Sample records for chamisso hariot phaeophyta

  1. Botaanikud Chamisso ja Eschscholtz Californias / Tiiu Speek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Speek, Tiiu, 1958-


    Loodusteadlaste A. von Chamisso ja J. Fr. Eschscholtzi osalemisest O. von Kotzebue ekspeditsioonidel (1815-1818 ning 1823-1826); reisidel kogutud ja kirjeldatud USA lääneosa ja California taimeliikidest ning neist koostatud herbaariumite saatusest

  2. Binary Arithmetic From Hariot (CA, 1600 A.D.) to the Computer Age. (United States)

    Glaser, Anton

    This history of binary arithmetic begins with details of Thomas Hariot's contribution and includes specific references to Hariot's manuscripts kept at the British Museum. A binary code developed by Sir Francis Bacon is discussed. Briefly mentioned are contributions to binary arithmetic made by Leibniz, Fontenelle, Gauss, Euler, Benzout, Barlow,…

  3. Adelbert von Chamisso e o narcisismo primário Adelbert von Chamisso and the primary narcissism

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    Sabine Parmentier


    Full Text Available Adelbert von Chamisso foi um escritor e poeta de língua alemã, nascido em família aristocrática francesa emigrada para a Alemanha em 1792. Este artigo, examinando o conto "L'étrange histoire de Peter Schlemihl", primeiro trabalho publicado por Chamisso, aponta os aspectos autobiográficos dessa obra que antecipa a vida de seu autor até na exatidão das minúcias. O artigo mostra como a sublimação artística permitiu que o escritor encontrasse para si mesmo um caminho pelo trabalho científico e pela criação literária, e indica que essa espécie de "aceitação intelectual" do recalcado poderia ser vista como equivalente a um resultado de tratamento psicanalítico.Chamisso was a German writer and poet born in an aristocratic French family emigrated to Germany in 1792. This paper, inquiring into Chamisso's tale "L'étrange histoire de Peter Schlemihl", his first issued writing, points to its autobiographical features that anticipate the life of its author even in its precise details. This paper shows how artistic sublimation allowed the writer to succeed in finding for himself a path towards scientific work and literary creation, and emphasizes that this kind of "intellectual acceptation" of the repressed could be seen as equivalent to the result of a psychoanalysis treatment.

  4. Un nuovo sguardo dalla (e sulla letteratura tedesca contemporanea: l'Adelbert-von-Chamisso-Preis

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    Ramona Pellegrino


    Full Text Available The Adelbert-von-Chamisso-Preis is a literary prize awarded by the Robert Bosch Stiftung to non-German authors who write in German and chose this language as their form of expression. Since the first prizes were awarded in 1985, 65 writers from more that twenty different countries have won the award. It was Harald Weinrich who convinced the Bosch Stiftung of the value of establishing the Adelbert-von-Chamisso-Preis. In the 1980s, the prize was awarded to what was still called ‘Gastarbeiterliteratur’ and the stress was laid on the writers’ condition of foreigners in Germany rather than on the quality of their literary work, whereas today it has become a substantial part of contemporary German literature and it is sometimes called ‘Chamisso-Literatur’. However, it may be argued that the use of this term, even though it isn't as unsatisfactory as ‘Gastarbeiterliteratur’ or ‘Migrantenliteratur’, still implies that this kind of literature isn't ‘genuine’ German literature. Maybe non-German authors don't need their work to be defined by a special term and some of them don't want a special literary prize either. The question about the ‘Chamisso-Literatur’ is still under discussion. Nevertheless the Adelbert-von-Chamisso-Preis has undoubtedly contributed to spread German literature by non-German authors and to improve its reception.

  5. Physical characteristic of brown algae (Phaeophyta from madura strait as irreversible hydrocolloid impression material

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    Prihartini Widiyanti


    Full Text Available Background: Brown algae is a raw material for producing natrium alginates. One type of brown algae is Sargassum sp, a member of Phaeophyta division. Sargassum sp could be found in Madura strait Indonesia. Natrium alginate can be extracted from Sargassum sp. The demand of alginate in Indonesia is mainly fulfilled from abroad, meanwhile Sargassum sp is abundantly available. Purpose: The purpose of study were to explore the potency of brown alga Sargassum sp from Madura strait as hydrocolloid impression material and to examine its physical characteristic. Methods: The methods of research including extraction natrium alginate from Sargassum sp, synthesis of dental impression material and the test of porosity, density, viscosity, and water content of impression material which fulfilled the standard of material used in clinical application in dentistry. Results: Extraction result of Sargassum sp was natrium alginate powder with cream colour, odorless, and water soluble. The water content of natrium alginate was 21.64% and the viscosity was 0.7 cPs. The best porosity result in the sample with the addition of trinatrium phosphate 4% was 3.61%. Density value of impression material was 3 gr/cm3. Conclusion: The research suggested that brown algae Sargassum sp from Madura strait is potential as hydrocolloid impression material, due to its physical properties which close to dental impression material, but still need further research to optimize the physical characteristic.Latar belakang: Alga coklat adalah sumber bahan baku material natrium alginat. Salah satu jenis alga coklat adalah Sargassum sp yang merupakan anggota divisi Phaeophyta. Sargassum sp dapat ditemukan di Selat Madura Indonesia. Natrium alginat dapat diekstraksi dari Sargassum sp. Kebutuhan akan bahan ini di Indonesia sebagian besar dipenuhi dari impor, padahal ketersediaan Sargassum sp di Indonesia sangat melimpah. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengeksplorasi potensi alga coklat

  6. Preliminary Study on the Responses of Three Marine Algae,Ulva pertusa ( Chlorophyta),Gelidium amansii (Rhodophyta)and Sargassum enerve (Phaeophyta), to Nitrogen Source and Its Availability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dongyan; Amy Pickering; SUN Jun


    An experiment was designed to select economically valuable macroalga species with high nutrient uptake rates.Such species cultured on a large scale could be a potential solution to eutrophication. Three macroalgae species, Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta), Gelidium amansii (Rhodophyta) and Sargassum enerve (Phaeophyta), were chosen for the experiment because of their economic values and availability. Control and four nitrogen concentrations were achieved by adding NH4 and NO3. The results indicate that the fresh weights of all species increase faster than that of control after 5 d culture. The fresh weight of Ulva pertusa increases fastest among the 3 species. However, different species show different responses to nitrogen source and its availability. They also show the advantage of using NH+4 than using NO-3 . U. Pertusa grows best and shows higher capability of removing nitrogen at 200 μmol L-1, but it has lower economical value. G. Amansii has higher economical value but lower capability of removing nitrogen at 200μmolL-1. The capability of nitrogen assimilation of S. Enerve is higher than that of G. Amansii at 200μmolL-1, but the former's increase of fresh weight is lower than those of other two species.Then present preliminary study demonstrates that it is possible to use macroalgae as biofilters and further development of this approach could provide biologically valuable information on the source, fate, and transport of N in marine ecosystems. Caution is needed should we extrapolate these findings to natural environments.

  7. Chamisso wilderness study area, Chamisso National Wildlife Refuge, Kotzebue Sound, Alaska, wilderness study report: Draft (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Objectives, history, location, physical characteristics, resources, socio-economic consideration, development and management, summary and conclusions, photographs,...

  8. The wilderness record, Chamisso wilderness proposal, Chamisso National Wildlife Refuge, Second Judicial District, Alaska (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Wilderness study report; Federal Register notice; materials sent to news media; public hearing package, mailing list, handout materials, attendance list, and...

  9. Enzymatic regulation of photosynthetic and light-independent carbon fixation in Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta, Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta and Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta Regulación enzimática de la fotosíntesis y la fijación de carbono en obscuridad por Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta, Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta e Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta

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    carboxikinasa (PEPCK y fosfoenolpiruvato carboxilasa (PEPC en la Phaeophyta Laminaria setchellii, la Chlorophyta Ulva lactuca y la Rhodophyta Iridaea cordata. Los niveles de clorofila-a no variaron en U. lactuca e I. cordata. Sin embargo, los niveles de pigmentos fueron significativamente menores en la región meristemática de L. setchellii probablemente debido a una falta de diferenciación de los cloroplastos de esta región. De una manera similar, la fotosíntesis neta no varió en el talo de U. lactuca e I. cordata, mientras que se incrementó desde el estipe y el meristemo hacia la lámina de L. setchellii. En contraste con la fotosíntesis, la fijación de carbono en oscuridad fue significantemente mayor en la zona meristemática de L. setchellii sugiriendo un mecanismo para la compensación de la incorporación de carbono en tejido fotosintéticamente limitado. La actividad enzimática de RUBISCO y PEPCK se comportó de una manera similar a los procesos carboxilantes in vivo, indicando que la fotosíntesis y la fijación de carbono en oscuridad son reguladas por la actividad de las enzimas carboxilantes a lo largo del talo de L. setchellii

  10. Current knowledge on biotechnological interesting seaweeds from the Magellan Region, Chile

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    Andrés Mansilla


    Full Text Available This paper is a compilation of data from investigations made with marine benthic algae from the Magellan Region that have biotechnological utilization in human consumption or medicine or as a source of phycolloids or food supplements or animal feed. The most important Rhodophyta species are: Ahnfeltia plicata (Hudson E.M. Fries for agarose production, Gigartina skottsbergii Setchell & N.L.Gardner for carrageenan production, and Callophyllis variegata (Bory de Saint-Vincent Kützing for human consumption. The most important Heterokontophyta species are: Macrocystis pyrifera (L. C. Agardh, and Durvillaea antarctica (Chamisso Hariot for human consumption, alginate production, and as biofertilizer for agricultural crops. M. pyrifera is also used as a food supplement for salmon, chickens, quails, sheep and bovines and for biofuel production.

  11. A transformation model for Laminaria Japonica (Phaeophyta, Laminariales) (United States)

    Qin, Song; Jiang, Peng; Li, Xin-Ping; Wang, Xi-Hua; Zeng, Cheng-Kui


    A genetic transformation model for the seaweed Laminaria japonica mainly includes the following aspects: 1. The method to introduce foreign genes into the kelp, L. japonica Biolistic bombardment has been proved to be an effective method to bombard foreign DNA through cell walls into intact cells of both sporophytes and gametophytes. The expression of cat and lacZ was detected in regenerated sporophytes, which suggests that this method could induce random integration of foreign genes. Promoters to drive gene expression

  12. Seasonal module dynamics in Sargassum subrepandum (Fucales, Phaeophyta)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ateweberhan, Mebrahtu; Bruggemann, J. Henrich; Breeman, Anneke M.


    Module dynamics of the fucoid alga Sargassum subrepandum (Forssk.) C. Agardh was studied in the southern Red Sea. Seasonal variation in thallus density and size was determined, and the initiation, growth, reproduction, and shedding of modules (primary laterals) were ascertained, using a tagging appr

  13. Formas de abertura dos frutos de Syagrus romanzoffiana (Chamisso glassman efetuadas por Sciurus ingrami Thomas (Rodentia, Sciuridae Opening forms of palm nuts Syagrus romanzoffiana (Chamisso Glassman made by Sciurus ingrami Thomas (Rodentia, Sciuridae

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    Marcelo Bordignon


    Full Text Available In this work was identifyed the diferents opening forms of the palm nuts Syagrus romanzoffiana by brazilian squirrel Sciurus ingrami in four diferents points of Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. Was caracterized tive basic forms of opening, in acording with the number of incisions and opening aspects. The form with lower number of incisions (two was also the greather frequently in the four points sampled (66,25%; N = 5194 well as registred the lower opening time (7,2 ± 1,7 min in relationship with other forms (9,2 ± 2,3 min. To explicate the diferences in the frequences of forms discovered, is proposed "apprenticeship's hypothesis" which the young squirrels of the population, along the opening nuts apprenticeship, to passing of the forms with larger number of incisions to forms with lower number of incisions, ending in the form of more frequence, which is maintained by adult squirrels.

  14. Effects of blue light on gametophyte development of Laminaria japonica (Laminariales, Phaeophyta)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Laminaria gametophyte was greatly influenced by light in its growth and development. Using light-emitting diodes (LED) as blue and red light sources, we analyzed the light effect on gametophytes development of Laminaria japonica Aresch. The gametophytes were obtained from zoospores collected in April, May,July, 2003 and September, 2004. We found that the growth of gametophytes was stimulated by increasing intensity of blue light (BL) and red light (RL) illumination, of which BL was obviously stronger than that of RL. The fertilization of gametophytes depended largely on BL, and only sufficient BL illumination could take the reproductive effect. In addition, we noticed that there was a significant difference in light responses for gametophytes developed from zoospore collected in different times. For zoospores released in April, under BL1 (73.90 μmol sperms respectively, and further developed towards sporophytes. However, for gametophytes developed in May,July or September, they became multi-cellular and never formed oogonia or antheridia. It is believed that the Laminaria sporangium maturation stage could affect the gametophytes reaction to BL under laboratory culture conditions. Therefore, cryptochrome- or phototropin-like BL photoreceptors is probably involved in BL-induced development of Laminaria gametophytes.

  15. Cryopreservation of Gametophytes of Laminariajaponica (Phaeophyta) Using Encapsulation-Dehydration with Two-Step Cooling Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Gametophytes of Laminaria japonica were cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen using encapsulation-dehydration with two-step cooling method. Gametophytes cultured at 10℃ and under continuous irradiance of 30 μmol m-2 s-1 for 3 weeks were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads. The beads were dehydrated in 0.4 molL-1 sucrose prepared with seawater for 6 h, desiccated in an incubator set at 10℃ and 70% relative humidity for 4 h, pre-frozen at either -40℃ or -60℃ for 30 min, and stored in liquid nitrogen for >24 h. As high as 43% of survival rate was observed when gametophytes were thawed by placing the beads in 40℃seawater and re-hydrated in 0.05 molL-1 citrate sodium prepared using 30‰ NaC1 7 d later. More cells of male gametophytes survived the whole procedure in comparison with female gametophytes. The cells of gametophytes surviving the preservation were able to grow asexually and produce morphologically normal sporophytes.

  16. Occurrence of Hydroclathrus tenuis Tseng and Baoren, (Phaeophyta) from Gulf of Kutch, northwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Untawale, A.G.

    Hydroclathrus tenuis (C. Agardh), a marine brown alga was considered to be a monotypic, till H. tenuis Tseng and Baoren was reported during 1983 from south China Sea. Recently the same alga was noticed to be abundant from Kalubhar Island in the Gulf...

  17. The Halogenated Metabolism of Brown Algae (Phaeophyta, Its Biological Importance and Its Environmental Significance

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    Stéphane La Barre


    Full Text Available Brown algae represent a major component of littoral and sublittoral zones in temperate and subtropical ecosystems. An essential adaptive feature of this independent eukaryotic lineage is the ability to couple oxidative reactions resulting from exposure to sunlight and air with the halogenations of various substrates, thereby addressing various biotic and abiotic stresses i.e., defense against predators, tissue repair, holdfast adhesion, and protection against reactive species generated by oxidative processes. Whereas marine organisms mainly make use of bromine to increase the biological activity of secondary metabolites, some orders of brown algae such as Laminariales have also developed a striking capability to accumulate and to use iodine in physiological adaptations to stress. We review selected aspects of the halogenated metabolism of macrophytic brown algae in the light of the most recent results, which point toward novel functions for iodide accumulation in kelps and the importance of bromination in cell wall modifications and adhesion properties of brown algal propagules. The importance of halogen speciation processes ranges from microbiology to biogeochemistry, through enzymology, cellular biology and ecotoxicology.

  18. A mtDNA-based phylogeny of the brown algal genus Fucus (Heterokontophyta; Phaeophyta)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coyer, JA; Hoarau, G; Oudot-Le Secq, MP; Stam, WT; Olsen, JL; Oudot-LeSecq, M.-P.


    Species of Fucus are among the dominant seaweeds along Northern Hemisphere shores, but taxonomic designations often are confounded by significant intraspecific morphological variability. We analyzed intra- and inter-specific phylogenetic relationships within the genus (275 individuals representing 1

  19. Expression of hepatitis B surface antigen gene (HBsAg) in Laminaria japonica (Laminariales, Phaeophyta)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A transformation model for Laminaria japonica was established from 1993 to 1998, on the basis of which the transgenic kelp with heterologous gene encoding hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was obtained by using the micro- particle bombardment transformation method. Results of quantitative ELISA showed that HBsAg in transgenic kelp was 0.529 μg/mg soluble proteins on average and the highest value was 2.497 μg/mg, implying that recombinant HBsAg had natural epitope. Further support for the integration of HBsAg gene into kelp genome was obtained by PCR- Southern and total DNA hybridization. Prospect of kelp bioreactor producing high value materials such as edible HBV vaccine was discussed as well.

  20. Population genetics of Sargassum horneri (Fucales,Phaeophyta) in China revealed by ISSR and SRAP markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shenhui; CHONG Zhuo; ZHAO Fengjuan; YAO Jianting; DUAN Delin


    Sargassum horneri is a common brown macro-alga that is found in the inter-tidal ecosystems of China.To investigate the current status of seaweed resources and provide basic data for its sustainable development,ISSR (inter simple sequence repeat) and SRAP (sequence related amplified polymorphism)markers were used to analyze the population genetics among nine natural populations of S.horneri.The nine studied populations were distributed over 2 000 km from northeast to south China.The percentage of polymorphic loci P% (ISSR,99.44%; SRAP,100.00%),Nei's genetic diversity H(ISSR,0.107-0.199; SRAP,0.100-0.153),and Shannon's information index I (ISSR,0.157-0.291; SRAP,0.148-0.219) indicated a fair amount of genetic variability among the nine populations.Moreover,the high degree of gene differentiation Gst (ISSR,0.654; SRAP,0.718) and low gene flow Nm (ISSR,0.265; SRAP,0.196) implied that there was significant among-population differentiation,possibly as a result of habitat fragmentation.The matrices of genetic distances and fixation indices (Fst) among the populations correlated well with their geographical distribution (Mantel test R=0.541 5,0.541 8; P=0.005 0,0.002 0 and R=0.728 6,0.641 2; P=0.001 0,0.001 0,respectively); the Rongcheng population in the Shandong peninsula was the only exception.Overall,the genetic differentiation agreed with the geographic isolation.The fair amount of genetic diversity that was revealed in the S.horneri populations in China indicated that the seaweed resources had not been seriously affected by external factors.

  1. Intraspecific genetic analysis, gamete release performance, and growth of Sargassum muticum (Fucales, Phaeophyta) from China (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Pang, Shaojun; Gao, Suqin; Shan, Tifeng


    Sargassum muticum is one of the most abundant and conspicuous native macroalgae species on the northern coasts of China. It often forms large-scale seaweed beds in subtidal zones. This investigation was designed to understand the intraspecific genetic relationships of this alga based on samples collected from four northern coastal sites of China, and to evaluate gamete release and growth capacity in laboratory conditions. The nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequences of 16 samples from four locations were identical. Based on cox3 gene and partial rbcLS operon sequences, intraspecific genetic variability was detected with three and two ribotypes, respectively. Temperature, not irradiance, was shown to significantly affect gamete release and fertilization. Elevated temperature and irradiance enhanced the growth of germlings and vegetative branchlets. Maximum growth rate of germlings was detected at 18-24°C and an irradiance of 60-100 μmol photons/(m2·s). Under ambient conditions (12-25°C and 60-125 μmol photons/(m2·s)), relative growth rate of young branchlets could reach 7.5%/d.

  2. Phenological study of Sargassum thunbergii (Fucales, Phaeophyta) in Lidao Bay, Rongcheng, China (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wu, Haiyi; Zhan, Dongmei; Duan, Delin


    We conducted a phenological evaluation of Sargassum thunbergii, a common algal species, along the coast of Lidao Bay, Rongcheng, China. The local S. thunbergii population entered a maturation period from early June to mid-August, when seawater temperature was 14.4 to 25.1°C. Our results suggest an increase in temperature and day length during this period initiated thalli maturation. Inhabitants of the low tidal zone had higher thalli length and biomass compared with those from the mid-and high tidal zones. We observed a switch in the length frequency distribution and contribution of length classes to biomass between the small (sexual reproduction and vegetative regeneration.

  3. Phylogeny of Saccharina and Laminaria (Laminariaceae, Laminariales, Phaeophyta) in sequence-tagged-site markers (United States)

    Qu, Jieqiong; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Xumin; Chi, Shan; Liu, Cui; Liu, Tao


    Laminaria and Saccharina have recently been recognized as two independent clades from the former genus Laminaria. Traditional morphological taxonomy is being challenged by molecular evidence from both nucleus and plastid. Intensive work is in great demand from the perspective of genome colinearity. In this study, 118 sequence-tagged site (STS) markers were screened for phylogenetic analyses, 29 based on genome sequences, while 89 were based on expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences. EST-based STS marker development (29.37%) had an effi ciency twice as high as genome-sequence-based development (9.48%) as a result of high conservation of gene transcripts among the relative species. S. ochotensis, S. religiosa, S. japonica, and L. hyperborea showed great homogeneity in all 118 STS markers. Our result supports the view that the diversifi cation between the genera Saccharina and Laminaria was a more recent event and that Saccharina and Laminaria shared high phylogenetic affi nity. However, when it came to the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) level among the 41 SNPs, L. hyperborea owned 29 unique SNPs against 12 within the left three Saccharina species and 12 of the 13 indels were supposedly unique for L. hyperborea, indicated by its high variability. Originating from homologous ancestors, species between the recently diverged genera Laminaria and Saccharina may have taken in enough mutations at the SNP level only, in spite of different evolutionary strategies for better adaptation to the environment. Our study lays a solid foundation from a new perspective, although more accurate phylogenetic analysis is still needed to clarify the evolutionary traces between the genera Saccharina and Laminaria.

  4. Programmed cell death in Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyta) tissues infected with alginic acid decomposing bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gaoge; LIN Wei; ZHANG Lijing; YAN Xiaojun; DUAN Delin


    TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) is a sensitive and valid method for detecting DNA cleavage in programmed cell death (PCD). Using this method, DNA cleavage was observed in Laminaria japonica sporophytic tissues, which were infected with alginic acid decomposing bacterium. It was found that DNA cleavage occurred 5 min after the infection, the fragments with 3′-OH groups of cleaved nuclear DNA increased with time of infection and spread from the infection site. Although no typical DNA ladder (200 bp/180 bp) was detected by routine agarose gel electrophoresis, the cleavage of nuclear DNA fragments of 97~48.5 kb could be detected by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). By using CaspGLOWTM fluorescein active caspase-3 staining method, caspase-3 activity has been detected in response to the infection of alginic acid decomposing bacterium. Our results are similar to the observations in hypersensitive response (HR) of higher plant, suggesting that the rapid cell death of L. Japonica infected by alginic acid decomposing bacterium might be involved in PCD, and indicating that the occurrence of PCD is an active defense process against the pathogen's infection.

  5. Variation of amphipod assemblage along the Sargassum stenophyllum (Phaeophyta, Fucales thallus

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    Glauco Barreto de Oliveira Machado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe spatial distribution of fauna associated to marine macroalgae has mostly been investigated considering a horizontal plane. However, the macroalgal substrates can present a three-dimensional structure. In this sense, investigating how the associated fauna varies throughout a vertical plane can contribute to understanding the distribution of these organisms. The brown macroalga Sargassumpresents a vertical stratification along its thallus and harbors an amphipod fauna with a variety of feeding habits. In this work, we tested if the amphipod assemblage varies along different portions of the Sargassum thallus. We collected whole Sargassum stenophyllum thalli, as well as isolated basal and distal portions, from a rocky shore located on the north coast of São Paulo, in southeastern Brazil. The composition of amphipod families varied according to the Sargassum portion and the families Corophiidae, Caprellidae and Hyalidae accounted for most of the differences. Moreover, the basal portion of Sargassum had a higher diversity of amphipod families than the distal one, which may be related to differences regarding habitat complexity (herein, measured as algal biomass between these portions. Detritivores (such as Corophiidae were more associated to the basal portion and herbivores to the distal portion (Hyalidae or along the whole Sargassum thallus (Ampithoidae. The variation of amphipod assemblage along Sargassum thallus seems to result from the interaction between the fauna natural history and the differences in conditions and physical structure along the algal thallus. In this sense, the vertical stratification of Sargassum can add another source of variation to the spatial distribution of associated fauna.

  6. Estudo anatômico das espécies de cerrado Anemopaegma arvense (Vell. Stellf. ex de Souza (catuaba, Zeyheria montana Mart. (bolsa-de-pastor e Jacaranda decurrens Chamisso (caroba - Bignoniaceae Anatomical study of species from savanna-like formation, Anemopaegma arvense (Vell. Stellf. ex de Souza (catuaba, Zeyheria montana Mart. (bolsa-de-pastor and Jacaranda decurrens Chamisso (caroba - Bignoniaceae

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    Claudia Mauro


    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo anatômico de três espécies medicinais da família Bignoniaceae, típicas de cerrado, em risco de extinção, a saber: Anemopaegma arvense, Jacaranda decurrens e Zeyheria montana, provenientes de Botucatu. Para isto, realizaram-se cortes transversais de caule, limbo e pecíolo e paradérmicos de limbo. Os cortes, corados diferencialmente com azul de alcian e fucsina básica, foram objeto de estudo e descrição anatômica. As três espécies mostram adaptações anatômicas a ambiente xerofítico, representadas por mesofilo foliar compactado, cutícula espessa (Anemopaegma e Jacaranda e abundante aquisição de tricomas tectores (Zeyheria.The anatomy of three medicinal species belonging to the Bignoniaceae family, from savanna-like formation and in risk of extinction, was studied. They were: Anemopaegma arvense, Jacaranda decurrens and Zeyheria montana, from Botucatu. Hand-made transversal sections of stem, foliar leaf and petiole and paradermal sections of foliar leaf, differentially stained with alcian blue and basic fuchsin, were studied and described anatomically. The three species show anatomical adaptations to xerophytic environment, expressed by compaction of foliar mesophyll, thickened cuticle (Anemopaegma and Jacaranda and acquisition of abundant non-glandular trichomes (Zeyheria.

  7. Cryopreservation of gametophytes of Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyta) using encapsulation-dehydration with two-step cooling method (United States)

    Zhang, Quansheng; Cong, Yizhou; Qu, Shancun; Luo, Shiju; Yang, Guanpin


    Gametophytes of Laminaria japonica were cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen using encapsulation-dehydration with two-step cooling method. Gametophytes cultured at 10°C and under continuous irradiance of 30 μmol m-2 s-1 for 3 weeks were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads. The beads were dehydrated in 0.4 molL-1 sucrose prepared with seawater for 6 h, desiccated in an incubator set at 10°C and 70% relative humidity for 4 h, pre-frozen at either -40°C or -60°C for 30 min, and stored in liquid nitrogen for >24 h. As high as 43% of survival rate was observed when gametophytes were thawed by placing the beads in 40°C seawater and re-hydrated in 0.05 molL-1 citrate sodium prepared using 30‰ NaCl 7 d later. More cells of male gametophytes survived the whole procedure in comparison with female gametophytes. The cells of gametophytes surviving the preservation were able to grow asexually and produce morphologically normal sporophytes.

  8. Assessment of Genetic Diversities of Selected Laminaria (Laminariales,Phaeophyta) Gametophytes by Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-Liang WANG; Chen-Lin LIU; Xiao-Jie LI; Yi-Zhou CONG; De-Lin DUAN


    Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis was used to assess genetic diversity among 10pairs of male and female Laminaria gametophytes. A total of 58 amplification loci was obtained from 10selected ISSR primers, of which 34 revealed polymorphism among the gametophytes. Genetic distances were calculated with the Dice coefficient ranging from 0.006 to 0.223. A dendrogram based on the unweighted pair-group method arithmetic (UPGMA) average showed that most male and female gametophytes of the same species were clustered together and that 10 pairs of gametophytes were divided into four groups. This was generally consistent with the taxonomic categories. The main group consisted of six pairs of gametophytes, which were selected from Laminaria japonica Aresch. by intensive inbreeding through artificial hybridization. One specific marker was cloned, but was not converted successfully into a sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of applying ISSR markers to evaluate Laminaria germplasm diversities.

  9. Seasonal dynamics of Sargassum ilicifolium (Phaeophyta) on a shallow reef flat in the southern Red Sea (Eritrea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ateweberhan, M; Bruggemann, JH; Breeman, AM


    The seasonality of Sargassum ilicifolium was studied in the southern Red Sea by monitoring thallus density, thallus size and the initiation, growth, reproduction and survivorship of primary laterals. Thallus density showed slight but significant seasonal variation; it was highest at the end of the h

  10. Effects of wave exposure and depth on biomass, density and fertility of the fucoid seaweed Sargassum polyceratium (Phaeophyta, Sargassaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, AH; Aberg, P; Olsen, JL; Stam, WT; Breeman, AM


    Sargassum polyceratium is widely distributed around the island of Curacao ( Netherlands Antilles) where it inhabits strongly contrasting habitats. Changes in population structure have been followed in three bays with increasing levels of wave exposure at two depths: shallow ( 0 m) and deep ( 18 m).

  11. Microsatellite DNA Variation of the Gametophyte Clones Isolated from Introduced Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyta) and L. Iongissima of China and Varieties Derived from them

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing-Jun Li; Yuan-Yuan Shi; Guan-Pin Yang; Shi Che; Xiao-Jie Li; Yi-Zhou Cong


    The variation of 90 Laminaria gametophyte clones representing the introduced Laminariajaponica (Group 1) and Laminaria Iongissima (Group 2), the varieties of L. japonica (Group 3) and the varieties derived from interspecific hybrids (Group 4) was determined with 10 microsatellite markers. The allelic diversity and Nei's gene diversity of Group 1 were significantly higher than those of Group 2 (2.9 vs. 1.8 and 0.414 vs. 0.161, respectively), demonstrating that the variation of the introduced L. japonica is richer than that of L. Iongiesima. Both allelic diversity and Nei's gene diversity of Group 3 were lower than those of Group 1, indicating that only a portion of variation of L. japonica was incorporated into the varieties of L. japonica. Significant genetic differentiation was detected between four groups and between female (Population 1) and male (Population 2) gametophyte clones in each group. The variation among groups accounted for 39.95%, while that among populations accounted for 21.65% of the total. The genetic distance between Group 1 and Group 4 was obviously longer than that between Group 2 and Group 4 (0.686 vs. 0.291), Indicating that maternal gametophyte clone contributed more variation to the hybrids than the paternal gametophyte clone did.

  12. Characterization of the egg vesicular components in the seaweed, Fucus serratus L. (Fucales, Phaeophyta), using enzyme histochemistry and vital staining: the search for a lysosome-like body. (United States)

    Holland, R D; Pitt, D; Moore, M N; Brownlee, C


    Fucus serratus eggs were examined for evidence of the existence of a lysosome-like body using enzyme histochemical and vital staining techniques. Simultaneous coupling azo-dye techniques for lysosomal acid phosphatase proved inappropriate owing to endogenous phenolic binding artefacts. The large number of alginate polysaccharide and polyphenolic egg vesicles interfered with vital staining techniques for lysosomes. Lysosomal esterase activity was detected in the abundant egg lipid bodies. The role of the egg lipid body as an equivalent lysosome-like body of higher plants, the spherosome, is discussed in relation to egg fertilization and early zygote development.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴韵; 邹立红; 姜鹏; 孙国琼; 秦松; 曾呈奎


    In the experiment, young sporophytes of parthenogenetic L ami naria japonica were divided into three groups according to their total lengths : a. (5.00±0.06)mm, b. (9.50±0.10)mm and c. (16.10±0.13)mm, and were treated with 13 concentrations of basta solution in each group respectively. Basta dose are 0-21.2μg/ml. LD50 at 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours were calculated. R esults showed that LD50 of sporophytes of parthenogenetic L. japonic a (0.5-1.6)cm to basta is not correlated with its length. The sporophytes of parthenogenetic L. japonica are more sensitive to basta than to chlorampheni col and hygromycin that have been used as selection pressure in genetic engineer ing of L. japonica. Our observation suggests that bar gene which encodes pho sphinothricin-N-acetyltrensferase can be a more efficient selectable marker ge ne.%于1999年4-7月,以孤雌生殖海带为材料,运用统计学方法研究其对 草丁膦的敏感性,以期得到一定剂量和时间范围内草丁膦对不同长度孤雌生殖海带的半数致 死剂 量(LD50)。结果表明,孤雌海带在0.5-1.6cm长度范围内,草丁膦的半数致死剂 量与海带的长度不相关,而与草丁膦的剂量和作用时间相关。孤雌生殖海带对草丁膦比对氯 霉素 和潮霉素更为敏感,提示bar基因有可能成为海带基因工程更为理想的选择标记基因。

  14. Parentage Analysis of Dongfang No.2, a Hybrid of a Female Gametophyte Clone of Laminariajaponica (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) and a Male Clone of L. longissima

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yuanyuan; YANG Guanpin; LIAO Meijie; LI Xiaojie; CONG Yizhou; QU Shancun; WANG Tongyong


    The cultivation of the first filial generation of monoploid gametophyte clones of different Laminaria species (hybrid Laminaria) is an effective way of utilizing heterozygous vigor (heterosis). A female gametophyte clone of L. japonica and a male gametophyte clone of L. longissima were hybridized, generating Dongfang No.2 hybrid Laminaria. The parentage of this hybrid Laminaria was determined using AFLP of total DNA, SNP of the ITS region of ribosomal RNA transcription unit and microsatellite DNA variation at two loci. In addition to 167 AFLP bands shared by Dongfang No.2, L. japonica and L. longissima, Dongfang No.2 hybrid Laminaria shared another 70 and 55 bands with L. japonica and L. longissima, respectively, which were obviously more than 11 bands shared by L. japonica and L. longissima. Dongfang No.2 held both 'T' and 'C' at position 847 of the ITS region, while 'T' at this position was specific for L. japonica and 'C' for L. longissima, respectively. Dongfang No.2 also held the mierosatellite DNA alleles of two parents together at two microsatellite DNA marker loci. These observations dearly proved that Dongfang No.2 is a true hybrid of L. japonica and L. longissiuma. Unfortunately, the origin of the chloroplast of Dongfang No.2 was not determined based on the variation of RuBisCo spacer. More sequence variants of both ITS region and RuBisCo spacer were identified in Dongfang No.2 and most of them did not exist in either L. japonica or L. longissima. The unexpected variants may be due to the mutation of ga-metophyte clones occurring during their vegetative amplification.

  15. Effects of three macroalgae, Ulva linza (Chlorophyta), Corallina pilulifera (Rhodophyta) and Sargassum thunbergii (Phaeophyta) on the growth of the red tide microalga Prorocentrum donghaiense under laboratory conditions (United States)

    Wang, Renjun; Xiao, Hui; Wang, You; Zhou, Wenli; Tang, Xuexi


    Allelopathic effects of several concentrations of fresh tissue and dry powder of three macroalgae, Ulva linza, Corallina pilulifera and Sargassum thunbergii, on the red tide microalga Prorocentrum donghaiense were evaluated in microcosms. Preliminary studies on the algicidal effects of one aqueous and four organic solvent extracts from the macroalgae on the microalga were carried out to confirm the existence of allelochemicals in the tissues of the macroalgae. The effects of macroalgal culture medium filtrate on P. donghaiense were investigated using initial or semi-continuous filtrate addition. Furthermore, the potential effects of the microalga on these three macroalgae were also tested. The results of the microcosm assay showed that the growth of P. donghaiense was strongly inhibited by using fresh tissues and dry powder of the three macroalgae. Both aqueous and methanol extracts of the macroalgae had strong growth inhibitory effects on P. donghaiense, while the other three organic solvent extracts (acetone, ether and chloroform) had no apparent effect on its growth; this suggested that the allelochemicals from these three macroalga had relatively high polarities. The three macroalgal culture medium filtrates exhibited apparent growth inhibitory effect on the microalgae under initial or semi-continuous addition, which suggested that the cells of P. donghaiense are sensitive to the allelochemicals. In contrast, P. donghaiense had no apparent effect on the growth of the macroalgae in coexistence experiment.


    Terasaki, Masaru; Hirose, Atsushi; Narayan, Bhaskar; Baba, Yuta; Kawagoe, Chikara; Yasui, Hajime; Saga, Naotsune; Hosokawa, Masashi; Miyashita, Kazuo


    Fucoxanthin (Fx) and fucosterol (Fs) are characteristic lipid components of brown seaweeds that afford several health benefits to humans. This article describes the quantitative evaluation of lipids of 15 species of brown seaweeds with specific reference to Fx, Fs, and functional long-chain omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In addition, fatty-acid composition of selected species was also accomplished in the study. Major omega-3 PUFAs in the brown seaweeds analyzed were α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), octadecatetraenoic acid (18:4n-3), arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3). Both Fx (mg · g(-1) dry weight [dwt]) and Fs (mg · g(-1) dwt) were determined to be relatively abundant in Sargassum horneri (Turner) C. Agardh (Fx, 3.7 ± 1.6; Fs, 13.4 ± 4.4) and Cystoseira hakodatensis (Yendo) Fensholt (Fx, 2.4 ± 0.9; Fs, 8.9 ± 2.0), as compared with other brown seaweed species. Studies related to seasonal variation in Fx, Fs, and total lipids of six brown algae [S. horneri, C. hakodatensis, Sargassum fusiforme (Harv.) Setch., Sargassum thunbergii (Mertens ex Roth) Kuntze, Analipus japonicus (Harv.) M. J. Wynne, and Melanosiphon intestinalis (D. A. Saunders) M. J. Wynne] indicated that these functional lipid components reached maximum during the period between January and March. The functional lipid components present in these seaweeds have the potential for application as nutraceuticals and novel functional ingredients after their recovery.

  17. Evaluation of phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of brown seaweeds belonging to Turbinaria spp.(Phaeophyta,Sargassaceae) collected from Gulf of Mannar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kajal; Chakraborty; Nammunayathuputhenkotta; Krishnankartha; Praveen; Kodayan; Kizekadath; Vijayan; Gonugontla; Syda; Rao


    Objective:To evaluate the antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents of brown seaweeds belonging to Turbinaria spp.[Turbinaria conoides(T.conoides)and Turbinaria ornata(T.ornata)collected from Gulf of Mannar of southeastern coast of India in various in vitro systems.Methods:The antioxidant activity was evaluated using different in vitro systems,viz.,I,I-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH),2,2’-azino-bis-3 ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt(ABTS),H202/H0 radical scavenging,Fe2+ion chelating ability,and reducing potential.Folin-Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenolic content of the extracts,and the results were expressed as mg of gallic acid equivalents(GE)/g of the seaweed extracts.Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances assay was employed to assess the ability of the seaweed extracts to inhibit lipid oxidation.Results:Ethyl acetate(EtOAc)fraction of T.conoides registered significantly higher phenolic content(105.97 mg GE/g)than that of T.ornata(69.63 mg GE/g).Significantly higher antioxidant potential as determined by DPPH(64.14%)radical scavenging activity was registered in EtOAc fraction of T.ornata.A higher ABTS(?)radical scavenging(IC503.16μg/mL),Fe2+chelating(IC500.46 mg/mL),H2O2 scavenging(IC504.25 mg/mL),lipid peroxidation inhibitory(TBARS,IC500.21 mg/mL),and reducing abilities(IC5052.67 mg/mL)(P<0.05)were realized in EtOAc fraction of T.ornata than other fractions.Conclusions:This study indicated the potential use of T.conoides and T.ornata as candidate species to be used as food supplements/functional foods to increase shelf-life of food items for human consumption,and nutraceuticals to deter deleterious free radical-induced life-threatening diseases.

  18. Seasonal patterns of biomass, growth and reproduction in Dictyota cervicornis and Stoechospermum polypodioides (Dictyotales, Phaeophyta) on a shallow reef flat in the southern Red Sea (Eritrea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ateweberhan, M.; Bruggemann, J.H.; Breeman, A.M.


    Seasonal patterns in thallus length, biomass, reproduction, total biomass m-2 and size structure were monitored in populations of Dictyota cervicornis and Stoechospermum polypodioides on a shallow reef flat in the southern Red Sea. These tropical reef flats are exposed to extreme temperatures of abo

  19. Characterization of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and transcriptional analysis of its related genes in Saccharina japonica (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) (United States)

    Shao, Zhanru; Liu, Fuli; Li, Qiuying; Yao, Jianting; Duan, Delin


    Saccharina japonica is a common macroalga in sublittoral communities of cold seawater environments, and consequently may have highly efficient ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activity for carbon assimilation. In our study, we cloned the full-length Rubisco gene from S. japonica ( SJ-rbc). It contained an open reading frame for a large subunit gene ( SJ — rbcL) of 1 467 bp, a small subunit gene ( SJ-rbcS) of 420 bp, and a SJ-rbcL/S intergenic spacer of 269 bp. The deduced peptides of SJ-rbcL and SJ-rbcS were 488 and 139 amino acids with theoretical molecular weights and isoelectric points of 53.97 kDa, 5.81 and 15.84 kDa, 4.71, respectively. After induction with 1 mmol/L isopropyl- β-D-thiogalactopyranoside for 5 h and purification by Ni2+ affinity chromatography, electrophoresis and western blot detection demonstrated successful expression of the 55 kDa SJ-rbcL protein. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that the mRNA levels of SJ-rbcL in gametophytes increased when transferred into normal growth conditions and exhibited diurnal variations: increased expression during the day but suppressed expression at night. This observation implied that Rubisco played a role in normal gametophytic growth and development. In juvenile sporophytes, mRNA levels of SJ-rbcL, carbonic anhydrase, Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle-related enzyme, and chloroplast light-harvesting protein were remarkably increased under continuous light irradiance. Similarly, expression of these genes was up-regulated under blue light irradiance at 350 μmol/(m2·s). Our results indicate that long-term white light and short-term blue light irradiance enhances juvenile sporophytic growth by synergistic effects of various photosynthetic elements.

  20. Study on the enzymatic activity of Caspase-3 in response to alginic acid decomposing bacteria in Laminaria japonica Aresch.(Phaeophyta)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Gaoge; Lin Wei; Yan Xiaojun; Duan Delin


    Caspase-3 is the major factor in apoptosis triggered by various stimuli, and plays a critical role during the apoptosis process. By using CaspGLOWTM fluorescein active caspase-3 staining method, caspase-3 enzymatic activities were detected in response to alginic acid bacteria in Laminaria japonica sporophytic tissues. Results showed that caspase-3 enzymatic activities were observed at 5 min after the infection. Caspase-3 enzymatic activity increased with the infection time, and had a tendency of moving from the infection site to outside. By applying caspase-specific peptide inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK, caspase-3 activation could be effectively abolished in the infected tissues. Our results indicate that programmed cell death (PCD) may be involved in the infected Laminaria japonica sporophytic tissues, and provide the evidence that defense mechanisms in algae may have similar caspase cascade events in animals.

  1. Evaluation of phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of brown seaweeds belonging to Turbinaria spp. (Phaeophyta, Sargassaceae) collected from Gulf of Mannar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kajal Chakraborty; Kodayan Kizekadath Vijayan; Gonugontla Syda Rao


    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents of brown seaweeds belonging to Turbinaria spp. [Turbinaria conoides (T. conoides) and Turbinaria ornata (T. ornata) collected from Gulf of Mannar of southeastern coast of India in various in vitro systems. Methods:The antioxidant activity was evaluated using different in vitro systems, viz., 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2, 2′-azino-bis-3 ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS), H2O2/HO radical scavenging, Fe2+ ion chelating ability, and reducing potential. Folin-Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenolic content of the extracts, and the results were expressed as mg of gallic acid equivalents (GE)/g of the seaweed extracts. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances assay was employed to assess the ability of the seaweed extracts to inhibit lipid oxidation. Results: Ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of T. conoides registered significantly higher phenolic content (105.97 mg GE/g) than that of T. ornata (69.63 mg GE/g). Significantly higher antioxidant potential as determined by DPPH (64.14%) radical scavenging activity was registered in EtOAc fraction of T. ornata. A higher ABTS.+ radical scavenging (IC50 3.16 µg/mL), Fe2+ chelating (IC50 0.46 mg/mL), H2O2 scavenging (IC50 4.25 mg/mL), lipid peroxidation inhibitory (TBARS, IC50 0.21 mg/mL), and reducing abilities (IC50 52.67 mg/mL) (P<0.05) were realized in EtOAc fraction of T. ornata than other fractions. Conclusions: This study indicated the potential use ofT. conoides and T. ornata as candidate species to be used as food supplements/functional foods to increase shelf-life of food items for human consumption, and nutraceuticals to deter deleterious free radical-induced life-threatening diseases.

  2. Ecology of Buzzards Bay: An Estuarine Profile (United States)


    bucera Polychaeta Ascophyllum nodosum Phaeophyta Tellina tenera Bivalvia Fucus vesiculosus Phaeophyta Ninoe nigripes Polychaeata Chondrus crispus...macroalgal growth. The rockweeds, .4scop/zy//wm nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus , abound on rocks in the littoral zone. Other hard-bottom (sand, shells

  3. Additions to the marine algal flora of Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegenga, H.; Vroman, M.


    Nine species of benthic marine algae are reported from the Caribbean island of Curaçao for the first time: Chlorophyta: Derbesia marina and Trichosolen longipedicellata; Phaeophyta: Ectocarpus rhodochortonoides, Feldmannia elachistaeformis, Hecatonema floridanum, Herponema tortugense and Sphacelaria

  4. Studies on structure and organization of calcium carbonate deposits in algae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kerkar, V.; Untawale, A.G.

    The structure and organization of calcium carbonate deposits is studied in species of Halimeda, Udotea, Neomeris (Chlorophyta) and Padina (Phaeophyta). It was found that in Halimeda aragonite deposition takes place outside the cell wall...

  5. Aquatic macro algae of a region under Almirante Alvaro Alberto nuclear power plant influence. I. Taxonomic composition; Macroalgas marinhas da regiao sob influencia da Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto, Angra dos Reis, RJ, Brasil. I. Composicao taxonomica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrini, A.G. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]|[Universidade Santa Ursula, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas; Cassano, V.; Coelho, L.G.; Labronici, G.J. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia


    A total of 134 taxa were found: 32 Chlorophyta, 29 Phaeophyta and 74 Rhodophyta. The Caulerpales (Chlorophyta) had the highest number of taxa (37,5%) followed by the Dictyotales (Phaeophyta - 43%) and Ceramiales (Rhodophyta - 53%). The benthic flora shows some affinity to that of Ilha Grande (part), Sepetiba Bay and Paraty (Sorensen`s Index - 0,62, 0,61 and 0,58 respectively. (author). 22 refs, 1 fig, 1 tab.

  6. Effects of light intensity on the growth of gametophytes and on the growth of juvenile sporophytes of eisenia bicyclis and ecklonia cava (Laminariales, Phaeophyta). Sekitanbai riyo jinko mosho no kaihatsu. Arame*kajime no haigutai oyobi yohoshitai no seicho ni taisuru koryo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Hiroshi; Ito, Yasuo.


    In order to utilize the coal ashes from a coal fired power plant, the study of marine macrophyte beds creation using concrete blocks which were mixed with the coal ashes, was carried out. The reaction between the light intensity which is closely related to the depth of water and the growth of laminariacese macrophyte was clarified. Furthermore, the basic data for the marine macrophyte beds creation were studied. Gametophytes and juvenile sporophytes of Eisenia bicyclis and Ecklonia cava were cultured for 20 days under the conditions as follows: water temperature 20 {plus minus} 0.5{degree}C; light intensity 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1300 {mu}E/m{sup 2}/s (abbreviated to e{mu}E); photoperiod 12/12h. The gametophytes of the two species showed maximum growth at 100 {mu}E and growth rate reduced at more than 200 {mu}E. On the other hand, the sporophytes of the two species showed maximum growth at 400 {mu}E, indicating a greater light demand than that gametophytes. 12 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Biología, distribución e integración del alga alóctona Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Phaeophyta en las comunidades bentónicas de las costas de Galicia (NW de la Península Ibérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cremades Ugarte, Javier


    Full Text Available Undaria pinnatifida is an Asian seaweed that is valuable as an edible species. This kelp was first reported for Spain in the 1980s on Galician coasts, where it is now widely distributed and incorporated into the native community. In Galicia, intertidal populations of the sporophytic phase typically inhabit sites under moderate wave-exposure in the early spring, albeit they can be found throughout the year as the species displays at least two recruitment periods per year. The morphology varies between individuals and depends strongly on the spatiotemporal pattern of environmental conditions. The chronology of the introduction of this species and the types of habitat where it is currently integrated on Galician coasts clearly reveal that the presence and local expansion of this kelp is influenced largely by human activities, mainly shellfish aquaculture and maritime traffic. U. pinnatifida has a slow natural expansion, limited aggressiveness and it temporarily fills empty niches; this kelp displays luxuriant growth only on artificial substrates or in otherwise disturbed communities.Undaria pinnatifida es una especie asiática de gran interés económico como alga alimentaria que en la década de los ochenta apareció por primera vez en España en las costas de Galicia, donde actualmente se encuentra ampliamente distribuida y naturalizada. Las poblaciones intermareales de los esporófitos de esta especie en la costa gallega son propias de localidades moderadamente expuestas a la acción del oleaje, siendo muy notorias a principios de primavera; aunque pueden encontrarse casi todoel año, al existir al menos dos períodos anuales de reclutamiento. La morfología de los ejemplares que las forman es muy variable y está fuertemente relacionada con las variaciones espaciotemporales de las condiciones ambientales. Analizando la cronología de su introducción en Galicia y los hábitats y tipos de comunidades en las que se integra, se observa claramente la influencia de las actividades humanas en todo ello, sobre todo las derivadas de la acuicultura de moluscos y el tráfico marítimo. U. pinnatifida es una especie de lenta expansión natural, poco agresiva y que ocupa temporalmente nichos ecológicos vacíos, siendo solo abundante sobre sustratos artificiales o en aquellos naturales cuya vegetación ha sido en alguna medida previamente degradada.

  8. Seaweeds of the Spermonde Archipelago, SW Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, E.; Prud’homme van Reine, W.F.


    Seaweeds are important components of tropical reef systems. The present paper deals with the Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and noncoralline Rhodophyta collected by the first author in the Spermonde Archipelago, SW Sulawesi, Indonesia, during the Buginesia-III project (November 1988-November 1990). Additio

  9. Die Verkümmerung der Erfahrung: Eine vergleichende Analyse von Peter Schlemihls Wundersame Geschichte und Das Parfum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Henrique Seidel


    Full Text Available O presente artigo é uma análise comparativa de Das Parfum de Patrick Süskind e Peter Schlemihts wundersame Geschichte de Adalbert von Chamisso. A análise aplica os conceitos de experiência e evento de Walter Benjamin à estrutura profunda das narrativas e dos caracteres e confronta a temática da identidade do herói moderno sem nenhuma experiência com a perda de sentido que o indivíduo sofre em função do desencantamento do mundo.

  10. Estudios sobre los uredinales del archipiélago de San Andrés y providencia, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardo Cardona Víctor Manuel


    Full Text Available Doce especies de Uredinales fueron colectados en las islas de San Andrés y Providencia durante una visita de colección efectuada en el mes de Octubre de 2002. Los hospederos fueron determinados y herborizados y a partir de ellos se elaboraron micropreparados que contenían los soros con las esporas de los hongos, los cuales fueron observados y estudiados al microscopio. Puccinia cyperi-tagetiformis Kem es nuevo registro para Colombia; se registró a Brachiaria distachya (L Stapf como nuevo hospedante de Uromyces clignyi Patouillard & Hariot y a Cyperus rotundus L como nuevo hospedante para P. cyperi-tagetiformis. Las demos especies colectados han sido registradas en el neotrópico sobre hospedantes previamente conocidos.

  11. Screening of antibacterial activity in marine green and brown macroalgae from the coast of Morocco


    Ibtissam, Chiheb; Hassane, Riadi; Mart??nez L??pez, Jos??; Dom??nguez Seglar, Jos?? Francisco; G??mez Vidal, Jos?? Antonio; Hassan, Bouziane; Mohamed, Kadiri


    Antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts from 32 macroalgae (13 Chlorophyta and 19 Phaeophyta) from the Atlantic and Mediterranean coast of Morocco were evaluated for the production of antibacterial compounds against Escherichia coliATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Klebsiella pnomeuniae ATCC 700603 and E. faecalis ATCC 29213. Our results indicate that these species of seaweed collected from the Atlantic and Mediterranean coast of Morocco pre...

  12. Use of Marine Fouling Communities to Evaluate the Ecological Effects of Pollution (United States)


    Family Ceramiaceae E Phylum Phaeophyta Scytosiphon lornentaria P - E Kingdom Animalia Phylum Porifera Halichondria panicea E PE E Haliclona sp. E E E...BRYOZOA PORIFERA VCryptosulc paflonaiono V Bugulo spp. OHaliChondrio panicco 4$ Holicolno sp. AWatersipora sp. WHoloperelo brurineo *Hymelaocidon sp...POLYCHAETE 0 Hydroides pocificus M Uridentirted Tunicat. * Soirorbis so. 0 II. pacificus + Spirorbis BRYOZOA PORIFERA VCyptosu~o poflonsiona V Bugula $pp

  13. Nests of the Brazilian squirrel Sciurus ingrami Thomas (Rodentia, Sciuridae Ninhos do esquilo brasileiro Sciurus ingrami Thomas (Rodentia, Sciuridae

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    Cibele A. Alvarenga


    Full Text Available Descriptions of Sciurus ingrami Thomas, 1901 nests are not available in the literature. In this study, a survey was made of the distribution of S. ingrami nests in a woodlot located near to the headquarters of the Serra do Caraça Reserve, in state of Minas Gerais, where there is a high concentration of Syagrus romanzoffiana (Chamisso Glassman palm tree, among other exotic tree species. The nest-building behaviour and the nest characteristics, such as height from the ground, total circumference, diameter of the entrance, and the position of the nest in the tree - in the crown, along the trunk or in a side branch, were described.Não existe na literatura a descrição de ninhos de Sciurus ingrami Thomas, 1901. Neste estudo, foi examinada a distribuição espacial de ninhos desta espécie, localizados em área de vegetação de crescimento secundário, próxima a área construída da Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Serra do Caraça, Minas Gerais, onde há grande concentração da palmeira Syagrus romanzoffiana (Chamisso Glassman, entre outras espécies exóticas de árvores. O comportamento de construção e as características dos ninhos, tais como, altura em relação ao solo, circunferência total, diâmetro da entrada e a posição dos ninhos na árvore foram descritos.

  14. 马蹄礁底栖海藻的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑柏林; 刘剑华; 杨毓英


    In this paper, the composition, distribution, seasonal variation and biomass of benthic algae of Qingdao Mati Reef were studied during the period from May of 1981 to April of 1982.The results of the investigation are as follows: 1. 83 species of benthic algae of Qingdao Mati Reef were found,and they are indentified as: 13 Chlorophyta, 16 Phaeophyta and 54 Rhodo-phyta.2. According to the flora of 83 species of benthic algae in Qingdao Mati Reef, it seems that they belong to warm temperate.3. The annual biomass and biomass variation of benthic algae in March were hightest of the west part of Qingdao Mati Reef.

  15. Aquatic macro algae of a region under Almirante Alvaro Alberto nuclear power plant influence. I. Spatial seasonal evaluation; Macroalgas marinhas da regiao sob influencia da Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto (CNAAA), Saco de Piraquara de Fora, Angra dos Reis, RJ, Brasil. I. Avaliacao espaco-temporal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrini, A.G. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]|[Universidade Santa Ursula, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas; Cassano, V.; Coelho, L.G.; Labronici, G.J. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia


    Marine macro algae from the area which is under in fluence of the heated and chlorate liquid effluent to the CNAAA were observed (1981-1983) at 3 collection points: Pingo Dagua, Velho Beach, discharge point. A total of 121 taxa were found: 29 Chlorophyta, 26 Phaeophyta and 66 Rhodophyta. The spring season was the richest in taxa (78) while autumn was the poorest (85). Overall, the data suggest that the point A (Pingo Dagua) macro algae community (which is similar to the discharge point (0,80) is adequate for the control of the CNAAA effluent impact ad Piraquara de Fora. (author). 11 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab.

  16. Radiactividad ambiental en la estación científica antártica peruana Machu Picchu 1999 – 2000


    Gonzáles, Susana; Osores, José; Martínez, Jorge; López, Edith; Jara, Raúl


    El Instituto Peruano de Energía Nuclear (IPEN) inicia los estudios de radiactividad ambiental en la Región Antártica en el año 1996. Constituyen objetivos de esta investigación, determinar los niveles de radiactividad natural y artificial que permitan evaluar el estado radiológico en la región antártica. Se efectuaron muestreos de algas pardas (Phaeophyta), líquenes, musgo, gramíneas, suelo, sedimento marino, aire y agua de mar en el entorno de la Estación Científica Machu Picchu. En el pres...

  17. [Epiphytic algae from Bajo Pepito, Isla Mujeres, Quintana Roo, Mexico]. (United States)

    Quan-Young, L I; Díaz-Martín, M A; Espinoza-Avalos, J


    A total of 96 epiphytic algae species were identified from Bajo Pepito, Quintana Roo, México. 60.4% (58) belonged to the Rhodophyta, 19.79% (19) to the Phaeophyta, 16.6% (16) to the Chlorophyta and 3.1% (3) to the Cyanophyta; 49 species (50.5%) were found only in one month, while Heterosiphonia crispella was found in all of the sampled months. That species provided the largest contribution to the biomass of epiphytes. During January we registered the greater biommass and richness of epiphytes species, coincidently with high values of host species cover and rainfall.

  18. [Presence of lectins, tannins and protease inhibitors in venezuelan marine algae]. (United States)

    Perez-Lorenzo, S; Levy-Benshimol, A; Gomez-Acevedo, S


    The presence of lectins, tannins and protease inhibitors was studied in 27 algae species collected at four Venezuelan coral rift sites. Among the species studied, only six had hemagglutinating activity, apparently due to their lectin content. Higher hemagglutinating titers were obtained when the extracts were tested on pronase-treated erythrocytes. Hemagglutination was inhibited by simple sugars and by bovine submaxillary gland mucine. GaINAc was the only inhibitor of the hemagglutination caused by Grateulopia filicina extracts. None of the compounds tested inhibited the hemagglutination caused by Halimeda opuntia. The polyvinylpolypirrolidone treatment abolished the hemagglutinating activity of both brown and red algae. However, in Grateulopia filicina and Hypnea cervicornis (Rhodophyta) hemagglutinating activity persisted after the polyvinylpolypirrolidone treatment, presumably due to the presence of true lectins in those algae. Tannin content (presumably phlorotannins) was higher in the Phaeophyta as compared to the Rhodophyta. The brown alga Padina gymnospora had the higher content of these polyphenols. Trypsin inhibitors were detected, in minute ammounts, only in Padina gymnospora (Phaeophyta) and Acantophora spicifera (Rhodophyta). No subtilisin inhibition was observed whatsoever.

  19. Assembly of the Protoplasm of Codium fragile (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) into New Protoplasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Demao Li; Fang Lü; Guangce Wang; Baicheng Zhou


    The cell organelles of the coenocytic alga Codium fragile (Sun) Hariot aggregated rapidly and protoplasts were formed when its protoplasm was extruded out in seawater. Continuous observation showed that there were long and gelatinous threads connecting the cell organelles. The threads contracted, and thus the cell organelles aggregated into protoplasmic masses. The enzyme digestion experiments and Coomassie Brilliant Blue and Anthrone stainings showed that the long and gelatinous threads involved in the formation of the protoplasts might Include protein and saccharides as structure components. Nile Red staining Indicated that the protoplast primary envelope was non-lipid at first, and then lipid materials Integrated Into its surface gradually. The fluorescent brightener staining Indicated that the cell wall did not regenerate in the newly formed protoplasts and they all disintegrated within 72 h after formation. Transmission electron microscopy of the cell wall of wild C. fragile showed electron-dense material embedded in the whole cell wall at regular intervals. The experiments indicated that C. fragile would be a suitable model alga for studying the formation of protoplasts.

  20. α-, β-caroteno e α-tocoferol em algas marinhas in natura α- and β-carotene, and α-tocopherol in fresh seaweeds

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    Márcia Barbosa de Sousa


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de 32 espécies de algas marinhas das divisões Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta e Phaeophyta como fontes de α- e β-caroteno e α-tocoferol. Todas as clorofíceas analisadas apresentaram α- e β-caroteno. Os teores máximo e mínimo de α-caroteno foram detectados nas espécies do gênero Caulerpa e em Codium decorticatum, respectivamente; e β-caroteno foi mais baixo em Caulerpa mexicana e mais elevado em Ulva fasciata. Dentre as rodofíceas, 11 espécies apresentaram α-caroteno, com máximo em Botryocladia occidentalis. β-caroteno foi encontrado em todas as algas vermelhas analisadas com teores mínimo e máximo em Gracilaria caudata e Bryothamnion triquetrum, respectivamente. As feofíceas apresentaram apenas β-caroteno, com mínimo e máximo em Dictyopteris delicatula e Padina gymnospora, respectivamente. Na divisão Chlorophyta, α-tocoferol, foi máximo em Codium decorticatum e mínimo em Caulerpa prolifera. Na Rhodophyta, 12 espécies apresentaram α-tocoferol com teor máximo em Enantiocladia duperreyi. Na Phaeophyta, α-tocoferol foi encontrado com valores mínimo e máximo em Lobophora variegata e Dictyota dichotoma, respectivamente.The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of 32 marine macro algae species, members of Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta, as sources of a-carotene, b-carotene and a-tocopherol. Both b-carotene and a-carotene were found in all species of green macroalgae analyzed. The maximum content of a-carotene was detected in algae belonging to Caulerpa genus and the minimum in Codium decorticatum. The amount of b-carotene found was minimum in Caulerpa mexicana and maximum in Ulva fasciata. Among the Rhodophyta species, eleven contain a-carotene, the maximum content was found in Botryocladia occidentalis. b-Carotene was found in all red macroalgae analyzed presenting the lowest and highest values in Gracilaria caudata and Bryothamnion triquetrum, respectively

  1. 深圳地区椰心叶甲寄主和天敌种类调查%Host plants and natural enemies for coconut leaf beetle, Brontispa longissima, in Shenzhen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴青; 梁广文; 曾玲; 陆永跃


    调查结果表明,深圳地区椰心叶甲Brontispa longissima(Gestro)的寄主植物有26属36种,危害比较严重的寄主有椰子(Cocos nucifera L.)、大王椰子(Roystonea regia O.F.Cook)、假槟榔(Archontophoenix alexandrae(F.V.Mueller))、鱼尾葵(Caryota ochlandra Hance)、三药槟榔(Areca triandra Roxburgh ex Buchanan)、金山葵(Syagrus romanzoffiana(Chamisso)Glassman)、菲岛鱼尾葵(Caryota cumingii Loddiges ex Martius)、刺葵(Phoenix hanceana Naudin)、国王椰子(Ravenea rivularis L.)等.野外观察和采集标本鉴定结果表明,深圳地区椰心叶甲捕食性天敌有11种,主要种类为蚂蚁Formica sp.、毛蠼螋Cheatospania sp.、中华大螳螂Parattenodera sinensis Saussure;致病微生物有3种,主要是绿僵菌Metarhizium anisopliae var.anisopliae.

  2. Larvicidal activity of Brazilian plant essential oils against Coenagrionidae larvae. (United States)

    Silva, D T; Silva, L L; Amaral, L P; Pinheiro, C G; Pires, M M; Schindler, B; Garlet, Q I; Benovit, S C; Baldisserotto, B; Longhi, S J; Kotzian, C B; Heinzmann, B M


    Odonate larvae can be serious pests that attack fish larvae, postlarvae, and fingerlings in fish culture tanks, causing significant loss in the supply and production of juveniles. This study reports a screen of the essential oils (EOs) of Nectandra megapotamica (Sprengel) Mez, Nectandra grandiflora Nees, Hesperozygis ringens (Bentham) Epling, Ocimum gratissimum L., Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hooker) Troncoso, and Lippia sidoides Chamisso against Coenagrionidae larvae. In addition, the most effective EO and its 50% lethal concentration (LC50) and chemical analysis are described. The larvae of Acanthagrion Selys, Homeoura Kennedy, Ischnura Charpentier, and Oxyagrion Selys were used to assess the EO effects. EO obtained from H. ringens, O. gratissimum, and L. sidoides showed the highest larvicidal effects at 19 h of treatment. The major constituents of the EO of H. ringens include pulegone and limonene, while eugenol and Z-beta-ocimene predominate in the EO of O. gratissimum, and carvacrol and rho-cymene were the major compounds of the EO of L. sidoides. Leaf EOs from H. ringens, O. gratissimum, and L. sidoides showed activity against Coenagrionidae larvae at similar concentrations with LC50s of 62.92, 75.05, and 51.65 microl liter(-1), respectively, and these were considered the most promising treatments.

  3. Lead and cadmium levels in coastal benthic algae (seaweeds) of Tenerife, Canary Islands. (United States)

    Lozano, Gonzalo; Hardisson, Arturo; Gutiérrez, Angel José; Lafuente, María Anunciación


    Lead and cadmium levels of some species of brown-algae (Phaeophyta) from the mesolittoral (intertidal area) of the Island of Tenerife (central-eastern Atlantic) were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The quality control was carried out using a standard "CRM 279 Ulva lactuca". The mean, minimum and maximum concentrations were 11.21, 2.090 and 81.795 microg/g/dw; and 1.13, 0.190 and 5.130 microg/g/dw for lead and cadmium, respectively. The fact that samples registering the highest cadmium concentrations were the same as those which showed the highest lead level corresponding to a sampling station nearby an urban water outlet could be relevant.

  4. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (June 2012

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    Full Text Available The present work reports on the extended distribution of nineteen species in the Mediterranean. These are: Upeneus pori(Fish:Turkey, Bursatella leachii (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia: eastern coast of Spain, Sparisoma cretense (Fish: Ionian coastof Greece, Pseudobryopsis myura (Chlorophyta: Turkey, Aplysia dactylomela (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia: Karpathos island,and Kyklades Archipelago, Greece, Asparagopsis armata and Botryocladia madagascariensis (Rhodophyta: South Peloponnesos,Greece, Oxynotus centrina (Fish: Greece, Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Chlorophyta , Stypopodium schimperi(Phaeophyta Siganus luridus and Stephanolepis diaspros (Fish Percnon gibbesi (Decapoda, Brachyura (Kyklades Archipelago,Greece, Cerithium scabridum (Mollusca, Prosobranchia: Anavissos: Greece and Cerithium renovatum (Mollusca, Prosobranchia:N. Κriti, Cassiopea andromeda (Scyphomedusa: Rhodos Island, Greece, Abra tenuis (Mollusca Bivalvia: VouliagmeniLake, Greece Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Fish: Calabrian coast, Italy and Plocamopherus ocellatus (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia:İskenderun Bay, Turkey.


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    Hanaâ Zbakh


    Full Text Available Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. The Moroccan marine biodiversity including macroalgae remains partially unexplored in term of their potential bioactivities. Antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts from 20 species of macroalgae (9 Chlorophyta, 3 Phaeophyta and 8 Rhodophyta collected from Moroccan Mediterranean coasts was evaluated against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. The extracts of the studied Rhodophyceae inhibited considerably the growth of the three tested bacterial strains and gave inhibition zones between 20 and 24 mm. The results indicate that these species of seaweed present a significant capacity of antibacterial activities, which makes them interesting for screening for natural products.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑怡; 陈寅山; 卢海声


    Three different solvents viz ethanol, acetone and methanol-toluene (3:1) were used to extract antibiotics from 23 species of marine algae belonging to the Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta. Their crude extracts were tested for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Among them, the ethanol extract showed the strongest activity against the bacteria and fungi tested. Four species of the Rhodophyta (Laurencia okamurai, Dasya scoparia, Grateloupia filicina and plocamium telfairiae ) showed a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity. Every solvent extract from the four species was active against all the bacteria tested. The test bacterium Pseudomonas solancearum and the fungus Penicilium citrinum were most sensitive to the extracts of marine algae. In general, the extracts of seaweeds inhibited bacteria more strongly than fungi and species of the Rhodophyta showed the greatest activity against the bacteria and fungi tested.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩丽君; 范晓; 严小军


    Cation-exchange chromatography was selected to extract and separate betaines from marine algae. On the basis of the special chemical characteristics of the betaines and their analogues, Dragendorff's reagent (KBiI4) was used to test the existence of betaines and their analogues in marine algae. The total content of betaines from seven species was obtained by using the Reinkeate salt precipitation method. The results showed that the content of betaines in two species of Chlorophyta and two species of Rhodophyta were relatively high,and that the content of betaines in Enteromopha prolifera could even reach to 0.9%. The content in the three species of Phaeophyta was relatively low.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑怡; 陈寅山; 卢海声


    Three different solvents viz ethanol, acetone and methanol-toluene (3:1) were used to extract antibiotics from 23 species of marine algae belonging to the Chlomphyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta. Their crude extracts were tested for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Among them, the ethanol extract showed the strongest activity against the bacteria and fungi tested. Four species of the Rhodophyta (Laurenc/a okamurai, Dasya scoparia, Grateloupia filicina and plocamium telfairiae ) showed a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity. Every solvent extract from the four species was active against all the bacteria tested. The test bacterium Pseudomonas solancearum and the fungus Penicilium citrinum were most sensitive to the extracts of marine algae. In general, the extracts of seaweeds inhibited bacteria more strongly than fungi and species of the Rhodophyta showed the greatest activity against the bacteria and fungi tested.

  9. Nuevos registros de macroalgas para el Atlántico mexicano y riqueza florística del Caribe mexicano New records of macroalgae for the Mexican Atlantic and floristic richness of the Mexican Caribbean

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    Neidy Pauline Cetz-Navarro


    Full Text Available Se revisaron muestras de macroalgas de un hábitat pocas veces analizado (colindante a la parte basal del tejido vivo de los corales Acropora palmata y Diploria strigosa y de una zona de México poco conocida florísticamente (parte Sur del Caribe mexicano, con base a lo cual se reporta a Corallophila verongiae (Rhodophyta, Derbesia fastigiata (Chlorophyta y Hincksia onslowensis (Phaeophyta como nuevos registros de macroalgas para la costa del Atlántico mexicano. Además, se reporta a Lophosiphonia obscura (Rhodophyta como nuevo registro para la parte costera continental del Atlántico mexicano, ya que sólo se había registrado hace más de 40 años para Arrecife Alacranes, sitio alejado aproximadamente 180 km al norte de Puerto Progreso, Yucatán. Aunque las especies de macroalgas no presentaron estructuras reproductoras, probablemente por tener crecimiento clonal y estar invadiendo tejido coralino, los caracteres morfológicos permitieron su identificación con certeza. Con excepción de la primera especie, las otras no se habían registrado creciendo sobre corales. Tomando en cuenta estos nuevos registros, el total de especies de macroalgas registradas hasta este estudio para el Caribe mexicano es de 546, incluyendo 307 Rhodophyta, 171 Chlorophyta y 68 Phaeophyta. Esta zona tropical y la costa templada de Baja California conforman las dos zonas florísticas marinas más ricas de México.Macroalgae samples from a habitat uncommonly analyzed (next to the basal part of live tissue of the corals Acropora palmata and Diploria strigosa, and from a Mexican zone barely known floristically (the southern part of the Mexican Caribbean were studied. Based on those samples, Corallophila verongiae (Rhodophyta, Derbesia fastigiata (Chlorophyta, and Hincksia onslowensis (Phaeophyta are recognized as new records for the Mexican Atlantic coast. Similarly, Lophosiphonia obscura (Rhodophyta is recognized as a new record for the continental coast of the Mexican

  10. Seaweed composition from Bintulu coast of Sarawak, Malaysia. (United States)

    Zawawi, Mohd Hafizbillah; Idris, Mohd Hanafi; Kamal, Abu Hena Mustafa; King, Wong Sing


    Species composition of seaweed and distribution were investigated in the coastal waters of Bintulu, Sarawak. The seaweed samples were collected during low tide between May 2011 and May 2012 from the six different stations. In total 54 species of seaweeds were identified from study areas of Bintulu coastal waters. Among them, 23 species were from Rhodophyta with 11 families, 15 species were from Phaeophyta with 2 families and 16 species were from Chlorophyta with 10 families: Seventeen species of seaweeds were recorded from the Tanjung Batu, while 23 species from Pantai Telekom, 14 species from Golden Beach, 26 species from Kuala Similajau, 12 species from Kuala Nyalau and 21 species from Batu Mandi. Seaweeds abundance was high in rocky substrate and Rhodophyta (11 families and 23 species) was the common and highest group of seaweeds in this coastal areas. Present study recorded high diversified seaweed species at the rocky shore area compare to reef area.

  11. Characteristic carotenoids in some phytobenthos species in the coastal area of the Adriatic Sea

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    Bazyli Czeczuga


    Full Text Available The author investigated the presence of various carotcnoids in some phytobenthos species (20 species representative of Chlorophytn, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta from the coast of the Adriatic Sea. The presence of following carotenoids has been determined 1 in Chlorophyta lycopene, α-, β-, γ- , ε-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lutein epoxide, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, siphonein and astaxanthin esier; 2 in Phorophyta: α-, β-, γ- , ε- carotene, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, diataxanthin, fucoxanthin, fucoxanthol, neoxanthin, violaxanthin and rhodoxanthin-like: 3 in Rhodophyta α-, β-, γ-carotene,α-, β-,cryptoxanthin, lutein lutein epoxide, zeaxanthin, anthcraxanthin, mutatoxanthin, fucoxanthin neoxanthin and violaxanthin The total carotenoid content ranged from 1.197 ( Cystoseira corniculata to 16 748 mg g-1 dry weight (Chaetomorpha aerea.

  12. A dichotomous species of Codium (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta is colonizing northern Chile Una especie dicotómica de Codium (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta está colonizando el norte de Chile

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    Full Text Available In late 2001 and early 2002, a dichotomous species of Codium appeared colonizing the low intertidal and shallow subtidal bottoms of Caldera Bay, northern Chile (27° 03’ S, 70° 51’ W. Due to the ecological and economic impact the species is having in Caldera Bay and its potential spread along the Chilean coastline, we studied the taxonomic identity of the species and examined its relationships with other dichotomous species of Codium reported for temperate Pacific South America. Morphological analyses suggest that the seaweeds from Caldera Bay belong to Codium fragile (Suringar Hariot. Not only is there strong agreement in internal and external morphological characters, but among all the species reported for Peru and Chile, this is the only one exhibiting utricles with rounded, apiculate tip terminating in a mucron. This species has a broad geographic distribution in temperate waters. In Chile it was known only from the coasts of Valdivia to the Straits of Magellan (39° 48’ S, 73° 26’ W to 53° 10’ S, 73° 49’ W. This is the first record of C. fragile in northern Chile, and this study discusses several alternative hypotheses for the presence of the species into this area. The morphological characteristics of the material collected in Caldera partially agree with diagnostic characters known for C. fragile subspecies tasmanicum and C. fragile subspecies tomentosoides. However, the rapid population spread of the species in northern Chile, and recent molecular analysis support the identification of this form as the invasive C. fragile subspecies tomentosoidesA fines de 2001 y principio de 2002, apareció en el norte de Chile una especie del género Codium, de morfología dicotómica, colonizando los niveles intermareales y submareales de la Bahía de Caldera (27° 03’ S, 70° 51’ O. Debido al impacto ecológico y económico que ha provocado esta especie en la Bahía de Caldera y a su dispersión potencial a lo largo de la costa de

  13. Avaliação de extratos de macroalgas bênticas do litoral catarinense utilizando o teste de letalidade para Artemia salina Evaluation of macroalgae from Santa Catarina’s coast with the brine shrimp assay

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    Cintia Lhullier


    Full Text Available Foram coletadas amostras de algas marinhas de 19 espécies (sendo 4 pertencentes ao filo Chlorophyta, 5 ao filo Phaeophyta e 10 ao filo Rhodophyta em dois locais do litoral catarinense. Os extratos etanólicos foram submetidos ao teste de letalidade para larvas de Artemia salina com objetivo de realizar uma triagem das espécies. Dos 26 extratos testados, 25 apresentaram toxicidade significativa em pelo menos uma das 3 concentrações testadas. O grupo de algas vermelhas (Rhodophyta foi o que obteve maior porcentagem de extratos com resultados estatisticamente significativos pelo método do qui-quadrado e também menores valores de CL50, com destaque para Acanthophora spicifera, Hypnea musciformis e Pterocladiella capillacea. Observaram-se diferenças entre as espécies de um mesmo gênero (Codium decorticatum e Codium isthmocladium e também a influência de fatores ambientais (Hypnea musciformis na toxicidade dos extratos.Samples of 19 macroalgae species (4 Chlorophyta, 5 Phaeophyta and 10 Rhodophyta have been collected from two points of Santa Catarina's coast. The ethanolic extracts were avaluated with the brine shrimp assay in order to perform a screening for potential toxicity. A total of 25 extracts presented significant results in one or more of the tested concentrations. The phylum Rhodophyta presented more statistically significant results with the chi-square test, as well as lower values of LC50. The extracts of Acanthophora spicifera (from Canasvieiras and Ilha do Francês, Hypnea musciformis and Pterocladiella capillacea (both from Ilha do Francês presented LC50 below 50 mg/mL. Differences between the species of same genus (Codium decorticatum and Codium isthmocladium and the influence of environmental factors (Hypnea musciformis were observed.

  14. Macroalgas submareales de la bahía de Todos Santos, Baja California, México Submareal macroalgae of the Todos Santos Bay, Baja California, Mexico

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    Raúl Aguilar-Rosas


    Full Text Available Con el fin de identificar y caracterizar la composición de especies de la zona submareal de la bahía de Todos Santos, Baja California, México; se realizaron muestreos de macroalgas marinas bentónicas en 7 sitios durante 1995-2000. Como resultado de 25 buceos Scuba entre 3 y 33 m de profundidad se encontraron 150 especies de macroalgas para el área de estudio; 10 son Chlorophyta, 26 Phaeophyta y 114 Rhodophyta. Del total, 47 son registros nuevos para el área de estudio y 2 de éstos, Faucheocolax attenuata Setchell y Minium parvum R.L. Moe, son nuevos para la flora marina del Pacífico de México. Se incluye una revisión de las investigaciones en las que se han considerado las macroalgas presentes en la bahía de Todos Santos y una discusión sobre la composición de las especies encontradas, su distribución vertical y reproducción, así como sobre las especies epífitas y parásitas del área.In order to identify and characterize the species composition of the subtidal zone of the Todos Santos Bay, Baja California, Mexico, benthic marine macroalgae were sampled at 7 sites from 1995 to 2000. As a result of 25 scuba at derds for the study area, of which Faucheocolax attenuata Setchell and R.L Moe Minium parvum are new to the marine flora of Pacific Mexico. We include a research that consider the macroalpths between 3 and 33 m we found a total of 150 species of macroalgae for the study area, of which 10 are Chlorophyta, 26 Phaeophyta and 114 Rhodophyta; 47 species represent new recogae in the Todos Santos Bay and a discussion on the composition of species found, its vertical distribution and reproduction, particularly the species epiphytes and parasites present in the study area.

  15. 青岛潮间带大型底栖海藻群落的研究%The Survey on the Community of Benthic Marine Macroalgae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨震; 王悠; 董开升; 唐学玺; 赵星


    在青岛潮间带布设了显浪咀、太平角和石老人3个断面,进行了为期1 a(2006年8月~2007年11月)的大型底栖海藻资源调查研究.结果表明:1. 青岛潮间带大型底栖海藻群落的种类组成中红藻种类最多,其次是褐藻,绿藻最少.2. 群落中大型底栖海藻的生物量有明显的季节变化:春季>夏季>秋季>冬季;生物量在垂直分布上表现出中、低潮带均大于高潮带;在水平分布上无明显差异.3. 底栖藻类群落优势种无季节性变化,第一优势种为孔石莼.4. 采集到大型底栖海藻43种,其中红藻门22属24种,占55.8%;褐藻门9属11种,占25.6%;绿藻门6属8种,占18.6%.%Three cross sections at Xianlangzui, Taipingjiao and Shilaoren in the intertidal zone of Qingdao were set and the communities of benthic marine macroalgae were investigated from August 2006 to November 2007. Results showed that: 1. In the intertidal zone of Qingdao, species of Rhodophyta played a dominant role in the composition of the benthic marine macroalgae community, followed by Phaeophyta and then Chlorophyta. 2. The biomass of the community changed with the season too, and a seasonal variation of Spring>Summer>Autumn>Winter was obtained. In the vertical distribution the biomass in the low-intertidal zone or mid-intertidal zone was greater than that in the high intertidal zone, but no remarkable difference was found among the three cross sections in the horizonal distribution. 3. The dominant species had no seasonal variation, and the first dominant specie was Ulva. pertusa Kjell. 4. During the four surveys, 43 species of benthic marine macroalgae were collected, among which 24 species(belonging to 22 genera) were Rhodophyta , 11 species(belonging to 9 genera) were Phaeophyta and 8 species(belonging to 6 genera) were Chlorophyta.

  16. Main nutritional contents of 30 Dalian coastal microalgae species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Xiurong; LIU Huihui; CHEIN Kwan Paul


    This paper reports results of study on the contents of proteins, amino acids, polysaccharose and uronic acids in 30 species of macroalgae from Shicao, Heishijiao, Shimiao, and Xiaofujiazhuang in the vicinity of Dalian City, N.E.China. The results showed that the protein contents of the 30 algae from highest (112.55μg/ml) to the lowest (0.24 μg/ml) was in the descending order of Dictyopteris ndalata, Gelidium vagum, Gymnogongrus japonican, Ectocarpus confervoides, Tinocladia crassa, Sargassum thunberii. In general, the protein content in red algae was higher than that in brown algae. The content of free amino acids showed no significent differences from 7.44 μg/ml-4.96 μg/ ml in all these algae, in the descending order of Gymnogongrus japonican, Sargassum confusum, Undoria pinnatifida, Laminaria japonica and Ectocarpus confervoides. The content of polysaccharose varied from 168.2 μg/ml-22.15 μg/ml in the descending order of Symphyocladia latiuscula, Scytosiphon lomentarius, Desmarestia viridis., Tinocladia crassa, Gracilaria asiatica and Porphyra yezoensis. The content of uronic acids is from 196.24 μg/ml-20.77 μg/ml in the descending order of Ulva lactuca, Symphyoclaldia latiuscula, Scytosiphon lomentarius, Ceramimum kondoi, Gracilaria vemucosa and Porphyra yezoensis. The fatty acids in 30 species of algae belong to Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta and Phaeophyta. Most phaeophytes have many (4-12) types of fatty acids.

  17. Seasonal variation in biomass and species composition of seaweeds stranded along Port Okha, northwest coast of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mukund C Thakur; C R K Reddy; Bhavanath Jha


    Port Okha coast,which is known for its luxuriant growth of a diverse assemblage of seaweeds on Saurashtra coast,is found to have abundant quantities of seaweeds being drifted and washed ashore every year.Studies conducted for quantifying the stranded seaweeds from May 2004 to April 2005 showed an average biomass value of 3.10 kg fresh wt/m2/month with maximum being 6.60 kg fresh wt/m2 in April.The stranded weeds constituted a total of 62 species during the entire study period.Of this,Rhodophyta ranked high with 26 species followed by Chlorophyta with 22 species and Phaeophyta with 14 species.The stranded seaweeds that were washed ashore provide valuable floristic information about the intertidal and near shore sub-tidal algae of the respective regions.Although natural senescence of seaweeds is one of the major factors,strong currents primarily forced by tides,also contribute to the uprooting and subsequent drifting of seaweeds on to the beach.This ultimately causes changes in floristic features of the existing algal beds.

  18. Seasonal variations in biomass and species composition of seaweeds along the northern coasts of Persian Gulf (Bushehr Province)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Dadolahi-Sohrab; M Garavand-Karimi; H Riahi; H Pashazanoosi


    This study was carried out to evaluate the seasonal variations of seaweed biomass and species composition at six different sites along the coastal areas in Bushehr Province. Sampling depths varied among sites, from 0.3 to 2.0 m below mean sea level. A total of 37 (i.e., 10 Chlorophyta, 12 Phaeophyta and 15 Rhodophyta) seaweed species were collected. Studies were conducted for quantifying the seaweeds during four seasons from October 2008 until July 2009. During present research, Ulva intestinalis and Cladophora nitellopsis of green, Polycladia myrica, Sirophysalia trinodis and Sargassum angustifolium of brown and Gracilaria canaliculata and Hypnea cervicornis of red seaweeds showed highest biomass in coastal areas of Bushehr Province. The Cheney’s ratio of 2.1 indicated a temperate algal flora to this area. All sites exhibited more than 50% similarity of algal species, indicating a relatively homogenous algal distribution. Total biomass showed the highest value of 3280.7 ± 537.8 g dry wt m−2 during summer and lowest value of 856.9 ± 92.0 g dry wt m−2 during winter. During this study, the highest and lowest seaweed biomass were recorded on the site 2 (2473.7 ± 311.0 g dry wt m−2) and site 5 (856.7 ± 96.8 g dry wt m−2), respectively.

  19. Hydrodynamic transport of drifting macroalgae through a tidal cut (United States)

    Biber, Patrick D.


    Drifting macroalgae are unattached seaweeds that are commonly found in many South Florida and Gulf of Mexico shallow-water seagrass habitats. They are primarily comprised of species of red algae (Rhodophyta) and some brown algae (Phaeophyta). Because of the unattached nature of these species, drift algae have the ability to be moved around the landscape primarily by tidal, as well as wind-driven and alongshore currents. Numerous invertebrates and some fish species are typically found associated with drift algal clumps and aggregations. Transport of drift algae is an important dispersal mechanism for both the plants and their associated fauna. Dispersal distances have been studied in numerous locations over a range of spatial scales. However, little is known about quantities of algal material that are involved. In this study I report on composition and biomass of drifting algae that are transported through a tidal inlet in Biscayne Bay, Florida. Sargassum (a brown alga) and about 12 genera of red algae were found in three seasonal collections (Aug., Dec., May). Total biomass collected varied among seasons, with larger average amounts of drift algae collected in May than the other two months sampled. From this data, I calculate the approximate quantities of drift algae that are potentially moving in, or out of, Biscayne Bay, about a half to one ton of biomass per day.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of some seaweeds species from Red sea, against multidrug resistant bacteria

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    Shimaa M. El Shafay


    Full Text Available This study evaluates the antibacterial activity of diethyl ether, methanol, ethanol and chloroform extracts of red algae Ceramium rubrum (Rhodophyta, Sargassum vulgare, Sargassum fusiforme and Padina pavonia (Phaeophyta collected from Red sea, Egypt. The algal extracts were tested for their antibacterial activity against ten multidrug resistant clinical isolates of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The highest inhibition activity among all extracts was obtained with 100 μl diethyl ether extract S. fusiforme against Staphylococcus aureus 2 and 50 μl ethanol extract of S. vulgare against Klebsiella pneumoniae. The algal extract of S. fusiforme and S. vulgare was characterized by Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS. The compounds with antimicrobial activity were identified, such as phenols, terpenes, acetogenins, indoles, fatty acids and volatile halogenated hydrocarbons. Transmission electron microscopy was applied for determining the morphological changes in S. aureus 2 and K. pneumonia treated with 100 μl diethyl ether extract of S. fusiforme and 50 μl ethanol extract of S. vulgare, respectively. Perforation of cell wall, leakage of cytoplasmic contents, severe distortion of outer cell shape, inner chromatin mild scattered cytoplasmic vacuolation, rupture of cell wall, and decreased cell size for both bacterial isolates treated with 100 μl diethyl ether of S. fusiforme extract and 50 μl S. vulgare ethanolic extract were recorded.

  1. Taxonomic assessment of seaweed community from the coastal areas of Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia

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    Mohd Hafizbillah Zawawi


    Full Text Available Basic taxonomic information forms the important basis for the documentation, resource management and utilization of marine biodiversity such as seaweeds. A taxonomic assessment of seaweeds in the coastal areas of Bintulu, Sarawak, East Malaysia, was conducted monthly from May 2011 to May 2012. Species composition was recorded following NaGISA protocols, direct observation, and SCUBA and snorkeling techniques. A total of 54 species were identified, classified into Rhodophyta (23 species, Chlorophyta (16 species and Phaeophyta (15 species. The highest abundance was recorded at Kuala Similajau (25 species while the lowest was recorded at Kuala Nyalau (12 species. As the present study was conducted by examining species collected from both rocky shores and the reef area for the first time, a higher number of species was documented compared to previous studies conducted in the same general area but focusing only on particular habitats. Thirty species found in the current survey represent new records for the locality including some with economic potentials.

  2. Larvicidal Activity against Aedes aegypti and Molluscicidal Activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of Brazilian Marine Algae (United States)

    Guedes, Elíca Amara Cecília; de Carvalho, Cenira M.; Ribeiro Junior, Karlos Antonio Lisboa; Lisboa Ribeiro, Thyago Fernando; de Barros, Lurdiana Dayse; de Lima, Maria Raquel Ferreira; Prado Moura, Flávia de Barros; Goulart Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzebio


    This study investigated the biological activities of five benthic marine algae collected from Northeastern Region of Brazil. The tested activities included larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, and toxicity against Artemia salina. Extracts of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta), Padina gymnospora, Sargassum vulgare (Phaeophyta), Hypnea musciformis, and Digenea simplex (Rhodophyta) were prepared using different solvents of increasing polarity, including dichloromethane, methanol, ethanol, and water. Of the extracts screened, the dichloromethane extracts of H. musciformis and P. gymnospora exhibited the highest activities and were subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation in hexane and chloroform. The chloroform fractions of the P. gymnospora and H. musciformis extracts showed molluscicidal activity at values below 40 μg·mL−1 (11.1460 μg·mL−1 and 25.8689 μg·mL−1, resp.), and the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora showed larvicidal activity at values below 40 μg·mL−1 (29.018 μg·mL−1 and 17.230 μg·mL−1, resp.). The crude extracts were not toxic to A. salina, whereas the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora (788.277 μg·mL−1 and 706.990 μg·mL−1) showed moderate toxicity, indicating that the toxic compounds present in these algae are nonpolar. PMID:24688787

  3. Screening of Dengue virus antiviral activity of marine seaweeds by an in situ enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

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    Andrea Cristine Koishi

    Full Text Available Dengue is a significant public health problem worldwide. Despite the important social and clinical impact, there is no vaccine or specific antiviral therapy for prevention and treatment of dengue virus (DENV infection. Considering the above, drug discovery research for dengue is of utmost importance; in addition natural marine products provide diverse and novel chemical structures with potent biological activities that must be evaluated. In this study we propose a target-free approach for dengue drug discovery based on a novel, rapid, and economic in situ enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the screening of a panel of marine seaweed extracts. The in situ ELISA was standardized and validated for Huh7.5 cell line infected with all four serotypes of DENV, among them clinical isolates and a laboratory strain. Statistical analysis showed an average S/B of 7.2 and Z-factor of 0.62, demonstrating assay consistency and reliability. A panel of fifteen seaweed extracts was then screened at the maximum non-toxic dose previously determined by the MTT and Neutral Red cytotoxic assays. Eight seaweed extracts were able to reduce DENV infection of at least one serotype tested. Four extracts (Phaeophyta: Canistrocarpus cervicornis, Padina gymnospora; Rhodophyta: Palisada perforate; Chlorophyta: Caulerpa racemosa were chosen for further evaluation, and time of addition studies point that they might act at an early stage of the viral infection cycle, such as binding or internalization.

  4. Boron uptake, localization, and speciation in marine brown algae. (United States)

    Miller, Eric P; Wu, Youxian; Carrano, Carl J


    In contrast to the generally boron-poor terrestrial environment, the concentration of boron in the marine environment is relatively high (0.4 mM) and while there has been extensive interest in its use as a surrogate of pH in paleoclimate studies in the context of climate change-related questions, the relatively depth independent, and the generally non-nutrient-like concentration profile of this element have led to boron being neglected as a potentially biologically relevant element in the ocean. Among the marine plant-like organisms the brown algae (Phaeophyta) are one of only five lineages of photosynthetic eukaryotes to have evolved complex multicellularity. Many of unusual and often unique features of brown algae are attributable to this singular evolutionary history. These adaptations are a reflection of the marine coastal environment which brown algae dominate in terms of biomass. Consequently, brown algae are of fundamental importance to oceanic ecology, geochemistry, and coastal industry. Our results indicate that boron is taken up by a facilitated diffusion mechanism against a considerable concentration gradient. Furthermore, in both Ectocarpus and Macrocystis some boron is most likely bound to cell wall constituent alginate and the photoassimilate mannitol located in sieve cells. Herein, we describe boron uptake, speciation, localization and possible biological function in two species of brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera and Ectocarpus siliculosus.


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    Full Text Available Durante la época seca en febrero y la época de lluvias en junio de 2004, fueron ubicados en el Golfo de Urabá seis estaciones con transectos paralelos a la línea de costa rocosa. Allí se removió la biomasa macroalgal de ocho cuadrantes de 1 m2 por cada estación de muestreo y distribuidos desde el supralitoral hasta tres metros de profundidad. Se estimó el porcentaje de cobertura de las microalgas; se determinó la riqueza numérica de especies y las biomasas húmeda y seca; y se midieron algunas variables fisicoquímicas. Se encontró un total de 30 taxones de macroalgas de las cuales 20 pertenecen a la división Rhodophyta. cinco Phaeophyta y cinco Chorophyta. Las especies más frecuentes y con mayor biomasa para la costa noroccidental, fueron Sargassum polyceratíum. Laurencia obtusa y L papulosa y para el costado nororiental, Grateloupia fílicina y Chladophora vagabunda. Se concluyó que existieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las comunidades algales de ambos costados y que las diferencias en el gradiente vertical y de la salinidad del agua, condujeron a diferencias en las comunidades establecidas sobre el litoral rocoso de ambos costados.

  6. Anthropogenic nitrogen input traced by means of {delta} {sup 15}N values in macroalgae: Results from in-situ incubation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, Barbara [Baltic Sea Research Institute, Seestr. 15, 18119 Rostock (Germany)]. E-mail:; Voss, Maren [Baltic Sea Research Institute, Seestr. 15, 18119 Rostock (Germany)


    The macroalgae species Fucus vesiculosus (Phaeophyta), Polysiphonia sp., and Ceramium rubrum (Rhodophyta) originally grown at an unpolluted brackish site of the southern Baltic Sea were incubated for 10 and 14 days at 12 stations along a salinity gradient in a highly polluted estuary. We have expected an adaptation of the initially low {delta} {sup 15}N values to the higher ones within the incubation period. In addition to the macroalgae the {delta} {sup 15}N values of NO{sub 3} {sup -} were measured to evaluate fractionation processes of the source nitrate. Inside the estuary, {delta} {sup 15}N-NO{sub 3} {sup -} values were 6.2-9.7 per mille , indicating anthropogenic nitrogen sources. The red macroalgae adequately reflected the nitrate isotope values in the surrounding waters, whereas for F. vesiculosus the results were not that clear. The reasons were assumed to be higher initial {delta} {sup 15}N values of F. vesiculosus and presumably a too slow nitrogen uptake and growth rate. The method of macroalgae incubations seems suitable as a simple monitoring to study the influence of anthropogenic nitrogen loading in an estuarine environment.

  7. Habitat and food selection by herbivorous amphipods associated with macroalgal beds on the southeast coast of Brazil

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    Mauro Rezende Tavares

    Full Text Available The factors that influence the selection of marine macrophytes by meso-herbivores are complex, and may include the nutritional quality of algae, the value of the habitat as a shelter, and the availability of algae in the environment. Here we investigated the existence of differential use of Sargassum filipendula C. Agardh, 1824 (Phaeophyta and Galaxaura stupocaulon Kjellman, 1900 (Rhodophyta as habitats and feeding resources by species of Hyalidae and Ampithoidae, in laboratory manipulation experiments and in an algal bed on the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. In the field, 19 fronds were collected from each alga and the associated amphipods were identified and counted. To evaluate food preference and habitat selection by amphipods, we conducted laboratory experiments using containers containing fragments of algae and individuals of Cymadusa filosa Savigny, 1816 or Hyale nigra (Haswell, 1879. In natural conditions, the density of C. filosa was significantly higher on G. stupocaulon, while in the feeding and habitat preference experiment we found a higher density on S. filipendula. The densities of H. nigra did not differ between the algae in both experiments, probably as a result of the variety of food items in its diet, and its high mobility and wide distribution on different substrates. The different results for C. filosa suggest that the pattern of feeding and habitat selection can be affected by external characteristics of the algae; probably, refuge from predation is an important selective force acting on the use of algae by these animals.

  8. Heavy metal concentrations in marine green, brown, and red seaweeds from coastal waters of Yemen, the Gulf of Aden (United States)

    Al-Shwafi, Nabil A.; Rushdi, Ahmed I.


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the concentration levels of heavy metals in different species of the main three marine algal divisions from the Gulf of Aden coastal waters, Yemen. The divisions included Chlorophyta—green plants ( Halimeda tuna, Rhizoclonium kochiamum, Caldophora koiei, Enteromorpha compressa, and Caulerpa racemosa species), Phaeophyta—brown seaweeds ( Padina boryana, Turbinaria elatensis, Sargassum binderi, Cystoseira myrica, and Sargassum boveanum species), and Rhodophyta—red seaweeds ( Hypnea cornuta, Champia parvula, Galaxaura marginate, Laurencia paniculata, Gracilaria foliifere, and species). The heavy metals, which included cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), Iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and vanadium (V) were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAs). The concentrations of heavy metals in all algal species are in the order of Fe >> Cu > Mn > Cr > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cd > V > Co. The results also showed that the uptake of heavy metals by different marine algal divisions was in the order of Chlorophyta > Phaeophyta > Rhodophyta. These heavy metals were several order of magnitude higher than the concentrations of the same metals in seawater. This indicates that marine alga progressively uptake heavy metals from seawater.

  9. Biomass and Habitat Characteristics of Epiphytic Macroalgae in the Sibuti Mangroves, Sarawak, Malaysia (United States)

    Isa, Hasmidah Md; Kamal, Abu Hena Mustafa; Idris, Mohd Hanafi; Rosli, Zamri; Ismail, Johan


    Mangroves support diverse macroalgal assemblages as epibionts on their roots and tree trunks. These algae provide nutrients to the primary consumers in the aquatic food web and have been reported to be substantial contributors to marine ecosystems. The species diversity, biomass, and habitat characteristics of mangrove macroalgae were investigated at three stations in the Sibuti mangrove estuary, Sarawak, Malaysia, from November 2012 to October 2013. Three groups of macroalgae were recorded and were found to be growing on mangrove prop roots, namely Rhodophyta (Caloglossa ogasawaraensis, Caloglossa adhaerens, Caloglossa stipitata, Bostrychia anomala, and Hypnea sp.), Chlorophyta (Chaetomorpha minima and Chaetomorpha sp.), and Phaeophyta (Dictyota sp.). The biomass of macroalgae was not influenced (p>0.05) by the season in this mangrove forest habitat. The macroalgal species Hypnea sp. contributed the highest biomass at both Station 1 (210.56 mg/cm2) and Station 2 (141.72 mg/cm2), while the highest biomass was contributed by B. anomala (185.89 mg/cm2) at Station 3. This study shows that the species distribution and assemblages of mangrove macroalgae were influenced by environmental parameters such as water nutrients, dissolved solids, and salinity in the estuarine mangrove habitats of Sibuti, Sarawak. PMID:28228913

  10. Methanolic Extracts from Brown Seaweeds Dictyota cilliolata and Dictyota menstrualis Induce Apoptosis in Human Cervical Adenocarcinoma HeLa Cells

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    Dayanne Lopes Gomes


    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the uterine cervix is the second most common female tumor worldwide, surpassed only by breast cancer. Natural products from seaweeds evidencing apoptotic activity have attracted a great deal of attention as new leads for alternative and complementary preventive or therapeutic anticancer agents. Here, methanol extracts from 13 species of tropical seaweeds (Rhodophytas, Phaeophyta and Chlorophyta collected from the Northeast of Brazil were assessed as apoptosis-inducing agents on human cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa. All extracts showed different levels of cytotoxicity against HeLa cells; the most potent were obtained from the brown alga Dictyota cilliolata (MEDC and Dictyota menstrualis (MEDM. In addition, MEDC and MEDM also inhibits SiHa (cervix carcinoma cell proliferation. Studies with these two extracts using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy showed that HeLa cells exposed to MEDM and MEDC exhibit morphological and biochemical changes that characterize apoptosis as shown by loss of cell viability, chromatin condensation, phosphatidylserine externalization, and sub-G1 cell cycle phase accumulation, also MEDC induces cell cycle arrest in cell cycle phase S. Moreover, the activation of caspases 3 and 9 by these extracts suggests a mitochondria-dependent apoptosis route. However, other routes cannot be ruled out. Together, these results point out the methanol extracts of the brown algae D. mentrualis and D. cilliolata as potential sources of molecules with antitumor activity.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑怡; 卢海声


    Thirty-three species of marine algae belonging to Rhodophyta, Phaeophyta and Chlorophyta from the Fujian coast were examined for agglutinins with different animal and human erythrocytes. Protein extracts from 26 species were active against at least one type of the erythrocytes tested. There were 3 species (Grateloupia imbricata, lshigefoliacea and Entermorpha prolifera) whose extracts could agglutinate all the erythrocytes used. The lowest protein concentration required to produce erythrocyte agglutination varied remarkably, from 3.1μg/ml to 500μg/ml . The strongest activity was found in the agglutina-tion of rabbit erythrocytes by Gloiopeltis furcata extract. Inhibition assays performed with nine mono- and bisaccharides indicated that agglutinations of rabbit erythrocytes by extracts of 7 species were inhibited by one or more types of the sugars assayed. The agglutinating activity shown by extracts of most species wasnot affected when the test solution was heated to 90℃, but was lost at 95℃ - 100℃. A few extracts losttheir activity at 60 RS, 65 RS and 75 RS, respectively.

  12. Check-list of the Basque coast benthic algae (North of Spain

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    Gorostiaga, José M.


    Full Text Available An annotated check-list of the marine benthic flora of the Spanish Basque coast, based on literature records and original data, is presented. According to the present taxonomy, the known list of algae totals 372 taxa (354 species and 18 infraspecific taxa, distributed as follows: 23 Cyanophyta, 221 Rhodophyta, 74 Heterokontophyta and 54 Chlorophyta. In addition, 16 taxa are considered as taxa inquirenda and 8 as taxa excludenda. For each taxon the vertical distribution, abundance estimation, and two first published records are given. Remarks on the most noteworthy features of the flora of the study area are included. The floristic character of Spanish Basque coast flora was compared with nearby regions applying Cheney’s ratio [(Rhodophyta+ Chlorophyta/Phaeophyta, or (R+C/P]. The resulting high value (4,09 indicates its warm-water character, which was already noted at the end of the XIX century. From a physionomical point of view, Basque benthic vegetation resembles more closely that of southern regions (S Portugal, Morocco. The warming process of waters off the Basque coast during summer up to 22 ºC is responsible for the absence or very rare occurrence of cold temperate species like large fucoids and kelps, which are common in Galicia and Brittany, and explains the abundance of numerous warm-temperate species as ceramiaceous algae.Se presenta un catálogo de la flora bentónica marina de la costa vasco-española basado en citas bibliográficas y algunos datos originales. De acuerdo con la taxonomía actual, la lista de algas conocidas asciende a 372 táxones (354 especies y 18 táxones infraespecíficos, que se distribuyen como sigue: 23 Cyanophyta, 221 Rhodophyta, 74 Heterokontophyta y 54 Chlorophyta. Además, 16 táxones se consideran como taxa inquirenda y 8 como taxa excludenda. Para cada taxon se ofrece información sobre su distribución vertical, una estima de su abundancia y las dos primeras citas publicadas. Se incluyen

  13. Structural characterization and Biological Activity of Sulfolipids from selected Marine Algae

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    El Baz, F. K.


    Full Text Available The sulfolipid classes (SLs in the total lipids of five species of marine algae, two species of Rhodophyta (Laurencia popillose, Galaxoura cylindriea, one species of Chlorophyta (Ulva fasciata, and two species of Phaeophyta (Dilophys fasciola, Taonia atomaria were separated and purified on DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. The SLs component was identified by IR, gas chromatography MS/MS and liquid chromatography MS/MS. The level of SLs contents va ried from 1.25% (in L. papillose to 11.82% (in D. fasciola of the total lipid contents. However, no significant differences in sulfate content (0.13 – 0.21% were observed among all these algae species. All SLs were characterized by high contents of palmitic acid (C 16:0, which ranged from 30.91% in G. cylindriea to 63.11% in T. atomatia. The main constitutes of algal sulfolipids were identified as sulfoquinovosyl-di-acylglycerol and sulfoquinovosyl acylglycerol. The sulfolipids of different algal species exhibited remarkable antiviral activity against herps simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 with an IC50 ranging from 18.75 to 70. 2 μg mL–1. Moreover, algal sulfolipid inhibited the growth of the tumor cells of breast and liver human cancer cells with IC50 values ranging from 0.40 to 0.67 μg mL–1 for human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF7.Se separaron diferentes clases sulfolípidos (SL a partir de los lípidos totales de cinco especies de algas marinas: una especie de Chlorophyta (Ulva fasciata, dos especies de Phaeophyta (Dilophys fasciola, Taonia atomaria y dos especies de Rhodophyta (Laurencia popillose, Galaxoura cylindriea que se purificaron mediante cromatografía en columna de DEAE-celulosa. Los components de SLs fueron identificados por IR, cromatografía de gases MS/MS y cromatografía líquida MS/ MS. Los contenidos de SL en relación al total de lípidos varió de 1,25% (en L. papilosa al 11,82% (en D. fasciola. Sin embargo, no hay diferencias significativas en el contenido de sulfato

  14. 青岛太平角岩相潮间带大型海藻群落初步调查%Investigation on Community of Macroalgae in the Rocky Intertidal Zone of Taiping jiao in Qingdao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新鑫; 肖健雄; 高燕琦


    The rocky intertidal zone of Qingdao Taipingjiao (36°02′N ,120°21′E)were set and the com‐munities of marine macroalgae were investigated monthly from May 2010 to March 2011 .Results showed that :1 .A total of 36 species of 3 phylum were collected ,among which 19 species( belonging to 16 genera) were Rhodophyta ,10 species( belonging to 7 genera) were Phaeophyta and 7 species( belonging to 5 genera) were Chlorophyta .2 .In the rocky intertidal zone of Qingdao Taipingjiao ,spe‐cies of Rhodophyta played a dominant role in the composition of the marine macroalgae community , followed by Phaeophyta and then Chlorophyta .3 .The quantities and species of the macroalgae changed seasonally and a seasonal variation of Spring > Autumn = Winter > Summer was obtained .4 .The region's most common species are Ulva pertusa ,Sargassum thunbergii and Kappaphycus .5 .Entero‐morpha prolif ra ,the main algal of green tide in Qingdao is drifting from other sea area ,and it is more adapted to higher sea water temperatures than other algae species ,making it a short - time dominant species .%对青岛太平角(36°02′N ,120°21′E )岩相潮间带大型海藻群落进行了为期1年(2010年5月-2011年4月)逐月的定性调查研究。结果表明:1.采集到大型海藻3门36种,其中红藻门16属19种,占52.8%;褐藻门7属10种,占27.8%;绿藻门5属7种,占19.4%。2.青岛太平角潮间带大型海藻群落的种类组成中红藻种类最多,褐藻其次,绿藻最少。3.青岛太平角潮间带群落中大型海藻的种类组成和藻总量(株)有明显的季节变化:春季海藻的种类和数量都非常大,秋冬季节其次,夏季海藻种类和数量最少。4.孔石莼、鼠尾藻和珊瑚藻为青岛太平角岩相潮间带大型海藻群落的最常见种。5.青岛夏季绿潮藻种浒苔是由其他海域漂流而来,且较其他藻种更适应夏季较高水温,使其短时间内迅速生长。

  15. Seasonal changes of macroalgae community structure in intertidal zone of Shengsi Archipelago, East China%嵊泗列岛潮间带大型海藻群落结构的季节变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林清菁; 蒋霞敏; 徐镇; 唐锋; 王弢


    From August 2010 to August 2011, an investigation was conducted on the macroalgae in the intertidal zone of Shengsi Archipelago. A total of 114 macroalgae species belonging to 53 genera of 3 phyla were identified, among which, 75 species of 33 genera belonged to Rhodophy-ta, 21 species of 13 genera belonged to Phaeophyta, and 18 species of 7 genera belonged to Chlorophyta. Rhodophyta, Phaeophyta, and Chlorophyta accounted for 65. 8% , 18. 4% , and 15. 8% of the total, respectively. The macroalgae had the largest number (87 species) in Gouqi Island, followed by in Jinping Island (42 species) , and in Maguan Island (26 species). 79. 8% of the macroalgae were distributed in low intertidal zone, and 62. 3% distributed in middle intertidal zone. The similarity value of the algae composition between the low and middle intertidal zone, the middle and high intertidal zone, and the low and high intertidal zone was 0. 57 , 0. 15 , and 0. 06, respectively. The species number of macroalgae changed with season and in the order of summer (57 species) > winter (55 species) > spring (52 species) > autumn (46 species) . The dominant species also differed with season. The dominant species in spring were Undaria pinnatifida, Ulva pertusa, Ulva linza, and Pachymenia carnosa, those in summer were Sargas-sum vachellianum, Chondria crassicaulis, Sargassum thunbergii and Alga eucheumae, those in autumn were Gracilaria verrucosa, Gigartina intermedia swing, Sargassum thunbergii, and Ulva lactuca, and the dominant species in winter were Scytosiphon lomentarius, Porphra suborbiculate, Sargassum thunbergii, and Polysiphonia japonica.%于2010年8月-2011年8月对嵊泗列岛潮间带大型海藻进行调查.结果表明:共有大型海藻114种,隶属3门53属,其中红藻门33属75种,占总数的65.8%,褐藻门13属21种,占18.4%,绿藻门7属18种,占15.8%;枸杞最多(87种),金平其次(42种),马关最少(26种);79.8%海藻分布在低潮带,62.3%分布在中潮带,

  16. Effect of seaweed supplementation on growth performance, immune and oxidative stress responses in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata

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    Augusto Cesar dos Santos Queiroz


    Full Text Available Seaweeds have important nutraceutical properties, including antioxidant and biological response-modifying qualities. Their dietary supplementation may increase the immune and antioxidant capacity of fish necessary to cope to stressful conditions and minimizing disease outbreaks. There are essentially four major groups of seaweed that can be classified by color, namely green (Chlorophyta, brown/yellow (Phaeophyta, red (Rhodophyta, and blue-green (Cyanophyta. Some green seaweed has active radical scavenging properties. Red and brown have bioactive compounds that play a vital role as antihypertensive and antioxidant. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of seaweed supplementation on growth performance, immune and oxidative stress responses in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata. Three seaweed species, each from one of the following groups, Rhodophyta (R, Phaeophyta (P and Chlorophyta (C, were supplemented to the experimental diets at 2.5% and 7.5% and tested against a control diet (Ctrl with no supplementation. In addition to six diets with seaweed in two different levels of supplementation: R2.5%, P2.5%, C2.5%, R7.5%, P7.5% and C7.5%; a diet with a mix (M, supplemented at 7.5% (2.5% of each algae was also tested. A total of 360 seabream fingerlings, 13.07 ± 0.13cm and 31.17 ± 0.63g were allocated in 24 rectangular tanks, 115L capacity each, with a 4L/min water output connected to a recirculation seawater system. Fish were fed twice a day until satiation and water quality (temperature: 20.5 ºC; D.O.: 8.13 mg/L; Ammonia: 0.5 mg/L Nitrite: 0.5 mg/L were daily monitored. At day 40 of the trial, an intermediate sampling was carried out. Standard zootechnical parameters were measured for the growth performance determination. In addition, blood, liver and intestine samples were collected for the evaluation of the immune (lysozyme and peroxidase and oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase

  17. Polyplacophora (Mollusca from reef ecosystems and associations with macroalgae on the Coast of Alagoas, Northeastern Brazil

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    Monica Dorigo Correia


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Brazilian marine molluscs, especially Gastropoda and Bivalvia, are relatively well studied. However, information on the class Polyplacophora is more scarce, particularly on reef-dwelling forms. This study aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze aspects of polyplacophorans from reef ecosystems and their associations with macroalgae on the coast of Maceió (state of Alagoas, Brazilian Northeast. The study area included five coral reefs at Ipioca, Ponta do Prego, Ponta do Meirim, Riacho Doce and Ponta Verde, as well as two sandstone reefs, located in Guaxuma and Sereia. The samples were obtained by snorkelling along the intertidal and subtidal reef zones to a depth of up to five meters during low tides, between 2009 and 2011. In addition, the chitons associated with three macroalgae of the Ponta Verde coral reef were studied based on collections made over 12 years (from the summer of 1998 to the winter of 2009. Three replicates with an area of 25 cm2 were collected from each of the following species of macroalgal phytals: Amphiroa fragilissima (Rhodophyta, Caulerpa racemosa (Chlorophyta and Dictyota cervicornis (Phaeophyta. A total of 715 individuals (110 juveniles and 605 adults were identified, including Acanthochitona terezae Guerra, 1983, Ischnochiton striolatus (Gray, 1828 and Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby II, 1840. Acanthochitona terezae was found for the first time in the area. Ischnochiton striolatus was the most abundant species in the reef ecosystem and in association with macroalgae. The greatest number of individuals of all three polyplacophorans identified (adults and juveniles was found on the phytal A. fragilissima.

  18. Ecological and biochemical analyses of the brown alga Turbinaria ornata (Turner J. Agardh from Red Sea coast, Egypt

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    Mohamed Ali Deyab


    Full Text Available Objective: To study ecological parameters and biochemical composition of brown seaweed, Turbinaria ornata (T. ornata collected from Hurghada shores, Red Sea coast of Egypt during September, October and November, 2015. Methods: T. ornata and its associated seaweeds were collected, identified and their abundances were estimated. Water of collection site was analyzed physicochemically as well as qualitative and quantitative analyses of phytoplankton. T. ornata was analyzed for protein, total carbohydrate, lipids, alginic acid, agar, pigments, minerals and heavy metals. Results: The results showed that macroalgal species recorded along Hurghada shores belong to Phaeophyta, Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta. At collection site, the moderate temperature, slight alkaline pH, low turbidity, high dissolved oxygen and valuable nutrient content of saline water exerted the massive growth of T. ornata with maximum abundance (24% during October. The phytoplankton community was quite diverse with a maximum numbers of taxa (104.2 × 108 cell/L recorded during October. Analysis of T. ornata alga powder showed that high soluble carbohydrate (2.80 ± 0.10 mg/g dry/weight and chlorophyll c (0.001 7 ± 0.000 1 mg/g fresh weight contents were recorded during September; while high contents of protein (37.70 ± 0.60 mg/g dry weight, lipids (3.10 ± 0.06 mg/g dry weight, polysaccharides (agar and alginates, carotenoids (0.016 0 ± 0.000 4 mg/g fresh weight, minerals and heavy metals were recorded during November. Conclusions: The study revealed that physicochemical analyses of water were varied slightly during the three months and suitable for the growth of T. ornata. It contains high amount of most biochemical constituents during October.

  19. Comparative Mechanisms of Photosynthetic Carbon Acquisitionin Hizikiafusiforme Under Submersed and Emersed Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOUDing-Hui; GAOKun-Shan


    The economic seaweed Hizikia fusiforme (Harv.) Okamura (Sargassaceae, Phaeophyta) usually experiences periodical exposures to air at low tide. Photosynthetic carbon acquisition mechanisms were comparatively studied under submersed and emersed conditions in order to establish a general understanding of its photosynthetic characteristics associated with tidal cycles. When submersed in seawater, H.fusiforme was capable of acquiring HCO3- as a source of inorganic carbon (Ci) to drive photosynthesis, while emersed and exposed to air, it used atmospheric 002 for photosynthesis. The pH changes surroundingthe H.fusiforme fronds had less influence on the photosynthetic rates under emersed condition than under submersed condition. When the pH was as high as 10.0, emersed H.fusiforme could photosynthesize efficiently, but the submersed alga exhibited very poor photosynthesis. Extracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA) played an important role in the photosynthetic acquisitions of exogenous Ci in water as well as in air. Both the concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon in general seawater and CO2 in air were demonstrated to limit the photosynthesis of H.fusiforme, which was sensitive to O2. It appeared that the exogenous carbon acquisition system, being dependent of external CA activity, operates in a way not enough to raise intracellular CO2 level to prevent photorespiration. The inability of H.fusiforme to achieve its maximum photosynthetic rate at the current ambient Ci levels under both submersed and emersed conditions suggested that the yield of aquaculture for this economic species would respond profitably to future increases in CO2 concentration in the sea and air.

  20. Biochemical composition of some Egyptian seaweeds with potent nutritive and antioxidant properties

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    Gehan Ahmed ISMAIL

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study investigated the biochemical composition of three seaweeds; Ulva fasciata (Chlorophyta, Sargassum linifolium (Phaeophyta and Corallina officinalis (Rhodophyta. Total chlorophyll content was maximum in U. fasciata (34.06mg/g dry wt. while carotenoid content was the highest in C. officinalis (3.8 mg/g dry wt.. The uppermost level of carbohydrates was (27.98% of dry wt. in C. officinalis and proteins were maximum (14.89% in S. linifolium. Aspartic, glutamic, alanine, leucine and proline were common amino acids in the three tested species. The polyunsaturated ω6 and ω3 essential fatty acids were recorded in S. linifolium (3.28% and in U. fasciata (3.18%. The results showed that U. fasciata contained the highest amounts of lipids (2.96%, phenols (11.95mgGA/g dry wt., flavonoid (7.04 mgCA/g dry wt. and ascorbic acid (4.11mg/100g, respectively. β-Carotene was maximum (3940.12 IU/100 g in C. officinalis. DPPH antioxidant activities were the highest in U. fasciata (81.3% followed by S. linifolium (79.8% then C. officinalis (72.6%. Among the 12 analyzed minerals, most of them were high in S. linifolium in which ion quotient ratio was the smallest (0.343. Since these algal species are common in the Egyptian coastal waters, their biochemical composition and antioxidant activities made them promising candidates for nutritional, pharmaceutical and medicinal applications.

  1. Influence of exudates of the kelp Laminaria digitata on biofilm formation of associated and exogenous bacterial epiphytes. (United States)

    Salaün, Stéphanie; La Barre, Stéphane; Dos Santos-Goncalvez, Marina; Potin, Philippe; Haras, Dominique; Bazire, Alexis


    Wild populations of brown marine algae (Phaeophyta) provide extensive surfaces to bacteria and epiphytic eukaryotes for colonization. On one hand, various strategies allow kelps prevent frond surface fouling which would retard growth by reducing photosynthesis and increasing pathogenesis. On the other hand, production and release of organic exudates of high energy value, sometimes in association with more or less selective control of settlement of epiphytic strains, allow bacteria to establish surface consortia not leading to macrofouling. Here, we present the analysis of adhesion and biofilm formation of bacterial isolates from the kelp Laminaria digitata and of characterized and referenced marine isolates. When they were grown in flow cell under standard nutrient regimes, all used bacteria, except one, were able to adhere on glass and then develop as biofilms, with different architecture. Then, we evaluated the effect of extracts from undisturbed young Laminaria thalli and from young thalli subjected to oxidative stress elicitation; this latter condition induced the production of defense molecules. We observed increasing or decreasing adhesion depending on the referenced strains, but no effects were observed against strains isolated from L. digitata. Such effects were less observed on biofilms. Our results suggested that L. digitata is able to modulate its bacterial colonization. Finally, mannitol, a regular surface active component of Laminaria exudates was tested individually, and it showed a pronounced increased on one biofilm strain. Results of these experiments are original and can be usefully linked to what we already know on the oxidative halogen metabolism peculiar to Laminaria. Hopefully, we will be able to understand more about the unique relationship that bacteria have been sharing with Laminaria for an estimated one billion years.

  2. Cultivation and conversion of marine macroalgae. [Gracilaria and Ulva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J.H.; DeBusk, T.A.; Blakeslee, M.


    Research was conducted on the development of an alternative ocean energy farm concept that would not be dependent upon deep ocean water or other extraneous sources for its nutrient supply and that could be located in shallow, near shore, and protected coastal ocean areas. There are five tasks reported in this document: determination of the annual yield of Ulva in non-intensive cultures; evaluation of the effect of carbon concentration on Gracilaria and Ulva yields; evaluation of spray/mist culture of Ulva and Gracilaria; species screening for the production of petroleum replacement products; and synthesis analysis, and economic energy evaluation of culture data. An alternative concept to open ocean culture is a land-based energy production system utilizing saline waters from underground aquifers or enclosed coastal areas. Research was performed to evaluate growth and biomass production of all macroscopic algal species that could be obtained in adequate quantity in the central Florida area. A total of 42 species were grown in specially adapted burial vaults. These included 16 green algae (Garcilaria 4 weekshlorophyta), 2 brown algae (Phaeophyta), and 18 red algae (Rhodophyta). Of these, the most successful and suitable species were a strain of Gracilaria (a red seaweed) and Ulva (a green seaweed). These two species have a high carbohydrate content that may be anaerobically digested to methane gas. Well-nourished Gracilaria will double its biomass in 1 to 4 weeks, depending on the season, water flow, and other variables. After its biomass has doubled (i.e., from 2 to 4 kg/m/sup 2/) the incremental growth is harvested to return the crop to a starting density. Enrichment of the new starting crop following harvest could conceivably be accomplished onsite at the seaweed farm, but the rapid uptake and storage of nutrients by depleted seaweeds makes possible a simpler process, known as pulse fertilization.

  3. 黄渤海夏季微藻调查%Investigation of the microalgae inhabiting the summer seawater of Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鹿琳; 杨官品; 朱葆华; 潘克厚


    catching, streak plating and serial diluting, alone or in combination. Molecular systematic analysis identified the isolated as 19 species including 9 bacillariophytas, 3 phaeophytas, 3 heterokontaes, 2 chlorophytas, 1 dinophytas and 1 haptophyte. The isolated species were mainly small in size, of them 9 in chlorophyta, phaeophyta, heterokonatae and haptophyte were in pico-size, and 10 in bacillariophyta and dinophyta were in nano-size. Among all isolated strains, those in genera Navicula, Phaeodactylum, Skeletonema, Pavlova and Nannochloropsis were expected to be important for EPA production due to their high EPA content; 7 chlorophytas may serve as the candidates for biodiesel production;and 8 Bicosoecales in heterokontae promised for high biomass production therough fermentation and further environ-mental pollution bioremediation. In spite of the abundance of microalgae in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea, almost all spe-cies we fixed and identified by morphology were difficult to cultivate. Pseudo-nitzschia sp. and Navicula sp. (in nano-size) were the only two species observed in fixed seawater and survived laboratory culture. Although the algae in micro-size, Coscinodiscus sp., Ceratium fusus and Noctiluca scintillans, accounted for a large portion in fixed samples, they were unable to survive laboratory culture. Technical means need further optimization in order to get as many culti-vable microalgae as possible. We found that distribution of cultivable microalgae is wide in seawaters. Bacillariophytas spread the whole area, and centralized in Laizhou Bay; while the harmful Prorocentrum minimum was collected from Yellow River Estuary where was nutriments rich thus facing the risk of red tide. Chlorophytas and haptophyte were mainly collected from north Yellow Sea, a few chlorophytas also collected around Port of Tongxhan. Most phaeophytas were collected from the coasts of Shandong Peninsula and Liaodong Peninsula. Most heterokontaes were collected from north Yellow Sea. In

  4. Antifouling activity of seaweed extracts from Guarujá, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Heloisa Elias Medeiros


    Full Text Available Marine biofouling historically constitutes one of the major constraints faced by mankind in its oceanic activities. The search for alternatives to TBT-based antifouling paints has led several researchers to focus efforts in the development of environmentally friendly natural compounds. This work has contributed with this search, testing the antifouling potential of crude organic extracts from four seaweed species collected at Praia Branca, Guarujá district, São Paulo, Brazil. Throughout laboratory antifouling assays in which the attachment of a common fouling organism, the brown mussel Perna perna, was employed, antifouling activity (p A incrustação biológica constitui, historicamente, um dos maiores problemas encontrados pelo homem em suas atividades no mar. A busca por alternativas a tintas antiincrustantes contendo tributilestanho (TBT tem levado diversos pesquisadores a concentrar esforços no desenvolvimento de substâncias naturais menos danosas à biota marinha. Este trabalho procurou contribuir com essa busca, testando o potencial antiincrustante de quatro diferentes espécies de macroalgas da Praia Branca, município de Guarujá, SP. Através de testes antiincrustantes em laboratório utilizando a fixação de um organismo incrustante comum, o mexilhão Perna perna, foi constatado que os extratos de Jania rubens (Rhodophyta, Cryptonemiales e Bryothamnion seaforthii (Rhodophyta, Ceramiales, à concentração natural, apresentaram atividade antiincrustante significativa (p < 0,05, enquanto Dictyopteris delicatula (Phaeophyta, Dictyotales e Heterosiphonia gibbesii (Rhodophyta, Ceramiales não demonstraram eficiência na inibição da fixação de bissos do molusco. Das algas que indicaram potencial atividade contra a incrustação, J. rubens apresentou melhor desempenho em relação a B. seaforthii. Futuras investigações em campo serão necessárias para a obtenção de resultados que possam refletir melhor as condições naturais

  5. 洞头列岛大型底栖海藻的组成与区系分布%Floral analysis and species diversity survey of benthic macroalgae in Dongtou-archipelago

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王铁杆; 胡仁勇; 张鹏; 张永普; 张华伟; 孙庆海


    2007年10月至2009年6月对洞头列岛沿岸、羊栖菜养殖筏架和深水网箱网衣上的大型海藻进行了调查。结果表明,洞头列岛共有大型底栖海藻92种,隶属于51属,其中蓝藻门4属4种,红藻门30属50种,褐藻门10属17种,绿藻门7属21种。区系以暖温带性和亚热带性海藻为主,分别占总种数的64.13%和26.09%。受基质类型和海水混浊度的影响,洞头列岛海藻种类的水平分布和垂直分布均存在较大的差异。同时对羊栖菜栽培筏架上附着的大型海藻的调查结果进行比较分析,发现光照条件是影响海藻生长繁衍的重要生态因子,充足的光照能够弥补环境因子中的诸多欠缺,是海藻调查中应重点考虑的因素之一。%In the paper,51 genera 92 species of benthic macroalgae are recorded based on the investigation of Dongtou-archipelago,including 4 genera 4 species of Cyanophyta,30 genera 50 species of Rhodophyta,10 genera 17 species of Phaeophyta and 7 genera 21 species of Chlorophyta.Floristic characteristics of main constructive species of macroalgae: the warm-temperate and subtropical species are dominant species which accounted for 64.13% and 26.09% of total species respectively.The characteristics of algae flora show that Dongtou-archipelago is a typical transitional area of warm-temperate to subtropical.For the substrate and turbidity,the differences between the horizontal and vertical distribution of the macroalgae are great.Furthermore,Comparing macroalgae attached on Sargassum fusiform culture rafts and normal condition,it shows that: light plays an important part in macroalgae growth and multiplication.More attention should be paid to light factor in the future floristic investigation of macroalgae.

  6. Advances and problems with the study of marine macroalgae of China seas%中国大型海藻的研究现状及其存在的问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁兰平; 黄冰心; 谢艳齐


    Herein, we introduce, summarize, and analyze the taxonomy, species composition, distributional characteristics, major research results, and current status of Chinese marine macroalgae with updated references. The China sea flora can be divided into four sub-floras, viz. The western region of the Yellow Sea, the western region of the East China Sea, and the northern and southern regions of the South China Sea. More than 1,277 species of marine macroalgae were recorded along the China seas coast, including 161 in Cyanophyta, 607 in Rhodophyta, 298 in Phaeophyta and 211 in Chlorophyta, respectively. We briefly introduce the overall distribution, vertical distribution and spatial-temporal changes of marine algae located within the littoral area. We analyze some problems which limit the study of Chinese marine macroalgae, including difficulties in sampling and habitat deterioration. Moreover, classic taxonomy has not been attached enough importance and has not been updated with molecular techniques, and lack of talents.%结合最新的研究结果,本文对中国大型海藻区系划分、区系的种类组成、分布特征、研究成果、现状和存在的问题等进行了介绍、总结和分析.目前,中国海藻区系可划分为4个小区,即黄海西区、东海西区、南海北区和南海南区.大型海藻物种数达到1,277种,其中蓝藻门6目21科57属161种(及变种)、红藻门15目40科 169属607种(及变种)、褐藻门11目24科62属298种(及变种),绿藻门11目21科-48属211种(及变种).简要地介绍了它们的区系分布、垂直分布、时空变化等方面的分布特征.文中还对我国大型海藻的研究现状及存在的问题进行了简短分析,以期有益于我国大型海藻多样性研究的发展.

  7. Patterns and breaking points in the distribution of benthic algae along the temperate Pacific coast of South America Patrones y puntos de quiebre en la distribución de algas bentónicas a lo largo de la costa Pacífica de Sudamérica

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    Full Text Available According to biogeographic studies made two decades ago, marine benthic algal species of the Pacific temperate coast of South America could be grouped into five components according to their geographic affinities. Each of these components was distributed differentially along the coastline between 4º and 56ºS and thus, their contribution to the overall flora varied depending on the latitude. Species composition changed at specific latitudes in such a way that three groups could be observed: from 4 to 6ºS, from 6 to 30ºS and from 30 to 55ºS. Since 1980, new information on marine algae along this coastline allows a review of the previous phytogeographic characterization. The presence/absence of algal species, separated by division and geographic affinity, was recorded for each degree of latitude from 4º to 56ºS and used to analyze the similarity in species composition and possible changes in distribution patterns. Results show the same five geographic components detected 20 years ago with similar distributions. Differences observed are a further southward intrusion of subtropical elements, a decrease in endemic species number and relative contribution to the flora at the southern tip of South America, and two breaking points in species composition at 12º and 42ºS. Another two breaking points occur at 20ºS and at 33ºS in Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta species composition respectively. The inclusion of single-record species does not affect significantly the distribution of species along this coastlineDe acuerdo a estudios biogeográficos realizados hace 20 años, las especies de algas marinas bentónicas de la costa temperada del Pacífico de Sudamérica se agrupan en 5 componentes de distinta afinidad geográfica. Cada uno de estos componentes posee una distribución diferencial a lo largo de estas costas entre los 4º y los 55ºS. De esta forma su contribución a la flora varía dependiendo de la latitud. La composición de las especies

  8. Levantamento florístico das macroalgas da baía de Sepetiba e adjacências, RJ: ponto de partida para o Programa GloBallast no Brasil Floristic survey of the macroalgae from Sepetiba bay and surrounding area, Rio de Janeiro State: starting point for the GloBallast Programme in Brazil

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    Maria Teresa Menezes de Széchy


    Full Text Available O Porto de Sepetiba, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, foi escolhido, no Brasil, como área-piloto do projeto "Remoção de barreiras para a implementação efetiva do controle de água de lastro e medidas de gestão em países em desenvolvimento" (Programa GloBallast. Para possibilitar comparações, os seis países participantes do Programa GloBallast foram orientados a adotar a mesma metodologia para o levantamento preliminar da biota das áreas-pilotos valorizando a identificação em nível de espécie. O presente estudo teve como objetivo aplicar metodologia estabelecida pelo Centro para Pesquisa sobre Espécies Marinhas Introduzidas, da Austrália (Procedimento CRIMP, com algumas adaptações, no levantamento florístico das macroalgas de substratos consolidados naturais da área-piloto do Porto de Sepetiba. Coletas de macroalgas foram realizadas em novembro/2001, em nove locais da baía de Sepetiba e adjacências, desde a franja da região sublitorânea até cerca de -4 m de profundidade. Em cada local, seis quadrados de 0,1 m² de área foram raspados. O material foi depositado no Herbário do Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro (RB. Das 96 espécies identificadas (20 Chlorophyta, 16 Phaeophyta, 60 Rhodophyta, 12 não haviam sido citadas anteriormente para a área de estudo. Cladophora pellucidoidea C. Hoek, Coelothrix irregularis (Harv. Boergesen e Acrochaetium savianum (Menegh. Nägeli são ocorrências novas para o Estado. Não há indícios de que as novas ocorrências equivalem a espécies recentemente introduzidas por meio das atividades portuárias. O procedimento metodológico adotado mostrou-se eficiente, resultando em listagem de espécies comparável às de levantamentos florísticos com maior esforço amostral e complementando os dados pretéritos existentes para a baía de Sepetiba e adjacências. No entanto, ressalta-se a importância de uma reavaliação das escalas temporal e espacial da estratégia de


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢永泽; 宫相忠; 高伟; 尹宝树


    采用实验生态学方法,研究了温度、光照、营养盐(N、P)对萱藻孢子体生长发育的影响.结果表明,在5-23℃范围内,温度越高,越有利于萱藻孢子体的生长.9-17℃是比较利于孢子囊产生的温度范围,其中13 ℃,L:D=10:14,20μmol/(m·s)条件下最有利于孢子囊的形成与孢子的放散.光强6-30μmol/(m·s)利于孢子囊的形成.短日照条件下(≤12h)利于孢子囊的产生,长日照条件(>12h)尽管温度适宜,但仅利于孢子体的营养生长.萱藻丝状体生长的最适N、P元素浓度分别为40mg/L、8mg/L.%Scytosiphon lomentaria (Lyngbye) Link attach to phaeophyta, which distributes along the coastal areas from the Liaodong Peninsula to the Hailing island of Guangdong province, with a life cycle of alternation of heteromorphic generations.The erect thallus, also called gametophyte, is macro generation and sporophyte is its micro generation of life history including filaments, crustose or cushion-like thalli.The culture techniques and development of S.lomentaria depend on the well studies of its growth and development properties.This paper focused on the growth and development of sporophytes at different temperatures, light and nutrient conditions.Zygotes germinated at 5-28℃, 10-30μmol/(m2·s),and light periods less than 14h.The suitable temperatures for the growth of sporophytes were 5-23℃ and the optimum temperatures were 20-23℃.The suitable temperatures for the formation of sporangia were 9-17℃ and the optimum condition was 13℃, L: D 10: 14, 20μmol/(m2·s).Temperature over 30℃ inhibited the germination and growth of zygotes (about 80% of them died after one week).At higher temperature (≥26℃), crustose or cushion-like thalli were the main form while filaments and cushion-like thalli were the main forms of sporophytes at lower temperature (<26℃).Increase of light intensity promoted the growth of sporophytes.The suitable light intensities for the formation of

  10. 中国辽吉地区新元古代臼齿碳酸盐岩中分子化石及早期生命演化%Molecular Fossils in Neoproterozoic Molar Tooth Carbonates from Liaoning and Jilin Provinces, China and Discussion on the Evolution of Early Life

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    李艳霞; 旷红伟


    , methanotroph), Eukaryote algae (Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta, Phaeophyta), Fungi and Protozoa. Therefore, the origin of MT carbonates should be acompanied by these early organisms. The existence of diverse biomarkers indicates that early organisms of Neoproterozoic era reached a certain extent grade in evolution and prepared ready for the great breakthrough of Edicaran life.

  11. 大连西中岛潮间带大型底栖经济海藻群落的季节变化%Ecological study on economical benthic macro-algae in Xizhong Island of Dalian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐娜; 赵凤琴; 王宏伟; 王琳; 马明辉; 洛昊


    In order to study the ecological characteristics of economical benthic macro‐algae in Xizhong Island of Dalian ,field samplings were carried out including four sections in July 2010 ,April and Oct . 2011 ,Jan .2012 .A total of 44 species in four seasons were identified ,12 species belong to Chloro‐phyta ,9 species belong to Phaeophyta ,1 species belongs to Cyanophyta ,22 species belong to Rho‐dophyta .The number of species among the four seasons could be described as spring > summer>winter>autumn .Moreover ,species of Rhodophyta was the most in number ,and followed by Phaeo‐phyta and Chlorophyta .Chondrus oceellatus was the dominant species in the research area .The in‐gredient of dominant species varied with seasons .The biomass in the four seasons followed as sum‐mer>spring>autumn>winter .The result indicated that there were differences of species according to different sampling sections and seasons .The number of species in low‐tide zone was the most .As the result ,the species diversity analysis varied with seasons and sampling sections ,the diversity in‐dex ,evenness index and species richness index in spring and summer were superior to those in au‐tumn and winter .%为研究大连西中岛潮间带大型底栖经济海藻的生态学特征,共布设了4个采样断面,于2011年7月、2012年4月、2012年10月和2013年1月进行了采样调查,研究了大型底栖经济海藻的群落结构、季节变化和多样性。共鉴定出大型底栖经济海藻44种,隶属于4门21属,其中绿藻门12种,褐藻门9种,蓝藻门1种,红藻门22种。经济藻类种类和数量的季节性变化研究表明,藻类种类数呈现春季>夏季>冬季>秋季的特点,各季节红藻门种类数最多,其次为褐藻门和绿藻门,蓝藻门最少。优势度分析表明,角叉菜为主要优势物种,随着季节变化,优势种组成有所不同。各采样断面生物量的分布特征体现为夏季>春季

  12. Karyological observation on Saccharina japonica chromosomes stained with DAPI%海带染色体的DAPI染色及核型初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇; 毕燕会; 周志刚


    Saccharina japonica( Aresch. )C. E. Lane,C. Mayes et G. W. Saunders( = Laminaria japonica Aresch. ) (Phaeophyta) is an important economic seaweed in China. There is a distinct outcome about the chromosome number in this kelp due to the tiny size of these chromosomes. The karyotypes and chromosomes of S. Japonica were observed after a series of treatments including pretreatment with 0. 2% colchicines for about 10 h, Carnoy' s fixative, and mixture of enzymes prior to dropping from 30 cm height overhead glass slides for spreading the surface coat. The prepared chromosomes were stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole ( DAPI), a fluorescent probe sensitive and specific to DNA. The chromosome numbers of the haploid male and female gametophytes were 31 respectively,and there were 62 in diploid sporophytes. Most of the chromosomes were either droplet or short bacilliform. In the meantime, the female gametophyte chromosomes were between 0. 78 μm and 2. 61 μm in size, larger than the males that were between 0.57 |xm and 2.17 μm. Based upon the relative size of chromosome, the karyotypes of the female or male gametophyte chromosomes were primarily analyzed. All the results laid a solid foundation for a basic technique for localization of molecular markers on kelp chromosomes.%鉴于海带染色体比较小且数目存在分歧等原因,利用0.2%秋水仙素对海带配子体及孢子体处理10 h左右,经过卡诺试剂固定、多种酶组合处理及30 cm的高位滴片,可以获得质量比较高的海带染色体;使用灵敏度高、特异性强的DNA荧光染料DAPI进行染色,结果显示,海带雌、雄配子体的染色体各为31条,孢子体染色体为62条,大多为短杆状或者点状;雌配子体染色体的大小为0.78~2.61 μm,稍大于雄配子体(大小为0.57~2.17 μm).根据染色体的大小,对海带配子体的染色体核型进行了初步分析.这些结果为分子标记的染色体定位等细胞学研究奠定了技术基础.

  13. 海洋生物 DNA 条形码研究现状与展望%Current status and future prospect of DNA barcoding in marine biology

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    林森杰; 王路; 郑连明; 董云伟; 柳淑芳; 丁少雄; 叶乃好; 曹文清; 庄志猛


    海洋生物种类多样,分布广泛,具有复杂性、多样性和趋同性等特点,为了对物种进行更快速、准确地鉴定,急需在传统形态分类学基础上,建立并结合便捷准确的分子鉴定手段。DNA 条形码提供了可信息化的分类标准和有效的分类学手段,已成为近年来分类学与生物多样性研究中重要的技术依托。本文概述了 DNA 条形码当前的发展现状与趋势,并介绍了 DNA 条形码技术在主要海洋浮游植物(红藻、褐藻、绿藻、硅藻、甲藻)、无脊椎动物(海绵动物、刺胞动物、甲壳动物和软体动物等)和鱼类中的研究进展,以及不同条形码基因针对于不同生物类群的有效性和适用性,指出了目前条形码技术在各海洋类群中存在的主要问题,并对未来的相关工作做了展望,希望为今后我国的海洋生物DNA 条形码研究提供理论基础。%Marine organisms are highly diverse,widely distributed,with high complexity and homoplasy.To enable fast and accurate identification of species,it is imperative to establish molecular techniques,to complement the tradi-tional morphological metbodology.DNA barcoding provides digitalized criteria and effective means for species iden-tification,and is becoming an important technical tool in the research on taxonomy and biodiversity.In this review, we summarize the major recent progress and current trend in DNA barcoding,particularly as it applies to the fields of marine phytoplankton (Rhodophyte,Phaeophyta,Chlorophyta,Bacillariophyta and Dinophyta ),invertebrates (Spongia,Cnidaria,Custacea,Mollusca,etc.)and fish.We provide an overview of the deffectiveness and suitability of different barcoding markers in different groups of marine organisms.We also discuss current challenges and fu-ture prospects of marine DNA barcoding in hope to provide a framework for future marine DNA barcoding research in China.

  14. 干出和沉水不同条件下羊栖菜光合作用碳源获得机制比较%Comparative Mechanisms of Photosynthetic Carbon Acquisition in Hizikia fusiforme Under Submersed and Emersed Conditions

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    邹定辉; 高坤山


    经济海洋褐藻羊栖菜(Hizikia fusiforme(Harv.)Okamura)低潮时常常周期性地暴露于空气中.为了认识这种海藻在潮汐循环背景下的光合特征,对其在高潮沉水和低潮干出不同条件下的光合作用碳素获得机制进行了比较.沉水时,羊栖菜主要利用海水中HCO3-作为外源无机碳源驱动光合作用;而在干出条件下,其光合作用的主要碳源为空气中的CO2.在这两种不同环境条件下,光合作用与pH值的关系不同:沉水状态时,羊栖菜在高pH值(10.0)下光合活性很弱;而在干出条件下,羊栖菜在高pH值时仍有较高的光合活性.然而,光合作用无论是在沉水还是在干出条件下,对外源碳源的获得都表现出对胞外碳酸酐酶(CA)强烈的依赖性,并且其光合速率都受周围环境中无机碳源水平的限制.此外,在沉水和干出两种环境条件下,羊栖菜光合作用都表现出对氧气的敏感性.这表明,在羊栖菜中,依赖胞外CA的碳源获得机制不能使细胞内CO2浓度提高到阻碍其光呼吸的程度.增加空气中或海水中无机碳的浓度,能促进羊栖菜的光合作用,进而增加这种海藻的水产养殖产量.%The economic seaweed Hizikia fusiforme (Harv.) Okamura (Sargassaceae, Phaeophyta) usually experiences periodical exposures to air at low tide. Photosynthetic carbon acquisition mechanisms were comparatively studied under submersed and emersed conditions in order to establish a general understanding of its photosynthetic characteristics associated with tidal cycles. When submersed in seawater,H. fusiforme was capable of acquiring HCO3- as a source of inorganic carbon (Ci) to drive photosynthesis,while emersed and exposed to air, it used atmospheric CO2 for photosynthesis. The pH changes surrounding the H. fusiforme fronds had less influence on the photosynthetic rates under emersed condition than under submersed condition. When the pH was as high as 10.0, emersed H. fusiforme could