with different media: A UV-visible spectroscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Bushra; Shah, S. W. H.; Hasan, Aurangzeb; Sakhawat Shah, S.

    2010-04-01

    Quantitative parameters for interaction of flavonoids—the naturally occurring antioxidants, with solvents and surfactants are determined using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The availability of flavonoids; kaempferol, apigenin, kaempferide and rhamnetin in micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is reflected in terms of partition coefficient, Kc. Thermodynamic calculations show that the process of transfer of flavonoid molecules to anionic micelles of SDS is energy efficient. A distortion in flavonoid's morphology occurs in case of kaempferol and apigenin in surfactant and water, exhibited in terms of a new band in the UV region of electronic spectra of these flavonoids. The partition coefficients of structurally related flavonoids are correlated with their antioxidant activities.

  9. Flavonoids at the pharma-nutrition interface: Is a therapeutic index in demand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Ilaria; Palmery, Maura

    2015-04-01

    The consumption of flavonoid-rich foods could have beneficial effects on health. However, different classes of flavonoids have different effect on disease risk and the relationship between flavonoid intake and risk of disease appeared to be non-linear. Furthermore, contrarily to vitamins, there are no symptoms of deficiency for flavonoids; therefore, our body treats them like other xenobiotics. Therefore, a therapeutic index should be determined. Despite flavonoids are at the pharma-nutrition interface, drugs and foods are subject to different regulatory frameworks and there is no recommended daily allowance (RDA) for flavonoids. Relatively little is known about the efficacy, safety and underlying mechanisms of these bioactive compounds, especially when taken in concert with drugs. Flavonoids could act both as drugs and pro-drugs with pharmacological and toxicological promiscuity. Due to the low bioavailability, the gastrointestinal tract could be the primary target of flavonoids and metabolites. Different effects have been observed after acute and chronic consumption and bioavailability and bioactivity have high inter-individual variability. Furthermore, the difficulties in the design and in the interpretation of human intervention studies make difficult the establishment of a therapeutic index for flavonoids. Probably the concept of 'personalized nutrition' previously proposed could be the better approach. However, despite more studies are needed in order to establish a therapeutic index for each flavonoid subclasses, at the moment RDA of total flavonoids could be between 250-400 mg/d, respecting the seasonality of food sources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Dietary flavonoids of Spanish youth: intakes, sources, and association with the Mediterranean diet

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    Rowaedh Ahmed Bawaked

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Plant-based diets have been linked to high diet quality and reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. The health impact of plant-based diets might be partially explained by the concomitant intake of flavonoids. Estimation of flavonoids intake in adults has been important for the development of dietary recommendations and interventions for the prevention of weight gain and its consequences. However, estimation of flavonoids intake in children and adolescents is limited. Methods Average daily intake and sources of flavonoids were estimated for a representative national sample of 3,534 children and young people in Spain, aged 2–24 years. The data was collected between 1998 and 2000 by 24-h recalls. The Phenol-Explorer database and the USDA database on flavonoids content were used. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was measured by the KIDMED index. Results The mean and median intakes of total flavonoids were 70.7 and 48.1 mg/day, respectively. The most abundant flavonoid class was flavan-3-ols (35.7%, with fruit being the top food source of flavonoids intake (42.8%. Total flavonoids intake was positively associated with the KIDMED index (p < 0.001. Conclusion The results of this study provide primary information about flavonoids intake and main food sources in Spanish children, adolescents and young adults. Participants with high daily mean intake of flavonoids have higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet.

  11. Flavonoid engineering of flax potentiate its biotechnological application

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    Prescha Anna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flavonoids are a group of secondary plant metabolites important for plant growth and development. They show also a protective effect against colon and breast cancer, diabetes, hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis, lupus nephritis, and immune and inflammatory reactions. Thus, overproduction of these compounds in flax by genetic engineering method might potentiate biotechnological application of these plant products. Results Flax plants of third generation overexpressing key genes of flavonoid pathway cultivated in field were used as plant material throughout this study. The biochemical properties of seed, oil and seedcake extracts and fibre from natural and transgenic flax plants were compared. The data obtained suggests that the introduced genes were stably inherited and expressed through plant generations. Overproduction of flavonoid compounds resulted in increase of fatty acids accumulation in oil from transgenic seeds due to protection from oxidation offered during synthesis and seed maturation. The biochemical analysis of seedcake extracts from seeds of transgenic flax revealed significant increase in flavonoids (kaempferol, phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic, synapic acids and lignan content. Fibres, another product of flax plant showed increase in the level of catechine and acetylvanillone and decrease in phenolic acids upon flax modification. Biochemical analysis results were confirmed using IR spectroscopy. The integral intensities of IR bands have been used for identification of the component of phenylpropanoid pathway in oil, seedcake extract and fibre from control and transgenic flax. It was shown that levels of flavonoids, phenolic acids and lignans in oil and seedcake extract was higher in transgenic flax products compared to control. An FT-IR study of fibres confirmed the biochemical data and revealed that the arrangement of the cellulose polymer in the transgenic fibres differs from the control; in particular a

  12. Aktivitas antibakteri flavonoid propolis Trigona sp terhadap bakteri Streptococcus mutans (in vitro (In vitro antibacterial activity of flavonoids Trigona sp propolis against Streptococcus mutans

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    Ardo Sabir

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A number of investigations have shown a positive correlation between the number of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans in dental plaque and the prevalence of dental caries. Consequently, this microorganism has been the prime target for the prevention of dental caries. Propolis being a substance made by the honeybee, is a potent antibacterial agent. The main chemical class present in propolis is flavonoids. Flavonoids are well-known plant compounds that have antibacterial property. Because S. mutans is accepted to be one of the microorganisms responsible for dental caries and flavonoids in propolis are antibacterial, the purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro the antibacterial activity of flavonoids Trigona sp propolis against S. mutans as a first step in its possible use as an alternative anticaries agent. Extract flavonoids was purified from ethanol extract of propolis which was obtained from Bulukumba Regency South Sulawesi using thin layer chromatography. The purification of flavonoids was carried-out by UVradiation at λ max 254 nm and λmax 366 nm and treatment with ammonia. Extract flavonoids was diluted in aquadest to 0.05%; 0.075%; 0.1%; 0.25%; 0.5%; 0.75% concentrations. Aquadest and 10% Povidone iodine were also used as control solution. S mutans were grown in medium glucose nutrient agar and incubated with flavonoids for 24 and 48 hours, at 37° C. Antibacterial activity was reflected by the diameter of the inhibition zones around the stainless steel cylinder. The data were analyzed by using ANOVA followed by LSD test with significance level of 5%. The results of this study showed that after being incubated for 24 and 48 hours, all flavonoid concentrations significantly (p < 0.05 inhibited the growth of S mutans. 0.1% flavonoid was the most effective concentration to inhibit the growth of S mutans after 24 hours of incubation and 0.5% flavonoid after 48 hours of incubator.

  13. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of light intensity on flavonoid production by RNA-seq analysis in Epimedium pseudowushanense B.L.Guo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqian Pan

    Full Text Available Epimedium pseudowushanense B.L.Guo, a light-demanding shade herb, is used in traditional medicine to increase libido and strengthen muscles and bones. The recognition of the health benefits of Epimedium has increased its market demand. However, its resource recycling rate is low and environmentally dependent. Furthermore, its natural sources are endangered, further increasing prices. Commercial culture can address resource constraints of it.Understanding the effects of environmental factors on the production of its active components would improve the technology for cultivation and germplasm conservation. Here, we studied the effects of light intensities on the flavonoid production and revealed the molecular mechanism using RNA-seq analysis. Plants were exposed to five levels of light intensity through the periods of germination to flowering, the flavonoid contents were measured using HPLC. Quantification of epimedin A, epimedin B, epimedin C, and icariin showed that the flavonoid contents varied with different light intensity levels. And the largest amount of epimedin C was produced at light intensity level 4 (I4. Next, the leaves under the treatment of three light intensity levels ("L", "M" and "H" with the largest differences in the flavonoid content, were subjected to RNA-seq analysis. Transcriptome reconstruction identified 43,657 unigenes. All unigene sequences were annotated by searching against the Nr, Gene Ontology, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG databases. In total, 4008, 5260, and 3591 significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified between the groups L vs. M, M vs. H and L vs. H. Particularly, twenty-one full-length genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis were identified. The expression levels of the flavonol synthase, chalcone synthase genes were strongly associated with light-induced flavonoid abundance with the highest expression levels found in the H group. Furthermore, 65 transcription factors

  14. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of light intensity on flavonoid production by RNA-seq analysis in Epimedium pseudowushanense B.L.Guo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Junqian; Chen, Haimei; Guo, Baolin; Liu, Chang

    2017-01-01

    Epimedium pseudowushanense B.L.Guo, a light-demanding shade herb, is used in traditional medicine to increase libido and strengthen muscles and bones. The recognition of the health benefits of Epimedium has increased its market demand. However, its resource recycling rate is low and environmentally dependent. Furthermore, its natural sources are endangered, further increasing prices. Commercial culture can address resource constraints of it.Understanding the effects of environmental factors on the production of its active components would improve the technology for cultivation and germplasm conservation. Here, we studied the effects of light intensities on the flavonoid production and revealed the molecular mechanism using RNA-seq analysis. Plants were exposed to five levels of light intensity through the periods of germination to flowering, the flavonoid contents were measured using HPLC. Quantification of epimedin A, epimedin B, epimedin C, and icariin showed that the flavonoid contents varied with different light intensity levels. And the largest amount of epimedin C was produced at light intensity level 4 (I4). Next, the leaves under the treatment of three light intensity levels ("L", "M" and "H") with the largest differences in the flavonoid content, were subjected to RNA-seq analysis. Transcriptome reconstruction identified 43,657 unigenes. All unigene sequences were annotated by searching against the Nr, Gene Ontology, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. In total, 4008, 5260, and 3591 significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between the groups L vs. M, M vs. H and L vs. H. Particularly, twenty-one full-length genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis were identified. The expression levels of the flavonol synthase, chalcone synthase genes were strongly associated with light-induced flavonoid abundance with the highest expression levels found in the H group. Furthermore, 65 transcription factors, including 31

  15. Flavonoid and Leaf Gas Exchange Responses of Centella asiatica to Acute Gamma Irradiation and Carbon Dioxide Enrichment under Controlled Environment Conditions

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    Hawa Binti Jaafar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was couducted to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation and CO2 on flavonoid content and leaf gas exchange in C.asiatica. For flavonoid determination, the design was a split split plot based on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD. For other parameters, the designs were split plots. Statistical tests revealed significant differences in flavonoid contents of Centella asiatica leaves between different growth stages and various CO2 treatments. CO2 400, G20 (400 = ambient CO2; G20 = Plants exposed to 20 Gy showed 82.90% higher total flavonoid content (TFC in the 5th week than CO2 400 as control at its best harvest time (4th week. Increasing the concentration of CO2 from 400 to 800 μmol/mol had significant effects on TFC and harvesting time. In fact, 800 μmol/mol resulted in 171.1% and 66.62% increases in TFC for control and irradiated plants, respectively. Moreover, increasing CO2 concentration reduced the harvesting time to three and four weeks for control and irradiated plants, respectively. Enhancing CO2 to 800 µmol/mol resulted in a 193.30% (CO2 800 increase in leaf biomass compared to 400 µmol/mol and 226.34% enhancement in irradiated plants (CO2 800, G20 [800 = Ambient CO2; G20 = Plants exposed to 20 Gy] than CO2 400, G20. In addition, the CO2 800, G20 had the highest amount of flavonoid*biomass in the 4th week. The results of this study indicated that all elevated CO2 treatments had higher PN than the ambient ones. The findings showed that when CO2 level increased from 400 to 800 µmol/mol, stomatal conductance, leaf intercellular CO2 and transpiration rate had the tendency to decrease. However, water use efficiency increased in response to elevated CO2 concentration. Returning to the findings of this study, it is now possible to state that the proposed method (combined CO2 and gamma irradiation has the potential to increase the product value by reducing the time to harvest, increasing the yield per unit area via

  16. Flavonoides glicosilados de Erythroxylum pulchrum a. st.-hil. (Erythroxylaceae

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    Camila Holanda de Albuquerque

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of Erythroxylum pulchrum St. Hil. (Erythroxylaceae led to the isolation of three known flavonoid glycosides quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhaminoside, ombuin-3-ruthinoside and ombuin-3-ruthinoside-5-glucoside. These flavonoids are being described for the first time in this E. pulchrum. The structures of the compounds were determined by analysis of IR, MS and NMR data, as well as by comparison with literature data. The methanolic extract of leaves from E. pulchrum inhibited the growth of the Bacillus subtilis CCT 0516, Escherichia coli ATCC 2536, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 8027, P. aeruginosa ATCC 25619, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, S. aureus ATCC 25925, Streptococcus sanguinis ATCC 15300, S. salivarius ATCC 7073, S. mutans ATCC 25175 and Streptococcus ATCC. S. aureus ATCC 25925 was the most sensitive among the other S. sanguinis while S. salivarius proved the most resistant.

  17. Flavonoid glycosides from Erythroxylum pulchrum A. St.-Hil. (Erythroxylaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, Camila Holanda de; Tavares, Josean Fechine; Oliveira, Steno Lacerda de; Silva, Taina Souza; Costa, Vicente Carlos de Oliveira; Silva, Marcelo Sobral da; Goncalves, Gregorio Fernandes; Pessoa, Hilzeth de Luna Freire; Agra, Maria de Fatima

    2014-01-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Erythroxylum pulchrum St. Hil. (Erythroxylaceae) led to the isolation of three known flavonoid glycosides quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhaminoside, ombuin-3-ruthinoside and ombuin-3-ruthinoside-5-glucoside. These flavonoids are being described for the first time in this E. pulchrum. The structures of the compounds were determined by analysis of IR, MS and NMR data, as well as by comparison with literature data. The methanolic extract of leaves from E. pulchrum inhibited the growth of the Bacillus subtilis CCT 0516, Escherichia coli ATCC 2536, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 8027, P. aeruginosa ATCC 25619, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, S. aureus ATCC 25925, Streptococcus sanguinis ATCC 15300, S. salivarius ATCC 7073, S. mutans ATCC 25175 and Streptococcus ATCC. S. aureus ATCC 25925 was the most sensitive among the other S. sanguinis while S. salivarius proved the most resistant. (author)

  18. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND MEDICAL EFFECTS OF PLANT FLAVONOID QUERCETIN

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    Aneta Štochmaľová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoid compounds in vegetable-based diets bring a significant contribution to the role of fruits and vegetables as health-promoting foods. This review summarizes the available data concerning physiological and therapeutical effect of plan flavonoid quercetin. Quercetin has a number of beneficial influence on health because of their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, anti-carcinogenic and anti-diabetes properties. Effects of quercetin have been explained by its interference with cellular enzymes, receptors, transporters and signal transduction systems. Despite the available data reviewed here, the targets, effects, absorption, metabolism and areas of practical application of quercetin are still poorly understood, therefore further studies in this areas are required.

  19. Antiproliferative activity of flavonoids on several cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaii, S; Tomono, Y; Katase, E; Ogawa, K; Yano, M

    1999-05-01

    Twenty-seven Citrus flavonoids were examined for their antiproliferative activities against several tumor and normal human cell lines. As a result, 7 flavonoids were judged to be active against the tumor cell lines, while they had weak antiproliferative activity against the normal human cell lines. The rank order of potency was luteolin, natsudaidain, quercetin, tangeretin, eriodictyol, nobiletin, and 3,3',4',5,6,7,8-heptamethoxyflavone. The structure-activity relationship established from comparison among these flavones and flavanones showed that the ortho-catechol moiety in ring B and a C2-C3 double bond were important for the antiproliferative activity. As to polymethoxylated flavones, C-3 hydroxyl and C-8 methoxyl groups were essential for high activity.

  20. Flavonoids and fatty acids of Camellia japonica leaves extract

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    Cinthia M. Azuma

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract from the leaves of Camellia japonica L., Theaceae, showed antiradical potential in the DPPH test using TLC plates (SiO2. Aiming the isolation of active compounds, this extract was partitioned between BuOH:H2O (1:1 and the two obtained phases were also evaluated to detection of antiradical activity. The active BuOH phase was fractionated in Sephadex LH-20 and silica (normal or reverse phase to afford three aglycone flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol and apigenin, which have been described in the C. japonica at first time, two glycosilated flavonoids (rutin and quercetrin, and a mixture of saturated fatty acids. The structures of isolated compounds were defined by NMR and GC/MS analyses.

  1. Flavonoids and fatty acids of Camellia japonica leaves extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia M. Azuma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract from the leaves of Camellia japonica L., Theaceae, showed antiradical potential in the DPPH test using TLC plates (SiO2. Aiming the isolation of active compounds, this extract was partitioned between BuOH:H2O (1:1 and the two obtained phases were also evaluated to detection of antiradical activity. The active BuOH phase was fractionated in Sephadex LH-20 and silica (normal or reverse phase to afford three aglycone flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol and apigenin, which have been described in the C. japonica at first time, two glycosilated flavonoids (rutin and quercetrin, and a mixture of saturated fatty acids. The structures of isolated compounds were defined by NMR and GC/MS analyses.

  2. Contenido de flavonoides y compuestos fenólicos de mieles chilenas e índice antioxidante Content of flavonoids and phenolic compounds in chilean honeys. Orac index

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    Orlando Muñoz

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of the phenolic content of several Chilean honeys showed great variations in flavonoid concentration among the samples analysed. Higher amounts of phenolics are found in honey from dry climates. The antioxidant effect of extracts, using ORAC analysis, did not correlate with the flavonoid content or with the total phenolic concentration.

  3. Phytochemical study of the flavonoids of acacia nilotica var astringens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Gazali, N. A.

    2006-08-01

    The barks of acaica nilotica var astringens were extracted with 95% ethanol. Qualitative tests on the alcoholic extractives were negative for alkaloids and positive for steroids, tannins and flavonoids. Fractionation of the alcoholic extract over silica gel using acetone: methanol (4:1) gave a pure compound-compound 1. The structure of compound 1 was deduced on the basis of its IR, UV, NMR and mass spectra and the following structure was suggested.(Author)

  4. The oxidation of luteolin, the natural flavonoid dye

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ramešová, Šárka; Sokolová, Romana; Tarábek, Ján; Degano, I.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 110, NOV 2013 (2013), s. 646-654 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1607 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M200401201 Program:M Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : oxidation * flavonoids * luteolin Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 4.086, year: 2013

  5. Effect of precursors on flavonoid production by Hydrocotyle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Callus tissue of Hydrocotyle bonariensis was initiated from the leaf of H. bonariensis treated with 2 mg/l of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 1 mg/l kinetin. The culture was kept at 25°C, under light (cool white fluorescent tubes, 1200 lux). To optimize the precursors to increase the production of flavonoid, different ...

  6. Flavonoids in the leaves of Asclepias incarnata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorska, Maria

    2003-01-01

    Seven flavonoid compounds: quercelin 3-O-beta-galactopyranoside, 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside, 3-O-arabinoside, 3-O-beta-glucopyranosyl (1-->2)-beta-galactopyranoside, 3-O-beta-xylopyranosyl (1-->2)-beta-galactopyranoside, 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->2)-beta-galactopyranoside and kaempferol 3-beta-glucopyranoside were isolated and identified from the leaves of Asclepias incarnata, L. (Asclepiadaceae).

  7. FUNCTIONAL SPECIALIZATION OF DUPLICATED FLAVONOID BIOSYNTHESIS GENES IN WHEAT

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    Khlestkina E.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Gene duplication followed by subfunctionalization and neofunctionalization is of a great evolutionary importance. In plant genomes, duplicated genes may result from either polyploidization (homoeologous genes or segmental chromosome duplications (paralogous genes. In allohexaploid wheat Triticum aestivum L. (2n=6x=42, genome BBAADD, both homoeologous and paralogous copies were found for the regulatory gene Myc encoding MYC-like transcriptional factor in the biosynthesis of flavonoid pigments, anthocyanins, and for the structural gene F3h encoding one of the key enzymes of flavonoid biosynthesis, flavanone 3-hydroxylase. From the 5 copies (3 homoeologous and 2 paralogous of the Myc gene found in T. aestivum, only one plays a regulatory role in anthocyanin biosynthesis, interacting complementary with another transcriptional factor (MYB-like to confer purple pigmentation of grain pericarp in wheat. The role and functionality of the other 4 copies of the Myc gene remain unknown. From the 4 functional copies of the F3h gene in T. aestivum, three homoeologues have similar function. They are expressed in wheat organs colored with anthocyanins or in the endosperm, participating there in biosynthesis of uncolored flavonoid substances. The fourth copy (the B-genomic paralogue is transcribed neither in wheat organs colored with anthocyanins nor in seeds, however, it’s expression has been noticed in roots of aluminium-stressed plants, where the three homoeologous copies are not active. Functional diversification of the duplicated flavonoid biosynthesis genes in wheat may be a reason for maintenance of the duplicated copies and preventing them from pseudogenization.The study was supported by RFBR (11-04-92707. We also thank Ms. Galina Generalova for technical assistance.

  8. Microbial production of the flavonoids garbanzol, resokaempferol and fisetin

    OpenAIRE

    Stahlhut, Steen Gustav; Siedler, Solvej; Neves, Ana Rute; MAURY,, JEROME; Förster, Jochen; Gaspar, Paula; Borodina, Irina; Rodriguez Prado, Edith Angelica; Strucko, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    The invention provides a genetically modified micro-organism comprising one or more transgene for the production of one or more of the flavonoids garbanzol, resokaempferol and fisetin. The micro-organism may be a bacterial or yeast cell engineered to express a metabolic pathway for garbanzol, resokaempferol and/or fisetin biosynthesis. The invention further provides a method for producing garbanzol, resokaempferol and/or fisetin employing the genetically modified micro-organism of the inventi...

  9. Citrus Flavonoid Supplementation Improves Exercise Performance in Trained Athletes

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    Elvera Overdevest, Jeroen A. Wouters, Kevin H.M. Wolfs, Job J.M. van Leeuwen, Sam Possemiers

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that polyphenol supplementation may be an effective strategy to improve exercise performance, due to their antioxidant character and ability to stimulate NO production. These properties may contribute to exercise performance, yet no conclusive research has been performed in exploring the direct effects of citrus flavonoids on human exercise performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess whether supplementation of a customized citrus flavonoid (CF extract for 4 weeks improves cycling time-trial performance in trained male athletes. In a double-blind, randomized, parallel study, 39 healthy, trained males were given a daily dose of either 500 mg of a customized citrus flavonoid extract (CF or a placebo for 4 weeks. Exercise performance was tested by means of a time-trial test on a cycle ergometer, during which participants had to generate as much power as possible for duration of 10 minutes. Absolute power output significantly increased with 14.9 ± 3.9 W after 4 weeks of CF supplementation, corresponding with a 5.0% increase, compared to 3.8 ± 3.2 W (1.3% increase in placebo (p < 0.05. In addition, oxygen consumption/power ratio significantly decreased in the CF group compared to placebo (p = 0.001, and a trend was found in the change in peak power output in CF (18.2 ± 23.2 W versus placebo (-28.4 ± 17.6 W; p = 0.116. The current study is the first convincing report that citrus flavonoid supplementation can improve exercise performance, as shown by a significant increase in power output during the exercise test.

  10. Flavonoids from the flowers of Nymphaea alba L.

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    Jerzy Jambor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten flavonoids were obtained from the flowers of Nymphaea alba L. Their structures were determined mainly on the basis of spectral analyses (UV, 'H NMR, MS. The following aglycons were isolated: quercetin, kaempferol, isokaempferide and apigenin as well as the following glycosides: quercetion 4'-β-xyloside, 3-methylquercetin 3'-β-xyloside and a mixture of quercetin 3-galactoside and 3-glucoside. The structures of three compounds obtained in very small amounts were determined in part.

  11. Exploring the molecular targets of dietary flavonoid fisetin in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Syed, Deeba N.; Adhami, Vaqar Mustafa; Khan, Naghma; Khan, Mohammad Imran; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    The last few decades have seen a resurgence of interest among the scientific community in exploring the efficacy of natural compounds against various human cancers. Compounds of plant origin belonging to different groups such as alkaloids, flavonoids and polyphenols evaluated for their cancer preventive effects have yielded promising data, thereby offering a potential therapeutic alternative against this deadly disease. The flavonol fisetin (3,3′,4′,7-tetrahydroxyflavone), present in fruits a...

  12. Mutagenicity of Flavonoids Assayed by Bacterial Reverse Mutation (Ames Test

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    Eliana Aparecida Varanda

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The mutagenicity of ten flavonoids was assayed by the Ames test, in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100 and TA102, with the aim of establishing hydroxylation pattern-mutagenicity relationship profiles. The compounds assessed were: quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, fisetin, chrysin, galangin, flavone, 3-hydroxyflavone, 5-hydroxyflavone and 7-hydroxyflavone. In the Ames assay, quercetin acted directly and its mutagenicity increased with metabolic activation. In the presence of S9 mix, kaempferol and galangin were mutagenic in the TA98 strain and kaempferol showed signs of mutagenicity in the other strains. The absence of hydroxyl groups, as in flavone, only signs of mutagenicity were shown in strain TA102, after metabolization and, among monohydroxylated flavones (3-hydroxyflavone, 5-hydroxyflavone and 7-hydroxyflavone, the presence of hydroxyl groups only resulted in minor changes. Luteolin and fisetin also showed signs of mutagenicity in strain TA102. Finally, chrysin, which has only two hydroxy groups, at the 5-OH and 7-OH positions, also did not induce mutagenic activity in any of the bacterial strains used, under either activation condition. All the flavonoids were tested at concentrations varying from 2.6 to 30.7 nmol/plate for galangin and 12.1 to 225.0 nmol/plate for other flavonoids. In light of the above, it is necessary to clarify the conditions and the mechanisms that mediate the biological effects of flavonoids before treating them as therapeutical agents, since some compounds can be biotransformed into more genotoxic products; as is the case for galangin, kaempferol and quercetin.

  13. Analysis of Flavonoids in Rhamnus davurica and Its Antiproliferative Activities

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    Guilin Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rhamnus davurica Pall. (R. davurica has been used as a traditional medicinal herb for many years in China and abroad. It has been well documented as a rich source of flavonoids with diversified structures, which in turn results in far-ranging biological activities, such as anti-inflammation, anticancer, antibacterial and antioxidant activities. In order to further correlate their anticancer potentials with the phytochemical components, the fingerprint profile of R. davurica herb from Dongbei was firstly investigated using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Thirty two peaks were detected and identified, 14 of which were found in R. davurica for the first time in this work. Furthermore, a total of 23 peaks were resolved as flavonoids, which are the major components found in R. davurica. Meanwhile, the antiproliferative activities against human cancer cells of HT-29 and SGC-7901 in vitro exhibited distinct inhibitory effects with IC50 values at 24.96 ± 0.74 and 89.53 ± 4.11 μg/mL, respectively. Finally, the general toxicity against L-O2 cells displayed a much higher IC50 at 229.19 ± 8.52 μg/mL, which suggested very low or no toxicity on hepatic cell viability. The current study revealed for the first time the correlations between the flavonoids of R. davurica with their antiproliferative activities, which indicated that the fingerprint profile of flavonoids and their anticancer activities could provide valuable information on the quality control for herbal medicines and their derived natural remedies from this valuable medicinal plant.

  14. A quest for staunch effects of flavonoids: Utopian protection against hepatic ailments

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    Anju Dhiman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The role of flavonoids as the major red, blue and purple pigments in plants has gained these secondary products a great deal of attention over the years. Flavonoids are polyphenols and occur as aglycones, glycosides and methylated derivatives. Flavonoids are the main components of a healthy diet containing fruits and vegetables and are concentrated especially in tea, apples and onions. Till date, more than 6000 flavonoids have been discovered, out of which 500 are found in free state. They are abundant in polygonaceae, rutaceae, leguminosae, umbelliferae and compositae. Flavonoids are powerful antioxidants. In addition to their role in nutrition, flavonoids possess many types of pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, hepatoprotective, vasorelaxant, antiviral and anticarcinogenic effects. The present review is focused on flavonoids derived from natural products that have shown a wise way to get a true and potentially rich source of drug candidates against liver ailments. The present review initially highlights the current status of flavonoids and their pharmaceutical significance, role of flavonoids in hepatoprotection, therapeutic options available in herbal medicines and in later section, summarizes flavonoids as lead molecules, which have shown significant hepatoprotective activities.

  15. Influence of Intestinal Microbiota on the Catabolism of Flavonoids in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Weiqun; Wang, Wenting; Yang, Hai; Wang, Dongliang; Ling, Wenhua

    2016-12-01

    Although in vitro studies have shown that flavonoids are metabolized into phenolic acids by the gut microbiota, the biotransformation of flavonoids by intestinal microbiota is seldom studied in vivo. In this study, we investigated the impact of the gut microbiota on the biotransformation of 3 subclasses of flavonoids (flavonols, flavones, and flavanones). The ability of intestinal microbiota to convert flavonoids was confirmed with an in vitro fermentation model using mouse gut microflora. Simultaneously, purified flavonoids were administered to control and antibiotic-treated mice by gavage, and the metabolism of these flavonoids was evaluated. p-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, hydrocaffeic acid, coumaric acid, and 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid were detected in the serum samples from the control mice after flavonoid consumption. The serum flavonoid concentrations were similar in both groups, whereas the phenolic metabolite concentrations were lower in the antibiotic-treated mice than in the control mice. We detected markedly higher flavonoids excretion in the feces and urine of the antibiotic-treated mice compared to the controls. Moreover, phenolic metabolites were upregulated in the control mice. These results suggest that the intestinal microbiota are not necessary for the absorption of flavonoids, but are required for their transformation. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Identification and quantification and antioxidant activity of flavonoids in different strains of silk cocoon, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napavichayanun, Supamas; Lutz, Oliver; Fischnaller, Martin; Jakschitz, Thomas; Bonn, Günther; Aramwit, Pornanong

    2017-10-01

    Silk cocoon is produced from silkworm (Bombyx mori) to protect itself from outer environment. Various strains of cocoon contain different forms and amounts of flavonoids, which may affect on their antioxidant activity. Moreover, the extraction method would influence the amount of flavonoids extracted. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to identify and quantify the flavonoids in 3 strains of bivoltine Bombyx mori silk cocoon (Chul 1/1; white cocoon, Chul 3/2; greenish cocoon, and Chul 4/2; yellow cocoon) extracted by 6 different solvents including acetone, ethyl acetate, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethanol, methanol, and purified water. The flavonoids extracted were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The antioxidant activity of flavonoids extracted was also investigated by visible spectroscopy at 517 nm. The results showed that Chul 3/2 silk cocoon contained the highest amount of flavonoids. Purified water seemed to be the best solvent that preserved most antioxidant activity of the flavonoids extracted. Flavonoids in Chul 1/1 and Chul 4/2 silk cocoon were rarely found, however they contained some antioxidant activities. The data from this study can provide basic information for flavonoid extraction from silk cocoon which can also apply for other flavonoid-containing natural biomaterials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Electrochemical study of the increased antioxidant capacity of flavonoids through complexation with iron(II) ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porfírio, Demóstenes Amorim; Ferreira, Rafael de Queiroz; Malagutti, Andréa Renata; Valle, Eliana Maíra Agostini

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Metal-Flavonoid complexes exhibit greater antioxidant capacity than the free flavonoid;. • Voltammetric profile is an additional information for determining antioxidant capacity;. • Pyrogallol group is a stronger complex-forming group than the catechol;. • Morin, quercetin and fisetin increased their antioxidant capacity in 15%, 32% and 28%, respectively. - Abstract: Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that act as natural antioxidants in the human body through various mechanisms, with an emphasis on suppressing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation by inhibiting enzymes, the direct capture of ROS, and the regulation/protection of antioxidant defenses. Additionally, flavonoids can coordinate with transition metals to catalyze electron transport and promote free radical capture. Recently, metal ion chelation mechanisms have generated considerable interest, as experimental data show that flavonoids in metal complexes exhibit greater antioxidant activity than free flavonoids. However, few studies have correlated the complexing properties of flavonoids with their antioxidant capacity. Thus, the aim of this study was to use the CRAC (Ceric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity) electrochemical assay to measure the antioxidant capacity of five free flavonoids and Fe 2+ -flavonoid complexes. In addition, the interactions between the flavonoids and Fe 2+ were analyzed based on the oxidation peaks formed in their cyclic voltammograms

  18. Dietary flavonoid derivatives enhance chemotherapeutic effect by inhibiting the DNA damage response pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, Ching-Ying; Zupkó, István; Chang, Fang-Rong; Hunyadi, Attila; Wu, Chin-Chung; Weng, Teng-Song; Wang, Hui-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are the most common group of polyphenolic compounds and abundant in dietary fruits and vegetables. Diet high in vegetables or dietary flavonoid supplements is associated with reduced mortality rate for patients with breast cancer. Many studies have been proposed for mechanisms linking flavonoids to improving chemotherapy efficacy in many types of cancers, but data on this issue is still limited. Herein, we report on a new mechanism through which dietary flavonoids inhibit DNA damage checkpoints and repair pathways. We found that dietary flavonoids could inhibit Chk1 phosphorylation and decrease clonogenic cell growth once breast cancer cells receive ultraviolet irradiation, cisplatin, or etoposide treatment. Since the ATR-Chk1 pathway mainly involves response to DNA replication stress, we propose that flavonoid derivatives reduce the side effect of chemotherapy by improving the sensitivity of cycling cells. Therefore, we propose that increasing intake of common dietary flavonoids is beneficial to breast cancer patients who are receiving DNA-damaging chemotherapy, such as cisplatin or etoposide-based therapy. - Highlights: • First report on inhibition of both DNA damage and repair by dietary flavonoids • Dietary flavonoids inhibit cisplatin- and UV-induced Chk1 phosphorylation. • Flavonoids combined with cisplatin or UV treatment show notable growth inhibition. • Promising treatment proposal for patients who are receiving adjuvant chemotherapy

  19. Silver complexation and tandem mass spectrometry for differentiation of isomeric flavonoid diglycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junmei; Brodbelt, Jennifer S

    2005-03-15

    For detection and differentiation of isomeric flavonoids, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry is used to generate silver complexes of the type (Ag + flavonoid)+. Collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) of the resulting 1:1 silver/flavonoid complexes allows isomer differentiation of flavonoids. Eighteen flavonoid diglycosides constituting seven isomeric series are distinguishable from each other based on the CAD patterns of their silver complexes. Characteristic dissociation pathways allow identification of the site of glycosylation, the type of disaccharide (rutinose versus neohesperidose), and the type of aglycon (flavonol versus flavone versus flavanone). This silver complexation method is more universal than previous metal complexation methods, as intense silver complexes are observed even for flavonoids that lack the typical metal chelation sites. To demonstrate the feasibility of using silver complexation and tandem mass spectrometry to characterize flavonoids in complex mixtures, flavonoids extracted from grapefruit juice are separated by high-performance liquid chromatography and analyzed via a postcolumn complexation ESI-MS/MS strategy. Diagnostic fragmentation pathways of the silver complexes of the individual eluting flavonoids allow successful identification of the six flavonoids in the extract.

  20. Dietary flavonoid derivatives enhance chemotherapeutic effect by inhibiting the DNA damage response pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, Ching-Ying [Graduate Institute of Natural Products, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Zupkó, István [Department of Pharmacodynamics and Biopharmacy, University of Szeged, Eötvös Utca 6, Szeged H-6720 (Hungary); Chang, Fang-Rong [Graduate Institute of Natural Products, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Hunyadi, Attila [Institute of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Szeged, Eötvös Utca 6, Szeged H-6720 (Hungary); Wu, Chin-Chung; Weng, Teng-Song [Graduate Institute of Natural Products, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Wang, Hui-Chun, E-mail: wanghc@kmu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Natural Products, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); PhD Program in Translational Medicine, College of Medicine and PhD Program in Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Natural Product and Drug Development, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Translational Research Center and Cancer Center, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 80756, Taiwan (China); Department of Marine Biotechnology and Resources, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China)

    2016-11-15

    Flavonoids are the most common group of polyphenolic compounds and abundant in dietary fruits and vegetables. Diet high in vegetables or dietary flavonoid supplements is associated with reduced mortality rate for patients with breast cancer. Many studies have been proposed for mechanisms linking flavonoids to improving chemotherapy efficacy in many types of cancers, but data on this issue is still limited. Herein, we report on a new mechanism through which dietary flavonoids inhibit DNA damage checkpoints and repair pathways. We found that dietary flavonoids could inhibit Chk1 phosphorylation and decrease clonogenic cell growth once breast cancer cells receive ultraviolet irradiation, cisplatin, or etoposide treatment. Since the ATR-Chk1 pathway mainly involves response to DNA replication stress, we propose that flavonoid derivatives reduce the side effect of chemotherapy by improving the sensitivity of cycling cells. Therefore, we propose that increasing intake of common dietary flavonoids is beneficial to breast cancer patients who are receiving DNA-damaging chemotherapy, such as cisplatin or etoposide-based therapy. - Highlights: • First report on inhibition of both DNA damage and repair by dietary flavonoids • Dietary flavonoids inhibit cisplatin- and UV-induced Chk1 phosphorylation. • Flavonoids combined with cisplatin or UV treatment show notable growth inhibition. • Promising treatment proposal for patients who are receiving adjuvant chemotherapy.

  1. Identification of a flavonoid C-glycoside as potent antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Lingrong; Zhao, Yupeng; Jiang, Yueming; Yu, Limei; Zeng, Xiaofang; Yang, Jiali; Tian, Miaomiao; Liu, Huiling; Yang, Bao

    2017-09-01

    Flavonoids have been documented to have good antioxidant activities in vitro. However, reports on the cellular antioxidant activities of flavonoid C-glycosides are very limited. In this work, an apigenin C-glycoside was purified from Artocarpus heterophyllus by column chromatography and was identified to be 2″-O-β-D-xylosylvitexin by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The cellular antioxidant activity and anticancer activity of 2″-O-β-D-xylosylvitexin were evaluated for the first time. The quantitative structure-activity relationship was analysed by molecular modeling. Apigenin presented an unexpected cellular antioxidation behaviour. It had an antioxidant activity at low concentration and a prooxidant activity at high concentration, whereas 2″-O-β-D-xylosylvitexin showed a dose-dependent cellular antioxidant activity. It indicated that C-glycosidation improved the cellular antioxidation performance of apigenin and eliminated the prooxidant effect. The ortho-dihydroxyl at C-3'/C-4' and C-3 hydroxyl in the flavonoid skeleton play important roles in the antioxidation behaviour. The cell proliferation assay revealed a low cytotoxicity of 2″-O-β-D-xylosylvitexin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Antigenotoxic prenylated flavonoids from stem bark of Erythrina latissima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarev, Yancho; Foubert, Kenn; Lucia de Almeida, Vera; Anthonissen, Roel; Elgorashi, Esameldin; Apers, Sandra; Ionkova, Iliana; Verschaeve, Luc; Pieters, Luc

    2017-09-01

    A series of prenylated flavonoids was obtained from antigenotoxic extracts and fractions of stem bark of Erythrina latissima E. Mey (Leguminosae). In addition to five constituents never reported before, i.e. (2S)-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-2-(prop-1-en-2-yl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-6-yl)chroman-4-one (erylatissin D), (2S)-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-methoxy-2-(prop-1-en-2-yl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-6-yl)chroman-4-one (erylatissin E), 5,7-dihydroxy-3-(4-methoxy-2-(prop-1-en-2-yl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-6-yl)-4H-chromen-4-one (erylatissin F), (2S)-5,7,8'-trihydroxy-2',2'-dimethyl-[2,6'-bichroman]-4-one (erylatissin G) and (2S)-5,7-dihydroxy-8'-methoxy-2',2'-dimethyl-[2,6'-bichroman]-4-one (dihydroabyssinin I), 18 known flavonoids were identified. Evaluation of the antigenotoxic properties (against genotoxicity induced by aflatoxin B1, metabolically activated) in the Vitotox assay revealed that most flavonoids were active. Sigmoidin A and B showed the highest activity, with an IC 50 value of 18.7 μg/mL, equivalent to that of curcumin (IC 50 18.4 μg/mL), used as a reference antigenotoxic compound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Flavonoids and Melanins: a common strategy across two kingdoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carletti, Giorgia; Nervo, Giuseppe; Cattivelli, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiations alter a number of metabolic functions in vivant. They produce damages to lipids, nucleic acids and proteins, generating reactive oxygen species such as singlet oxygen (O2), hydroxyl radical (HO) and superoxide anion (O2 (-)). Plants and animals, after their water emersion, have developed biochemical mechanisms to protect themselves from that environmental threat through a common strategy. Melanins in animals and flavonoids in plants are antioxidant pigments acting as free radical scavenging mechanisms. Both are phenol compounds constitutively synthesized and enhanced after exposure to UV rays, often conferring a red-brown-dark tissue pigmentation. Noteworthy, beside anti-oxidant scavenging activity, melanins and flavonoids have acquired secondary functions that, both in plants and animals, concern reproductions and fitness. Plants highly pigmented are more resistant to biotic and abiotic stresses. Darker wild vertebrates are generally more aggressive, sexually active and resistant to stress than lighter individuals. Flavonoids have been associated with signal attraction between flowers and insects and with plant-plant interaction. Melanin pigmentation has been proposed as trait in bird communication, acting as honest signals of quality. This review shows how the molecular mechanisms leading to tissue pigmentation have many functional analogies between plants and animals and how their origin lies in simpler organisms such as Cyanobacteria. Comparative studies between plant and animal kingdoms can reveal new insight of the antioxidant strategies in vivant.

  4. Comparative mutagenesis of plant flavonoids in microbial systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardigree, A.A.; Epler, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    The plant flavonoids quercetin (3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone), morin (3,5,7,2'4'-pentahydroxyflavone), kaempferol (3,5,7,4'tetrahydroxyflavone), chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone), fisetin (3,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone), myricetin (3,5,7,3',4',5'-hexahydroxyflavone), myricitrin (myricetin-3-rhamnoside), hesperetin (3',5,7-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone), quercitrin (quercetin-3-L-rhamnoside), rutin (quercetin-3-rhamnosylglucoside or quercetin-3-rutinoside), and hesperidin (hesperetin-7-rutinoside) have been assayed for mutagenicity in the Salmonella/microsomal activation system. Quercetin, morin, kaempferol, fisetin, myricetin, quercitrin and rutin were mutagenic in the histidine reversion system with the frameshift strain TA98. The flavonols quercetin and myricetin are mutagenic without metabolic activation, although more effective when a rat liver microsomal preparation (S-9) is included; all others require metabolic activation. Flavonoids are common constituents of higher plants, with extensive medical uses. In addition to pure compounds, we have examined crude extracts of tobacco (snuff) and extracts from commonly available nutritional supplements containing rutin. Mutagenic activity can be detected and is correlated with the flavonoid content.

  5. Complexation of Flavonoids with Iron: Structure and Optical Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jun; Meng, Sheng; Lekka, Ch. E.; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2008-03-01

    Flavonoids exhibit antioxidant behavior believed to be related to their metal ion chelation ability. We investigate the complexation mechanism of several flavonoids, quercetin, luteolin, galangin, kaempferol and chrysin with iron, the most abundant type of metal ions in the body, through first- principles electronic structure calculations based on Density Functional Theory (DFT). We find that the most likely chelation site for Fe is the 3-hydroxyl-4-carbonyl group, followed by 4- carbonyl-5-hydroxyl group and the 3'-4' hydroxyl (if present) for all the flavonoid molecules studied. Three quercetin molecules are required to saturate the bonds of a single Fe ion by forming six orthogonal Fe-O bonds, though the binding energy per molecule is highest for complexes consisting of two quercetin molecules and one Fe atom, in agreement with experiment. Optical absorption spectra calculated with time- dependent DFT serve as signatures to identify various complexes. For the iron-quercetin complexes, we find a redshift of the first absorbance peak upon complexation in good agreement with experiment; this behavior is explained by the narrowing of the optical gap of quercetin due to Fe(d)--O(p) orbital hybridization.

  6. Flavonoids and coumarins from Hieracium pilosella L. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Krzaczek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Typical chromatographic methods were successfully applied to isolate nine flavonoid compounds and two coumarin glycosides from the inflorescences and the herb of Hieracium pilosella L. Repeated column chromatography, occasionally paper chromatography and recrystallization made the separation of three flavonoid aglycones and six glycosides - possible. Coumarin glycosides were isolated by preparative thin layer chromatography. Subsequent UV, NMR and MS analyses have led to identification of the following flavonoid derivatives: known for the species - apigenin, luteolin, luteolin 7-O- ß-glucopyranoside, luteolin 4’-O-ß-glucopyranoside, isoetin 7-O-ß- -glucopyranoside, isoetin 4’-O-ß-glucuronide and new for the species – kaempferol 3-methyl ether and apigenin 7-O-ß-glucopyranoside. Third isoetin glycoside contained two different sugar moieties: xylose and glucose, probably attached to the hydroxyl groups at C-4’ or C-4’ and C-2’(or 5’ of an aglycone. Umbelliferone 7-O-ß-glucopyranoside (skimmin and new for the genus Hieracium esculetin 7-O-ß-glucopyranoside (cichoriin were determined by NMR and MS methods.

  7. Seasonal variation of flavonoids in Teucrium polium L. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjoshe Stefkov

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Тhe aim of the present study was identification of flavone aglycones and determination of the content of each and the content of total flavonoids as well as investigation of the eventual seasonal variations of flavonoids in Teucrium polium L. (Lamiaceae. The plant samples were collected at six different locations in Republic of Macedonia, during summer in 1999, 2000 and 2003. For determination of seasonal variations, the samples were collected in v. Koleshino, in 2004, each month during the whole season. Six flavone aglycones (luteolin, apigenin, diosmetin, cirsiliol, cirsimaritin and cirsilineol were identified in the hydrolyzed extracts of the over ground part of Teucrium polium by HPLC method. The most abundant flavone was luteolin, followed by apigenin and cirsimaritin. Great seasonal variations were found in the content of each and in the content of total amount of flavonoids. The most abundant flavone during the whole season was luteolin with the highest content in May. The content of total flavonids was the highest in the period from May to July, which could be recommended as the most convenience period in the season for collecting of the plant material from Teucrium polium.

  8. Antiproliferative Activity of Flavonoids from Croton sphaerogynus Baill. (Euphorbiaceae

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    Kátia Pereira dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Croton sphaerogynus is a shrub from the Atlantic Rain Forest in southeastern Brazil. A lyophilized crude EtOH extract from leaves of C. sphaerogynus, obtained by maceration at room temperature (seven days, was suspended in methanol and partitioned with hexane. The purified MeOH phase was fractionated over Sephadex LH-20 yielding five fractions (F1–F5 containing flavonoids, as characterized by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS analyses. The antiproliferative activity of the crude EtOH extract, MeOH and hexane phases, and fractions F1–F5 was evaluated on in vitro cell lines NCI-H460 (nonsmall cell lung, MCF-7 (breast cancer, and U251 (glioma. The MeOH phase showed activity (mean log GI50 0.54 higher than the hexane phase and EtOH extract (mean log GI50 1.13 and 1.19, resp.. F1 exhibited activity against NCI-H460 (nonsmall cell lung (GI50 1.2 μg/mL, which could be accounted for the presence of flavonoids and/or diterpenes. F4 showed moderate activity (mean log GI50 1.05, while F5 showed weak activity (mean log GI50 1.36. It is suggested that the antiproliferative activity of the crude EtOH extract and MeOH phase is accounted for a synergistic combination of flavonoids and diterpenes.

  9. Flavonoid glycosides from Erythroxylum pulchrum A. St.-Hil. (Erythroxylaceae); Flavonoides glicosilados de Erythroxylum pulchrum A. St.-Hil. (Erythroxylaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Camila Holanda de; Tavares, Josean Fechine; Oliveira, Steno Lacerda de; Silva, Taina Souza; Costa, Vicente Carlos de Oliveira; Silva, Marcelo Sobral da, E-mail: josean@ltf.ufpb.br [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Goncalves, Gregorio Fernandes; Pessoa, Hilzeth de Luna Freire [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Dept. de Biologica Molecular; Agra, Maria de Fatima [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia. Departamento de Biotecnologia

    2014-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Erythroxylum pulchrum St. Hil. (Erythroxylaceae) led to the isolation of three known flavonoid glycosides quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhaminoside, ombuin-3-ruthinoside and ombuin-3-ruthinoside-5-glucoside. These flavonoids are being described for the first time in this E. pulchrum. The structures of the compounds were determined by analysis of IR, MS and NMR data, as well as by comparison with literature data. The methanolic extract of leaves from E. pulchrum inhibited the growth of the Bacillus subtilis CCT 0516, Escherichia coli ATCC 2536, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 8027, P. aeruginosa ATCC 25619, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, S. aureus ATCC 25925, Streptococcus sanguinis ATCC 15300, S. salivarius ATCC 7073, S. mutans ATCC 25175 and Streptococcus ATCC. S. aureus ATCC 25925 was the most sensitive among the other S. sanguinis while S. salivarius proved the most resistant. (author)

  10. Fisetin, a dietary flavonoid, ameliorates experimental colitis in mice: Relevance of NF-κB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Bidya Dhar; Kumar, Jerald Mahesh; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2016-02-01

    Fisetin, a dietary flavonoid, is commonly found in many fruits and vegetables. Although studies indicate that fisetin has an anti-inflammatory property, little is known about its effects on intestinal inflammation. The present study investigated the effects of the fisetin on dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced murine colitis, an animal model that resembles human inflammatory bowel disease. Fisetin treatment to DSS-exposed mice significantly reduced the severity of colitis and alleviated the macroscopic and microscopic signs of the disease. Moreover, fisetin reduced the levels of myeloperoxidase activity, the production of proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the expressions of COX-2 and iNOS in the colon tissues. Further studies revealed that fisetin suppressed the activation of NF-κB (p65) by inhibiting IκBα phosphorylation and NF-κB (p65)-DNA binding activity and attenuated the phosphorylation of Akt and the p38, but not ERK and JNK MAPKs in the colon tissues of DSS-exposed mice. In addition, DSS-induced decline in reduced glutathione (GSH) and the increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly restored by oral fisetin. Furthermore, the results from in vitro studies showed that fisetin significantly reduced the pro-inflammatory cytokine and mediator release and suppressed the degradation and phosphorylation of IκBα with subsequent nuclear translocation of NF-κB (p65) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse primary peritoneal macrophages. These results suggest that fisetin exerts anti-inflammatory activity via inhibition of Akt, p38 MAPK and NF-κB signaling in the colon tissues of DSS-exposed mice. Thus, fisetin may be a promising candidate as pharmaceuticals or nutraceuticals in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cytotoxicity of flavonoid glycosides, flavonoids and phenolic acids from Inula oculus-christi on mammalian cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralitsa K. Veleva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Herbs of the genus Inula are well known in traditional medicine. Their extracts are used as expectorants, antitussives, bactericides as well as for the treatment of lung inflammation and have shown to possess anti-inflammatory and secretolytic activity. Experimental research findings indicate the anti-tumor effect of certain components of extracts from Inula cappa and Inula britannicа and those from Inula racemosa have antimicrobial and antidiabetic activity. We have directed our efforts on investigating the effects of different extracts from Inula oculus-christi, enriched with certain groups of biologically active substances - flavonoid glycosides (A, phenolic acids (B, flavonoid glycosides and phenolic acids (C, flavonoids and phenolic acids (D. The effect of these extracts on normal (MDCK ІІ and RPE1 and carcinoma cell lines (A549 and HepG2 was evaluated. We have performed cytotoxicity study (crystal violet assay as well as morphological analysis of changes induced by the extracts. Among the tumor cell lines HepG2 show greater sensitivity. Surprisingly extract C has no significant influence on both cancer cell lines.

  12. Extraction and determination of total flavonoids in jujube by alcohol extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Y. B.; Ru, X.; Yu, M.; Wang, S. W.; Lu, L.; Qiao, A. N.; Guo, A. Z.

    2017-12-01

    Jujube is a ripe fruit of Rhamnaceae. Its main active component is flavonoids, so the extraction and determination of total flavonoids in jujube will help to develop and utilize the medicinal value of jujube. In this study, the total flavonoids were extracted from jujube by alcohol extraction method. Through single factor investigation and orthogonal test, it was found that the total flavonoids content in jujube was the highest under the condition of 70°C, material ratio of 1:40, and extraction of 30 min by 70% ethanol. The content of total flavonoids in the extract of jujube was 1.57% at the wavelength of 510 nm by UV and rutin as the standard. The method was evaluated by methodological study, and it was determined that this method could be used as the detection of total flavonoids in jujube extraction.

  13. Study on the high flavonoids mutants of tartarian buckwheat by radiation induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guozhu; Shen Huifang

    2012-01-01

    Three different varieties of tartarian buckwheat seeds (Chuanqiao 1#, Yu-621 and KP9920) were irradiated with various doses (100∼500 Gy) of 60 Co-γ ray and sowed. Ten, eight and six high flavonoid tartary buckwheat mutants were selected from three parent materials respectively. The flavonoid content of three parent materials were 8.33%, 10.18% and 9.80%. The range of flavonoid content of high flavonoids mutants for three parent materials 11.37%∼14.91%, 10.67%∼12.46% and 11.32%∼12.95% respectively. Cluster analysis was also carried out based on the agronomic traits and flavonoid content in the 27 tartary buckwheat materials (24 mutants and 3 parent material) The 27 materials were classified into four clusters by cluster analysis based on the agronomic traits and were classified into 5 groups based on flavonoid content. (authors)

  14. Flavonoids in human urine as biomarkers for intake of fruits and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Salka E.; Freese, R.; Kleemola, P.

    2002-01-01

    Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds ubiquitously found in human diets. We have studied the association between urinary excretion of flavonoids and the intake of fruits and vegetables to evaluate the usefulness of flavonoids as a biomarker for fruit and vegetable intake. Levels of 12 dietary...... relevant flavonoids were determined by LC-MS in urine samples collected prior to an intervention study, when the subjects were on their habitual diet (n = 94), and after they had participated in an intervention study with diets either high or low in fruits, berries, and vegetables (n = 77). Both flavonoid...... glycosides and aglycones were included in the assay, but only the flavonoid aglycones were detectable. Thus, the flavonols quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, and tamarixetin, the dihydrochalcone phloretin, and the flavanones naringenin and hesperetin were quantified in the enzymatically hydrolyzed urine...

  15. Interaction of flavonoids, the naturally occurring antioxidants with different media: a UV-visible spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Bushra; Shah, S W H; Hasan, Aurangzeb; Sakhawat Shah, S

    2010-04-01

    Quantitative parameters for interaction of flavonoids-the naturally occurring antioxidants, with solvents and surfactants are determined using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The availability of flavonoids; kaempferol, apigenin, kaempferide and rhamnetin in micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is reflected in terms of partition coefficient, K(c). Thermodynamic calculations show that the process of transfer of flavonoid molecules to anionic micelles of SDS is energy efficient. A distortion in flavonoid's morphology occurs in case of kaempferol and apigenin in surfactant and water, exhibited in terms of a new band in the UV region of electronic spectra of these flavonoids. The partition coefficients of structurally related flavonoids are correlated with their antioxidant activities. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Creation and Physiological Relevance of Divergent Hydroxylation Patterns in the Flavonoid Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Halbwirth

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids and biochemically-related chalcones are important secondary metabolites, which are ubiquitously present in plants and therefore also in human food. They fulfill a broad range of physiological functions in planta and there are numerous reports about their physiological relevance for humans. Flavonoids have in common a basic C6-C3-C6 skeleton structure consisting of two aromatic rings (A and B and a heterocyclic ring (C containing one oxygen atom, whereas chalcones, as the intermediates in the formation of flavonoids, have not yet established the heterocyclic C-ring. Flavonoids are grouped into eight different classes, according to the oxidative status of the C-ring. The large number of divergent chalcones and flavonoid structures is from the extensive modification of the basic molecules. The hydroxylation pattern influences physiological properties such as light absorption and antioxidative activity, which is the base for many beneficial health effects of flavonoids. In some cases antiinfective properties are also effected.

  17. HL-60 differentiating activity and flavonoid content of the readily extractable fraction prepared from citrus juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaii, S; Tomono, Y; Katase, E; Ogawa, K; Yano, M

    1999-01-01

    Citrus plants are rich sources of various bioactive flavonoids. To eliminate masking effects caused by hesperidin, naringin, and neoeriocitrin, the abundant flavonoid glycosides which make up 90% of the conventionally prepared sample, the readily extractable fraction from Citrus juice was prepared by adsorbing on HP-20 resin and eluting with EtOH and acetone from the resin and was subjected to HL-60 differentiation assay and quantitative analysis of major flavonoids. Screening of 34 Citrus juices indicated that King (C. nobilis) had a potent activity for inducing differentiation of HL-60, and the active principles were isolated and identified as four polymethoxylated flavonoids, namely, nobiletin, 3,3',4',5,6,7, 8-heptamethoxyflavone, natsudaidain, and tangeretin. HPLC analysis of the readily extractable fraction also indicated that King contained high amounts of these polymethoxylated flavonoids among the Citrus juices examined. Principal component and cluster analyses of the readily extractable flavonoids indicated peculiarities of King and Bergamot.

  18. Study on the high flavonoids mutants of tartarian buckwheat by radiation induced

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guozhu; Shen Huifang

    2011-01-01

    Three different varieties of tartarian buckwheat seeds (Chuanqiao 1 # , Yu-621 and KP9920) were irradiated with various doses (100∼500 Gy) of 60 Co-γ ray and sowed. Ten, eight and six high flavonoid tartary buckwheat mutants were selected from three parent materials respectively. The flavonoid content of three parent materials were 8.33%, 10.18% and 9.80%. The range of flavonoid content of high flavonoids mutants for three parent materials 11.37%∼14.91%, 10.67%∼12.46% and 11.32%∼12.95% respectively. Cluster analysis was also carried out based on the agronomic traits and flavonoid content in the 27 tartary buckwheat materials (24 mutants and 3 parent material) The 27 materials were classified into four clusters by cluster analysis based on the agronomic traits and were classified into 5 groups based on flavonoid content. (authors)

  19. Enhancement of Solubility and Antioxidant Activity of Some Flavonoids Based on the Inclusion Complexation with Sulfobutylether β-Cyclodextrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yong Eun; Kim, Hyun Myung; Jung, Seun Ho; Park, Se Yeon

    2010-01-01

    β-CD and SBE-β-CD functioned as a solubilizing agent against three flavonoids. SBE-β-CD is more efficient than native β-CD in solubility enhancement of tested flavonoids. All three tested flavonoids have antioxidant ability. Flavonoid-CD complex positively affected the antioxidant activity comparing with free flavonoids. Throughout this research, SBE-β-CD showed better complexation capacity for the solubility enhancement and bioavailability of tested flavonoids comparing with native β-CD. Flavonoids are polyphenolic photochemicals generally found in plants, foods, and beverages. They contribute to plant colors in fruit, leaves providing a wide spectrum of color from red to blue in flowers. Flavonoids have many good physiological activities such as the antioxidant, antitumor, and antibacterial activities which have been a focus of the attention of many researchers. There are four subgroups of flavonoids, flavone, flavonol, flavanone, and isoflavone, according to their chemical structure

  20. Quantitative Structure – Antioxidant Activity Relationships of Flavonoid Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Károly Héberger

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative structure – antioxidant activity relationship (QSAR study of 36 flavonoids was performed using the partial least squares projection of latent structures (PLS method. The chemical structures of the flavonoids have been characterized by constitutional descriptors, two-dimensional topological and connectivity indices. Our PLS model gave a proper description and a suitable prediction of the antioxidant activities of a diverse set of flavonoids having clustering tendency.

  1. Quantitative modeling of flavonoid glycosides isolated from Paliurus spina-christi Mill.

    OpenAIRE

    Medić-Šarić, Marica; Maleš, Željan; Šarić, Slavko; Brantner, Adelheid

    1996-01-01

    Several QSPR models for predicting the properties of flavonoid glycosides isolated from Paliurus spina-christi Mill, and of some related flavonoids were described and evaluated. Log P values for all of them were calculated according to the method of Rekker. All investigated flavonoids showed expressive hydrophobicity. Significant correlation between the partition coefficient, log P, and van der Waals volume, Vw (calculated according to the method described by Moriguchi et al.) was obtained. T...

  2. The exposed breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingman, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    The skin and lungs are two tissues that are frequently bombarded with cancer-initiating factors, such as ultraviolet rays from the sun and smoke and pollutants in the air we breathe. Yet breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in Australian women, affecting one in eight before the age of 85. It is more common than skin melanoma and lung cancer. Why, then, does the breast so commonly get cancer when it is not a tissue that is particularly exposed to the environmental agents that increase cancer risk in other major organs? Is there something unique about this tissue that makes it particularly susceptible? The breast undergoes cellular changes over the course of the monthly menstrual cycle, and and these changes affect cancer susceptibility. Rising levels of the hormones oestrogen and progesterone occur immediately after the egg is released from the ovary, and these hormones cause the breast cells to divide and change to accommodate further development if pregnancy occurs. If the woman becomes pregnant, the cells in the breast continue to develop and become the milk-producing structures required to feed a newborn baby. But if pregnancy does not occur there is a drop in progesterone, which triggers the death of the newly developed breast cells. This occurs at the same time women have their period. Then the cycle starts again, and continues every month until menopause, unless the woman becomes pregnant.

  3. Exposing the faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    UK NIREX, the body with responsibility for finding an acceptable strategy for deposition of radioactive waste has given the impression throughout its recent public consultation that the problem of nuclear waste is one of public and political acceptability, rather than one of a technical nature. However the results of the consultation process show that it has no mandate from the British public to develop a single, national, deep repository for the burial of radioactive waste. There is considerable opposition to this method of managing radioactive waste and suspicion of the claims by NIREX concerning the supposed integrity and safety of this deep burial option. This report gives substance to those suspicions and details the significant areas of uncertainty in the concept of effective geological containment of hazardous radioactive elements, which remain dangerous for tens of thousands of years. Because the science of geology is essentially retrospective rather than predictive, NIREX's plans for a single, national, deep 'repository' depend heavily upon a wide range of assumptions about the geological and hydrogeological regimes in certain areas of the UK. This report demonstrates that these assumptions are based on a limited understanding of UK geology and on unvalidated and simplistic theoretical models of geological processes, the performance of which can never be directly tested over the long time-scales involved. NIREX's proposals offer no guarantees for the safe and effective containment of radioactivity. They are deeply flawed. This report exposes the faults. (author)

  4. Protective role of morin, a flavonoid, against high glucose induced oxidative stress mediated apoptosis in primary rat hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Kapoor

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is an early event of liver damage in diabetes and oxidative stress has been linked to accelerate the apoptosis in hepatocytes. Therefore, the compounds that can scavenge ROS may confer regulatory effects on high-glucose induced apoptosis. In the present study, primary rat hepatocytes were exposed to high concentration (40 mM of glucose. At this concentration decreased cell viability and enhanced ROS generation was observed. Depleted antioxidant status of hepatocytes under high glucose stress was also observed as evident from transcriptional level and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Further, mitochondrial depolarisation was accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial integrity and altered expression of Bax and Bcl-2. Increased translocation of apoptotic proteins like AIF (Apoptosis inducing factor & Endo-G (endonuclease-G from its resident place mitochondria to nucleus was also observed. Cyt-c residing in the inter-membrane space of mitochondria also translocated to cytoplasm. These apoptotic proteins initiated caspase activation, DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation, increased apoptotic DNA content in glucose treated hepatocytes, suggesting mitochondria mediated apoptotic mode of cell death. Morin, a dietary flavonoid from Psidium guajava was effective in increasing the cell viability and decreasing the ROS level. It maintained mitochondrial integrity, inhibited release of apoptotic proteins from mitochondria, prevented DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation and hypodiploid DNA upon exposure to high glucose. This study confirms the capacity of dietary flavonoid Morin in regulating apoptosis induced by high glucose via mitochondrial mediated pathway through intervention of oxidative stress.

  5. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of flavonoids of the strawberry tree - Arbutus unedo L. (Ericaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Males, Zeljan; Plazibat, Misko; Vundać, Vjera Bilusić; Zuntar, Irena

    2006-06-01

    The leaves and fruits of strawberry tree - Arbutus unedo L., collected from two separate geographic locations in Croatia were investigated to determine their flavonoid composition and content. Quercitrin, isoquercitrin, hyperoside and rutin were identified in all leaf samples by means of thin-layer chromatography; the fruits contained only isoquercitrin. Chlorogenic acid was present in some leaf samples. The content of flavonoids depended on the plant organ investigated, date of collection and the locality. Spectrophotometric determination of the flavonoids indicated that the leaves are richer in flavonoids (0.52-2.00%) than fruits (0.10-0.29%).

  6. Optimization of the extraction of flavonoids from grape leaves by response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brad, K.; Liu, W.

    2013-01-01

    The extraction of flavonoids from grape leaves was optimized to maximize flavonoids yield in this study. A central composite design of response surface methodology involving extracting time, power, liquid-solid ratio, and concentration was used, and second-order model for Y was employed to generate the response surfaces. The optimum condition for flavonoids yield was determined as follows: extracting time 24.95 min, power 72.05, ethanol concentration 63.35%, liquid-solid ratio 10.04. Under the optimum condition, the flavonoids yield was 76.84 %. (author)

  7. Antioxidant Activities and Chemical Constituents of Flavonoids from the Flower of Paeonia ostii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huifang; Li, Xiaofang; Wu, Ke; Wang, Mengke; Liu, Pu; Wang, Xinsheng; Deng, Ruixue

    2016-12-23

    Paeonia ostii is a traditional medicinal plant popularly used in China. This study intended to evaluate the antioxidant properties and the chemical components of the flavonoid-rich extracts from the flowers of P. ostii . The results showed that the flavonoid-rich extracts from the flowers of P. ostii had strong scavenging capacities on 2,2'-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS), hydroxyls, superoxide anions, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals in a dose-dependent manner. Five flavonoids, dihydrokaempferol ( 1 ), apigenin-7- O -β-d-glucoside ( 2 ), apigenin-7- O -β-d-neohesperidoside ( 3 ), kaempferol-7- O -β-d-glucopyranoside ( 4 ), and kaempferol-3- O -β-d-glucopyranosyl-7- O -β-d-glucopyranoside ( 5 ), were isolated from the flavonoid-rich extracts of the flowers of P. ostii . High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that compounds 3 and 4 were abundant in the P. ostii flower and in flavonoid-rich extracts. The main components of the flower of P. ostii are flavonoids. The high antioxidant activity of the flavonoid-rich extracts may be attributed to the high content of flavonoids. The five isolated flavonoids were the primary antioxidant ingredients, and may play important roles in the strong antioxidant activities of this flower. Based on the obtained results, the flower of P. ostii could be a potential source of natural antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical applications.

  8. Preparative Separation and Purification of the Total Flavonoids in Scorzonera austriaca with Macroporous Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yang; Guo, Qiu-Shi; Wang, Guang-Shu

    2016-06-13

    The use of macroporous resins for the separation and purification of total flavonoids to obtain high-purity total flavonoids from Scorzonera austriaca was studied. The optimal conditions for separation and purification of total flavonoids in S. austriaca with macroporous resins were as follows: D4020 resin columns were loaded with crude flavonoid extract solution, and after reaching adsorptive saturation, the columns were eluted successively with 5 bed volumes (BV) of water, 5 BV of 5% (v/v) aqueous ethanol and 5 BV of 30% (v/v) aqueous ethanol at an elute flow rate of 2 BV·h(-1). Total flavonoids were obtained from the 30% aqueous ethanol eluate by vacuum distillation recovery. The content of flavonoid compounds in the total flavonoids was 93.5%, which represents an improvement by about 150%. In addition, five flavonoid compounds in the product were identified as 2″-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl isoorientin, 6-C-α-l-arabipyranosyl orientin, orientin, isoorientin and vitexin by LC-ESI-MS analysis and internal standard methods. The results in this study could represent a method for the large-scale production of total flavonoids from S. austriaca.

  9. The role of metabolism (and the microbiome) in defining the clinical efficacy of dietary flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Aedín; Minihane, Anne-Marie

    2017-01-01

    At a population level, there is growing evidence of the beneficial effects of dietary flavonoids on health. However, there is extensive heterogeneity in the response to increased intake, which is likely mediated via wide interindividual variability in flavonoid absorption and metabolism. Flavonoids are extensively metabolized by phase I and phase II metabolism (which occur predominantly in the gastrointestinal tract and liver) and colonic microbial metabolism. A number of factors, including age, sex, and genotype, may affect these metabolic processes. In addition, food composition and flavonoid source are likely to affect bioavailability, and emerging data suggest a critical role for the microbiome. This review will focus on the current knowledge for the main subclasses of flavonoids, including anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and flavanones, for which there is growing evidence from prospective studies of beneficial effects on health. The identification of key factors that govern metabolism and an understanding of how the differential capacity to metabolize these bioactive compounds affect health outcomes will help establish how to optimize intakes of flavonoids for health benefits and in specific subgroups. We identify research areas that need to be addressed to further understand important determinants of flavonoid bioavailability and metabolism and to advance the knowledge base that is required to move toward the development of dietary guidelines and recommendations for flavonoids and flavonoid-rich foods.

  10. The flavonoid pathway in tomato seedlings: transcript abundance and the modeling of metabolite dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Groenenboom

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are secondary metabolites present in all terrestrial plants. The flavonoid pathway has been extensively studied, and many of the involved genes and metabolites have been described in the literature. Despite this extensive knowledge, the functioning of the pathway in vivo is still poorly understood. Here, we study the flavonoid pathway using both experiments and mathematical models. We measured flavonoid metabolite dynamics in two tissues, hypocotyls and cotyledons, during tomato seedling development. Interestingly, the same backbone of interactions leads to very different accumulation patterns in the different tissues. Initially, we developed a mathematical model with constant enzyme concentrations that described the metabolic networks separately in both tissues. This model was unable to fit the measured flavonoid dynamics in the hypocotyls, even if we allowed unrealistic parameter values. This suggested us to investigate the effect of transcript abundance on flavonoid accumulation. We found that the expression of candidate flavonoid genes varies considerably with time. Variation in transcript abundance results in enzymatic variation, which could have a large effect on metabolite accumulation. Candidate transcript abundance was included in the mathematical model as representative for enzyme concentration. We fitted the resulting model to the flavonoid dynamics in the cotyledons, and tested it by applying it to the data from hypocotyls. When transcript abundance is included, we are indeed able to explain flavonoid dynamics in both tissues. Importantly, this is possible under the biologically relevant restriction that the enzymatic properties estimated by the model are conserved between the tissues.

  11. Flavonoids are systemically induced by UV-B in Zea mays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossi, V.E.; Lamattina, L.; Cassia, R.

    2009-01-01

    Flavonoid concentration is increased by UV-B irradiation, but it is unknown if this is a local or systemic response. Nitric oxide (NO) is a diffusible molecule involved in the UV-B response. NO regulates the expression of chalcone synthase (CHS), a key enzyme in the synthesis of flavonoids. The aim of this work was to determine if maize flavonoids are local or systemically induced by UV-B, and what is the participation of NO in this response. We have used maize seedlings where the second leaf was sprayed with H 2 O or cPTIO (a NO scavenger), and then completely covered (C), partially covered (P) or uncovered (U) before to be UV-B irradiated. The results show a 60% increase in the NO concentration of U, 42% in P and 35% in C respectively. Flavonoid concentration increased 90% in C, 70% in P and 40% in U. Flavonoid concentration was reduced when leaves were pretreated with cPTIO before the UV-B irradiation. RT-PCR shows that CHS was up-regulated by UV-B in U, P and C, but downregulated with cPTIO. We have analyzed the subcellular localization of flavonoid and NO in UV-B irradiated plants. Flavonoid localization was coincident with the NO presence in the irradiated surface of the leaves and flavonoids were detected in vesicles. These results indicate that flavonoids are systemically induced by UV-B in a NO-related mechanism. (authors)

  12. Effect of room temperature ionic liquid structure on the enzymatic acylation of flavonoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lue, Bena-Marie; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

    2010-01-01

    Enzymatic acylation reactions of flavonoids (rutin, esculin) with long chain fatty acids (palmitic, oleic acids) were carried out in 14 different ionic liquid media containing a range of cation and anion structures. Classification of RTILs according to flavonoid solubility (using COSMO...... must be struck that maximized flavonoid solubility with minimum negative impact on lipase activity. The process also benefitted from an increased reaction temperature which may have helped to reduced mass transfer limitations. Keywords: Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs); Biosynthesis; Acylation......; Flavonoids; Lipase; Long chain fatty acids...

  13. Functional Characterization of a Flavonoid Glycosyltransferase in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaogang; Lin, Cailing; Ma, Xiaodi; Tan, Yan; Wang, Jiuzhao; Zeng, Ming

    2018-01-01

    Fruits of sweet orange ( Citrus sinensis ), a popular commercial Citrus species, contain high concentrations of flavonoids beneficial to human health. These fruits predominantly accumulate O -glycosylated flavonoids, in which the disaccharides [neohesperidose (rhamnosyl-α-1,2-glucose) or rutinose (rhamnosyl-α-1,6-glucose)] are linked to the flavonoid aglycones through the 3- or 7-hydroxyl sites. The biotransformation of the flavonoid aglycones into O -rutinosides or O -neohesperidosides in the Citrus plants usually consists of two glycosylation reactions involving a series of uridine diphosphate-sugar dependent glycosyltransferases (UGTs). Although several genes encoding flavonoid UGTs have been functionally characterized in the Citrus plants, full elucidation of the flavonoid glycosylation process remains elusive. Based on the available genomic and transcriptome data, we isolated a UGT with a high expression level in the sweet orange fruits that possibly encodes a flavonoid glucosyltransferase and/or rhamnosyltransferase. Biochemical analyses revealed that a broad range of flavonoid substrates could be glucosylated at their 3- and/or 7-hydrogen sites by the recombinant enzyme, including hesperetin, naringenin, diosmetin, quercetin, and kaempferol. Furthermore, overexpression of the gene could significantly increase the accumulations of quercetin 7- O -rhamnoside, quercetin 7- O -glucoside, and kaempferol 7- O -glucoside, implying that the enzyme has flavonoid 7- O -glucosyltransferase and 7- O -rhamnosyltransferase activities in vivo .

  14. Optimization of conditions for supercritical fluid extraction of flavonoids from hops (Humulus lupulus L.)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guo-qing; Xiong, Hao-ping; Chen, Qi-he; Ruan, Hui; Wang, Zhao-yue; Traoré, Lonseny

    2005-01-01

    Waste hops are good sources of flavonoids. Extraction of flavonoids from waste hops (SC-CO2 extracted hops) using supercritical fluids technology was investigated. Various temperatures, pressures and concentrations of ethanol (modifier) and the ratio (w/w) of solvent to material were tested in this study. The results of single factor and orthogonal experiments showed that at 50 °C, 25 MPa, the ratio of solvent to material (50%), ethanol concentration (80%) resulted in maximum extraction yield flavonoids (7.8 mg/g). HPLC-MS analysis of the extracts indicated that flavonoids obtained were xanthohumol, the principal prenylflavonoid in hops. PMID:16187413

  15. Flavonoid Glycosides from the Leaves of Cissus Ibuensis Hook (Vitaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadu, AA; Onanuga, A; Aquino, R

    2010-01-01

    The bioactive N-butanol fraction of the ethanol extract of the leaves of Cissus ibuensis was fractionated over silica Gel column to give Quercetin 3-O-rutinoside (I) and mixtures of Flavonoids (A2). A2 was fractionated using reverse phase HPLC to give Kaempferol 3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl (1→6)-β;-D-galactopyranoside (II), Kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside(III)and Kaempferol3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl (1→6)-α-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)-β;-D-galactopyranoside (IV). The structures were elucidated by NMR spectroscopy an...

  16. Flavonoid glycosides from the leaves of Cissus ibuensis hook (vitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadu, A A; Onanuga, A; Aquino, R

    2010-04-03

    The bioactive N-butanol fraction of the ethanol extract of the leaves of Cissus ibuensis was fractionated over silica Gel column to give Quercetin 3-O-rutinoside (I) and mixtures of Flavonoids (A2). A2 was fractionated using reverse phase HPLC to give Kaempferol 3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl (1→6)-β-D-galactopyranoside (II), Kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside(III) and Kaempferol3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl (1→6)-α-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)-β-D-galactopyranoside (IV). The structures were elucidated by NMR spectroscopy and compared with literature.

  17. Flavonoids and a neolignan glucoside from Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Cristiane; Barreto Júnior, Cleber Bomfim; Kuster, Ricardo Machado; Simas, Naomi Kato; Sakuragui, Cassia Mônica; Porzel, Andrea; Wessjohann, Ludger

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the phytochemical study of the methanol extract obtained from leaves of Guarea macrophylla, leading to the isolation and identification of three flavonoid glycosides (quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-b-D-galactopyranoside, kaempferol 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside) and a neolignan glucoside, dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol-4-β-D-glucoside. All compounds were identified by a combination of spectroscopic methods (¹H, 1D, 2D NMR, 13C and UV), ESI-MS and com...

  18. Flavonoid Compounds from the Bark of Aglaia eximia (Meliaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Julinton Sianturi; Mayshah Purnamasari; Tri Mayanti; Desi Harneti; Unang Supratman; Khalijah Awang; Hideo Hayashi

    2015-01-01

    Three flavonoid compounds, kaempferol (1), kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside (2), and kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucosyl-α-L-rhamnoside (3), were isolated from the bark of Aglaia eximia (Meliaceae). The chemical structures of compounds 1–3 were identified with spectroscopic data, including UV, IR, NMR (1H, 13C, DEPT 135°, HMQC, HMBC, 1H-1H-COSY NMR), and MS, as well as a compared with previously reported spectra data. All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic effects against P-388 murine leukemia...

  19. Free radical scavenging activity of Eagle tea and their flavonoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Meng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an online HPLC-DAD-MS coupled with 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS assay was employed for evaluating free radical scavenging activity of Eagle tea and their active components. Twenty-three chromatographic peaks were detected, and nineteen components had free radical scavenging activity. Among them, eight compounds were identified as flavonoids (hyperin, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, quercetin, kaempferol, catechins, chlorogenic acid and epicatechin based on MS data and standard chromatographic characters.

  20. Flavonoids of Helichrysum compactum and their antioxidant and antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süzgeç, Sevda; Meriçli, Ali H; Houghton, Peter J; Cubukçu, Bayhan

    2005-03-01

    From the capitula of Helichrysum compactum, the flavonoids apigenin, kaempferol, luteolin, naringenin, 3,5-dihydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxyflavone, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside and luteolin-4',7-di-O-glucoside and from the leafy stems apigenin, kaempferol, luteolin, quercetin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, and quercetin-3-O-glucoside were isolated. Extracts of the capitula of H. compactum show antioxidant activity by inhibition of lipid peroxidation and also show antibacterial activity.

  1. A New Flavonoid Glycoside from Salix denticulata Aerial Parts

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    Amita Bamola

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A new flavonoid glycoside (1 has been isolated from the aerial parts of Salix denticulata (Salicaceae together with five known compounds, β-sitosterol, 2,6-dihydroxy- 4-methoxy acetophenone, eugenol-1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 1-O-β-D-(3’-benzoyl salicyl alcohol and luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-6-glucopyranoside. The structure of 1 was elucidated as 2’,5-dihydroxy-3’-methoxyflavone-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside by means of chemical and spectral data including 2D NMR studies.

  2. Estimation of dietary flavonoid intake and major food sources of Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Shinyoung; Shin, Sangah; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-02-14

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that flavonoids exhibit preventive effects on degenerative diseases. However, lack of sufficient data on flavonoid intake has limited evaluating the proposed effects in populations. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the total and individual flavonoid intakes among Korean adults and determine the major dietary sources of these flavonoids. We constructed a flavonoid database of common Korean foods, based on the food list reported in the 24-h recall of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2007-2012, using data from the Korea Functional Food Composition Table, US Department of Agriculture flavonoid database, Phenol-Explorer database and other analytical studies. This database, which covers 49 % of food items and 76 % of food intake, was linked with the 24-h recall data of 33 581 subjects aged ≥19 years in the KNHANES 2007-2012. The mean daily intake of total flavonoids in Korean adults was 318·0 mg/d, from proanthocyanidins (22·3%), flavonols (20·3%), isoflavones (18·1%), flavan-3-ols (16·2%), anthocyanidins (11·6%), flavanones (11·3%) and flavones (0·3%). The major contributing food groups to the flavonoid intake were fruits (54·4%), vegetables (20·5%), legumes and legume products (16·2%) and beverages and alcohols (3·1%), and the major contributing food items were apples (21·9%), mandarins (12·5%), tofu (11·5%), onions (9·6%) and grapes (9·0%). In the regression analysis, the consumption of legumes and legume products, vegetables and fruits predicted total flavonoid intake the most. The findings of this study could facilitate further investigation on the health benefits of flavonoids and provide the basic information for establishing recommended flavonoid intakes for Koreans.

  3. Is reversal of endothelial dysfunction by tea related to flavonoid metabolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Jonathan M; Puddey, Ian B; Burke, Valerie; Croft, Kevin D

    2006-01-01

    Dietary flavonoids can improve endothelial function, but the response varies between individuals. Wide variability is also seen in flavonoid O-methylation, a major pathway of flavonoid metabolism. The O-methylation of flavonoids could alter activity, and thus influence any effect on endothelial function. The objective of the current analysis was to investigate whether variability in the endothelial function response to ingestion of tea, a rich source of flavonoids, is related to the degree of O-methylation of flavonoids. This relationship was investigated in two studies in which endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery was assessed and urinary 4-O-methylgallic acid (4OMGA) excretion was used as a marker of the O-methylation of tea-derived flavonoids. In the first study, amongst participants consuming five cups of tea per day for 4 weeks, the degree of increase in 4OMGA excretion was inversely associated with the change in FMD responses (r -078, P=0.008). In the second study, there was a significant difference in the FMD responses to acute ingestion of three cups of tea between individuals with a low (median) 4OMGA response (1.94 (sem 0.79) % and -0.25 (sem 0.53) %, respectively; P=0.03). That is, any improvement in FMD following ingestion of tea may be enhanced in individuals who O-methylate less of the absorbed flavonoids. The present results are consistent with the suggestion that differences in flavonoid metabolism may influence their effect on endothelial function. Thus, differences in flavonoid metabolism could be related to the level of benefit of dietary flavonoids on the risk of CVD.

  4. Radioprotective effects of flavonoids against to chromosomal damage: relation between the structure and activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, M.; Acevedo, C.; Benavente-Garcia, O.; Castillo, J.; Vicente, V.; Canteras, M.

    2004-01-01

    The polyphenolic distribution of Vitis vinifera seeds (GSE), Citrus spp, frutis (CE) and Olea europaea L. leaves (OL) extracts were characterized and quantified by HPLC methods. Radioprotective effects of these extracts and the reference flavonoids diosmin and rutin, widely used as pharmaceuticals, were determined by using the micronucleus test for anticlastogenic activity, evaluating the reduction of the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs) in bone marrow of mouse exposed to X-rays. The most effective compounds were, in order GSE>CE>rutin>dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO)>OL>diosmin. Thes results show that the free radicals scavenging capacity, mainly vs hydroxyl radical, and consequently, the anticlastogenic activity of these polyphenolic compounds are based, structurally, on the presence of specific functional groups in their structures, aminly the B-ring catechol, the 3-hydroxyl group and the 2,3-double bond conjugated with 4-oxo function and, in addition by the stability of the aroxyl radical generated in the processes. (Author) 80 refs

  5. Changes in the flavonoid and phenolic acid contents and antioxidant activity of red leaf lettuce (Lollo Rosso) due to cultivation under plastic films varying in ultraviolet transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Macías, Paulina; Ordidge, Matthew; Vysini, Eleni; Waroonphan, Saran; Battey, Nicholas H; Gordon, Michael H; Hadley, Paul; John, Philip; Lovegrove, Julie A; Wagstaffe, Alexandra

    2007-12-12

    Red leaf lettuce (Lollo Rosso) was grown under three types of plastic films that varied in transparency to UV radiation (designated as UV block, UV low, and UV window). Flavonoid composition was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), total phenolics by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, and antioxidant capacity by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. Exposure to increased levels of UV radiation during cultivation caused the leaves to redden and increased concentrations of total phenols and the main flavonoids, quercetin and cyanidin glycosides, as well as luteolin conjugates and phenolic acids. The total phenol content increased from 1.6 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of fresh weight (FW) for lettuce grown under UV block film to 2.9 and 3.5 mg of GAE/g of FW for lettuce grown under the UV low and UV window films. The antioxidant activity was also higher in lettuce exposed to higher levels of UV radiation with ORAC values of 25.4 and 55.1 micromol of Trolox equivalents/g of FW for lettuce grown under the UV block and UV window films, respectively. The content of phenolic acids, quantified as caffeic acid, was also different, ranging from 6.2 to 11.1 micromol/g of FW for lettuce cultivated under the lowest and highest UV exposure plastic films, respectively. Higher concentrations of the flavonoid glycosides were observed with increased exposure to UV radiation, as demonstrated by the concentrations of aglycones after hydrolysis, which were cyanidin (ranging from 165 to 793 microg/g), quercetin (ranging from 196 to 880 microg/g), and luteolin (ranging from 19 to 152 microg/g). The results demonstrate the potential of the use of UV-transparent plastic as a means of increasing beneficial flavonoid content of red leaf lettuce when the crop is grown in polytunnels.

  6. The Curative Activity of Isolated Fraction from Spathodea campanulata Beauv Stem Bark on Rat’s Exposed to Benzopyrene

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    Masruri Masruri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a screening results of the secondary metabolites composed in Spathodea campanulata Beauv stem bark, evaluate inhibiting activity of malondialdehyde (MDA on rat’s cancer model exposed with benzopyrene, and the histology of its lung. The secondary metabolite of the stem bark fraction consisted of alkaloids, flavonoids-phenolic, terpenoid and steroid compounds. The isolated fraction contained of these metabolites significantly indicate bioactivity by reducting of malondialdehyde (MDA level, and also histology appearance of the lung tissue prepared from the benzopyrene-exposed rat indicated a curative activity.

  7. A new bioactive monoterpene-flavonoid from Satureja khuzistanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmir, Maryam; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Silva, Olga

    2015-09-01

    A new monoterpene-flavonoid, saturejin (3'-(2,5-dihydroxy-p-cymene) 5,7,4'-trihydroxy flavone) (4), together with twelve known flavonoids consist of two flavanonols (aromadendrin (8) and taxifolin (12)), two flavanones (naringenin (3) and 5,7,3',5'-tetrahydroxy flavanone (9)) and eight flavones (xanthomicrol (1), acacetin (2), cirsimaritin (5), 7-methoxy luteolin (6), apigenin (7), cirsilineol (10), diosmetin (11) and 6-hydroxyluteolin 7,3'-dimethyl ether (13)), were isolated from an ethyl acetate extract and identified for the first time in the dried aerial parts of Satureja khuzistanica Jamzad, an endemic medicinal plant traditionally used as dental anesthetic, oral antiseptic and anti-inflammatory among the nomadic inhabitants of southwestern Iran. The structures of these compounds were determined using the usual spectroscopic methods including 2D-NMR and MS analyses. Saturejin showed a significant β-glucosidase inhibitory activity at concentration of 10 μg as well as positive antioxidant activity at the amount of 1 μg. These results could be correlated with the in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-diabetic properties reported from this medicinal plant. Similar activities were also described for some of the other isolated compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Neurodegenerative Diseases: Might Citrus Flavonoids Play a Protective Role?

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    Santa Cirmi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases (ND result from the gradual and progressive degeneration of the structure and function of the central nervous system or the peripheral nervous system or both. They are characterized by deterioration of neurons and/or myelin sheath, disruption of sensory information transmission and loss of movement control. There is no effective treatment for ND, and the drugs currently marketed are symptom-oriented, albeit with several side effects. Within the past decades, several natural remedies have gained attention as potential neuroprotective drugs. Moreover, an increasing number of studies have suggested that dietary intake of vegetables and fruits can prevent or delay the onset of ND. These properties are mainly due to the presence of polyphenols, an important group of phytochemicals that are abundantly present in fruits, vegetables, cereals and beverages. The main class of polyphenols is flavonoids, abundant in Citrus fruits. Our review is an overview on the scientific literature concerning the neuroprotective effects of the Citrus flavonoids in the prevention or treatment of ND. This review may be used as scientific basis for the development of nutraceuticals, food supplements or complementary and alternative drugs to maintain and improve the neurophysiological status.

  9. Antiplasmodial activity of flavonoids from Macaranga tanarius leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marliana, E.; Hairani, R.; Tjahjandarie, T. S.; Tanjung, M.

    2018-04-01

    Malaria is one of the leading causes of death in the world which is caused by Plasmodium sp. This parasite tends to have mutation and shows resistance towards malaria drug. Due to the emergence and spread of Plasmodium sp. resistance towards malaria drugs, an exploration to find new effective and selective malaria drug is essential. In this study, four flavonoids, namely nymphaeol C (1), solophenol D (2), nymphaeol A (3), and nymphaeol B (4) were isolated from ethyl acetate fraction of Macaranga tanarius leaves. The structures of those compounds were characterized by NMR analysis. Furthermore, antiplasmodial activity of ethyl acetate fraction and four isolated compounds (1–4) were evaluated by Giemsa method against Plasmodium falciparum strain 3D7. According to this assay, it showed the IC50 values were 0.30, 0.24, 0.31, 0.05, and 0.05 μg/mL, respectively. The results provide important evidence of the antiplasmodial activity of flavonoids in traditional use. In addition, it can be indicated that Macaranga tanarius is potential to be developed as antiplasmodial agents.

  10. Antimicrobial activity screening of isolated flavonoids from Azadirachta indica leaves

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    QUDSIA KANWAL

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activities of two flavonoids, namely genistein 7-O-glucoside (1 and (–-epi-catechin (2, isolated from Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem leaves, were evaluated against five fungal species, viz: Alternaria alternata (Fr. Keissler, Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius, Aspergillus niger van Tieghem, Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi Goid. and Penicillium citrii, and four bacterial species, viz. Lactobacillus sp., Escherichia coli, Azospirillium lipoferum and Bacillus sp. Six concentrations, viz. 100, 300, 500, 700, 900 and 1000 ppm of each of the two flavonoids were employed using malt extract agar medium. All the concentrations of both the test compounds significantly suppressed fungal as well as bacterial growth. The highest concentration (1000 ppm of both fractions 1 and 2 reduced the growth of the different test fungal species by 83–99 % and 82–95 %, respectively. Compound 1 was highly effective against Lactobacillus sp., against which its various concentrations reduced the bacterial growth by 52–99.8 %. Compound 2 was highly effective against A. lipoferum and Bacillus sp., resulting in 94–100 % and 73–99% reduction in bacterial growth, respectively.

  11. Recent Advances and Uses of Grape Flavonoids as Nutraceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Vasil; Ananga, Anthony; Tsolova, Violeta

    2014-01-01

    Grape is one of the oldest fruit crops domesticated by humans. The numerous uses of grape in making wine, beverages, jelly, and other products, has made it one of the most economically important plants worldwide. The complex phytochemistry of the berry is characterized by a wide variety of compounds, most of which have been demonstrated to have therapeutic or health promoting properties. Among them, flavonoids are the most abundant and widely studied, and have enjoyed greater attention among grape researchers in the last century. Recent studies have shown that the beneficial health effects promoted by consumption of grape and grape products are attributed to the unique mix of polyphenolic compounds. As the largest group of grape polyphenols, flavonoids are the main candidates considered to have biological properties, including but not limited to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, and hepatoprotective activities. Here, we discuss the recent scientific advances supporting the beneficial health qualities of grape and grape-derived products, mechanisms of their biological activity, bioavailability, and their uses as nutraceuticals. The advantages of modern plant cell based biotechnology as an alternative method for production of grape nutraceuticals and improvement of their health qualities are also discussed. PMID:24451310

  12. Evaluation on bioactivities of total flavonoids from Lavandula angustifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Xu, Fang; Huang, Hua; Ji, Tengfei; Li, Chenyang; Tan, Wei; Chen, Yan; Ma, Long

    2015-07-01

    Lavandula angustifolia was used to treat flus and fevers, joint swelling and pain in Uighur medicine. This study aimed to investigate antioxidant, antit anti-inflammatory and antalgic noids content (530.1mg/g rutin/g dry extract) with stronger DPPH scavenging abilities and reduciactivities of total flavonoids from Lavandula angustifolia (LTF). Results indicated that LTF possesses the highest total flavong power. Some flavonoids separated from LTF, and their DPPH scavenging abilities as follows: rosmarinic acid (2, near to Vit C) >luteolin (3) >apigenin (4) >luteolin 7-O-β-D-glucoside (5) >apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucoside (6) >luteolin 7-O-β-D-glucuronide (7). LTF significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level in D-galactose induced aging model compared to the control group (P<0.05), as well as significantly increased plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities (P<0.05). Moreover, 17.4, 34.8 and 69.6 mg/kg doses of LTF were exhibited significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in a dose dependent manner (P<0.05). Cytotoxicity of LTF on Bel-7402 and Hela cell lines were showed by MTT assay also. These results verified traditional usage of this plant and suggested also that LTF is worth developing and studying further.

  13. ELECTROCHEMICAL FINGERPRINT STUDIES OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS RICH IN FLAVONOIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konieczyński, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    The combination of a size-exclusion column (SEC) with electrochemical (voltammetric) detection at a boron-doped diamond electrode (BDDE) was applied for studying the correlations between electroactive Cu and Fe species with phenolic groups of flavonoids. For comparison with electrochemical results, SEC-HPLC-DAD detection was used. The studied plant material comprised of: Betula verrucosa Ehrh., Equisetun arvense L., Polygonum aviculare L., Viola tricolor L., Crataegus oxyacantha L., Sambucus nigra L. and Helichrysum arenarium (L.) Moench. Based upon the results, high negative correlation was found for the chromatographic peak currents at 45 min with the sum of Cu and Fe for the aqueous extracts of Sambucus, Crataegus and Betula species, and for the peak currents at 65 min of the aqueous extracts of Sambucus, Crataegus, Helichrysum and Betula botanical species. This behavior confirms that it is mainly the flavonoids with easily oxidizable phenolic groups which are strongly influenced by the presence of Cu and Fe. Moreover, the electrochemical profiles obtained thanks to the use of HPLC hyphenated with voltammetric detection can be potentially applied for fingerprint studies of the plant materials used in medicine.

  14. Antioxidant and Antiradical Properties of Selected Flavonoids and Phenolic Compounds

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    Zübeyir Huyut

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds and flavonoids are known by their antioxidant properties and one of the most important sources for humans is the diet. Due to the harmful effects of synthetic antioxidants such as BHA and BHT, natural novel antioxidants have become the focus of attention for protecting foods and beverages and reducing oxidative stress in vivo. In the current study, we investigated the total antioxidant, metal chelating, Fe3+ and Cu2+ reduction, and free radical scavenging activities of some phenolic and flavonoid compounds including malvin, oenin, ID-8, silychristin, callistephin, pelargonin, 3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxybenzoic acid, 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzaldehyde, and arachidonoyl dopamine. The antioxidant properties of these compounds at different concentrations (10–30 μg/mL were compared with those of reference antioxidants such as BHA, BHT, α-tocopherol, and trolox. Each substance showed dose-dependent antioxidant activity. Furthermore, oenin, malvin, arachidonoyl dopamine, callistephin, silychristin, and 3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxybenzoic acid exhibited more effective antioxidant activity than that observed for the reference antioxidants. These results suggest that these novel compounds may function to protect foods and medicines and to reduce oxidative stress in vivo.

  15. Dietary flavonoid fisetin for cancer prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, Rahul K; Adhami, Vaqar Mustafa; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2016-06-01

    Cancer remains a major public health concern and a significant cause of death worldwide. Identification of bioactive molecules that have the potential to inhibit carcinogenesis continues to garner interest among the scientific community. In particular, flavonoids from dietary sources are the most sought after because of their safety, cost-effectiveness, and feasibility of oral administration. Emerging data have provided newer insights into understanding the molecular mechanisms that are essential to identify novel mechanism-based strategies for cancer prevention and treatment. Dietary flavonoid fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone) found in many fruits and vegetables has been shown in preclinical studies to inhibit cancer growth through alteration of cell cycle, inducing apoptosis, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis without causing any toxicity to normal cells. Although data from in-vitro and in-vivo studies look convincing, well-designed clinical trials in humans are needed to conclusively determine the efficacy across various cancers. This review highlights the chemopreventive and therapeutic effects, molecular targets, and mechanisms that contribute to the observed anticancer activity of fisetin against various cancers. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities of some flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Didem Deliorman; Ozçelik, Berrin; Ozgen, Selda; Ergun, Fatma

    2010-08-20

    Antibacterial and antifungal activities of six plant-derived flavonoids representing two different structural groups were evaluated against standard strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis and their drug-resistant isolates, as well as fungi (Candida albicans, C. krusei) using the microdilution broth method. Herpes simplex virus Type-1 and Parainfluenza-3 virus were employed for antiviral assessment of the flavonoids using Madin-Darby bovine kidney and Vero cell lines. Ampicillin, gentamycin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, fluconazole, ketoconazole, acyclovir, and oseltamivir were used as the control agents. All tested compounds (32-128 microg/ml) showed strong antimicrobial and antifungal activities against isolated strains of P. aeruginosa, A. baumanni, S. aureus, and C. krusei. Rutin, 5,7-dimethoxyflavanone-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and 5,7,3'-trihydroxy-flavanone-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (0.2-0.05 microg/ml) were active against PI-3, while 5,7-dimethoxyflavanone-4'-O-[2''-O-(5'''-O-trans-cinnamoyl)-beta-D-apiofuranosyl]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (0.16-0.2 microg/ml) inhibited potently HSV-1. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. The oxidation of luteolin, the natural flavonoid dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramešová, Šárka; Sokolová, Romana; Tarábek, Ján; Degano, Ilaria

    2013-01-01

    The oxidation of natural flavonoid luteolin in aqueous solution is studied by electrochemical methods, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), spectroelectrochemistry and separation techniques HPLC-DAD and HPLC–MS/MS. The number of electrons involved in the oxidation of luteolin depends on the presence of its dissociation forms in solution. The study explains the differences in the number of electrons presented in the literature. The overall one electron oxidation mechanism of luteolin in alkaline solution is explained by the comproportionation reaction of resulting quinone, despite the fact that quinone is formed by two electron oxidation. Then a hydroxylation takes place. The EPR spectroelectrochemical study of the semiquinone radical anion formation as well as of the reaction steps following the electron transfer during the oxidation is presented. The novelty of this contribution consists in the additional temperature controlled semi-quantitative in situ EPR spectroelectrochemical experiment of the flavonoid oxidation. The data acquired by temperature controlled in situ EPR spectroelectrochemistry supports the comproportionation/disproportionation equilibria as well as the oxidative decomposition of luteolin and shows that the formation of a pi-dimer is less probable. The oxidation products hydroxy-luteolin and 3,5-dihydroxy-2-(2-oxoacetyl)phenyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate are not stable under ambient conditions and decompose to low molecular hydroxycompounds such as 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 2,5,7-trihydroxy-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one

  18. Analysis of Arabidopsis mutants deficient in flavonoid biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, B.W.; Kubasek, W.L.; Storz, G.; Bruggemann, E.; Koornneef, M.; Ausubel, F.M.; Goodman, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    Eleven loci that play a role in the synthesis of flavonoids in Arabidopsis are described. Mutations at these loci, collectively named transparent testa (tt), disrupt the synthesis of brown pigments in the seed coat (testa). Several of these loci (tt3, tt4, tt5 and ttg) are also required for the accumulation of purple anthocyanins in leaves and stems and one locus (ttg) plays additional roles in trichome and root hair development. Specific functions were previously assigned to tt1-7 and ttg. Here, the results of additional genetic, biochemical and molecular analyses of these mutants are described. Genetic map positions were determined for tt8, tt9 and tt10. Thin-layer chromatography identified tissue- and locus-specific differences in the flavonols and anthocyanidins synthesized by mutant and wild-type plants. It was found that UV light reveals distinct differences in the floral tissues of tt3, tt4, tt5, tt6 and ttg, even though these tissues are indistinguishable under visible light. Evidence was also uncovered that tt8 and ttg specifically affect dihydroflavonol reductase gene expression. A summary of these and previously published results are incorporated into an overview of the genetics of flavonoid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis

  19. Conifer flavonoid compounds inhibit detoxification enzymes and synergize insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiling; Zhao, Zhong; Cheng, Xiaofei; Liu, Suqi; Wei, Qin; Scott, Ian M

    2016-02-01

    Detoxification by glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and esterases are important mechanisms associated with insecticide resistance. Discovery of novel GST and esterase inhibitors from phytochemicals could provide potential new insecticide synergists. Conifer tree species contain flavonoids, such as taxifolin, that inhibit in vitro GST activity. The objectives were to test the relative effectiveness of taxifolin as an enzyme inhibitor and as an insecticide synergist in combination with the organophosphorous insecticide, Guthion (50% azinphos-methyl), and the botanical insecticide, pyrethrum, using an insecticide-resistant Colorado potato beetle (CPB) Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) strain. Both taxifolin and its isomer, quercetin, increased the mortality of 1(st) instar CPB larvae after 48h when combined with Guthion, but not pyrethrum. Taxifolin had greater in vitro esterase inhibition compared with the commonly used esterase inhibitor, S, S, S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF). An in vivo esterase and GST inhibition effect after ingestion of taxifolin was measured, however DEF caused a greater suppression of esterase activity. This study demonstrated that flavonoid compounds have both in vitro and in vivo esterase inhibition, which is likely responsible for the insecticide synergism observed in insecticide-resistant CPB. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Methylation of flavonoids: Chemical structures, bioactivities, progress and perspectives for biotechnological production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, Niranjan; Thuan, Nguyen Huy; Ghimire, Gopal Prasad; Thang, Duong Van; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2016-05-01

    Among the natural products, flavonoids have been particularly attractive, highly studied and become one of the most important promising agent to treat cancer, oxidant stress, pathogenic bacteria, inflammations, cardio-vascular dysfunctions, etc. Despite many promising roles of flavonoids, expectations have not been fulfilled when studies were extended to the in vivo condition, particularly in humans. Instability and very low oral bioavailability of dietary flavonoids are the reasons behind this. Researches have demonstrated that the methylation of these flavonoids could increase their promise as pharmaceutical agents leading to novel applications. Methylation of the flavonoids via theirs free hydroxyl groups or C atom dramatically increases their metabolic stability and enhances the membrane transport, leading to facilitated absorption and highly increased oral bioavailability. In this paper, we concentrated on analysis of flavonoid methoxides including O- and C-methoxide derivatives in aspect of structure, bioactivities and description of almost all up-to-date O- and C-methyltransferases' enzymatic characteristics. Furthermore, modern biological approaches for synthesis and production of flavonoid methoxides using metabolic engineering and synthetic biology have been focused and updated up to 2015. This review will give a handful information regarding the methylation of flavonoids, methyltransferases and biotechnological synthesis of the same. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Flavonoids Active Against Osteosarcoma: A Review of the Molecular Mechanisms Involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Gao, Yutong; Dong, Yonghui; Cheng, Peng; Chen, Anmin; Huang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most frequent primitive malignant bone tumor affecting adolescents and young adults worldwide. The tumor exhibits aggressive growth in the primary site and readily metastasizes to other organs. There has been no significant improvement in the 5-year survival rate since the 1970s and the figure remains at 60-70%. In addition, the side effects of chemotherapeutic drugs and resistance to chemotherapy compromise the effects of treatment for osteosarcoma. In recent years, the development of flavonoids drugs inhibiting carcinogenesis is attracting great interest in the scientific community. Flavonoids are one kind of polyphenolic compounds widely found in vegetables and fruits. Moreover, flavonoids have become popular compounds, exhibiting comprehensive antitumor activities, while being safe and inexpensive. Here, the literature on the benefits afforded by flavonoids in terms of osteosarcoma treatment is reviewed and certain flavonoids and their effects on osteosarcoma are discussed. These compounds can perturb the cell cycle, induce apoptosis, inhibit tumor cell invasion and metastasis, potentiate the actions of chemotherapeutic agents, trigger autophagy, and stimulate antitumor activity in vivo. In summary, we highlight the currently well-accepted flavonoid compounds and detail the molecular mechanisms by which flavonoids may treat osteosarcoma, and thus the flavonoids exhibit great promise as anti-osteosarcoma agents. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. A study on the antitumour effect of total flavonoids from Pteris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper was to investigate the inhibitory effect of total flavonoids from Pteris multifida Poir on growth of transplanted H22 tumour in mice. H22 tumour-bearing mice model was established; the experimental animals were divide/d into the model group, Pteris multifida Poir total flavonoids high-, low-dose ...

  3. Combinatorial Synthesis of Structurally Diverse Triazole-Bridged Flavonoid Dimers and Trimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tze Han Sum

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are a large family of compounds associated with a broad range of biologically useful properties. In recent years, synthetic compounds that contain two flavonoid units linked together have attracted attention in drug discovery and development projects. Numerous flavonoid dimer systems, incorporating a range of monomers attached via different linkers, have been reported to exhibit interesting bioactivities. From a medicinal chemistry perspective, the 1,2,3-triazole ring system has been identified as a particularly attractive linker moiety in dimeric derivatives (owing to several favourable attributes including proven biological relevance and metabolic stability and triazole-bridged flavonoid dimers possessing anticancer and antimalarial activities have recently been reported. However, there are relatively few examples of libraries of triazole-bridged flavonoid dimers and the diversity of flavonoid subunits present within these is typically limited. Thus, this compound type arguably remains underexplored within drug discovery. Herein, we report a modular strategy for the synthesis of novel and biologically interesting triazole-bridged flavonoid heterodimers and also very rare heterotrimers from readily available starting materials. Application of this strategy has enabled step-efficient and systematic access to a library of structurally diverse compounds of this sort, with a variety of monomer units belonging to six different structural subclasses of flavonoid successfully incorporated.

  4. The influence of phase II conjugation on the biological activity of flavonoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekmann, K.

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoid consumption is often correlated with a wide range of health effects, such as the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and diabetes. These effects are usually ascribed to the activity of the parent flavonoid aglycones, even though these forms of the

  5. Biosynthesis of flavonoids in bilberry and blueberry - possibilities of the gene level information for the future

    OpenAIRE

    Jaakola, Laura

    2007-01-01

    We have studied the biosynthesis of flavonoids in various tissues of naturally growing European blueberry (bilberry) and the blueberry cultivar 'Northblue'. Focus has also been on the biosynthesis of flavonoids in developing bilberry fruits as well as on the control genes regulating fruit development.

  6. Metabolic engineering of flavonoids in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum): the potential for metabolomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovy, A.G.; Schijlen, E.G.W.M.; Hall, R.D.

    2007-01-01

    Flavonoids comprise a large and diverse group of polyphenolic plant secondary metabolites. In plants, flavonoids play important roles in many biological processes such as pigmentation of flowers, fruits and vegetables, plant-pathogen interactions, fertility and protection against UV light. Being

  7. The regioselectivity of glutathione adduct formation with flavonoid quinone methides is pH-dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awad, H.M.; Boersma, M.G.; Boeren, S.; Vervoort, J.; Bladeren, van P.J.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, the formation of glutathionyl adducts from a series of 3',4'-dihydroxy flavonoid o-quinone/p-quinone methides was investigated with special emphasis on the regioselectivity of the glutathione addition as a function of pH. The flavonoid o-quinones were generated using

  8. Assessment of total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of Mullein (Verbascum songaricum ecotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The Mullein genus is the largest genus of Scrophulariaceae family which has extensive natural habitat in southwest of Iran. Mullein contains compounds such as phenolic compounds, mucilage, saponins and anthocyanin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of mullein ecotypes in Iran. Methods: Six ecotypes of the Verbascum songaricum were evaluated. Determination of total flavonoid content was performed bythealuminium chloride colourimetric method. The antioxidant activity of the flower extracts was measured using the DPPH method. Results: The results showed that total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity were different among ecotypes.  The highest and lowest amounts of total flavonoidwas obtained  from Shermard ecotype (13.42 mg rutin /g DW and Klar ecotypes(10.10 mg rutin /g DW, respectively. The highest amounts of antioxidant activity were obtained from the Shermard ecotype (IC50 246.35 μg/mL. The correlation analysis showed that a significant relation between flavonoid, antioxidant activity and habitat elevation. Conclusion: Total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of the samples were affected by habitat climatic.  The present data indicated that the highest antioxidant activity may be due to higher flavonoid content and the habitat elevation was effective on the flavonoid content. Due to the high amounts of flavonoid and antioxidant activity of mullein extract, it seems to be a good herbal option as an antioxidant in complementary therapies.

  9. Fresh and Commercially Pasteurized Orange Juice: An Analysis of the Metabolism of Flavonoid Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange juice is a rich source of flavonoids, mainly the flavanones hesperidin and narirutin, associated with health benefits in humans. The objective of this study was to analyze the uptake of flavonoids in humans after the consumption of two types of orange juice, fresh squeezed (fresh juice, FJ) a...

  10. Separation, purification and identification of flavonoid glycosides using reversed phase hplc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, A.; Khan, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Optimal high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation conditions and semi-preparative scale isolation of flavonoid glycosides from three plant species namely Vitex nagunda, Rubus ulmifolious and Malotus philipensis is reported. Identification of purified flavonoid glycoside was achieved using spiking technique in HPLC. (author)

  11. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of flavonoids in Sophora tonkinensis by LC/MS and HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chang-Ming; Cheng, Zhi-Hong; Chen, Dao-Feng

    2013-11-01

    To develop analytical methods for the identification and determination of the flavonoids in Sophora tonkinensis for comprehensive quality evaluation. An HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS method was used for the separation and characterization of the flavonoids in S. tonkinensis, and a liquid chromatographic method was employed to simultaneously determine five major active flavonoids in this crude drug. Seventeen flavonoids were identified, among which, seven were unambiguously identified as trifolirhizin, quercetin, formononetin, macckiain, kurarinone, sophoranone, and sophoranochromene by comparing their retention times, and UV and MS spectra with those of the authentic compounds, and the other ten flavonoids were tentatively identified by comparing their UV and MS/MS spectra with those of literature data. Furthermore, five major active flavonoids, including trifolirhizin, quercetin, maackiain, sophoranone, and sophoranochromene were determined in S. tonkinensis. All calibration curves expressed good linearity (r > 0.999 8) within the test ranges, and the recovery from this method was 96.40%-104.43%. The developed HPLC method was successfully applied to quantitatively determine the five flavonoids in seventeen samples of S. tonkinensis. The developed method rapidly characterized the bioactive flavonoids of S. tonkinensis, and could be readily utilized to enhance the quality assurance approaches for this traditional Chinese medicine. Copyright © 2013 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Pathway engineering for healthy phytochemicals leading to the production of novel flavonoids in tomato fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijlen, E.G.W.M.; Vos, de C.H.; Jonker, H.H.; Broeck, van den H.C.; Molthoff, J.W.; Tunen, van A.J.; Martens, S.; Bovy, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Flavonoids are a large family of plant polyphenolic secondary metabolites. Although they are widespread throughout the plant kingdom, some flavonoid classes are specific for only a few plant species. Due to their presumed health benefits there is growing interest in the development of food crops

  13. Ultraviolet light assisted extraction of flavonoids and allantoin from aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Symphytum officinale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan S.M. Al-Nimer

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: UV-radiation enhances the yields of active ingredient, of comfrey extracted with methanol whereas improves the flavonoids, reducing power and allantoin levels of comfrey extracted by the aqueous infusion method. UV-radiation reduces the levels of flavonoids, reducing power and allantoin when the comfrey extracted by alcohols [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(3.000: 280-283

  14. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Total Flavonoids from Corn Silk and Their Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Li Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Object. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of total flavonoids from corn silk and their antioxidant activities were studied. Methods. Response surface methodology was adopted to optimize the extraction conditions and antioxidant activities of the extracted total flavonoids were detected through ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay. Results. Through a three-level, three-variable Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology (RSM adopting yield as response, the optimal conditions were determined as follows: ultrasonic power 500 W, extraction time 20 min, material solvent ratio 1 : 20, and ethanol concentration 30%. Under the optimum conditions, the extraction yield of total flavonoids was 1.13%. FRAP value of total flavonoids extracted from corn silk was 467.59 μmol/L. Conclusion. The total flavonoids of corn silk could be developed as food natural antioxidant reagents.

  15. Deterrent activity of hops flavonoids and their derivatives against stored product pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackowski, J; Popłoński, J; Twardowska, K; Magiera-Dulewicz, J; Hurej, M; Huszcza, E

    2017-10-01

    Five flavonoids from hops, two of their derivatives, along with naringenin used as a model compound, were tested for their antifeedant activity against three coleopteran stored product pests: Sitophilus granarius L., Tribolium confusum Duv. and Trogoderma granarium Everts. The introduction, into the tested flavonoid molecules, of additional structural fragments such as prenyl or dimethylpyran moiety, is proposed to significantly alter the deterrent activity of the compounds. The prenyl moiety in flavonoids increased the deterrent activity of these compounds in all three of the grain feeding species used in the tests. It is also concluded that the introduction of dimethylpyran moiety to the flavonoid structure increases its deterrent activity in S. granarius and T. confusum, but in one of the test insects, T. granarium, an increased feeding was observed in response to the introduction of dimethylpyran moiety to the flavonoid structure.

  16. Effect of dry salting on flavonoid profile and antioxidant capacity of Algerian olive cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soufi, O.; Romero, C.; Motilva, M.J.; Borras Gaya, X.; Louaileche, H.

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the changes in the flavonoid profile and antioxidant capacity of five olive cultivars after dry salting. The antioxidant activity was determined using ferric reducing ability power (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and β-carotene bleaching assays. The results showed that the effects of dry salting on the analyzed parameters were significant (P<0.05). It caused a decrease in total flavonoids with a loss rate of 55%. The HPLC analysis of extracts revealed the presence of four flavonoids: rutin, luteolin-7-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside. Among the studied cultivars, Azeradj was characterized by high levels of flavonoids. Concerning the antioxidant activity, diverging results were obtained using different antioxidant assays. Overall, the dry salting induced a reduction in the antioxidant activity with variable values depending on the cultivar. Among the used methods, high correlations were found between flavonoid contents and the FRAP assay. (Author)

  17. Chemosystematic significance of flavonoids isolated from Diplotaxis acris (Brassicaceae) and related taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Sameh R; Marzouk, Mona M; Kassem, Mona E S; Abdel Latif, Rasha R; Mohammed, Reda S

    2017-02-01

    The chemosystematic relationship of four Diplotaxis species; Diplotaxis acris, Diplotaxis erucoides, Diplotaxis harra and Diplotaxis muralis were surveyed from the flavonoids point of view. These species were found to produce 33 flavonoids (7 flavones and 26 flavonols), including 11 compounds were isolated in the present study from D. acris. Among them, seven flavonoids were identified for the first time; luteolin (4), kaempferol (8), kaempferol 3-O-β-glucopyranoside-7-O-α-rhamnopyranoside (13), quercetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside (16), quercetin 7-O-β-glucopyranoside (20), isorhamnetin (22) and isorhamnetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside-7-O-α-rhamnopyranoside (32). Their structures were recognized on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic techniques (1D & 2D NMR, UV, EI & ESI/MS). The isolated flavonoids may provide useful taxonomic characters at the infraspecific levels of classification where the flavonoid profile of D. acris and D. harra is similar and different from the other species.

  18. Bee Pollen Flavonoids as a Therapeutic Agent in Allergic and Immunological Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannesar, Masoomeh; Sharif Shoushtari, Maryam; Majd, Ahmad; Pourpak, Zahra

    2017-06-01

    Bee pollen grains, as the male reproductive part of seed-bearing plants contain considerable concentrations of various phytochemicals and nutrients. Since antiquity, people throughout the world used pollens to cure colds, flu, ulcers, premature aging, anemia and colitis. It is now well-documented that some bee pollen secondary metabolites (e.g. flavonoid) may have positive health effects. In recent years, the flavonoids have attracted much interest because of their wide range of biological properties and their beneficial effects on human health. The current review, points out potential therapeutic effects of bee pollen flavonoids as one of the main bee pollen bioactive compounds in allergic and immunological diseases. Due to the fact that some types of flavonoid components in bee pollen have anti-allergic, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, bee pollen flavonoids can be excellent candidates for future studies including phytotherapy, molecular pharmacology and substitutes for chemicals used in treating allergic and immunological disorders.

  19. Effect of dry salting on flavonoid profile and antioxidant capacity of Algerian olive cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soufi, O.; Romero, C.; Motilva, M.J.; Borras Gaya, X.; Louaileche, H.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the changes in the flavonoid profile and antioxidant capacity of five olive cultivars after dry salting. The antioxidant activity was determined using ferric reducing ability power (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and β-carotene bleaching assays. The results showed that the effects of dry salting on the analyzed parameters were significant (P<0.05). It caused a decrease in total flavonoids with a loss rate of 55%. The HPLC analysis of extracts revealed the presence of four flavonoids: rutin, luteolin-7-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside. Among the studied cultivars, Azeradj was characterized by high levels of flavonoids. Concerning the antioxidant activity, diverging results were obtained using different antioxidant assays. Overall, the dry salting induced a reduction in the antioxidant activity with variable values depending on the cultivar. Among the used methods, high correlations were found between flavonoid contents and the FRAP assay. (Author)

  20. Foliar flavonoids from Tanacetum vulgare var. boreale and their geographical variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Ayumi; Akiyama, Shinobu; Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2015-03-01

    Foliar flavonoids of Tanacetum vulgare var. boreale were isolated. Eight flavonoid glycosides, 7-O-glucosides of apigenin, luteolin, scutellarein and 6- hydroxyluteolin, and 7-O-glucuronides of apigenin, luteolin, chrysoeriol and eriodictyol were identified. Moreover, eight flavonoid aglycones, apigenin, luteolin, hispidulin, nepetin, eupatilin, jaceosidin, pectolinarigenin and axillarin were also isolated and identified. The flavonoid composition of two varieties of T. vulgare, i.e. var. boreale and var. vulgare, were compared. All samples of var. boreale and one sample of var. vulgare had the same flavonoid pattern, and could be distinguished from almost all the samples of var. vulgare. Thus, the occurrence of chemotypes, which are characterized by either the presence or absence of scutellarein 7-O-glucoside, eriodictyol 7-O-glucuronide and pectolinarigenin was shown in T. vulgare sensu lato.

  1. Flavonoids Are Inhibitors of Human Organic Anion Transporter 1 (OAT1)–Mediated Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Guohua; Wang, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    Organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) has been reported to be involved in the nephrotoxicity of many anionic xenobiotics. As current clinically used OAT1 inhibitors are often associated with safety issues, identifying potent OAT1 inhibitors with little toxicity is of great value in reducing OAT1-mediated drug nephrotoxicity. Flavonoids are a class of polyphenolic compounds with exceptional safety records. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of 18 naturally occurring flavonoids, and some of their glycosides, on the uptake of para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) in both OAT1-expressing and OAT1-negative LLC-PK1 cells. Most flavonoid aglycones produced substantial decreases in PAH uptake in OAT1-expressing cells. Among the flavonoids screened, fisetin, luteolin, morin, and quercetin exhibited the strongest effect and produced complete inhibition of OAT1-mediated PAH uptake at a concentration of 50 μM. Further concentration-dependent studies revealed that both morin and luteolin are potent OAT1 inhibitors, with IC50 values of flavonoid aglycones, all flavonoid glycosides had negligible or small effects on OAT1. In addition, the role of OAT1 in the uptake of fisetin, luteolin, morin, and quercetin was investigated and fisetin was found to be a substrate of OAT1. Taken together, our results indicate that flavonoids are a novel class of OAT1 modulators. Considering the high consumption of flavonoids in the diet and in herbal products, OAT1-mediated flavonoid-drug interactions may be clinically relevant. Further investigation is warranted to evaluate the nephroprotective role of flavonoids in relation to drug-induced nephrotoxicity mediated by the OAT1 pathway. PMID:25002746

  2. Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelial function and increases plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Mary B; Engler, Marguerite M; Chen, Chung Y; Malloy, Mary J; Browne, Amanda; Chiu, Elisa Y; Kwak, Ho-Kyung; Milbury, Paul; Paul, Steven M; Blumberg, Jeffrey; Mietus-Snyder, Michele L

    2004-06-01

    Dark chocolate derived from the plant (Theobroma cacao) is a rich source of flavonoids. Cardioprotective effects including antioxidant properties, inhibition of platelet activity, and activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase have been ascribed to the cocoa flavonoids. To investigate the effects of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate on endothelial function, measures of oxidative stress, blood lipids, and blood pressure in healthy adult subjects. The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design conducted over a 2 week period in 21 healthy adult subjects. Subjects were randomly assigned to daily intake of high-flavonoid (213 mg procyanidins, 46 mg epicatechin) or low-flavonoid dark chocolate bars (46 g, 1.6 oz). High-flavonoid chocolate consumption improved endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery (mean change = 1.3 +/- 0.7%) as compared to low-flavonoid chocolate consumption (mean change = -0.96 +/- 0.5%) (p = 0.024). No significant differences were noted in the resistance to LDL oxidation, total antioxidant capacity, 8-isoprostanes, blood pressure, lipid parameters, body weight or body mass index (BMI) between the two groups. Plasma epicatechin concentrations were markedly increased at 2 weeks in the high-flavonoid group (204.4 +/- 18.5 nmol/L, p < or = 0.001) but not in the low-flavonoid group (17.5 +/- 9 nmol/L, p = 0.99). Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelial function and is associated with an increase in plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults. No changes in oxidative stress measures, lipid profiles, blood pressure, body weight or BMI were seen.

  3. Utilizing of Square Wave Voltammetry to Detect Flavonoids in the Presence of Human Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available About biological affecting of flavonoids on animal organisms is known less,thus we selected flavonoids, flavanones and flavones, and their glycosides, which wereexamined as potential inducers of cytochrome(s P450 when administrated by gavages intoexperimental male rats. The study was focused on induction of CYP1A1, the majorcytochrome P450 involved in carcinogen activation. The data obtained demonstrate thenecessity of taking into account not only ability of flavonoids to bind to Ah receptor(induction factor but also to concentrate on their distribution and metabolism (includingcolon microflora in the body. After that we examined certain flavonoids as potential inducers of cytochrome P450, we wanted to suggest and optimize suitable electrochemical technique for determination of selected flavonoids (quercetin, quercitrin, rutin, chrysin and diosmin in body liquids. For these purposes, we selected square wave voltannetry using carbon paste electrode. Primarily we aimed on investigation of their basic electrochemical behaviour. After that we have optimized frequency, step potential and supporting electrolyte. Based on the results obtained, we selected the most suitable conditions for determination of the flavonoids as follows: frequency 180 Hz, step potential 1.95 mV/s and phosphate buffer of pH 7 as supporting electrolyte. Detection limits (3 S/N of the flavonoids were from units to tens of nM except diosmin, where the limit were higher than μM. In addition, we attempted to suggest a sensor for analysis of flavonoids in urine. It clearly follows from the results obtained that flavonoids can be analysed in the presence of animal urine, because urine did not influence much the signals of flavonoids (recoveries of the signals were about 90 %.

  4. Flavonoid intake from food and beverages: What We Eat in America, NHANES 2007-2008, Tables 1-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Food Surveys Research Group of the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center has released 4 flavonoid intake data tables that make available, for the first time, nationally representative estimates of the intake of 29 individual flavonoids in six classes (as well as the sum of those flavonoids)...

  5. A New Database Facilitates Characterization of Flavonoid Intake, Sources, and Positive Associations with Diet Quality among US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Rhonda S; Wilkinson Enns, Cecilia; Goldman, Joseph D; Martin, Carrie L; Steinfeldt, Lois C; Murayi, Theophile; Moshfegh, Alanna J

    2015-06-01

    Epidemiologic studies demonstrate inverse associations between flavonoid intake and chronic disease risk. However, lack of comprehensive databases of the flavonoid content of foods has hindered efforts to fully characterize population intakes and determine associations with diet quality. Using a newly released database of flavonoid values, this study sought to describe intake and sources of total flavonoids and 6 flavonoid classes and identify associations between flavonoid intake and the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010. One day of 24-h dietary recall data from adults aged ≥ 20 y (n = 5420) collected in What We Eat in America (WWEIA), NHANES 2007-2008, were analyzed. Flavonoid intakes were calculated using the USDA Flavonoid Values for Survey Foods and Beverages 2007-2008. Regression analyses were conducted to provide adjusted estimates of flavonoid intake, and linear trends in total and component HEI scores by flavonoid intake were assessed using orthogonal polynomial contrasts. All analyses were weighted to be nationally representative. Mean intake of flavonoids was 251 mg/d, with flavan-3-ols accounting for 81% of intake. Non-Hispanic whites had significantly higher (P empty calories increased (P < 0.001) across flavonoid intake quartiles. A new database that permits comprehensive estimation of flavonoid intakes in WWEIA, NHANES 2007-2008; identification of their major food/beverage sources; and determination of associations with dietary quality will lead to advances in research on relations between flavonoid intake and health. Findings suggest that diet quality, as measured by HEI, is positively associated with flavonoid intake. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Nobiletin: a citrus flavonoid displaying potent physiological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Shuji; Atsumi, Haruka; Iwao, Yasunori; Kan, Toshiyuki; Itai, Shigeru

    2016-02-01

    Nobiletin [systematic name: 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-5,6,7,8-tetramethoxy-4H-chromen-4-one; C21H22O8] is a flavonoid found in citrus peels, and has been reported to show a wide range of physiological properties, including anti-inflammatory, anticancer and antidementia activities. We have solved the crystal structure of nobiletin, which revealed that the chromene and arene rings of its flavone moiety, as well as the two methoxy groups bound to its arene ring, were coplanar. In contrast, the C atoms of the four methoxy groups bound to the chromene ring are out of the plane, making the molecule conformationally chiral. A comparison of the crystal structures of nobiletin revealed that it could adopt a variety of different conformations through rotation of the covalent bond between the chromene and arene rings, and the orientations of methoxy groups bound to the chromene ring.

  7. Constituents Of Green Beans Phaseolus Vulgaris (Lipids And Flavonoids)

    OpenAIRE

    Rizk, A.M.; Ismail, S.I.; Azzam, S.A.; Wood, G.

    1992-01-01

    Chemical study of the lipid fraction resulted in the isolation and identification of a hydrocarbon fraction (n-Czg -0-033); an aliphatic alcohol fraction (C^, Czp, €30) and a sterol fraction (stigmasterol and sitosterol). Analysis of the fatty acids revealed the presence of myristic, palmitic, hexadodecanoic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids. The flavonoid constituents were identified as kaempferol-3-rutinoside and quercetin-3-rutinoside. أسفرت دراسة الدهنيات عن فصل والتعرف على هيدروكربون...

  8. BACTERIAL CHEMOTAXIS AND FLAVONOIDS: PROSPECTS FOR THE USE OF PROBIOTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Marcela Galicia Jimenez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The application of different diets have focused on seeking greater production in the ruminant animal feed varies, thus affecting rumen microbial population, however, the production efficiency of ruminants has been reported inconsistently. Furthermore, studies have been conducted secondary metabolites secreted by plants and has been having a function of attractant or repellent in plant-microbe interactions. So our goal is to integrate knowledge of rumen bacteria-particle interactions of forage used for food and flavonoids as stimulants in the flagellar movement. Thus, understanding the signaling pathways used by rumen bacteria to colonize food particles and degradation. Research and implement programs using genomic tools to help us discover chemotactic genes in rumen bacteria that contribute to elucidate principles governing the communication of microbial populations, their interactions and main products of microbial metabolism, and thus could raise the handling of ruminal fermentation, creating the probiotic cultures for cattle.

  9. Acetylated flavonoid glycosides potentiating NGF action from Scoparia dulcis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yushan; Chen, Xigui; Satake, Masayuki; Oshima, Yasukatsu; Ohizumi, Yasushi

    2004-04-01

    Three new acetylated flavonoid glycosides, 5,6,4'-trihydroxyflavone 7-O-alpha-L-2,3-di-O-acetylrhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), apigenin 7-O-alpha-L-3-O-acetylrhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), and apigenin 7-O-alpha-L-2,3-di-O-acetylrhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), were isolated from Scoparia dulcis together with the known compound eugenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside (4). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. Compounds 2 and 3 showed an enhancing activity of nerve growth factor-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12D cells.

  10. Flavonoid Compounds from the Bark of Aglaia eximia (Meliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julinton Sianturi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Three flavonoid compounds, kaempferol (1, kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside (2, and kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucosyl-α-L-rhamnoside (3, were isolated from the bark of Aglaia eximia (Meliaceae. The chemical structures of compounds 1–3 were identified with spectroscopic data, including UV, IR, NMR (1H, 13C, DEPT 135°, HMQC, HMBC, 1H-1H-COSY NMR, and MS, as well as a compared with previously reported spectra data. All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic effects against P-388 murine leukemia cells. Compounds 1–3 showed cytotoxicity against P-388 murine leukemia cells with IC50 values of 1.22, 42.92, and >100 mg/mL, respectively

  11. Flavonoids from Theobroma cacao down-regulate inflammatory mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro, Emma; Franch, Angels; Castellote, Cristina; Pérez-Cano, Francisco; Permanyer, Joan; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria; Castell, Margarida

    2005-11-02

    In the present study, we report the effects of a cocoa extract on the secretion and RNA expression of various proinflammatory mediators by macrophages. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) were significantly and dose-dependently diminished by cocoa extract, and this effect was higher than that produced by equivalent concentrations of epicatechin but was lower than that produced by isoquercitrin. Interestingly, cocoa extract added prior to cell activation resulted in a significantly greater inhibition of TNFalpha secretion. Both cocoa extract and epicatechin decreased TNFalpha, interleukin (IL) 1alpha, and IL-6 mRNA expression, suggesting that their inhibitory effect on cytokine secretion is produced, in part, at the transcriptional level. Cocoa extract also significantly decreased NO secretion in a dose-dependent manner and with a greater effect than that produced by epicatechin. In conclusion, our study shows that cocoa flavonoids not only inhibit NO release from macrophages but also down-regulate inflammatory cytokines and chemokines.

  12. Evaluation of flavonoids and diverse antioxidant activities of Sonchus arvensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Rahmat

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sonchus arvensis is used in the treatment of various human aliments as a traditional medicine in Pakistan. In the study its various fractions are characterized for scavenging of diverse free radicals. Results Results of the present study revealed that various fractions of Sonchus arvensis significantly scavenged the free radicals (DPPH·, ABTS·+, ·OH, superoxide, however its methanolic fraction is more potent than other fractions. Significant correlation was found between DPPH·, ABTS·+, superoxide radical and total antioxidant activity with total flavonoids and phenolics contents. Phytochmical analysis revealed the presence kaempferol, quercetin, orientin, rutin, hyperoside, catechin and myricetin. Conclusion From the present data it is concluded that various fractions of Sonchus arvensis significantly scavenged the free radical, which might be due the presence of polyphenolic constituent.

  13. Flavonoids: hemisynthesis, reactivity, characterization and free radical scavenging activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es-Safi, Nour-Eddine; Ghidouche, Souhila; Ducrot, Paul Henri

    2007-09-26

    Phenolic compounds form one of the main classes of secondary metabolites. They display a large range of structures and they are responsible for the major organoleptic characteristics of plant-derived-foods and beverages, particularly color and taste properties and they also contribute to the nutritional qualities of fruits and vegetables. Phenolic compounds are also highly unstable compounds which undergo numerous enzymatic and chemical reactions during postharvest food storage and processing thus adding to the complexity of plant polyphenol composition. Among these compounds flavonoids constitute one of the most ubiquitous groups of all plant phenolics. Owing to their importance in food organoleptic properties and in human health, a better understanding of their structures, their reactivity and chemical properties in addition to the mechanisms generating them appears essential to predict and control food quality. The purpose of this work is an overview of our findings concerning the hemisynthesis, the reactivity and the enzymatic oxidation of some flavonoids and shed light on the mechanisms involved in some of these processes and the structures of the resulting products. The free radical scavenging activity of some of the synthesized compounds is also presented and a structure-activity relationship is discussed. The first part of this review concerns the synthesis and structural characterization of modified monomeric flavanols. The use of these compounds as precursor for the preparation of natural and modified dimeric procyanidin derivatives was then explored through different coupling reactions. The full characterization of the synthesized compounds was achieved by concerted use of NMR and ESI-MS techniques. The free radical scavenging activity of some of the synthesized compounds was investigated. The second part of this review concerns the enzymatic oxidation of several flavonols by Trametes versicolor laccase. Most of the major oxidation products have been

  14. Flavonoids: Hemisynthesis, Reactivity, Characterization and Free Radical Scavenging Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Henri Ducrot

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds form one of the main classes of secondary metabolites. They display a large range of structures and they are responsible for the major organoleptic characteristics of plant-derived-foods and beverages, particularly color and taste properties and they also contribute to the nutritional qualities of fruits and vegetables. Phenolic compounds are also highly unstable compounds which undergo numerous enzymatic and chemical reactions during postharvest food storage and processing thus adding to the complexity of plant polyphenol composition. Among these compounds flavonoids constitute one of the most ubiquitous groups of all plant phenolics. Owing to their importance in food organoleptic properties and in human health, a better understanding of their structures, their reactivity and chemical properties in addition to the mechanisms generating them appears essential to predict and control food quality. The purpose of this work is an overview of our findings concerning the hemisynthesis, the reactivity and the enzymatic oxidation of some flavonoids and shed light on the mechanisms involved in some of these processes and the structures of the resulting products. The free radical scavenging activity of some of the synthesized compounds is also presented and a structure-activity relationship is discussed. The first part of this review concerns the synthesis and structural characterization of modified monomeric flavanols. The use of these compounds as precursor for the preparation of natural and modified dimeric procyanidin derivatives was then explored through different coupling reactions. The full characterization of the synthesized compounds was achieved by concerted use of NMR and ESI-MS techniques. The free radical scavenging activity of some of the synthesized compounds was investigated. The second part of this review concerns the enzymatic oxidation of several flavonols by Trametes versicolor laccase. Most of the major oxidation

  15. Signal Transduction and Molecular Targets of Selected Flavonoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Ann M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Diet exerts a major influence on the risk for developing cancer and heart disease. Food factors such as flavonoids are alleged to protect cells from premature aging and disease by shielding DNA, proteins, and lipids from oxidative damage. Recent Advances: Our work has focused on clarifying the effects of dietary components on cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth, discovering mechanisms to explain the effects, and identifying the specific molecular targets of these compounds. Our strategy for identifying specific molecular targets of phytochemicals involves the use of supercomputer technology combined with protein crystallography, molecular biology, and experimental laboratory verification. Critical Issues: One of the greatest challenges for scientists is to reduce the accumulation of distortion and half truths reported in the popular media regarding the health benefits of certain foods or food supplements. The use of these is not new, but interest has increased dramatically because of perceived health benefits that are presumably acquired without unpleasant side effects. Flavonoids are touted to exert many beneficial effects in vitro. However, whether they can produce these effects in vivo is disputed. Future Directions: The World Health Organization indicates that one third of all cancer deaths are preventable and that diet is closely linked to prevention. Based on this idea and epidemiological findings, attention has centered on dietary phytochemicals as an effective intervention in cancer development. However, an unequivocal link between diet and cancer has not been established. Thus, identifying cancer preventive dietary agents with specific molecular targets is essential to move forward toward successful cancer prevention. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 163–180. PMID:23458437

  16. Simultaneous quantification of flavonoids and triterpenoids in licorice using HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Chuen; Yang, Yi-Shan

    2007-05-01

    Numerous bioactive compounds are present in licorice (Glycyrrhizae Radix), including flavonoids and triterpenoids. In this study, a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for simultaneous quantification of three flavonoids (liquiritin, liquiritigenin and isoliquiritigenin) and four triterpenoids (glycyrrhizin, 18alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid, 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid and 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid methyl ester) from licorice was developed, and further, to quantify these 7 compounds from 20 different licorice samples. Specifically, the reverse-phase HPLC was performed with a gradient mobile phase composed of 25 mM phosphate buffer (pH 2.5)-acetonitrile featuring gradient elution steps as follows: 0 min, 100:0; 10 min, 80:20; 50 min, 70:30; 73 min, 50:50; 110 min, 50:50; 125 min, 20:80; 140 min, 20:80, and peaks were detected at 254 nm. By using our technique, a rather good specificity was obtained regarding to the separation of these seven compounds. The regression coefficient for the linear equations for the seven compounds lay between 0.9978 and 0.9992. The limits of detection and quantification lay in the range of 0.044-0.084 and 0.13-0.25 microg/ml, respectively. The relative recovery rates for the seven compounds lay between 96.63+/-2.43 and 103.55+/-2.77%. Coefficient variation for intra-day and inter-day precisions lay in the range of 0.20-1.84 and 0.28-1.86%, respectively. Based upon our validation results, this analytical technique is a convenient method to simultaneous quantify numerous bioactive compounds derived from licorice, featuring good quantification parameters, accuracy and precision.

  17. Phytotoxic flavonoids from roots of Stellera chamaejasme L. (Thymelaeaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhiqiang; Guo, Hongru; Yang, Jiayue; Liu, Quan; Jin, Hui; Xu, Rui; Cui, Haiyan; Qin, Bo

    2014-10-01

    Allelopathy, the negative effect on plants of chemicals released to the surroundings by a neighboring plant, is an important factor which contributes to the spread of some weeds in plant communities. In this field, Stellera chamaejasme L. (Thymelaeaceae) is one of the most toxic and ecologically-threatening weeds in some of the grasslands of north and west China. Bioassay-guided fractionation of root extracts of this plant led to the isolation of eight flavonoids 1-8, whose structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. All compounds obtained, except 7-methoxylneochaejasmin A (4) and (+)-epiafzelechin (5), showed strong phytotoxic activity against Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Seedling growth was reduced by neochamaejasmin B (1), mesoneochamaejasmin A (2), chamaejasmenin C (3), genkwanol A (6), daphnodorin B (7) and dihydrodaphnodorin B (8) with IC50 values of 6.9, 12.1, 43.2, 74.8, 7.1 and 27.3μg/mL, respectively, and all of these compounds disrupted root development. Endogenous auxin levels at the root tips of the A. thaliana DR5::GUS transgenic line were largely reduced by compounds 1, 2 and 6-8, and were increased by compound 4. Moreover, the inhibition rate of A. thaliana auxin transport mutants pin2 and aux1-7 by compounds 1-8 were all lower than the wild type (Col-0). The influence of these compounds on endogenous auxin distribution is thus proposed as a critical factor for the phytotoxic effect. Compounds 1, 2, 4 and 8 were found in soils associated with S. chamaejasme, and these flavonoids also showed phytotoxicity to Clinelymus nutans L., an associated weed of S. chamaejasme. These results indicated that some phytotoxic compounds from roots of S. chamaejasme may be involved in the potential allelopathic behavior of this widespread weed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of flavonoids on human health: old subjects but new challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eung-Ryoung; Kang, Geun-Ho; Cho, Ssang-Goo

    2007-01-01

    Flavonoids are highly diversified plant pigments that are present in a wide range of fruits, vegetables, nuts, and beverages. They are regularly consumed in the human diet and have various biological activities including anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-viral properties. The flavonoids maybe one of the safest non-immunogenic drugs because they are small organic compounds which have been normally absorbed by the human body for long time. During the past decades, the patents on their health effects have inflated very much and the yearly number of the patents is on an increasing trend. This review summarizes the current patents on the health effects of various flavonoids, and suggests the possible expectation that a wide variety of diseases are successful treated with newly-developed specific flavonoids or their derivatives in the near future. In recent patents, specific flavonoids were described to function as anti-oxidants, enzyme inhibitors, hormones, or immune modulators. Moreover, the recent patents also tried to provide the molecular mechanism of the flavonoid compounds on treating or preventing various human diseases. Recent mechanistic studies in molecular level make it possible that specific flavonoids are identified to have a wide range of biological properties that can contribute to the beneficial effects on human health.

  19. Identification and quantification of flavonoids in yellow grain mutant of rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Backki; Woo, Sunmin; Kim, Mi-Jung; Kwon, Soon-Wook; Lee, Joohyun; Sung, Sang Hyun; Koh, Hee-Jong

    2018-02-15

    Flavonoids are naturally occurring phenolic compounds with potential health-promoting activities. Although anthocyanins and phenolic acids in coloured rice have been investigated, few studies have focused on flavonoids. Herein, we analysed flavonoids in a yellow grain rice mutant using UHPLC-DAD-ESI-Q-TOF-MS, and identified 19 flavonoids by comparing retention times and accurate mass measurements. Among them, six flavonoids, isoorientin, isoorientin 2″-O-glucoside, vitexin 2″-O-glucoside, isovitexin, isoscoparin 2″-O-glucoside and isoscoparin, were isolated and fully identified from the yellow grain rice mutant, and the levels were significantly higher than wild-type, with isoorientin particularly abundant in mutant embryo. Significant differences in total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were observed in mutant rice by DPPH, FRAP and TEAC assays. The results suggest that the representative six flavonoids may play an important role in colouration and antioxidant activity of embryo and endosperm tissue. The findings provide insight into flavonoid biosynthesis and the possibility of improving functionality in rice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Recent Advances in the Catalytic One-Pot Synthesis of Flavonoids and Chromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohadeszadeh, Manijeh; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2017-01-01

    Flavonoids and chromones are two important classes of natural products that have various biological properties. During the past 10 years, there has been a significant increase in studies on the one-pot synthesis of flavonoids and chromones as medicinal scaffolds in drug discovery. This review describes the scope, mechanistic properties and regio- and chemo-selectivity features of several recently developed one-pot procedures for the synthesis of substituted chromones and flavonoids that have recently been published. Special importance is placed on the most promising and exciting medicinal applications of flavonoids and chromones. In this review, we discuss the progress on the synthesis of flavonoid and chromone derivatives in the presence of metal catalysts, organocatalysts, solid surfaces, microwave irradiation, acid and base catalysis, etc. For example, flavones can be prepared via the catalytic coordination of palladium complexes in a short time and at a low temperature with a high yield. Additionally, the one-pot synthesis of 2-substituted chromones via metal triflate (Yb(OTf)3) has provided the best result for this type of reaction with a high yield and a high regio and chemoselectivity. Generally, this review proposes the first specific overview of this developing and rapidly expanding field of flavonoid synthesis. We also discuss the mechanisms and advantages and disadvantages of methods for the synthesis of flavonoids and chromones. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids after in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Tao; Wang, Ye; Li, Yu-Ting; Gowd, Vemana; Niu, Xin-He; Yang, Hai-Ying; Chen, Li-Shui; Chen, Wei; Sun, Chong-de

    Oxidative stress and diabetes have a tendency to alter protein, lipid, and DNA moieties. One of the strategic methods used to reduce diabetes-associated oxidative stress is to inhibit the carbohydrate-digesting enzymes, thereby decreasing gastrointestinal glucose production. Plant-derived natural antioxidant molecules are considered a therapeutic tool in the treatment of oxidative stress and diabetes. The objective of this study was to identify tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids and evaluate the effect of in vitro digestion on their antioxidant and antidiabetic properties. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated the presence of rutin as a major component and quercitrin as a minor component of both digested and non-digested flavonoids. Both extracts showed a significant antioxidant capacity, but digested flavonoids showed reduced activity compared to non-digested. There were some decreases of the antioxidant activities (2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) radical, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)) of digested tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids compared with non-digested. Flavonoids from both groups significantly inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and α-glucosidase activity. Both digested and non-digested flavonoids markedly increased glucose consumption and glycogen content in HepG2 cells. Tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids showed appreciable antioxidant and antidiabetic properties, even after digestion. Tartary buckwheat rice appears to be a promising functional food with potent antioxidant and antidiabetic properties.

  2. 3D-QSAR and docking studies of flavonoids as potent Escherichia coli inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yajing; Lu, Yulin; Zang, Xixi; Wu, Ting; Qi, XiaoJuan; Pan, Siyi; Xu, Xiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are potential antibacterial agents. However, key substituents and mechanism for their antibacterial activity have not been fully investigated. The quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) and molecular docking of flavonoids relating to potent anti-Escherichia coli agents were investigated. Comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) were developed by using the pIC50 values of flavonoids. The cross-validated coefficient (q2) values for CoMFA (0.743) and for CoMSIA (0.708) were achieved, illustrating high predictive capabilities. Selected descriptors for the CoMFA model were ClogP (logarithm of the octanol/water partition coefficient), steric and electrostatic fields, while, ClogP, electrostatic and hydrogen bond donor fields were used for the CoMSIA model. Molecular docking results confirmed that half of the tested flavonoids inhibited DNA gyrase B (GyrB) by interacting with adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) pocket in a same orientation. Polymethoxyl flavones, flavonoid glycosides, isoflavonoids changed their orientation, resulting in a decrease of inhibitory activity. Moreover, docking results showed that 3-hydroxyl, 5-hydroxyl, 7-hydroxyl and 4-carbonyl groups were found to be crucial active substituents of flavonoids by interacting with key residues of GyrB, which were in agreement with the QSAR study results. These results provide valuable information for structure requirements of flavonoids as antibacterial agents. PMID:27049530

  3. Flavonoids as Putative Inducers of the Transcription Factors Nrf2, FoxO, and PPARγ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallauf, Kathrin; Duckstein, Nils; Hasler, Mario; Klotz, Lars-Oliver; Rimbach, Gerald

    2017-01-01

    Dietary flavonoids have been shown to extend the lifespan of some model organisms and may delay the onset of chronic ageing-related diseases. Mechanistically, the effects could be explained by the compounds scavenging free radicals or modulating signalling pathways. Transcription factors Nrf2, FoxO, and PPAR γ possibly affect ageing by regulating stress response, adipogenesis, and insulin sensitivity. Using Hek-293 cells transfected with luciferase reporter constructs, we tested the potency of flavonoids from different subclasses (flavonols, flavones, flavanols, and isoflavones) to activate these transcription factors. Under cell-free conditions (ABTS and FRAP assays), we tested their free radical scavenging activities and used α -tocopherol and ascorbic acid as positive controls. Most of the tested flavonoids, but not the antioxidant vitamins, stimulated Nrf2-, FoxO-, and PPAR γ -dependent promoter activities. Flavonoids activating Nrf2 also tended to induce a FoxO and PPAR γ response. Interestingly, activation patterns of cellular stress response by flavonoids were not mirrored by their activities in ABTS and FRAP assays, which depended mostly on hydroxylation in the flavonoid B ring and, in some cases, extended that of the vitamins. In conclusion, the free radical scavenging properties of flavonoids do not predict whether these molecules can stimulate a cellular response linked to activation of longevity-associated transcription factors.

  4. An Association Map on the Effect of Flavonoids on the Signaling Pathways in Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koosha, Sanaz; Alshawsh, Mohammed A; Looi, Chung Yeng; Seyedan, Atefehalsadat; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common type of cancer in the world, causing thousands of deaths annually. Although chemotherapy is known to be an effective treatment to combat colon cancer, it produces severe side effects. Natural products, on the other hand, appear to generate fewer side effects than do chemotherapeutic drugs. Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds found in various fruits and vegetables known to possess antioxidant activities, and the literature shows that several of these flavonoids have anti-CRC propertiesFlavonoids are classified into five main subclasses: flavonols, flavanones, flavones, flavan-3-ols, and flavanonols. Of these subclasses, the flavanonols have a minimum effect against CRC, whereas the flavones play an important role. The main targets for the inhibitory effect of flavonoids on CRC signaling pathways are caspase; nuclear factor kappa B; mitogen-activated protein kinase/p38; matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-7, and MMP-9; p53; β-catenin; cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2 and CDK4; and cyclins A, B, D, and E. In this review article, we summarize the in vitro and in vivo studies that have been performed since 2000 on the anti-CRC properties of flavonoids. We also describe the signaling pathways affected by flavonoids that have been found to be involved in CRC. Some flavonoids have the potential to be an effective alternative to chemotherapeutic drugs in the treatment of colon cancer; well-controlled clinical studies should, however, be conducted to support this proposal.

  5. Pathway Analysis Revealed Potential Diverse Health Impacts of Flavonoids that Bind Estrogen Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hao; Ng, Hui Wen; Sakkiah, Sugunadevi; Ge, Weigong; Perkins, Roger; Tong, Weida; Hong, Huixiao

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are frequently used as dietary supplements in the absence of research evidence regarding health benefits or toxicity. Furthermore, ingested doses could far exceed those received from diet in the course of normal living. Some flavonoids exhibit binding to estrogen receptors (ERs) with consequential vigilance by regulatory authorities at the U.S. EPA and FDA. Regulatory authorities must consider both beneficial claims and potential adverse effects, warranting the increases in research that has spanned almost two decades. Here, we report pathway enrichment of 14 targets from the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) and the Herbal Ingredients’ Targets (HIT) database for 22 flavonoids that bind ERs. The selected flavonoids are confirmed ER binders from our earlier studies, and were here found in mainly involved in three types of biological processes, ER regulation, estrogen metabolism and synthesis, and apoptosis. Besides cancers, we conjecture that the flavonoids may affect several diseases via apoptosis pathways. Diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, viral myocarditis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease could be implicated. More generally, apoptosis processes may be importantly evolved biological functions of flavonoids that bind ERs and high dose ingestion of those flavonoids could adversely disrupt the cellular apoptosis process. PMID:27023590

  6. Flavonoids act as negative regulators of auxin transport in vivo in arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. E.; Rashotte, A. M.; Murphy, A. S.; Normanly, J.; Tague, B. W.; Peer, W. A.; Taiz, L.; Muday, G. K.

    2001-01-01

    Polar transport of the plant hormone auxin controls many aspects of plant growth and development. A number of synthetic compounds have been shown to block the process of auxin transport by inhibition of the auxin efflux carrier complex. These synthetic auxin transport inhibitors may act by mimicking endogenous molecules. Flavonoids, a class of secondary plant metabolic compounds, have been suggested to be auxin transport inhibitors based on their in vitro activity. The hypothesis that flavonoids regulate auxin transport in vivo was tested in Arabidopsis by comparing wild-type (WT) and transparent testa (tt4) plants with a mutation in the gene encoding the first enzyme in flavonoid biosynthesis, chalcone synthase. In a comparison between tt4 and WT plants, phenotypic differences were observed, including three times as many secondary inflorescence stems, reduced plant height, decreased stem diameter, and increased secondary root development. Growth of WT Arabidopsis plants on naringenin, a biosynthetic precursor to those flavonoids with auxin transport inhibitor activity in vitro, leads to a reduction in root growth and gravitropism, similar to the effects of synthetic auxin transport inhibitors. Analyses of auxin transport in the inflorescence and hypocotyl of independent tt4 alleles indicate that auxin transport is elevated in plants with a tt4 mutation. In hypocotyls of tt4, this elevated transport is reversed when flavonoids are synthesized by growth of plants on the flavonoid precursor, naringenin. These results are consistent with a role for flavonoids as endogenous regulators of auxin transport.

  7. Flavonoids: a metabolic network mediating plants adaptation to their real estate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouradov, Aidyn; Spangenberg, German

    2014-01-01

    From an evolutionary perspective, the emergence of the sophisticated chemical scaffolds of flavonoid molecules represents a key step in the colonization of Earth's terrestrial environment by vascular plants nearly 500 million years ago. The subsequent evolution of flavonoids through recruitment and modification of ancestors involved in primary metabolism has allowed vascular plants to cope with pathogen invasion and damaging UV light. The functional properties of flavonoids as a unique combination of different classes of compounds vary significantly depending on the demands of their local real estate. Apart from geographical location, the composition of flavonoids is largely dependent on the plant species, their developmental stage, tissue type, subcellular localization, and key ecological influences of both biotic and abiotic origin. Molecular and metabolic cross-talk between flavonoid and other pathways as a result of the re-direction of intermediate molecules have been well investigated. This metabolic plasticity is a key factor in plant adaptive strength and is of paramount importance for early land plants adaptation to their local ecosystems. In human and animal health the biological and pharmacological activities of flavonoids have been investigated in great depth and have shown a wide range of anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, and anti-cancer properties. In this paper we review the application of advanced gene technologies for targeted reprogramming of the flavonoid pathway in plants to understand its molecular functions and explore opportunities for major improvements in forage plants enhancing animal health and production.

  8. Flavonoids as Putative Inducers of the Transcription Factors Nrf2, FoxO, and PPARγ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Pallauf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary flavonoids have been shown to extend the lifespan of some model organisms and may delay the onset of chronic ageing-related diseases. Mechanistically, the effects could be explained by the compounds scavenging free radicals or modulating signalling pathways. Transcription factors Nrf2, FoxO, and PPARγ possibly affect ageing by regulating stress response, adipogenesis, and insulin sensitivity. Using Hek-293 cells transfected with luciferase reporter constructs, we tested the potency of flavonoids from different subclasses (flavonols, flavones, flavanols, and isoflavones to activate these transcription factors. Under cell-free conditions (ABTS and FRAP assays, we tested their free radical scavenging activities and used α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid as positive controls. Most of the tested flavonoids, but not the antioxidant vitamins, stimulated Nrf2-, FoxO-, and PPARγ-dependent promoter activities. Flavonoids activating Nrf2 also tended to induce a FoxO and PPARγ response. Interestingly, activation patterns of cellular stress response by flavonoids were not mirrored by their activities in ABTS and FRAP assays, which depended mostly on hydroxylation in the flavonoid B ring and, in some cases, extended that of the vitamins. In conclusion, the free radical scavenging properties of flavonoids do not predict whether these molecules can stimulate a cellular response linked to activation of longevity-associated transcription factors.

  9. Flavonoids: A Metabolic Network Mediating Plants Adaptation to Their Real Estate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidyn eMouradov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available From an evolutionary perspective, the emergence of the sophisticated chemical scaffolds of flavonoid molecules represents a key step in the colonization of Earth’s terrestrial environment by vascular plants nearly 500 million years ago. The subsequent evolution of flavonoids through recruitment and modification of ancestors involved in primary metabolism has allowed vascular plants to cope with pathogen invasion and damaging UV light. The functional properties of flavonoids as a unique combination of different classes of compounds vary significantly depending on the demands of their local real estate. Apart from geographical location, the composition of flavonoids is largely dependent on the plant species, their developmental stage, tissue type, subcellular localization, and key ecological influences of both biotic and abiotic origin. Molecular and metabolic cross-talk between flavonoid and other pathways as a result of the re-direction of intermediate molecules have been well investigated. This metabolic plasticity is a key factor in plant adaptive strength and is of paramount importance for early land plants adaptation to their local ecosystems. In human and animal health the biological and pharmacological activities of flavonoids have been investigated in great depth and have shown a wide range of anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial and anti-cancer properties. In this paper we review the application of advanced gene technologies for targeted reprogramming of the flavonoid pathway in plants to understand its molecular functions and explore opportunities for major improvements in forage plants enhancing animal health and production.

  10. Effects of Acute Blueberry Flavonoids on Mood in Children and Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundus Khalid

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological evidence suggests that consumption of flavonoids (usually via fruits and vegetables is associated with decreased risk of developing depression. One plausible explanation for this association is the well-documented beneficial effects of flavonoids on executive function (EF. Impaired EF is linked to cognitive processes (e.g., rumination that maintain depression and low mood; therefore, improved EF may reduce depressionogenic cognitive processes and improve mood. Study 1: 21 young adults (18–21 years old consumed a flavonoid-rich blueberry drink and a matched placebo in a counterbalanced cross-over design. Study 2: 50 children (7–10 years old were randomly assigned to a flavonoid-rich blueberry drink or a matched placebo. In both studies, participants and researchers were blind to the experimental condition, and mood was assessed using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule before and 2 h after consumption of the drinks. In both studies, the blueberry intervention increased positive affect (significant drink by session interaction but had no effect on negative affect. This observed effect of flavonoids on positive affect in two independent samples is of potential practical value in improving public health. If the effect of flavonoids on positive affect is replicated, further investigation will be needed to identify the mechanisms that link flavonoid interventions with improved positive mood.

  11. Isolation and Antimicrobial Activity of Flavonoid Compounds from Mahagony Seeds (Swietenia macrophylla, King)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mursiti, S.; Supartono

    2017-02-01

    Flavonoid is one of the secondary metabolites compounds in mahogany seeds. Mahogany seeds can be used as an antimicrobial. This study aims to determine the antimicrobial activity of flavonoid compounds from mahogany seeds against Escherichia coli (E.coli) and Bacillus cereus (B.cereus). Isolation of flavonoid compounds done step by step. First, the maceration using n-hexane, then with methanol. The methanol extract was dissolved in ethyl acetate and aquadest, then separated. Ethyl acetate extract evaporated Flavonoid compounds were. The testing of antimicrobial activity of flavonoid compounds using the absorption method. The results showed that the antimicrobial activity of flavonoid compounds from mahogany seeds shows the inhibitory activity and provide clear zone against bacteria E.coli with value Inhibitory Regional Diameter 18.50 mm respectively, and 14.50 mm to the bacteria. Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that flavonoid compounds from mahogany seeds have antimicrobial activity against E.coli and B.cereus.

  12. Mechanism of inhibition of human secretory phospholipase A2 by flavonoids: rationale for lead design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lättig, Jens; Böhl, Markus; Fischer, Petra; Tischer, Sandra; Tietböhl, Claudia; Menschikowski, Mario; Gutzeit, Herwig O.; Metz, Peter; Pisabarro, M. Teresa

    2007-08-01

    The human secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (PLA2-IIA) is a lipolytic enzyme. Its inhibition leads to a decrease in eicosanoids levels and, thereby, to reduced inflammation. Therefore, PLA2-IIA is of high pharmacological interest in treatment of chronic diseases such as asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. Quercetin and naringenin, amongst other flavonoids, are known for their anti-inflammatory activity by modulation of enzymes of the arachidonic acid cascade. However, the mechanism by which flavonoids inhibit Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) remained unclear so far. Flavonoids are widely produced in plant tissues and, thereby, suitable targets for pharmaceutical extractions and chemical syntheses. Our work focuses on understanding the binding modes of flavonoids to PLA2, their inhibition mechanism and the rationale to modify them to obtain potent and specific inhibitors. Our computational and experimental studies focused on a set of 24 compounds including natural flavonoids and naringenin-based derivatives. Experimental results on PLA2-inhibition showed good inhibitory activity for quercetin, kaempferol, and galangin, but relatively poor for naringenin. Several naringenin derivatives were synthesized and tested for affinity and inhibitory activity improvement. 6-(1,1-dimethylallyl)naringenin revealed comparable PLA2 inhibition to quercetin-like compounds. We characterized the binding mode of these compounds and the determinants for their affinity, selectivity, and inhibitory potency. Based on our results, we suggest C(6) as the most promising position of the flavonoid scaffold to introduce chemical modifications to improve affinity, selectivity, and inhibition of PLA2-IIA by flavonoids.

  13. Nature and consequences of non-covalent interactions between flavonoids and macronutrients in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordenave, Nicolas; Hamaker, Bruce R; Ferruzzi, Mario G

    2014-01-01

    Many of the potential health benefits of flavonoids have been associated with their specific chemical and biological properties including their ability to interact and bind non-covalently to macronutrients in foods. While flavonoid-protein interactions and binding have been the subject of intensive study, significantly less is understood about non-covalent interactions with carbohydrates and lipids. These interactions with macronutrients are likely to impact both the flavonoid properties in foods, such as their radical scavenging activity, and the food or beverage matrix itself, including their taste, texture and other sensorial properties. Overall, non-covalent binding of flavonoids with macronutrients is primarily driven by van der Waals interactions. From the flavonoid perspective, these interactions are modulated by characteristics such as degree of polymerization, molecular flexibility, number of external hydroxyl groups, or number of terminal galloyl groups. From the macronutrient standpoint, electrostatic and ionic interactions are generally predominant with carbohydrates, while hydrophobic interactions are generally predominant with lipids and mainly limited to interactions with flavonols. All of these interactions are involved in flavonoid-protein interactions. While primarily associated with undesirable characteristics in foods and beverages, such as astringency, negative impact on macronutrient digestibility and hazing, more recent efforts have attempted to leverage these interactions to develop controlled delivery systems or strategies to enhance flavonoids bioavailability. This paper aims at reviewing the fundamental bases for non-covalent interactions, their occurrence in food and beverage systems and their impact on the physico-chemical, organoleptic and some nutritional properties of food.

  14. Antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids after in vitro digestion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Tao; Wang, Ye; Li, Yu-ting; Gowd, Vemana; Niu, Xin-he; Yang, Hai-ying; Chen, Li-shui; Chen, Wei; Sun, Chong-de

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress and diabetes have a tendency to alter protein, lipid, and DNA moieties. One of the strategic methods used to reduce diabetes-associated oxidative stress is to inhibit the carbohydrate-digesting enzymes, thereby decreasing gastrointestinal glucose production. Plant-derived natural antioxidant molecules are considered a therapeutic tool in the treatment of oxidative stress and diabetes. The objective of this study was to identify tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids and evaluate the effect of in vitro digestion on their antioxidant and antidiabetic properties. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated the presence of rutin as a major component and quercitrin as a minor component of both digested and non-digested flavonoids. Both extracts showed a significant antioxidant capacity, but digested flavonoids showed reduced activity compared to non-digested. There were some decreases of the antioxidant activities (2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) radical, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)) of digested tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids compared with non-digested. Flavonoids from both groups significantly inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and α-glucosidase activity. Both digested and non-digested flavonoids markedly increased glucose consumption and glycogen content in HepG2 cells. Tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids showed appreciable antioxidant and antidiabetic properties, even after digestion. Tartary buckwheat rice appears to be a promising functional food with potent antioxidant and antidiabetic properties. PMID:27921399

  15. Pathway Analysis Revealed Potential Diverse Health Impacts of Flavonoids that Bind Estrogen Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Ye

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are frequently used as dietary supplements in the absence of research evidence regarding health benefits or toxicity. Furthermore, ingested doses could far exceed those received from diet in the course of normal living. Some flavonoids exhibit binding to estrogen receptors (ERs with consequential vigilance by regulatory authorities at the U.S. EPA and FDA. Regulatory authorities must consider both beneficial claims and potential adverse effects, warranting the increases in research that has spanned almost two decades. Here, we report pathway enrichment of 14 targets from the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD and the Herbal Ingredients’ Targets (HIT database for 22 flavonoids that bind ERs. The selected flavonoids are confirmed ER binders from our earlier studies, and were here found in mainly involved in three types of biological processes, ER regulation, estrogen metabolism and synthesis, and apoptosis. Besides cancers, we conjecture that the flavonoids may affect several diseases via apoptosis pathways. Diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, viral myocarditis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease could be implicated. More generally, apoptosis processes may be importantly evolved biological functions of flavonoids that bind ERs and high dose ingestion of those flavonoids could adversely disrupt the cellular apoptosis process.

  16. Flavonoids modify root growth and modulate expression of SHORT-ROOT and HD-ZIP III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Danilo Miralha; Silva, Eder Marques; Saldanha, Luiz Leonardo; Adachi, Sérgio Akira; Schley, Thayssa Rabelo; Rodrigues, Tatiane Maria; Dokkedal, Anne Ligia; Nogueira, Fabio Tebaldi Silveira; Rolim de Almeida, Luiz Fernando

    2015-09-01

    Flavonoids are a class of distinct compounds produced by plant secondary metabolism that inhibit or promote plant development and have a relationship with auxin transport. We showed that, in terms of root development, Copaifera langsdorffii leaf extracts has an inhibitory effect on most flavonoid components compared with the application of exogenous flavonoids (glycosides and aglycones). These compounds alter the pattern of expression of the SHORT-ROOT and HD-ZIP III transcription factor gene family and cause morpho-physiological alterations in sorghum roots. In addition, to examine the flavonoid auxin interaction in stress, we correlated the responses with the effects of exogenous application of auxin and an auxin transport inhibitor. The results show that exogenous flavonoids inhibit primary root growth and increase the development of lateral roots. Exogenous flavonoids also change the pattern of expression of specific genes associated with root tissue differentiation. These findings indicate that flavonoid glycosides can influence the polar transport of auxin, leading to stress responses that depend on auxin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Formas de uso medicinal da babosa e camomila pela população urbana de Cascavel, Estado do Paraná = Medicinal use of the Aloe and Chamomile for the urban population of Cascavel, Paraná State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Tatiana Araujo da Cruz-Silva

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A etnobotânica se caracteriza por buscar entender a relação entre as plantas e o homem, podendo-se através desta conhecer a utilização das plantas medicinais como forma de tratamento. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um levantamento sobre as formas de utilização da Babosa (Aloe vera L. e da Camomila (Matricaria chamomilla L.. A coleta de dados envolveu entrevistas de forma aleatória a 400 pessoas, através de um questionário semi-estruturado, no município de Cascavel, Estado do Paraná. Observou-se que 65% da população utilizam à babosa ou a camomila na cura ou alívio de doenças. A maioria dosentrevistados possui renda de 2 a 4 salários mínimos (60,25%, idade entre 28 a 38 anos (30,75%, tendo concluído o ensino médio (33,75%. O principal motivo pelo qual a população se utiliza de plantas medicinais é por ser natural (71,84%. A forma de preparo mais freqüente da camomila foi por infusão (63,38%, utilizando as flores (92%. Para a babosa 100% utilizam suas folhas na forma de cataplasma (43,88%. Apenas 3% da população relataram ter apresentado algum tipo de reação adversa, durante o período de utilização. Conclui-se que o uso destas plantas pela população é freqüente, sendo um recurso adicional ao uso de medicamentos.The ethnobotany, which is characterized by look for to understand the relationship between the plants and the man, being been able through this to know the use of the medicinal plants as treatment. The objective of this work was to accomplish a rising on the forms of use of the Aloe (Aloe vera L. and of the Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.. The collection of data involved interviews in a random way to a sample of 400 people through a semi-structured questionnaire, in the city of Cascavel, Paraná State. It was observed that 65% of the population use to aloe or the chamomile in the cure or relief of diseases. Most of the interviewees possesses income from 2 to 4 minimum wages (60.25%, age

  18. Eriosema (Fabaceae) Species Represent a Rich Source of Flavonoids with Interesting Pharmacological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awouafack, Maurice Ducret; Tane, Pierre; Spiteller, Michael; Eloff, Jacobus Nicolaas

    2015-07-01

    Many flavonoids have so far been isolated as main secondary metabolites in plant species of the genus Eriosema (Fabaceae), which contains approximately 160 species. A total of 52 flavonoids including isoflavones, dihydroflavonols, flavonols, flavanones, dihydrochalcones, isoflavanone and their pyrano or glucoside derivatives were isolated and characterized from the five species of this genus investigated to date. Total synthesis and semi-synthesis (acetylation, methylation, hydrogenation, and cyclization) of some isolated flavonoids were reported. Due to several significant pharmacological properties (antimicrobial, cytotoxicity, anti-mycobacterial, antioxidant, antiviral, erectile-dysfunction, vasodilatory and hypoglycemic) of the isolated flavonoids and derivatives, more scientists should be interested in investigating Eriosema species. The present review is the first to document all flavonoids that have been reported from the genus Eriosema to date together with their synthetic and semi-synthetic derivatives, and their pharmacological properties. Dihydrochalcones, which are precursors of other classes of flavonoids, are very rare in natural sources and their isolation from Eriosema species may explain the large number of flavonoids found in this genus. It appears that isoflavone could be a marker for species in this genus. The 83 flavonoids (1-83) documented include 52 isolates, 31 semi-synthetic and 3 totally synthetic derivatives. Data were obtained from Google scholar, Pubmed, Scifinder, Sciencedirect, and Scopus. With 52 different flavonoids isolated from only 5 of the approximately 160 species it shows the remarkable chemical diversity of this genus. This compilation of the biological activities and chemical composition may renew the interest of pharmacologists and phytochemists in this genus.

  19. A chemical profiling strategy for semi-quantitative analysis of flavonoids in Ginkgo extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Wang, An-Qi; Li, Xue-Jing; Fan, Xue; Yin, Shan-Shan; Lan, Ke

    2016-05-10

    Flavonoids analysis in herbal products is challenged by their vast chemical diversity. This work aimed to develop a chemical profiling strategy for the semi-quantification of flavonoids using extracts of Ginkgo biloba L. (EGB) as an example. The strategy was based on the principle that flavonoids in EGB have an almost equivalent molecular absorption coefficient at a fixed wavelength. As a result, the molecular-contents of flavonoids were able to be semi-quantitatively determined by the molecular-concentration calibration curves of common standards and recalculated as the mass-contents with the characterized molecular weight (MW). Twenty batches of EGB were subjected to HPLC-UV/DAD/MS fingerprinting analysis to test the feasibility and reliability of this strategy. The flavonoid peaks were distinguished from the other peaks with principle component analysis and Pearson correlation analysis of the normalized UV spectrometric dataset. Each flavonoid peak was subsequently tentatively identified by the MS data to ascertain their MW. It was highlighted that the flavonoids absorption at Band-II (240-280 nm) was more suitable for the semi-quantification purpose because of the less variation compared to that at Band-I (300-380 nm). The semi-quantification was therefore conducted at 254 nm. Beyond the qualitative comparison results acquired by common chemical profiling techniques, the semi-quantitative approach presented the detailed compositional information of flavonoids in EGB and demonstrated how the adulteration of one batch was achieved. The developed strategy was believed to be useful for the advanced analysis of herbal extracts with a high flavonoid content without laborious identification and isolation of individual components. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ultraviolet-B radiation modifies the quantitative and qualitative profile of flavonoids and amino acids in grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lüscher, J; Torres, N; Hilbert, G; Richard, T; Sánchez-Díaz, M; Delrot, S; Aguirreolea, J; Pascual, I; Gomès, E

    2014-06-01

    Grapevine cv. Tempranillo fruit-bearing cuttings were exposed to supplemental ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation under controlled conditions, in order to study its effect on grape traits, ripening, amino acids and flavonoid profile. The plants were exposed to two doses of UV-B biologically effective (5.98 and 9.66kJm(-2)d(-1)), applied either from fruit set to ripeness or from the onset of veraison to ripeness. A 0kJm(-2)d(-1) treatment was included as a control. UV-B did not significantly modify grape berry size, but increased the relative mass of berry skin. Time to reach ripeness was not affected by UV-B, which may explain the lack of changes in technological maturity. The concentration of must extractable anthocyanins, colour density and skin flavonols were enhanced by UV-B, especially in plants exposed from fruit set. The quantitative and qualitative profile of grape skin flavonols were modified by UV-B radiation. Monosubstituted flavonols relative abundance increased proportionally to the accumulated UV-B doses. Furthermore, trisubstituted forms, which where predominant in non-exposed berries, were less abundant as UV-B exposure increased. Although total free amino acid content remained unaffected by the treatments, the increased levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), as well as the decrease in threonine, isoleucine, methionine, serine and glycine, revealed a potential influence of UV-B on the GABA-mediated signalling and amino acid metabolism. UV-B had an overall positive impact on grape berry composition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dynamic changes of flavonoids in Actinidia valvata leaves at different growing stages measured by HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DU, Qiao-Hui; Zhang, Qiao-Yan; Han, Ting; Jiang, Yi-Ping; Peng, Cheng; Xin, Hai-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are a large group of phenolic secondary metabolites havinga wide range of biochemical and pharmacological effects. Quantitative analysis of flavonoid profiles in the genus Actinidia, which has not been intensively conducted, is useful to a better understanding of the pattern and distribution of flavonoids. In the present work, a liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed to profile the flavonoids, which was then used to determine the dynamic change of 17 biologically active flavonoids in the leaves of Actinidia valvata at the main growing stages, including glucuronides and acylated di- and triglycosides of flavonoids. The contents of flavonoid triglycosides were significantly higher than other flavonoids. The highest concentrations of kaemperol glycosides were observed in June, while other flavonoids showed highest concentrations in October. On the other hand, the contents of four isorhamnetin glycosides were increased sharply in September to October. The flavonoid profiles seem to be related to temperature, UV-B, and water deficit. Further studies are required to examine the functions of flavonoids in the Actinidia valvata and the underlying molecular mechanisms of actions. Copyright © 2016 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Flavonoids biosynthesis in plants and its further analysis by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Baljinder; Kumar, Ashwini; Malik, Ashok Kumar

    2017-03-01

    Flavonoids represent an important bioactive component in plants. Accumulation of flavonoids often occurs in plants subjected to abiotic stresses, including the adaptation of plants to the environment and in overcoming their stress conditions. This fact makes their analysis and determination an attractive field in food science since they can give interesting information on the quality and safety of foods. In this study, we discuss reports on plants flavonoids biosynthesis against abiotic stresses and advances in analytical capillary electrophoresis used for their identification and quantification in plants. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Isolation of flavonoids from apple peel using novel graphene oxide cotton fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z; Peng, R; Chen, X; Ghosh, R; Rupasinghe, H P V

    2017-11-01

    A novel graphene oxide cotton fibre (GOF) was used to adsorb flavonoids from crude ethanol extracts derived from apple peels. Ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to analyse polyphenol content, and the resulting data demonstrated that GOF-based flash chromatography can be used to efficiently separate polyphenols from sugars and can facilitate the removal of 95% of the sugar content. Flavonoids can be easily separated from phenolic acids. Chalcones and flavonols were eluted with 100% methanol and subsequently flavan-3-ols can be eluted with 0.04 M sodium hydroxide. The novel GOF has the potential to be used in the isolation of flavonoids.

  4. Fate in Soil of Flavonoids Released from White Clover (Trifolium repens L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Sandra C. K.; Pedersen, Hans A.; Spliid, Niels H.

    2012-01-01

    the presence in soil of bioactive secondary metabolites from clover has received limited attention. In this paper we examine for the first time the release of flavonoids both from field-grown white clover and from soil-incorporated white clover plants of flavonoids, as analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The dominant...... flavonoid aglycones were formononetin, medicarpin, and kaempferol. Soil-incorporated white clover plants generated high concentrations of the glycosides kaempferol-Rha-Xyl-Gal and quercetin-Xyl-Gal. Substantial amounts of kaempferol persisted in the soil for days while the other compounds were degraded...

  5. Flavonoids can protect maize DNA from the induction of ultraviolet radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapleton, A.E.; Walbot, V.

    1994-01-01

    Diverse flavonoid compounds are widely distributed in angiosperm families. Flavonoids absorb radiation in the ultraviolet (UV) region of the spectrum, and it has been proposed that these compounds function as UV filters. We demonstrate that the DNA in Zea mays plants that contain flavonoids (primarily anthocyanins) is protected from the induction of damage caused by UV radiation relative to the DNA in plants that are genetically deficient in these compounds. DNA damage was measured with a sensitive and simple assay using individual monoclonal antibodies, one specific for cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer damage and the other specific for pyrimidine(6,4)pyrimidone damage. (author)

  6. Potential antioxidant Bauhinia Leaves and Bark kalbreyeri Harms: Contribution of your Flavonoids in this activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, Heidy F; Sanchez, Wilmer F; Mendez A John; Murillo P, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    In this study the antioxidant and antitrosative capacity of the extracts and isolated flavonoids from the leaves and bark of Bauhinia kalbreyeri Harms (Cow Hoof. Fabaceae) was examinated. The extracts showed high antioxidant and antinitrosative functionality, while the flavonoids ability to capture metals and inhibit the NO. Significative differences were found among the extracts, and into those and the flavonoids fractions (p < 0.05). The antioxidant activity of the plant seems to be based in the whole phenolic derivatives. The results obtained indicate that the antioxidant potential of B. kalbreyeri is comparable with the Butylated Hydroxytoluene and the ascorbic acid used as antioxidants by the food and pharmaceutical industry.

  7. Structure-antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids isolated from the resinous exudate of Heliotropium sinuatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Brenda; Contreras, M Leonor; González-Nilo, Fernando; Torres, René

    2005-01-17

    Relationships between the structural characteristics of flavonoids isolated from the resinous exudate of Heliotropium sinuatum and their antioxidant activity were studied. Radical formation energies, DeltaH of dehydrogenation and spin densities were calculated using DFT methods (B3LYP/6-31G*). Results show that studied flavonoids can be divided into two sets according to their activity. It has been found that antioxidant activity depends both on substitution pattern of hydroxyl groups of the flavonoid skeleton and the presence of an unsaturation at the C2-C3 bond. A good tendency between DeltaH of dehydrogenation and antioxidant activity was established.

  8. Isolation And Purification Of Flavonoids From The Leaves Of Locally Produced Carica Papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahaya Mobmi Musa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The leaves of Carica papaya 150g was defatted with N-Hexane and extracted with Methanol. The N-Hexane exract showed the presence of Flavonoid Saponin Tannin Glycoside Anthraquinone Resin and Steroid while Methanolic extract showed the presence of Flavonoid Saponin and Resins. 6g of the Methanolic extract was chromatographed using Column chromatography over Silica gel of column 200g60-200 mesh and eluted with the solvent mixture of CH2Cl2CH3OH H2O in the ratio of 70301. The yield of the isolated Flavonoid was 0.23.

  9. Human colon cancer HT-29 cell death responses to doxorubicin and Morus Alba leaves flavonoid extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, S; Karimi, A; Panahi, G; Gerayesh Nejad, S; Fadaei, R; Seifi, M

    2016-03-31

    The mechanistic basis for the biological properties of Morus alba flavonoid extract (MFE) and chemotherapy drug of doxorubicin on human colon cancer HT-29 cell line death are unknown. The effect of doxorubicin and flavonoid extract on colon cancer HT-29 cell line death and identification of APC gene expression and PARP concentration of HT-29 cell line were investigated. The results showed that flavonoid extract and doxorubicin induce a dose dependent cell death in HT-29 cell line. MFE and doxorubicin exert a cytotoxic effect on human colon cancer HT-29 cell line by probably promoting or induction of apoptosis.

  10. The Association Between Dietary Flavonoid and Lignan Intakes and Incident Type 2 Diabetes in European Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Forouhi, Nita G.; Sharp, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the association between dietary flavonoid and lignan intakes, and the risk of development of type 2 diabetes among European populations.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-InterAct case-cohort study included 12,403 incide...... demonstrate inverse associations between flavonoids, particularly flavanols and flavonols, and incident type 2 diabetes. This suggests a potential protective role of eating a diet rich in flavonoids, a dietary pattern based on plant-based foods, in the prevention of type 2 diabetes....

  11. Survey of content of cadmium, calcium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, mercury, sodium and zinc in chamomile and green tea leaves by electrothermal or flame atomizer atomic absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prkić Ante

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the simplicity of tea preparation (pouring hot water onto different dried herbs and its high popularity as a beverage, monitoring and developing a screening methodology for detecting the metal content is very important. The concentrations of Cd, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mg, Mn, Hg, Na and Zn in 8 samples of green tea (Camellia sinesis and in 11 samples chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L. purchased both at local herbal pharmacies and supermarkets were determined using electrothermal atomizer atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS and flame atomizer atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS. The found concentrations in chamomile were: Cd (0.008 – 284 mg kg−1, Ca (2.42 – 6.29%, Cr (0.91 – 6.92 mg kg−1, Cu (6.27 – 11.39 mg kg−1, Fe (133.5 – 534 mg kg−1, Pb (0.561 – 1.277 mg kg−1, Mg (2.27 – 3.73%, Mn (62.2 – 165.6 mg kg−1, Hg (0.660 – 1.346 μg kg−1, Na (0.91 – 1.28% and Zn (63.37 – 108.5 mg kg−1, in green tea Cd (36.29 – 202.1 mg kg−1, Ca (2.77 – 6.40%, Cr (1.520 – 5.278 mg kg−1, Cu (9.354 – 22.56 mg kg−1, Fe (162.6 – 513.3 mg kg−1, Pb (1.808 – 4.770 mg kg−1, Mg (1.41 – 2.62 %, Mn (1.147 – 1.729 g kg−1, Hg (1.045 – 2.802 μg kg−1, Na (0.44 – 0.98% and Zn (30.65 – 115.6 mg kg−1, respectively. Principal Component Analysis (PCA was applied to identify factors (soil, climate and country of origin influencing the content of the measured elements in herbal samples. The proposed methodology developed in this work was successfully applied to the detection of metals in herbal samples. The analysis showed that the content of toxic metals in green tea samples was significantly higher and very close to the maximum dose recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO.

  12. Qualidade fisiológica de sementes de camomila [Chamomilla recutita (L. Rauschert] após envelhecimento acelerado e estresse salino Physiological quality of chamomile [Chamomilla recutita (L. Rauschert] seeds after accelerated aging and salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G Rollwagen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar a qualidade fisiológica de sementes da camomila submetidas a diferentes tempos de envelhecimento acelerado e ao estresse salino. Os experimentos foram realizados no Laboratório de Técnica de Sementes na PUCPR em São José dos Pinhais, Paraná. Os tempos de envelhecimento acelerado foram de 0, 24, 48, 72 e 96 h e o estresse salino foi induzido por soluções de cloreto de sódio com potenciais osmóticos de 0; -0,2; -0,4; -0,6; -0,8; -1,0 MPa, ambos com quatro repetições. Foram avaliados a germinação, o índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG, o tempo médio de germinação (TMG, a velocidade media de germinação (VMG e a entropia. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos casualizados . Concluiu-se que as sementes de camomila tiveram sua qualidade fisiológica afetada após 24h de envelhecimento acelerado e sob estresse salino causado por solução de potencial osmótico de -0,6 MPaThe aim of this study was to verify the physiological quality of chamomile seeds subjected to different accelerated aging periods and salt stress. The experiments were carried out in the Laboratory of Seed Technique, PUCPR, São José dos Pinhais, Paraná State, Brazil. The accelerated aging periods were 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h and the salt stress was induced by sodium chloride solutions with osmotic potentials of 0, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, -0.8, -1.0 MPa, both with four replicates. The analyzed variables were: germination, germination velocity index (GVI, average germination time (AGT, average germination velocity (AGV and entropy. Experimental design was in randomized blocks. Chamomile seeds had their physiological quality affected after 24 h of accelerated aging and under salt stress caused by the solution with osmotic potential of -0.6 MPa

  13. SERS study of riboflavin on green-synthesized silver nanoparticles prepared by reduction using different flavonoids: What is the role of flavonoid used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švecová, Marie; Ulbrich, Pavel; Dendisová, Marcela; Matějka, Pavel

    2018-04-01

    Spectroscopy of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is nowadays widely used in the field of bio-science and medicine. These applications require new enhancing substrates with special properties. They should be non-toxic, environmentally friendly and (bio-) compatible with examined samples. Flavonoids are natural antioxidants with many positive effects on human health. Simultaneously, they can be used as reducing agent in preparation procedure of plasmonic enhancing substrate for SERS spectroscopy. The best amplifiers of Raman vibrational spectroscopic signal are generally silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). In this study, several flavonoids (forming a logical set) were used as reducing agent in AgNPs preparation procedures. Reactivity of 10 structurally arranged flavonoids (namely flavone, chrysin, apigenin, luteolin, tricetin, 3-hydroxyflavone, galangin, kaempferol, quercetin and myricetin) was compared and SERS-activity of prepared AgNPs was tested using model analyte riboflavin. Riboflavin was detected down to concentration 10-9 mol/l.

  14. Spectrophotometric analysis of flavonoid-DNA binding interactions at physiological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjua, Naveed Kausar; Siddiqa, Asima; Yaqub, Azra; Sabahat, Sana; Qureshi, Rumana; Haque, Sayed ul

    2009-12-01

    Mode of interactions of three flavonoids [morin (M), quercetin (Q), and rutin (R)] with chicken blood ds.DNA (ck.DNA) has been investigated spectrophotometrically at different temperatures including body temperature (310 K) and at two physiological pH values, i.e. 7.4 (human blood pH) and 4.7 (stomach pH). The binding constants, Kf, evaluated using Benesi-Hildebrand equation showed that the flavonoids bind effectively through intercalation at both pH values and body temperature. Quercetin, somehow, showed greater binding capabilities with DNA. The free energies of flavonoid-DNA complexes indicated the spontaneity of their binding. The order of binding constants of three flavonoids at both pH values were found to be Kf(Q) > Kf(R) > Kf(M) and at 310 K.

  15. C-Geranylated flavonoids from Paulownia tomentosa fruits with antimicrobial potential and synergistic activity with antibiotics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátilová, A.; Nešuta, Ondřej; Vančatová, I.; Čížek, A.; Varela-M, R. E.; López-Abán, J.; Villa-Pulgarin, J. A.; Mollinedo, F.; Muro, A.; Žemličková, H.; Kadlecová, D.; Šmejkal, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 8 (2016), s. 1398-1407 ISSN 1388-0209 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : flavonoid * geranyl * Leishmania * MRSA * synergy Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 1.916, year: 2016

  16. Gamma radiation induced enhancement in the antioxidant and radioprotective activities of flavonoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arul Anantha Kumar, A.; Sonwani, Swetha; Bakkiam, D.

    2018-01-01

    Recently γ-radiation has been used as a tool to induce structural changes in natural biomolecules to enhance their biological and physiological properties. Flavonoids are a family of plant derived polyphenolic compounds having considerable scientific and therapeutic importance. Structurally they are the benzo-γ-pyrone derivatives containing phenolic and pyrane rings. Flavonoid radioprotection is an intense area of research thanks to features like natural origin, effectiveness at non-toxic dose levels and lack of side effects. But till date no report is available on the effect of γ-radiation mediated enhancement in radioprotection activity of flavonoids. In view of this the present study was carried out to determine the γ-radiation induced structural changes in selected flavonoids i.e. apigenin, naringenin and genistein and also to explore the possibility of enhancement in their antioxidant and radioprotective activities

  17. Sinapate esters provide greater UV-B attenuation than flavonoids in Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheahan, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    Mutants affected in flavonoid (tt4) or sinapate ester (fah1) biosynthesis were used to assess the relative importance of these phenolic UV photoprotectants in Arabidopsis. Flavonoid and sinapate ester absorption was more specific for UV-B than major nonphenolic chromophores in crude extracts. A new method of evaluating phenolic UV-B attenuation was developed using fluorescence analysis. When excited by UV-B, sinapate ester containing leaves and cotyledons had enhanced sinapate ester fluorescence and reduced chlorophyll fluorescence relative to those without sinapate esters. Although fluorescence analysis gave no evidence of UV-B attenuation by flavonoids, enhanced chlorophyll and protein loss were observed upon UV-B exposure in flavonoid-deficient leaves, suggesting they have another mechanism of UV-B protection. The hydroxycinnamates have been largely ignored as UV-B attenuating pigments. and the results indicate that greater attention should be paid to their role in attenuating UV-B

  18. Differential effects of dietary flavonoids on drug metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in female rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, V.; Lauridsen, S.T.; Dragsted, L.O.

    1999-01-01

    1. Gavage administration of the natural flavonoids tangeretin, chrysin, apigenin, naringenin, genistein and quercetin for 2 consecutive weeks to the female rat resulted in differential effects on selected phase 1 and 2 enzymes in liver, colon and heart as well as antioxidant enzymes in red brood......) significantly protected against, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-induced oxidative stress. Hepatic PhIP-DNA adduct formation was not affected by any of the administered flavonoids, whereas PhIP-DNA adduct formation in colon was slightly, but significantly, inhibited by quercetin......, genistein, tangeretin and BNF. 5. The observed effects of chrysin, quercetin and genistein on antioxidant enzymes, concurrently with a protection against oxidative stress, suggest a feedback mechanism on the antioxidant enzymes triggered by the flavonoid antioxidants. 6. Despite the use of high flavonoid...

  19. Subcritical ethanol extraction of flavonoids from Moringa oleifera leaf and evaluation of antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Yujie; Ding, Hui; Liu, Shejiang; Han, Xu; Gui, Jianzhou; Liu, Dan

    2017-03-01

    A large-scale process to extract flavonoids from Moringa oleifera leaf by subcritical ethanol was developed and HPLC-MS analysis was conducted to qualitatively identify the compounds in the extracts. To optimize the effects of process parameters on the yield of flavonoids, a Box-Behnken design combined with response surface methodology was conducted in the present work. The results indicated that the highest extraction yield of flavonoids by subcritical ethanol extraction could reach 2.60% using 70% ethanol at 126.6°C for 2.05h extraction. Under the optimized conditions, flavonoids yield was substantially improved by 26.7% compared with the traditional ethanol reflux method while the extraction time was only 2h, and obvious energy saving was observed. FRAP and DPPH assays showed that the extracts had strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Flavonoids inhibit myelin phagocytosis by macrophages; a structure-activity relationship study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Jerome J. A.; de Vries, Helga E.; van der Pol, Susanne M. A.; van den Berg, Timo K.; van Tol, Eric A. F.; Dijkstra, Christine D.

    2003-01-01

    Demyelination is a characteristic hallmark of the neuro-inflammatory disease multiple sclerosis. During demyelination, macrophages phagocytose myelin and secrete inflammatory mediators that worsen the disease. Here, we investigated whether flavonoids, naturally occurring immunomodulating compounds,