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Sample records for chamisso hariot phaeophyta

  1. A novel phytomyxean parasite associated with galls on the bull-kelp Durvillaea antarctica (Chamisso Hariot.

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    Franz Goecke

    Full Text Available Durvillaea antarctica (Fucales, Phaeophyceae is a large kelp of high ecological and economic significance in the Southern Hemisphere. In natural beds along the central coast of Chile (Pacific Ocean, abnormal growth characterized by evident gall development and discolorations of the fronds/thallus was observed. Analysing these galls by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of endophytic eukaryotes showing typical characteristics for phytomyxean parasites. The parasite developed within enlarged cells of the subcortical tissue of the host. Multinucleate plasmodia developed into many, single resting spores. The affiliation of this parasite to the Phytomyxea (Rhizaria was supported by 18S rDNA data, placing it within the Phagomyxida. Similar microorganisms were already reported once 23 years ago, indicating that these parasites are persistent and widespread in D. antarctica beds for long times. The symptoms caused by this parasite are discussed along with the ecological and economic consequences. Phytomyxean parasites may play an important role in the marine ecosystem, but they remain understudied in this environment. Our results demonstrate for the first time the presence of resting spores in Phagomyxida, an order in which resting spores were thought to be absent making this the first record of a phagomyxean parasite with a complete life cycle so far, challenging the existing taxonomic concepts within the Phytomyxea. The importance of the here described resting spores for the survival and ecology of the phagomyxid parasite will be discussed together with the impact this parasite may have on 'the strongest seaweed of the world', which is an important habitat forming and economic resource from the Southern Hemisphere.

  2. Botaanikud Chamisso ja Eschscholtz Californias / Tiiu Speek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Speek, Tiiu, 1958-

    2012-01-01

    Loodusteadlaste A. von Chamisso ja J. Fr. Eschscholtzi osalemisest O. von Kotzebue ekspeditsioonidel (1815-1818 ning 1823-1826); reisidel kogutud ja kirjeldatud USA lääneosa ja California taimeliikidest ning neist koostatud herbaariumite saatusest

  3. Adelbert von Chamisso e o narcisismo primário Adelbert von Chamisso and the primary narcissism

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    Sabine Parmentier

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Adelbert von Chamisso foi um escritor e poeta de língua alemã, nascido em família aristocrática francesa emigrada para a Alemanha em 1792. Este artigo, examinando o conto "L'étrange histoire de Peter Schlemihl", primeiro trabalho publicado por Chamisso, aponta os aspectos autobiográficos dessa obra que antecipa a vida de seu autor até na exatidão das minúcias. O artigo mostra como a sublimação artística permitiu que o escritor encontrasse para si mesmo um caminho pelo trabalho científico e pela criação literária, e indica que essa espécie de "aceitação intelectual" do recalcado poderia ser vista como equivalente a um resultado de tratamento psicanalítico.Chamisso was a German writer and poet born in an aristocratic French family emigrated to Germany in 1792. This paper, inquiring into Chamisso's tale "L'étrange histoire de Peter Schlemihl", his first issued writing, points to its autobiographical features that anticipate the life of its author even in its precise details. This paper shows how artistic sublimation allowed the writer to succeed in finding for himself a path towards scientific work and literary creation, and emphasizes that this kind of "intellectual acceptation" of the repressed could be seen as equivalent to the result of a psychoanalysis treatment.

  4. Algas (Phaeophyta) presentes en productos comerciales utilizados para adelgazar

    OpenAIRE

    Arenas, Patricia Marta; Correa, Rubén Florestan; Cortella, Alicia Rita

    1997-01-01

    Numerosos registros bibliográficos se refieren a la utilización de algas en tratamientos para combatir la obesidad. En particular, están muy difundidos los productos comerciales que contienen algas pardas (Phaeophyta), principalmente del género Fucus. En el presente trabajo se analizaron los contenidos de muestras comerciales de diverso origen, en sus distintas formas farmacéuticas. Se identificaron principalmente dos géneros de Phaeophyta: Fucus y Ascophyllum. Se encontraron además elementos...

  5. Screening of Endophytic Fungi from Chlorophyta and Phaeophyta for Antibacterial Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaweman, A. C.; Pamungkas, J.; Madduppa, H.; Thoms, C.; Tarman, K.

    2016-01-01

    Chlorophyta and Phaeophyta macroalgae are important sources of secondary metabolites with pharmaceutically relevant antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral bioactivities. Oftentimes, these algae-derived compounds are, in fact, produced by endophytic fungi living inside the macroalgal tissue. Numerous studies have shown that endophytic fungi can produce a broad range of active metabolites such as terpenes, alkaloids, and quinones. The aim of the present study was to screen fungal strains isolated from a variety of Caulerpa spp., Halimeda spp., and Sargassum spp. for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Thirteen morphologically different isolates were tested. Two of them showed pronounced activity against S. aureus in agar diffusion assays.

  6. Physical characteristic of brown algae (Phaeophyta from madura strait as irreversible hydrocolloid impression material

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    Prihartini Widiyanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brown algae is a raw material for producing natrium alginates. One type of brown algae is Sargassum sp, a member of Phaeophyta division. Sargassum sp could be found in Madura strait Indonesia. Natrium alginate can be extracted from Sargassum sp. The demand of alginate in Indonesia is mainly fulfilled from abroad, meanwhile Sargassum sp is abundantly available. Purpose: The purpose of study were to explore the potency of brown alga Sargassum sp from Madura strait as hydrocolloid impression material and to examine its physical characteristic. Methods: The methods of research including extraction natrium alginate from Sargassum sp, synthesis of dental impression material and the test of porosity, density, viscosity, and water content of impression material which fulfilled the standard of material used in clinical application in dentistry. Results: Extraction result of Sargassum sp was natrium alginate powder with cream colour, odorless, and water soluble. The water content of natrium alginate was 21.64% and the viscosity was 0.7 cPs. The best porosity result in the sample with the addition of trinatrium phosphate 4% was 3.61%. Density value of impression material was 3 gr/cm3. Conclusion: The research suggested that brown algae Sargassum sp from Madura strait is potential as hydrocolloid impression material, due to its physical properties which close to dental impression material, but still need further research to optimize the physical characteristic.Latar belakang: Alga coklat adalah sumber bahan baku material natrium alginat. Salah satu jenis alga coklat adalah Sargassum sp yang merupakan anggota divisi Phaeophyta. Sargassum sp dapat ditemukan di Selat Madura Indonesia. Natrium alginat dapat diekstraksi dari Sargassum sp. Kebutuhan akan bahan ini di Indonesia sebagian besar dipenuhi dari impor, padahal ketersediaan Sargassum sp di Indonesia sangat melimpah. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengeksplorasi potensi alga coklat

  7. 含褐藻寡糖调味汁的研制%Development of condiment with phaeophyta oligosaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈照鹏; 胡增淼; 刘培; 赵琳; 高笑; 江晓路

    2012-01-01

    以海带为原料,经褐藻胶裂解酶降解而获得含褐藻寡糖的海藻汁,并测定了海藻汁中寡糖的分子量分布及其他理化指标。经酶解作用,海藻汁中还原糖含量提高了近50倍,总糖含量增加到酶解前的2.5倍。由阴离子电喷雾电离质谱测得褐藻胶裂解酶降解产物主要是分子量小于1000,聚合度在2~5之间的小分子寡糖。在此基础上,将海藻汁与各种调味品基料按一定比例混合,根据各种调味品不同的加工工艺特点,选择不同的加入环节。通过感官评定,确定了两种海藻调味品的最佳配方,并研究了其多项理化指标和卫生指标。%Seeweed juice which contained phaeophyta oligosaccharide through the degradation of alginate lyase was obtained from kelp.Both the oligose molecular weight distribution and other physico chemical indexes in the juice were studied.After zymohydrolysis,the content of the reducing sugar in seaweed juice increased nearly 50 times,the total sugar content increased to 2.5 times.The result after analyzed by anion electrospray ionization mass spectrum measurement indicated that the product was mainly composed by a small molecule whose molecular weight was less than 1000 and whose degree of polymerization was 2~5.On this basis,seaweed juice and various condiments were put together according to certain mixing ratio,and different join links considering different process characteristics of various condiment were chosen.Through the organoleptic investigation,The optimal formula of the two kinds of seaweed was determined.Besides,multiple physiochemical indexes and health indicators were studied.

  8. Preliminary Study on the Responses of Three Marine Algae,Ulva pertusa ( Chlorophyta),Gelidium amansii (Rhodophyta)and Sargassum enerve (Phaeophyta), to Nitrogen Source and Its Availability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dongyan; Amy Pickering; SUN Jun

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was designed to select economically valuable macroalga species with high nutrient uptake rates.Such species cultured on a large scale could be a potential solution to eutrophication. Three macroalgae species, Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta), Gelidium amansii (Rhodophyta) and Sargassum enerve (Phaeophyta), were chosen for the experiment because of their economic values and availability. Control and four nitrogen concentrations were achieved by adding NH4 and NO3. The results indicate that the fresh weights of all species increase faster than that of control after 5 d culture. The fresh weight of Ulva pertusa increases fastest among the 3 species. However, different species show different responses to nitrogen source and its availability. They also show the advantage of using NH+4 than using NO-3 . U. Pertusa grows best and shows higher capability of removing nitrogen at 200 μmol L-1, but it has lower economical value. G. Amansii has higher economical value but lower capability of removing nitrogen at 200μmolL-1. The capability of nitrogen assimilation of S. Enerve is higher than that of G. Amansii at 200μmolL-1, but the former's increase of fresh weight is lower than those of other two species.Then present preliminary study demonstrates that it is possible to use macroalgae as biofilters and further development of this approach could provide biologically valuable information on the source, fate, and transport of N in marine ecosystems. Caution is needed should we extrapolate these findings to natural environments.

  9. The wilderness record, Chamisso wilderness proposal, Chamisso National Wildlife Refuge, Second Judicial District, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Wilderness study report; Federal Register notice; materials sent to news media; public hearing package, mailing list, handout materials, attendance list, and...

  10. Current knowledge on biotechnological interesting seaweeds from the Magellan Region, Chile

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    Andrés Mansilla

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a compilation of data from investigations made with marine benthic algae from the Magellan Region that have biotechnological utilization in human consumption or medicine or as a source of phycolloids or food supplements or animal feed. The most important Rhodophyta species are: Ahnfeltia plicata (Hudson E.M. Fries for agarose production, Gigartina skottsbergii Setchell & N.L.Gardner for carrageenan production, and Callophyllis variegata (Bory de Saint-Vincent Kützing for human consumption. The most important Heterokontophyta species are: Macrocystis pyrifera (L. C. Agardh, and Durvillaea antarctica (Chamisso Hariot for human consumption, alginate production, and as biofertilizer for agricultural crops. M. pyrifera is also used as a food supplement for salmon, chickens, quails, sheep and bovines and for biofuel production.

  11. Seasonal module dynamics in Sargassum subrepandum (Fucales, Phaeophyta)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ateweberhan, Mebrahtu; Bruggemann, J. Henrich; Breeman, Anneke M.

    2008-01-01

    Module dynamics of the fucoid alga Sargassum subrepandum (Forssk.) C. Agardh was studied in the southern Red Sea. Seasonal variation in thallus density and size was determined, and the initiation, growth, reproduction, and shedding of modules (primary laterals) were ascertained, using a tagging appr

  12. A transformation model for Laminaria Japonica (Phaeophyta, Laminariales)

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    Qin, Song; Jiang, Peng; Li, Xin-Ping; Wang, Xi-Hua; Zeng, Cheng-Kui

    1998-03-01

    A genetic transformation model for the seaweed Laminaria japonica mainly includes the following aspects: 1. The method to introduce foreign genes into the kelp, L. japonica Biolistic bombardment has been proved to be an effective method to bombard foreign DNA through cell walls into intact cells of both sporophytes and gametophytes. The expression of cat and lacZ was detected in regenerated sporophytes, which suggests that this method could induce random integration of foreign genes. Promoters to drive gene expression

  13. Formas de abertura dos frutos de Syagrus romanzoffiana (Chamisso glassman efetuadas por Sciurus ingrami Thomas (Rodentia, Sciuridae Opening forms of palm nuts Syagrus romanzoffiana (Chamisso Glassman made by Sciurus ingrami Thomas (Rodentia, Sciuridae

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    Marcelo Bordignon

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work was identifyed the diferents opening forms of the palm nuts Syagrus romanzoffiana by brazilian squirrel Sciurus ingrami in four diferents points of Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. Was caracterized tive basic forms of opening, in acording with the number of incisions and opening aspects. The form with lower number of incisions (two was also the greather frequently in the four points sampled (66,25%; N = 5194 well as registred the lower opening time (7,2 ± 1,7 min in relationship with other forms (9,2 ± 2,3 min. To explicate the diferences in the frequences of forms discovered, is proposed "apprenticeship's hypothesis" which the young squirrels of the population, along the opening nuts apprenticeship, to passing of the forms with larger number of incisions to forms with lower number of incisions, ending in the form of more frequence, which is maintained by adult squirrels.

  14. Distribution of sargassum Muticum (Yendo) Fensholt (Phaeophyta) in Venice Lagoon (Italy); Distribuzione di Sargassum Muticum (Yendo) Fensholt (Phaeophyta) in Laguna di Venezia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curiel, D.; Rismondo, A.; Marzocchi, M.; Solazzi, A.

    1995-09-01

    After Sargassum muticum (Yendo) Fensholt has been found in Venice lagoon (Italy), an investigation on its distribution in this ecosystem has been carried out. The colonized sites lie mostly in southern basin, near Chioggia and Pellestrina coastline. Only few points are colonized in the central lagoon.

  15. A Textual Research on the Source of Chamisso's Die Klage der Nonne%沙米索《尼怨》出处考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁敏

    2007-01-01

    德国浪漫派诗人沙米索著有一首改编自中文的叙事诗,但长期以来学者们未能获知其确切出处.直到20世纪80年代,德国学者罗泽确定该诗参照了法国汉学家儒莲所译汉诗,但他并未找到所对应的中文诗作.本文经考证,推断儒莲的译自同名明清小曲,并且儒莲对其进行了艺术加工.

  16. Programmed cell death in Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyta) tissues infected with alginic acid decomposing bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gaoge; LIN Wei; ZHANG Lijing; YAN Xiaojun; DUAN Delin

    2004-01-01

    TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) is a sensitive and valid method for detecting DNA cleavage in programmed cell death (PCD). Using this method, DNA cleavage was observed in Laminaria japonica sporophytic tissues, which were infected with alginic acid decomposing bacterium. It was found that DNA cleavage occurred 5 min after the infection, the fragments with 3′-OH groups of cleaved nuclear DNA increased with time of infection and spread from the infection site. Although no typical DNA ladder (200 bp/180 bp) was detected by routine agarose gel electrophoresis, the cleavage of nuclear DNA fragments of 97~48.5 kb could be detected by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). By using CaspGLOWTM fluorescein active caspase-3 staining method, caspase-3 activity has been detected in response to the infection of alginic acid decomposing bacterium. Our results are similar to the observations in hypersensitive response (HR) of higher plant, suggesting that the rapid cell death of L. Japonica infected by alginic acid decomposing bacterium might be involved in PCD, and indicating that the occurrence of PCD is an active defense process against the pathogen's infection.

  17. Two new species of the genus Tinocladia Kylin (chordariales, phaeophyta) from Yellow Sea Coasts of china

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lanping; Lu, Baoren; Huang, Bingxin; Tseng, C. K.

    2004-03-01

    Two new species of the genus Tinocladia Kylin, T. gracilis sp. nov. and T. microsporangii sp. nov., are described. T. gracilis is characterized by its slender frond, variable size, infrequently branched medullary filaments, and short assimilating filaments with 2 7 cells. T. microsporangii is characterized by its medullary cells which are slightly larger than sub-cortical ones; narrow sub-cortical layer, usually consisting of 4 6 cells and very small unilocular sporangia. The holotypes are deposited at the Herbarium of the Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, China.

  18. Effects of blue light on gametophyte development of Laminaria japonica (Laminariales, Phaeophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Cuijuan; Kataoka, Hironao; Duan, Delin

    2005-09-01

    Laminaria gametophyte was greatly influenced by light in its growth and development. Using light-emitting diodes (LED) as blue and red light sources, we analyzed the light effect on gametophytes development of Laminaria japonica Aresch. The gametophytes were obtained from zoospores collected in April, May, July, 2003 and September, 2004. We found that the growth of gametophytes was stimulated by increasing intensity of blue light (BL) and red light (RL) illumination, of which BL was obviously stronger than that of RL. The fertilization of gametophytes depended largely on BL, and only sufficient BL illumination could take the reproductive effect. In addition, we noticed that there was a significant difference in light responses for gametophytes developed from zoospore collected in different times. For zoospores released in April, under BL1 (73.90 μmol photons/m·s), the unicellular female gametophytes and multi-cellular male gametophytes produced eggs and sperms respectively, and further developed towards sporophytes. However, for gametophytes developed in May, July or September, they became multi-cellular and never formed oogonia or antheridia. It is believed that the Laminaria sporangium maturation stage could affect the gametophytes reaction to BL under laboratory culture conditions. Therefore, cryptochrome- or phototropin-like BL photoreceptors is probably involved in BL-induced development of Laminaria gametophytes.

  19. Population genetics of Sargassum horneri (Fucales,Phaeophyta) in China revealed by ISSR and SRAP markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shenhui; CHONG Zhuo; ZHAO Fengjuan; YAO Jianting; DUAN Delin

    2013-01-01

    Sargassum horneri is a common brown macro-alga that is found in the inter-tidal ecosystems of China.To investigate the current status of seaweed resources and provide basic data for its sustainable development,ISSR (inter simple sequence repeat) and SRAP (sequence related amplified polymorphism)markers were used to analyze the population genetics among nine natural populations of S.horneri.The nine studied populations were distributed over 2 000 km from northeast to south China.The percentage of polymorphic loci P% (ISSR,99.44%; SRAP,100.00%),Nei's genetic diversity H(ISSR,0.107-0.199; SRAP,0.100-0.153),and Shannon's information index I (ISSR,0.157-0.291; SRAP,0.148-0.219) indicated a fair amount of genetic variability among the nine populations.Moreover,the high degree of gene differentiation Gst (ISSR,0.654; SRAP,0.718) and low gene flow Nm (ISSR,0.265; SRAP,0.196) implied that there was significant among-population differentiation,possibly as a result of habitat fragmentation.The matrices of genetic distances and fixation indices (Fst) among the populations correlated well with their geographical distribution (Mantel test R=0.541 5,0.541 8; P=0.005 0,0.002 0 and R=0.728 6,0.641 2; P=0.001 0,0.001 0,respectively); the Rongcheng population in the Shandong peninsula was the only exception.Overall,the genetic differentiation agreed with the geographic isolation.The fair amount of genetic diversity that was revealed in the S.horneri populations in China indicated that the seaweed resources had not been seriously affected by external factors.

  20. Phylogeny of Saccharina and Laminaria (Laminariaceae, Laminariales, Phaeophyta) in sequence-tagged-site markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jieqiong; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Xumin; Chi, Shan; Liu, Cui; Liu, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Laminaria and Saccharina have recently been recognized as two independent clades from the former genus Laminaria. Traditional morphological taxonomy is being challenged by molecular evidence from both nucleus and plastid. Intensive work is in great demand from the perspective of genome colinearity. In this study, 118 sequence-tagged site (STS) markers were screened for phylogenetic analyses, 29 based on genome sequences, while 89 were based on expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences. EST-based STS marker development (29.37%) had an effi ciency twice as high as genome-sequence-based development (9.48%) as a result of high conservation of gene transcripts among the relative species. S. ochotensis, S. religiosa, S. japonica, and L. hyperborea showed great homogeneity in all 118 STS markers. Our result supports the view that the diversifi cation between the genera Saccharina and Laminaria was a more recent event and that Saccharina and Laminaria shared high phylogenetic affi nity. However, when it came to the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) level among the 41 SNPs, L. hyperborea owned 29 unique SNPs against 12 within the left three Saccharina species and 12 of the 13 indels were supposedly unique for L. hyperborea, indicated by its high variability. Originating from homologous ancestors, species between the recently diverged genera Laminaria and Saccharina may have taken in enough mutations at the SNP level only, in spite of different evolutionary strategies for better adaptation to the environment. Our study lays a solid foundation from a new perspective, although more accurate phylogenetic analysis is still needed to clarify the evolutionary traces between the genera Saccharina and Laminaria.

  1. Seasonal variation of epiphytic hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa associated to a subtropical Sargassum cymosum (Phaeophyta: Fucales bed

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    Amanda Ferreira Cunha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroids are broadly reported in epiphytic associations from different localities showing marked seasonal cycles. Studies have shown that the factors behind these seasonal differences in hydroid richness and abundance may vary significantly according to the area of study. Seasonal differences in epiphytic hydroid cover and richness were evaluated in a Sargassum cymosum C. Agardh bed from Lázaro beach, at Ubatuba, Brazil. Significant seasonal differences were found in total hydroid cover, but not in species richness. Hydroid cover increased from March (early fall to February (summer. Most of this pattern was caused by two of the most abundant species: Aglaophenia latecarinata Allman, 1877 and Orthopyxis sargassicola (Nutting, 1915. Hydroid richness seems to be related to S. cymosum size but not directly to its biomass. The seasonal differences in hydroid richness and algal cover are shown to be similar to other works in the study region and in the Mediterranean. Seasonal recruitment of hydroid species larvae may be responsible for their seasonal differences in algal cover, although other factors such as grazing activity of gammarid amphipods on S. cymosum must be taken into account.

  2. Growth and Reproductive Pattern of Intertidal and Subtidal Sargassum (Sargassaceae, Phaeophyta Populations in Bolinao, Pangasinan

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    Ariel Ortiz

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available First and second year populations of the Sargassum in the intertidal and subtidal portions of a seagrass bed were tagged and monitored over a period of 14 months (May 1996-June 1997. Statistical analysis (ANOVA and MANOVA showed that there was a temporal variation in the thallus length of the Sargassum population between the intertidal and the subtidal regions

  3. Phenological study of Sargassum thunbergii (Fucales, Phaeophyta) in Lidao Bay, Rongcheng, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wu, Haiyi; Zhan, Dongmei; Duan, Delin

    2016-05-01

    We conducted a phenological evaluation of Sargassum thunbergii, a common algal species, along the coast of Lidao Bay, Rongcheng, China. The local S. thunbergii population entered a maturation period from early June to mid-August, when seawater temperature was 14.4 to 25.1°C. Our results suggest an increase in temperature and day length during this period initiated thalli maturation. Inhabitants of the low tidal zone had higher thalli length and biomass compared with those from the mid-and high tidal zones. We observed a switch in the length frequency distribution and contribution of length classes to biomass between the small (trade-offbetween sexual reproduction and vegetative regeneration.

  4. Occurrence of Hydroclathrus tenuis Tseng and Baoren, (Phaeophyta) from Gulf of Kutch, northwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Untawale, A.G.

    Hydroclathrus tenuis (C. Agardh), a marine brown alga was considered to be a monotypic, till H. tenuis Tseng and Baoren was reported during 1983 from south China Sea. Recently the same alga was noticed to be abundant from Kalubhar Island in the Gulf...

  5. The Halogenated Metabolism of Brown Algae (Phaeophyta, Its Biological Importance and Its Environmental Significance

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    Stéphane La Barre

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Brown algae represent a major component of littoral and sublittoral zones in temperate and subtropical ecosystems. An essential adaptive feature of this independent eukaryotic lineage is the ability to couple oxidative reactions resulting from exposure to sunlight and air with the halogenations of various substrates, thereby addressing various biotic and abiotic stresses i.e., defense against predators, tissue repair, holdfast adhesion, and protection against reactive species generated by oxidative processes. Whereas marine organisms mainly make use of bromine to increase the biological activity of secondary metabolites, some orders of brown algae such as Laminariales have also developed a striking capability to accumulate and to use iodine in physiological adaptations to stress. We review selected aspects of the halogenated metabolism of macrophytic brown algae in the light of the most recent results, which point toward novel functions for iodide accumulation in kelps and the importance of bromination in cell wall modifications and adhesion properties of brown algal propagules. The importance of halogen speciation processes ranges from microbiology to biogeochemistry, through enzymology, cellular biology and ecotoxicology.

  6. Cryopreservation of Gametophytes of Laminariajaponica (Phaeophyta) Using Encapsulation-Dehydration with Two-Step Cooling Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Gametophytes of Laminaria japonica were cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen using encapsulation-dehydration with two-step cooling method. Gametophytes cultured at 10℃ and under continuous irradiance of 30 μmol m-2 s-1 for 3 weeks were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads. The beads were dehydrated in 0.4 molL-1 sucrose prepared with seawater for 6 h, desiccated in an incubator set at 10℃ and 70% relative humidity for 4 h, pre-frozen at either -40℃ or -60℃ for 30 min, and stored in liquid nitrogen for >24 h. As high as 43% of survival rate was observed when gametophytes were thawed by placing the beads in 40℃seawater and re-hydrated in 0.05 molL-1 citrate sodium prepared using 30‰ NaC1 7 d later. More cells of male gametophytes survived the whole procedure in comparison with female gametophytes. The cells of gametophytes surviving the preservation were able to grow asexually and produce morphologically normal sporophytes.

  7. Expression of hepatitis B surface antigen gene (HBsAg) in Laminaria japonica (Laminariales, Phaeophyta)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A transformation model for Laminaria japonica was established from 1993 to 1998, on the basis of which the transgenic kelp with heterologous gene encoding hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was obtained by using the micro- particle bombardment transformation method. Results of quantitative ELISA showed that HBsAg in transgenic kelp was 0.529 μg/mg soluble proteins on average and the highest value was 2.497 μg/mg, implying that recombinant HBsAg had natural epitope. Further support for the integration of HBsAg gene into kelp genome was obtained by PCR- Southern and total DNA hybridization. Prospect of kelp bioreactor producing high value materials such as edible HBV vaccine was discussed as well.

  8. Effects of blue light on gametophyte development of Laminaria japonica (Laminariales, Phaeophyta)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Laminaria gametophyte was greatly influenced by light in its growth and development. Using light-emitting diodes (LED) as blue and red light sources, we analyzed the light effect on gametophytes development of Laminaria japonica Aresch. The gametophytes were obtained from zoospores collected in April, May,July, 2003 and September, 2004. We found that the growth of gametophytes was stimulated by increasing intensity of blue light (BL) and red light (RL) illumination, of which BL was obviously stronger than that of RL. The fertilization of gametophytes depended largely on BL, and only sufficient BL illumination could take the reproductive effect. In addition, we noticed that there was a significant difference in light responses for gametophytes developed from zoospore collected in different times. For zoospores released in April, under BL1 (73.90 μmol sperms respectively, and further developed towards sporophytes. However, for gametophytes developed in May,July or September, they became multi-cellular and never formed oogonia or antheridia. It is believed that the Laminaria sporangium maturation stage could affect the gametophytes reaction to BL under laboratory culture conditions. Therefore, cryptochrome- or phototropin-like BL photoreceptors is probably involved in BL-induced development of Laminaria gametophytes.

  9. Algal wrack deposits and macroinfaunal arthropods on sandy beaches of the Chilean coast Depósitos de algas varadas y artrópodos macroinfaunales en playas de arena de la costa de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO JARAMILLO

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Four Chilean sandy beaches were sampled during the summer of 2000, to study the role of stranded algal wrack deposits on the population abundances of three detritus feeder species of the macroinfauna that inhabit the upper shore levels of that beaches: the talitrid amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata Nicolet, the tylid isopod Tylos spinulosus Dana and the tenebrionid insect Phalerisida maculata Kulzer. The beaches were Apolillado (ca. 29° S, Quidico (ca. 38° S, Guabún and Mar Brava (ca. 42° S. Replicated samples were collected with a plastic cylinder (25 cm in diameter from algal wrack deposits including the sediments beneath the wrack and nearby bare sand areas. Samples were collected at two beach levels, one closer to the sea with fresh deposits and other located on the upper beach with dry alga. Algal wrack deposits were mostly composed of the brown algae Macrocystis pyrifera (L., Durvillaea antarctica (Chamisso Hariot and Lessonia nigrescens Bory. O. tuberculata was found in the algal wrack deposits and bare sands collected from Apolillado, Quidico, Guabún and Mar Brava. On the other hand, T. spinulosus was just found at Apolillado, while P. maculata occurred in the sands beneath algal wrack deposits and bare sands collected from Apolillado, Quidico and Guabún. In general, the mean abundances of O. tuberculata, P. maculta and T. spinulosus were significantly higher in those samples collected from sands beneath algal wrack deposits; i.e., 56, 61 and 14 times higher (overall means than in bare sands, respectively. It is concluded that stranded algal wrack deposits indeed promote an increase in population abundances of sandy beach detritus feeders, either because that deposits provide their main food source or shelter against variable environmental conditions (e.g., air temperature and humidity during daylight hours. That might well explain the patchiness shown by these organisms, either across or along shore. This conclusion has important

  10. Effects of wave exposure and depth on biomass, density and fertility of the fucoid seaweed Sargassum polyceratium (Phaeophyta, Sargassaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, AH; Aberg, P; Olsen, JL; Stam, WT; Breeman, AM

    2005-01-01

    Sargassum polyceratium is widely distributed around the island of Curacao ( Netherlands Antilles) where it inhabits strongly contrasting habitats. Changes in population structure have been followed in three bays with increasing levels of wave exposure at two depths: shallow ( 0 m) and deep ( 18 m).

  11. Recombinant expression of rt-PA gene (encoding Reteplase) in gametophytes of the seaweed Laminaria japonica (Laminariales,Phaeophyta)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The life cycle of seaweed Laminaria japonica involves a generation alternation between diploid sporophyte and haploid gametophte. The expression of foreign genes in sporophte has been proved. In this research, the recombinant expression in gametophyte was investigated by particle bombardment with the rt-PA gene encoding the recombinant human tissue-type plasminogen activator (Reteplase), which is a thrombolytic agent for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Transgenic gametophytes were selected by their resistance to herbicide phosphiothricin (PPT), and proliferated in an established bubble column photo-bioreactor. According to the results from quantitative ELISA, Southern blotting, and fibrin agarose plate assay (FAPA) for bioactivity, it was showed that the rt-PA gene had been inte-grated into the genome of gametophytes of L. japonica, and the expression product showed the ex-pected bioactivity, implying the proper post-transcript modification in haploid gametophyte.

  12. Recombinant expression of rt-PA gene (encoding Reteplase) in gametophytes of the seaweed Laminaria japonica (Laminariales, Phaeophyta)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG YiChen; JIANG Peng; GAO JiangTao; LIAO JianMin; SUN ShiJing; SHEN ZiLong; QIN Song

    2008-01-01

    The life cycle of seaweed Laminaria japonica involves a generation alternation between diploid sporophyte and haploid gametophte. The expression of foreign genes in sporophte has been proved. In this research, the recombinant expression in gametophyte was investigated by particle bombardment with the rt-PA gene encoding the recombinant human tissue-type plasminogen activator (Reteplase), which is a thrombolytic agent for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Transgenic gametophytes were selected by their resistance to herbicide phosphiothricin (PPT), and proliferated in an established bubble column photo-bioreactor. According to the results from quantitative ELISA, Southern blotting, and fibrin agarose plate assay (FAPA) for bioactivity, it was showed that the rt-PA gene had been integrated into the genome of gametophytes of L. japonica, and the expression product showed the expected bioactivity, implying the proper post-transcript modification in haploid gametophyte.

  13. Seasonal dynamics of Sargassum ilicifolium (Phaeophyta) on a shallow reef flat in the southern Red Sea (Eritrea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ateweberhan, M; Bruggemann, JH; Breeman, AM

    2005-01-01

    The seasonality of Sargassum ilicifolium was studied in the southern Red Sea by monitoring thallus density, thallus size and the initiation, growth, reproduction and survivorship of primary laterals. Thallus density showed slight but significant seasonal variation; it was highest at the end of the h

  14. Distribution, function and evolution characterization of microsatellite in Sargassum thunbergii (Fucales, Phaeophyta) transcriptome and their application in marker development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuli; Hu, Zimin; Liu, Wenhui; Li, Jingjing; Wang, Wenjun; Liang, Zhourui; Wang, Feijiu; Sun, Xiutao

    2016-01-01

    Using transcriptome data to mine microsatellite and develop markers has growingly become prevalent. However, characterizing the possible function of microsatellite is relatively rare. In this study, we explored microsatellites in the transcriptome of the brown alga Sargassum thunbergii and characterized the frequencies, distribution, function and evolution, and developed primers to validate these microsatellites. Our results showed that Tri-nucleotide is the most abundant, followed by di- and mono-nucleotide. The length of microsatellite was significantly affected by the repeat motif size. The density of microsatellite in the CDS region is significantly lower than that in the UTR region. The annotation of the transcripts containing microsatellite showed that 573 transcripts have GO terms and can be categorized into 42 groups. Pathways enrichment showed that microsatellites were significantly overrepresented in the genes involved in pathways such as Ubiquitin mediated proteolysis, RNA degradation, Spliceosome, etc. Primers flanking 961 microsatellite loci were designed, and among the 30 pairs of primer selected randomly for availability test, 23 were proved to be efficient. These findings provided new insight into the function and evolution of microsatellite in transcriptome, and the identified microsatellite loci within the annotated gene will be useful for developing functional markers in S. thunbergii. PMID:26732855

  15. Assessment of Genetic Diversities of Selected Laminaria (Laminariales,Phaeophyta) Gametophytes by Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-Liang WANG; Chen-Lin LIU; Xiao-Jie LI; Yi-Zhou CONG; De-Lin DUAN

    2005-01-01

    Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis was used to assess genetic diversity among 10pairs of male and female Laminaria gametophytes. A total of 58 amplification loci was obtained from 10selected ISSR primers, of which 34 revealed polymorphism among the gametophytes. Genetic distances were calculated with the Dice coefficient ranging from 0.006 to 0.223. A dendrogram based on the unweighted pair-group method arithmetic (UPGMA) average showed that most male and female gametophytes of the same species were clustered together and that 10 pairs of gametophytes were divided into four groups. This was generally consistent with the taxonomic categories. The main group consisted of six pairs of gametophytes, which were selected from Laminaria japonica Aresch. by intensive inbreeding through artificial hybridization. One specific marker was cloned, but was not converted successfully into a sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of applying ISSR markers to evaluate Laminaria germplasm diversities.

  16. Cryopreservation of gametophytes of Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyta) using encapsulation-dehydration with two-step cooling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quansheng; Cong, Yizhou; Qu, Shancun; Luo, Shiju; Yang, Guanpin

    2008-02-01

    Gametophytes of Laminaria japonica were cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen using encapsulation-dehydration with two-step cooling method. Gametophytes cultured at 10°C and under continuous irradiance of 30 μmol m-2 s-1 for 3 weeks were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads. The beads were dehydrated in 0.4 molL-1 sucrose prepared with seawater for 6 h, desiccated in an incubator set at 10°C and 70% relative humidity for 4 h, pre-frozen at either -40°C or -60°C for 30 min, and stored in liquid nitrogen for >24 h. As high as 43% of survival rate was observed when gametophytes were thawed by placing the beads in 40°C seawater and re-hydrated in 0.05 molL-1 citrate sodium prepared using 30‰ NaCl 7 d later. More cells of male gametophytes survived the whole procedure in comparison with female gametophytes. The cells of gametophytes surviving the preservation were able to grow asexually and produce morphologically normal sporophytes.

  17. Zn and Cu concentrations in ascophyllum nodosum and fucus vesiculosus (phaeophyta, fucales) after transplantation to an estuary contaminated with mine wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Y.B.

    1984-01-01

    In order to examine the uptake of trace metals by brown algae from the surrounding waters, Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus were transplanted from a relatively unpolluted site (Torpoint) in Cornwall, England, to one (Restronguet Creek) markedly contaminated with Zn and Cu as a result of past mining activites. The transplant experiments lasted 57 days, during which period harvests were made from native plants at both sites and the transplants. Concentrations of both Zn and Cu in the native plants remained fairly constant throughout the period. Transplanted Ascophyllum took up moderate amounts of the metals from the new site, with concentrations of Zn and Cu about tripled (372 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ Zn, 101 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ Cu) after 57 days. However, metal concentrations in Fucus (1326 ..mu.. g/sup -1/ Zn, 241 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ Cu) increased by about 13-fold over the same period. The younger parts of the Ascophyllum thallus took up Zn and Cu more than the mature parts.

  18. Study on the enzymatic activity of Caspase-3 in response to alginic acid decomposing bacteria in Laminaria japonica Aresch.(Phaeophyta)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Gaoge; Lin Wei; Yan Xiaojun; Duan Delin

    2005-01-01

    Caspase-3 is the major factor in apoptosis triggered by various stimuli, and plays a critical role during the apoptosis process. By using CaspGLOWTM fluorescein active caspase-3 staining method, caspase-3 enzymatic activities were detected in response to alginic acid bacteria in Laminaria japonica sporophytic tissues. Results showed that caspase-3 enzymatic activities were observed at 5 min after the infection. Caspase-3 enzymatic activity increased with the infection time, and had a tendency of moving from the infection site to outside. By applying caspase-specific peptide inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK, caspase-3 activation could be effectively abolished in the infected tissues. Our results indicate that programmed cell death (PCD) may be involved in the infected Laminaria japonica sporophytic tissues, and provide the evidence that defense mechanisms in algae may have similar caspase cascade events in animals.

  19. Experimental evidence for the effects of polyphenolic compounds from Dictyoneurum californicum Ruprecht (Phaeophyta: Laminariales) on feeding rate and growth in the red abalone Haliotus rufescens Swainson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Frank C.; Estes, James A.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of polyphenolic compounds from brown algae on grazing and growth rate of the California red abalone Haliotis rufescens Swainson were examined. Abalone consumed three phenolic-poor algal species, Laminaria sinclarii (Harvey) Farlow, Macrocystis pyrifera Agardh, and Nereocystis luetkeana Postels et Ruprecht (mean phenolic content = 0.52% dry mass), at a greater rate than two phenolic-rich species, Dictyoneurum californicum Ruprecht and Cystoseira osmundacea Agardh (mean phenolic content = 4.60% dry mass). This inverse relationship between phenolic content and consumption rate also existed after the algae were macerated and the liquid portion of the blended slurry incorporated in agar discs. However, the correlation between grazing rate and phenolic content imprpve d in this latter experiment, thus suggesting that abalone grazing was deterred significantly by the morphology of L. sinclarii and, to a lesser extent, of M. pyrifera. Polyphenolics extracted from D. californicum reduced abalone grazing rates by 90% when incorporated into agar discs at a concentration of 6 mg·ml−1. Although abalone were unable to maintain body mass when fed ad libitum on macerated M. pyrifera incorporated into agar discs, polyphenolics from D. californicum further inhibited shell growth when added to the discs at 5 mg·ml−1. The abalone ate less of the phenol-containing discs than of the discs lacking phenolics. Our results support findings of several prior studies that polyphenolic compounds from brown algae deter grazing by coastal zone herbivores in the northeast Pacific Ocean.

  20. Evaluation of phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of brown seaweeds belonging to Turbinaria spp.(Phaeophyta,Sargassaceae) collected from Gulf of Mannar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kajal; Chakraborty; Nammunayathuputhenkotta; Krishnankartha; Praveen; Kodayan; Kizekadath; Vijayan; Gonugontla; Syda; Rao

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents of brown seaweeds belonging to Turbinaria spp.[Turbinaria conoides(T.conoides)and Turbinaria ornata(T.ornata)collected from Gulf of Mannar of southeastern coast of India in various in vitro systems.Methods:The antioxidant activity was evaluated using different in vitro systems,viz.,I,I-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH),2,2’-azino-bis-3 ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt(ABTS),H202/H0 radical scavenging,Fe2+ion chelating ability,and reducing potential.Folin-Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenolic content of the extracts,and the results were expressed as mg of gallic acid equivalents(GE)/g of the seaweed extracts.Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances assay was employed to assess the ability of the seaweed extracts to inhibit lipid oxidation.Results:Ethyl acetate(EtOAc)fraction of T.conoides registered significantly higher phenolic content(105.97 mg GE/g)than that of T.ornata(69.63 mg GE/g).Significantly higher antioxidant potential as determined by DPPH(64.14%)radical scavenging activity was registered in EtOAc fraction of T.ornata.A higher ABTS(?)radical scavenging(IC503.16μg/mL),Fe2+chelating(IC500.46 mg/mL),H2O2 scavenging(IC504.25 mg/mL),lipid peroxidation inhibitory(TBARS,IC500.21 mg/mL),and reducing abilities(IC5052.67 mg/mL)(P<0.05)were realized in EtOAc fraction of T.ornata than other fractions.Conclusions:This study indicated the potential use of T.conoides and T.ornata as candidate species to be used as food supplements/functional foods to increase shelf-life of food items for human consumption,and nutraceuticals to deter deleterious free radical-induced life-threatening diseases.

  1. Evaluation of phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of brown seaweeds belonging to Turbinaria spp. (Phaeophyta, Sargassaceae) collected from Gulf of Mannar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kajal Chakraborty; Kodayan Kizekadath Vijayan; Gonugontla Syda Rao

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents of brown seaweeds belonging to Turbinaria spp. [Turbinaria conoides (T. conoides) and Turbinaria ornata (T. ornata) collected from Gulf of Mannar of southeastern coast of India in various in vitro systems. Methods:The antioxidant activity was evaluated using different in vitro systems, viz., 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2, 2′-azino-bis-3 ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS), H2O2/HO radical scavenging, Fe2+ ion chelating ability, and reducing potential. Folin-Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenolic content of the extracts, and the results were expressed as mg of gallic acid equivalents (GE)/g of the seaweed extracts. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances assay was employed to assess the ability of the seaweed extracts to inhibit lipid oxidation. Results: Ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of T. conoides registered significantly higher phenolic content (105.97 mg GE/g) than that of T. ornata (69.63 mg GE/g). Significantly higher antioxidant potential as determined by DPPH (64.14%) radical scavenging activity was registered in EtOAc fraction of T. ornata. A higher ABTS.+ radical scavenging (IC50 3.16 µg/mL), Fe2+ chelating (IC50 0.46 mg/mL), H2O2 scavenging (IC50 4.25 mg/mL), lipid peroxidation inhibitory (TBARS, IC50 0.21 mg/mL), and reducing abilities (IC50 52.67 mg/mL) (P<0.05) were realized in EtOAc fraction of T. ornata than other fractions. Conclusions: This study indicated the potential use ofT. conoides and T. ornata as candidate species to be used as food supplements/functional foods to increase shelf-life of food items for human consumption, and nutraceuticals to deter deleterious free radical-induced life-threatening diseases.

  2. Preliminary study on flg22-induced defense responses in sporophytes of Saccharina japonica (Phaeophyta)%Flg22诱导的海带孢子体防御反应初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莎莎; 魏晓娇; 路博钧; 王高歌

    2012-01-01

    以鞭毛蛋白N端一个保守的22个氨基酸多肽(flg22)为激发子,研究其诱导海带孢子体防御反应的特征,以丰富植物分子病理学理论.采用Evans blue染色方法发现,flg22诱导后2h内,未能观察到海带孢子体细胞死亡现象,诱导后4~10 h,观察到大量死亡的细胞.TUNEL(TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick and labeling)检测方法证实,受flg22诱导后海带孢子体有DNA断裂现象,而且3’-OH末端断裂的数量随诱导时间的延长而增多,并有从诱导部位向外扩散的趋势.运用Luminol荧光检测方法检测到受flg22诱导后海带孢子体H2O2释放量迅速增加,至3h时达到峰值,约为20 μmol/L.应用荧光染料2’,7’-二氢二氯荧光黄双乙酸钠(DCFH-DA)进行ROS组织学检测,发现flg22诱导后1h即观察到绿色的荧光信号,信号强度随诱导时间的延长而增加,诱导后3h信号最强,随后绿色荧光信号的强度逐渐减弱.ROS的产生趋势与Luminol荧光检测方法的结果相一致.结果表明,flg22也是诱导海带孢子体防御反应的有效激发子.%Flg22 is an N terminal 22 amino acid peptide of flagellin. Flg22-induced defense responses were investigated in sporophytes of Saccharina japonica in this study. Our results would enrich the theory of plant molecular pathology. The results of Evans blue dye showed that cell death in the sporophytes of S. japonica was not observed within 2 h after flg22 induction, whereas large amounts of cell death were observed from 4 to 10 h. By using TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick and labeling (TUNEL), fragments with 3'-OH groups of nuclear DNA were observed. The number of 3'-OH increased gradually with the induction time and spread from the induction sites. The concentration of H2O2 increased rapidly in flg22-induced sporophytes of S. japonica, with a peak of about 20 umol/L at 3 h by using Luminol-dependent fluorescence detection method. Histological observation of radical oxygen species (ROS) production, detected by using the fluorescent dye 2 \\T- dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA), showed that green DCF fluorescence intensity increased gradually with the induction time, reaching the highest level at 3 h, then decreased from 3 to 5 h. The histological observation showed a consistent result with that of quantitative analysis of H2O2. The results indicate flg22 is an effective elicitor which could induce defense responses in sporophytes of S. japonica.

  3. Variability of the oral musculature in the genera Salpa Forskål, 1775 and Weelia Yount, 1954 (Tunicata, Thaliacea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler, J.

    1975-01-01

    The aggregate zooids of Salpa fusiformis Cuvier, 1804, S. maxima Forskål, 1775, and the group of the species S. aspera Chamisso, 1819, S. younti Van Soest, 1973, S. thompsoni Foxton, 1961, and S. gerlachei Foxton, 1961, show a difference in the arrangement of the oral musculature. Differences in the

  4. Marine macroalgal diversity along the Maharashtra coast: Past and present status

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Untawale, A.G.; Jagtap, T.G.

    . Acanthophora delilei Lamour R. grande Boergs. Caloglossa bombaynsis Boergs. Struvea delicatula Kuetz. Gigartina acecularis (Wulfen.) Phaeophyta Lamour Dictyota pinntifida Kuetz. Monospora indica Boergs. D. maxima Zanardini Myriogramm bombayensis Boergs...

  5. Studies on structure and organization of calcium carbonate deposits in algae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kerkar, V.; Untawale, A.G.

    The structure and organization of calcium carbonate deposits is studied in species of Halimeda, Udotea, Neomeris (Chlorophyta) and Padina (Phaeophyta). It was found that in Halimeda aragonite deposition takes place outside the cell wall...

  6. Aquatic macro algae of a region under Almirante Alvaro Alberto nuclear power plant influence. I. Taxonomic composition; Macroalgas marinhas da regiao sob influencia da Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto, Angra dos Reis, RJ, Brasil. I. Composicao taxonomica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrini, A.G. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]|[Universidade Santa Ursula, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas; Cassano, V.; Coelho, L.G.; Labronici, G.J. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia

    1994-12-31

    A total of 134 taxa were found: 32 Chlorophyta, 29 Phaeophyta and 74 Rhodophyta. The Caulerpales (Chlorophyta) had the highest number of taxa (37,5%) followed by the Dictyotales (Phaeophyta - 43%) and Ceramiales (Rhodophyta - 53%). The benthic flora shows some affinity to that of Ilha Grande (part), Sepetiba Bay and Paraty (Sorensen`s Index - 0,62, 0,61 and 0,58 respectively. (author). 22 refs, 1 fig, 1 tab.

  7. First occurrence of Beroe forskalii (Ctenophora) in South American Atlantic coastal waters, with notes on the use of macrociliary patterns for beroid identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Otto M P; Migotto, Alvaro E

    2014-01-01

    Beroe forskalii Milne Edwards, 1841 is an oceanic ctenophore with a global distribution. The present study provides the first record of Beroe forskalii for the South American Atlantic coast, including a redescription of the species and a discussion on the utility of macrociliary patterns for the correct identification of at least some beroid species, exemplified by a comparison of the macrociliary patterns of Beroe forskalii and Beroe ovata (Chamisso & Eysenhardt, 1821). PMID:24871741

  8. Combined effects of increasing CO2 concentrations and solar UV radiation on the physiological performance of Hizikia fusiformis Okamura (Sargassaceae, phaeophyta)%大气CO2升高和紫外辐射相互作用对羊栖菜生理特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘树霞; 徐军田; 邹定辉

    2015-01-01

    为了研究经济海藻羊栖菜对大气CO2浓度增加与紫外辐射(UVR)相互作用的响应,设置两个CO2浓度(380μ L/L和800μL/L)以及两种辐射处理,即PAR处理(滤除UV-A、UV-B,藻体仅接受可见光,400-700nm)和PAB处理(全波长辐射280-700nm)培养海藻,探讨了羊栖菜生长、光合作用、呼吸作用、光合色素含量、可溶性糖和蛋白以及硝酸还原酶活性的变化情况.结果表明高浓度CO2显著提高羊栖菜藻体的相对生长速率,并且紫外辐射的负面效应在高CO2处理下表现不显著.高CO2降低了藻体的光合作用速率,而UVR的负面效应和生长体现为一致性,但是羊栖菜的呼吸作用没有受到环境变化的明显影响.羊栖菜的光合色素叶绿素a和类胡萝卜素在高浓度CO2处理下明显降低,而UVR没有明显影响.环境因子对羊栖菜的可溶性糖没有影响,但是在高CO2和全波长辐射处理下,藻体可溶性蛋白的含量显著增加.同时高CO2明显提高了硝酸还原酶的活性,并且仅在高浓度CO2处理下藻体中UVR对其活性有抑制作用.CO2和UVR对羊栖菜的大多数生理特性存在明显的交互作用,在未来CO2浓度进一步增加的情况下,UVR的负面效应将会得到一定程度的缓解,这样有利于羊栖菜在养殖海区获得更高的产量.

  9. Biología, distribución e integración del alga alóctona Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Phaeophyta en las comunidades bentónicas de las costas de Galicia (NW de la Península Ibérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cremades Ugarte, Javier

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Undaria pinnatifida is an Asian seaweed that is valuable as an edible species. This kelp was first reported for Spain in the 1980s on Galician coasts, where it is now widely distributed and incorporated into the native community. In Galicia, intertidal populations of the sporophytic phase typically inhabit sites under moderate wave-exposure in the early spring, albeit they can be found throughout the year as the species displays at least two recruitment periods per year. The morphology varies between individuals and depends strongly on the spatiotemporal pattern of environmental conditions. The chronology of the introduction of this species and the types of habitat where it is currently integrated on Galician coasts clearly reveal that the presence and local expansion of this kelp is influenced largely by human activities, mainly shellfish aquaculture and maritime traffic. U. pinnatifida has a slow natural expansion, limited aggressiveness and it temporarily fills empty niches; this kelp displays luxuriant growth only on artificial substrates or in otherwise disturbed communities.Undaria pinnatifida es una especie asiática de gran interés económico como alga alimentaria que en la década de los ochenta apareció por primera vez en España en las costas de Galicia, donde actualmente se encuentra ampliamente distribuida y naturalizada. Las poblaciones intermareales de los esporófitos de esta especie en la costa gallega son propias de localidades moderadamente expuestas a la acción del oleaje, siendo muy notorias a principios de primavera; aunque pueden encontrarse casi todoel año, al existir al menos dos períodos anuales de reclutamiento. La morfología de los ejemplares que las forman es muy variable y está fuertemente relacionada con las variaciones espaciotemporales de las condiciones ambientales. Analizando la cronología de su introducción en Galicia y los hábitats y tipos de comunidades en las que se integra, se observa claramente la influencia de las actividades humanas en todo ello, sobre todo las derivadas de la acuicultura de moluscos y el tráfico marítimo. U. pinnatifida es una especie de lenta expansión natural, poco agresiva y que ocupa temporalmente nichos ecológicos vacíos, siendo solo abundante sobre sustratos artificiales o en aquellos naturales cuya vegetación ha sido en alguna medida previamente degradada.

  10. Chemical composition and antioxidant activities of Jeddah corniche algae, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Amoudi, Omar A.; Mutawie, Hawazin H.; Patel, Asmita V.; Blunden, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    The increased use of natural product in the pharmaceutical industry has led to an increase in demand for screening for bioactive compounds in marine algae. An important economic algae, through chemical composition analysis and their antioxidant activities were investigated in this study. Chemical composition analysis of three algal samples from the Chlorophyta Ulva lactuca (U), Phaeophyta Sargassum crassifolia (S) and Rhodophyta Digenea simplex (D) was tested. Main components were sugars (57....

  11. Marine macrophytes : Macroalgae species and life forms from Golden Beach, Similajau National Park, Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Muta Harah, Zakaria; Japar Sidik, Bujang; Raesah, Amit; Suzalina Akma, Awing; Ogawa, Hisao

    2006-01-01

    A study on macroalgae was carried out around Golden Beach, Similajau National Park during the month of April 2005. Collections and recordings of macroalgae species and life forms were conducted during low tide period. A total of 35 macroalgae were identified belonging to 27 genera comprising of 10 species (28.6%) Chlorophyta, 6 species (17.1%) Phaeophyta and 19 species (54.3%) Rhodophyta. Sargassum paniculatum, the common species inhabited the sand and rock substrates. Entero-morpha intestina...

  12. 光合成色素の定性分析から植物進化を考察する実践的研究

    OpenAIRE

    畦, 浩二

    2003-01-01

    In order to allow students to understand the systematics and evolution of plants, the qualitative analysis of fat-soluble photosynthetic pigments by the procedure of thin-layer chromatography was carried oout in a senior high school biology class. The materials used in the class were Oscillatoria sp. (Cyanophyta), dried “Nori” Porphyra sp. (Rhodophyta), Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyta), Spirogyra sp. (Chlorophyta), and Conocephalum conicum (Bryophyta). Through practical teaching, the students...

  13. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of brown algae from the Aegean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    ZELIHA DEMIREL; FERDA F. YILMAZ-KOZ; ULKU N. KARABAY-YAVASOGLU; GUVEN OZDEMIR; ATAKAN SUKATAR

    2009-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of methanol, dichloromethane and hexane extracts, as well as the essential oils of brown algae (Phaeophyta) Colpomenia sinuosa, Dictyota dichotoma, Dictyota dichotoma var. implexa, Petalonia fascia and Scytosiphon lomentaria. The essential oil of the macroalgae was obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The antioxidant activity of the algal extracts was determined using the procedures ...

  14. Catalog of marine benthic algae from New Caledonia

    OpenAIRE

    Garrigue, Claire; Tsuda, R.T.

    1988-01-01

    A catalog of the marine benthic algae (#Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta$ and #Rhodophyta$) reported from New Caledonia is presented in two sections : 1. Classification; 2. Check list with references and localities. There are 35 genera, 130 species of green algae; 23 genera, 59 species of brown algae; and 79 genera, 147 species of red algae which represent a rich algal flora for the subtropics. (Résumé d'auteur)

  15. Estudios sobre los uredinales del archipiélago de San Andrés y providencia, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardo Cardona Víctor Manuel

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Doce especies de Uredinales fueron colectados en las islas de San Andrés y Providencia durante una visita de colección efectuada en el mes de Octubre de 2002. Los hospederos fueron determinados y herborizados y a partir de ellos se elaboraron micropreparados que contenían los soros con las esporas de los hongos, los cuales fueron observados y estudiados al microscopio. Puccinia cyperi-tagetiformis Kem es nuevo registro para Colombia; se registró a Brachiaria distachya (L Stapf como nuevo hospedante de Uromyces clignyi Patouillard & Hariot y a Cyperus rotundus L como nuevo hospedante para P. cyperi-tagetiformis. Las demos especies colectados han sido registradas en el neotrópico sobre hospedantes previamente conocidos.

  16. Nests of the Brazilian squirrel Sciurus ingrami Thomas (Rodentia, Sciuridae Ninhos do esquilo brasileiro Sciurus ingrami Thomas (Rodentia, Sciuridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele A. Alvarenga

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Descriptions of Sciurus ingrami Thomas, 1901 nests are not available in the literature. In this study, a survey was made of the distribution of S. ingrami nests in a woodlot located near to the headquarters of the Serra do Caraça Reserve, in state of Minas Gerais, where there is a high concentration of Syagrus romanzoffiana (Chamisso Glassman palm tree, among other exotic tree species. The nest-building behaviour and the nest characteristics, such as height from the ground, total circumference, diameter of the entrance, and the position of the nest in the tree - in the crown, along the trunk or in a side branch, were described.Não existe na literatura a descrição de ninhos de Sciurus ingrami Thomas, 1901. Neste estudo, foi examinada a distribuição espacial de ninhos desta espécie, localizados em área de vegetação de crescimento secundário, próxima a área construída da Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Serra do Caraça, Minas Gerais, onde há grande concentração da palmeira Syagrus romanzoffiana (Chamisso Glassman, entre outras espécies exóticas de árvores. O comportamento de construção e as características dos ninhos, tais como, altura em relação ao solo, circunferência total, diâmetro da entrada e a posição dos ninhos na árvore foram descritos.

  17. Aquatic macro algae of a region under Almirante Alvaro Alberto nuclear power plant influence. I. Spatial seasonal evaluation; Macroalgas marinhas da regiao sob influencia da Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto (CNAAA), Saco de Piraquara de Fora, Angra dos Reis, RJ, Brasil. I. Avaliacao espaco-temporal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrini, A.G. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]|[Universidade Santa Ursula, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas; Cassano, V.; Coelho, L.G.; Labronici, G.J. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia

    1994-12-31

    Marine macro algae from the area which is under in fluence of the heated and chlorate liquid effluent to the CNAAA were observed (1981-1983) at 3 collection points: Pingo Dagua, Velho Beach, discharge point. A total of 121 taxa were found: 29 Chlorophyta, 26 Phaeophyta and 66 Rhodophyta. The spring season was the richest in taxa (78) while autumn was the poorest (85). Overall, the data suggest that the point A (Pingo Dagua) macro algae community (which is similar to the discharge point (0,80) is adequate for the control of the CNAAA effluent impact ad Piraquara de Fora. (author). 11 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab.

  18. 马蹄礁底栖海藻的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑柏林; 刘剑华; 杨毓英

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, the composition, distribution, seasonal variation and biomass of benthic algae of Qingdao Mati Reef were studied during the period from May of 1981 to April of 1982.The results of the investigation are as follows: 1. 83 species of benthic algae of Qingdao Mati Reef were found,and they are indentified as: 13 Chlorophyta, 16 Phaeophyta and 54 Rhodo-phyta.2. According to the flora of 83 species of benthic algae in Qingdao Mati Reef, it seems that they belong to warm temperate.3. The annual biomass and biomass variation of benthic algae in March were hightest of the west part of Qingdao Mati Reef.

  19. α-, β-caroteno e α-tocoferol em algas marinhas in natura α- and β-carotene, and α-tocopherol in fresh seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Barbosa de Sousa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de 32 espécies de algas marinhas das divisões Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta e Phaeophyta como fontes de α- e β-caroteno e α-tocoferol. Todas as clorofíceas analisadas apresentaram α- e β-caroteno. Os teores máximo e mínimo de α-caroteno foram detectados nas espécies do gênero Caulerpa e em Codium decorticatum, respectivamente; e β-caroteno foi mais baixo em Caulerpa mexicana e mais elevado em Ulva fasciata. Dentre as rodofíceas, 11 espécies apresentaram α-caroteno, com máximo em Botryocladia occidentalis. β-caroteno foi encontrado em todas as algas vermelhas analisadas com teores mínimo e máximo em Gracilaria caudata e Bryothamnion triquetrum, respectivamente. As feofíceas apresentaram apenas β-caroteno, com mínimo e máximo em Dictyopteris delicatula e Padina gymnospora, respectivamente. Na divisão Chlorophyta, α-tocoferol, foi máximo em Codium decorticatum e mínimo em Caulerpa prolifera. Na Rhodophyta, 12 espécies apresentaram α-tocoferol com teor máximo em Enantiocladia duperreyi. Na Phaeophyta, α-tocoferol foi encontrado com valores mínimo e máximo em Lobophora variegata e Dictyota dichotoma, respectivamente.The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of 32 marine macro algae species, members of Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta, as sources of a-carotene, b-carotene and a-tocopherol. Both b-carotene and a-carotene were found in all species of green macroalgae analyzed. The maximum content of a-carotene was detected in algae belonging to Caulerpa genus and the minimum in Codium decorticatum. The amount of b-carotene found was minimum in Caulerpa mexicana and maximum in Ulva fasciata. Among the Rhodophyta species, eleven contain a-carotene, the maximum content was found in Botryocladia occidentalis. b-Carotene was found in all red macroalgae analyzed presenting the lowest and highest values in Gracilaria caudata and Bryothamnion triquetrum, respectively

  20. Assembly of the Protoplasm of Codium fragile (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) into New Protoplasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Demao Li; Fang Lü; Guangce Wang; Baicheng Zhou

    2008-01-01

    The cell organelles of the coenocytic alga Codium fragile (Sun) Hariot aggregated rapidly and protoplasts were formed when its protoplasm was extruded out in seawater. Continuous observation showed that there were long and gelatinous threads connecting the cell organelles. The threads contracted, and thus the cell organelles aggregated into protoplasmic masses. The enzyme digestion experiments and Coomassie Brilliant Blue and Anthrone stainings showed that the long and gelatinous threads involved in the formation of the protoplasts might Include protein and saccharides as structure components. Nile Red staining Indicated that the protoplast primary envelope was non-lipid at first, and then lipid materials Integrated Into its surface gradually. The fluorescent brightener staining Indicated that the cell wall did not regenerate in the newly formed protoplasts and they all disintegrated within 72 h after formation. Transmission electron microscopy of the cell wall of wild C. fragile showed electron-dense material embedded in the whole cell wall at regular intervals. The experiments indicated that C. fragile would be a suitable model alga for studying the formation of protoplasts.

  1. 深圳地区椰心叶甲寄主和天敌种类调查%Host plants and natural enemies for coconut leaf beetle, Brontispa longissima, in Shenzhen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴青; 梁广文; 曾玲; 陆永跃

    2006-01-01

    调查结果表明,深圳地区椰心叶甲Brontispa longissima(Gestro)的寄主植物有26属36种,危害比较严重的寄主有椰子(Cocos nucifera L.)、大王椰子(Roystonea regia O.F.Cook)、假槟榔(Archontophoenix alexandrae(F.V.Mueller))、鱼尾葵(Caryota ochlandra Hance)、三药槟榔(Areca triandra Roxburgh ex Buchanan)、金山葵(Syagrus romanzoffiana(Chamisso)Glassman)、菲岛鱼尾葵(Caryota cumingii Loddiges ex Martius)、刺葵(Phoenix hanceana Naudin)、国王椰子(Ravenea rivularis L.)等.野外观察和采集标本鉴定结果表明,深圳地区椰心叶甲捕食性天敌有11种,主要种类为蚂蚁Formica sp.、毛蠼螋Cheatospania sp.、中华大螳螂Parattenodera sinensis Saussure;致病微生物有3种,主要是绿僵菌Metarhizium anisopliae var.anisopliae.

  2. Larvicidal activity of Brazilian plant essential oils against Coenagrionidae larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, D T; Silva, L L; Amaral, L P; Pinheiro, C G; Pires, M M; Schindler, B; Garlet, Q I; Benovit, S C; Baldisserotto, B; Longhi, S J; Kotzian, C B; Heinzmann, B M

    2014-08-01

    Odonate larvae can be serious pests that attack fish larvae, postlarvae, and fingerlings in fish culture tanks, causing significant loss in the supply and production of juveniles. This study reports a screen of the essential oils (EOs) of Nectandra megapotamica (Sprengel) Mez, Nectandra grandiflora Nees, Hesperozygis ringens (Bentham) Epling, Ocimum gratissimum L., Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hooker) Troncoso, and Lippia sidoides Chamisso against Coenagrionidae larvae. In addition, the most effective EO and its 50% lethal concentration (LC50) and chemical analysis are described. The larvae of Acanthagrion Selys, Homeoura Kennedy, Ischnura Charpentier, and Oxyagrion Selys were used to assess the EO effects. EO obtained from H. ringens, O. gratissimum, and L. sidoides showed the highest larvicidal effects at 19 h of treatment. The major constituents of the EO of H. ringens include pulegone and limonene, while eugenol and Z-beta-ocimene predominate in the EO of O. gratissimum, and carvacrol and rho-cymene were the major compounds of the EO of L. sidoides. Leaf EOs from H. ringens, O. gratissimum, and L. sidoides showed activity against Coenagrionidae larvae at similar concentrations with LC50s of 62.92, 75.05, and 51.65 microl liter(-1), respectively, and these were considered the most promising treatments. PMID:25195467

  3. Lead and cadmium levels in coastal benthic algae (seaweeds) of Tenerife, Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Gonzalo; Hardisson, Arturo; Gutiérrez, Angel José; Lafuente, María Anunciación

    2003-01-01

    Lead and cadmium levels of some species of brown-algae (Phaeophyta) from the mesolittoral (intertidal area) of the Island of Tenerife (central-eastern Atlantic) were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The quality control was carried out using a standard "CRM 279 Ulva lactuca". The mean, minimum and maximum concentrations were 11.21, 2.090 and 81.795 microg/g/dw; and 1.13, 0.190 and 5.130 microg/g/dw for lead and cadmium, respectively. The fact that samples registering the highest cadmium concentrations were the same as those which showed the highest lead level corresponding to a sampling station nearby an urban water outlet could be relevant.

  4. Nuevos registros de macroalgas para el Atlántico mexicano y riqueza florística del Caribe mexicano New records of macroalgae for the Mexican Atlantic and floristic richness of the Mexican Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neidy Pauline Cetz-Navarro

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Se revisaron muestras de macroalgas de un hábitat pocas veces analizado (colindante a la parte basal del tejido vivo de los corales Acropora palmata y Diploria strigosa y de una zona de México poco conocida florísticamente (parte Sur del Caribe mexicano, con base a lo cual se reporta a Corallophila verongiae (Rhodophyta, Derbesia fastigiata (Chlorophyta y Hincksia onslowensis (Phaeophyta como nuevos registros de macroalgas para la costa del Atlántico mexicano. Además, se reporta a Lophosiphonia obscura (Rhodophyta como nuevo registro para la parte costera continental del Atlántico mexicano, ya que sólo se había registrado hace más de 40 años para Arrecife Alacranes, sitio alejado aproximadamente 180 km al norte de Puerto Progreso, Yucatán. Aunque las especies de macroalgas no presentaron estructuras reproductoras, probablemente por tener crecimiento clonal y estar invadiendo tejido coralino, los caracteres morfológicos permitieron su identificación con certeza. Con excepción de la primera especie, las otras no se habían registrado creciendo sobre corales. Tomando en cuenta estos nuevos registros, el total de especies de macroalgas registradas hasta este estudio para el Caribe mexicano es de 546, incluyendo 307 Rhodophyta, 171 Chlorophyta y 68 Phaeophyta. Esta zona tropical y la costa templada de Baja California conforman las dos zonas florísticas marinas más ricas de México.Macroalgae samples from a habitat uncommonly analyzed (next to the basal part of live tissue of the corals Acropora palmata and Diploria strigosa, and from a Mexican zone barely known floristically (the southern part of the Mexican Caribbean were studied. Based on those samples, Corallophila verongiae (Rhodophyta, Derbesia fastigiata (Chlorophyta, and Hincksia onslowensis (Phaeophyta are recognized as new records for the Mexican Atlantic coast. Similarly, Lophosiphonia obscura (Rhodophyta is recognized as a new record for the continental coast of the Mexican

  5. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (June 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. NICOLAIDOU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work reports on the extended distribution of nineteen species in the Mediterranean. These are: Upeneus pori(Fish:Turkey, Bursatella leachii (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia: eastern coast of Spain, Sparisoma cretense (Fish: Ionian coastof Greece, Pseudobryopsis myura (Chlorophyta: Turkey, Aplysia dactylomela (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia: Karpathos island,and Kyklades Archipelago, Greece, Asparagopsis armata and Botryocladia madagascariensis (Rhodophyta: South Peloponnesos,Greece, Oxynotus centrina (Fish: Greece, Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Chlorophyta , Stypopodium schimperi(Phaeophyta Siganus luridus and Stephanolepis diaspros (Fish Percnon gibbesi (Decapoda, Brachyura (Kyklades Archipelago,Greece, Cerithium scabridum (Mollusca, Prosobranchia: Anavissos: Greece and Cerithium renovatum (Mollusca, Prosobranchia:N. Κriti, Cassiopea andromeda (Scyphomedusa: Rhodos Island, Greece, Abra tenuis (Mollusca Bivalvia: VouliagmeniLake, Greece Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Fish: Calabrian coast, Italy and Plocamopherus ocellatus (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia:İskenderun Bay, Turkey.

  6. Concentration of Inorganic Elements Content in Benthic Seaweeds of Fernando de Noronha Archipelago by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (SRTXRF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro De Santis Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available SRTXRF was used to determine As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Fe, K, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn in eleven seaweed species commonly found in Fernando de Noronha: Caulerpa verticillata (J. Agardh (Chlorophyta, Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile, Dictyurus occidentalis (J. Agardh, Galaxaura rugosa (J. Ellis & Solander J. V. Lamouroux, G. obtusata (J. Ellis & Solander J. V. Lamouroux, G. marginata (J. Ellis & Solander J. V. Lamouroux (Rhodophyta, Dictyota cervicornis (Kützing, Dictyopteris justii (J. V. Lamouroux, Dictyopteris plagiogramma (Montagne Vickers, Padina gymnospora (Kützing Sonder, and a Sargassum sp. (Phaeophyta. Data obtained were compared to those from the analysis of other parts of the world seaweeds using different analytical techniques and were found to be in general agreement in terms of major and minor elemental components. Results provide baseline information about the absorption and accumulation of these elements by macroalgae in the area.

  7. SCREENING FOR ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES IN SOME MARINE ALGAE FROM THE FUJIAN COAST OF CHINA WITH THREE DIFFERENT SOLVENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑怡; 陈寅山; 卢海声

    2001-01-01

    Three different solvents viz ethanol, acetone and methanol-toluene (3:1) were used to extract antibiotics from 23 species of marine algae belonging to the Chlomphyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta. Their crude extracts were tested for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Among them, the ethanol extract showed the strongest activity against the bacteria and fungi tested. Four species of the Rhodophyta (Laurenc/a okamurai, Dasya scoparia, Grateloupia filicina and plocamium telfairiae ) showed a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity. Every solvent extract from the four species was active against all the bacteria tested. The test bacterium Pseudomonas solancearum and the fungus Penicilium citrinum were most sensitive to the extracts of marine algae. In general, the extracts of seaweeds inhibited bacteria more strongly than fungi and species of the Rhodophyta showed the greatest activity against the bacteria and fungi tested.

  8. SCREENING FOR ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES IN SOME MARINE ALGAE FROM THE FUJIAN COAST OF CHINA WITH THREE DIFFERENT SOLVENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑怡; 陈寅山; 卢海声

    2001-01-01

    Three different solvents viz ethanol, acetone and methanol-toluene (3:1) were used to extract antibiotics from 23 species of marine algae belonging to the Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta. Their crude extracts were tested for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Among them, the ethanol extract showed the strongest activity against the bacteria and fungi tested. Four species of the Rhodophyta (Laurencia okamurai, Dasya scoparia, Grateloupia filicina and plocamium telfairiae ) showed a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity. Every solvent extract from the four species was active against all the bacteria tested. The test bacterium Pseudomonas solancearum and the fungus Penicilium citrinum were most sensitive to the extracts of marine algae. In general, the extracts of seaweeds inhibited bacteria more strongly than fungi and species of the Rhodophyta showed the greatest activity against the bacteria and fungi tested.

  9. THE BETAINES FROM CHINESE SEAWEEDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩丽君; 范晓; 严小军

    2002-01-01

    Cation-exchange chromatography was selected to extract and separate betaines from marine algae. On the basis of the special chemical characteristics of the betaines and their analogues, Dragendorff's reagent (KBiI4) was used to test the existence of betaines and their analogues in marine algae. The total content of betaines from seven species was obtained by using the Reinkeate salt precipitation method. The results showed that the content of betaines in two species of Chlorophyta and two species of Rhodophyta were relatively high,and that the content of betaines in Enteromopha prolifera could even reach to 0.9%. The content in the three species of Phaeophyta was relatively low.

  10. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF BENTHIC MARINE ALGAE EXTRACTS FROM THE MEDITERRANEAN COAST OF MOROCCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaâ Zbakh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. The Moroccan marine biodiversity including macroalgae remains partially unexplored in term of their potential bioactivities. Antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts from 20 species of macroalgae (9 Chlorophyta, 3 Phaeophyta and 8 Rhodophyta collected from Moroccan Mediterranean coasts was evaluated against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. The extracts of the studied Rhodophyceae inhibited considerably the growth of the three tested bacterial strains and gave inhibition zones between 20 and 24 mm. The results indicate that these species of seaweed present a significant capacity of antibacterial activities, which makes them interesting for screening for natural products.

  11. Avaliação de extratos de macroalgas bênticas do litoral catarinense utilizando o teste de letalidade para Artemia salina Evaluation of macroalgae from Santa Catarina’s coast with the brine shrimp assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Lhullier

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram coletadas amostras de algas marinhas de 19 espécies (sendo 4 pertencentes ao filo Chlorophyta, 5 ao filo Phaeophyta e 10 ao filo Rhodophyta em dois locais do litoral catarinense. Os extratos etanólicos foram submetidos ao teste de letalidade para larvas de Artemia salina com objetivo de realizar uma triagem das espécies. Dos 26 extratos testados, 25 apresentaram toxicidade significativa em pelo menos uma das 3 concentrações testadas. O grupo de algas vermelhas (Rhodophyta foi o que obteve maior porcentagem de extratos com resultados estatisticamente significativos pelo método do qui-quadrado e também menores valores de CL50, com destaque para Acanthophora spicifera, Hypnea musciformis e Pterocladiella capillacea. Observaram-se diferenças entre as espécies de um mesmo gênero (Codium decorticatum e Codium isthmocladium e também a influência de fatores ambientais (Hypnea musciformis na toxicidade dos extratos.Samples of 19 macroalgae species (4 Chlorophyta, 5 Phaeophyta and 10 Rhodophyta have been collected from two points of Santa Catarina's coast. The ethanolic extracts were avaluated with the brine shrimp assay in order to perform a screening for potential toxicity. A total of 25 extracts presented significant results in one or more of the tested concentrations. The phylum Rhodophyta presented more statistically significant results with the chi-square test, as well as lower values of LC50. The extracts of Acanthophora spicifera (from Canasvieiras and Ilha do Francês, Hypnea musciformis and Pterocladiella capillacea (both from Ilha do Francês presented LC50 below 50 mg/mL. Differences between the species of same genus (Codium decorticatum and Codium isthmocladium and the influence of environmental factors (Hypnea musciformis were observed.

  12. A dichotomous species of Codium (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta is colonizing northern Chile Una especie dicotómica de Codium (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta está colonizando el norte de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRA GONZÁLEZ

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In late 2001 and early 2002, a dichotomous species of Codium appeared colonizing the low intertidal and shallow subtidal bottoms of Caldera Bay, northern Chile (27° 03’ S, 70° 51’ W. Due to the ecological and economic impact the species is having in Caldera Bay and its potential spread along the Chilean coastline, we studied the taxonomic identity of the species and examined its relationships with other dichotomous species of Codium reported for temperate Pacific South America. Morphological analyses suggest that the seaweeds from Caldera Bay belong to Codium fragile (Suringar Hariot. Not only is there strong agreement in internal and external morphological characters, but among all the species reported for Peru and Chile, this is the only one exhibiting utricles with rounded, apiculate tip terminating in a mucron. This species has a broad geographic distribution in temperate waters. In Chile it was known only from the coasts of Valdivia to the Straits of Magellan (39° 48’ S, 73° 26’ W to 53° 10’ S, 73° 49’ W. This is the first record of C. fragile in northern Chile, and this study discusses several alternative hypotheses for the presence of the species into this area. The morphological characteristics of the material collected in Caldera partially agree with diagnostic characters known for C. fragile subspecies tasmanicum and C. fragile subspecies tomentosoides. However, the rapid population spread of the species in northern Chile, and recent molecular analysis support the identification of this form as the invasive C. fragile subspecies tomentosoidesA fines de 2001 y principio de 2002, apareció en el norte de Chile una especie del género Codium, de morfología dicotómica, colonizando los niveles intermareales y submareales de la Bahía de Caldera (27° 03’ S, 70° 51’ O. Debido al impacto ecológico y económico que ha provocado esta especie en la Bahía de Caldera y a su dispersión potencial a lo largo de la costa de

  13. RAPD Analysis of Germplasm Resources of Kudingcha Species in Oleaceae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Dao-jun; LIANG Yuan-fa; LIU Gou-min; YAN Dong-hai; LINGHU Chang-di; TIAN Yong-hui

    2009-01-01

    The random amplified polymorphic DNA marker (RAPD) was applied to detect the genetic relationships and diversity among 21 germplasm materials of Kudingcha species in Oleaceae, which involved 8 species, i.e., Ligustrum robustum (Roxb.) Blume, L. henryi Hemsl., L. japonicum Thunb, L. japonicum Thunb. vat. pubscens Koidz, L. luciduM Ait., L. pedunculare Rehd, Osmanthus masumuranus Hayata, and L. delavayanm Hariot. 20 RAPD primers selected were applied for the amplification on the 21 germplasm materials mentioned above. 427 bands were obtained, and the percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB) was 97.7%. The genetic similarity coefficients (GS) ranged from 0.1522 to 0.8322 with an average of 0.5466. There was a significant genetic difference among germplasm materials of Kudingcha species in Oleaceae, and UPGMA cluster based on the GS of RAPD could distinguish all test germplasm materials clearly and indicated the relationship of the 8 species mentioned above, all of which indicated that RAPD markers could be used for the studies of genetic diversity and relationship and classification of germplasm resources of Kudingcha species in Oleaceae. Analysis results of RAPD showed that L. japonicum Thunb. var. pubscens Koidz has closer genetic relationship with L. pedunculare Rehd and further genetic relationship with L. japonicum Thunb. among all tested species. The authors suggest that further research is needed to study whether L. japonicum Thunb. var. pubscens Koidz should be classified into a variata of L. japonicum Thunb, or should be considered as an independent species. The analysis results supported that L. pururascens Y. C. Yang should be combined into L. robustum (Roxb.) Biume.

  14. 青岛潮间带大型底栖海藻群落的研究%The Survey on the Community of Benthic Marine Macroalgae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨震; 王悠; 董开升; 唐学玺; 赵星

    2009-01-01

    在青岛潮间带布设了显浪咀、太平角和石老人3个断面,进行了为期1 a(2006年8月~2007年11月)的大型底栖海藻资源调查研究.结果表明:1. 青岛潮间带大型底栖海藻群落的种类组成中红藻种类最多,其次是褐藻,绿藻最少.2. 群落中大型底栖海藻的生物量有明显的季节变化:春季>夏季>秋季>冬季;生物量在垂直分布上表现出中、低潮带均大于高潮带;在水平分布上无明显差异.3. 底栖藻类群落优势种无季节性变化,第一优势种为孔石莼.4. 采集到大型底栖海藻43种,其中红藻门22属24种,占55.8%;褐藻门9属11种,占25.6%;绿藻门6属8种,占18.6%.%Three cross sections at Xianlangzui, Taipingjiao and Shilaoren in the intertidal zone of Qingdao were set and the communities of benthic marine macroalgae were investigated from August 2006 to November 2007. Results showed that: 1. In the intertidal zone of Qingdao, species of Rhodophyta played a dominant role in the composition of the benthic marine macroalgae community, followed by Phaeophyta and then Chlorophyta. 2. The biomass of the community changed with the season too, and a seasonal variation of Spring>Summer>Autumn>Winter was obtained. In the vertical distribution the biomass in the low-intertidal zone or mid-intertidal zone was greater than that in the high intertidal zone, but no remarkable difference was found among the three cross sections in the horizonal distribution. 3. The dominant species had no seasonal variation, and the first dominant specie was Ulva. pertusa Kjell. 4. During the four surveys, 43 species of benthic marine macroalgae were collected, among which 24 species(belonging to 22 genera) were Rhodophyta , 11 species(belonging to 9 genera) were Phaeophyta and 8 species(belonging to 6 genera) were Chlorophyta.

  15. Macroalgas submareales de la bahía de Todos Santos, Baja California, México Submareal macroalgae of the Todos Santos Bay, Baja California, Mexico

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    Raúl Aguilar-Rosas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de identificar y caracterizar la composición de especies de la zona submareal de la bahía de Todos Santos, Baja California, México; se realizaron muestreos de macroalgas marinas bentónicas en 7 sitios durante 1995-2000. Como resultado de 25 buceos Scuba entre 3 y 33 m de profundidad se encontraron 150 especies de macroalgas para el área de estudio; 10 son Chlorophyta, 26 Phaeophyta y 114 Rhodophyta. Del total, 47 son registros nuevos para el área de estudio y 2 de éstos, Faucheocolax attenuata Setchell y Minium parvum R.L. Moe, son nuevos para la flora marina del Pacífico de México. Se incluye una revisión de las investigaciones en las que se han considerado las macroalgas presentes en la bahía de Todos Santos y una discusión sobre la composición de las especies encontradas, su distribución vertical y reproducción, así como sobre las especies epífitas y parásitas del área.In order to identify and characterize the species composition of the subtidal zone of the Todos Santos Bay, Baja California, Mexico, benthic marine macroalgae were sampled at 7 sites from 1995 to 2000. As a result of 25 scuba at derds for the study area, of which Faucheocolax attenuata Setchell and R.L Moe Minium parvum are new to the marine flora of Pacific Mexico. We include a research that consider the macroalpths between 3 and 33 m we found a total of 150 species of macroalgae for the study area, of which 10 are Chlorophyta, 26 Phaeophyta and 114 Rhodophyta; 47 species represent new recogae in the Todos Santos Bay and a discussion on the composition of species found, its vertical distribution and reproduction, particularly the species epiphytes and parasites present in the study area.

  16. Methanolic Extracts from Brown Seaweeds Dictyota cilliolata and Dictyota menstrualis Induce Apoptosis in Human Cervical Adenocarcinoma HeLa Cells

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    Dayanne Lopes Gomes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the uterine cervix is the second most common female tumor worldwide, surpassed only by breast cancer. Natural products from seaweeds evidencing apoptotic activity have attracted a great deal of attention as new leads for alternative and complementary preventive or therapeutic anticancer agents. Here, methanol extracts from 13 species of tropical seaweeds (Rhodophytas, Phaeophyta and Chlorophyta collected from the Northeast of Brazil were assessed as apoptosis-inducing agents on human cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa. All extracts showed different levels of cytotoxicity against HeLa cells; the most potent were obtained from the brown alga Dictyota cilliolata (MEDC and Dictyota menstrualis (MEDM. In addition, MEDC and MEDM also inhibits SiHa (cervix carcinoma cell proliferation. Studies with these two extracts using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy showed that HeLa cells exposed to MEDM and MEDC exhibit morphological and biochemical changes that characterize apoptosis as shown by loss of cell viability, chromatin condensation, phosphatidylserine externalization, and sub-G1 cell cycle phase accumulation, also MEDC induces cell cycle arrest in cell cycle phase S. Moreover, the activation of caspases 3 and 9 by these extracts suggests a mitochondria-dependent apoptosis route. However, other routes cannot be ruled out. Together, these results point out the methanol extracts of the brown algae D. mentrualis and D. cilliolata as potential sources of molecules with antitumor activity.

  17. Seasonal variations in biomass and species composition of seaweeds along the northern coasts of Persian Gulf (Bushehr Province)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Dadolahi-Sohrab; M Garavand-Karimi; H Riahi; H Pashazanoosi

    2012-02-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the seasonal variations of seaweed biomass and species composition at six different sites along the coastal areas in Bushehr Province. Sampling depths varied among sites, from 0.3 to 2.0 m below mean sea level. A total of 37 (i.e., 10 Chlorophyta, 12 Phaeophyta and 15 Rhodophyta) seaweed species were collected. Studies were conducted for quantifying the seaweeds during four seasons from October 2008 until July 2009. During present research, Ulva intestinalis and Cladophora nitellopsis of green, Polycladia myrica, Sirophysalia trinodis and Sargassum angustifolium of brown and Gracilaria canaliculata and Hypnea cervicornis of red seaweeds showed highest biomass in coastal areas of Bushehr Province. The Cheney’s ratio of 2.1 indicated a temperate algal flora to this area. All sites exhibited more than 50% similarity of algal species, indicating a relatively homogenous algal distribution. Total biomass showed the highest value of 3280.7 ± 537.8 g dry wt m−2 during summer and lowest value of 856.9 ± 92.0 g dry wt m−2 during winter. During this study, the highest and lowest seaweed biomass were recorded on the site 2 (2473.7 ± 311.0 g dry wt m−2) and site 5 (856.7 ± 96.8 g dry wt m−2), respectively.

  18. Seasonal variation in biomass and species composition of seaweeds stranded along Port Okha, northwest coast of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mukund C Thakur; C R K Reddy; Bhavanath Jha

    2008-06-01

    Port Okha coast,which is known for its luxuriant growth of a diverse assemblage of seaweeds on Saurashtra coast,is found to have abundant quantities of seaweeds being drifted and washed ashore every year.Studies conducted for quantifying the stranded seaweeds from May 2004 to April 2005 showed an average biomass value of 3.10 kg fresh wt/m2/month with maximum being 6.60 kg fresh wt/m2 in April.The stranded weeds constituted a total of 62 species during the entire study period.Of this,Rhodophyta ranked high with 26 species followed by Chlorophyta with 22 species and Phaeophyta with 14 species.The stranded seaweeds that were washed ashore provide valuable floristic information about the intertidal and near shore sub-tidal algae of the respective regions.Although natural senescence of seaweeds is one of the major factors,strong currents primarily forced by tides,also contribute to the uprooting and subsequent drifting of seaweeds on to the beach.This ultimately causes changes in floristic features of the existing algal beds.

  19. Main nutritional contents of 30 Dalian coastal microalgae species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Xiurong; LIU Huihui; CHEIN Kwan Paul

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports results of study on the contents of proteins, amino acids, polysaccharose and uronic acids in 30 species of macroalgae from Shicao, Heishijiao, Shimiao, and Xiaofujiazhuang in the vicinity of Dalian City, N.E.China. The results showed that the protein contents of the 30 algae from highest (112.55μg/ml) to the lowest (0.24 μg/ml) was in the descending order of Dictyopteris ndalata, Gelidium vagum, Gymnogongrus japonican, Ectocarpus confervoides, Tinocladia crassa, Sargassum thunberii. In general, the protein content in red algae was higher than that in brown algae. The content of free amino acids showed no significent differences from 7.44 μg/ml-4.96 μg/ ml in all these algae, in the descending order of Gymnogongrus japonican, Sargassum confusum, Undoria pinnatifida, Laminaria japonica and Ectocarpus confervoides. The content of polysaccharose varied from 168.2 μg/ml-22.15 μg/ml in the descending order of Symphyocladia latiuscula, Scytosiphon lomentarius, Desmarestia viridis., Tinocladia crassa, Gracilaria asiatica and Porphyra yezoensis. The content of uronic acids is from 196.24 μg/ml-20.77 μg/ml in the descending order of Ulva lactuca, Symphyoclaldia latiuscula, Scytosiphon lomentarius, Ceramimum kondoi, Gracilaria vemucosa and Porphyra yezoensis. The fatty acids in 30 species of algae belong to Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta and Phaeophyta. Most phaeophytes have many (4-12) types of fatty acids.

  20. VARIACIÓN VERTICAL Y ESTACIONAL DE LA COMUNIDAD DE MACROALGAS EN LOS COSTADOS NOROCCIDENTAL Y NORORIENTAL DEL GOLFO DE URABÀ, CARIBE COLOMBIANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DELGADO M. JUAN CARLOS

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Durante la época seca en febrero y la época de lluvias en junio de 2004, fueron ubicados en el Golfo de Urabá seis estaciones con transectos paralelos a la línea de costa rocosa. Allí se removió la biomasa macroalgal de ocho cuadrantes de 1 m2 por cada estación de muestreo y distribuidos desde el supralitoral hasta tres metros de profundidad. Se estimó el porcentaje de cobertura de las microalgas; se determinó la riqueza numérica de especies y las biomasas húmeda y seca; y se midieron algunas variables fisicoquímicas. Se encontró un total de 30 taxones de macroalgas de las cuales 20 pertenecen a la división Rhodophyta. cinco Phaeophyta y cinco Chorophyta. Las especies más frecuentes y con mayor biomasa para la costa noroccidental, fueron Sargassum polyceratíum. Laurencia obtusa y L papulosa y para el costado nororiental, Grateloupia fílicina y Chladophora vagabunda. Se concluyó que existieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las comunidades algales de ambos costados y que las diferencias en el gradiente vertical y de la salinidad del agua, condujeron a diferencias en las comunidades establecidas sobre el litoral rocoso de ambos costados.

  1. Boron uptake, localization, and speciation in marine brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric P; Wu, Youxian; Carrano, Carl J

    2016-02-01

    In contrast to the generally boron-poor terrestrial environment, the concentration of boron in the marine environment is relatively high (0.4 mM) and while there has been extensive interest in its use as a surrogate of pH in paleoclimate studies in the context of climate change-related questions, the relatively depth independent, and the generally non-nutrient-like concentration profile of this element have led to boron being neglected as a potentially biologically relevant element in the ocean. Among the marine plant-like organisms the brown algae (Phaeophyta) are one of only five lineages of photosynthetic eukaryotes to have evolved complex multicellularity. Many of unusual and often unique features of brown algae are attributable to this singular evolutionary history. These adaptations are a reflection of the marine coastal environment which brown algae dominate in terms of biomass. Consequently, brown algae are of fundamental importance to oceanic ecology, geochemistry, and coastal industry. Our results indicate that boron is taken up by a facilitated diffusion mechanism against a considerable concentration gradient. Furthermore, in both Ectocarpus and Macrocystis some boron is most likely bound to cell wall constituent alginate and the photoassimilate mannitol located in sieve cells. Herein, we describe boron uptake, speciation, localization and possible biological function in two species of brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera and Ectocarpus siliculosus. PMID:26679972

  2. Larvicidal Activity against Aedes aegypti and Molluscicidal Activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of Brazilian Marine Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Elíca Amara Cecília; de Carvalho, Cenira M.; Ribeiro Junior, Karlos Antonio Lisboa; Lisboa Ribeiro, Thyago Fernando; de Barros, Lurdiana Dayse; de Lima, Maria Raquel Ferreira; Prado Moura, Flávia de Barros; Goulart Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzebio

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the biological activities of five benthic marine algae collected from Northeastern Region of Brazil. The tested activities included larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, and toxicity against Artemia salina. Extracts of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta), Padina gymnospora, Sargassum vulgare (Phaeophyta), Hypnea musciformis, and Digenea simplex (Rhodophyta) were prepared using different solvents of increasing polarity, including dichloromethane, methanol, ethanol, and water. Of the extracts screened, the dichloromethane extracts of H. musciformis and P. gymnospora exhibited the highest activities and were subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation in hexane and chloroform. The chloroform fractions of the P. gymnospora and H. musciformis extracts showed molluscicidal activity at values below 40 μg·mL−1 (11.1460 μg·mL−1 and 25.8689 μg·mL−1, resp.), and the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora showed larvicidal activity at values below 40 μg·mL−1 (29.018 μg·mL−1 and 17.230 μg·mL−1, resp.). The crude extracts were not toxic to A. salina, whereas the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora (788.277 μg·mL−1 and 706.990 μg·mL−1) showed moderate toxicity, indicating that the toxic compounds present in these algae are nonpolar. PMID:24688787

  3. [Distribution of macroalgal community and environmental effects in Yangma Island, Yantai, Shandon Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qiu-ying; Yin, Xiang-bo; Liu, Dong-yan

    2014-12-01

    Distribution of macroalgal community was investigated monthly in the intertidal zone of Yangma Island, Yantai, Shandong Province, China during April 2010 to March 2011. Macroalgae sampling was conducted at two sites (A and B) along Yangma Island coastline. The relationships between macroalgae species composition and biomass and environment variables were studied. In total, 35 macroalgae species were identified, including 24 Rhodophyta (68.6% of the total number), 6 Chlorophyta (17.1% of the total number) and 5 Phaeophyta (14.3% of the total number). Brown algae and green algae dominated in summer, and red algae and brown algae dominated in other seasons. Sargassum thunbergii was the dominant species all the year. The biomass of macroalgae was higher in summer and lower in winter. The highest biomass of macroalgae was observed in June. The lowest biomass of macroalgae was observed in January at A sampling site and in November at B sampling site with the characters of macroalgae in the temperate seas. Seawater temperature, nutrients and pH could have significant effects on the variations of macroalgae biomass in the Yangma Island intertidal zone. PMID:25876420

  4. Studies on {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U levels in marine algae collected from the coast of Niigata Prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Kenji; Tonouchi, Shigemasa; Maruta, Fumiyuki; Ebata, Hidekazu [Niigata Prefectural Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Sciences (Japan)

    2001-12-01

    To evaluate the properties of algae to concentrate radioactive elements, 14 species of algae like Sargassum were collected in the Prefecture and analyzed for their {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U levels with Yokogawa HP4500 ICP-MS apparatus. The places of collection included those near the water discharge of an atomic power station. Mean {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U levels were found to be 120 and 260 ng/g dry wt, respectively, and Phaeophyta showed more than several times higher {sup 238}U level than Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta. There was no clear difference in {sup 232}Th levels. No difference between places of collection was observed in Sargassum {sup 232}Th or {sup 238}U level. Adsorption of {sup 232}Th particle to and incorporation of soluble {sup 238}U into algae body were suggested. Mean {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U radioactivities were found 73 and 510 {mu}Bq/g wet wt, respectively, and the respective annual committed effective doses, 0.2 and 0.3 {mu}Sv, calculated from those values were confirmed to be enough lower than the annual public dose limit, 1 mSv. (K.H.)

  5. Comparative assessment of bacterial diversity associated with co-occurring eukaryotic hosts of Palk Bay origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viszwapriya, Dharmaprakash; Aravindraja, Chairmandurai; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2015-06-01

    Epibacterial communities of co-occurring eukaryotic hosts of Palk Bay origin (five seaweed species (Gracilaria sp, Padina sp, Enteromorpha sp, Sargassum sp, and Turbinaria sp) and one seagrass [Cymodaceae sp]) were analyzed for diversity and compared using 16S rRNA based Denaturant Gradient Gel Electrophoresis analysis. Diversity index revealed that Turbinaria sp hosts highest bacterial diversity while it was least in Gracilaria sp. The DGGE band profile showed that the epibacterial community differed considerably among the studied species. Statistical assessment using cluster analysis and Non-metric multidimensional scale analysis also authenticated the observed variability. Despite huge overlap, the composition of bacterial community structure differed significantly among the three closely related species namely Sargassum, Turbinaria and Padina. In addition, Enteromorpha and Sargassum, one being chlorophyta and the other phaeophyta showed about 80% similarity in bacterial composition. This differs from the general notion that epibacterial community composition will vary widely depending on the host phyla. The results extended the phenomenon of host specific epibacterial community irrespective of phylogeny and similarity in geographical location. PMID:26155683

  6. Screening of Dengue virus antiviral activity of marine seaweeds by an in situ enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cristine Koishi

    Full Text Available Dengue is a significant public health problem worldwide. Despite the important social and clinical impact, there is no vaccine or specific antiviral therapy for prevention and treatment of dengue virus (DENV infection. Considering the above, drug discovery research for dengue is of utmost importance; in addition natural marine products provide diverse and novel chemical structures with potent biological activities that must be evaluated. In this study we propose a target-free approach for dengue drug discovery based on a novel, rapid, and economic in situ enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the screening of a panel of marine seaweed extracts. The in situ ELISA was standardized and validated for Huh7.5 cell line infected with all four serotypes of DENV, among them clinical isolates and a laboratory strain. Statistical analysis showed an average S/B of 7.2 and Z-factor of 0.62, demonstrating assay consistency and reliability. A panel of fifteen seaweed extracts was then screened at the maximum non-toxic dose previously determined by the MTT and Neutral Red cytotoxic assays. Eight seaweed extracts were able to reduce DENV infection of at least one serotype tested. Four extracts (Phaeophyta: Canistrocarpus cervicornis, Padina gymnospora; Rhodophyta: Palisada perforate; Chlorophyta: Caulerpa racemosa were chosen for further evaluation, and time of addition studies point that they might act at an early stage of the viral infection cycle, such as binding or internalization.

  7. Taxonomic assessment of seaweed community from the coastal areas of Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafizbillah Zawawi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Basic taxonomic information forms the important basis for the documentation, resource management and utilization of marine biodiversity such as seaweeds. A taxonomic assessment of seaweeds in the coastal areas of Bintulu, Sarawak, East Malaysia, was conducted monthly from May 2011 to May 2012. Species composition was recorded following NaGISA protocols, direct observation, and SCUBA and snorkeling techniques. A total of 54 species were identified, classified into Rhodophyta (23 species, Chlorophyta (16 species and Phaeophyta (15 species. The highest abundance was recorded at Kuala Similajau (25 species while the lowest was recorded at Kuala Nyalau (12 species. As the present study was conducted by examining species collected from both rocky shores and the reef area for the first time, a higher number of species was documented compared to previous studies conducted in the same general area but focusing only on particular habitats. Thirty species found in the current survey represent new records for the locality including some with economic potentials.

  8. Macrophyta as a vector of contemporary and historical mercury from the marine environment to the trophic web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełdowska, Magdalena; Jędruch, Agnieszka; Słupkowska, Joanna; Saniewska, Dominka; Saniewski, Michał

    2015-04-01

    Macrophyta are the initial link introducing toxic mercury to the trophic chain. Research was carried out at 24 stations located within the Polish coastal zone of the Southern Baltic, in the years 2006-2012. Fifteen taxa were collected, belonging to four phyla: green algae (Chlorophyta), brown algae (Phaeophyta), red algae (Rhodophyta) and flowering vascular plants (Angiospermophyta), and total mercury concentrations were ascertained. The urbanisation of the coastal zone has influenced the rise in Hg concentrations in macroalgae, and the inflow of contaminants from the river drainage area has contributed to an increase in metal concentration in vascular plants. At the outlets of rivers possessing the largest drainage areas in the Baltic (the Vistula and the Oder), no increases in mercury concentration were observed in macrophyta. Increase in environmental quality and a prolonged vegetative season results in the growing coverage of algae on the seabed and in consequence leads to rapid introduction of contemporary mercury and Hg deposited to sediments over the past decades into the trophic chain. Thriving phytobenthos was found to affect faster integration of Hg into the trophic web. PMID:25563830

  9. 青岛太平角岩相潮间带大型海藻群落初步调查%Investigation on Community of Macroalgae in the Rocky Intertidal Zone of Taiping jiao in Qingdao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新鑫; 肖健雄; 高燕琦

    2016-01-01

    The rocky intertidal zone of Qingdao Taipingjiao (36°02′N ,120°21′E)were set and the com‐munities of marine macroalgae were investigated monthly from May 2010 to March 2011 .Results showed that :1 .A total of 36 species of 3 phylum were collected ,among which 19 species( belonging to 16 genera) were Rhodophyta ,10 species( belonging to 7 genera) were Phaeophyta and 7 species( belonging to 5 genera) were Chlorophyta .2 .In the rocky intertidal zone of Qingdao Taipingjiao ,spe‐cies of Rhodophyta played a dominant role in the composition of the marine macroalgae community , followed by Phaeophyta and then Chlorophyta .3 .The quantities and species of the macroalgae changed seasonally and a seasonal variation of Spring > Autumn = Winter > Summer was obtained .4 .The region's most common species are Ulva pertusa ,Sargassum thunbergii and Kappaphycus .5 .Entero‐morpha prolif ra ,the main algal of green tide in Qingdao is drifting from other sea area ,and it is more adapted to higher sea water temperatures than other algae species ,making it a short - time dominant species .%对青岛太平角(36°02′N ,120°21′E )岩相潮间带大型海藻群落进行了为期1年(2010年5月-2011年4月)逐月的定性调查研究。结果表明:1.采集到大型海藻3门36种,其中红藻门16属19种,占52.8%;褐藻门7属10种,占27.8%;绿藻门5属7种,占19.4%。2.青岛太平角潮间带大型海藻群落的种类组成中红藻种类最多,褐藻其次,绿藻最少。3.青岛太平角潮间带群落中大型海藻的种类组成和藻总量(株)有明显的季节变化:春季海藻的种类和数量都非常大,秋冬季节其次,夏季海藻种类和数量最少。4.孔石莼、鼠尾藻和珊瑚藻为青岛太平角岩相潮间带大型海藻群落的最常见种。5.青岛夏季绿潮藻种浒苔是由其他海域漂流而来,且较其他藻种更适应夏季较高水温,使其短时间内迅速生长。

  10. Seasonal changes of macroalgae community structure in intertidal zone of Shengsi Archipelago, East China%嵊泗列岛潮间带大型海藻群落结构的季节变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林清菁; 蒋霞敏; 徐镇; 唐锋; 王弢

    2012-01-01

    From August 2010 to August 2011, an investigation was conducted on the macroalgae in the intertidal zone of Shengsi Archipelago. A total of 114 macroalgae species belonging to 53 genera of 3 phyla were identified, among which, 75 species of 33 genera belonged to Rhodophy-ta, 21 species of 13 genera belonged to Phaeophyta, and 18 species of 7 genera belonged to Chlorophyta. Rhodophyta, Phaeophyta, and Chlorophyta accounted for 65. 8% , 18. 4% , and 15. 8% of the total, respectively. The macroalgae had the largest number (87 species) in Gouqi Island, followed by in Jinping Island (42 species) , and in Maguan Island (26 species). 79. 8% of the macroalgae were distributed in low intertidal zone, and 62. 3% distributed in middle intertidal zone. The similarity value of the algae composition between the low and middle intertidal zone, the middle and high intertidal zone, and the low and high intertidal zone was 0. 57 , 0. 15 , and 0. 06, respectively. The species number of macroalgae changed with season and in the order of summer (57 species) > winter (55 species) > spring (52 species) > autumn (46 species) . The dominant species also differed with season. The dominant species in spring were Undaria pinnatifida, Ulva pertusa, Ulva linza, and Pachymenia carnosa, those in summer were Sargas-sum vachellianum, Chondria crassicaulis, Sargassum thunbergii and Alga eucheumae, those in autumn were Gracilaria verrucosa, Gigartina intermedia swing, Sargassum thunbergii, and Ulva lactuca, and the dominant species in winter were Scytosiphon lomentarius, Porphra suborbiculate, Sargassum thunbergii, and Polysiphonia japonica.%于2010年8月-2011年8月对嵊泗列岛潮间带大型海藻进行调查.结果表明:共有大型海藻114种,隶属3门53属,其中红藻门33属75种,占总数的65.8%,褐藻门13属21种,占18.4%,绿藻门7属18种,占15.8%;枸杞最多(87种),金平其次(42种),马关最少(26种);79.8%海藻分布在低潮带,62.3%分布在中潮带,

  11. Check-list of the Basque coast benthic algae (North of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorostiaga, José M.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available An annotated check-list of the marine benthic flora of the Spanish Basque coast, based on literature records and original data, is presented. According to the present taxonomy, the known list of algae totals 372 taxa (354 species and 18 infraspecific taxa, distributed as follows: 23 Cyanophyta, 221 Rhodophyta, 74 Heterokontophyta and 54 Chlorophyta. In addition, 16 taxa are considered as taxa inquirenda and 8 as taxa excludenda. For each taxon the vertical distribution, abundance estimation, and two first published records are given. Remarks on the most noteworthy features of the flora of the study area are included. The floristic character of Spanish Basque coast flora was compared with nearby regions applying Cheney’s ratio [(Rhodophyta+ Chlorophyta/Phaeophyta, or (R+C/P]. The resulting high value (4,09 indicates its warm-water character, which was already noted at the end of the XIX century. From a physionomical point of view, Basque benthic vegetation resembles more closely that of southern regions (S Portugal, Morocco. The warming process of waters off the Basque coast during summer up to 22 ºC is responsible for the absence or very rare occurrence of cold temperate species like large fucoids and kelps, which are common in Galicia and Brittany, and explains the abundance of numerous warm-temperate species as ceramiaceous algae.Se presenta un catálogo de la flora bentónica marina de la costa vasco-española basado en citas bibliográficas y algunos datos originales. De acuerdo con la taxonomía actual, la lista de algas conocidas asciende a 372 táxones (354 especies y 18 táxones infraespecíficos, que se distribuyen como sigue: 23 Cyanophyta, 221 Rhodophyta, 74 Heterokontophyta y 54 Chlorophyta. Además, 16 táxones se consideran como taxa inquirenda y 8 como taxa excludenda. Para cada taxon se ofrece información sobre su distribución vertical, una estima de su abundancia y las dos primeras citas publicadas. Se incluyen

  12. Effect of seaweed supplementation on growth performance, immune and oxidative stress responses in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Cesar dos Santos Queiroz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds have important nutraceutical properties, including antioxidant and biological response-modifying qualities. Their dietary supplementation may increase the immune and antioxidant capacity of fish necessary to cope to stressful conditions and minimizing disease outbreaks. There are essentially four major groups of seaweed that can be classified by color, namely green (Chlorophyta, brown/yellow (Phaeophyta, red (Rhodophyta, and blue-green (Cyanophyta. Some green seaweed has active radical scavenging properties. Red and brown have bioactive compounds that play a vital role as antihypertensive and antioxidant. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of seaweed supplementation on growth performance, immune and oxidative stress responses in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata. Three seaweed species, each from one of the following groups, Rhodophyta (R, Phaeophyta (P and Chlorophyta (C, were supplemented to the experimental diets at 2.5% and 7.5% and tested against a control diet (Ctrl with no supplementation. In addition to six diets with seaweed in two different levels of supplementation: R2.5%, P2.5%, C2.5%, R7.5%, P7.5% and C7.5%; a diet with a mix (M, supplemented at 7.5% (2.5% of each algae was also tested. A total of 360 seabream fingerlings, 13.07 ± 0.13cm and 31.17 ± 0.63g were allocated in 24 rectangular tanks, 115L capacity each, with a 4L/min water output connected to a recirculation seawater system. Fish were fed twice a day until satiation and water quality (temperature: 20.5 ºC; D.O.: 8.13 mg/L; Ammonia: 0.5 mg/L Nitrite: 0.5 mg/L were daily monitored. At day 40 of the trial, an intermediate sampling was carried out. Standard zootechnical parameters were measured for the growth performance determination. In addition, blood, liver and intestine samples were collected for the evaluation of the immune (lysozyme and peroxidase and oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase

  13. Structural characterization and Biological Activity of Sulfolipids from selected Marine Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Baz, F. K.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The sulfolipid classes (SLs in the total lipids of five species of marine algae, two species of Rhodophyta (Laurencia popillose, Galaxoura cylindriea, one species of Chlorophyta (Ulva fasciata, and two species of Phaeophyta (Dilophys fasciola, Taonia atomaria were separated and purified on DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. The SLs component was identified by IR, gas chromatography MS/MS and liquid chromatography MS/MS. The level of SLs contents va ried from 1.25% (in L. papillose to 11.82% (in D. fasciola of the total lipid contents. However, no significant differences in sulfate content (0.13 – 0.21% were observed among all these algae species. All SLs were characterized by high contents of palmitic acid (C 16:0, which ranged from 30.91% in G. cylindriea to 63.11% in T. atomatia. The main constitutes of algal sulfolipids were identified as sulfoquinovosyl-di-acylglycerol and sulfoquinovosyl acylglycerol. The sulfolipids of different algal species exhibited remarkable antiviral activity against herps simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 with an IC50 ranging from 18.75 to 70. 2 μg mL–1. Moreover, algal sulfolipid inhibited the growth of the tumor cells of breast and liver human cancer cells with IC50 values ranging from 0.40 to 0.67 μg mL–1 for human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF7.Se separaron diferentes clases sulfolípidos (SL a partir de los lípidos totales de cinco especies de algas marinas: una especie de Chlorophyta (Ulva fasciata, dos especies de Phaeophyta (Dilophys fasciola, Taonia atomaria y dos especies de Rhodophyta (Laurencia popillose, Galaxoura cylindriea que se purificaron mediante cromatografía en columna de DEAE-celulosa. Los components de SLs fueron identificados por IR, cromatografía de gases MS/MS y cromatografía líquida MS/ MS. Los contenidos de SL en relación al total de lípidos varió de 1,25% (en L. papilosa al 11,82% (en D. fasciola. Sin embargo, no hay diferencias significativas en el contenido de sulfato

  14. Ecological and biochemical analyses of the brown algaTurbinaria ornata (Turner) J. Agardh from Red Sea coast, Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed Ali Deyab; Fatma Mohamed Elnabawy Ward

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study ecological parameters and biochemical composition of brown seaweed, Turbinaria ornata (T. ornata) collected from Hurghada shores, Red Sea coast of Egypt during September, October and November, 2015. Methods:T. ornata and its associated seaweeds were collected, identified and their abundances were estimated. Water of collection site was analyzed physicochemically as well as qualitative and quantitative analyses of phytoplankton.T. ornata was analyzed for protein, total carbohydrate, lipids, alginic acid, agar, pigments, minerals and heavy metals. Results:The results showed that macroalgal species recorded along Hurghada shoresbelong to Phaeophyta, Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta. At collection site, the moderate temperature, slight alkaline pH, low turbidity, high dissolved oxygen and valuable nutrient content of saline water exerted the massive growth ofT. ornata with maximum abundance (24%) during October. The phytoplankton community was quite diverse with a maximum numbers of taxa (104.2 ×108 cell/L) recorded during October. Analysis ofT. ornata alga powder showed that high soluble carbohydrate (2.80 ± 0.10 mg/g dry/weight) and chlorophyll c (0.001 7 ± 0.000 1 mg/g fresh weight) contents were recorded during September; while high contents of protein (37.70 ± 0.60 mg/g dry weight), lipids (3.10 ± 0.06 mg/g dry weight), polysaccharides (agar and alginates), carotenoids (0.016 0 ± 0.000 4 mg/g fresh weight), minerals and heavy metals were recorded during November. Conclusions:The study revealed that physicochemical analyses of water were varied slightly during the three months and suitable for the growth ofT. ornata. It contains high amount of most biochemical constituents during October.

  15. Cultivation and conversion of marine macroalgae. [Gracilaria and Ulva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J.H.; DeBusk, T.A.; Blakeslee, M.

    1984-05-01

    Research was conducted on the development of an alternative ocean energy farm concept that would not be dependent upon deep ocean water or other extraneous sources for its nutrient supply and that could be located in shallow, near shore, and protected coastal ocean areas. There are five tasks reported in this document: determination of the annual yield of Ulva in non-intensive cultures; evaluation of the effect of carbon concentration on Gracilaria and Ulva yields; evaluation of spray/mist culture of Ulva and Gracilaria; species screening for the production of petroleum replacement products; and synthesis analysis, and economic energy evaluation of culture data. An alternative concept to open ocean culture is a land-based energy production system utilizing saline waters from underground aquifers or enclosed coastal areas. Research was performed to evaluate growth and biomass production of all macroscopic algal species that could be obtained in adequate quantity in the central Florida area. A total of 42 species were grown in specially adapted burial vaults. These included 16 green algae (Garcilaria 4 weekshlorophyta), 2 brown algae (Phaeophyta), and 18 red algae (Rhodophyta). Of these, the most successful and suitable species were a strain of Gracilaria (a red seaweed) and Ulva (a green seaweed). These two species have a high carbohydrate content that may be anaerobically digested to methane gas. Well-nourished Gracilaria will double its biomass in 1 to 4 weeks, depending on the season, water flow, and other variables. After its biomass has doubled (i.e., from 2 to 4 kg/m/sup 2/) the incremental growth is harvested to return the crop to a starting density. Enrichment of the new starting crop following harvest could conceivably be accomplished onsite at the seaweed farm, but the rapid uptake and storage of nutrients by depleted seaweeds makes possible a simpler process, known as pulse fertilization.

  16. The response of nutrient assimilation and biochemical composition of Arctic seaweeds to a nutrient input in summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo, Francisco J L; Aguilera, José; Jiménez, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-one species of macroalgae (four Chlorophyta, eight Rhodophyta, and nine Phaeophyta) from the Kongsfjord (Norwegian Arctic) were examined for their response to nutrient enrichment (nitrate and phosphate) in the summer period. The enzymatic activities related to nutrient assimilation, external carbonic anhydrase (CAext, EC 4.2.1.1), nitrate reductase (NR, EC 1.6.6.1), and alkaline phosphatase (AP, EC 3.1.3.1), as well as the biochemical composition (total C and N, soluble carbohydrates, soluble proteins, and pigments) were measured. CAext activity was present in all species, and showed a general decrease after nutrient enrichment. Inversely, NR activity increased in most of the species examined. Changes in pigment ratios pointed to the implication of light harvesting system in the acclimation strategy. Despite enzymatic and pigmentary response, the Arctic seaweeds can be regarded as not being N-limited even in summer, as shown by the slight effect of nutrient enrichment on biochemical composition. The exception being the nitrophilic species Monostroma arcticum and, to a lesser extent, Acrosiphonia sp. For the rest of the species studied, changes in total internal C and N, soluble proteins, soluble carbohydrates, pigment content, and the internal pool of inorganic N were recorded only for particular species and no general pattern was shown. Acclimation to unexpected nutrient input seemed to ensure the maintenance of a stable biomass composition, rather than an optimized use of the newly available resource (except for the nitrophilic species). This indicates a high degree of resilience of the algal community to a disruption in the natural nutrient availability pattern. PMID:16829547

  17. Polyplacophora (Mollusca from reef ecosystems and associations with macroalgae on the Coast of Alagoas, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Dorigo Correia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Brazilian marine molluscs, especially Gastropoda and Bivalvia, are relatively well studied. However, information on the class Polyplacophora is more scarce, particularly on reef-dwelling forms. This study aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze aspects of polyplacophorans from reef ecosystems and their associations with macroalgae on the coast of Maceió (state of Alagoas, Brazilian Northeast. The study area included five coral reefs at Ipioca, Ponta do Prego, Ponta do Meirim, Riacho Doce and Ponta Verde, as well as two sandstone reefs, located in Guaxuma and Sereia. The samples were obtained by snorkelling along the intertidal and subtidal reef zones to a depth of up to five meters during low tides, between 2009 and 2011. In addition, the chitons associated with three macroalgae of the Ponta Verde coral reef were studied based on collections made over 12 years (from the summer of 1998 to the winter of 2009. Three replicates with an area of 25 cm2 were collected from each of the following species of macroalgal phytals: Amphiroa fragilissima (Rhodophyta, Caulerpa racemosa (Chlorophyta and Dictyota cervicornis (Phaeophyta. A total of 715 individuals (110 juveniles and 605 adults were identified, including Acanthochitona terezae Guerra, 1983, Ischnochiton striolatus (Gray, 1828 and Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby II, 1840. Acanthochitona terezae was found for the first time in the area. Ischnochiton striolatus was the most abundant species in the reef ecosystem and in association with macroalgae. The greatest number of individuals of all three polyplacophorans identified (adults and juveniles was found on the phytal A. fragilissima.

  18. Natural radioactivity in some specimens of the marine biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine environment contamination by natural radionuclides (uranium and 238U daughters) is evaluated using marine -fauna and flora elements concentrating fission - and radioactivated products released by nuclear facilities. Total alpha and beta radiometry is done in the the biota to determine the radionuclide concentration. Uranium, 226Ra and 210PO assay is done to estimate their contribution to natural radioactivity in the chosen biological indicators. Several analytical techniques required by each radionuclide are used. Potassium assay is done to evaluate the contribution of 40K to the natural radioactivity, and calcium assay to determine Ra/Ca and U/Ca ratios in the samples. For total alpha radiometry in algae the higher average value is detected in Phaeophyta (84.1 pCi/kg fresh weight); maximum concentration in animals is registered in Bunodosoma caissarum (43.1 pCi/kg fresh weight). For algae, the higher average total beta radiometry detected is in Chlorophyta (6.9 nCi/kg fresh weight); the maximum value found in animals refers to Thais Haemastoma (7.54 nCi/kg fresh weight). Potassium higher average ratio for algae occurs in Chlorophyta (12.77% ashes); for animals, the maximum value is found in Bunodosoma caissarum (13.80% ashes). The uranium concentration factor is maximum in Perna perna bissus (684) while the minimum is registered in Thais haemastoma and Sargassum vulgare (44). The 226Ra concentration factor is maximum in Sargassum vulgare (2143) and minimum in Bunodosoma caissarum (32). Maximum average ratio for 210PO in algae occurs in Phaephyta (11.5 pCi/g dry weight) and the maximum concentration for animals in Perna perna (31.5 pCi/g dry weight). The techniques employed proved to be efficient for the objectives aimed at. (Author)

  19. Ecological and biochemical analyses of the brown alga Turbinaria ornata (Turner J. Agardh from Red Sea coast, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali Deyab

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study ecological parameters and biochemical composition of brown seaweed, Turbinaria ornata (T. ornata collected from Hurghada shores, Red Sea coast of Egypt during September, October and November, 2015. Methods: T. ornata and its associated seaweeds were collected, identified and their abundances were estimated. Water of collection site was analyzed physicochemically as well as qualitative and quantitative analyses of phytoplankton. T. ornata was analyzed for protein, total carbohydrate, lipids, alginic acid, agar, pigments, minerals and heavy metals. Results: The results showed that macroalgal species recorded along Hurghada shores belong to Phaeophyta, Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta. At collection site, the moderate temperature, slight alkaline pH, low turbidity, high dissolved oxygen and valuable nutrient content of saline water exerted the massive growth of T. ornata with maximum abundance (24% during October. The phytoplankton community was quite diverse with a maximum numbers of taxa (104.2 × 108 cell/L recorded during October. Analysis of T. ornata alga powder showed that high soluble carbohydrate (2.80 ± 0.10 mg/g dry/weight and chlorophyll c (0.001 7 ± 0.000 1 mg/g fresh weight contents were recorded during September; while high contents of protein (37.70 ± 0.60 mg/g dry weight, lipids (3.10 ± 0.06 mg/g dry weight, polysaccharides (agar and alginates, carotenoids (0.016 0 ± 0.000 4 mg/g fresh weight, minerals and heavy metals were recorded during November. Conclusions: The study revealed that physicochemical analyses of water were varied slightly during the three months and suitable for the growth of T. ornata. It contains high amount of most biochemical constituents during October.

  20. Comparative Mechanisms of Photosynthetic Carbon Acquisitionin Hizikiafusiforme Under Submersed and Emersed Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOUDing-Hui; GAOKun-Shan

    2004-01-01

    The economic seaweed Hizikia fusiforme (Harv.) Okamura (Sargassaceae, Phaeophyta) usually experiences periodical exposures to air at low tide. Photosynthetic carbon acquisition mechanisms were comparatively studied under submersed and emersed conditions in order to establish a general understanding of its photosynthetic characteristics associated with tidal cycles. When submersed in seawater, H.fusiforme was capable of acquiring HCO3- as a source of inorganic carbon (Ci) to drive photosynthesis, while emersed and exposed to air, it used atmospheric 002 for photosynthesis. The pH changes surroundingthe H.fusiforme fronds had less influence on the photosynthetic rates under emersed condition than under submersed condition. When the pH was as high as 10.0, emersed H.fusiforme could photosynthesize efficiently, but the submersed alga exhibited very poor photosynthesis. Extracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA) played an important role in the photosynthetic acquisitions of exogenous Ci in water as well as in air. Both the concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon in general seawater and CO2 in air were demonstrated to limit the photosynthesis of H.fusiforme, which was sensitive to O2. It appeared that the exogenous carbon acquisition system, being dependent of external CA activity, operates in a way not enough to raise intracellular CO2 level to prevent photorespiration. The inability of H.fusiforme to achieve its maximum photosynthetic rate at the current ambient Ci levels under both submersed and emersed conditions suggested that the yield of aquaculture for this economic species would respond profitably to future increases in CO2 concentration in the sea and air.

  1. 黄渤海夏季微藻调查%Investigation of the microalgae inhabiting the summer seawater of Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鹿琳; 杨官品; 朱葆华; 潘克厚

    2015-01-01

    catching, streak plating and serial diluting, alone or in combination. Molecular systematic analysis identified the isolated as 19 species including 9 bacillariophytas, 3 phaeophytas, 3 heterokontaes, 2 chlorophytas, 1 dinophytas and 1 haptophyte. The isolated species were mainly small in size, of them 9 in chlorophyta, phaeophyta, heterokonatae and haptophyte were in pico-size, and 10 in bacillariophyta and dinophyta were in nano-size. Among all isolated strains, those in genera Navicula, Phaeodactylum, Skeletonema, Pavlova and Nannochloropsis were expected to be important for EPA production due to their high EPA content; 7 chlorophytas may serve as the candidates for biodiesel production;and 8 Bicosoecales in heterokontae promised for high biomass production therough fermentation and further environ-mental pollution bioremediation. In spite of the abundance of microalgae in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea, almost all spe-cies we fixed and identified by morphology were difficult to cultivate. Pseudo-nitzschia sp. and Navicula sp. (in nano-size) were the only two species observed in fixed seawater and survived laboratory culture. Although the algae in micro-size, Coscinodiscus sp., Ceratium fusus and Noctiluca scintillans, accounted for a large portion in fixed samples, they were unable to survive laboratory culture. Technical means need further optimization in order to get as many culti-vable microalgae as possible. We found that distribution of cultivable microalgae is wide in seawaters. Bacillariophytas spread the whole area, and centralized in Laizhou Bay; while the harmful Prorocentrum minimum was collected from Yellow River Estuary where was nutriments rich thus facing the risk of red tide. Chlorophytas and haptophyte were mainly collected from north Yellow Sea, a few chlorophytas also collected around Port of Tongxhan. Most phaeophytas were collected from the coasts of Shandong Peninsula and Liaodong Peninsula. Most heterokontaes were collected from north Yellow Sea. In

  2. Advances and problems with the study of marine macroalgae of China seas%中国大型海藻的研究现状及其存在的问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁兰平; 黄冰心; 谢艳齐

    2011-01-01

    Herein, we introduce, summarize, and analyze the taxonomy, species composition, distributional characteristics, major research results, and current status of Chinese marine macroalgae with updated references. The China sea flora can be divided into four sub-floras, viz. The western region of the Yellow Sea, the western region of the East China Sea, and the northern and southern regions of the South China Sea. More than 1,277 species of marine macroalgae were recorded along the China seas coast, including 161 in Cyanophyta, 607 in Rhodophyta, 298 in Phaeophyta and 211 in Chlorophyta, respectively. We briefly introduce the overall distribution, vertical distribution and spatial-temporal changes of marine algae located within the littoral area. We analyze some problems which limit the study of Chinese marine macroalgae, including difficulties in sampling and habitat deterioration. Moreover, classic taxonomy has not been attached enough importance and has not been updated with molecular techniques, and lack of talents.%结合最新的研究结果,本文对中国大型海藻区系划分、区系的种类组成、分布特征、研究成果、现状和存在的问题等进行了介绍、总结和分析.目前,中国海藻区系可划分为4个小区,即黄海西区、东海西区、南海北区和南海南区.大型海藻物种数达到1,277种,其中蓝藻门6目21科57属161种(及变种)、红藻门15目40科 169属607种(及变种)、褐藻门11目24科62属298种(及变种),绿藻门11目21科-48属211种(及变种).简要地介绍了它们的区系分布、垂直分布、时空变化等方面的分布特征.文中还对我国大型海藻的研究现状及存在的问题进行了简短分析,以期有益于我国大型海藻多样性研究的发展.

  3. Antifouling activity of seaweed extracts from Guarujá, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Elias Medeiros

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine biofouling historically constitutes one of the major constraints faced by mankind in its oceanic activities. The search for alternatives to TBT-based antifouling paints has led several researchers to focus efforts in the development of environmentally friendly natural compounds. This work has contributed with this search, testing the antifouling potential of crude organic extracts from four seaweed species collected at Praia Branca, Guarujá district, São Paulo, Brazil. Throughout laboratory antifouling assays in which the attachment of a common fouling organism, the brown mussel Perna perna, was employed, antifouling activity (p A incrustação biológica constitui, historicamente, um dos maiores problemas encontrados pelo homem em suas atividades no mar. A busca por alternativas a tintas antiincrustantes contendo tributilestanho (TBT tem levado diversos pesquisadores a concentrar esforços no desenvolvimento de substâncias naturais menos danosas à biota marinha. Este trabalho procurou contribuir com essa busca, testando o potencial antiincrustante de quatro diferentes espécies de macroalgas da Praia Branca, município de Guarujá, SP. Através de testes antiincrustantes em laboratório utilizando a fixação de um organismo incrustante comum, o mexilhão Perna perna, foi constatado que os extratos de Jania rubens (Rhodophyta, Cryptonemiales e Bryothamnion seaforthii (Rhodophyta, Ceramiales, à concentração natural, apresentaram atividade antiincrustante significativa (p < 0,05, enquanto Dictyopteris delicatula (Phaeophyta, Dictyotales e Heterosiphonia gibbesii (Rhodophyta, Ceramiales não demonstraram eficiência na inibição da fixação de bissos do molusco. Das algas que indicaram potencial atividade contra a incrustação, J. rubens apresentou melhor desempenho em relação a B. seaforthii. Futuras investigações em campo serão necessárias para a obtenção de resultados que possam refletir melhor as condições naturais

  4. 洞头列岛大型底栖海藻的组成与区系分布%Floral analysis and species diversity survey of benthic macroalgae in Dongtou-archipelago

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王铁杆; 胡仁勇; 张鹏; 张永普; 张华伟; 孙庆海

    2012-01-01

    2007年10月至2009年6月对洞头列岛沿岸、羊栖菜养殖筏架和深水网箱网衣上的大型海藻进行了调查。结果表明,洞头列岛共有大型底栖海藻92种,隶属于51属,其中蓝藻门4属4种,红藻门30属50种,褐藻门10属17种,绿藻门7属21种。区系以暖温带性和亚热带性海藻为主,分别占总种数的64.13%和26.09%。受基质类型和海水混浊度的影响,洞头列岛海藻种类的水平分布和垂直分布均存在较大的差异。同时对羊栖菜栽培筏架上附着的大型海藻的调查结果进行比较分析,发现光照条件是影响海藻生长繁衍的重要生态因子,充足的光照能够弥补环境因子中的诸多欠缺,是海藻调查中应重点考虑的因素之一。%In the paper,51 genera 92 species of benthic macroalgae are recorded based on the investigation of Dongtou-archipelago,including 4 genera 4 species of Cyanophyta,30 genera 50 species of Rhodophyta,10 genera 17 species of Phaeophyta and 7 genera 21 species of Chlorophyta.Floristic characteristics of main constructive species of macroalgae: the warm-temperate and subtropical species are dominant species which accounted for 64.13% and 26.09% of total species respectively.The characteristics of algae flora show that Dongtou-archipelago is a typical transitional area of warm-temperate to subtropical.For the substrate and turbidity,the differences between the horizontal and vertical distribution of the macroalgae are great.Furthermore,Comparing macroalgae attached on Sargassum fusiform culture rafts and normal condition,it shows that: light plays an important part in macroalgae growth and multiplication.More attention should be paid to light factor in the future floristic investigation of macroalgae.

  5. Analysis on Biodiversity Characteristics in the Wetlands of Nansi Lake%南四湖湿地生物多样性特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立华; 于海武

    2013-01-01

    The biodiversity standards of species level in Nansi lake was relatively high,there were phytoplankton,zooplanktons,bottom aquatic wildlife,aquatic vascular plants,fresh water fish and water birds.Green alga,phaeophyta,and chrysophyceae were dominant species in the phytoplankton.The dominant zooplanktons were eurythermal and ubiquitous species.Mollush was the main benthic animal.The vascular plants were mainly consisted of seed plants of cosmopolitan and temperate types.Most of the fish and birds were palaearctic.The biodiversity protection of the wetlands of Nansi lake was faced with landscape fragmentation and water pollution,water shortage,production order chaos,and lack of protective measures.Therefore,countermeasures such as wetland ecological engineering construction,reducing the pollution of water,controlling soil erosion and a round-way improvement in the nature reserve construction should be taken to strengthen the biodiversity protection of the wetlands of Nansi lake.%南四湖湿地物种层次的生物多样性水平较高,该湿地中的浮游植物以绿藻、褐藻和金藻为主,浮游动物多是广温普生性种类,底栖动物以软体动物为主,水生维管束植物以世界分布属和温带分布属的种子植物为主,鱼类、水禽以古北界和广布种为主.南四湖湿地生物多样性保护面临着景观破碎化和水污染加重、水量不足、生产秩序混乱、保护措施不力等问题,应采取加强湿地生态工程建设、减轻水污染、治理水土流失、搞好自然保护区建设等措施加强对南四湖湿地生物多样性的保护.

  6. EVALUATION OF GLYCOLIPIDS OF SOME EGYPTIAN MARINE ALGAE AS A SOURCE OF BIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Baroty Gamal S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Glycolipids in five species of marine algae: two species of Rhodophyta (Laurencia popillose, Galaxoura cylindriea; and one species of Chlorophyta (Ulva fasciata, and two species of Phaeophyta (Dilophys fasciola, Taonia atomaria collected from Red and Mediterranean sea, respectively were extracted, purified on silica gel column chromatography and identified by liquid chromatography MS/MS. Total glycolipid contents (GL (as % of total lipid were found to be in ranges 10.9 to 28.7%. T. atomaria had the highest level (28.7% followed by L. popillose (22.5 %. GL groups were analyzed for their sugars and fatty acids composition, and the result showed that the highest carbohydrate content of GLs were found in U. fasciata (6.05% and L. popillose (5.8%, and characterized by high content of monosaccharide: mannouronic acid, galactose and rhamnose. Amongst of the glycolipids of algal species, the most predominate fatty acid identified by GC were palmatic (C16:0 19.20 - 65.89% of total fatty acid, ecosatrienoic (C20:3 7.52 - 54.41%. GL analyzed by LC/MS/MS, revealed the peak at m/z 956 corresponding to the molecular formula of C51H104O17 was the most abundant molecular ion among all GLs of algal species and its fragments peaks at m/z 617(C37H58O4 and m/z 337 (C21H58O3, were tentatively identified as digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG. The in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities of algal glycolipids were evaluated. GL of all algae species showed a remarkable antiviral activity in dose dependent manner. GL from D. fasciola has shown the most potent effect against HSV1 (IC50 of 10 µg/ml, comparable to that of the current antiviral drug acyclovir (IC50 55 µg/ml. On the other hand, GL of all algal species possessed a moderate antimicrobial activity. GL of T. atomaria exhibited a high inhibition effects against all test microorganisms, with MIC value ranged from 60 to 80 µg/ml. Moreover, all algal GL exhibited remarkable anticancer activities

  7. Levantamento florístico das macroalgas da baía de Sepetiba e adjacências, RJ: ponto de partida para o Programa GloBallast no Brasil Floristic survey of the macroalgae from Sepetiba bay and surrounding area, Rio de Janeiro State: starting point for the GloBallast Programme in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Menezes de Széchy

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O Porto de Sepetiba, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, foi escolhido, no Brasil, como área-piloto do projeto "Remoção de barreiras para a implementação efetiva do controle de água de lastro e medidas de gestão em países em desenvolvimento" (Programa GloBallast. Para possibilitar comparações, os seis países participantes do Programa GloBallast foram orientados a adotar a mesma metodologia para o levantamento preliminar da biota das áreas-pilotos valorizando a identificação em nível de espécie. O presente estudo teve como objetivo aplicar metodologia estabelecida pelo Centro para Pesquisa sobre Espécies Marinhas Introduzidas, da Austrália (Procedimento CRIMP, com algumas adaptações, no levantamento florístico das macroalgas de substratos consolidados naturais da área-piloto do Porto de Sepetiba. Coletas de macroalgas foram realizadas em novembro/2001, em nove locais da baía de Sepetiba e adjacências, desde a franja da região sublitorânea até cerca de -4 m de profundidade. Em cada local, seis quadrados de 0,1 m² de área foram raspados. O material foi depositado no Herbário do Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro (RB. Das 96 espécies identificadas (20 Chlorophyta, 16 Phaeophyta, 60 Rhodophyta, 12 não haviam sido citadas anteriormente para a área de estudo. Cladophora pellucidoidea C. Hoek, Coelothrix irregularis (Harv. Boergesen e Acrochaetium savianum (Menegh. Nägeli são ocorrências novas para o Estado. Não há indícios de que as novas ocorrências equivalem a espécies recentemente introduzidas por meio das atividades portuárias. O procedimento metodológico adotado mostrou-se eficiente, resultando em listagem de espécies comparável às de levantamentos florísticos com maior esforço amostral e complementando os dados pretéritos existentes para a baía de Sepetiba e adjacências. No entanto, ressalta-se a importância de uma reavaliação das escalas temporal e espacial da estratégia de

  8. Karyological observation on Saccharina japonica chromosomes stained with DAPI%海带染色体的DAPI染色及核型初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇; 毕燕会; 周志刚

    2012-01-01

    Saccharina japonica( Aresch. )C. E. Lane,C. Mayes et G. W. Saunders( = Laminaria japonica Aresch. ) (Phaeophyta) is an important economic seaweed in China. There is a distinct outcome about the chromosome number in this kelp due to the tiny size of these chromosomes. The karyotypes and chromosomes of S. Japonica were observed after a series of treatments including pretreatment with 0. 2% colchicines for about 10 h, Carnoy' s fixative, and mixture of enzymes prior to dropping from 30 cm height overhead glass slides for spreading the surface coat. The prepared chromosomes were stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole ( DAPI), a fluorescent probe sensitive and specific to DNA. The chromosome numbers of the haploid male and female gametophytes were 31 respectively,and there were 62 in diploid sporophytes. Most of the chromosomes were either droplet or short bacilliform. In the meantime, the female gametophyte chromosomes were between 0. 78 μm and 2. 61 μm in size, larger than the males that were between 0.57 |xm and 2.17 μm. Based upon the relative size of chromosome, the karyotypes of the female or male gametophyte chromosomes were primarily analyzed. All the results laid a solid foundation for a basic technique for localization of molecular markers on kelp chromosomes.%鉴于海带染色体比较小且数目存在分歧等原因,利用0.2%秋水仙素对海带配子体及孢子体处理10 h左右,经过卡诺试剂固定、多种酶组合处理及30 cm的高位滴片,可以获得质量比较高的海带染色体;使用灵敏度高、特异性强的DNA荧光染料DAPI进行染色,结果显示,海带雌、雄配子体的染色体各为31条,孢子体染色体为62条,大多为短杆状或者点状;雌配子体染色体的大小为0.78~2.61 μm,稍大于雄配子体(大小为0.57~2.17 μm).根据染色体的大小,对海带配子体的染色体核型进行了初步分析.这些结果为分子标记的染色体定位等细胞学研究奠定了技术基础.

  9. 生态因子对萱藻(Scytosiphon lomentaria)孢子体生长发育的影响%EFFECT OF ECOLOGICAL FACTORS ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF SPOROPHYTES OF SCYTOSIPHON LOMENTARIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢永泽; 宫相忠; 高伟; 尹宝树

    2011-01-01

    采用实验生态学方法,研究了温度、光照、营养盐(N、P)对萱藻孢子体生长发育的影响.结果表明,在5-23℃范围内,温度越高,越有利于萱藻孢子体的生长.9-17℃是比较利于孢子囊产生的温度范围,其中13 ℃,L:D=10:14,20μmol/(m·s)条件下最有利于孢子囊的形成与孢子的放散.光强6-30μmol/(m·s)利于孢子囊的形成.短日照条件下(≤12h)利于孢子囊的产生,长日照条件(>12h)尽管温度适宜,但仅利于孢子体的营养生长.萱藻丝状体生长的最适N、P元素浓度分别为40mg/L、8mg/L.%Scytosiphon lomentaria (Lyngbye) Link attach to phaeophyta, which distributes along the coastal areas from the Liaodong Peninsula to the Hailing island of Guangdong province, with a life cycle of alternation of heteromorphic generations.The erect thallus, also called gametophyte, is macro generation and sporophyte is its micro generation of life history including filaments, crustose or cushion-like thalli.The culture techniques and development of S.lomentaria depend on the well studies of its growth and development properties.This paper focused on the growth and development of sporophytes at different temperatures, light and nutrient conditions.Zygotes germinated at 5-28℃, 10-30μmol/(m2·s),and light periods less than 14h.The suitable temperatures for the growth of sporophytes were 5-23℃ and the optimum temperatures were 20-23℃.The suitable temperatures for the formation of sporangia were 9-17℃ and the optimum condition was 13℃, L: D 10: 14, 20μmol/(m2·s).Temperature over 30℃ inhibited the germination and growth of zygotes (about 80% of them died after one week).At higher temperature (≥26℃), crustose or cushion-like thalli were the main form while filaments and cushion-like thalli were the main forms of sporophytes at lower temperature (<26℃).Increase of light intensity promoted the growth of sporophytes.The suitable light intensities for the formation of

  10. 海洋生物 DNA 条形码研究现状与展望%Current status and future prospect of DNA barcoding in marine biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林森杰; 王路; 郑连明; 董云伟; 柳淑芳; 丁少雄; 叶乃好; 曹文清; 庄志猛

    2014-01-01

    海洋生物种类多样,分布广泛,具有复杂性、多样性和趋同性等特点,为了对物种进行更快速、准确地鉴定,急需在传统形态分类学基础上,建立并结合便捷准确的分子鉴定手段。DNA 条形码提供了可信息化的分类标准和有效的分类学手段,已成为近年来分类学与生物多样性研究中重要的技术依托。本文概述了 DNA 条形码当前的发展现状与趋势,并介绍了 DNA 条形码技术在主要海洋浮游植物(红藻、褐藻、绿藻、硅藻、甲藻)、无脊椎动物(海绵动物、刺胞动物、甲壳动物和软体动物等)和鱼类中的研究进展,以及不同条形码基因针对于不同生物类群的有效性和适用性,指出了目前条形码技术在各海洋类群中存在的主要问题,并对未来的相关工作做了展望,希望为今后我国的海洋生物DNA 条形码研究提供理论基础。%Marine organisms are highly diverse,widely distributed,with high complexity and homoplasy.To enable fast and accurate identification of species,it is imperative to establish molecular techniques,to complement the tradi-tional morphological metbodology.DNA barcoding provides digitalized criteria and effective means for species iden-tification,and is becoming an important technical tool in the research on taxonomy and biodiversity.In this review, we summarize the major recent progress and current trend in DNA barcoding,particularly as it applies to the fields of marine phytoplankton (Rhodophyte,Phaeophyta,Chlorophyta,Bacillariophyta and Dinophyta ),invertebrates (Spongia,Cnidaria,Custacea,Mollusca,etc.)and fish.We provide an overview of the deffectiveness and suitability of different barcoding markers in different groups of marine organisms.We also discuss current challenges and fu-ture prospects of marine DNA barcoding in hope to provide a framework for future marine DNA barcoding research in China.