WorldWideScience

Sample records for chamber ovens

  1. Study and Application of Sealing Material for Coke Oven Chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Feifang; TAI Li

    2005-01-01

    A kind of dry refractory sealing material has been developed to repair the fine cracks in coke oven chamber. With silica sand as the main raw material, the sealing material is blown into coke oven chamber by compressed air while being applied, and bonded to brick surface or filled in fine cracks of chamber under right pressure. The physical properties of the material are similar to those of silica bricks during its application. So it can be adapted to conditions of coke oven and has good service life. The study and application results of the sealing material are described in this paper.

  2. Mini-PROven. Reduced emissions from small and medium-size coke ovens thanks to single-chamber pressure control; Mini-PROven. Emissionsreduzierung an kleinen und mittleren Koksoefen mit einer Einzelkammerdruckregelung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huhn, Friedrich; Krebber, Frank; Kuehn-Gajdzik, Joanna; Ueberschaer, Kerstin [ThyssenKrupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany). Coke Plant Technologies Div.

    2012-07-01

    For environment and occupational health reasons it is becoming increasingly important for coke plants to be operated with the lowest possible level of emissions. In the past, changing pressure conditions in each individual oven, with particularly high values at the beginning of the coking period, often resulted in considerable emissions at the oven closures. To prevent this happening on modern large-scale ovens, ThyssenKrupp Uhde developed the PROven trademark (Pressure Regulated Oven), a single-chamber pressure control system which regulates the pressure in the individual coke chambers down to a constantly low level. In the meantime, after many years of successful service, the system has been upgraded in both its design and process engineering. The result is Mini-PROven, which in future can also be retro-fitted to old small and medium-size coke oven batteries in the interest of better environmental protection. (orig.)

  3. Microwave Ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ovens heat food using microwaves, a form of electromagnetic radiation similar to radio waves. Microwaves have three characteristics ... that their microwave oven products meet the strict radiation safety standard ... if your microwave oven has damage to its door hinges, latches, or seals, or ...

  4. A microwave powered sensor assembly for microwave ovens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a microwave powered sensor assembly for micro- wave ovens. The microwave powered sensor assembly comprises a microwave antenna for generating an RF antenna signal in response to microwave radiation at a predetermined excitation frequency. A dc power supply circuit...... in a microwave oven chamber....

  5. 淮钢套筒窑下烧嘴掺烧焦炉煤气改造%Modification of mixed combustion of coke oven gas for lower combustion chamber in the annular shaft kiln of Huaisteel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张全生

    2014-01-01

    分析了煤气热值下降对石灰煅烧造成的影响,提出下燃烧室掺烧焦炉煤气方案,并对该方案进行了可行性分析,根据方案要求设计了一种新型燃气烧嘴,最后对整个方案的经济性进行了分析,保证了该改造方案无论从技术上还是经济上都能够满足要求。%The influence of lime calcinations effected by decreasing value converter gas was analyzed . A new scheme mixing coke oven gas in lower combustion chamber was proposed .And the feasibility of the scheme was analyzed .According to the design requirements , a new type of gas burner was de-signed.Finally the economical efficiency of this scheme was analyzed , which could be make sure the modification scheme was feasible .

  6. Microwave Oven Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumrall, William J.; Richardson, Denise; Yan, Yuan

    1998-01-01

    Explains a series of laboratory activities which employ a microwave oven to help students understand word problems that relate to states of matter, collect data, and calculate and compare electrical costs to heat energy costs. (DDR)

  7. Leakage of Microwave Ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Razzaq, W.; Bushey, R.; Winn, G.

    2011-01-01

    Physics is essential for students who want to succeed in science and engineering. Excitement and interest in the content matter contribute to enhancing this success. We have developed a laboratory experiment that takes advantage of microwave ovens to demonstrate important physical concepts and increase interest in physics. This experiment…

  8. DUALPURPOSE SOLAR OVEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Sengar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Dual purpose solar oven (DPSO was designed and constructed. It observed that by using the new design of solar oven, both function of cooking and drying were possible for meeting the requirement of a family. The maximum stagnation temperature of 119°C and water temperature of 93.25°C were obtained in winter in DPSO while using as cooker. The calculated values of figure of merit F in DPSO was 0.119 and the time duration 1 for raising water temperature from 60 C to 90°C in hot box was 120 min. Cooking trials have also been conducted 0.5 kg of rice in 1 kg of water and 0.250 Kg of green gram split washed in one and half hrs in winter while it took about one hour in summer. The maximum temperature of 58 °C was recorded at 14:00 hrs of the day at level of tray no.2 when used as dryer. The time required to dry maize on different trays upto average moisture content 7.13 %( w.w. for winter and 5.43 %( w.w. for summer (w.w.was 420 minute and 360 minute respectively. The total cost of solar oven was worked out to be Rs(.2,715. Its pay back period varied between 1.3 to 1.86 years depending upon fuel it replaced.

  9. 室式CO变换催化剂电干燥炉的节能技术改造%Energy Saving Technical Renovation of Chamber CO Shift Catalyst Electric Drying Oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小芳; 杨引文

    2011-01-01

    The problems of the old drying oven were introduced and the specific content and measures of the technical renovation were expatiated in detailed. The obvious results such as expansion, energy saving, consumption reduction and environmental protection had been achieved.%介绍了老干燥炉存在的问题,详细阐述了技术改造的具体内容和措施,取得了扩产、节能、降耗、环保的明显效果.

  10. Physics of the Microwave Oven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This is the first of two articles about the physics of microwave ovens. This article deals with the generation of microwaves in the oven and includes the operation of the magnetrons, waveguides and standing waves in resonant cavities. It then considers the absorption of microwaves by foods, discussing the dielectric relaxation of water,…

  11. More Experiments with Microwave Ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Michael; Mollmann, Klaus-Peter; Karstadt, Detlef

    2004-01-01

    Microwave ovens can be used to perform exciting demonstrations that illustrate a variety of physics topics. Experiments discussed here show superheating, visualize the inhomogeneous heating that takes place in a microwave and also show how to use a mobile phone to detect radiation leaking from the oven. Finally eggs can give some spectacular…

  12. Using your microwave oven. Lesson 6, Microwave oven management

    OpenAIRE

    Woodard, Janice Emelie, 1929-

    1984-01-01

    Discusses cooking and reheating foods in microwave ovens, and adapting conventional recipes for the microwave. Revised Includes the publication: Adapting conventional recipes to microwave cooking : fact sheet 84 by Janice Woodard, Rebecca Lovingood, R.H. Trice.

  13. Discrete transistor measuring and matching using a solid core oven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkinen, M; Mäkelä, K; Vuorela, T; Palovuori, K

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents transistor measurements done at a constant temperature. The aim in this research was to develop a reliable and repeatable method for measuring and searching transistor pairs with similar parameters, as in certain applications it is advantageous to use transistors from the same production batch due to the significant variability in batches from different manufacturers. Transistor manufacturing methods are well established, but due to the large variability in tolerance, not even transistors from the same manufacturing batch have identical properties. Transistors' electrical properties are also strongly temperature-dependent. Therefore, when measuring transistor properties, the temperature must be kept constant. For the measurement process, a solid-core oven providing stable temperature was implemented. In the oven, the base-to-emitter voltage (VBE) and DC-current gain (β) of 32 transistors could be measured simultaneously. The oven's temperature was controlled with a programmable thermostat, which allowed accurate constant temperature operation. The oven is formed by a large metal block with an individual chamber for each transistor to be measured. Isolation of individual transistors and the highly thermally conductive metal core structure prevent thermal coupling between transistors. The oven enables repeatable measurements, and thus measurements between different batches are comparable. In this research study, the properties of over 5000 transistors were measured and the variance of the aforementioned properties was analyzed.

  14. Ovenized microelectromechanical system (MEMS) resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Roy H; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kim, Bongsang

    2014-03-11

    An ovenized micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) resonator including: a substantially thermally isolated mechanical resonator cavity; a mechanical oscillator coupled to the mechanical resonator cavity; and a heating element formed on the mechanical resonator cavity.

  15. Thermal Impedance of Rectangular Microwave Oven Linings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIShang-zhao; XUFu-qiu; 等

    1996-01-01

    Amodel was preseted for calcultaing the thermal impedance of the insulation and refractory linings of rectangular microwave ovens,of which the oven cavity's dimensions are relatively small,while the linings re relatively thick.

  16. Microwave Oven Repair. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smreker, Eugene

    This competency-based curriculum guide for teachers addresses the skills a technician will need to service microwave ovens and to provide customer relations to help retain the customer's confidence in the product and trust in the service company that performs the repair. The guide begins with a task analysis, listing 20 cognitive tasks and 5…

  17. Radiation leakage from electromagnetic oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman Khalil

    2015-10-01

    Results & Discussions: The measurements have been done at some houses in Erbil city, according to the source of background radiation exist before measuring data. Our data compared with standard safe range of radiation data. Results showed that there is radiation leak form all type of electromagnetic oven and all at the order of safety compared with standard value.

  18. "Zolotoi Oven" ishtshet svojego obladatelja / Valeri Kuznetsov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuznetsov, Valeri

    2003-01-01

    Parima filmi auhinnale "Zolotoi Oven" võistlevad Andrei Zvjagintsevi "Tagasitulek" ("Vozvrashtshenije"), Vadim Abdrashitovi "Magnettormid" ("Magnitnõje buri"), Gennadi Sidorovi "Vanaeided" ("Staruhhi") ja Pjotr Buslovi "Bumer"

  19. Radiofrequency radiation leakage from microwave ovens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahham, Adnan; Sharabati, Afifeh

    2013-12-01

    This work presents data on the amount of radiation leakage from 117 microwave ovens in domestic and restaurant use in the West Bank, Palestine. The study of leakage is based on the measurements of radiation emissions from the oven in real-life conditions by using a frequency selective field strength measuring system. The power density from individual ovens was measured at a distance of 1 m and at the height of centre of door screen. The tested ovens were of different types, models with operating powers between 1000 and 1600 W and ages ranging from 1 month to >20 y, including 16 ovens with unknown ages. The amount of radiation leakage at a distance of 1 m was found to vary from 0.43 to 16.4 μW cm(-2) with an average value equalling 3.64 μW cm(-2). Leakages from all tested microwave ovens except for seven ovens (∼6 % of the total) were below 10 μW cm(-2). The highest radiation leakage from any tested oven was ∼16.4 μW cm(-2), and found in two cases only. In no case did the leakage exceed the limit of 1 mW cm(-2) recommended by the ICNIRP for 2.45-GHz radiofrequency. This study confirms a linear correlation between the amount of leakage and both oven age and operating power, with a stronger dependence of leakage on age.

  20. lithium-ion battery during oven tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Peng; Sun, Yiqiong; Jiang, Fangming

    2014-10-01

    A three dimensional thermal abuse model for graphite/LiPF6/LiCoO2 batteries is established particularly for oven tests. To investigate the influence of heat release condition and oven temperature on battery thermal behaviors, we perform a series of simulations with respect to a unit cell during oven thermal abuses of various oven temperatures and under various heat release conditions. Simulation results enable detailed analyses to thermal behaviors of batteries. It is found that during oven thermal abuse processes that do not get into thermal runaway, the negative electrode is the maximum heat generation rate zone; during oven thermal abuse processes that do get into thermal runaway, the positive electrode is the maximum heat generation rate zone. The positive-solvent reaction is found to be the major heat generation source causing thermal runaway. It is also found that the heat release condition and the oven temperature are combined to dictate thermal behaviors of the battery. The critical oven temperature that causes thermal runaway rises if the heat release condition is better and the critical heat release coefficient that can effectively restrain the occurrence of thermal runaway increases with the increase of oven temperature.

  1. Automatic burner adjustment in a singeing oven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aabo, P.

    1984-07-01

    The expected energy savings of 10-15% of the actual fuel consumption in the singeing oven was reduced because of the change in the design of the singeing oven itself. The socalled optimized singeing oven hereafter includes: ceramic fibres, combustion air from the ceiling, fireproof oven bottom, automatic adjustment of air and fuel, rapid opening and closing, change over to pilot flame during stops and the slaughter line, and sealing between the oven's two parts and bottom. This optimization of the design of the singeing oven reduces the oil consumption from 0.8 litre to 0.45 litre fuel per pig carcass. The described optimization of the oven is partly carried out during this project. Thus the starting point for further reduction of the energy consumption is changed rather much. Neverthless a calculation of prospective profits proves that it is still profitable to invest in equipment for adjusting the burner in the singeing oven. It has been proved that the degree of singeing can be controlled by the parameters singeing period and oven temperature. A control device for controlling of the oil consumption on the basis of the temperature of the waste gas has succesfully been installed and it has been proved that the pay back period for this control device is approximately 2 years.

  2. Combination microwave ovens: an innovative design strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinga, Wayne R; Eke, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Reducing the sensitivity of microwave oven heating and cooking performance to load volume, load placement and load properties has been a long-standing challenge for microwave and microwave-convection oven designers. Conventional design problem and solution methods are reviewed to provide greater insight into the challenge and optimum operation of a microwave oven after which a new strategy is introduced. In this methodology, a special load isolating and energy modulating device called a transducer-exciter is used containing an iris, a launch box, a phase, amplitude and frequency modulator and a coupling plate designed to provide spatially distributed coupling to the oven. This system, when applied to a combined microwave-convection oven, gives astounding performance improvements to all kinds of baked and roasted foods including sensitive items such as cakes and pastries, with the only compromise being a reasonable reduction in the maximum available microwave power. Large and small metal utensils can be used in the oven with minimal or no performance penalty on energy uniformity and cooking results. Cooking times are greatly reduced from those in conventional ovens while maintaining excellent cooking performance.

  3. Improvement electrical characteristics of the microwave oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Grebenkov

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The research of band-off emitting of magnetron generator of microwave oven was carried out. Applying of cutoff waveguide abled to satisfy the requirements of manufacturer and norms of EMC.

  4. Bi-radiant oven: a low-energy oven system. Volume I. Development and assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWitt, D.P.; Peart, M.V.

    1980-04-01

    The Bi-Radiant Oven system has three important features which provide improved performance. First, the cavity walls are highly reflective rather than absorptive thereby allowing these surfaces to operate at cooler temperatures. Second, the heating elements, similar in construction to those in a conventional oven, but operating at much lower temperatures, provide a prescribed, balanced radiant flux to the top and bottom surfaces of the food product. And third, the baking and roasting utensil has a highly absorptive finish. Instrumentation and methods of measurements have been developed for obtaining the important oven and food parameters during baking: wall, oven air, food and element temperatures; food mass loss rate; irradiance distribution; and convection heat flux. Observations on an experimental oven are presented and discussed. Thermal models relating the irradiance distribution to oven parameters have been compared with measurements using a new heat flux gage developed for the project. Using the DOE recommended test procedures, oven efficiencies of 20 to 23% have been measured. The heating requirements have been determined for seven food types: biscuits, meat loaf, baked foods, apple crisp, cornbread, macaroni and cheese casserole, and cheese souffle. Comparison of energy use with a conventional electric oven shows that energy savings greater than 50% can be realized. Detailed energy balances have been performed on two foods - beef roasts and yellow cake. Consideration of consumer acceptability of this new oven concept have been addressed.

  5. Inhalation trauma due to overheating in a microwave oven.

    OpenAIRE

    Zanen, A L; Rietveld, A. P.

    1993-01-01

    The microwave oven is a kitchen appliance that has become increasingly popular in recent years. In some instances the temperature in the microwave oven can become exceedingly high. A case is discussed of a patient with respiratory distress after inhalation of gas from an overheated microwave oven.

  6. spark chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    A few cosmic rays pass through your body every second of every day, no matter where you are. Look at the spark chamber to your right – every flash is the track made by a cosmic ray from outer space. The spark chamber is filled with a special gas mixture. Cosmic rays knock electrons out of the atoms in the gas. These electrons accelerate towards high voltage metal strips layered throughout the chamber, creating sparks like little bolts of lightning.

  7. spark chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    A few cosmic rays pass through your body every second of every day, no matter where you are. Look at the spark chamber to your right – every flash is the track made by a cosmic ray from outer space. The spark chamber is filled with a special gas mixture. Cosmic rays knock electrons out of the atoms in the gas. These electrons accelerate towards high voltage metal strips layered throughout the chamber, creating sparks like little bolts of lightning.

  8. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Proportional multi-wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle. Proportional wire chambers allow a much quicker reading than the optical or magnetoscriptive readout wire chambers.

  9. Open Ended Microwave Oven for Packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Sinclair, K I; Desmulliez, M Y P; Goussetis, G; Bailey, C; Parrott, K; Sangster, A J

    2008-01-01

    A novel open waveguide cavity resonator is presented for the combined variable frequency microwave curing of bumps, underfills and encapsulants, as well as the alignment of devices for fast flip-chip assembly, direct chip attach (DCA) or wafer-scale level packaging (WSLP). This technology achieves radio frequency (RF) curing of adhesives used in microelectronics, optoelectronics and medical devices with potential simultaneous micron-scale alignment accuracy and bonding of devices. In principle, the open oven cavity can be fitted directly onto a flip-chip or wafer scale bonder and, as such, will allow for the bonding of devices through localised heating thus reducing the risk to thermally sensitive devices. Variable frequency microwave (VFM) heating and curing of an idealised polymer load is numerically simulated using a multi-physics approach. Electro-magnetic fields within a novel open ended microwave oven developed for use in micro-electronics manufacturing applications are solved using a de icated Yee sche...

  10. Wire Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  11. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1967-01-01

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber.Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  12. Wire Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1986-01-01

    Two wire chambers made originally for the R807 Experiment at CERN's Intersecting Storage Rings. In 1986 they were used for the PS 201 experiment (Obelix Experiment) at LEAR, the Low Energy Antiproton Ring. The group of researchers from Turin, using the chambers at that time, changed the acquisition system using for the first time 8 bit (10 bit non linear) analog to digital conversion for incoming signals from the chambers. The acquisition system was controlled by 54 CPU and 80 digital signal processors. The power required for all the electronics was 40 kW. For the period, this system was one of the most powerful on-line apparatus in the world. The Obelix Experiment was closed in 1996. To find more about how a wire chamber works, see the description for object CERN-OBJ-DE-038.

  13. Experimental study of thermosyphons applied in bakery ovens; Estudo experimental do comportamento de termossifoes aplicado a fornos de coccao de paes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupka, Alexandre; Penteado, Ricardo Assis [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails: kupka@labsolar.ufsc.br; boto@labsolar.ufsc.br; Mantelli, Marcia B.H. [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica]. E-mail: marcia@labsolar.ufsc.br

    2000-07-01

    The present paper study thermosyphons applied to bakery ovens with special attention in the energy conservation and the quality of final baked product. A prototype simulating one internal section of a commercial oven was built for the experimental study. Stainless steel/water thermosyphons are installed vertically, close to the two lateral walls of this section The thermosyphons are very efficient heat exchangers and improves the temperature distribution inside the oven, saving energy and avoiding the product waste by under or overcooking. This research also intends to replace electric power and GLP by natural gas as the energy source, that is available in the South of Brazil, after the recent implantation of the Brazil/Bolivia gas line. The gas combustion happens in a separated chamber, so that, just the heated air are in contact with be bread in the cooking chamber. The final product has better quality and is free from the combustion residues. (author)

  14. Comparison of two methods for determination of tomato paste solids: vacuum oven versus microwave oven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazaeri, Sahar; Kakuda, Yukio; Gismondi, Stephen; Wigle, Doug G

    2011-01-01

    Two analytical procedures used to determine total, soluble, and insoluble solids in tomato paste were evaluated. The microwave oven (MO) method was compared to the vacuum oven (VO) method. The VO method is tedious and measured the three solids fractions in the paste directly, while the MO method measured the total solids directly but used an equation to calculate the water-soluble and -insoluble solids. The MO method was faster and less labor-intensive, and yielded small but statistically significant higher values for total and insoluble solids and lower statistically significant values for soluble solids.

  15. Laureatõ premii "Zolotoi Oven"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Parima filmi auhinna "Zolotoi Oven" võitis Andrei Zvjagintsevi "Tagasitulek" ("Vozvrashtshenije"), Vadim Abdrashitovi "Magnettormid" ("Magnitnõje buri") sai parima režissööri ja parima stsenaristi auhinna (Aleksandr Mindadze), Pjotr Buslovi "Bumer" sai vaid muusikaauhinna (Sergei Shnurov). Parim meesnäitleja oli Viktor Suhhorukov ("Vaene, vaene Paul") ja naisnäitleja Maria Zvonarjeva A. Proshkini "Trios". A. Sokurovi "Isa ja poeg" sai vaid kunstnikuauhinna (Natalja Kotshergina). Inna Tshurikova sai kõrvalosa auhinna ("S: Govoruhhini "Blagoslovite zhenshtshinu")

  16. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  17. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Was used in ISR (Intersecting Storage Ring) split field magnet experiment. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  18. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  19. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1985-01-01

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  20. Hybrid solar-electric oven construction prototype; Construccion de prototipo de horno hibrido solar-electrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Roman, M. A; Pineda Pinon, J; Arcos Pichardo, A [CICATA, Santiago de Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2013-03-15

    The oven construction consists of a solar collector system of cylindrical parabolic type, a heating through electrical resistance and a curing chamber. The warm fluid is air, which is injected into the chamber through forced draft. The temperature required in the system is within a range of 150 to 300 degrees Celsius. [Spanish] La construccion del horno consta de un sistema de captacion solar del tipo cilindrico parabolico, un sistema de calentamiento a traves de resistencias electricas y una camara de curado. El fluido a calentar es aire, el cual es inyectado dentro de la camara a traves de tiro forzado. La temperatura solicitada en el sistema es dentro de un rango de 150 a 300 grados centigrados.

  1. Modification of a Microwave Oven for Laboratory Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Judith; Atkinson, George F.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses use of a domestic microwave oven for drying analytical samples with time savings compared to conventional ovens, providing a solution to the problem of loss of load as samples dry. Presents a system for examining emitted gases from drying process and reports results of several test dryings. (JM)

  2. Bonding PMMA microfluidics using commercial microwave ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toossi, A.; Moghadas, H.; Daneshmand, M.; Sameoto, D.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a novel low-cost, rapid substrate-bonding technique is successfully applied to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) microfluidics bonding for the first time. This technique uses a thin intermediate metallic microwave susceptor layer at the interface of the bonding site (microchannels) which produces localized heating required for bonding during microwave irradiation. The metallic susceptor pattern is designed using a multiphysics simulation model developed in ANSYS Multiphysics software (high-frequency structural simulation (HFSS) coupled with ANSYS-Thermal). In our experiments, the required microwave energy for bonding is delivered using a relatively inexpensive, widely accessible commercial microwave oven. Using this technique, simple PMMA microfluidics prototypes are successfully bonded and sealed in less than 35 seconds with a minimum measured bond strength of 1.375 MPa.

  3. Simulation and Experimental Method for Microwave Oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han-Ji Ju; Qing Zhao

    2009-01-01

    The simulation software, HFSS (high fre- quency structure simulator), is introduced in microwave oven design. In the cold test, a network analyzer is used to measure the reflection coefficient (S11) of the cavity under empty and loaded states over the frequency range from 2.448 GHz to 2.468 GHz. In the hot test, a piece of wet thermal paper and an infrared thermal imaging camera are used to measure the electric field distribu- tions on the mica and turntable. In the cold test, the simulation agrees well with the experiment no matter in empty state or loaded state. In the hot test, the simulation agrees well with the experiment in general in empty state and approximately in loaded state. The little difference in both cold and hot test may be due to that the model in simulation is not absolutely identical with that in experiment or the inadequate precision of infrared thermal imaging camera.

  4. Safranin O staining using a microwave oven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahveci, Z; Minbay, F Z; Cavusoglu, L

    2000-11-01

    We investigated the effects of microwave irradiation on a safranin O staining method for paraffin sections of formalin fixed rabbit larynx. The control sections were stained according to the conventional method, and the experimental sections were stained in microwave oven for 10 sec at 360 W in Weigert's iron hematoxylin, and for 30 sec at 360 W in fast green and 0.1% safranin O staining solutions. Light microscopic examination of the sections revealed that the microwave heating did not adversely affect the staining properties of cartilage tissue compared to the conventional staining method. Small differences such as darker staining of the matrix and shrinkage of the cytoplasm was observed in some microwave treated sections. The present study revealed that microwave application can be used safely for the safranin O method with the advantage of reduced staining time.

  5. Accelerated staining technique using kitchen microwave oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Mukunda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Histopathological diagnosis of specimens is greatly dependent on good sample preparation and staining. Both of these processes is governed by diffusion of fluids and dyes in and out of the tissue, which is the key to staining. Diffusion of fluids can be accelerated by the application of heat that reduces the time of staining from hours to the minute. We modified an inexpensive model of kitchen microwave oven for staining. This study is an attempt to compare the reliability of this modified technique against the tested technique of routine staining so as to establish the kitchen microwave oven as a valuable diagnostic tool. Materials and Methods: Sixty different tissue blocks were used to prepare 20 pairs of slides for 4 different stains namely hematoxylin and eosin, Van Gieson′s, 0.1% toluidine blue and periodic acid-Schiff. From each tissue block, two bits of tissues were mounted on two different slides. One slide was stained routinely, and the other stained inside a microwave. A pathologist evaluated the stained slides and the results so obtained were analyzed statistically. Results: Microwave staining considerably cut down the staining time from hours to seconds. Microwave staining showed no loss of cellular and nuclear details, uniform-staining characteristics and was of excellent quality. Interpretation and Conclusion: The cellular details, nuclear details and staining characteristics of microwave stained tissues were better than or equal to the routine stained tissue. The overall quality of microwave-stained sections was found to be better than the routine stained tissue in majority of cases.

  6. Comparison of microwave oven and convection oven for acid hydrolysis of dietary fiber polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B W

    1998-01-01

    Hydrolysis of dietary fiber polysaccharides (DFP) is an integral part of any enzymatic-chemical method for dietary fiber analysis. Residues obtained after enzyme treatments of fiber-containing foods are usually suspended in 12 M sulfuric acid and kept at or slightly above ambient temperature for at least 1 h, and then the mixtures are diluted with deionized water to a final concentration of 1 M or 2 M acid, followed by heating at 100 degrees C in a water bath or convection oven for 1 or 2 h. Under these hydrolytic conditions, some degradation of the released monosaccharides generally takes place over the duration of hydrolysis. We investigated the feasibility of using microwave energy as a heat source to reduce time and minimize degradation. Preliminary tests were done on the well-characterized soy polysaccharide Fibrim. With a microwave digestion system equipped with temperature and pressure monitors and control lines, optimum settings of power (5%, 75%), time (up to 3 min and 30 s), temperature (35 degrees-55 degrees C), and pressure (45-65 psi) were determined for different foods depending on the residue weight and volume of acid. Results were comparable for microwave oven and convection oven hydrolysis of DFP from 5 foods with good correlations for neutral sugar values; r2 = 0.997 for arabinose, 0.925 for galactose, 0.981 for glucose, 0.969 for mannose, and 0.990 for xylose.

  7. RESOLVE OVEN Field Demonstration Unit for Lunar Resource Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Aaron; Oryshchyn, Lara; Jensen, Scott; Sanders, Gerald B.; Lee, Kris; Reddington, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The Oxygen and Volatile Extraction Node (OVEN) is a subsystem within the Regolith & Environment Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) project. The purpose of the OVEN subsystem is to release volatiles from lunar regolith and extract oxygen by means of a hydrogen reduction reaction. The complete process includes receiving, weighing, sealing, heating, and disposing of core sample segments while transferring all gaseous contents to the Lunar Advanced Volatile Analysis (LAVA) subsystem. This document will discuss the design and performance of the OVEN Field Demonstration Unit (FDU), which participated in the 2012 RESOLVE field demonstration.

  8. Effusive Atomic Oven Nozzle Design Using a Microcapillary Array

    CERN Document Server

    Senaratne, Ruwan; Geiger, Zachary A; Fujiwara, Kurt M; Lebedev, Vyacheslav; Weld, David M

    2014-01-01

    We present a simple and inexpensive design for a multichannel effusive oven nozzle which provides improved atomic beam collimation and thus extended oven lifetimes. Using this design we demonstrate an atomic lithium source suitable for trapped-atom experiments. At a nozzle temperature of 525$^{\\circ}$C the total atomic beam flux directly after the nozzle is $1.2 \\times 10^{14}$ atoms per second with a peak beam intensity greater than $5.0 \\times 10^{16}$ atoms per second per steradian. This suggests an oven lifetime of several centuries of continuous operation.

  9. Chamber transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OLSON,CRAIG L.

    2000-05-17

    Heavy ion beam transport through the containment chamber plays a crucial role in all heavy ion fusion (HIF) scenarios. Here, several parameters are used to characterize the operating space for HIF beams; transport modes are assessed in relation to evolving target/accelerator requirements; results of recent relevant experiments and simulations of HIF transport are summarized; and relevant instabilities are reviewed. All transport options still exist, including (1) vacuum ballistic transport, (2) neutralized ballistic transport, and (3) channel-like transport. Presently, the European HIF program favors vacuum ballistic transport, while the US HIF program favors neutralized ballistic transport with channel-like transport as an alternate approach. Further transport research is needed to clearly guide selection of the most attractive, integrated HIF system.

  10. Controllable evaporation of cesium from a dispenser oven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantz, U.; Friedl, R.; Fröschle, M.

    2012-12-01

    This instrument allows controlled evaporation of the alkali metal cesium over a wide range of evaporation rates. The oven has three unique features. The first is an alkali metal reservoir that uses a dispenser as a cesium source. The heating current of the dispenser controls the evaporation rate allowing generation of an adjustable and stable flow of pure cesium. The second is a blocking valve, which is fully metallic as is the body of the oven. This construction both reduces contamination of the dispenser and enables the oven to be operated up to 300 °C, with only small temperature variations (metal at a cold spot is significantly hindered. The last feature is an integral surface ionization detector for measuring and controlling the evaporation rate. The dispenser oven can be easily transferred to the other alkali-metals.

  11. No-Oven, No-Autoclave, Composite Processing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large, single-piece composite structures for NASA launch vehicles are currently very expensive or impossible to fabricate partly because of the capital (ovens,...

  12. No-Oven, No-Autoclave, Composite Processing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) proposes to continue the efforts from the 2010 NASA SBIR Phase I topic X5.03, "No-Oven, No-Autoclave (NONA) Composite...

  13. Assessment of coke oven emissions exposure among coking workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, M.L.; Mao, I.F.; Wu, M.T.; Chen, J.R.; Ho, C.K.; Smith, T.J.; Wypij, D.; Christiani, D.C. [National Yang Ming University, Taipei (Taiwan). Dept. of Public Health

    1999-01-01

    Coking workers are regularly exposed to coke oven emissions, which consist primarily of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds. This study measured the workers` exposure to the benzene soluble fraction of total particulates (BSF). Personal breathing-zone samples of BSF and total particulates were taken from all study subjects for 3 consecutive days. The highest BSF concentrations were found among the topside oven workers. Among the samples at the topside oven 84% exceeded the Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard (150 {mu}g/m{sup 3} BSF). The percentage of BSF in total particulates varied across job classifications, ranging from 0.3% in wharf men to 24% in tar chasers. Area sampling indicated that the BSF concentration at the topside area was sixty fold higher than that at the administrative area, which was approximately 2 km from the coke oven plant.

  14. 40 CFR 63.302 - Standards for by-product coke oven batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... batteries. 63.302 Section 63.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.302 Standards for by-product coke oven batteries... oven emissions from each affected existing by-product coke oven battery that exceed any of...

  15. 40 CFR 761.72 - Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scrap metal recovery ovens and..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.72 Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters. Any person... liquids have been removed: (a) In a scrap metal recovery oven: (1) The oven shall have at least...

  16. The Gravimetric Analysis of Nickel Using a Microwave Oven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmosini, Nadia; Ghoreshy, Sanaz; Koether, Marina C.

    1997-08-01

    The procedure for the gravimetric quantitative analysis of the percent of nickel in steel has been modified to include the use of a microwave oven. Experiments performed with the microwave oven gave an average recovery of 99.9+0.3% whereas the conventional method gave a value of 99.5+0.6%. The Ni(DMG)2 samples, which were digested and dried in the microwave oven, showed no physical difference indicating that there was no chemical modification of the precipitate due to the microwave radiation. The microwave oven proved to be very useful for time efficiency, not only for the digestion and heating of the steel ore, but also for the drying of the ore, the crucibles, and the Ni(DMG)2 precipitate. The most significant advantages occur with the cooling time. However, it is not suggested that the entire experiment be performed with the microwave since constant attention, which is required with the microwave drying method, is not necessary for the conventional oven method. Therefore, in order to be more time effective, thought should be given as to which part of the method should be performed with the microwave and which should be performed with the conventional oven.

  17. Development of Hot Water Solar Oven for Low Temperature Thermal Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segun R. BELLO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The most useful form of the Hottel-Whiller-Bliss generalized performance equations for flat plate collector utilizing heat removal factor and loss coefficients is used to model a solar oven- water heating system for low thermal process application. The water heating system was designed, tested and evaluated with a daily collector efficiency of 51.82%, an average daily solar radiation of 689.23 (w/ºc per day and a useful gain by collector of 563.85 (w/ºc. Loss in collector is 116.39 (w/ºc and total average daily heat gain by water in collector is 292.26 (w/ºc. Average Daily storage heat capacity of 582.83 (KJ and the daily convected heat delivered to test chamber is 147.07 (KJ. The overall System efficiency of 25.24% was obtained.

  18. Doriot Climatic Chambers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Doriot Climatic Chambers are two, 60-feet long, 11-feet high, 15-feet wide chambers that are owned and operated by NSRDEC. The Doriot Climatic Chambers are among...

  19. A Wireless Portable High Temperature Data Monitor for Tunnel Ovens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Mayo Bayón

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tunnel ovens are widely used in the food industry to produce biscuits and pastries. In order to obtain a high quality product, it is very important to control the heat transferred to each piece of dough during baking. This paper proposes an innovative, non-distorting, low cost wireless temperature measurement system, called “eBiscuit”, which, due to its size, format and location in the metal rack conveyor belt in the oven, is able to measure the temperature a real biscuit experience while baking. The temperature conditions inside the oven are over 200 °C for several minutes, which could damage the “eBiscuit” electronics. This paper compares several thermal insulating materials that can be used in order to avoid exceeding the maximum operational conditions (80 °C in the interior of the “eBiscuit. The data registered is then transmitted to a base station where information can be processed to obtain an oven model. The experimental results with real tunnel ovens confirm its good performance, which allows detecting production anomalies early on.

  20. NUMERICAL SIMULATION FOR A PROCESS ANALYSIS OF A COKE OVEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhancheng Guo; Huiqing Tang

    2005-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamic model is established for a coking process analysis of a coke oven using PHOENICS CFD package. The model simultaneously calculates the transient composition, temperatures of the gas and the solid phases, velocity of the gas phase and porosity and density of the semi-coke phase. Numerical simulation is illustrated in predicting the evolution of volatile gases, gas flow paths, profiles of density, porosity of the coke oven charge,profiles of temperatures of the coke oven gas and the semi-coke bed. On the basis of above modeling, the flow of coke oven gas (COG) blown from the bottom of the coke oven into the porous semi-coke bed is simulated to reveal whether or not and when the blown COG can uniformly flow through the porous semi-coke bed for the purpose of desulfurizing the semi-coke by recycling the COG. The simulation results show that the blown COG can uniformly flow through the semi-coke bed only after the temperature at the center of the semi-coke bed has risen to above 900 ℃.

  1. Development and Evaluation of Charcoal-Powered Bread Baking Oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimasunya E

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Charcoal-powered bread baking oven was developed and evaluated with functional efficiencies of 91.2% and 92.1% for baking dough of mass 0.5kg and 1.5 kg to bread at BP of 27.7minutes, 35.9 minutes with the baking temperature (BT of 153.8 oC and 165.9 oC respectively. Baking temperature-heating interval of the oven as computed at 100 oC at 20 minutes at charcoal emitted heat of 861000 KJ. The oven has the capacity of generating 455.9 oC at 270 minutes time interval. The oven has bread baking capacities of 56, 36, 28, 22 and 18 pieces of bread per batch operation using dough mass of 0.5kg, 0.75kg, 1.00kg, 1.250kg and 1.500kg respectively. It is sensitive to the baking time and temperature in relation to dough mass with resolution value of 0.22. Charcoal-powered oven, is cheap and efficient and can be used both in the rural and urban settlement for domestic consumption and smallscale business.

  2. Characteristics of frozen colostrum thawed in a microwave oven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, L.R.; Taylor, A.W.; Hines, H.C.

    1987-09-01

    Use of a microwave oven to thaw frozen colostrum was evaluated. Colostrum was collected from nine cows, four of which were immunized to produce specific colostral antibodies. Colostrum from each cow was frozen, subsequently thawed, and pooled. One-liter aliquots of the pooled colostrum were frozen and assigned randomly to three thawing treatments. Colostrum was thawed using one of three regimens: 10 min in a microwave oven at full power (650 W), 17 min in a microwave oven at half power (325 W), and 25 min in 45 degrees C water. Colostrum thawed in the microwave oven was slightly coagulated and had lower volume and total protein content than colostrum thawed in water. Casein and pH were not different among treatments. Both concentration and total content of immunoglobulin A were higher in the control than in microwave treatments. Neither amount nor concentration of immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M were different among treatments. Immunological activity, measured by a hemolytic test, was lower for microwave treatments than the control but did not differ between microwave treatments. Frozen colostrum thawed in a microwave oven should provide a reasonable source of colostrum when fresh high quality colostrum is not available.

  3. Directed Energy Anechoic Chamber

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Directed Energy Anechoic Chamber comprises a power anechoic chamber and one transverse electromagnetic cell for characterizing radiofrequency (RF) responses of...

  4. A method for regulating the temperature of a coke oven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibata, M.; Fukava, R.; Khiesi, M.; Omaye, Y.; Terasi, M.

    1983-08-25

    In the proposed method data from measurements of the temperature of the hearth of the heating partitions of the coke oven are received every two hours. The obtained factual data is fed by radio to a computer (EVM) for building the time and temperature curves (VTK) for rating the operational systems and coke oven loading modes. The time and temperature curves are output to displays. When there is a change in the time of the programmed loading modes, the W shaped time and temperature curves are shifted parallel until they aligned with the standard time and temperature curve, while the velocity of the stream of heating gas is regulated in such a way that the heating mode in the coke oven meets the specifications of the standard time and temperature curve.

  5. Production of hydrogen in a conventional microwave oven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi; Mukasa, Shinobu; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Maehara, Tsunehiro; Kawashima, Ayato

    2009-10-01

    Hydrogen is produced by generating in-liquid plasma in a conventional microwave oven. A receiving antenna unit consisting of seven copper rods is placed at the bottom of the reactor furnace in the microwave oven. 2.45 GHz microwave in-liquid plasma can be generated at the tips of the electrodes in the microwave oven. When the n-dodecane is decomposed by plasma, 74% pure hydrogen gas can be achieved with this device. The hydrogen generation efficiency for a 750 W magnetron output is estimated to be approximately 56% of that of the electrolysis of water. Also, in this process up to 4 mg/s of solid carbon can be produced at the same time. The present process enables simultaneous production of hydrogen gas and the carbide in the hydrocarbon liquid.

  6. Alternative control technology document for bakery oven emissions. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, C.W.

    1992-12-01

    The document was produced in response to a request by the baking industry for Federal guidance to assist in providing a more uniform information base for State decision-making with regard to control of bakery oven emissions. The information in the document pertains to bakeries that produce yeast-leavened bread, rolls, buns, and similar products but not crackers, sweet goods, or baked foodstuffs that are not yeast leavened. Information on the baking processes, equipment, operating parameters, potential emissions from baking, and potential emission control options are presented. Catalytic and regenerative oxidation are identified as the most appropriate existing control technologies applicable to VOC emissions from bakery ovens. Cost analyses for catalytic and regenerative oxidation are included. A predictive formula for use in estimating oven emissions has been derived from source tests done in junction with the development of the document. Its use and applicability are described.

  7. Testing of the Burns-Milwaukee`s Sun Oven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, T.A.

    1997-03-01

    A Burns-Milwaukee Sun Oven was tested at Sandia`s Solar Thermal Test Facility. It was instrumented with five type K thermocouples to determine warm-up rates when empty and when a pot containing two liters of water was placed inside. It reached inside air temperatures above 160{degrees}C (320{degrees}F). It heated two liters of water from room temperatures to 80{degrees}C, (175{degrees}F), in 75 minutes. Observations were also made on the cooling and reheating rates during a cloud passage. The adverse effects of wind on operation of the solar oven was also noted.

  8. Optimization of the coke-oven activated sludge plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raizer Neto, Ernesto [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Colin, Francois [Institut de Recherches Hydrologiques, 54 - Nancy (France); Prost, Christian [Laboratoire de Sciences de Genie Chimique, Nancy (France)

    1993-12-31

    In the coke-oven activated sludge plants one of the greatest problems of malfunction is due to inffluent variability. The composition and, or, concentration variations of the inffluent substrate, which can cause an unstable system, are function of the pollutant load. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the kinetic biodegradation of the coke-oven effluent represents the limiting factor to develop an effective biological treatment. This work describes a computational model of the biological treatment which was elaborated and validated from continuous pilot scale experiments and calibrated by comparing its predictions to the pilot experiment`s results. 12 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Risk of Burns from Eruptions of Hot Water Overheated in Microwave Ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Burns from Eruptions of Hot Water Overheated in Microwave Ovens Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... after it had been over-heated in a microwave oven. Over-heating of water in a cup can ...

  10. Microwave Oven Experiments with Metals and Light Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Michael; Mollmann, Klaus-Peter; Karstadt, Detlef

    2004-01-01

    "Don't put metal objects in the microwave" is common safety advice. But why? Here we describe demonstration experiments involving placing household metallic objects in a microwave oven. These allow a better understanding of the interaction of microwaves with materials. Light bulbs and discharge lamps can also be used in instructive demonstrations.

  11. 5 Tips for Using Your Microwave Oven Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... produced by these ovens—are a type of electromagnetic radiation. These waves cause water molecules in food to ... if your microwave shows signs of leakage or damage, or you suspect a radiation problem, you can contact the oven manufacturer. Manufacturers ...

  12. 29 CFR 1910.1029 - Coke oven emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Data Exposure to coke oven emissions is a cause of lung cancer, and kidney cancer, in humans. Although... to which other Federal agencies exercise statutory authority to prescribe or enforce standards... status of the program. (7) Training in compliance procedures. The employer shall incorporate all...

  13. 40 CFR 63.303 - Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... batteries. 63.303 Section 63.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.303 Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries... existing nonrecovery coke oven battery that exceed any of the following emission limitations...

  14. 77 FR 33106 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... on a review of the cooking manuals and recipe books supplied with convection microwave ovens that a... books supplied with convection microwave ovens, DOE noted that a majority of the recipes that used... contained in the cooking manuals and recipe books supplied with convection microwave ovens. Based...

  15. Design and Construction of a Batch Oven for Investigation of Industrial Continuous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenby, Mette; Nielsen, Brian; Risum, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    A new batch oven has been designed and build to model baking processes as seen in large scale tunnel ovens. In order to simulate the conditions found in tunnel ovens a number of critical parameters are controllable: The temperature, the humidity and the air velocity. The band movement is simulated...

  16. Design and construction of a batch oven for investigation of industrial continuous baking processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenby Andresen, Mette; Risum, Jørgen; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    of the baking was documented over a range of temperatures (160C to 190C). Practical Applications The purpose of this paper is to describe a new specially designed pilot scale batch oven. The batch oven is designed and constructed to imitate the baking processes in continuous tunnel ovens with forced convection......A new batch oven has been constructed to mimic industrial convection tunnel ovens for research and development of continuous baking processes. The process parameters (air flow, air temperature, air humidity, height of baking area and the baking band velocity) are therefore highly controllable...

  17. ISR Intersection Vacuum Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    This special vacuum chamber presenting a lateral opening at the beam crossing point is one of the many chambers specifically designed for a particular experiment. Here it is shown during assembly at the ISR mechanical worshop.

  18. Application of SketchUp in Coke Oven Three-Dimensional Digital Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuguang Ouyang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coke oven, which is a large industrial furnace, is complex in structure. A two-dimensional structure diagram can hardly help one observe the inner structure of a coke oven or master its working principle comprehensively. In order to solve this problem, a complete 3D digital model of a coke oven is generated by assembling the three-dimensional models of coke oven components created with SketchUp. It enables users to section the various components of the cove oven. The outer appearance and inner structure of the oven components also can be displayed visually from several different orientations. Moreover, it is convenient to storage and carry, operation easily and fast. It can be displayed on an ordinary computer and occupies no space at the laboratory. Meanwhile, a large sum of money that used for purchasing a physical coke oven model can be saved.

  19. Technology of separation of hydrogen from coke oven gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budner, Z.; Morawiec, B.

    1989-01-01

    A process to beindustrialised at the Zdzieszowice coking plant and Kedzierzyn fertiliser works is described. Coke oven gas is scrubbed with methanol and subjected to pressure-swing adsorption. The hydrogen-rich fraction is converted with steam to reduce its CO content and then subjected again to pressure-swing adsorption. The methane-rich fraction from the first PSA stage is processed to 90% CH{sub 4} and a fraction containing 35% ethylene and 10% ethane.

  20. Effect of Oven Drying On Proximate Composition of Ginger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S Agu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ginger root (ZingiberOfficinale was analyzed to identify its proximate composition. The effects of drying as a processing technique on ginger were investigated with respect to the proximate composition of the produce. Ginger rhizomes were collected, sorted, sliced and dried using the oven at 500C for five (5 hours. Fresh ginger slices were successfully dried from initial moisture content of 70% to 18 %. Ginger composition before drying were 1.81% ash, 7.85% fat, 3.06% protein, 9% fiber, and 8.18% carbohydrate. The analysis of the results of proximate composition showed that the moisture content of ginger reduced after oven drying while the ash, protein, crude fiber increased after drying. On the other hand, the ash content, crude fiber, protein, fat and carbohydrates were 2.35%, 11%, 13.13%, 8.20% and47.32% respectively. The oven-drying technique however was a better option for the drying process as it was more effective in removing sufficient moisture and more so enhanced some nutritional parameter of the produce.

  1. Optimisation of coal blend and bulk density for coke ovens by vibrocompacting technique non-recovery ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P.P.; Vinoo, D.S.; Yadav, U.S.; Ghosh, S.; Lal, J.P.N. [J.S.W. Steel Ltd, Bellary (India)

    2007-09-15

    The quality of coke produced in a coke oven depends on the coal blend characteristics and carbonisation conditions. Scarcity of good quality coking coal made it necessary to look for techniques capable of producing superior coke from inferior coals. Precarbonisation techniques improve the bulk density of the coal charge and produce good quality coke from inferior coals. The stamp charging technique, the most effective among them requires finer crushing of coal and higher moisture as binder, both requiring additional energy. JSW Steel has adopted vibrocompaction along with non-recovery ovens for its 1.2 Mtpa coke production. This is a highly ecofriendly coke making process producing excellent quality coke from inferior coals. It increases the bulk density of cake, similar to stamp charging, using compaction in place of stamping. A cake density of 1.10 t m{sup -3} has been achieved using the vibrocompacting technique with optimum moisture and crushing fineness. Coal blend containing up to 35% soft coal and coking coal, having 32% volatile matter have been successfully used to produce a coke with coke strength after reaction >65%, coke reactivity index <25% and M10 <6%. The paper discusses the experience of operating vibrocompaction non-recovery coke ovens.

  2. Prototype multiwire proportional chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    Chambers of this type were initially developed within the Alpha project (finally not approved). They were designed such to minimize the radiation length with a view to a mass spectrometer of high resolution meant to replace the Omega detector. The chambers were clearly forerunners for the (drift) chambers later built for R606 with the novel technique of crimping the wires. See also photo 7510039X.

  3. Streamer chamber: pion decay

    CERN Multimedia

    1992-01-01

    The real particles produced in the decay of a positive pion can be seen in this image from a streamer chamber. Streamer chambers consist of a gas chamber through which a strong pulsed electric field is passed, creating sparks as a charged particle passes through it. A magnetic field is added to cause the decay products to follow curved paths so that their charge and momentum can be measured.

  4. Electromagnetic reverberation chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Besnier, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Dedicated to a complete presentation on all aspects of reverberation chambers, this book provides the physical principles behind these test systems in a very progressive manner. The detailed panorama of parameters governing the operation of electromagnetic reverberation chambers details various applications such as radiated immunity, emissivity, and shielding efficiency experiments.In addition, the reader is provided with the elements of electromagnetic theory and statistics required to take full advantage of the basic operational rules of reverberation chambers, including calibration proc

  5. Refrigeration Test Chamber

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The enclosed and environmentally controlled chamber is able to test four units (single-phase) simultaneously at conditions ranging from tundra to desert temperatures...

  6. DORIOT CLIMATIC CHAMBERS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Doriot Climatic Chambers reproduce environmental conditions occurring anywhere around the world. They provide an invaluable service by significantly reducing the...

  7. Analysis on the use of vacuum oven for the indirect slumping of glass x-ray mirror segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madarasz, Emanuel; Proserpio, Laura; Breunig, Elias; Friedrich, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) is involved in the investigation and optimization of the indirect slumping technique for the manufacturing of thin glass mirror segments to be assembled in lightweight X-ray telescopes. During the last year, we started to analyze the influence of vacuum environment on the results of this thermal forming process. The realization of slumping in vacuum offers theoretically several advantages, like the absence of air between the glass and the mold and a cleaner process chamber. Furthermore, the heat exchange is different with respect to a standard air-oven and this might have positive effects during the important heating and cooling phases of the process. All these aspects will be considered in the paper and the current status in the development of the MPE vacuum-slumping approach will be outlined.

  8. Heat transfer and heating rate of food stuffs in commercial shop ovens

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Navaneethakrishnan; P S S Srinivasan; S Dhandapani

    2007-10-01

    The CFD analysis of flow and temperature distribution in heating ovens used in bakery shop, to keep the foodstuffs warm, is attempted using finite element technique. The oven is modelled as a two-dimensional steady state natural convection heat transfer problem. Effects of heater location and total heat input on temperature uniformity of foodstuffs are studied. Placing the heater at the bottom of the oven improves the air circulation rate by 17 times and 10 times than that at the top and side of the oven. But the top location provides better uniformity in foodstuff temperature than the other cases. Side location is not preferable. In the present ovens, the heating elements are located at the top. The analysis shows that if heaters are located at the bottom along with additional flow guidance arrangements, energy efficient oven configuration can be obtained.

  9. Finite element modelling and simulation of free convection heat transfer in solar oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobamowo M.G., Ogunmola B.Y., Ayerin A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of solar energy for baking, heating or drying represents a sustainable way of solar energy applications with negligible negative effects. Solar oven is an alternative to conventional oven that rely heavily on coal and wood or Electric oven that uses the power from the National grid of which the end users have little or no control. Since the Solar oven uses no fuel and it costs nothing to run, it uses are widely promoted especially in situations where minimum fuel consumption or fire risks are considered highly important. As useful as the Solar Oven proved, it major setback in the area of applications has been its future sustainability. For the use of Solar Oven/Cookers to be sustained in the future, the design and development of solar oven must rely on sound analytical tools. Therefore, this work focused on the design and development of the solar oven. To test the performance of the Small Solar Oven a 5000cm3 beaker of water was put into the Oven and the temperature of the water was found to reach 810C after about 3hrs under an average ambient temperature of 300C. On no load test, the oven reached a maximum temperature of 112oC in 6hrs. In order to carry out the parametric studies and improve the performance of the Solar Oven, Mathematical models were developed and solved by using Characteristics-Based Split (CBS Finite Element Method. The Model results were compared with the Experimental results and a good agreement was found between the two results.

  10. Finite element modelling and simulation of free convection heat transfer in solar oven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobamowo, M.G.; Ogunmola, B.Y.; Ayerin A.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos (Nigeria)

    2013-07-01

    The use of solar energy for baking, heating or drying represents a sustainable way of solar energy applications with negligible negative effects. Solar oven is an alternative to conventional oven that rely heavily on coal and wood or Electric oven that uses the power from the National grid of which the end users have little or no control. Since the Solar oven uses no fuel and it costs nothing to run, it uses are widely promoted especially in situations where minimum fuel consumption or fire risks are considered highly important. As useful as the Solar Oven proved, it major setback in the area of applications has been its future sustainability. For the use of Solar Oven/Cookers to be sustained in the future, the design and development of solar oven must rely on sound analytical tools. Therefore, this work focused on the design and development of the solar oven. To test the performance of the Small Solar Oven a 5000cm3 beaker of water was put into the Oven and the temperature of the water was found to reach 810C after about 3hrs under an average ambient temperature of 300C. On no load test, the oven reached a maximum temperature of 112oC in 6hrs. In order to carry out the parametric studies and improve the performance of the Solar Oven, Mathematical models were developed and solved by using Characteristics-Based Split (CBS) Finite Element Method. The Model results were compared with the Experimental results and a good agreement was found between the two results.

  11. Testing of the Sunstove Organization`s Sunstove Solar Oven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, T.A.

    1997-03-01

    A Sunstove Organization`s Sunstove was tested at Sandia`s Solar Thermal Test Facility. It was instrumented with five type K thermocouples to determine warm-up rates when empty and when a pot containing two liters of water was placed inside. It reached inside air temperatures above 115{degrees}C (240{degrees}F). It heated two liters of water from room temperature to 80{degrees}C (175{degrees}F) in about two hours. Observations were made on the cooling and reheating rates during a cloud passage. The adverse effects of wind on the operation of the solar oven were also noted.

  12. Surveys of Microwave Ovens in U.S. Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Alison [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yang, Hung-Chia Dominique [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Beraki, Bereket [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Desroches, Louis-Benoit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Young, ScottJ. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ni, Chun Chun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Willem, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Whitehead, Camilla Dunham [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Donovan, Sally M. [Consultant, Melbourne (Australia)

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting test procedure and energy conservation standard rulemakings for microwave ovens. These units generally offer a “convection,” “bake,” or “combo” cooking mode on the user interface. DOE divides products under analysis into classes by the type of energy used, capacity, or other performance-related features that affect consumer utility and efficiency. Installation types are grouped as (1) countertop and (2) built-in and over-the-range. The following sub-sections summarize the existing data as well as the specific data LBNL obtained with surveys.

  13. Feedback control strategy of longitudinal temperature and finished carbonization time for coke oven and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Huo; Zhi Wen; Dong Chen; Yueling Shen; Yongqin Zhang; Xiaoming Zhi

    2004-01-01

    Based on the detailed analysis of the third coke oven in BaoSteel, a feedback control strategy of longitudinal temperature and finished carbonization time of coke ovens was proposed and it was applied to the third coke oven in BaoSteel. As a result, the ratio of the instance that the absolute deviation of the longitudinal temperature is within ±7°C and the finished carbonization time within ± 10 rain is more than 80%, having acquired the patent saving effect of an energy consumption lowered by 2.92%. At the same time, it can provide an example for the same coke ovens inside and outside the nation.

  14. CHAMBER OF COMMERCE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Experience Japan The Japanese Chamber of Commerce and Industry will further promote its Japan-experience program and seek cooperation with various Chinese institutions.Between early May and June 2007,the chamber organized a Chinese college student delegation to Japan with the support from its members in China.

  15. Target chambers for gammashpere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, M.P.; Falout, J.W.; Nardi, B.G. [and others

    1995-08-01

    One of our responsibilities for Gammasphere, was designing and constructing two target chambers and associated beamlines to be used with the spectrometer. The first chamber was used with the early implementation phase of Gammasphere, and consisted of two spun-Al hemispheres welded together giving a wall thickness of 0.063 inches and a diameter of 12 inches.

  16. BEBC bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    Looking up into the interior of BEBC bubble chamber from the expansion cylinder. At the top of the chamber two fish-eye lenses are installed and three other fish-eye ports are blanked off. In the centre is a heat exchanger.

  17. The Mobile Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfstein, Gregory; Cox, Russell

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses a simulation chamber that represents a shift from the thermal-vacuum chamber stereotype. This innovation, currently in development, combines the capabilities of space simulation chambers, the user-friendliness of modern-day electronics, and the modularity of plug-and-play computing. The Mobile Chamber is a customized test chamber that can be deployed with great ease, and is capable of bringing payloads at temperatures down to 20 K, in high vacuum, and with the desired metrology instruments integrated to the systems control. Flexure plans to lease Mobile Chambers, making them affordable for smaller budgets and available to a larger customer base. A key feature of this design will be an Apple iPad-like user interface that allows someone with minimal training to control the environment inside the chamber, and to simulate the required extreme environments. The feedback of thermal, pressure, and other measurements is delivered in a 3D CAD model of the chamber's payload and support hardware. This GUI will provide the user with a better understanding of the payload than any existing thermal-vacuum system.

  18. Fluidized bed combustion chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kullendorff, A.; Wikner, J.

    1985-03-25

    The chamber is confined in a pressure vessel. The lower part of the chamber has tilted parallel gutters up to the height of the fluidized bed. The slope of the gutter walls is 5 degrees-15 degrees and the top area of the gutters is 1.3 to 3 times larger than their bottom.

  19. DELPHI time projection chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    The time projection chamber is inserted inside the central detector of the DELPHI experiment. Gas is ionised in the chamber as a charged particle passes through, producing an electric signal from which the path of the particle can be found. DELPHI, which ran from 1989 to 2000 on the LEP accelerator, was primarily concerned with particle identification.

  20. Microwave oven injuries in patients with complex partial seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeToledo, John C; Lowe, Merredith R

    2004-10-01

    Microwave ovens are often recommended as a safe cooking alternative for persons with epilepsy. We report four patients who suffered serious burns to their hands while handling microwave-heated liquids during a complex partial seizure (CPS). Injuries were due to the contact of the skin with a very hot container. The fact that all patients held on to the hot containers despite being burned and that they did not remember experiencing any pain at the time of the accident indicates that neither high temperatures nor pain will prevent patients who are having a CPS from suffering this type of injury. Unfortunately, there is no foolproof way to prevent the individual from opening the oven and removing its contents during a CPS. The only solution for this problem is "prevention"-individuals with poorly controlled CPS should be cautioned about these risks. The use of microwave settings that permit the heating but not boiling of liquids and the use of gloves while heating food and liquids to scalding temperatures may minimize the risk of this type of injury.

  1. OPAL Jet Chamber Prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    OPAL was one of the four experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 - 2000. OPAL's central tracking system consists of (in order of increasing radius) a silicon microvertex detector, a vertex detector, a jet chamber, and z-chambers. All the tracking detectors work by observing the ionization of atoms by charged particles passing by: when the atoms are ionized, electrons are knocked out of their atomic orbitals, and are then able to move freely in the detector. These ionization electrons are detected in the dirfferent parts of the tracking system. This piece is a prototype of the jet chambers

  2. PS wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    A wire chamber used at CERN's Proton Synchrotron accelerator in the 1970s. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  3. Development and Application of Zero Expansion Silica Brick for Hot Repairing of Coke Oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiuqin; ZHI Xiaoming; WANG Hongmei

    2003-01-01

    In order to meet the needs of hot repairing technology of coke oven, the zero expansion silica brick with super properties has been developed, and the problem of poor thermal stability of common silica brick has been overcomned. This product can be directly used after being rapidly heated after construction. At present, it has been applied in coke ovens in Italy and Baosteel.

  4. 78 FR 7939 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens (Active Mode)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... 430 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens (Active Mode); Proposed Rule #0... Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens (Active Mode) AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... Energy Policy and Conservation Act. The proposed amendments would add provisions for measuring the...

  5. 76 FR 65631 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AC26 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens AGENCY: Office... efficiency test procedure for microwave ovens under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). 75...

  6. 76 FR 72332 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ...-BT-TP-0011] RIN 1904-AB78 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens AGENCY... 9, 2011, amending its test procedures for microwave ovens under the Energy Policy and Conservation... Secretary I. Background and Legal Authority Title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (42...

  7. 76 FR 12825 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    .... Department of Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th Floor, 950 L'Enfant Plaza, SW., Washington, DC 20024... with or without thermal elements designed for surface browning of food and combination ovens. DOE..., including microwave ovens with or without thermal elements designed for surface browning of food. DOE...

  8. ALICE Time Projection Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Lippmann, C

    2013-01-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main device in the ALICE 'central barrel' for the tracking and identification (PID) of charged particles. It has to cope with unprecedented densities of charges particles.

  9. Vacuum chamber 'bicone'

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    This chamber is now in the National Museum of History and Technology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA, where it was exposed in an exhibit on the History of High Energy Accelerators (1977).

  10. High rate drift chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, D.C. (Fermilab, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)); Berisso, M.C. (Fermilab, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)); Gutierrez, G. (Fermilab, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)); Holmes, S.D. (Fermilab, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)); Wehmann, A. (Fermilab, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)); Avilez, C. (Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Guanajuato, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)); Felix, J. (Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Guanajuato, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)); Moreno, G. (Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Guanajuato, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)); Romero, M. (Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Guanajuato, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)); Sosa, M. (Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Guanajuato, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)); Forbush, M. (Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)); Huson, F.R. (Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)); Wightman, J.A. (Department of Physi

    1994-06-01

    Fermilab experiment 690, a study of target dissociation reactions pp[yields]pX using an 800 GeV/c proton beam and a liquid hydrogen target, collected data in late 1991. The incident beam and 600-800 GeV/c scattered protons were measured using a system of six 6 in.x4 in. and two 15 in.x8 in. pressurized drift chambers spaced over 260 m. These chambers provided precise measurements at rates above 10 MHz (2 MHz per cm of sense wire). The measurement resolution of the smaller chambers was 90 [mu]m, and the resolution of the larger chambers was 125 [mu]m. Construction details and performance results, including radiation damage, are presented. ((orig.))

  11. Toxic Test Chambers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Hazardous material test facility Both facilities have 16,000 cubic foot chambers, equipped with 5000 CFM CBR filter systems with an air change...

  12. A compact and efficient strontium oven for laser-cooling experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schioppo, M; Poli, N; Prevedelli, M; Falke, St; Lisdat, Ch; Sterr, U; Tino, G M

    2012-10-01

    Here we describe a compact and efficient strontium oven well suited for laser-cooling experiments. Novel design solutions allowed us to produce a collimated strontium atomic beam with a flux of 1.0 × 10(13) s(-1) cm(-2) at the oven temperature of 450 °C, reached with an electrical power consumption of 36 W. The oven is based on a stainless-steel reservoir, filled with 6 g of metallic strontium, electrically heated in a vacuum environment by a tantalum wire threaded through an alumina multi-bore tube. The oven can be hosted in a standard DN40CF cube and has an estimated continuous operation lifetime of 10 years. This oven can be used for other alkali and alkaline earth metals with essentially no modifications.

  13. A compact and efficient strontium oven for laser-cooling experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Schioppo, Marco; Prevedelli, Marco; Falke, Stephan; Lisdat, Christian; Sterr, Uwe; Tino, Guglielmo Maria

    2012-01-01

    Here we describe a compact and efficient strontium oven well suited for laser-cooling experiments. Novel design solutions allowed us to produce a collimated strontium atomic beam with a flux of 1.0\\times10^13 s^-1 cm^-2 at the oven temperature of 450 {\\deg}C, reached with an electrical power consumption of 36 W. The oven is based on a stainless-steel reservoir, filled with 6 g of metallic strontium, electrically heated in a vacuum environment by a tantalum wire threaded through an alumina multi-bore tube. The oven can be hosted in a standard DN40CF cube and has an estimated continuous operation lifetime of 10 years. This oven can be used for other alkali and alkaline earth metals with essentially no modifications.

  14. Bubble chamber: antiproton annihilation

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    These images show real particle tracks from the annihilation of an antiproton in the 80 cm Saclay liquid hydrogen bubble chamber. A negative kaon and a neutral kaon are produced in this process, as well as a positive pion. The invention of bubble chambers in 1952 revolutionized the field of particle physics, allowing real tracks left by particles to be seen and photographed by expanding liquid that had been heated to boiling point.

  15. Repair works at coke ovens lined with refractory mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, R.; Friebe, G.

    1981-06-01

    The wear characteristics of the usual refractory mixtures are strongly dependent upon the prevailing operating conditions, the location of use within the oven and the temperature range to be expected. As exemplified by typical deteriorations, the suitability of refractory mixtures of aluminium sulphate, water glass, clay, aluminous cement and phosphate basis for various applications is discussed. Structure and bonding mechanisms of the repair mixtures are decisive for application, service time and temperature behaviour. Also pretreatment of the base and proper selection of the application method are important for the success of the repair. The application methods: dusting, spraying, pressure spraying, casting and ramming, are compared based on operating experience. Pressure spraying proved to be a simple and less expensive method for repairing large deteriorations. With sufficient care good success is ensured.

  16. Building a Low Cost Solar Oven: An Opportunity to Teach Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Ana

    2014-03-01

    We suggested building a solar oven using cardboard boxes, glass wool and metal plate as part of a school project permeated by the discussion of physical concepts. The main topics addressed are from the heat and thermodynamics areas, and for these themes we followed the standard books used in high school. We can work in a practical manner with the thermometer, along with the concept of temperature, measuring the temperature of the oven when cooking. To discuss how the oven works, we introduce the concept of heat as an energy flow of a body with a higher temperature to one with lower temperature. Threads as heat capacity and specific heat of a substance are introduced, also discussing the use of glass wool, which function is to prevent heat exchange from the oven's interior with the environment. It is possible to demonstrate the three forms of heat transfer using the solar oven, and how the greenhouse effect is harnessed. One can discuss topics such as electromagnetic radiation, black-body radiation and the Stefan-Boltzmann law. We surveyed the response curve of our oven and an estimate of its total solar energy absorption efficiency. The development of this project allows a good understanding of the operation principles of a solar oven. UNIMONTES.

  17. Process analysis of syngas production by non-catalytic POX of oven gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuchen WANG; Xinwen ZHOU; Wenyuan GUO; Zhenghua DAI; Xin GONG; Haifeng LIU; Guangsuo YU; Zunhong YU

    2009-01-01

    A non-catalytic POX of oven gas is proposed to solve the problem of secondary pollution due to solid wastes produced from the great amount of organic sulfur contained in oven gas in the traditional catalytic partial oxidation (POX) process. A study of the measurement of flow field and a thermodynamic analysis of the process characteristics were conducted. Results show that there exist a jet-flow region, a recirculation-flow region, a tube-flow region, and three corresponding reaction zones in the non-catalytic POX reformer. The combustion of oven gas occurs mainly in the jet-flow region, while the reformation of oven gas occurs mainly in the other two regions. Soot would not be formed by CH4 cracking at above 1200℃. Since there are very little C2+ hydrocarbons in oven gas, the soot produced would be very tiny, even if they underwent cracking reaction. The integrated model for entrained bed gasification process was applied to simulate a non-catalytic POX reformer. It indicated that the proper oxygen-to-oven gas ratio is 0.22-0.28 at differ-ent pressures in the oven gas reformation process.

  18. DELPHI Barrel Muon Chamber Module

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    The module was used as part of the muon identification system on the barrel of the DELPHI detector at LEP, and was in active use from 1989 to 2000. The module consists of 7 individual muons chambers arranged in 2 layers. Chambers in the upper layer are staggered by half a chamber width with respect to the lower layer. Each individual chamber is a drift chamber consisting of an anode wire, 47 microns in diameter, and a wrapped copper delay line. Each chamber provided 3 signal for each muon passing through the chamber, from which a 3D space-point could be reconstructed.

  19. The KLOE drift chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adinolfi, M.; Aloisio, A.; Ambrosino, F.; Andryakov, A.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Anulli, F.; Bacci, C.; Bankamp, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Bellini, F.; Bencivenni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Bocci, V.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Bulychjov, S.A.; Cabibbo, G.; Calcaterra, A.; Caloi, R.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Carboni, G.; Cardini, A.; Casarsa, M.; Cataldi, G.; Ceradini, F.; Cervelli, F.; Cevenini, F.; Chiefari, G.; Ciambrone, P.; Conetti, S.; Conticelli, S.; Lucia, E. De; Robertis, G. De; Sangro, R. De; Simone, P. De; Zorzi, G. De; Dell' Agnello, S.; Denig, A.; Domenico, A. Di; Donato, C. Di; Falco, S. Di; Doria, A.; Drago, E.; Elia, V.; Erriquez, O.; Farilla, A.; Felici, G.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Finocchiaro, G.; Forti, C.; Franceschi, A.; Franzini, P.; Gao, M.L.; Gatti, C.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Golovatyuk, V.; Gorini, E.; Grancagnolo, F.; Grandegger, W.; Graziani, E.; Guarnaccia, P.; Hagel, U.V.; Han, H.G.; Han, S.W.; Huang, X.; Incagli, M.; Ingrosso, L.; Jang, Y.Y.; Kim, W.; Kluge, W.; Kulikov, V.; Lacava, F.; Lanfranchi, G.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Lomtadze, F.; Luisi, C.; Mao, C.S.; Martemianov, M.; Matsyuk, M.; Mei, W.; Merola, L.; Messi, R.; Miscetti, S.; Moalem, A.; Moccia, S.; Moulson, M.; Mueller, S.; Murtas, F.; Napolitano, M.; Nedosekin, A.; Panareo, M.; Pacciani, L.; Pages, P.; Palutan, M.; Paoluzi, L.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passalacqua, L.; Passaseo, M.; Passeri, A.; Patera, V.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, G.; Picca, D.; Pirozzi, G.; Pistillo, C.; Pollack, M.; Pontecorvo, L.; Primavera, M.; Ruggieri, F.; Santangelo, P.; Santovetti, E.; Saracino, G.; Schamberger, R.D.; Schwick, C.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Scuri, F.; Sfiligoi, I.; Shan, J.; Silano, P.; Spadaro, T.; Spagnolo, S.; Spiriti, E.; Stanescu, C.; Tong, G.L.; Tortora, L.; Valente, E.; Valente, P. E-mail: paolo.valente@lnf.infn.it; Valeriani, B.; Venanzoni, G.; Veneziano, S.; Wu, Y.; Xie, Y.G.; Zhao, P.P.; Zhou, Y

    2001-04-01

    The tracking detector of the KLOE experiment is 4 m diameter, 3.3 m length drift chamber, designed to contain a large fraction of the decays of low-energy K{sub L} produced at the Frascati DAPHINE phi-factory. The chamber is made by a thin carbon fiber structure and operated with a helium-based gas mixture in order to minimise conversion of low-energy photons and multiple scattering inside the sensitive volume. The tracking information is provided by 58 layers of stereo wires defing 12,582 cells, 2x2 cm{sup 2} in size in the 12 innermost layers and 3x3 cm{sup 2} in the outer ones. Details of the chamber design, calibration procedure and tracking performances are presented.

  20. The KLOE drift chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Adinolfi, M; Ambrosino, F; Andryakov, A; Antonelli, A; Antonelli, M; Anulli, F; Bacci, C; Bankamp, A; Barbiellini, G; Bellini, F; Bencivenni, G; Bertolucci, Sergio; Bini, C; Bloise, C; Bocci, V; Bossi, F; Branchini, P; Bulychjov, S A; Cabibbo, G; Calcaterra, A; Caloi, R; Campana, P; Capon, G; Carboni, G; Cardini, A; Casarsa, M; Cataldi, G; Ceradini, F; Cervelli, F; Cevenini, F; Chiefari, G; Ciambrone, P; Conetti, S; Conticelli, S; Lucia, E D; Robertis, G D; Sangro, R D; Simone, P D; Zorzi, G D; Dell'Agnello, S; Denig, A; Domenico, A D; Donato, C D; Falco, S D; Doria, A; Drago, E; Elia, V; Erriquez, O; Farilla, A; Felici, G; Ferrari, A; Ferrer, M L; Finocchiaro, G; Forti, C; Franceschi, A; Franzini, P; Gao, M L; Gatti, C; Gauzzi, P; Giovannella, S; Golovatyuk, V; Gorini, E; Grancagnolo, F; Grandegger, W; Graziani, E; Guarnaccia, P; Von Hagel, U; Han, H G; Han, S W; Huang, X; Incagli, M; Ingrosso, L; Jang, Y Y; Kim, W; Kluge, W; Kulikov, V; Lacava, F; Lanfranchi, G; Lee-Franzini, J; Lomtadze, F; Luisi, C; Mao Chen Sheng; Martemyanov, M; Matsyuk, M; Mei, W; Merola, L; Messi, R; Miscetti, S; Moalem, A; Moccia, S; Moulson, M; Müller, S; Murtas, F; Napolitano, M; Nedosekin, A; Panareo, M; Pacciani, L; Pagès, P; Palutan, M; Paoluzi, L; Pasqualucci, E; Passalacqua, L; Passaseo, M; Passeri, A; Patera, V; Petrolo, E; Petrucci, Guido; Picca, D; Pirozzi, G; Pistillo, C; Pollack, M; Pontecorvo, L; Primavera, M; Ruggieri, F; Santangelo, P; Santovetti, E; Saracino, G; Schamberger, R D; Schwick, C; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Scuri, F; Sfiligoi, I; Shan, J; Silano, P; Spadaro, T; Spagnolo, S; Spiriti, E; Stanescu, C; Tong, G L; Tortora, L; Valente, E; Valente, P; Valeriani, B; Venanzoni, G; Veneziano, Stefano; Wu, Y; Xie, Y G; Zhao, P P; Zhou, Y

    2001-01-01

    The tracking detector of the KLOE experiment is 4 m diameter, 3.3 m length drift chamber, designed to contain a large fraction of the decays of low-energy K sub L produced at the Frascati DAPHINE phi-factory. The chamber is made by a thin carbon fiber structure and operated with a helium-based gas mixture in order to minimise conversion of low-energy photons and multiple scattering inside the sensitive volume. The tracking information is provided by 58 layers of stereo wires defing 12,582 cells, 2x2 cm sup 2 in size in the 12 innermost layers and 3x3 cm sup 2 in the outer ones. Details of the chamber design, calibration procedure and tracking performances are presented.

  1. Charpak hemispherical wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    pieces. Mesures are of the largest one. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  2. micro strip gas chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    About 16 000 Micro Strip Gas Chambers like this one will be used in the CMS tracking detector. They will measure the tracks of charged particles to a hundredth of a millimetre precision in the region near the collision point where the density of particles is very high. Each chamber is filled with a gas mixture of argon and dimethyl ether. Charged particles passing through ionise the gas, knocking out electrons which are collected on the aluminium strips visible under the microscope. Such detectors are being used in radiography. They give higher resolution imaging and reduce the required dose of radiation.

  3. Oro-facial thermal injury caused by food heated in a microwave oven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Yasha; Pemberton, Michael N

    2009-01-01

    Burns to the oral mucosa usually result from the accidental ingestion of hot food or beverages. The burns are usually of short duration and little consequence. The widespread use of microwave ovens, however, has added a new dimension to the problem. Microwave ovens heat food much quicker than a conventional oven, but they produce uneven heating within the food and extremely high temperatures can be reached. We describe two cases of patients who suffered inadvertent injury to the oral mucosa from the ingestion of microwave-heated food.

  4. Quality Comparison of Vegetables Dehydrated in Solar Drier and Electrical Oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Joshi

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascorbic acid, sugars, dehydration ratio and moisture were determined in the vegetables dehydrated separately in solar drier and in electrical oven under similar conditions by standard methods. Vegetables examined were cabbage, cauliflower, tomato, radish, turnip, lahi, methi and palak. It was revealed that in each case, contents of ascorbic acid were higher in solar-dried vegetables in comparison to oven-dried stuffs. This finding indicated superiority of solar driers over electrical ovens, both in reference to quality of the dehydrated vegetables and its overall cost of operation.

  5. A compact and efficient strontium oven for laser-cooling experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Schioppo, M.; Poli, N.; M. Prevedelli; Falke, St.; Lisdat, Ch.; Sterr, U.; G. M. Tino

    2012-01-01

    Here we describe a compact and efficient strontium oven well suited for laser-cooling experiments. Novel design solutions allowed us to produce a collimated strontium atomic beam with a flux of 1.0\\times10^13 s^-1 cm^-2 at the oven temperature of 450 {\\deg}C, reached with an electrical power consumption of 36 W. The oven is based on a stainless-steel reservoir, filled with 6 g of metallic strontium, electrically heated in a vacuum environment by a tantalum wire threaded through an alumina mul...

  6. LEP vacuum chamber, prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    Final prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber, see 8305170 for more details. Here we see the strips of the NEG pump, providing "distributed pumping". The strips are made from a Zr-Ti-Fe alloy. By passing an electrical current, they were heated to 700 deg C.

  7. LEP Vacuum Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This is a cut-out of a LEP vacuum chamber for dipole magnets showing the beam channel and the pumping channel with the getter (NEG) strip and its insulating supports. A water pipe connected to the cooling channel can also be seen at the back.The lead radiation shield lining is also shown. See also 8305563X.

  8. Liquid Wall Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, W R

    2011-02-24

    The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

  9. OPAL Muon Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    OPAL was one of the 4 experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 to 2000. This is a slice of the outermost layer of OPAL : the muon chambers. This outside layer detects particles which are not stopped by the previous layers. These are mostly muons.

  10. Scanning bubble chamber pictures

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    These were taken at the 2 m hydrogen bubble chamber. The photo shows an early Shiva system where the pre-measurements needed to qualify the event were done manually (cf photo 7408136X). The scanning tables were located in bld. 12. Gilberte Saulmier sits on foreground, Inge Arents at centre.

  11. Heavy liquid bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1965-01-01

    The CERN Heavy liquid bubble chamber being installed in the north experimental hall at the PS. On the left, the 1180 litre body; in the centre the magnet, which can produce a field of 26 800 gauss; on the right the expansion mechanism.

  12. Secondary emission gas chamber

    CERN Document Server

    In'shakov, V; Skvortsov, V

    2014-01-01

    For a hadron calorimeter active element there is considered a gaseous secondary emis-sion detector (150 micron gap, 50 kV/cm). Such one-stage parallel plate chamber must be a radiation hard, fast and simple. A model of such detector has been produced, tested and some characteristics are presented.

  13. Characterization of sponge cake baking in an instrumented pilot oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Sommier

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The quality of baked products is the complex, multidimensional result of a recipe, and a controlled heating process to produce the desired final properties such as taste, colour, shape, structure and density. The process of baking a sponge cake in a convective oven at different air temperatures (160-180-220 °C leading to the same loss of mass was considered in this study. A special mould was used which allowed unidirectional heat transfer in the batter. Instrumentation was developed specifically for online measurement of weight loss, height variation and transient temperature profile and pressure in the product. This method was based on measuring heat fluxes (commercial sensors to account for differences in product expansion and colour. In addition, measurement of height with a camera was coupled to the product mass to calculate changes in density over time. Finally, combining this information with more traditional measurements gave a better understanding of heat and mass transfer phenomena occurring during baking.

  14. Kinetic model on coke oven gas with steam reforming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jia-yuan; ZHOU Jie-min; YAN Hong-jie

    2008-01-01

    The effects of factors such as the molar ratio of H2O to CH4 (n(H2O)/n(CH4)), methane conversion temperature and time on methane conversion rate were investigated to build kinetic model for reforming of coke-oven gas with steam. The results of experiments show that the optimal conditions for methane conversion are that the molar ratio of H2O to CH4 varies from 1.1 to 1.3and the conversion temperature varies from 1 223 to 1 273 K. The methane conversion rate is more than 95% when the molar ratio ofH2O to CH4 is 1.2, the conversion temperature is above 1 223 K and the conversion time is longer than 0.75 s. Kinetic model of methane conversion was proposed. All results demonstrate that the calculated values by the kinetic model accord with the experimental data well, and the error is less than 1.5%.

  15. Oil content and fatty acid composition of eggs cooked in drying oven, microwave and pan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhaimi, Fahad Al; Uslu, Nurhan; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the effect of heating on the oil yield and fatty acid composition of eggs cooked in drying oven, microwave oven, pan and boiled were determined, and compared. The highest oil content (15.22%) was observed for egg cooked in drying oven, while the lowest oil (5.195%) in egg cooked in pan. The cooking in microwave oven caused a decrease in oleic acid content (46.201%) and an increase in the amount of palmitic acid content (26.862%). In addition, the maximum oleic acid (65.837%) and minimum palmitic acid (14.015%) contents were observed in egg oil cooked in pan. Results showed that fatty acids were significantly affected by cooking method. This study confirms that the cooking processing influences the fatty acid composition of egg oils.

  16. Analysis and numerical simulation research of the heating process in the oven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yawei; Lei, Dingyou

    2016-10-01

    How to use the oven to bake delicious food is the most concerned problem of the designers and users of the oven. For this intent, this paper analyzed the heat distribution in the oven based on the basic operation principles and proceeded the data simulation of the temperature distribution on the rack section. Constructing the differential equation model of the temperature distribution changes in the pan when the oven works based on the heat radiation and heat transmission, based on the idea of utilizing cellular automation to simulate heat transfer process, used ANSYS software to proceed the numerical simulation analysis to the rectangular, round-cornered rectangular, elliptical and circular pans and giving out the instantaneous temperature distribution of the corresponding shapes of the pans. The temperature distribution of the rectangular and circular pans proves that the product gets overcooked easily at the corners and edges of rectangular pans but not of a round pan.

  17. Coke Oven Gas Based Methanol Production Capacity Reached 1.2 Mt/a in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Coke oven gas is one of the main byproducts of coke chemicals industry.One ton of coke formed can generate 430 m3of coke oven gas.Adoption of appropriate chemical processing method can convert methane contained in the coke oven gas into CO that can be further converted into methanol.It is learned that currently China has constructed and commissioned ten projects for manufacture of methanol fromcoke oven gas with the total production capacity reaching 1.2 Mt/a methanol.More than twenty coke gas-to-methanol units are under construction or in the stage of project design with their overall production capacity reaching nearly 3.0 Mt/a methanol.Relevant experts have indicated that the enterprises provided with coke production lines are capable of constructing coke gas-to-methanol projects to realize coproduction of coke and methanol while utilizing their own coke gas resources.

  18. Chinese Standards on Refractories Fireclay Brick and Semi-silica Brick for Coke Oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jing

    2009-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the technical requirements,test methods,quality appraisal procedure,packing,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of fireclay brick and semi-silica brick for coke oven. This standard is applicable to the fireclay brick and semi-silica brick for coke oven,and the bricks for inner linings of carbon furnace,gas generator and shaft furnace.

  19. Anechoic Radio Frequency Test Chamber

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This chamber is used for characterization test of such systems as communications gear, tanks, radar, missiles, and helicopters. The dimensions of the chamber are 114...

  20. No-Oven, No-Autoclave Composite Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Very large composite structures, such as those used in NASA's Space Launch System, push the boundaries imposed by current autoclaves. New technology is needed to maintain composite performance and free manufacturing engineers from the restraints of curing equipment size limitations. Recent efforts on a Phase II project by Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG), have advanced the technology and manufacturing readiness levels of a unique two-part epoxy resin system. Designed for room-temperature infusion of a dry carbon preform, the system includes a no-heat-added cure that delivers 350 F composite performance in a matter of hours. This no-oven, no-autoclave (NONA) composite processing eliminates part-size constraints imposed by infrastructure and lowers costs by increasing throughput and reducing capital-specific, process-flow bottlenecks. As a result of the Phase II activity, NONA materials and processes were used to make high-temperature composite tooling suitable for further production of carbon-epoxy laminates and honeycomb/ sandwich-structure composites with an aluminum core. The technology platform involves tooling design, resin infusion processing, composite part design, and resin chemistry. The various technology elements are combined to achieve a fully cured part. The individual elements are not unusual, but they are combined in such a way that enables proper management of the heat generated by the epoxy resin during cure. The result is a self-cured carbon/ epoxy composite part that is mechanically and chemically stable at temperatures up to 350 F. As a result of the successful SBIR effort, CRG has launched NONA Composites as a spinoff subsidiary. The company sells resin to end users, fabricates finished goods for customers, and sells composite tooling made with NONA materials and processes to composite manufacturers.

  1. 梅钢焦炉用后硅砖显微结构分析%Microstructure analysis of silica brick used in coke oven of Meisteel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪建国; 周宁生; 姚金甫; 高振昕

    2011-01-01

    Microstructure analysis shows quartz remains more or less silica brick used in coking chamber of coke oven,and quartz gradually becomes metastable cristobalite and then translates into tridymite in silica brick used in higher temperature combustion chamber. Phase change of silica brick only limits to transformation of quartz and metastable cristobalite. When finished,structure of silica brick trends to stable. Carbon sedimentates and graphitizes which helps to protect the silica brick and improve heat conductivity of silica brick used in coking chamber.%显微结构分析表明:焦炉炭化室用后硅砖中或多或少存在残余石英,而燃烧室由于温度较高,其硅砖中的石英逐渐经亚稳方石英转变为鳞石英.焦炉用后硅砖的相变过程只限于石英和亚稳方石英的转化,随着石英和亚稳方石英逐渐转变成鳞石英,硅砖结构趋于稳定.炭化室用后硅砖表面出现碳沉积并石墨化,对硅砖起到保护作用,并有利于提高炭化室的热导率.

  2. Vacuum Chambers for LEP sections

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The picture shows sections of the LEP vacuum chambers to be installed in the dipole magnets (left) and in the quadrupoles (right). The dipole chamber has three channels: the beam chamber, the pumping duct where the NEG (non-evaporabe getter) is installed and the water channel for cooling (on top in the picture). The pumping duct is connected to the beam chamber through holes in the separating wall. The thick lead lining to shield radiation can also be seen. These chambers were manufactured as extruded aluminium alloy profiles.

  3. Multi-anode ionization chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E. (South Setauket, NY); Smith, Graham (Port Jefferson, NY); Mahler, George J. (Rocky Point, NY); Vanier, Peter E. (Setauket, NY)

    2010-12-28

    The present invention includes a high-energy detector having a cathode chamber, a support member, and anode segments. The cathode chamber extends along a longitudinal axis. The support member is fixed within the cathode chamber and extends from the first end of the cathode chamber to the second end of the cathode chamber. The anode segments are supported by the support member and are spaced along the longitudinal surface of the support member. The anode segments are configured to generate at least a first electrical signal in response to electrons impinging thereon.

  4. Considering adaptation of electrical ovens with unit-type releasing to peculiarities of thermal energization of mineral raw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvezdin, A. V.; Bryanskikh, T. B.

    2017-01-01

    The paper gives a short overview of technologies of mineral raw material thermal treatment where application of electrical ovens with unit-type releasing is possible. Efficiency of such ovens for vermiculite concentrate and conglomerate roasting is proved by more than 13-years experience of their industrial operation. The paper furthermore considers alternative connections of energotechnological blocks of an oven in order to determine its efficient design for specific technology related to one or another mineral raw material.

  5. The APS ceramic chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milton, S.; Warner, D.

    1994-07-01

    Ceramics chambers are used in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) machines at the locations of the pulsed kicker and bumper magnets. The ceramic will be coated internally with a resistive paste. The resistance is chosen to allow the low frequency pulsed magnet field to penetrate but not the high frequency components of the circulating beam. Another design goal was to keep the power density experienced by the resistive coating to a minimum. These ceramics, their associated hardware, the coating process, and our recent experiences with them are described.

  6. Council Chamber exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    To complete the revamp of CERN’s Council Chamber, a new exhibition is being installed just in time for the June Council meetings.   Panels will showcase highlights of CERN’s history, using some of the content prepared for the exhibitions marking 50 years of the PS, which were displayed in the main building last November. The previous photo exhibition in the Council Chamber stopped at the 1970s. To avoid the new panels becoming quickly out of date, photos are grouped together around specific infrastructures, rather than following a classic time-line. “We have put the focus on the accelerators – the world-class facilities that CERN has been offering researchers over the years, from the well-known large colliders to the lesser-known smaller facilities,” says Emma Sanders, who worked on the content. The new exhibition will be featured in a future issue of the Bulletin with photos and an interview with Fabienne Marcastel, designer of the exhibit...

  7. Exposure assessment of microwave ovens and impact on total exposure in WLANs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plets, David; Verloock, Leen; Van Den Bossche, Matthias; Tanghe, Emmeric; Joseph, Wout; Martens, Luc

    2016-02-01

    In situ exposure of electric fields of 11 microwave ovens is assessed in an occupational environment and in an office. Measurements as a function of distance without load and with a load of 275 ml of tap water were performed at distances of oven (without load), which is 2.5 and 1.1 times below the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference level for occupational exposure and general public exposure, respectively. For exposure at distances of >1 m, a model of the electric field in a realistic environment is proposed. In an office scenario, switching on a microwave oven increases the median field strength from 91 to 145 mV m(-1) (+91 %) in a traditional Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) deployment and from 44 to 92 mV m(-1) (+109 %) in an exposure-optimised WLAN deployment.

  8. Estimation of radiofrequency power leakage from microwave ovens for dosimetric assessment at nonionizing radiation exposure levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Iturri, Peio; de Miguel-Bilbao, Silvia; Aguirre, Erik; Azpilicueta, Leire; Falcone, Francisco; Ramos, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    The electromagnetic field leakage levels of nonionizing radiation from a microwave oven have been estimated within a complex indoor scenario. By employing a hybrid simulation technique, based on coupling full wave simulation with an in-house developed deterministic 3D ray launching code, estimations of the observed electric field values can be obtained for the complete indoor scenario. The microwave oven can be modeled as a time- and frequency-dependent radiating source, in which leakage, basically from the microwave oven door, is propagated along the complete indoor scenario interacting with all of the elements present in it. This method can be of aid in order to assess the impact of such devices on expected exposure levels, allowing adequate minimization strategies such as optimal location to be applied.

  9. Estimation of Radiofrequency Power Leakage from Microwave Ovens for Dosimetric Assessment at Nonionizing Radiation Exposure Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peio Lopez-Iturri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The electromagnetic field leakage levels of nonionizing radiation from a microwave oven have been estimated within a complex indoor scenario. By employing a hybrid simulation technique, based on coupling full wave simulation with an in-house developed deterministic 3D ray launching code, estimations of the observed electric field values can be obtained for the complete indoor scenario. The microwave oven can be modeled as a time- and frequency-dependent radiating source, in which leakage, basically from the microwave oven door, is propagated along the complete indoor scenario interacting with all of the elements present in it. This method can be of aid in order to assess the impact of such devices on expected exposure levels, allowing adequate minimization strategies such as optimal location to be applied.

  10. Evaluation of PID Tuning Methods on Direct Gas-Fired Oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aborisade, D. O

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the temperature control of gas-fired oven using PID controller. Oven control system has the characteristics of non-linearity, time delays and setpoint response. It is difficult to overcome the effects of these factors and get the satisfactory results without appropriately tuning of the PID controller gains required for stability and good transient performance. The Ziegler-Nichols closed loop, Good Gain and Skogestad’s are the PID tuning methods implemented in this paper to control the output temperature of the gas-fired oven system. The PID tuning methods are compared, based on their rise time, maximum overshoot and settling time. The performance of Skogestad’s tuning method at different temperature set point is superior to Ziegler-Nichols closed loop and Good Gain PID tuning method.

  11. Evaluation of microwave oven heating for prediction of drug-excipient compatibilities and accelerated stability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou-Pedersen, Anne Marie V; Østergaard, Jesper; Cornett, Claus; Hansen, Steen Honoré

    2015-05-15

    Microwave ovens have been used extensively in organic synthesis in order to accelerate reaction rates. Here, a set up comprising a microwave oven combined with silicon carbide (SiC) plates for the controlled microwave heating of model formulations has been applied in order to investigate, if a microwave oven is applicable for accelerated drug stability testing. Chemical interactions were investigated in three selected model formulations of drug and excipients regarding the formation of ester and amide reaction products. In the accelerated stability studies, a design of experiments (DoE) approach was applied in order to be able to rank excipients regarding reactivity: Study A: cetirizine with PEG 400, sorbitol, glycerol and propylene glycol. Study B: 6-aminocaproic acid with citrate, acetate, tartrate and gluconate. Study C: atenolol with citric, tartaric, malic, glutaric, and sorbic acid. The model formulations were representative for oral solutions (co-solvents), parenteral solutions (buffer species) and solid dosage forms (organic acids applicable for solubility enhancement). The DoE studies showed overall that the same impurities were generated by microwave oven heating leading to temperatures between 150°C and 180°C as compared to accelerated stability studies performed at 40°C and 80°C using a conventional oven. Ranking of the reactivity of the excipients could be made in the DoE studies performed at 150-180°C, which was representative for the ranking obtained after storage at 40°C and 80°C. It was possible to reduce the time needed for drug-excipient compatibility testing of the three model formulations from weeks to less than an hour in the three case studies. The microwave oven is therefore considered to be an interesting alternative to conventional thermal techniques for the investigation of drug-excipient interactions during preformulation.

  12. Thermal oxidation of rice bran oil during oven test and microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Richa; Sharma, Harish K; Sarkar, Bhavesh C; Singh, Charanjiv

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the oxidative stability of physically refined rice bran oil (RBO) under oven heating at 63 °C and microwave heating conditions by absorptivity. Oil samples with tertiary-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) (100 ppm and 200 ppm), citric acid (CA), butylhydroxyanisole/butylhydroxytoluene (BHA/BHT) and in other combination, BHA/BHT+CA were submitted to oven test for 6 days, and the linear coefficient of correlation between peroxide value and absorptivity at 232 nm was determined. The gradual increase in peroxide value and absorptivity at 232 nm was observed in all the RBO samples, control and antioxidant added. RBO samples added with tertiary-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) had shown the least peroxide value and absorptivity as 6.10 and 5.8 respectively, when added at a concentration of 200 ppm whereas; the control RBO samples had shown the maximum values. The peroxide values obtained from the correlations during the oven test were found closely correlated with the peroxide values obtained during the microwave oven heating experimentally. The effect of microwave heating on the oryzanol content and p-anisidine value was also observed and the correlation to the oven test was established. The oryzanol content and p-anisidine values obtained after oven heating when correlated to the microwave heating data showed the oryzanol content 13,371, 13,267 and 13,188 ppm after 1 day, 4 days and 5 days respectively which were closely correlated with the experimental value.

  13. Assessment of heating rate and non-uniform heating in domestic microwave ovens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchai, Krishnamoorthy; Birla, Sohan L; Jones, David; Subbiah, Jeyamkondan

    2012-01-01

    Due to the inherent nature of standing wave patterns of microwaves inside a domestic microwave oven cavity and varying dielectric properties of different food components, microwave heating produces non-uniform distribution of energy inside the food. Non-uniform heating is a major food safety concern in not-ready-to-eat (NRTE) microwaveable foods. In this study, we present a method for assessing heating rate and non-uniform heating in domestic microwave ovens. In this study a custom designed container was used to assess heating rate and non-uniform heating of a range of microwave ovens using a hedgehog of 30 T-type thermocouples. The mean and standard deviation of heating rate along the radial distance and sector of the container were measured and analyzed. The effect of the location of rings and sectors was analyzed using ANOVA to identify the best location for placing food on the turntable. The study suggested that the best location to place food in a microwave oven is not at the center but near the edge of the turntable assuming uniform heating is desired. The effect of rated power and cavity size on heating rate and non-uniform heating was also studied for a range of microwave ovens. As the rated power and cavity size increases, heating rate increases while non-uniform heating decreases. Sectors in the container also influenced heating rate (p heating rate. In general, sectors close to the magnetron tend to heat slightly faster than sectors away from the magnetron. However, the variation in heating rate among sectors was only 2 degrees C/min and considered not practically important. Overall heating performance such as mean heating rate and non-uniform heating did not significantly vary between the two replications that were performed 4 h apart. However, microwave ovens were inconsistent in producing the same heating patterns between the two replications that were performed 4 h apart.

  14. Caesium oven design and R and D for the SPIDER beam source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzolo, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.rizzolo@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Pavei, Mauro; Pomaro, Nicola [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► The work describes the Cs oven design and its integration in the SPIDER negative ion beam source. ► Thermal and mechanical simulations have been carried out supporting the design. ► The oven features diagnostics monitoring temperatures and the remaining Cs amount. ► The Cs amount monitor relies on an electrical resistance varying with level in the reservoir. ► A proof of concept of the novel Cs level measurement system is given and demonstrate its feasibility. -- Abstract: In the ITER neutral beam injectors caesium will be used in the negative ion source to enhance the ion yield, by lowering the surface work function, and to reduce the co-extracted electrons. Fresh Cs has to be deposited almost continuously inside the plasma source and its injection is obtained by means of Cs ovens. Three independent Cs ovens have been integrated in the SPIDER (Source for Production of Ion of Deuterium Extracted from Rf plasma) beam source (BS). Since the entire BS is in-vacuum, a completely new design of the Cs ovens was required, assuring their vacuum and high temperature compatibility, and remote operation. They feature an ON–OFF valve and two independent heating systems to control the Cs evaporation and to avoid vapour condensing on the injection duct, by controlling the temperature. A Cs level indicator to measure the quantity of liquid caesium inside the reservoir, based on the electric resistance variation of an electrode, is proposed for the first time and a proof of concept is given. The oven design and the R and D activity on the level measurement system are presented.

  15. Biodegradation of Fresh vs. Oven-Dried Inedible Crop Residue in a Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Kamau; Strayer, Richard

    1998-01-01

    The degradation of soluble organics and mineral recovery from fresh and oven-dried biomass were compared in an Intermediate-Scale Aerobic Bioreactor (8 L working volume) to determine if drying crop residue improves performance in a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The study was conducted in an Intermediate-Scale Aerobic Bioreactor (ISAB) CSTR with dimensions of 390 mm height x 204 mm diameter. The pH in the bioreactor was controlled at 6.0, temperature at 30 C, and aeration at 7.0 L/min. Gases monitored were CO2 evolution and dissolved oxygen. Homogeneously mixed wheat cultures, used either fresh or oven-dried biomass and were leached, then placed in the ISAB for a 4-day degradation period. Studies found that mineral recovery was greater for leached oven-dried crop residue. However, after activity by the mixed microbial communities in the ISAB CSTR, there were little notable differences in the measured mineral recovery and degradation of soluble organic compounds. Degradation of soluble organic compounds was also shown to improve for leached oven-dried crop residue, but after mixing in the CSTR the degradation of the fresh biomass seemed to be slightly greater. Time for the biomass to turn in the CSTR appeared to be one factor for the experimental differences between the fresh and oven-dried biomass. Other factors, although not as defined, were the differing physical structures in the cell walls and varying microbial components of the fresh and oven-dried treatments due to changes in chemical composition after drying of the biomass.

  16. Mush Column Magma Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, B. D.

    2002-12-01

    Magma chambers are a necessary concept in understanding the chemical and physical evolution of magma. The concept may well be similar to a transfer function in circuit or time series analysis. It does what needs to be done to transform source magma into eruptible magma. In gravity and geodetic interpretations the causative body is (usually of necessity) geometrically simple and of limited vertical extent; it is clearly difficult to `see' through the uppermost manifestation of the concentrated magma. The presence of plutons in the upper crust has reinforced the view that magma chambers are large pots of magma, but as in the physical representation of a transfer function, actual magma chambers are clearly distinct from virtual magma chambers. Two key features to understanding magmatic systems are that they are vertically integrated over large distances (e.g., 30-100 km), and that all local magmatic processes are controlled by solidification fronts. Heat transfer considerations show that any viable volcanic system must be supported by a vertically extensive plumbing system. Field and geophysical studies point to a common theme of an interconnected stack of sill-like structures extending to great depth. This is a magmatic Mush Column. The large-scale (10s of km) structure resembles the vertical structure inferred at large volcanic centers like Hawaii (e.g., Ryan et al.), and the fine scale (10s to 100s of m) structure is exemplified by ophiolites and deeply eroded sill complexes like the Ferrar dolerites of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The local length scales of the sill reservoirs and interconnecting conduits produce a rich spectrum of crystallization environments with distinct solidification time scales. Extensive horizontal and vertical mushy walls provide conditions conducive to specific processes of differentiation from solidification front instability to sidewall porous flow and wall rock slumping. The size, strength, and time series of eruptive behavior

  17. The ALICE time projection chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    This time projection chamber is part of the ALICE detector on the new LHC accelerator at CERN. Particles produced in collisions at the core of the detector will follow paths outward through the various sub-detector layers. If these particles carry a charge, they will ionise the gas contained within this chamber producing an electric signal as the ions drift in the chamber's electric field.

  18. Effect of different flours on quality of legume cakes to be baked in microwave-infrared combination oven and conventional oven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkahraman, Betul Canan; Sumnu, Gulum; Sahin, Serpil

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the quality of legume cakes baked in microwave-infrared combination (MW-IR) oven with conventional oven. Legume cake formulations were developed by replacing 10 % wheat flour by lentil, chickpea and pea flour. As a control, wheat flour containing cakes were used. Weight loss, specific volume, texture, color, gelatinization degree, macro and micro-structure of cakes were investigated. MW-IR baked cakes had higher specific volume, weight loss and crust color change and lower hardness values than conventionally baked cakes. Larger pores were observed in MW-IR baked cakes according to scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Pea flour giving the hardest structure, lowest specific volume and gelatinization degree was determined to be the least acceptable legume flour. On the other hand, lentil and chickpea flour containing cakes had the softest structure and highest specific volume showing that lentil and chickpea flour can be used to produce functional cakes.

  19. Microwave sintering of sol-gel composite films using a domestic microwave oven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Makiko; Matsumoto, Makoto

    2016-07-01

    Feasibility study of sol-gel composite microwave sintering using a domestic microwave oven was carried out. Two kinds of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) powders were mixed with PZT sol-gel solution and the mixture was sprayed onto 3-mm-thick titanium substrate. The films were sintered by 700 W domestic oven for 10 min. Ultrasonic measurement was carried out in pulse-echo mode and clear multiple echoes were confirmed. It would be suitable method to fabricate high frequency broadband focused ultrasonic transducers. Further research is required to improve sintering degree.

  20. Systems for the coke dedusting and oven pushing; Sistema de despoeiramento do desenfornamento de coque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Vander L. da; Silvares, Paulo T.B.; Tardin, Jose G.C.; Nemtzoff, Vladimir; Vasconcelos, Celso P. de; Morimoto, Tsutomu; Diesel, Adilson [Companhia Siderurgica de Tubarao, ES (Brazil)

    1989-12-31

    With the evolution of the siderurgy industrial set-ups, it became necessary to protect the environment and the environment control turned into a factor of great influence in the viability and expansion of existing plants or new projects. In the coke oven plants a great pollution source is related to the oven pushing.In order to reduce the environmental impact related to this procedure, C.S.T. implemented a dedusting system in the coke guide, remarkably improving the working conditions. 3 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. 焦炉热工测试分析%Thermal test analysis of coke oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强生; 王丽丽; 赵春竹; 丛伟; 谢国威

    2014-01-01

    通过对焦炉的热工测试分析,定量反应了焦炉炉况,并对焦炉各项指标进行了评定,为进一步采取措施提升焦炉热效率,实现低能高效生产具有指导意义。%The thermal test analysis reflected the energy characteristic of coke oven in quantify .It e-valuated the indicators of coke oven , had a guiding significance to increase thermal efficiency by tak-ing further measures and realize efficient production by low energy consumption .

  2. Pre-commissioning of 120 kt/a Unit for Hydrotreating Crude Coke Oven Benzene Implemented at Baoyuan Chemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Baoyuan Chemical Company, Ltd. in Taiyuan has per-formed the precommissioning of a 120 kt/a unit for hydrotreating crude coke oven benzene. This unit is the phase II construction of the 300 kt/a crude benzene hydrotreating project, which adopts the process technology for hydrotreating crude coke oven benzene developed indepen-dently by our own efforts.

  3. Design of Controlled Release Non-erodible Polymeric Matrix Tablet Using Microwave Oven-assisted Sintering Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dm; Patel, Bk; Patel, Ha; Patel, Cn

    2011-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of sintering condition on matrix formation and subsequent drug release from polymer matrix tablet for controlled release. The present study highlights the use of a microwave oven for the sintering process in order to achieve more uniform heat distribution with reduction in time required for sintering. We could achieve effective sintering within 8 min which is very less compared to conventional hot air oven sintering. The tablets containing the drug (propranolol hydrochloride) and sintering polymer (eudragit S-100) were prepared and kept in a microwave oven at 540 watt, 720 watt and 900 watt power for different time periods for sintering. The sintered tablets were evaluated for various tablet characteristics including dissolution study. Tablets sintered at 900 watt power for 8 min gave better dissolution profile compared to others. We conclude that microwave oven sintering is better than conventional hot air oven sintering process in preparation of controlled release tablets.

  4. Development of Fission Chamber Assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGJinwei; ZHANGWei; SONGXianying; LIXu

    2003-01-01

    The fission chambers which are gas counters with fissile material inside chamber,provide essential information for plasma opcharacteristics. In conjunction with the neutron flux monitor system these provide time-resolved measurements of the global neutron source strength and fusion power from thermal nuclear fusion reactor as ITER for all plasma conditions for which neutrons are produced.

  5. The Big European Bubble Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    The 3.70 metre Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC), dismantled on 9 August 1984. During operation it was one of the biggest detectors in the world, producing direct visual recordings of particle tracks. 6.3 million photos of interactions were taken with the chamber in the course of its existence.

  6. National Ignition Facility Target Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wavrik, R W; Cox, J R; Fleming, P J

    2000-10-05

    On June 11, 1999 the Department of Energy dedicated the single largest piece of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. The ten (10) meter diameter aluminum target high vacuum chamber will serve as the working end of the largest laser in the world. The output of 192 laser beams will converge at the precise center of the chamber. The laser beams will enter the chamber in two by two arrays to illuminate 10 millimeter long gold cylinders called hohlraums enclosing 2 millimeter capsule containing deuterium, tritium and isotopes of hydrogen. The two isotopes will fuse, thereby creating temperatures and pressures resembling those found only inside stars and in detonated nuclear weapons, but on a minute scale. The NIF Project will serve as an essential facility to insure safety and reliability of our nation's nuclear arsenal as well as demonstrating inertial fusion's contribution to creating electrical power. The paper will discuss the requirements that had to be addressed during the design, fabrication and testing of the target chamber. A team from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and LLNL with input from industry performed the configuration and basic design of the target chamber. The method of fabrication and construction of the aluminum target chamber was devised by Pitt-Des Moines, Inc. (PDM). PDM also participated in the design of the chamber in areas such as the Target Chamber Realignment and Adjustment System, which would allow realignment of the sphere laser beams in the event of earth settlement or movement from a seismic event. During the fabrication of the target chamber the sphericity tolerances had to be addressed for the individual plates. Procedures were developed for forming, edge preparation and welding of individual plates. Construction plans were developed to allow the field construction of the target chamber to occur parallel to other NIF construction activities. This

  7. Ion chamber based neutron detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derzon, Mark S; Galambos, Paul C; Renzi, Ronald F

    2014-12-16

    A neutron detector with monolithically integrated readout circuitry, including: a bonded semiconductor die; an ion chamber formed in the bonded semiconductor die; a first electrode and a second electrode formed in the ion chamber; a neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber; and the readout circuitry which is electrically coupled to the first and second electrodes. The bonded semiconductor die includes an etched semiconductor substrate bonded to an active semiconductor substrate. The readout circuitry is formed in a portion of the active semiconductor substrate. The ion chamber has a substantially planar first surface on which the first electrode is formed and a substantially planar second surface, parallel to the first surface, on which the second electrode is formed. The distance between the first electrode and the second electrode may be equal to or less than the 50% attenuation length for neutrons in the neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber.

  8. The CLEO III drift chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, D; Briere, R A; Chen, G; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Csorna, S; Dickson, M; Dombrowski, S V; Ecklund, K M; Lyon, A; Marka, S; Meyer, T O; Patterson, J R; Sadoff, A; Thies, P; Thorndike, E H; Urner, D

    2002-01-01

    The CLEO group at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring has constructed and commissioned a new central drift chamber. With 9796 cells arranged in 47 layers ranging in radius from 13.2 to 79 cm, the new drift chamber has a smaller outer radius and fewer wires than the drift chamber it replaces, but allows the CLEO tracking system to have improved momentum resolution. Reduced scattering material in the chamber gas and in the inner skin separating the drift chamber from the silicon vertex detector provides a reduction of the multiple scattering component of the momentum resolution and an extension of the usable measurement length into the silicon. Momentum resolution is further improved through quality control in wire positioning and symmetry of the electric fields in the drift cells which have provided a reduction in the spatial resolution to 88 mu m (averaged over the full drift range).

  9. Use of a Microwave Oven. Youth Training Scheme. Core Exemplar Work Based Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Further Education Staff Coll., Blagdon (England).

    This trainer's guide is intended to assist supervisors of work-based career training projects in helping students understand the benefits, advantages, and disadvantages of a microwave oven and its use. The guide is one in a series of core curriculum modules that is intended for use in combination on- and off-the-job programs to familiarize youth…

  10. Computer-Presented Video Prompting for Teaching Microwave Oven Use to Three Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigafoos, Jeff; O'Reilly, Mark; Cannella, Helen; Upadhyaya, Megha; Edrisinha, Chaturi; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Hundley, Anna; Andrews, Alonzo; Garver, Carolyn; Young, David

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the use of a video prompting procedure for teaching three adults with developmental disabilities to make popcorn using a microwave oven. Training, using a 10-step task analysis, was conducted in the kitchen of the participant's vocational training program. During baseline, participants were instructed to make popcorn, but were given…

  11. 78 FR 4015 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products Other Than Automobiles.'' These include microwave ovens, the subject... covered products involve measurement techniques and specification of the stability criteria required to measure that power. The Second Edition contains more detailed techniques to evaluate the stability of...

  12. 3D modelling of coupled mass and heat transfer of a convection-oven roasting process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Adler-Nissen, Jens; Gernaey, Krist

    2013-01-01

    A 3D mathematical model of coupled heat and mass transfer describing oven roasting of meat has been developed from first principles. The proposed mechanism for the mass transfer of water is modified and based on a critical literature review of the effect of heat on meat. The model equations are b...

  13. 77 FR 28805 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... Parts 429 and 430 RIN 1904-AB78 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens AGENCY.... Authority and Background Title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (42 U.S.C. 6291, et seq... essentially of four parts: (1) Testing, (2) labeling, (3) Federal energy conservation standards, and...

  14. PENGUKURAN KADAR AIR AGREGAT DAN BETON SEGAR DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN MICROWAVE OVEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handoko Sugiharto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The conventional method of water content measurement of aggregate and fresh concrete need along time to perform. As an alternative the use of microwave oven is explored in this research. The microwave oven used has 900 watt power and equiped with a turn table. Nine (9 type of aggregate consist of five (5 type of fine aggregate and four (4 type of coarse aggregate with varions water absorbsion value, are unvestigated. The rater contents measured is then compared with the once obtained using conventional oven. Four (4 type of mix using aggegate with varions water absorbsion values. Water content used for the fresh concrete mix is 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7. The test results show that this method can beused to measure water content of fine and coarse aggregate regardless of the water absorbsion values of the aggregates. For fine aggregate nine (9 minutes drying time is needed to get 100% accuracy while for coarse aggregate 11 minutes with 96% accuracy. For fresh concrete using aggregate with less than 5% absorbsion value 18 minutes is neede to get 98% accuracy, while for aggregate with 40% absorbsion value 35 minutes is needed to get 80% accuracy. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Pengukuran kadar air pada agregat dan beton segar dengan metode konvensional memerlukan waktu yang cukup lama, maka dilakukan penelitian penggunaan microwave oven sebagai metode alternatifnya. Microwave oven yang digunakan mempunyai daya 900 watt dan dilengkapi dengan piring putar. Dilakukan penelitian terhadap 9 tipe agregat (5 jenis agregat halus dan 4 jenis agregat kasar dengan berbagai nilai absorpsi. Sedangkan untuk beton segar dibuat 4 macam campuran dengan berbagai nilai absorpsi agregat. Faktor air-semen yang digunakan adalah 0.3, 0.5 dan 0.7. Hasil pengukuran kadar airnya dengan microwave oven dibandingkan terhadap oven standard. Hasil tes yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa metode ini dapat digunakan untuk mengukur kadar air agregat halus dan kasar dengan tidak tergantung pada

  15. Baking Process in Oven and Microwave-oven in Sourdough Enriched with Chickpeas and Dietary Fiber of Prickly pear and Oats

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Flores-Chávez; Julio Montañez-Saenz

    2014-01-01

    The bread is a basic article dating from the Neolithic era, where it was baked in ovens outside. The first bread was prepared around the year 10.000 b. C. or what is 12.000 years in the past, where should be discovered by experiment with water and flour grains. This first bread was prepared on the basis of toasted seeds and water. The dough was formed and then warmed up on rocks. It was a kind of cake that, without a doubt, was welcomed by the first settlers of the land. The s...

  16. Cyclically controlled welding purge chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Robert L. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An arrangement for butt-welding cylindrical sections of large, thin-wall tanks includes a rotatable mandrel with side-by-side sets of radial position adjusters. Each set of adjusters bears on one of the tank sections adjacent the seam, to prevent the sections from sagging out-of-round. The mandrel rotates relative to the welder, so that a continuous seam is formed. A purge chamber is fixed in position behind the seam at the weld head, and is flushed with inert gas. The purge chamber includes a two-sided structure which is contiguous with the cylindrical sections and a circumferential vane to form an open-ended tube-like structure, through which the radial position adjusters pass as the mandrel and cylindrical workpiece sections rotate. The tube-like structure is formed into a chamber by a plurality of movable gates which are controlled to maintain a seal while allowing adjusters to progress through the purge chamber.

  17. The multigap resistive plate chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeballos, E. Cerron [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Crotty, I. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Hatzifotiadou, D. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Valverde, J. Lamas [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Univ. Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France); Neupane, S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Williams, M. C. S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Zichichi, A. [Univ. of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    2015-02-03

    The paper describes the multigap resistive plate chamber (RPC). This is a variant of the wide gap RPC. However it has much improved time resolution, while keeping all the other advantages of the wide gap RPC design.

  18. The PHENIX Time Expansion Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosati, M.; Barish, K.; Botelho, S.; Chang, W.C.; Gogoi, A.L. de; Dietzsch, O.; Ferdousi, T.; Franz, A.; Fung, S.Y.; Gannon, J.; Harder, J.; Kandasamy, A.; Khomutnikov, A.; Kotchekov, D.; Lebedev, A.; Li, X.H.; Mahon, J.; Munirassimann, M.; Negrin, J.; O' Brien, E.; O' Connor, P.; Pisani, R.; Rankowitz, S.; Seto, R.; Takagui, E.M.; Wang, H.Q

    1999-12-27

    The TEC/TRD subsystem will track all charged particles and contribute to the particle identification by the measurement of energy loss. The design, construction and testing of the TEC chambers are described.

  19. The PHENIX Time Expansion Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Rosati, M; Botelho, S; Chang, W C; Gogoi, A L D; Dietzsch, O; Ferdousi, T; Franz, A; Fung, S Y; Gannon, J; Harder, J; Kandasamy, A; Khomutnikov, A; Kotchekov, D; Lebedev, A; Li, X H; Mahon, J; Munirassimann, M; Negrin, J; O'Brien, E; O'Connor, P; Pisani, R; Rankowitz, S; Seto, R; Takagui, E M; Wang, H Q

    1999-01-01

    The TEC/TRD subsystem will track all charged particles and contribute to the particle identification by the measurement of energy loss. The design, construction and testing of the TEC chambers are described.

  20. Vaporization chambers and associated methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.; McKellar, Michael G.; Shunn, Lee P.

    2017-02-21

    A vaporization chamber may include at least one conduit and a shell. The at least one conduit may have an inlet at a first end, an outlet at a second end and a flow path therebetween. The shell may surround a portion of each conduit and define a chamber surrounding the portion of each conduit. Additionally, a plurality of discrete apertures may be positioned at longitudinal intervals in a wall of each conduit, each discrete aperture of the plurality of discrete apertures sized and configured to direct a jet of fluid into each conduit from the chamber. A liquid may be vaporized by directing a first fluid comprising a liquid into the inlet at the first end of each conduit, directing jets of a second fluid into each conduit from the chamber through discrete apertures in a wall of each conduit and transferring heat from the second fluid to the first fluid.

  1. Vacuum chambers for LHC LSS

    CERN Document Server

    Costa-Pinto, P

    2004-01-01

    The approximately 6 km total length of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) warm sections consist of about 1000 chambers. Most of these chambers, of various length and cross sections, are made of copper, but different lengths in stainless steel, mumetal, aluminium and beryllium will also be used. All the chambers will be internally coated with a thin film of TiZrV, to reduce both the secondary electron yield and the photon and electron stimulated desorption, with the further advantage of providing a huge additional pumping speed. In order to cope with the tight production schedule, a new dedicated coating facility was created, which allows four chambers to be coated per working day. This coating facility and its operating mode are described, together with the TiZrV film characteristics (structure, morphology) and performance (pumping speed, ultimate pressure, discharge gas outgassing).

  2. BEBC Big European Bubble Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    A view of the dismantling of the magnet of BEBC, the 3.7 m European Bubble Chamber : iron magnetic shielding ; lower and upper parts of the vacuum enclosure of the magnet; turbo-molecular vacuum pumps for the "fish-eye" windows; the two superconducting coils; a handling platform; the two cryostats suspended from the bar of the travelling crane which has a 170 ton carrying capacity. The chamber proper, not dismantled, is inside the shielding.

  3. Comparative Study of Alkali-Activated Fly Ash Manufactured Under Pulsed Microwave Curing and Thermal Oven Curing

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Shi; Bai, Yun; Li, H.; Xu, D. L.; Basheer, P. A. Muhammed

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares the alkali-activated fly ash (AAFA) manufactured with thermal oven curing and pulsed microwave curing methods. Fly ash activated by 8M NaOH solution at a liquid to solid ratio of 0.3 was cured by thermal oven at 85°C and domestic microwave oven, respectively. Apart from compressive strength test, the temperature profiles of AAFA samples were captured by thermal camera. Reaction products of AAFA were characterised with XRD, FTIR and TG/DTG, while the microstructure of AAFA ...

  4. Anterior chamber depth during hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracitelli CPB

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Carolina Pelegrini Barbosa Gracitelli,1 Francisco Rosa Stefanini,1 Fernando Penha,1 Miguel Ângelo Góes,2 Sérgio Antonio Draibe,2 Maria Eugênia Canziani,2 Augusto Paranhos Junior1 1Ophthalmology Department, 2Division of Nephrology, Federal University of São Paulo – UNIFESP, São Paulo, Brazil Background: Exacerbation of chronic glaucoma or acute glaucoma is occasionally observed in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD because of anterior chamber depth changes during this therapy. Purpose: To evaluate anterior chamber depth and axial length in patients during HD sessions. Methods: A total of 67 eyes of 35 patients were prospectively enrolled. Axial length and anterior chamber depth were measured using ultrasonic biometry, and these measures were evaluated at three different times during HD sessions. Body weight and blood pressure pre- and post-HD were also measured. Results: There was no difference in the axial length between the three measurements (P = 0.241. We observed a significantly decreased anterior chamber depth (P = 0.002 during HD sessions. Conclusion: Our results support the idea that there is a change in anterior chamber depth in HD sessions. Keywords: anterior chamber, hemodialysis, axial length, acute angle-closure glaucoma

  5. Baking Process in Oven and Microwave-oven in Sourdough Enriched with Chickpeas and Dietary Fiber of Prickly pear and Oats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Flores-Chávez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The bread is a basic article dating from the Neolithic era, where it was baked in ovens outside. The first bread was prepared around the year 10.000 b. C. or what is 12.000 years in the past, where should be discovered by experiment with water and flour grains. This first bread was prepared on the basis of toasted seeds and water. The dough was formed and then warmed up on rocks. It was a kind of cake that, without a doubt, was welcomed by the first settlers of the land. The sample added whit oat an increase of crust in 21.25 to 49.25 % compared to the base. On the other hand, samples added whit prickle pear increase relative was 32.25 %. The combined treatment (Microwave (MW –convection oven, the best result is the samples with fiber oats, increased more than the negative control (51 to 63 % of difference; besides the employment of mucilage of prickle pear provides a green color to the final product.

  6. 3D modelling of coupled mass and heat transfer of a convection-oven roasting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Gernaey, Krist V; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2013-04-01

    A 3D mathematical model of coupled heat and mass transfer describing oven roasting of meat has been developed from first principles. The proposed mechanism for the mass transfer of water is modified and based on a critical literature review of the effect of heat on meat. The model equations are based on a conservation of mass and energy, coupled through Darcy's equations of porous media - the water flow is mainly pressure-driven. The developed model together with theoretical and experimental assessments were used to explain the heat and water transport and the effect of the change in microstructure (permeability, water binding capacity and elastic modulus) that occur during the meat roasting process. The developed coupled partial differential equations were solved by using COMSOL Multiphysics®3.5 and state variables are predicted as functions of both position and time. The proposed mechanism was partially validated by experiments in a convection oven where temperatures were measured online.

  7. The Oxygen and Volatile Extraction Node (OVEN) Subsystem for Resource Prospector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Aaron; Oryshchyn, Lara

    2014-01-01

    The OVEN (Oxygen and Volatile Extraction Node) Subsystem is part of the RESOLVE (Regolith and Environment Science & Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction) Payload, whose main objective is to verify the presence of water and other volatiles on the lunar surface. The RESOLVE payload is scheduled to fly to the moon as part of the Resource Prospector (RP) in 2019. The OVEN Subsystem accepts regolith (soil) and evolves the volatiles contained in the sample by heating the segment to a temperature of at least 150oC for volatile analysis and as high as 900oC for hydrogen reduction. In general, a regolith segment is deposited into a crucible; the crucible is heated and evolved gases flow to a gas analyzer.

  8. Evaluation of microwave oven heating for prediction of drug-excipient compatibilities and accelerated stability studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou-Pedersen, Anne Marie V; Østergaard, Jesper; Cornett, Claus

    2015-01-01

    storage at 40°C and 80°C. It was possible to reduce the time needed for drug-excipient compatibility testing of the three model formulations from weeks to less than an hour in the three case studies. The microwave oven is therefore considered to be an interesting alternative to conventional thermal...... leading to temperatures between 150°C and 180°C as compared to accelerated stability studies performed at 40°C and 80°C using a conventional oven. Ranking of the reactivity of the excipients could be made in the DoE studies performed at 150-180°C, which was representative for the ranking obtained after...

  9. Model Predictive Control with Feedforward Strategy for Gas Collectors of Coke Ovens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai Li; Dewei Li; Yugeng Xi; Debin Yin

    2014-01-01

    In coking process, the production quality, equipment life, energy consumption, and process safety are all influenced by the pressure in gas collector pipe of coke oven, which is frequently influenced by disturbances. The main control objectives for the gas collector pressure system are keeping the pressures in collector pipes at appropriate operating point. In this paper, model predictive control (MPC) strategy is introduced to control the collector pressure system due to its ability to handle constraint and good control performance. Based on a method proposed to simplify the system model, an extended state space model predictive control is designed, which combines the feedforward strategy to eliminate the disturbance. The simulation results in a system with two coke ovens show the feasibility and effectiveness of the control scheme.

  10. Development and Application of High Quality Silica Brick for Coke Ovens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGHongmei; XIAOChangyu

    1998-01-01

    As coke oven becoming larger,silica brick for coke oven is required to be of high uqality,Luoyang Refractories(Grop)Co.Ltd.(LRCO) has re-searched the mineralizer which contains Ca2+,R+,Al3+,F-,emphatically and proposed the principle of composite mineralizer basd on the properties of raw materials used .High performance silia brick which is characterized by low thermal expansion rate,good high temperature properties,residual quartz<0.5%,true density 2.31,and high bulk density silica brick for carbonization room with apparent porosity 13% ,bulk density l.96 g/cm3 have been developed and produced successfully by LR-CO.The quality of the bricks has reached the inter-national advenced level.

  11. Effect of oven residence time on mechanical properties in rotomoulding of LLDPE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P L RAMKUMAR; SACHIN D WAIGAONKAR; D M KULKARNI

    2016-05-01

    In rotational moulding of plastics, improving the mechanical properties without sacrificing the processibility is a challenging task. In this paper, an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of oven residence time on the mechanical properties of the rotationally moulded products made using linear low densitypolyethylene. Simulation studies were conducted using ROTOSIM software to analyze thermal transitions and phase changes during the process. Degree of curing of the polymers was also assessed and correlated with mechanical properties. Experiments were further conducted to obtain favourable oven residence time to obtain highest mechanical properties. Experimental investigation revealed that there exist regions where the part was ‘under-cured’ and mechanical properties were found to be inferior. It was also found that when parts were ‘overcured’, the mechanical properties were severely affected. A regime of favourable processing window was identified where the highest tensile, flexural and impact properties were noticed.

  12. The year-book of the Coke Oven Managers' Association 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The 88th volume of the Year Book outlines activities of the Coke Oven Managers' Association throughout 2007 and reproduces transactions presented to the industry through its various sections. It includes lists of Council and committee members and representation on committees and past presidents, and a full list of members. Reports of Council 2005-6 and of the annual general meeting 2005 are included. The Presidential address by R.G.W. Sargent looks at the situation faced by coke oven managers through the decades with some predictions for the future. Carbonisation and briquetting works in the United Kingdom, Koppers carbon materials and chemical works in the UK and Europe, European coking plants, their addresses and managers are listed. Nine transactions are abstracted separately on the Coal Abstracts database.

  13. The year-book of the Coke Oven Managers' Association 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The 89th volume of the Year Book outlines activities of the Coke Oven Managers' Association throughout 2008 and reproduces transactions presented to the industry through its various sections. It includes lists of Council and Committee members and representation on committees and past presidents, and a full list of members. Reports of Council 2006-7 and of the annual general meeting 2007 are included. The Presidential address by A. Moore is about his experiences at Redcar Coke Ovens. Carbonisation and briquetting works in the United Kingdom, Koppers carbon materials and chemical works in the UK and Europe, European coking plants, their addresses and managers are listed. Six transactions are abstracted separately on the Coal Abstracts database.

  14. Selection, follow-up, and analysis in the Coke Oven Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockette, H E; Redmond, C K

    1985-05-01

    The current standard for exposure to coke oven emissions sets a permissible exposure of 150 micrograms benzene-soluble fraction of total particulate matter/m3. The major epidemiologic study that formed the basis for this standard including a review of the evidence of a dose-response relationship between exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles and lung cancer is reviewed. Particular attention was given to the selection of the cohort, follow-up procedures, and the evolution of the analysis.

  15. Robust Design of Terminal ILC with H∞ Mixed Sensitivity Approach for a Thermoforming Oven

    OpenAIRE

    Guy Gauthier; Benoit Boulet

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a robust design approach for terminal iterative learning control (TILC). This robust design uses the H∞ mixed-sensitivity technique. An industrial application is described where TILC is used to control the reheat phase of plastic sheets in a thermoforming oven. The TILC adjusts the heater temperature setpoints such that, at the end of the reheat cycle, the surface temperature map of the plastic sheet will converge to the desired one. Simulation results are included to show...

  16. CO2 recycling by means of reforming of coke oven gas for methanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Bermúdez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The steelmaking industry is the largest energyconsuming manufacturing sector. As a consequence of this, the CO2 emissions from this sector account for about 5-7 % of the total anthropogenic CO2 emissions. For this reason, increasing efforts are being made to find solutions that might help diminish these emissions and increase energy efficiency. A better management of the coke oven gas (COG surplus is one of the proposed solutions...

  17. Survey of oven during dry distillation by quenching coke oven. Part 3. ; Consideration concerning density distribution in coke mass. Cokes ro kyurei ni yoru kanryu tochu ronai chosa. Dai sanpo. ; Cokes kainai no mitsudo bunpu ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, M.; Asada, S.; Kamimura, N. (The Kansai Coke and Chemicals Co. Ltd., Hyogo (Japan))

    1992-06-25

    Recently, in order to probe the coal carbonization mechanism, many companies are carrying out surveys of the inside of an oven by quenching the same which is in dry distillation by employing an actual oven or a test one, and the following are reported; the dry distillating progress are varied at respective positions inside the oven, the portion where dry distillation is greatly delayed is caused by virtue of the action of steam generated from the non-distillated coal layer existing near the coal core rather than the plastic layer, and so forth. The writer and others have already reported that, from the results of the quenching tests carried on actual ovens, the existence of variation of dry distillation, the state of uncarbonized part of coal, the existence of temperature distribution inside coal mass showing that steam was gushing toward the wall of the oven, making it clear that steam generated from the coal layer has great effect on the progress of dry distillation. This paper gives a consideration on the relationship between the pressure exerted on the resetting surface of the plastic substance and the flow of steam inside the oven based on the densness distribution in coal mass. 7refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Evaluation of thermal treatment markers in wheat flour-derived products cooked in conventional and in low-emissivity ovens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignardi, Chiara; Cavazza, Antonella; Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Corradini, Claudio; Massini, Roberto

    2013-10-15

    Different markers for the assessment of thermal treatment entity of food products were investigated on a model bread prepared from wheat flour. Samples were submitted to different cooking procedures by combining three different times and temperatures, and employing two different ovens: a low-emissivity oven and a conventional one. The cook value index was calculated for each sample to evaluate the entity of the thermal treatment. Furosine, maltose:maltulose ratio, colour indexes (L, a, b) have been evaluated in all samples. Furosine has been quantified by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry, maltose:maltulose ratio was determined by HPAEC-PAD, colour indexes were measured by spectrophotometer method. Values for weight loss during cooking and surface temperature have also been monitored. A statistical analysis showed good correlation between the cook value index and all the parameters evaluated. Low emissivity oven shown higher performances and lower energy consumption than conventional oven.

  19. Evaluating a tobacco-curing oven using a forced-convection heat exchanger USCO — MADR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Enrique Cerquera Peña

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A traditional oven for curing tobacco leaves was redesigned (based on existing infrastructure; a forced-convection heat exchan- ger system was implemented in it which worked with coffee hulls as fuel. This oven (called a forced-convection tobacco leaf curing oven was evaluated during the harvesting season. It was found that temperature and relative humidity inside the furnace could be controlled with this assembly during the three stages involved in curing tobacco leaves. The equipment used performed excellently when using coffee hulls as fuel, having the following approximate consumption during curing: 8.92 kilograms per hour during the yellowing stage, 17.75 kilograms per hour during the leaf drying and color fixation phase and 19.29 kilograms per hour during the stem drying stage. Comparative analysis of the oven’s operating costs along with the proposed adjustments to be made to it would allow its implementation as a promising alternative in the existing tobacco chain.

  20. Improving heating uniformity of pathological tissue specimens inside a domestic microwave oven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Osama A; Kandil, Ahmed H; El Bialy, Ahmed M; Hassaballa, Iman A

    2013-01-01

    A 3D coupled electromagnetic thermal model was developed using COMSOL 4.0 to predict the electromagnetic field distribution and temperature profile in pathological tissue samples immersed in a reagent inside the oven cavity. The effect of the volume of reagent on the mean heating rate and heating uniformity within the tissue sample was investigated. Also, the effect of using a water load, as a method of temperature control, is emphasized. A well insulated K type thermocouple connected to a PC is used for model validation. Good agreement is found between experimental and simulated temperature profiles. Results show that as the volume of reagent increases, the mean heating rate decreases and temperature homogeneity increases. Also, it is possible to minimize overshooting temperature values inside the tissue sample and enhance tissue uniformity by about 27% using 100 ml of water load and 42.26% using 150 ml. Domestic microwave oven is a low cost economical tool that can speed up tissue processing steps. Achieving uniform heating inside the microwave oven is the key factor for improving workflow inside pathological labs and maintaining tissue quality and integrity.

  1. Dry matter genotypes of Cynodon by microwave and conventional oven methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Reuter de Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aimed of this work was to comparing the drying process in a microwave oven and forced air ventilation, as well as their effects on the chemical composition of different genotypes of the genus Cynodon (Tifton 85, Jiggs, Russell, Tifton 68 and Vaquero collected at different ages cutting (28, 48, 63 and 79 days. The experimental design was a randomized block in a split-plot design, with 4 replicates. There was no difference (P>0.05 between the methods analyzed on the chemical composition of the genotypes studied. Increasing age cutoff negatively influenced (P<0.05 the crude protein content of the different plant parts. A significant increase (P<0.05 of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and dry matter production was observed with increasing age cut. The use of the microwave oven is a quick and precise method obtain the dry matter content of the fodder showing efficiency similar to the method of drying in an oven with forced air circulation. The genotypes showed better chemical composition results when handled at age 28 days.

  2. Final environmental information volume for the coke oven gas cleaning project at the Bethlehem Steel Corporation Sparrows Point Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-04-24

    Bethelehem Steel Corporation (BSC) is planning to conduct a demonstration project involving an integrated system that can be retrofitted into coke oven gas handling systems to address a variety of environmental and operational factors in a more cost-effective manner. Successful application of this technology to existing US coke plants could: (1) reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, cyanide, and volatile organic compounds (including benzene) (2) reduce the cost and handling of processing feed chemicals, (3) disposal costs of nuisance by-products and (4) increase reliability and reduce operation/maintenance requirements for coke oven gas desulfurization systems. The proposed system will remove sulfur from the coke oven gas in the form of hydrogen sulfide using the ammonia indigenous to the gas as the primary reactive chemical. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide are also removed in this process. The hydrogen sulfide removed from the coke oven gas in routed to a modified Claus plant for conversion to a saleable sulfur by-product. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide will be catalytically converted to hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The tail gas from the sulfur recovery unit is recycled to the coke oven gas stream, upstream of the new gas cleaning system. The proposed demonstration project will be installed at the existing coke oven facilities at BSC's Sparrows Point Plant. This volume describes the proposed actions and the resulting environmental impacts. 21 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. The CLAS drift chamber system

    CERN Document Server

    Mestayer, M D; Asavapibhop, B; Barbosa, F J; Bonneau, P; Christo, S B; Dodge, G E; Dooling, T; Duncan, W S; Dytman, S A; Feuerbach, R; Gilfoyle, G P; Gyurjyan, V; Hicks, K H; Hicks, R S; Hyde-Wright, C E; Jacobs, G; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Kossov, M; Kuhn, S E; Magahiz, R A; Major, R W; Martin, C; McGuckin, T; McNabb, J; Miskimen, R A; Müller, J A; Niczyporuk, B B; O'Meara, J E; Qin, L M; Raue, B A; Robb, J; Roudot, F; Schumacher, R A; Tedeschi, D J; Thompson, R A; Tilles, D; Tuzel, W; Vansyoc, K; Vineyard, M F; Weinstein, L B; Wilkin, G R; Yegneswaran, A; Yun, J

    2000-01-01

    Experimental Hall B at Jefferson Laboratory houses the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer, the magnetic field of which is produced by a superconducting toroid. The six coils of this toroid divide the detector azimuthally into six sectors, each of which contains three large multi-layer drift chambers for tracking charged particles produced from a fixed target on the toroidal axis. Within the 18 drift chambers are a total of 35,148 individually instrumented hexagonal drift cells. The novel geometry of these chambers provides for good tracking resolution and efficiency, along with large acceptance. The design and construction challenges posed by these large-scale detectors are described, and detailed results are presented from in-beam measurements.

  4. "Flat-Fish" Vacuum Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    The picture shows a "Flat-Fish" vacuum chamber being prepared in the ISR workshop for testing prior to installation in the Split Field Magnet (SFM) at intersection I4. The two shells of each part were hydroformed from 0.15 mm thick inconel 718 sheet (with end parts in inconel 600 for easier manual welding to the arms) and welded toghether with two strips which were attached by means of thin stainless steel sheets to the Split Field Magnet poles in order to take the vertical component of the atmospheric pressure force. This was the thinnest vacuum chamber ever made for the ISR. Inconel material was chosen for its high elastic modulus and strenght at chamber bake-out temperature. In this picture the thin sheets transferring the vertical component of the atmosferic pressure force are attached to a support frame for testing. See also 7712182, 7712179.

  5. Impedances of Laminated Vacuum Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burov, A.; Lebedev, V.; /Fermilab

    2011-06-22

    First publications on impedance of laminated vacuum chambers are related to early 70s: those are of S. C. Snowdon [1] and of A. G. Ruggiero [2]; fifteen years later, a revision paper of R. Gluckstern appeared [3]. All the publications were presented as Fermilab preprints, and there is no surprise in that: the Fermilab Booster has its laminated magnets open to the beam. Being in a reasonable mutual agreement, these publications were all devoted to the longitudinal impedance of round vacuum chambers. The transverse impedance and the flat geometry case were addressed in more recent paper of K. Y. Ng [4]. The latest calculations of A. Macridin et al. [5] revealed some disagreement with Ref. [4]; this fact stimulated us to get our own results on that matter. Longitudinal and transverse impendances are derived for round and flat laminated vacuum chambers. Results of this paper agree with Ref. [5].

  6. Ionization chambers for LET determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Franz-Joachim; Bassler, Niels; Tölli, Heikki

    2010-01-01

    resolution and high sensitivity are necessary. For exact dosimetry which is done using ionization chambers (ICs), the recombination taking place in the IC has to be known. Up to now, recombination is corrected phenomenologically and more practical approaches are currently used. Nevertheless, Jaff´e's theory...... of columnar recombination was designed to model the detector efficiency of an ionization chamber. Here, we have shown that despite the approximations and simplification made, the theory is correct for the LETs typically found in clinical radiotherapy employing particles from protons to carbon ions...

  7. Ionization Chamber Measures Extreme Ultraviolet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Robert W.

    1987-01-01

    Ionization chamber operates in nearly total photon absorption as stable, self-calibrating detector of ionizing extreme ultraviolet radiation. Working gas of instrument is neon; photoionization properties well known and readily applicable to absolute measurements. Designed for measurements of solar ultraviolet flux aboard sounding rocket, instrument used on Earth to measure ultraviolet radiation in vacuum systems. Ionization chamber collects positive neon ions and electrons produced by irradiation of neon gas by ultraviolet photons. Approximately one ion produced by each photon; consequently, photoionization current nearly proportional to photon flux.

  8. Testing an hydrogen streamer chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    A 2x10 cm gap streamer chamber, 35x55 cm2 in surface, was built and tested at CERN. Good tracks of cosmic rays were obtained up to atmospheric pressure, see F. Rohrbach et al, CERN-LAL (Orsay) Collaboration, Nucl. Instr. Methods 141 (1977) 229. Michel Cathenoz stand on the center.

  9. A dual deformable reverberation chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank

    2010-01-01

    There is disclosed an arrangement for measuring the effectiveness of a shielding material against electromagnetic fields. The arrangement comprises a first and a second reverberation chamber sharing a common wall. The common wall is partly made of the shielding material. A first antenna is arranged

  10. Bubble chamber: colour enhanced tracks

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    This artistically-enhanced image of real particle tracks was produced in the Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC). Liquid hydrogen is used to create bubbles along the paths of the particles as a piston expands the medium. A magnetic field is produced in the detector causing the particles to travel in spirals, allowing charge and momentum to be measured.

  11. DELPHI's Ring Imaging Cherenkov Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    The hundreds of mirrors around this Ring Imaging Cherenkov Chamber reflect cones of light created by fast moving particles to a detector. The velocity of a particle can be measured by the size of the ring produced on the detector. DELPHI, which ran from 1989 to 2000 on the LEP accelerator, was primarily concerned with particle identification.

  12. Hydrostatic Hyperbaric Chamber Ventilation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarguisingh, Miriam J.

    2012-01-01

    The hydrostatic hyperbaric chamber (HHC) represents the merger of several technologies in development for NASA aerospace applications, harnessed to directly benefit global health. NASA has significant experience developing composite hyperbaric chambers for a variety of applications. NASA also has researched the application of water-filled vessels to increase tolerance of acceleration forces. The combination of these two applications has resulted in the hydrostatic chamber, which has been conceived as a safe, affordable means of making hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) available in the developing world for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions. Specifically, HBOT is highly-desired as a possibly curative treatment for Buruli Ulcer, an infectious condition that afflicts children in sub-Saharan Africa. HBOT is simply too expensive and too dangerous to implement in the developing world using standard equipment. The HHC technology changes the paradigm. The HHC differs from standard hyperbaric chambers in that the majority of its volume is filled with water which is pressurized by oxygen being supplied in the portion of the chamber containing the patient s head. This greatly reduces the amount of oxygen required to sustain a hyperbaric atmosphere, thereby making the system more safe and economical to operate. An effort was taken to develop an HHC system to apply HBOT to children that is simple and robust enough to support transport, assembly, maintenance and operation in developing countries. This paper details the concept for an HHC ventilation and pressurization system to provide controlled pressurization and adequate washout of carbon dioxide while the subject is enclosed in the confined space during the administration of the medical treatment. The concept took into consideration operational complexity, safety to the patient and operating personnel, and physiological considerations. The simple schematic, comprised of easily acquired commercial hardware

  13. Drying Characteristics and Product Quality of Lemon Slices Dried with Hot Air Circulation Oven and Hybrid Heatpump Dryers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Hong Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, drying characteristics and product quality of Coulomb-force-assisted heatpump and oven dried lemon slices were studied. Lemon slices with 3 mm thickness each, were dried using oven and Coulomb-force-assisted-heatpump dryer with and without auxiliary heater at different drying conditions. It was found that the drying rate of the lemon slices dried by all drying methods showed only falling rate states, which indicates the drying kinetics were controlled by internal moisture diffusion. Oven drying of lemon slices at 60°C showed the highest drying rate among all, followed by oven dried slices at 50°C, Coulomb-force-heater-assisted-heatpump (CF-HT-HP dried slices at 31°C, Coulomb-force-assisted-heatpump (CF-HP dried slices at 22°C, oven dried slices at 40°C and heatpump dried slices at 22°C. The average effective moisture diffusivity value for the slices dried with these drying methods was found in the range of 16.2 to 63.8´10-4 mm2min-1. In terms of quality assessment, CF-HP dried lemon slices retained the highest amount of Vitamin C as compared to the lemon slices dried by other drying methods. However, it retained relatively lower amount of total phenolic content (TPC as compared to oven dried products. Among of all, CF-HP drying method produced dried lemon slices with the highest Vitamin C (6.74 mg AA / g dry weight whereas oven dried lemon slices at 50°C preserved most of the TPC in the dried slices, which recorded as 13.76 mg GA / g dry weight.

  14. 宝钢三期焦炉高开工率加热调节实践%Heating regulation practice for high pushing rate of Baosteel 3rd coke oven battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 余国普

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the thermal regulation practice of Baosteel JNX60-2 type coke oven battery for 125%pushing rate, analyzes the difficulties for high pushing rate.High pushing rate can be achieved by regulating the temperature distribution in the chamber during production and heating schedule.%介绍了JNX60-2型焦炉125%高开工率生产的热工调节实践,分析了高开工率的生产难点,调整了生产条件下的焦炉温度分布,总结提出了高开工率的加热制度。

  15. Innovation Researchon Preventing Microwave Leakage from Household Microware Oven%家用微波炉防微波泄漏创新研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金友华; 杨宇澄; 王德明; 张磊; 陈瑞

    2013-01-01

    Generally, household microwave oven uses door body to prevent the microwave leakage. A door coupled to the body for opening and closing the cooking chamber, and a multi-stage choke seal formed at the door and having different resonant frequencies and different LC resonant circuits for preventing the microwave from being leaked between the body and the door. In this paper, we talk about several innovative means which can improve the safety performance to prevent the leakage of the microwave cooker.%家用微波炉用门体对微波炉进行防微波泄漏,门体用于实现打开和关闭微波炉腔体,并且通过门自身的抗流结构,采用不同的LC震荡电路来阻断从门体和腔体之间泄漏出的微波。在这里我们讨论几种创新性的方法来防止微波泄漏,提高微波炉自身的安全性能。

  16. Growing and Analyzing Biofilms in Flow Chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Sternberg, Claus

    2011-01-01

    This unit describes the setup of flow chamber systems for the study of microbial biofilms, and methods for the analysis of structural biofilm formation. Use of flow chambers allows direct microscopic investigation of biofilm formation. The biofilms in flow chambers develop under hydrodynamic...... conditions, and the environment can be carefully controlled and easily changed. The protocols in this unit include construction of the flow chamber and the bubble trap, assembly and sterilization of the flow chamber system, inoculation of the flow chambers, running of the system, image capture and analysis...

  17. Growing and analyzing biofilms in flow chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Sternberg, Claus

    2011-01-01

    This unit describes the setup of flow chamber systems for the study of microbial biofilms, and methods for the analysis of structural biofilm formation. Use of flow chambers allows direct microscopic investigation of biofilm formation. The biofilms in flow chambers develop under hydrodynamic...... conditions, and the environment can be carefully controlled and easily changed. The protocols in this unit include construction of the flow chamber and the bubble trap, assembly and sterilization of the flow chamber system, inoculation of the flow chambers, running of the system, image capture and analysis...

  18. Microwave oven heating for inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes on frankfurters before consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Marval, Mawill; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Kendall, Patricia A; Scanga, John A; Belk, Keith E; Sofos, John N

    2009-10-01

    Microwave oven heating was evaluated for inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes on inoculated and stored frankfurters. Frankfurters formulated without/with 1.5% potassium lactate and 0.1% sodium diacetate were inoculated with L. monocytogenes (1.9 +/- 0.2 log CFU/cm(2)), vacuum-packaged, and stored (4 degrees C) to simulate conditions prior to purchase by consumers. At storage days 18, 36, and 54, packages were opened and placed at 7 degrees C, simulating aerobic storage in a household refrigerator. At 0, 3, and 7 d of aerobic storage, 2 frankfurters were placed in a bowl with water (250 mL) and treated in a household microwave oven at high (1100 W) power for 30, 45, 60, or 75 s, or medium (550 W) power for 60 or 75 s. Frankfurters and the heating water were analyzed for total microbial counts and L. monocytogenes populations. Exposure to high power for 75 s reduced pathogen levels (0.7 +/- 0.0 to 1.0 +/- 0.1 log CFU/cm(2)) to below the detection limit ( 1.5 and 5.9 log CFU/cm(2) from control levels of 1.5 +/- 0.1 to 7.2 +/- 0.5 log CFU/cm(2). Depending on treatment and storage time, the water used to reheat the frankfurters had viable L. monocytogenes counts of microwave oven at high power for 75 s to inactivate up to 3.7 log CFU/cm(2) of L. monocytogenes contamination.

  19. Death in the "microwave oven": A form of execution by carbonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durão, Carlos; Machado, Marcos P; Daruge Júnior, Eduardo

    2015-08-01

    Death in the "microwave oven" has nothing to do with microwaves energy. It is the jargon name given to a criminal form of execution by carbonization that has been adopted by drug dealers in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). The goal is to torture and intimidate victims, in an attempt of corpse occultation and to make identification harder or impossible. This paper brings to attention of the forensic international community an unusual and very cruel form of execution as a way to document these situations.

  20. Thermal treatment of superconductor thin film of the BSCCO system using domestic microwave oven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, J. B.; Carvalho, C. L.; Torsoni, G. B.; Aquino, H. A.; Zadorosny, R.

    2012-08-01

    In this work, we report the preparation of a superconductor thin film of the BSCCO system using a good quality powder with nominal composition Bi1.8Pb0.4Sr2CaCu2Ox which was thermally treated using a domestic microwave oven (2.45 GHz, 800 W). This film was grew on a single crystal of LaAlO3 (1 0 0) substrate and exhibited a crystalline structure with the c-axis perpendicular to the plane of the substrate. An onset superconducting transition temperature was measured at 80 K.

  1. Microwave chemistry: Effect of ions on dielectric heating in microwave ovens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Anwar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand the interactions of microwaves with dielectric materials and their conversion to thermal energy in aqueous systems, the effect of ionic concentration has been studied. Aqueous solutions of inorganic ions were exposed to microwaves (2.45 GHz in a modified oven under identical conditions. Difference in solution temperatures with reference to pure (deionized water was monitored in each case. A significant decrease in the temperature was observed with an increase in the quantity of ions. Experiments were repeated with several inorganic ions varying in size and charge. The information can be helpful in understanding the role of ions during dielectric heating.

  2. Robust Design of Terminal ILC with H∞ Mixed Sensitivity Approach for a Thermoforming Oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Gauthier

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a robust design approach for terminal iterative learning control (TILC. This robust design uses the H∞ mixed-sensitivity technique. An industrial application is described where TILC is used to control the reheat phase of plastic sheets in a thermoforming oven. The TILC adjusts the heater temperature setpoints such that, at the end of the reheat cycle, the surface temperature map of the plastic sheet will converge to the desired one. Simulation results are included to show the effectiveness of the control law.

  3. Thermal treatment of superconductor thin film of the BSCCO system using domestic microwave oven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, J.B.; Carvalho, C.L.; Torsoni, G.B.; Aquino, H.A. [Grupo de Desenvolvimento e Aplicacoes de Materiais, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia de Ilha Solteira, Univers Estadual Paulista-UNESP, Caixa Postal 31, 15385-000 Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil); Zadorosny, R., E-mail: rafazad@yahoo.com.br [Grupo de Desenvolvimento e Aplicacoes de Materiais, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia de Ilha Solteira, Univers Estadual Paulista-UNESP, Caixa Postal 31, 15385-000 Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil)

    2012-08-15

    In this work, we report the preparation of a superconductor thin film of the BSCCO system using a good quality powder with nominal composition Bi{sub 1.8}Pb{sub 0.4}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub x} which was thermally treated using a domestic microwave oven (2.45 GHz, 800 W). This film was grew on a single crystal of LaAlO{sub 3} (1 0 0) substrate and exhibited a crystalline structure with the c-axis perpendicular to the plane of the substrate. An onset superconducting transition temperature was measured at 80 K.

  4. Construction solutions applied at coke oven battery no. 7 in the aspect of international requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadeusz Maj; Mariola Honisz; Wladyslaw Latocha; Wiktor Humer; Ludwik Kosyrczyk [' Zdzieszowice' Coking Plant Ltd. (Poland)

    2004-07-01

    15 slides/overheads outline this presentation. In February 2003 a new coke oven battery was put into operation in Zdzieszowice. In view of Poland's joining the European Union a series of technical solutions were implemented to improve working conditions in addition to improving the technology of the coking process. The paper describes the actions taken over one and a half years of operation. These include maintaining the recommended low level of NOx emission (comparable to that of CO) by waste gas recirculation.

  5. Purification of coke oven wastewater; Depuracion de aguas residuales de coqueria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rancano, A.; Gutierrez, A.; Diaz, J.M.

    1998-06-01

    Coke oven wastewater are one of the most problematic that are produced by the iron and steel industry. They must be purified to minimise their impact on the environment. In this work a general vision about the different treatments that the wastewater must subject before being poured is showed. The options and efficiencies of every step were studied, taking special attention to the organic removal, studying the different ways to carry out this removal, centring on the biological treatment, the most used in this kind of wastewaters. (Author) 35 refs.

  6. Development Work at JYFL:Plasma Potential Measurements,Electron Heating Simulations,JYFL-MMPS,High Temperature Ovens%在JYFL开展的研究工作:等离子体势的测量、电子加热的模拟、JYFL-MMPS及高温炉子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Koivisto; G.Ciavola; P.Frondelius; T.Koponen; P.Lappalainen; T.Ropponen; M.Savonen; P.Suominent; O.Tarvainen; K.Tinschert

    2007-01-01

    Extensive plasma potential measurements have been carried out using a device developed at JYFL.In this article the main results of the measurements will be summarized.A new simulation code to study the electron heating is being developed.One objective of the code is to determine the change of the electron loss cone when the magnetic field component of the electromagnetic wave is taken into account along with the permittivity of the plasma.As a part of the work,accurate X-ray measurements have been initiated.A new plasma chamber based on the MMPS-concept (Modified MultiPole Structure)has successfully been constructed and tested with the JYFL 6.4GHZ ECRIS.The results and conclusions will be presented elsewhere in these proceedings.In the same article.a new concept of ECRIS and first results will be presented.The active development work of evaporation ovens has been carried out in a joint European collaboration(ISIBHI).The objective of the task is to make the operation of the oven reliable at 2000℃ for several days.Both resistively and inductively heated ovens have been studied and further developed.The status of this work will be presented.

  7. Effect of plant extracts on physicochemical properties of chicken breast meat cooked using conventional electric oven or microwave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rababah, T M; Ereifej, K I; Al-Mahasneh, M A; Al-Rababah, M A

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated effects of vacuum-infused fresh chicken breast meats with grape seed extracts, green tea extracts, or tertiary butyl hydroquinone on pH, texture, color, and thiobarbituric reactive substances after cooking using a microwave or conventional electric oven for 12 d storage at 5 degrees C. Thiobarbituric reactive substances values of uncooked (raw) chicken breast meats for 0 to 12 d of storage ranged from 1.12 to 3.5 mg of malonaldehyde/100 g of chicken. During 0 to 12 d of storage, thiobarbituric reactive substances values ranged from 2.50 to 7.80 and from 2.4 to 7.35 mg of malonaldehyde/100 g of chicken breast meat cooked by microwave and conventional electric oven, respectively. Meats cooked by microwave had higher redness and lower lightness values than those cooked by conventional electric oven. Also, meats cooked by microwave had higher maximum shear force, working of shear, hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, and chewiness values than meats cooked by conventional electric oven. Tertiary butyl hydroquinone was the most effective in raw and cooked meats in reducing lipid oxidation, followed by grape seed and green tea extracts. Plant extracts are effective in preventing undesirable changes in chemical properties in chicken breast meat caused by microwave and conventional electric oven cooking.

  8. Aquecimento em forno de microondas / desenvolvimento de alguns conceitos fundamentais Heating in microwave ovens/ developing of basic concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia R. N. Barboza

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The microwave oven became a common domestic equipment, due mainly to the short time spent to heat foods. One of the most interesting characteristics of the microwave oven is the selective heating. Different from the conventional oven, where the heating is not selective, the heating by microwave depends on the chemical nature of the matter. Many Students of Chemistry have no knowledge of the principles involved in this selective heating, in spite of the daily microwave oven use. The heating by microwave is feasible for chemistry courses. In discussions about the microwave absorption by the matter it is possible to explore chemical properties like: heat capacity, chemical bound, molecular structure, dipole moments, polarization and dielectric constant. This paper presents the basic principles involved in the microwave heating. It is proposed a simple and inexpensive experiment that could be developed in general chemistry courses, to illustrate the relationship between heating and the chemical properties of some solvents. Experiments to check the power of the microwave oven are also proposed.

  9. A portable miniature anechoic chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorthioir, Jack; Gavin, Paul

    The portable miniature anechoic chamber (PMAC), a low-cost alternative to a full-size anechoic chamber, is presented. The PMAC is a miniature, enclosed, RF-tight microwave antenna range, which approximates the performance of an indoor range over the C through Ku (G through J)-band frequencies. The small footprint, four by six feet, allows for ease of movement by one person to a test site, indoors or outdoors. The PMAC can be used at I (intermediate)-level to support the operational readiness (OR) requirements of the U.S. Army, Navy or Air Force. In conjunction with the antenna test equipment (ATE), and under TPS control, it can be used for performance verification, fault detection and fault isolation. A typical application using the PMAC in this operating mode is described.

  10. LEP vacuum chamber, early prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    The structure of LEP, with long bending magnets and little access to the vacuum chamber between them, required distributed pumping. This is an early prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber, made from extruded aluminium. The main opening is for the beam. The small channel to the right is for cooling water, to carry away the heat deposited by the synchroton radiation from the beam. The 4 slots in the channel to the left house the strip-shaped ion-getter pumps (see 7810255). The ion-getter pumps depended on the magnetic field of the bending magnets, too low at injection energy for the pumps to function well. Also, a different design was required outside the bending magnets. This design was therefore abandoned, in favour of a thermal getter pump (see 8301153 and 8305170).

  11. Development of multiwire proportional chambers

    CERN Multimedia

    Charpak, G

    1969-01-01

    It has happened quite often in the history of science that theoreticians, confronted with some major difficulty, have successfully gone back thirty years to look at ideas that had then been thrown overboard. But it is rare that experimentalists go back thirty years to look again at equipment which had become out-dated. This is what Charpak and his colleagues did to emerge with the 'multiwire proportional chamber' which has several new features making it a very useful addition to the armoury of particle detectors. In the 1930s, ion-chambers, Geiger- Muller counters and proportional counters, were vital pieces of equipment in nuclear physics research. Other types of detectors have since largely replaced them but now the proportional counter, in new array, is making a comeback.

  12. Actuator System with Dual Chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    (8), the lid having a shaft opening (17) for a shaft (6) coupled to the magnetic rotor (5), wherein the magnetic rotor (5), when inserted in the translator cylinder (2), is arranged to translate a linear movement of the translator cylinder (2) into a rotational movement of the magnetic rotor by using...... magnetic flux (82) interacting between the magnetic stator and the magnetic rotor, said rotational movements is being transferred through a shaft (6), the lid (8) with a shaft opening (17) arranged for receiving the shaft (6), wherein the shaft is arranged to make both the linear and the rotational...... movement in the shaft opening (17), the lid (8) being arranged for confining the second end (15) of the translator cylinder (2), the translator cylinder confined by the lid (8) forms,when divided by the magnetic rotor (5), a first chamber (TC) with a first volume and a second chamber(BC) with a second...

  13. NRAO RF Anechoic Chamber & Antenna Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A shielded anechoic chamber measuring 15 by 15 by 37 feet is located in the Jansky Laboratory at Green Bank. This chamber has been outfitted as a far-field antenna...

  14. MPS II drift chamber system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platner, E.D.

    1982-01-01

    The MPS II detectors are narrow drift space chambers designed for high position resolution in a magnetic field and in a very high particle flux environment. Central to this implementation was the development of 3 multi-channel custom IC's and one multi-channel hybrid. The system is deadtimeless and requires no corrections on an anode-to-anode basis. Operational experience and relevance to ISABELLE detectors is discussed.

  15. Wire chamber degradation at the Argonne ZGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberichter, W.; Spinka, H.

    1986-01-01

    Experience with multiwire proportional chambers at high rates at the Argonne Zero Gradient Synchrotron is described. A buildup of silicon on the sense wires was observed where the beam passed through the chamber. Analysis of the chamber gas indicated that the density of silicon was probably less than 10 ppM.

  16. 21 CFR 868.5470 - Hyperbaric chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hyperbaric chamber. 868.5470 Section 868.5470 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5470 Hyperbaric chamber. (a) Identification. A hyperbaric chamber is a device that is intended to increase the environmental oxygen pressure to promote...

  17. Vacuum chamber at intersection I-6

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    The vacuum chamber at intersection region I-6, one of these where experiments in colliding-beam physics will be taking place. The "wheels" prevent the thin wall (1.5 mm) of the chamber from collapsing. The chamber is equipped with heating tapes and its wrapped in thermal insulation. Residual gas pressure at this and other similar regions is around 10_11.

  18. Drying kinetics of apricot halves in a microwave-hot air hybrid oven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horuz, Erhan; Bozkurt, Hüseyin; Karataş, Haluk; Maskan, Medeni

    2017-01-01

    Drying behavior and kinetics of apricot halves were investigated in a microwave-hot air domestic hybrid oven at 120, 150 and 180 W microwave power and 50, 60 and 70 °C air temperature. Drying operation was finished when the moisture content reached to 25% (wet basis) from 77% (w.b). Increase in microwave power and air temperature increased drying rates and reduced drying time. Only falling rate period was observed in drying of apricot halves in hybrid oven. Eleven mathematical models were used for describing the drying kinetics of apricots. Modified logistic model gave the best fitting to the experimental data. The model has never been used to explain drying behavior of any kind of food materials up to now. Fick's second law was used for determination of both effective moisture diffusivity and thermal diffusivity values. Activation energy values of dried apricots were calculated from Arrhenius equation. Those that obtained from effective moisture diffusivity, thermal diffusivity and drying rate constant values ranged from 31.10 to 39.4 kJ/mol, 29.56 to 35.19 kJ/mol, and 26.02 to 32.36 kJ/mol, respectively.

  19. Urinary profiles to assess polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure in coke-oven workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Laura; Rossella, Federica; Pavanello, Sofia; Mielzynska, Danuta; Siwinska, Ewa; Kapka, Lucyna; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Fustinoni, Silvia

    2010-01-15

    Aim of the study was the assessment of exposure of coke-oven workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by determination of urinary profiles of hydroxylated and unmetabolized PAHs. Fifty-five Polish coke-oven workers were investigated by measurement of 12 hydroxylated metabolites of PAHs (OHPAHs) (1-, 2-hydroxynaphthalene; 2-, 9-hydroxyfluorene; 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, 9-hydroxyphenanthrene; 1-hydroxyypyrene, 6-hydroxychrysene and 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene) and 13 unmetabolized PAHs (U-PAHs) (from naphthalene to benzo[a]pyrene), in spot urine samples collected at the end of the workshift. U-PAHs with four or less rings were detected in all samples. In particular, median levels for urinary naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benz[a]anthracene were 0.806, 0.721, 0.020, 0.032 and 0.035 microg/L. OHPAHs up to 1-hydroxypyrene were found in all samples, while high molecular-weight OHPAHs were always below quantification limit. Median level of 1-hydroxyypyrene was 15.4 microg/L. In all subjects significant correlations between OHPAHs and U-PAHs were observed (0.27 < r < 0.70, p < 0.01). Our results suggest that both hydroxylated metabolites and unmetabolized PAHs in urine are useful biomarkers of exposure to PAHs. Moreover, the simultaneous determination of several biomarkers permits to obtain specific excretion profiles that might help in exposure characterization and in better defining the excretion patterns.

  20. Refrigeration cycle for cryogenic separation of hydrogen from coke oven gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun CHANG; Qing LI; Qiang LI

    2008-01-01

    Ten billion cubic meters of hydrogen are dissip-ated to the environment along with the emission of coke-oven gas every year in China. A novel cryogenic separation of hydrogen from coke oven gas is proposed to separate the hydrogen and liquefy it simultaneously, and the cooling capacity is supplied by two refrigeration cycles. The perform-ance of the ideal vapor refrigeration cycle is analyzed with methane and nitrogen as refrigerant respectively. The results show that the coefficient of performance (COP) of methane refrigeration cycle is 2.7 times that of nitrogen refrigeration cycle, and the figure of merit (FOM) of methane refrigera-tion cycle is 1.6 times that of nitrogen refrigeration cycle. The performance of ideal gas refrigeration cycle is also analyzed with neon, hydrogen and helium as refrigerant respectively. The results show that both the coefficient of performance and figure of merit of neon refrigeration cycle is the highest. It is thermodynamically possible to arrange the refrigeration cycle with methane and neon as refrigerant, respectively.

  1. Survivability of Salmonella cells in popcorn after microwave oven and conventional cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, I; Aguirrezabal, A; Ventura, M; Comellas, L; Agut, M

    2008-01-01

    The survivability of Salmonella cells in popcorn preparation was determined for two distinct cooking methods. The first method used a standard microwave oven. The second method used conventional cooking in a pan. Prior to thermal processing in independent experiments, 12 suspensions in a range between 1x10(3) and 8x10(6) colony-forming units (CFU) per gram of Salmonella cells were inoculated in both raw microwave popcorn and conventional corn kernels. The influence of the initial concentration of Salmonella cells in the raw products and the lethal effects on Salmonella by thermal treatments for cooking were studied. Survival of Salmonella cells was determined in the thermally processed material by pre-enrichment and enrichment in selective medium, in accordance with the legislation for expanded cereals and cereals in flakes. Viable experimental contaminants were recovered from the conventionally cooked popcorn with initial inoculation concentrations of 9x10(4)cells/g or greater. Salmonella cell viability was significantly reduced after microwave oven treatment, with recoveries only from initial concentrations of 2x10(6)cells/g or superior.

  2. Multiple tube structure for heating uniformity and efficiency optimization of microwave ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Rong; Yang, Xiaoqing; Sun, Di; Jia, Guozhu

    2015-02-01

    Microwave heating is widely applied to microwave assisted chemical reactions in modified domestic microwave ovens, however, the potential issues (non-uniformity and low heating efficiency) still exist during the heating process. In this paper, a new heating model of multiple tube structure is proposed and the relevant simulations and experiments of heating water were performed based on the computational platform COMSOL Multi-physics software in order to achieve the better temperature uniformity and heating efficiency. Besides, the influence of the instability of microwave ovens on the heating performances of the optimal heating models was analyzed. The simulation results show that the heating uniformity and efficiency of water in optimal six tube structure increased by 7.1% and 68.5% (30 mL), 9.2% and 61% (60 mL) respectively compared with the optimal single tube structure. Moreover, the heating performances of the optimal heating models do not change obviously, while the working frequency and power change slightly. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experiment data.

  3. Effect of Heating at Oven-Dry State on Steam Treated Bamboo Powder Thermal Fluidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kajikawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In hot molding processes of woody material, it is important to understand the effect of oven-dry heating on the property of woody biomass material, such as thermal fluidity. In this study, thermal flow tests of untreated and steam treated bamboo powder were conducted to investigate the effects of heating at an oven-dry state on thermal fluidity. The test temperature was set to 200°C. Before the thermal flow test, powder was dry-heated in a capillary rheometer at 200°C with a variable heating time. Thermogravimetry was conducted to understand the thermal changes of the powder during an increasing temperature and constant temperature. Fluidity of untreated powder was improved with a short dry-heating but decreased with a long dry-heating. In contrast, steam treated powder fluidity was high compared to untreated one, but its fluidity did not improve from dry-heating. From these thermogravimetry results, the chemical changes associated with component volatilization relate with the thermal fluidity. Therefore, the decrease in fluidity from dry-heating occurred because fluidity related components escape from the powder through volatilization.

  4. Experimental and analytical temperature distributions during oven-based convection heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Kathryn L; McCarthy, Michael J; Rakesh, Vineet; Datta, Ashim K

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical models, combined with experimental evaluation, provide an approach to understand, design, and optimize food process operations. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as an experimental technique, is used extensively in both medical and engineering applications to measure and quantify transport processes. Magnetic resonance (MR) was used in this study to assess a mathematical model based on Fourier's second law. The objective was to compare analytical solutions for the prediction of internal temperature distributions in foods during oven-based convective heating to experimental temperature measurements and determine at what point during the heating process a coupled heat and mass transport process should be considered. Cylindrical samples of a model food gel, Russet potato and rehydrated mashed potato were heated in a convection oven for specified times. Experimentally measured internal temperatures were compared to the internal temperatures predicted by the analytical model. Temperatures distributions in the axial direction compared favorably for the gel and acceptably for the Russet and mashed potato samples. The MR-acquired temperatures in the radial direction for the gel resulted in a shallower gradient than predicted but followed the expected trend. For the potato samples, the MR-acquired temperatures in the radial direction were not qualitatively similar to the analytical predictions due to moisture loss during heating. If temperature resolution is required in the radial direction, moisture losses merit the use of transport models that couple heat and mass transfer.

  5. Antilisterial properties of marinades during refrigerated storage and microwave oven reheating against post-cooking inoculated chicken breast meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouladkhah, Aliyar; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Nychas, George-John; Sofos, John N

    2013-02-01

    This study evaluated growth of Listeria monocytogenes inoculated on cooked chicken meat with different marinades and survival of the pathogen as affected by microwave oven reheating. During aerobic storage at 7 °C, on days 0, 1, 2, 4, and 7, samples were reheated by microwave oven (1100 W) for 45 or 90 s and analyzed microbiologically. L. monocytogenes counts on nonmarinated (control) samples increased (P Microwave oven reheating reduced L. monocytogenes counts by 1.9 to 4.1 (45 s) and >2.4 to 5.0 (90 s) log CFU/g. With similar trends across different marinates, the high levels of L. monocytogenes survivors found after microwave reheating, especially after storage for more than 2 d, indicate that length of storage and reheating time need to be considered for safe consumption of leftover cooked chicken.

  6. A mathematical model of aerosol holding chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zak, M; Madsen, J; Berg, E

    1999-01-01

    A mathematical model of aerosol delivery from holding chambers (spacers) was developed incorporating tidal volume (VT), chamber volume (Vch), apparatus dead space (VD), effect of valve insufficiency and other leaks, loss of aerosol by immediate impact on the chamber wall, and fallout of aerosol...... in the chamber with time. Four different spacers were connected via filters to a mechanical lung model, and aerosol delivery during "breathing" was determined from drug recovery from the filters. The formula correctly predicted the delivery of budesonide aerosol from the AeroChamber (Trudell Medical, London...

  7. Experience in the adoption of a coke battery with ovens 41. 6 m/sup 3/ in volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chemarda, N.A.; Khlebnikov, O.F.; Dobrovinskii, G.B.; Stel' makh, V.A.; Maslova, L.R.; Muzychuk, V.D.

    1982-11-06

    The performance, product quality and design differences of a new, 41.6 m/sup 3/ coking oven battery have been evaluated and compared with those of older smaller units over two years. Improvement in the uniformity of coke bed heating was attained by optimization of combustion air supply and the degree of recirculation of combustion products. Coke produced compares favorably with that from smaller ovens, but has a slightly smaller particle size. Product moisture content is adversely affected by design deficiencies in the wet quenching system. They are being corrected by adoption of a pulsed quenching system and a new irrigation device.

  8. Performance and microbial community analysis of the anaerobic reactor with coke oven gas biomethanation and in situ biogas upgrading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Xie, Li; Luo, Gang;

    2013-01-01

    (HFM). With pH control at 8.0, the added H2 and CO were fully consumed and no negative effects on the anaerobic degradation of sewage sludge were observed. The maximum CH4 content in the biogas was 99%. The addition of SCOG resulted in enrichment and dominance of homoacetogenetic genus Treponema......A new method for simultaneous coke oven gas (COG) biomethanation and in situ biogas upgrading in anaerobic reactor was developed in this study. The simulated coke oven gas (SCOG) (92% H2 and 8% CO) was injected directly into the anaerobic reactor treating sewage sludge through hollow fiber membrane...

  9. Loss of ions in cavity ionization chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takata, N. [Ionizing Radiation Section, NMIJ/AIST, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan)]. E-mail: n.takata@aist.go.jp; Tran, N.T. [Institute for Nuclear Science and Technique, VAEC, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Kim, E. [Radiation Safety Section, NIRS, Inageku, Chiba-city 263-8555 (Japan); Marsoem, P. [P3KRBiN-BATAN, JL Cinere-Pasar Jum' at, Jakarta 12070 (Indonesia); Kurosawa, T. [Ionizing Radiation Section, NMIJ/AIST, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan); Koyama, Y. [Ionizing Radiation Section, NMIJ/AIST, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan)

    2005-12-01

    Ion losses due to initial recombination, volume recombination, and back diffusion were each determined by measurements and calculations for different size cylindrical ionization chambers and spherical ionization chambers. By measuring signal currents from these ionization chambers irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma rays, two groups of ion losses were obtained. (Group 1) Ion loss due to initial recombination and diffusion, which changes proportionally to the inverse of the voltage applied to the ionization chambers; (and group 2) ion loss due to volume recombination, which changes proportionally to the inverse of the square of the applied voltage. The diffusion loss was obtained separately by computing electric field distributions in the ionization chambers. It was found that diffusion loss is larger than initial recombination loss for the cylindrical ionization chambers and vise versa for the spherical ionization chambers.

  10. Pupillary block glaucoma following implantation of a posterior chamber pseudophakos in the anterior chamber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Anil

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Pupillary block glaucoma is a common complication of cataract surgery, especially following anterior chamber intraocular lens implantation. We report a case of pupillary block glaucoma with a posterior chamber IOL that was implanted in the anterior chamber following a complicated extracapsular cataract extraction. The case was successfully managed by explantation of the posterior chamber lens, anterior vitrectomy, peripheral iridectomy and secondary anterior chamber intraocular lens implantation. The intraocular pressure was controlled with a single topical antiglaucoma medication.

  11. Using the stable HSPA1A promoter-driven luciferase reporter HepG2 cells to assess the overall toxicity of coke oven emissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    信丽丽

    2013-01-01

    Objective Using the stable HSPA1A(HSP70-1) promoter-driven luciferase reporter HepG2 cells(HepG2/HSPA1A cells) to assess the overall toxicity of coke oven emissions. Methods The stable HepG2/HSPA1A cells were treated with different concentrations of coke oven

  12. Surface treatment of dental porcelain: CO2 laser as an alternative to oven glaze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgura, Ricardo; Reis, Mariana Cavalcante; Hernandes, Antonio Carlos; de Abreu Fantini, Márcia Carvalho; Andreeta, Marcello Rubens Barsi; Medeiros, Igor Studart

    2015-02-01

    This work tested continuous CO2 laser as a surface treatment to dental porcelain and compared it to oven glaze (auto-glaze) by means of roughness and color parameters. Three commercial veneering porcelains with different crystalline content were tested: VM7, VM9, and VM13. Porcelain discs (3.5 × 2.0 mm, diameter × height) were sintered and had one side ground by a diamond bur (45 μm) simulating a chairside adjustment in a clinical office. Specimens (n = 7) were divided into the following groups: C--control (no treatment), G--auto-glaze (oven), and L--surface continuous irradiation with CO2 laser (Gem Laser, Coherent; λ = 10.6 μm). Laser was tested in three exposure times (3, 4, or 5 min) and two irradiances (45 and 50 W/cm(2)). Roughness parameters (Ra, Rz, and Rpm/Rz) were measured using a rugosimeter (Surftest 301, Mitutoyo). Color differences (ΔE) between the G and L groups were calculated (VITA Easyshade); ΔE values up to 3.3 were considered as not perceivable. A surface analysis was conducted by stereomicroscopy (Olympus SZ61) and SEM (Stereoscan 440, LEO). Crystalline content of specimens from groups C and L (50 W/cm(2), 5 min) was assessed by X-ray diffraction and then compared. Surface roughness (Ra and Rz) observed for laser-irradiated groups was similar to G for all studied porcelains. Rpm/Rz ratios were near 1.0 for all groups that indicated a sharp ridge profile for all specimens. Only one laser condition studied (50 W/cm(2), 3 min) from VM7 porcelain resulted in color difference (ΔE = 3.5) to G. Specimens irradiated with 50 W/cm(2) for 5 min presented the smoother surface observed by SEM, comparable to G. X-ray diffraction data revealed an increase in leucite crystallite size for VM9 and VM13 porcelains after laser treatment. Regarding roughness, continuous CO2 laser applied on porcelain surface was as effective as conventional oven auto-glaze.

  13. Physicist makes muon chamber sing

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    This Monitored Drift Tube detector, consisting of argon-CO2-filled aluminium tubes with a wire down the centre of each, will track muons in ATLAS; Tiecke used a single tube from one of these detectors to create the pipes in his organ. Particle physicists can make good musicians; but did you know particle detectors can make good music? That's what NIKHEF physicist Henk Tiecke learned when he used pipes cut from the ATLAS Monitored Drift Tube detector (MDT) to build his own working Dutch-style barrel organ in the autumn of 2005. 'I like to work with my hands,' said Tiecke, who worked as a senior physicist at NIKHEF, Amsterdam, on ZEUS until his retirement last summer. Tiecke had already constructed his barrel organ when he visited some colleagues in the ATLAS muon chambers production area at Nikhef in 2005. He noticed that the aluminium tubes they were using to build the chambers were about three centimetres in diameter-just the right size for a pipe in a barrel organ. 'The sound is not as nice as from wooden...

  14. Limits to Drift Chamber Resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Riegler, Werner

    1998-01-01

    ATLAS (A Large Toroidal LHC Apparatus) will be a general-purpose experiment at the Large Hadron Collider that will be operational at CERN in the year 2004. The ATLAS muon spectrometer aims for a momentum resolution of 10% for a transverse momentum of pT=1TeV. The precision tracking devices in the muon system will be high pressure drift tubes (MDTs) with a single wire resolution of 1100 chambers covering an area of ≈ 2500m2. The high counting rates in the spectrometer as well as the aim for excellent spatial resolution and high efficiency put severe constraints on the MDT operating parameters. This work describes a detailed study of all the resolution limiting factors in the ATLAS environment. A ’full chain’ simulation of the MDT response to photons and charged particles as well as quantitative comparisons with measurements was performed. The good agreement between simulation and measurements resulted in a profound understanding of the drift chamber processes and the individual contributions to the spat...

  15. Application of unroofing renovation in hot repair of coke oven battery%揭顶翻修技术在焦炉热维修中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟彪

    2015-01-01

    针对焦炉炉体出现的墙面剥蚀、炉间框缝缺料、过顶砖裂缝、炉底砖龟裂和破损等问题,采用揭顶翻修技术对焦炉进行热维修,维修效果良好,焦炉生产正常,具有一定的借鉴意义。%Regarding to the problems of coke oven proper such as denudation of oven wall, gap between oven bricks,crack on the crossover bricks,chopping and damage of bottom bricks,unroofing renovation technique is adopted to repair coke oven battery under hot state.The result is good and the coke oven battery after repair is in normal operation.The application of this technique in Jiusteel has reference significance for other coking plants.

  16. New Coke Oven Facilities at Linhuan Coal Chemical Company Adopt LyondellBasell's Aromatics Extraction Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The new 80 kt/a coal chemical unit at the Linhuan Coal Chemical Company in Anhui province will adopt the aro-matics extraction process licensed by LyondellBasell Company. This unit is expected to come on stream by 2009.This technology is suitable for manufacture of high-purity aromatics with broad adaptability and large scale produc-tion capability. In the previous year LyondellBasell was awarded six patents on aromatics extraction process. It is told that the achievements to be adopted by the Linhuan Coal Chemical Company are partly a series of aromatics extrac-tion processes for recovery of coke oven light oil performed by LyondellBasell.

  17. DETERMINATION OF MOISTURE CONTENT OF BAGASSE OF JAGGERY UNIT USING MICROWAVE OVEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. ANWAR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In jaggery making furnaces, sugarcane bagasse is used as fuel. Moisture content of bagasse affects its calorific value. So burning of bagasse at suitable level of moisture is essential from the viewpoint of furnace performance. Moisture content can also be used for indirect calculation of fibre content in sugarcane. Normally gravimetric method is used for moisture content determination, which is time consuming. Therefore, an attempt has been made to use microwave oven for drying of bagasse. It took about 20 to 25 minutes for the determination as compared to 8-10 hours in conventional hot air drying method and the results were comparable to the values obtained from hot air drying method.

  18. Comparison of Mathematical Equation and Neural Network Modeling for Drying Kinetic of Mendong in Microwave Oven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulidah, Rifa'atul; Purqon, Acep

    2016-08-01

    Mendong (Fimbristylis globulosa) has a potentially industrial application. We investigate a predictive model for heat and mass transfer in drying kinetics during drying a Mendong. We experimentally dry the Mendong by using a microwave oven. In this study, we analyze three mathematical equations and feed forward neural network (FNN) with back propagation to describe the drying behavior of Mendong. Our results show that the experimental data and the artificial neural network model has a good agreement and better than a mathematical equation approach. The best FNN for the prediction is 3-20-1-1 structure with Levenberg- Marquardt training function. This drying kinetics modeling is potentially applied to determine the optimal parameters during mendong drying and to estimate and control of drying process.

  19. Modeling evaporation processes in a saline soil from saturation to oven dry conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal, suction and osmotic gradients interact during evaporation from a salty soil. Vapor fluxes become the main water flow mechanism under very dry conditions. A coupled nonisothermal multiphase flow and a reactive transport model of a salty sand soil was developed to study such an intricate system. The model was calibrated with data from an evaporation experiment (volumetric water content, temperature and concentration. The retention curve and relative permeability functions were modified to simulate oven dry conditions. Experimental observations were satisfactorily reproduced, which suggests that the model can be used to assess the underlying processes. Results show that evaporation is controlled by heat, and limited by salinity and liquid and vapor fluxes. Below evaporation front vapor flows downwards controlled by temperature gradient and thus generates a dilution. Vapor diffusion and dilution are strongly influenced by heat boundary conditions. Gas diffusion plays a major role in the magnitude of vapor fluxes.

  20. Baking sunflower hulls within an aluminum envelope in a common laboratory oven yields charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, Pablo Maximiliano

    2015-01-01

    Charcoals have been widely used by scientist to research the removal of contaminants from water and air. One key feature of charcoal is that it keeps macropores from the parent material - though anisotropically contracted - and can even develop meso- and micropores. However, the controlled thermochemical conversion of biomass into charcoal at laboratory scale normally requires special setups which involve either vacuum or inert gas. Those setups may not be affordable in research groups or educational institutions where the research of charcoals would be highly welcome. In this work, I propose a simple and effective method to steer the thermochemical process that converts sunflower hulls (SFH) into charcoal with basic laboratory resources. The carbonization method: •Place SFH in an airtight aluminum envelope.•Thermally treat SFH within the envelope in a common laboratory oven.•Open the envelope to obtain the carbonized sunflower hulls.

  1. Effect of Pre-cooking and Addition of Phosphate on the Quality of Catfish Fillets Baked in Convention Oven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frozen fish fillets designed to be baked or reheated in the home oven have been one of the major ways fish are consumed in the US. Examples includes frozen salmon, tilapia, pollock, and cod with different types of pre-treatment such as precooked, marinated, or breaded and par-fried products. However...

  2. Application of finite element method and SPICE simulation for design optimization of oven-controlled crystal oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillerich, B; Nagler, O

    2001-11-01

    Thermal finite element method (FEM) calculations and SPICE-based dynamic thermal models are used to simulate and optimize the static and dynamic performance of miniaturized oven-controlled crystal oscillators (OCXOs). FEM can be used to generate the values of the SPICE circuit elements. Good agreement is achieved between simulation and measurement. Several application examples, including directly heated OCXOs, are discussed.

  3. Ion distributions in plane and cylindrical chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, R; George, E P

    1975-11-01

    The ion chamber equations of Thomson include both ion recombination and space-charge terms. Neglecting the space-charge term, an exact solution is obtained for the ion densities across a plane ionization chamber. The method is extended to the cylindrical chamber, and examples are given of the expected ion distributions in both geometries. Current-voltage relationships are derived for both chambers and compared with those of other workers. If the space-charge term is retained, the ion chamber equations for both geometries are not soluble in closed form. The cylindrical chamber is considered and a computer solution is obtained for the ion distributions and current. Comparison with the nonspace-charge solution shows that while there is only a small difference in the current-voltage relationship, a significant difference can occur in the ion concentrations.

  4. Tests of anechoic chamber for aeroacoustics investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palchikovskiy, V. V.; Bersenev, Yu. V.; Makashov, S. Yu.; Belyaev, I. V.; Korin, I. A.; Sorokin, E. V.; Khramtsov, I. V.; Kustov, O. Yu.

    2016-10-01

    The paper presents the results of qualification tests in the new anechoic chamber of Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU) built in 2014-2015 and evaluation of the chamber quality in aeroacoustic experiments. It describes design features of the chamber and its sound-absorption lining. The qualification tests were carried out with tonal and broadband noise sources in the frequency range 100 Hz - 20 kHz for two different cases of the source arrangement. In every case, measurements were performed in three directions by traverse microphones. Qualification tests have determined that in the chamber there is a free acoustic field within radius of 2 m for tonal noise and 3 m for broadband noise. There was also evaluated acoustic quality of the chamber by measurements of the jet noise and vortex ring noise. The results of the experiments demonstrate that PNRPU anechoic chamber allows the aeroacoustic measurements to be performed to obtain quantitative results.

  5. Significant Positive Correlation of Plasma BPDE-Albumin Adducts to Urinary 1-Hydroxypyrene in Coke Oven Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG WANG; TANG-CHUN WU; XIAO-BO YANG; AI-LIN LIU; HONG-YAN ZHEN; LIANG GUO; HUA-SHAN LIANG; YONG-YI BI; YUN BAI; YONG-WEN CHEN

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the application of BPDE-albumin adducts as monitoring biomarkers for coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs)and to explore possible relationship between BPDE-albumin adducts and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP)levels in them.Methods Thirty-seven coke oven workers from a coke plant and 47 controls without the occupational exposure to PAHs were recruited in this study.The levels of plasma BPDE-albumin adducts and urinary 1-OHP were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography.Results The median levels of BPDE-albumin adducts(42.10 fmol/mg albumin)and urinary 1-OHP(5.46 μmol/mol creatinine)were significantly higher in coke oven workers than in controls(14.16 fmol/mg albumin,2.96 μmol/mol creatinine,respectively;P<0.01).Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that coke oven workers were at higher risk of having BPDE-albumin adduct levels above 25.30 prnol/mg albumin(OR=1.79,P<0.01)and urinary 1-OHP levels above 4.13 μmol/mol creatinine(OR=2.45,P<0.05).There was a positive correlation between the levels of BPDE-albumin adducts and urinary 1-OHP in all subjects(rs=0.349,P<0.01).Conclusion BPDE-albumin adduct is a useful biomarker for monitoring long-term exposure to PAHs,and plasma BPDE-albumin adducts level is significantly correlated to urinary 1-OHP levels in coke oven workers.

  6. The ARGUS microvertex drift chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, E.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Appuhn, R. D.; Buchmüller, J.; Kolanoski, H.; Kreimeier, B.; Lange, A.; Siegmund, T.; Walther, A.; Edwards, K. W.; Fernholz, R. C.; Kapitza, H.; MacFarlane, D. B.; O'Neill, M.; Parsons, J. A.; Prentice, J. D.; Seidel, S. C.; Tsipolitis, G.; Ball, S.; Babaev, A.; Danilov, M.; Tichomirov, I.

    1989-11-01

    The ARGUS collaboration is currently building a new microvertex drift chamber (μVDC) as an upgrade of their detector. The μVDC is optimized for B-meson physics at DORIS energies. Important design features are minimal multiple scattering for low-momentum particles and three-dimensional reconstruction of decay vertices with equal resolutions in r- φ and r- z. Vertex resolutions of 15-25 μm are expected. Prototypes of the μVDC have been tested with different gas mixtures at various pressures. Spatial resolutions as small as 20 μm were obtained using CO 2/propane at 4 bar and DME at 1 bar. New readout electronics have been developed for the μVDC aiming at low thresholds for the TDC measurements. Employing a novel idea for noise and cross-talk suppression, which is based on a discrimination against short pulses, very low threshold settings are possible.

  7. The CAST Time Projection Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Autiero, D; Cébrian, S; Carmona, J M; Chesi, Enrico Guido; Davenport, M; Delattre, M; Di Lella, L; Formenti, F; Gomez, H; Hasinoff, M; Irastorza, I G; Lakic, B; Luzón, G; Morales, J; Musa, L; Ortiz, A; Placci, A; Rodríguez, A; Ruz, J; Villar, J A; Zioutas, K

    2007-01-01

    One of the three X-ray detectors of the CAST experiment searching for solar axions is a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) with a multi-wire proportional counter (MWPC) as a readout structure. Its design has been optimized to provide high sensitivity to the detection of the low intensity X-ray signal expected in the CAST experiment. A low hardware threshold of 0.8 keV is safely set during normal data taking periods, and the overall efficiency for the detection of photons coming from conversion of solar axions is 62 %. Shielding has been installed around the detector, lowering the background level to 4.10 x 10^-5 counts/cm^2/s/keV between 1 and 10 keV. During phase I of the CAST experiment the TPC has provided robust and stable operation, thus contributing with a competitive result to the overall CAST limit on axion-photon coupling and mass.

  8. Free-Flow Open-Chamber Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Free-flow open-chamber electrophoresis variant of free-flow electrophoresis performed in chamber with open ends and in which velocity of electro-osmotic flow adjusted equal to and opposite mean electrophoretic velocity of sample. Particles having electrophoretic mobilities greater than mean mobility of sample particles move toward cathode, those with mobilities less move toward anode. Technique applied to separation of components of mixtures of biologically important substances. Sensitivity enhanced by use of tapered chamber.

  9. Vacuum Chamber for the Booster Bending Magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    To minimize eddy currents, induced by the rising magnetic field, the chamber was made from thin stainless steel of high specific electric resistance. For mechanical stength, it was corrugated in a hydro-forming process. The chamber is curved, to follow the beam's orbital path. Under vacuum, the chamber tends to staighten, the ceramic spacer along half of its length keeps it in place (see also 7402458).

  10. Bubble chamber: Omega production and decay

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    This image is taken from one of CERN's bubble chambers and shows the decay of a positive kaon in flight. The decay products of this kaon can be seen spiraling in the magnetic field of the chamber. The invention of bubble chambers in 1952 revolutionized the field of particle physics, allowing real tracks left by particles to be seen and photographed by expanding liquid that has been heated to boiling point.

  11. Drift chamber tracking with neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, C.S.; Denby, B.; Haggerty, H.

    1992-10-01

    We discuss drift chamber tracking with a commercial log VLSI neural network chip. Voltages proportional to the drift times in a 4-layer drift chamber were presented to the Intel ETANN chip. The network was trained to provide the intercept and slope of straight tracks traversing the chamber. The outputs were recorded and later compared off line to conventional track fits. Two types of network architectures were studied. Applications of neural network tracking to high energy physics detector triggers is discussed.

  12. Engineering verification of the biomass production chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, R. P.; Knott, W. M., III; Sager, J. C.; Jones, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    The requirements for life support systems, both biological and physical-chemical, for long-term human attended space missions are under serious study throughout NASA. The KSC 'breadboard' project has focused on biomass production using higher plants for atmospheric regeneration and food production in a special biomass production chamber. This chamber is designed to provide information on food crop growth rate, contaminants in the chamber that alter plant growth requirements for atmospheric regeneration, carbon dioxide consumption, oxygen production, and water utilization. The shape and size, mass, and energy requirements in relation to the overall integrity of the biomass production chamber are under constant study.

  13. Precision Radio Frequency Anechoic Chamber Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Performs measurements and calibration of antennas for satellites and aircraft or groundbased systems. The chamber is primarily used for optimizing antenna...

  14. The Mark II Vertex Drift Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J.P.; Baggs, R.; Fujino, D.; Hayes, K.; Hoard, C.; Hower, N.; Hutchinson, D.; Jaros, J.A.; Koetke, D.; Kowalski, L.A.

    1989-03-01

    We have completed constructing and begun operating the Mark II Drift Chamber Vertex Detector. The chamber, based on a modified jet cell design, achieves 30 {mu}m spatial resolution and <1000 {mu}m track-pair resolution in pressurized CO{sub 2} gas mixtures. Special emphasis has been placed on controlling systematic errors including the use of novel construction techniques which permit accurate wire placement. Chamber performance has been studied with cosmic ray tracks collected with the chamber located both inside and outside the Mark II. Results on spatial resolution, average pulse shape, and some properties of CO{sub 2} mixtures are presented. 10 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  15. An ionization chamber with magnetic levitated electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Kawaguchi, T

    1999-01-01

    A new type of ionization chamber which has magnetically levitated electrodes has been developed. The electrodes are supplied voltages for the repelling of ions by a battery which is also levitated with the electrodes. The characteristics of this ionization chamber are investigated in this paper.

  16. HVAC&R Equipment Environmental Chambers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:Large "Truck" ChamberThe large "truck" chamber provides controlled air conditions from -7 °C (20 °F) to 65 °C (150 °F).Air-Conditioner and Heat Pump Test...

  17. Supersonic Jet Interactions in a Plenum Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Venugopal

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding thè supersonic jet interactions in a plenum chamber is essential for thè design of hot launch systems. Static tests were conducted in a small-scale rocket motor ioaded with a typical nitramine propellaiit to produce a nozzle exit Mach number of 3. This supersonic jet is made to interact with plenum chambers having both open and closed sides. The distance between thè nozzle exit and thè back piate of plenum chamber are varied from 2. 5 to 7. 0 times thè nozzle exit diameter. The pressure rise in thè plenum chamber was measured using pressure transducers mounted at different locatìons. The pressure-time data were analysed to obtain an insight into thè flow field in thè plenum chamber. The maximum pressure exerted on thè back piate of plenum chamber is about 25-35 per cent. of thè maximum stagnation pressure developed in thè rocket motor. Ten static tests were carried out to obtain thè effect of axial distance between thè nozzle exit and thè plenum chamber back piate, and stagnation pressure in thè rocket motoron thè flow field in thè open-sided and closed-sided plenum chambers configurations.

  18. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber. (a) Identification. An anaerobic chamber is a device intended for medical purposes to maintain an anaerobic...

  19. ME1/1 Cathode Strip Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Erchov, Yu V; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Khabarov, Serguei; Moissenz, P V; Moissenz, K P; Movchan, Sergey; Perelygin, Victor; Vassiliev, S E; Zarubin, Anatoli; Tchekhovski, V A

    2008-01-01

    The 76 innermost ME1/1 cathode strip chambers (CSC) of the CMS Experiment were designed and produced in Dubna. The chambers have been installed in the detector and commissioning has been completed. This paper describes the design of the CSCs, their main mechanical parameters and read-out electronics, and the results of tests with cosmic-ray muons.

  20. Results from the MAC Vertex chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, H.N.

    1987-05-01

    The design, construction, and performance characteristics of a high precision gaseous drift chamber made of thin walled proportional tubes are described. The device achieved an average spatial resolution of 45 ..mu..m in use for physics analysis with the MAC detector. The B-lifetime result obtained with this chamber is discussed.

  1. Raymond J. Chambers--A Personal Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffikin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper is presented as a tribute to Raymond J. Chambers. As its title suggests, it is a personal reflection through the eyes of someone who worked closely with him over a period of 10 years during a latter part of his career, and who completed a doctoral thesis with aspects of the work of Chambers as its subject. During this time, author…

  2. 家用微波炉智商评测体系的分析%Research on Intelligence Quotient Evaluation System for Household Microwave Oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄智成

    2014-01-01

    以家用微波炉为例,结合智能家电的功能和特性,并根据家用微波炉信息化指数和产品智商评测规范,介绍微波炉的智商评价体系。%Taking an example of intelligent household microwave oven in this paper, the function and significance of intelligent household electrical appliance are analyzed. And according to specification of informatization index and intelligence quotient evaluation for household microwave oven, the paper introduces the evaluation system of household microwave oven.

  3. The SAMURAI Time Projection Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Steven

    2011-10-01

    The SAMURAI Time Projection Chamber (TPC) will be used to study particle collisions by colliding a beam of particles with a stationary gas which will be contained in a field cage inside the TPC. When the beam collides with the gas, charged particles are accelerated into the pad plane by an electric field. The paths of these particles will be curved by a magnetic field created by the SAMURAI magnet at the RIKEN facility in Japan. The charged particles will then collide with the pad plane which will be located on the bottom of the TPC. The pad plane will take these collisions and create electrical signals and send them to supporting electronics where the data can be interpreted. The TPC will be used to help determine the Equation of State for asymmetric nuclear matter. Measurements of neutron, proton, 3H and 3He flow will be taken with the NEBULA array which consists of nebula scintillators. The poster will contain information on the laser calibration system and the electronics that will be used for the TPC. The electronics used are the same electronics used in the STAR TPC experiment.

  4. The CAST time projection chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autiero, D.; Beltrán, B.; Carmona, J. M.; Cebrián, S.; Chesi, E.; Davenport, M.; Delattre, M.; Di Lella, L.; Formenti, F.; Irastorza, I. G.; Gómez, H.; Hasinoff, M.; Lakic, B.; Luzón, G.; Morales, J.; Musa, L.; Ortiz, A.; Placci, A.; Rodrigurez, A.; Ruz, J.; Villar, J. A.; Zioutas, K.

    2007-06-01

    One of the three x-ray detectors of the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) experiment searching for solar axions is a time projection chamber (TPC) with a multi-wire proportional counter (MWPC) as a readout structure. Its design has been optimized to provide high sensitivity to the detection of the low intensity x-ray signal expected in the CAST experiment. A low hardware threshold of 0.8 keV is set to a safe level during normal data taking periods, and the overall efficiency for the detection of photons coming from conversion of solar axions is 62%. Shielding has been installed around the detector, lowering the background level to 4.10 × 10-5 counts cm-2 s-1 keV-1 between 1 and 10 keV. During phase I of the CAST experiment the TPC has provided robust and stable operation, thus contributing with a competitive result to the overall CAST limit on axion photon coupling and mass.

  5. Digestion of plastic materials for the determination of toxic metals with a microwave oven for household use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Hiroki; Noro, Junji; Kawase, Akira; Fujinami, Masanori; Oguma, Koichi

    2006-02-01

    A rapid sample-digestion method for the determination of toxic metals, cadmium, chromium, and lead, in polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride has been developed by using a microwave oven for household use. An appropriate amount of the sample taken in a PTFE decomposition vessel was mixed with nitric acid or nitric and sulfuric acids. The vessel was heated in a microwave oven by a predetermined operating program. The digested sample was diluted to a definite volume with water after evaporating most of the nitric acid. The precipitate, if formed, was filtered off by a membrane filter. The metals were determined by ICP-AES. The sample digestion required 5 min (for 20-mg sample) to 25 min (for 60-mg sample). The analytical results obtained for cadmium, chromium, and lead in a polyethylene certified reference material, BCR-680, digested with nitric acid, were in good agreement with the certified values.

  6. Effect on orange juice of batch pasteurization in an improved pilot-scale microwave oven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinquanta, L; Albanese, D; Cuccurullo, G; Di Matteo, M

    2010-01-01

    The effects on orange juice batch pasteurization in an improved pilot-scale microwave (MW) oven was evaluated by monitoring pectin methyl-esterase (PME) activity, color, carotenoid compounds and vitamin C content. Trials were performed on stirred orange juice heated at different temperatures (60, 70, 75, and 85 degrees C) during batch process. MW pilot plant allowed real-time temperature control of samples using proportional integrative derivative (PID) techniques based on the infrared thermography temperature read-out. The inactivation of heat sensitive fraction of PME, that verifies orange juice pasteurization, showed a z-value of 22.1 degrees C. Carotenoid content, responsible for sensorial and nutritional quality in fresh juices, decreased by about 13% after MW pasteurization at 70 degrees C for 1 min. Total of 7 carotenoid compounds were quantified during MW heating: zeaxanthin and beta-carotene content decreased by about 26%, while no differences (P < 0.05) were found for beta-cryptoxanthin in the same trial. A slight decrease in vitamin C content was monitored after MW heating. Results showed that MW heating with a fine temperature control could result in promising stabilization treatments.

  7. Optimization of pretreatments and process parameters for sorghum popping in microwave oven using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Gayatri; Joshi, Dinesh C; Mohapatra, Debabandya

    2015-12-01

    Sorghum is a popular healthy snack food. Popped sorghum was prepared in a domestic microwave oven. A 3 factor 3 level Box and Behneken design was used to optimize the pretreatment conditions. Grains were preconditioned to 12-20 % moisture content by the addition of 0-2 % salt solutions. Oil was applied (0-10 % w/w) to the preconditioned grains. Optimization of the pretreatments was based on popping yield, volume expansion ratio, and sensory score. The optimized condition was found at 16.62 % (wb), 0.55 % salt and 10 % oil with popping yield of 82.228 %, volume expansion ratio of 14.564 and overall acceptability of 8.495. Further, the microwave process parameters were optimized using a 2 factor 3 level design having microwave power density ranging from 9 to 18 W/g and residence time ranging from 100 to 180 s. For the production of superior quality pop sorghum, the optimized microwave process parameters were microwave power density of 18 Wg(-1) and residence time of 140 s.

  8. Performance Evaluation of a Double-Glazed Box-Type Solar Oven with Reflector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Folaranmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper describes the performance evaluation of a double-glazed box-type solar oven with reflector fabricated using locally available materials, compressed sawdust with binder; size of the box is 700 mm ×  700 mm × 400 mm and 10 mm thickness. The experimental solar cooker consists of an aluminium absorber plate (1 mm painted matt black and a double-glazed lid. The bottom and sides are lagged with fibreglass wool insulator, thickness = 50 mm,  W/m°C. The reflector consists of a wooden-framed commercially available specular plane mirror which is sized to form a cover for the box when not being in use. Its thermal performance was tested according to the ASAE International Test procedure and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS for testing the thermal performance of box-type solar cooker. Thermal performance experiments were conducted in order to determine the first figure of merit (F1, the second figure of merit (F2 and standard cooking power (Ps. The obtained test results were employed to calculate the two figures of merit (F1, and F2 and the standard cooking power (P50 to be 0.11 Km2w−1, 0.31, and 23.95 W, respectively. Finally, the results illustrated that the cooker has a good reliability for cooking food and boiling water.

  9. Hybrid Modeling of Flotation Height in Air Flotation Oven Based on Selective Bagging Ensemble Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Hou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The accurate prediction of the flotation height is very necessary for the precise control of the air flotation oven process, therefore, avoiding the scratch and improving production quality. In this paper, a hybrid flotation height prediction model is developed. Firstly, a simplified mechanism model is introduced for capturing the main dynamic behavior of the process. Thereafter, for compensation of the modeling errors existing between actual system and mechanism model, an error compensation model which is established based on the proposed selective bagging ensemble method is proposed for boosting prediction accuracy. In the framework of the selective bagging ensemble method, negative correlation learning and genetic algorithm are imposed on bagging ensemble method for promoting cooperation property between based learners. As a result, a subset of base learners can be selected from the original bagging ensemble for composing a selective bagging ensemble which can outperform the original one in prediction accuracy with a compact ensemble size. Simulation results indicate that the proposed hybrid model has a better prediction performance in flotation height than other algorithms’ performance.

  10. Dielectric properties of Simon poplar wood flour/polypropylene composite at oven-dry state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Interfacial compatibility is a crucial factor to the performance of wood-plastic composites (WPCs). Yet, so far, the cou-pling mechanisms of WPC have not been completely understood. In order to further clarify the interracial coupling mechanism, the dielectric constant and dielectric loss factor of Simon poplar wood flour/polypropylene composites without additives at different wood contents were measured at oven-dry state, and parameters and thermodynamic quantities of the relaxation process were also analyzed and calculated. Consequently, an obvious relaxation process based on the reorientation of methanol groups in amorphous region of wood cell wall was observed exactly that its dielectric loss factor peak decreased with the decreasing wood content within the measured range of 50%-100%. With the trend of dielectric relaxation strength, the two changing trends both revealed that the existence of polypropylene could hinder reorientation of methanol groups. Following the decreasing wood contents, the effect of the hindrance on the dielectric properties turned obvious gradually. It elucidated that introduction of polypropylene caused the quantities of hydrogen bonds formed between each methanol group and the groups around it change. The same conclusion could be drawn from the analysis of thermodynamic quantities during the dielectric relaxation progress.

  11. Lipid composition of thermophilic Geobacillus sp. strain GWE1, isolated from sterilization oven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Siddharth P; Jansen, Susan A; Taylor, Leeandrew Jacques-Asa; Chong, Parkson Lee-Gau; Correa-Llantén, Daniela N; Blamey, Jenny M

    2014-05-01

    GWE1 strain is an example of anthropogenic thermophilic bacterium, recently isolated from dark crusty material from sterilization ovens by Correa-Llantén et al. (Kor. J. Microb. Biotechnol. 2013. 41(3):278-283). Thermostability is likely to arise from the adaptation of macromolecules such as proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Complex lipid arrangement and/or type in the cell membrane are known to affect thermostability of microorganisms and efforts were made to understand the chemical nature of the polar lipids of membrane. In this work, we extracted total lipids from GWE1 cell membrane, separated them by TLC into various fractions and characterize the lipid structures of certain fractions with analytical tools such as (1)H, (13)C, (31)P and 2D NMR spectroscopy, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and MS(n) spectrometry. We were able to identify glycerophosphoethanolamine, glycerophosphate, glycerophosphocholine, glycerophosphoglycerol and cardiolipin lipid classes and an unknown glycerophospholipid class with novel MS/MS spectra pattern. We have also noticed the presence of saturated iso-branched fatty acids with NMR spectra in individual lipid classes.

  12. Extraction of hemicellulosic oligosaccharides from spruce using microwave oven or steam treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Magnus; Zacchi, Guido

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the extraction of hemicellulosic oligosaccharides from spruce, using microwave or steam treatment that can be used for the production of polymers, replacing fossil-based polymers, e.g., hydrogels. The highest yield of oligosaccharides, measured as mannan, was 70% obtained with treatment in the microwave oven at 200 degrees C for 5 min. The amount of oligosaccharides extracted was 12.5 g per 100 g of dry wood. The molecular weights of some selected samples were analyzed using fast protein liquid chromatography and size exclusion chromatography and time-of-flight matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization. Recovered oligosaccharides following steam treatment at 200 degrees C for 2 min had a mean molecular weight of 3400 g/mol with a maximum weight of 12000 g/mol. Higher severity, i.e., increased temperature (>200 degrees C) and residence time, resulted in lower mean molecular weights and yield. Oligosaccharides with higher mean molecular weights were obtained at lower severity, but the yield was considerably lower. The feasibility of using the extracted hemicellulosic oligosaccharides from spruce for the synthesis of hydrogels was demonstrated.

  13. Dehydration characteristics and mathematical modelling of lemon slices drying undergoing oven treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torki-Harchegani, Mehdi; Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, Mahdi; Ghanbarian, Davoud; Sadeghi, Morteza; Tohidi, Mojtaba

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the effect of drying temperature on drying behaviour and mass transfer parameters of lemon slices was investigated. The drying experiments were conducted in a laboratory air ventilated oven dryer at temperatures of 50, 60 and 75 °C. It was observed that the drying temperature affected the drying time and drying rate significantly. Drying rate curves revealed that the process at the temperature levels taken place in the falling rate period entirely. The usefulness of eight thin layer models to simulate the drying kinetics was evaluated and the Midilli and Kucuk model showed the best fit to experimental drying curves. The effective moisture diffusivity was determined on the basis of Fick's second law and obtained to be 1.62 × 10-11, 3.25 × 10-11 and 8.11 × 10-11 m2 s-1 for the temperatures of 50, 60 and 75 °C, respectively. The activation energy and Arrhenius constant were calculated to be 60.08 kJ mol-1 and 0.08511 m2 s-1, respectively. The average value of convective mass transfer coefficient for the drying temperatures of 50, 60 and 75 °C was calculated to be 5.71 × 10-7, 1.62 × 10-6 and 2.53 × 10-6 m s-1, respectively.

  14. A Study for Extraction Kinetics of Β-Carotene from Oven Dried Carrot by Solvent Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta Das

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this work was to study the kinetics of the extraction of β-carotene by solvent (ethanol extraction from carrots dried at 50ºC in an oven. The moisture content after drying was 11±1.5% (dry weight basis. Extraction time was 5 hours and extraction process was carried out at 30ºC. The ratio of Carrot (gm: ethanol (ml of 1:60 was maintained throughout the extraction process. The experimental data of extracted β- Carotene yield during solvent extraction were modeled with seven different mathematical models, including Power law, Peleg, Weinbull’s equation, Pseudo 2nd order, Intraparticle diffusion, Logarithmic, Weinbull’s distribution and one RSM model developed in this study. Pseudo 2nd order model was best fitted model (R2 - 0.99, χ 2 - 0.0091, RMSE- 0.1566, MAE- 0.0115 to describe extraction kinetics of β-carotene from carrot. The extraction time has significant effect on extraction process at p<0.05 level.

  15. Modeling evaporation processes in a saline soil from saturation to oven dry conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gran

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermal, suction and osmotic gradients interact during evaporation from a salty soil. Vapor fluxes become the main water flow mechanism under very dry conditions. A coupled nonisothermal multiphase flow and reactive transport model was developed to study mass and energy transfer mechanisms during an evaporation experiment from a sand column. Very dry and hot conditions, including the formation of a salt crust, necessitate the modification of the retention curve to represent oven dry conditions. Experimental observations (volumetric water content, temperature and concentration profiles were satisfactorily reproduced using mostly independently measured parameters, which suggests that the model can be used to assess the underlying processes. Results show that evaporation concentrates at a very narrow front and is controlled by heat flow, and limited by salinity and liquid and vapor fluxes. The front divides the soil into a dry and saline portion above and a moist and diluted portion below. Vapor diffusses not only upwards but also downwards from the evaporation front, as dictated by temperature gradients. Condensation of this downward flux causes dilution, so that salt concentration is minimum and lower than the initial one, just beneath the evaporation front. While this result is consistent with observations, it required adopting a vapor diffusion enhancement factor of 8.

  16. Correlation between self-ignition of a dust layer on a hot surface and in baskets in an oven

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Evaluation of self-ignition hazard of bulk materials requires experimental determination of self-ignition temperatures as a function of volume. There are two standardised methods : determination of the self-ignition temperature of dust samples in oven and measurement of the self-ignition temperature of a dust layer deposited on a hot surface. Sometimes, the sample behaviour during these tests makes the second method difficult to apply. The self-ignition phenomena in th...

  17. A small PV-module for 3.6 kW(thermal) stand-alone solar oven tracking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbano Castelan, J.A. [CINVESTAV-IPN, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico). Electric Engineering Dept.]|[SEPI-ESIME and ICE-ESIME Professional Unit ' Adolfo Lopez Mateos' , Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Matsumoto, Yasuhiro; Asomoza P., R. [CINVESTAV-IPN, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico). Electric Engineering Dept.; Martinez Munoz, A.; Escoto Mora, G.; Sotelo Trujillo, A.; Aceves Hernandez, F.J.; Jacome Rodriguez, A. [SEPI-ESIME and ICE-ESIME Professional Unit ' Adolfo Lopez Mateos' , Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    This article shows how 3.6 kWTH solar oven concentrating system is operated by using only 5 watt-peak PV-module for its tracking system. The solar oven is autonomous and designed for Marias Islands, Mexican rural area for food cooking, sea water distillation and medical instrumental sterilization. The PV-module charges continuously energy in a capacitive storage to move two 12 DCV motors of 36W each. These electric motors adjusts azimuth and altitude depending of solar position determined by an electronic optical sensor for an optimum concentration position. There have been made two versions for this purpose, the first one consists on digital states (on/off) for light and dark conditions over a ''Greek cross'', and the second one provides redundancy because it has two detection elements besides it is possible to have coarse, medium and fine The solar oven system of 360 mirrors (10X10cm2 each) achieves temperature of about 300 C at its oil-container. This oil-container transmits the heat directly to the commercial kettle, maintaining 120 C at the pressure of 1.05kg/cm2. Maria's Islands has an average of 340 sunny days in a year. We expect a contribution for forest conservation avoiding firewood consumption in the near future. Foregoing Mexican rural area has great potential in solar resources for their inhabitant needs. Food cooking, water distillations are most important daily-life activities. In Mexico, solar cooking oven has been introduced since 1955, however, this cooking technique was not assimilated due to the local people's social and cultural aspects. This development is intended to be applied in those rural areas in Mexican Republic because there are 28 million people that still use firewood leading to diverse problems such as health pulmonary emphysema, body burnings, deforestation, and CO2 emissions. (orig.)

  18. The association of XRCC1 haplotypes and chromosomal damage levels in peripheral blood lymphocyte among coke-oven workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuguang Leng; Juan Cheng; Linyuan Zhang; Yong Niu; Yufei Dai; Zufei Pan; Bin Li; Fengsheng He; Yuxin Zheng [Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing (China). National Institute of Occupational Health and Poison Control

    2005-05-15

    Theoretically, a haplotype has a higher level of heterozygosity than individual single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and the association study based on the haplotype may have an increased power for detecting disease associations compared with SNP-based analysis. In this study, we investigated the effects of four haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNP) and the inferred haplotype pairs of the X-ray cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) gene on chromosome damage detected by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. The study included 141 coke-oven workers with exposure to a high level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 66 nonexposed controls. The frequencies of total MN and MNed cells were borderline associated with the Arg{sup 194}Trp polymorphism (P = 0.053 and P = 0.050, respectively) but not associated with the Arg{sup 280}His, Arg{sup 399}Gln and Gln{sup 632}Gln polymorphisms among coke-oven workers. Five haplotypes, including CGGG, TGGG, CAGG, CGAG, and CGGA, were inferred based on the four htSNPs of XRCC1 gene. The haplotype CGGG was associated with the decreased frequencies of total MN and MNed cells, and the haplotypes TGGG and CGAG were associated with the increased frequencies of total MN and MNed cells with adjustment for covariates among coke-oven workers. This study showed that the haplotypes derived from htSNPs in the XRCC1 gene were more likely than single SNPs to correlate with the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced chromosome damage among coke-oven workers.

  19. Monitored Drift Chambers in the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Herten, G

    Monitored Drift Chambers (MDT) are used in the ATLAS Detector to measure the momentum of high energy muons. They consist of drift tubes, which are filled with an Ar-CO2 gas mixture at 3 bar gas pressure. About 1200 drift chambers are required for ATLAS. They are up to 6 m long. Nevertheless the position of every wire needs to be known with a precision of 20 µm within a chamber. In addition, optical alignment sensors are required to measure the relative position of adjacent chambers with a precision of 30µm. This gigantic task seems impossible at first instance. Indeed it took many years of R&D to invent the right tools and methods before the first chamber could be built according to specifications. Today, at the time when 50% of the chambers have been produced, we are confident that the goal for ATLAS can be reached. The mechanical precision of the chambers could be verified with the x-ray tomograph at CERN. This ingenious device, developed for the MDT system, is able to measure the wire position insid...

  20. Making MUSIC: A multiple sampling ionization chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumard, B. [Argonne National Laboratory, Building 203 H-113, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)]. E-mail: shumard@phy.anl.gov; Henderson, D.J. [Argonne National Laboratory, Building 203 H-113, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Rehm, K.E. [Argonne National Laboratory, Building 203 H-113, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Tang, X.D. [Argonne National Laboratory, Building 203 H-113, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    A multiple sampling ionization chamber (MUSIC) was developed for use in conjunction with the Atlas scattering chamber (ATSCAT). This chamber was developed to study the ({alpha}, p) reaction in stable and radioactive beams. The gas filled ionization chamber is used as a target and detector for both particles in the outgoing channel (p + beam particles for elastic scattering or p + residual nucleus for ({alpha}, p) reactions). The MUSIC detector is followed by a Si array to provide a trigger for anode events. The anode events are gated by a gating grid so that only ({alpha}, p) reactions where the proton reaches the Si detector result in an anode event. The MUSIC detector is a segmented ionization chamber. The active length of the chamber is 11.95 in. and is divided into 16 equal anode segments (3.5 in. x 0.70 in. with 0.3 in. spacing between pads). The dead area of the chamber was reduced by the addition of a Delrin snout that extends 0.875 in. into the chamber from the front face, to which a mylar window is affixed. 0.5 in. above the anode is a Frisch grid that is held at ground potential. 0.5 in. above the Frisch grid is a gating grid. The gating grid functions as a drift electron barrier, effectively halting the gathering of signals. Setting two sets of alternating wires at differing potentials creates a lateral electric field which traps the drift electrons, stopping the collection of anode signals. The chamber also has a reinforced mylar exit window separating the Si array from the target gas. This allows protons from the ({alpha}, p) reaction to be detected. The detection of these protons opens the gating grid to allow the drift electrons released from the ionizing gas during the ({alpha}, p) reaction to reach the anode segment below the reaction.

  1. 30 CFR 77.305 - Access to drying chambers, hot gas inlet chambers and ductwork; installation and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... chambers and ductwork; installation and maintenance. 77.305 Section 77.305 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY... drying chambers, hot gas inlet chambers and ductwork; installation and maintenance. Drying chambers, hot gas inlet chambers and all ductwork in which coal dust may accumulate shall be equipped with...

  2. Radiation-induced foil electret chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallone, B. G.; Podgorsak, E. B.

    1983-10-01

    Saturation current densities, extrapolated electric fields, and electret-charging and -discharging current-density profiles in an ionization electret chamber are discussed as a function of various chamber parameters, such as air-gap and polymer thickness, polarizing electrode material, exposure rate, etc. Both the saturation current density and the extrapolated electric field consist of two components; one is linear with the air-gap thickness and is attributed to primary ionization in air, and the other exhibits exponential saturation and is attributed to air ionization caused by photoelectrons backscattered into the chamber sensitive volume from the polarizing electrode.

  3. LEP vacuum chamber, cross-section

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    Cross-section of the final prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber. The elliptic main-opening is for the beam. The small channel to the left is for the cooling water, to carry away the heat deposited by the synchrotron radiation. The square channel to the right houses the Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) pump. The chamber is made from extruded aluminium. Its outside is clad with lead, to stop the synchrotron radiation emitted by the beam. For good adherence between Pb and Al, the Al chamber was coated with a thin layer of Ni. Ni being slightly magnetic, some resulting problems had to be overcome. See also 8301153.

  4. Bubble chamber: Omega production and decay

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    This image is of real particle tracks taken from the CERN 2 m liquid hydrogen bubble chamber and shows the production and decay of a negative omega particle. A negative kaon enters the chamber which decays into many particles, including a negative omega that travels a short distance before decaying into more particles. The invention of bubble chambers in 1952 revolutionized the field of particle physics, allowing real tracks left by particles to be seen and photographed by expanding liquid that had been heated to boiling point.

  5. Sample chambers with mother-daughter mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilk, P.A.; Gregorich, K.E.; Hoffman, D.C.

    2001-07-12

    A set of eight stand-alone sample chambers with a common interface were constructed at LBNL for improved detection of alpha and fission decay chains over currently used designs. The stainless steel chambers (see Figure 1 for a schematic and Figure 2 for a photograph of a completed chamber) were constructed to allow for low background detection of a daughter event by removal of the sample following the detection of a parent event. This mother-daughter mode of operation has been utilized successfully with our Merry-go-Round (MG) detection system [Gregorich 1994].

  6. In vitro starch digestibility and expected glycemic index of pound cakes baked in two-cycle microwave-toaster and conventional oven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-zaragoza, Francisco J; Sánchez-Pardo, María E; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2010-11-01

    Bread baking technology has an important effect on starch digestibility measured as its predicted glycemic index tested in vitro. The aim of this work was to evaluate the changes in predicted glycemic index of pound cake baked in a two-cycle microwave toaster and a conventional oven. The glycemic index was calculated from hydrolysis index values by the Granfeldt method. Non-significant differences (P > 0.05) were found in hydrolysis index (60.67 ± 3.96 for the product baked in microwave oven and 65.94 ± 4.09 for the product baked in conventional oven) and predicted glycemic index content (60.5 for product baked in microwave oven and 65 for the product baked in conventional oven) in freshly-baked samples. Results clearly demonstrate that the baking pound cake conventional process could be replicated using a two-cycle multifunction microwave oven, reducing the traditional baking time. Further research is required in order to achieve pound cake crumb uniformity.

  7. 微波炉电磁场仿真匹配%Simulation Match of Electromagnetic Field in Microwave Oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈又鲜; 曾葆青; 唐相伟

    2013-01-01

    The typical M20L microwave oven was taken as representative and used computer simulation technology to study the match problems of cavity. Through the entity modeling of microwave oven and setting of electrical characteristics parameter of medium material in cavity, it studied and simulated M20L microwave ovea Results were in line with the actual test data, and verified the accuracy of model. On that basis, it researched the influence microwave oven cavity's structure parameters on the performance of the match, found the main parameters of influencing match are: height of cavity roof, position of waveguide, coupling window and roller height, etc. The optimization design of the main parameters solved the M20L microwave oven's problems such as striking fire and fusing shaft, also improved output efficiency, and further experiments or research confirmed that the microwave oven's various performance meet the requirements.%以典型的M20L微波炉为代表,采用计算机仿真技术,研究微波炉腔体的匹配问题.对微波炉实体建模和设置腔体内介质材料电特性参数,并进行了仿真研究,得到的结果与实际测试数据一致,验证了建模的准确性.在此基础上研究了微波炉腔体结构参数对匹配性能的影响,找到了影响匹配的主要参数(炉腔预板高度、波导位置、耦合窗和转环滚轮高度等).通过对主要参数的优化设计解决了M20L微波炉的打火、熔轴等问题,并提高了输出效率,进一步的实验研究证实该微波炉各项性能满足要求.

  8. RADAR Anechoic Chamber/RCS Measurements Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The RF Anechoic Chamber is 56 feet long by 12 feet high by 13.5 feet wide, with an adjoining electronic computer control room. A double door entrance at one end of...

  9. Liquid ionization chambers for LET determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Franz-Joachim; Bassler, Niels; Tölli, Heikki

    Liquid ionization chambers [1] (LICs) have have been used in the last decades as background dosemeters. Since a few years LICs are also commercially available for dosimetry and are used for measurements of dose distributions where a high spatial distribution is necessary. Also in the last decades...... a differential equation applying several simplifications and approximations leading to discrepancies between theory and experiments [3]. The theory predicts the collection efficiency as a function of the electrical field and was applied for both air filled ionization chambers and liquid filled ionization...... chambers. For liquids the LET can be roughly deduced from the collection efficiency dependency on the electrical field inside a liquid ionization chambers [4] using an extrapolation method. We solved the fundamental differential equation again presented by Jaffe numerically, but now taking into account...

  10. Developing cloud chambers with high school students

    CERN Document Server

    Ishizuka, Ryo; Sato, Shoma; Zeze, Syoji

    2013-01-01

    The result and outcome of the cloud chamber project, which aims to develop a cloud chamber useful for science education is reported in detail. A project includes both three high school students and a teacher as a part of Super Science High School (SSH) program in our school. We develop a dry ice free cloud chamber using salt and ice (or snow). Technical detail of the chamber is presented. We also argue how the project affects student's cognition, motivation, academic skills and behavior. The research project had been done in very similar way to those of professional researchers, i.e., planning research, applying fund, writing a paper and giving a talk in conferences. From interviews with students, we learn that such style of scientific activity is very effective in promoting student's motivation for learning science.

  11. MAN-IN-SIMULANT TEST (MIST) CHAMBER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The MIST chamber uses methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen) vapor as a simulant for HD agent to conduct system level evaluations of chemical protective ensembles....

  12. High Performance Methane Thrust Chamber (HPMTC) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop a High-Performance Methane Thrust Chamber (HPMRE) to meet the demands of advanced chemical propulsion systems for deep-space mission...

  13. Developing Cloud Chambers with High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Ryo; Tan, Nobuaki; Sato, Shoma; Zeze, Syoji

    The result and outcome of the cloud chamber project, which aims to develop a cloud chamber useful for science education is reported in detail. A project includes both three high school students and a teacher as a part of Super Science High School (SSH) program in our school. We develop a dry-ice-free cloud chamber using salt and ice (or snow). Technical details of the chamber are described. We also argue how the project have affected student's cognition, motivation, academic skills and behavior. The research project has taken steps of professional researchers, i.e., in planning research, applying fund, writing a paper and giving a talk in conferences. From interviews with students, we have learnt that such style of scientific activity is very effective in promoting student's motivation for learning science.

  14. Electrostatic fields in an ionization chamber electret

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallone, B. G.; Podgorsak, E. B.

    1983-09-01

    The theory of linear systems is used to derive the potential and electric field in distance space in a cylindrical polarization/depolarization electret chamber. General solutions for the near, intermediate, and far regions are given and their domains of convergence discussed. On the axis of the chamber the solutions for the electret surface are equal to those obtained from Gauss's and Kirchoff's laws, and at large distances from the surface to those obtained from the introduction of a dipole layer model.

  15. The drift chambers of the NOMAD experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anfreville, M.; Astier, P.; Authier, M.; Baldisseri, A.; Banner, M.; Besson, N.; Bouchez, J.; Castera, A.; Cloue, O.; Dumarchez, J. E-mail: jacques.dumarchez@cern.ch; Dumps, L.; Gangler, E.; Gosset, J.; Hagner, C.; Jollec, C.; Lachaud, C.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Levy, J.-M.; Linssen, L.; Meyer, J.-P.; Ouriet, J.-P.; Passerieux, J.-P.; Margaley, T.P.T. Pedrol; Placci, A.; Pluquet, A.; Poinsignon, J.; Popov, B.A.; Rathouit, P.; Schahmaneche, K.; Stolarczyk, T.; Uros, V.; Vannucci, F.; Vo, M.K.; Zaccone, H

    2002-04-01

    We present a detailed description of the drift chambers used as an active target and a tracking device in the NOMAD experiment at CERN. The main characteristics of these chambers are a large area (3{center_dot}3 m{sup 2}), a self-supporting structure made of light composite materials and a low cost. A spatial resolution of 150 {mu}m has been achieved with a single hit efficiency of 97%.

  16. The Gargamelle heavy liquid bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    This image shows the Gargamelle heavy liquid bubble chamber. It was used to detect particles in experiments at the PS between 1970 and 1976 before being moved to the SPS. In 1973, while working on the PS, it detected the first neutral current, an interaction vital to the electroweak theory. In 1978 a large fissure appeared in the body of the chamber and Gargamelle was stopped in 1979.

  17. The world's largest time projection chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Peter Glassel, the technical coordinator for the ALICE time projection chamber, is seen sitting inside the detector; the largest in the world at nearly 100 cubic metres. Thousands of wires are connected to read out electronic data produced as particles are created in lead-lead collisions at the centre of the detector. These particles will cause the medium within the time projection chamber to ionise along their tracks allowing the particle paths to be recreated.

  18. Tracking with wire chambers at high luminosities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, G.G. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (USA) Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Radiation damage and rate limitations impose severe constraints on wire chambers at the SSC. Possible conceptual designs for wire chamber tracking systems that satisfy these constraints are discussed. Computer simulation studies of tracking in such systems are presented. Simulations of events from interesting physics at the SSC, including hits from minimum bias background events, are examined. Results of some preliminary pattern recognition studies are given. 11 refs., 10 figs.

  19. Using a ceramic chamber in kicker magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurennoy, S.

    1993-05-01

    A ceramic chamber inside kicker magnets can provide the relevant field risetime. On the other hand, some metallic coating inside has to prevent static charge buildup and shield the beam from ceramic and ferrite at high frequencies to avoid possible resonances. The issues concerning the metallized ceramic chamber, such as coupling impedances and requirements on the coating, are studied to find a compromise solution for kickers of the Medium Energy Booster at the Superconducting Super Collider.

  20. In vitro penetration of bleaching agents into the pulp chamber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Valera, M C; Mancini, M N G

    2004-01-01

    To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures.......To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures....

  1. Expandable Purge Chambers Would Protect Cryogenic Fittings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Ivan I., III

    2004-01-01

    Expandable ice-prevention and cleanliness-preservation (EIP-CP) chambers have been proposed to prevent the accumulation of ice or airborne particles on quick-disconnect (QD) fittings, or on ducts or tubes that contain cryogenic fluids. In the original application for which the EIP-CP chambers were conceived, there is a requirement to be able to disconnect and reconnect the QD fittings in rapid succession. If ice were to form on the fittings by condensation and freezing of airborne water vapor on the cold fitting surfaces, the ice could interfere with proper mating of the fittings, making it necessary to wait an unacceptably long time for the ice to thaw before attempting reconnection. By keeping water vapor away from the cold fitting surfaces, the EIP-CP chambers would prevent accumulation of ice, preserving the ability to reconnect as soon as required. Basically, the role of an EIP-CP chamber would be to serve as an enclosure for a flow of dry nitrogen gas that would keep ambient air away from QD cryogenic fittings. An EIP-CP chamber would be an inflatable device made of a fabriclike material. The chamber would be attached to an umbilical plate holding a cryogenic QD fitting.

  2. Temperature Studies for ATLAS MDT BOS Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Engl, A; Hertenberger, R; Mameghani, R; Merkl, D; Rauscher, F; Schaile, A D; Ströhmer, R

    2009-01-01

    Data sets with high statistics taken at the cosmic ray facility, equipped with 3 ATLAS BOS MDT chambers, in Garching (Munich) have been used to study temperature and pressure effects on gas gain and drifttime. The deformation of a thermally expanded chamber was reconstructed using the internal RasNik alignment monitoring system and the tracks from cosmic data. For these studies a heating system was designed to increase the temperature of the middle chamber by up to 20 Kelvins over room temperature. For comparison the temperature effects on gas properties have been simulated with Garfield. The maximum drifttime decreased under temperature raise by -2.21 +- 0.08 ns/K, in agreement with the results of pressure variations and the Garfield simulation. The increased temperatures led to a linear increase of the gas gain of about 2.1% 1/K. The chamber deformation has been analyzed with the help of reconstructed tracks. By the comparison of the tracks through the reference chambers with these through the test chamber ...

  3. The GODDESS ionization chamber: developing robust windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Rose; Baugher, Travis; Cizewski, Jolie; Pain, Steven; Ratkiewicz, Andrew; Goddess Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Reaction studies of nuclei far from stability require high-efficiency arrays of detectors and the ability to identify beam-like particles, especially when the beam is a cocktail beam. The Gammasphere ORRUBA Dual Detectors for Experimental Structure Studies (GODDESS) is made up of the Oak Ridge-Rutgers University Barrel Array (ORRUBA) of silicon detectors for charged particles inside of the gamma-ray detector array Gammasphere. A high-rate ionization chamber is being developed to identify beam-like particles. Consisting of twenty-one alternating anode and cathode grids, the ionization chamber sits downstream of the target chamber and is used to measure the energy loss of recoiling ions. A critical component of the system is a thin and robust mylar window which serves to separate the gas-filled ionization chamber from the vacuum of the target chamber with minimal energy loss. After construction, windows were tested to assure that they would not break below the required pressure, causing harm to the wire grids. This presentation will summarize the status of the ionization chamber and the results of the first tests with beams. This work is supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy and National Science Foundation.

  4. Chamber for Growing and Observing Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Molina, Thomas C.

    2005-01-01

    A chamber has been designed to enable growth and observation of microcolonies of fungi in isolation from the external environment. Unlike prior fungus-growing apparatuses, this chamber makes it possible to examine a fungus culture without disrupting it. Partly resembling a small picture frame, the chamber includes a metal plate having a rectangular through-thethickness opening with recesses for a top and a bottom cover glass, an inlet for air, and an inlet for water. The bottom cover glass is put in place and held there by clips, then a block of nutrient medium and a moisture pad are placed in the opening. The block is inoculated, then the top cover glass is put in place and held there by clips. Once growth is evident, the chamber can be sealed with tape. Little (if any) water evaporates past the edges of the cover glasses, and, hence there is little (if any) need to add water. A microscope can be used to observe the culture through either cover glass. Because the culture is sealed in the chamber, it is safe to examine the culture without risking contamination. The chamber can be sterilized and reused.

  5. Electric Current Activated Combustion Synthesis and Chemical Ovens Under Terrestrial and Reduced Gravity Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unuvar, C.; Fredrick, D.; Anselmi-Tamburini, U.; Manerbino, A.; Guigne, J. Y.; Munir, Z. A.; Shaw, B. D.

    2004-01-01

    Combustion synthesis (CS) generally involves mixing reactants together (e.g., metal powders) and igniting the mixture. Typically, a reaction wave will pass through the sample. In field activated combustion synthesis (FACS), the addition of an electric field has a marked effect on the dynamics of wave propagation and on the nature, composition, and homogeneity of the product as well as capillary flow, mass-transport in porous media, and Marangoni flows, which are influenced by gravity. The objective is to understand the role of an electric field in CS reactions under conditions where gravity-related effects are suppressed or altered. The systems being studied are Ti+Al and Ti+3Al. Two different ignition orientations have been used to observe effects of gravity when one of the reactants becomes molten. This consequentially influences the position and concentration of the electric current, which in turn influences the entire process. Experiments have also been performed in microgravity conditions. This process has been named Microgravity Field Activated Combustion Synthesis (MFACS). Effects of gravity have been demonstrated, where the reaction wave temperature and velocity demonstrate considerable differences besides the changes of combustion mechanisms with the different high currents applied. Also the threshold for the formation of a stable reaction wave is increased under zero gravity conditions. Electric current was also utilized with a chemical oven technique, where inserts of aluminum with minute amounts of tungsten and tantalum were used to allow observation of effects of settling of the higher density solid particles in liquid aluminum at the present temperature profile and wave velocity of the reaction.

  6. Ways to improve the removal of hydrogen sulfide from coke-oven gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, M.D.; Lyannaya; No. 1, Z.G.; Ignatova, E.P.; Zbykovskii, I.I.; Shukh, Ya.I.; Andreiko, I.M.; Garkushenko, I.Ya.

    1979-01-01

    Our calculations showed that, if the gas temperatures ahead of the scrubbers were reuced to 30/sup 0/C and 300 to 400 liters/h of concentrated ammonia water were added to the circuit, the degree of hydrogen sulfide absorption could be brought to 58 to 65%, i.e., the hydrogen sulfide content in the return gas would be less than 2.5 g/m/sup 3/. All the hydrogen sulfide removed from the gas would enter the concentrated ammonia water, which would be delivered to facilities for production of soda by the ammonia method. The ammonium sulfide formed in the liquor would be a desirable component, acting to inhibit corrosion. This would provide the simplest solution to the problem of utilizing the hydrogen sulfide removed from the gas. Our investigation thus showed that the hydrogen sulfide content of the coke-oven gas can be reduced to a permissible level in the department as it now exists, without substantial remodelling of the scrubber department. Implementation of the proposed measures (installation of an additional gas cooler beyond the blower and introduction of 300 to 400 liters/h of 20% ammonia liquor into the circuit) will make it possible to improve air-pollution conditions in the carbonization department and adjoining areas, reduce the corrosion of the gaslines, utilize that portion of the gas now discharged into the atmosphere, and eliminate the need for construction of an expensive special facility for removal of hydrogen sulfide. Addition of concentrated ammonia liquor into the scrubber-liquor circuit in the amounts indicated above raised the degree of hydrogen sulfide absorption from 31 to 43 to 47%.

  7. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Beef Roasts Cooked in Conventional or Convection Ovens or in a Slow Cooker under Selected Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, C O; Devos, J; Badoni, M; Yang, X

    2016-02-01

    Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in beef roasts cooked under selected cooking conditions was evaluated. Eye of round roasts were each inoculated at five sites in the central plane with a five-strain cocktail of E. coli O157:H7 at ca. 6.3 log CFU per site and cooked to center temperatures of 56 to 71°C in a convection oven set at 120, 140, 180, or 200°C, in a conventional oven set at 120 or 210°C, and in a slow cooker set on high or low. Prime rib roasts were each inoculated at 10 sites throughout the roast with the same E. coli O157:H7 cocktail at ca. 6.6 log CFU per site and cooked in the conventional oven set at 140 or 180°C to center temperatures of 58 to 71°C. The number of sites yielding E. coli O157:H7 after cooking decreased with increasing roast center temperature for the eye of round roasts cooked in the convection oven or in the slow cooker at a given setting, but this trend was not apparent for roasts of either type cooked in the conventional oven. Reductions of E. coli O157 in both types of roasts were generally less at the center than at other locations, particularly locations closer to the surface of the meat. When eye of round roasts were cooked to the same center temperature in the convection oven, the reduction of E. coli O157:H7 increased with increasing oven temperature up to 180°C and decreased after that. The reduction of E. coli O157:H7 in replicate roasts cooked under conditions in which the organism was not eliminated during cooking mostly differed by >1 log CFU per site. However, E. coli O157:H7 was not recovered from any of the inoculation sites when eye of round roasts were cooked to 65, 60, 60, or 63°C in the convection oven set at 120, 140, 180, and 200°C, respectively; cooked to 63 or 71°C in the conventional oven set at 120 and 210°C, respectively; or cooked to 63°C in the slow cooker set at high or low. For prime rib roasts, E. coli O157:H7 was not recovered from any of the inoculation sites in roasts cooked to 71

  8. Final report for NIF chamber dynamics studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, A; Peterson, P F; Scott, J M

    1998-09-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), a 1.8 MJ, 192 laser beam facility, will have anticipated fusion yields of up to 20 MJ from D-T pellets encased in a gold hohlraum target. The energy emitted from the target in the form of x rays, neutrons, target debris kinetic energy, and target shrapnel will be contained in a 5 m. radius spherical target chamber. various diagnostics will be stationed around the target at varying distances from the target. During each shot, the target will emit x rays that will vaporize nearby target facing surfaces including those of the diagnostics, the target positioner, and other chamber structures. This ablated vapor will be transported throughout the chamber, and will eventually condense and deposit on surfaces in the chamber, including the final optics debris shields. The research at the University of California at Berkeley relates primarily to the NIF chamber dynamics. The key design issues are the ablation of the chamber structures, transport of the vapor through the chamber and the condensation or deposition processes of those vaporized materials. An understanding of these processes is essential in developing a concept for protecting the fina optics debris shields from an excessive coating (> 10 A) of target debris and ablated material, thereby prolonging their lifetime between change-outs. At Berkeley, we have studied the physical issues of the ablation process and the effects of varying materials, the condensation process of the vaporized material, and design schemes that can lower the threat posed to the debris shields by these processes. The work or portions of the work completed this year have been published in several papers and a dissertation [l-5].

  9. Study of a hybrid solar-electric oven to the curing composite materials used in aeronautics; Estudio de un horno hibrido solar-electrico para el curado de materiales compuestos utilizados en aeronautica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Roman, M. A.; Pineda Pinon, J.; Sanchez Sanchez, A. [CICATA - Unidad Queretaro, Santiago de Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)]. E-mail: mhernandezr0900@ipn.mx

    2010-11-15

    The study covers the curing of advanced composites in a hybrid solar electric oven. The furnace uses electricity from the grid power and solar energy provided by the heliostat concentrator system. The materials used in the experiments will be composite materials such as prepreg. The prepreg are fiberglass and carbon fiber. The resin used in the pre-impregnate will be epoxy resin. The work temperatures inside the furnace will be maximum 300 degrees Celsius. The obtained results will be useful to characterize the use of the solar energy and the characterize of the curing chamber. [Spanish] Se presenta el alcance para el estudio, el cual abarca el curado de materiales compuestos avanzados dentro de un horno hibrido solar electrico. El horno utilizara energia electrica suministrada por la red y energia solar suministrada por el sistema heliostato concentrador. Los materiales utilizados en los experimentos seran materiales compuestos tipo prepreg. Los prepreg seran de fibra de vidrio y de fibra de carbono. La resina utilizada en el preimpregando sera resina epoxica. Las temperaturas de trabajo dentro del horno seran como maximo de 300 grados centigrados. Los resultados obtenidos serviran para caracterizar el uso y aprovechamiento de la energia solar y la caracterizacion de la camara de curado.

  10. Investigation of Swirling Flows in Mixing Chambers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh Jian Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation analyzed the three-dimensional momentum and mass transfer characteristics arising from multiple inlets and a single outlet in micromixing chamber. The chamber consists of a right square prism, an octagonal prism, or a cylinder. Numerical results which were presented in terms of velocity vector plots and concentration distributions indicated that the swirling flows inside the chamber dominate the mixing index. Particle trajectories were utilized to demonstrate the rotational and extensional local flows which produce steady stirring, and the configuration of colored particles at the outlet section expressed at different Re represented the mixing performance qualitatively. The combination of the Taylor dispersion and the vorticity was first introduced and made the mixing successful. The effects of various geometric parameters and Reynolds numbers on the mixing characteristics were investigated. An optimal design of the cylindrical chamber with 4 inlets can be found. At larger Reynolds number, Re>15, more inertia caused the powerful swirling flows in the chamber, and more damping effect on diffusion was diminished, which then increased the mixing performance.

  11. Improved climatic chamber for desiccation simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozada Catalina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The climatic chamber at the Universidad de Los Andes was improved for modeling desiccation in soil layers. This chamber allows the measurement of different environmental variables. In this research, evaporation tests were conducted in water imposing boundary conditions for drying, and then these tests were performed in a soil layer. The soil was prepared from a slurry state and was drying controlling the temperature, the infrared radiation, the wind velocity, and the relative humidity. In the first part of this paper, a description of the climatic chamber, operation ranges and theoretical work principles of the climatic chamber are presented. Then, the second part shows the results for desiccation in water and soil. The desiccation tests performed with the climatic chamber allow simulating all environmental conditions accurately during drying coupling the effect of all environmental variables. As a result, the evaporation rate increases with infrared radiation in soil and water. The rate at the beginning of the desiccation tests in clays is the same as in water. However, this evaporation rate decreases as the soil becomes desiccated.

  12. Tuned Chamber Core Panel Acoustic Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Noah H.; Allen, Albert R.

    2016-01-01

    This report documents acoustic testing of tuned chamber core panels, which can be used to supplement the low-frequency performance of conventional acoustic treatment. The tuned chamber core concept incorporates low-frequency noise control directly within the primary structure and is applicable to sandwich constructions with a directional core, including corrugated-, truss-, and fluted-core designs. These types of sandwich structures have long, hollow channels (or chambers) in the core. By adding small holes through one of the facesheets, the hollow chambers can be utilized as an array of low-frequency acoustic resonators. These resonators can then be used to attenuate low-frequency noise (below 400 Hz) inside a vehicle compartment without increasing the weight or size of the structure. The results of this test program demonstrate that the tuned chamber core concept is effective when used in isolation or combined with acoustic foam treatments. Specifically, an array of acoustic resonators integrated within the core of the panels was shown to improve both the low-frequency absorption and transmission loss of the structure in targeted one-third octave bands.

  13. High intensity electromagnetic field gerenation using a transportable reverberation chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank

    2008-01-01

    A reverberation chamber can create very high field strength with moderate input power. Existing chambers are making use of a paddle wheel to change the resonant modes in the chamber. A transportable reverberation chamber with vibrating walls will be presented. Inside this Vibrating Intrinsic Reverbe

  14. Laboratory scale investigation to improve the productivity of stamp charge coke oven through optimisation of bulk density of coal cake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dash, P.S.; Krishnan, S.H.; Sharma, R.; Banerjee, P.K.; Haldar, S.K. [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur (India)

    2005-07-01

    In the recent past, it was realised that the gross coke yield was going down as a result of lower oven throughput in the stamp charged batteries of Tata Steel. The basic reason for this being the net reduction in the ash content of the coal blend used due to the incorporation of higher percentage of low ash imported coals and reduction in the ash content of captive coals through washing. The coals having higher ash content improves the bulk density, as the specific gravity of ash is higher than that of pure coal. Moreover, the ash components have affinity for water and pure coal repels water, which in case of pure coal, works against the holding together of the blend. Hence, lower the ash content, less is the bulk density of cake under identical stamping energy and lower the bulk density, less is the oven throughput. In order to maximise the oven throughput and productivity, a study was conducted in the laboratory mainly to assess the effect of various blend constituents and their ash content on the bulk density of coal charge. The effect of ash content on the coal cake stability has also been dealt with. This study, in short, is a useful tool for selecting the right type of coals and designing the optimum blend for stamp charging to achieve maximum throughput and productivity. In addition, studies were also carried out to assess the effect of addition of various binders on coal cake stability at lower moisture level which would also help in achieving higher throughput and productivity.

  15. Effect of Leaked Radiation from Microwave Oven on Bone Marrow of Male Rats in Pre and Post Pubertal Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Jelodar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Increasing hematological diseases along with increased use of microwaves in different systems proposed possible correlation between them. Age of exposure to wave is also an important factor. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of radiation leakaged from microwave oven on hemopoitic bone marrow cells at pre and post pubertal. Methods: Fourteen male mature (2 months old and 14 male immature rats(one month old were randomly divided in to four groups (control and test. Test groups were exposed, three times a day each time 30 min for 60 days, to microwaves produced by microwave oven. After sixty days, animals were sacrified and bone marrow samples were collected from femural bones. Percent of variose cells type and their morphology were evaluated in 500 cells of each smear. Results: exposure to microwave did not exert visible morphological alteration. In the immature experimental group significant decrease in percent of basophilic rubricyte, polychromatic rubricyte, meta rubricyte and all the erythroid cell types observed(P<0.05, whereas, meta myelocyte, notrophilic band, total myeloid cell types and prolifrative cells, other cell types and the myeloid/erythroid ratio significantly increased(P<0.05. In the mature group, however, a significant decrease in percent of meta rubricyte and myelocyte cells observed(P<0.05, although prolifrative cells and all other cell types were significantly increasing in this group. Conclusion: In conclusion, the radiation leaked from microwave oven in the experimental conditions had no effect on the morphology of hemopoitic bone marrow cells, though the number of these cells was altered especially in immature group.

  16. Ultra-sensitive method for determination of ethanol in whole blood by headspace capillary gas chromatography with cryogenic oven trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe-Suzuki, K; Seno, H; Ishii, A; Kumazawa, T; Suzuki, O

    1999-04-30

    We have established an ultra-sensitive method for determination of ethanol in whole blood by headspace capillary gas chromatography (GC) with cryogenic oven trapping. After heating a blood sample containing ethanol and isobutyl alcohol (internal standard, IS) in a 7.0-ml vial at 55 degrees C for 15 min, 5 ml of the headspace vapor was drawn into a glass syringe and injected into a GC port. All vapor was introduced into an Rtx-BAC2 wide-bore capillary column in the splitless mode at -60 degrees C oven temperature to trap entire analytes, and then the oven temperature was programmed up to 240 degrees C for GC measurements with flame ionization detection. The present method gave sharp peaks of ethanol and IS, and low background noise for whole blood samples. The mean partition into the gaseous phase for ethanol and IS was 3.06+/-0.733 and 8.33+/-2.19%, respectively. The calibration curves showed linearity in the range 0.02-5.0 microg/ml whole blood. The detection limit was estimated to be 0.01 microg/ml. The coefficients of intra-day and inter-day variation for spiked ethanol were 8.72 and 9.47%, respectively. Because of the extremely high sensitivity, we could measure low levels of endogenous ethanol in whole blood of subjects without drinking. The concentration of endogenous ethanol measured for 10 subjects under uncontrolled conditions varied from 0 to 0.377 microg/ml (mean, 0.180 microg/ml). Data on the diurnal changes of endogenous ethanol in whole blood of five subjects under strict food control are also presented; they are in accordance with the idea that endogenous blood ethanol is of enteric bacterial origin.

  17. Soil water retention and maximum capillary drive from saturation to oven dryness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel-Seytoux, H. J.; Nimmo, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an alternative method to describe the water retention curve over a range of water contents from saturation to oven dryness. It makes two modifications to the standard Brooks and Corey [1964] (B-C) description, one at each end of the suction range. One expression proposed by Rossi and Nimmo [1994] is used in the high-suction range to a zero residual water content. (This Rossi-Nimmo modification to the Brooks-Corey model provides a more realistic description of the retention curve at low water contents.) Near zero suction the second modification eliminates the region where there is a change in suction with no change in water content. Tests on seven soil data sets, using three distinct analytical expressions for the high-, medium-, and low-suction ranges, show that the experimental water retention curves are well fitted by this composite procedure. The high-suction range of saturation contributes little to the maximum capillary drive, defined with a good approximation for a soil water and air system as H(cM) = {???)/(o) k(rw) dh(c), where k(rw) is relative permeability (or conductivity) to water and h(c) is capillary suction, a positive quantity in unsaturated soils. As a result, the modification suggested to describe the high-suction range does not significantly affect the equivalence between Brooks-Corey (B-C) and van Genuchten [1980] parameters presented earlier. However, the shape of the retention curve near 'natural saturation' has a significant impact on the value of the capillary drive. The estimate using the Brooks-Corey power law, extended to zero suction, will exceed that obtained with the new procedure by 25 to 30%. It is not possible to tell which procedure is appropriate. Tests on another data set, for which relative conductivity data are available, support the view of the authors that measurements of a retention curve coupled with a speculative curve of relative permeability as from a capillary model are not sufficient to accurately

  18. A new sensor-based self-configurable bandstop filter for reducing the energy leakage in industrial microwave ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente-Fernández, F. J.; Monzó-Cabrera, J.; Pedreño-Molina, J. L.; Lozano-Guerrero, A. J.; Fayos-Fernández, J.; Díaz-Morcillo, A.

    2012-06-01

    In this work a new sensor-based self-configurable waveguide bandstop filter that uses a combination of metallic irises and reconfigurable posts for reducing the energy leakage in industrial microwave ovens is presented and validated through a procedure fully based on measurements. Several optimization and reconfiguration alternatives of the moving posts such as genetic algorithms and parametric sweeps are assessed. Results show that good attenuation values can be obtained for all the analyzed scenarios. In particular, genetic algorithms are shown as the best search strategy. Design and optimization times are also reduced when using the proposed filter compared to computer simulations.

  19. [Detection of sister chromatic exchange in workers exposed to coal tar pitch and to coke oven volatiles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Chen, C; Wu, Y; Xu, Y

    1998-07-01

    In order to know the changes of genetic toxicological effects on workers occupationally exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), sister chromatic exchange(SCE) was detected by the methods of peripheral lymphocyte culture in 23 workers exposed to coal tar pitch (CTP) and in 19 workers exposed to coke oven volatiles (COV) and 12 normal controls. The results suggested that the SCE in occupational workers was significantly higher than that in controls (11.31 vs 6.37, P 0.05). It is indicated that CTP and COV caused strong genetic toxicity and injury to chromosome.

  20. Thermal vacuum chamber repressurization with instrument purging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woronowicz, Michael S.

    2016-09-01

    At the conclusion of cryogenic vacuum testing of the James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element Integrated Science Instrument Module (JWST-OTIS) in NASA Johnson Space Center's (JSCs) thermal vacuum (TV) Chamber A, contamination control (CC) engineers are postulating that chamber particulate material stirred up by the repressurization process may be kept from falling into the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) interior to some degree by activating instrument purge flows over some initial period before opening the chamber valves. This manuscript describes development of a series of models designed to describe this process. The models are strung together in tandem with a fictitious set of conditions to estimate overpressure evolution from which net outflow velocity behavior may be obtained. Creeping flow assumptions are then used to determine the maximum particle size that may be kept suspended above the ISIM aperture, keeping smaller particles from settling within the instrument module.

  1. Rapid-Cycling Bubble-Chamber, details

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Parts of the hydraulic expansion system of the Rapid-Cycling Bubble-Chamber (RCBC). RCBC was the largest of 3 rapid-cycling bubble-chambers (the others were LEBC and HOLEBC), used as target- and vertex-detectors within the European Hybrid Spectrometer (EHS) in the SPS North Area (EHN1). RCBC contained 250 l of liquid hydrogen and was located inside a 3 T superconducting magnet. It was designed for 30 expansions/s (100 times faster than BEBC), the system shown here allowed 50 expansions/s. RCBC operated from 1981 to 1983 for experiments NA21, NA22 and NA23 at a rate of 15 expansions/s, clocking up a total of over 4 million. In the rear, at left, is bearded Lucien Veillet; Augustin Didona is at the right. See also 8001009. The installation of the piston assembly in the RCBC chamber body is shown in the Annual Report 1980, p.65.

  2. Classification of the LHC BLM Ionization Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Stockner, M; Fabjan, Christian Wolfgang; Holzer, E B; Kramer, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The LHC beam loss monitoring (BLM) system must prevent the super conducting magnets from quenching and protect the machine components from damage. The main monitor type is an ionization chamber. About 4000 of them will be installed around the ring. The lost beam particles initiate hadronic showers through the magnets and other machine components. These shower particles are measured by the monitors installed on the outside of the accelerator equipment. For the calibration of the BLM system the signal response of the ionization chamber is simulated in GEANT4 for all relevant particle types and energies (keV to TeV range). For validation, the simulations are compared to measurements using protons, neutrons, photons and mixed radiation fields at various energies and intensities. This paper will focus on the signal response of the ionization chamber to various particle types and energies including space charge effects at high ionization densities.

  3. Posing the first LEAR vacuum chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1982-01-01

    The photo shows one of the four bending magnets of LEAR. They were of C-type with the opening ('mouth') to the outside of the ring (yoke to the inside). Last preparations are made before the vacuum chamber is slid through the mouth into the magnet. Stochastic cooling pickups/kickers were installed inside the chamber. One can distinguish a large number of feed-throughs on the chamber (leading to the pickup/kicker gaps). The free space in the middle of the block was left to offer room for an internal target in the magnet. This possibility was never exploited. Instead it is used here, to accommodate a pumping port for the high vacuum system. Michel Chanel (left) and Pierre Lefevre admire the mechanics at work.

  4. Synchronization of the CMS Cathode Strip Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Raknessa, G; Wang, D

    2007-01-01

    The synchronization of the trigger and data acquisition systems for the Cathode Strip Chambers (CSCs) in the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector at CERN is described. The CSC trigger system is designed to trigger CMS on muons with high efficiency (~99% per chamber) and is able to accurately identify its 25ns proton bunch crossing. To date, asynchronous cosmic ray data have been used to define the protocol and to refine timing algorithms, allowing synchronization to be realized within and between chambers to within ±10 ns. Final synchronization of the CSCs requires timing parameters to be accurate to 2 ns. This goal will be readily achieved from the cosmic ray baseline using data taken with the synchronous beam structure of the Large Hadron Collider.

  5. Improving the Concentrations of the Active Components in the Herbal Tea Ingredient, Uraria crinita: The Effect of Post-harvest Oven-drying Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jung; Dai, Yuntao; Cheng, Hao-Yuan; Lam, Wing; Cheng, Yung-Chi; Li, Ke; Peng, Wen-Huang; Pao, Li-Heng; Hsieh, Ming-Tsuen; Qin, Xue-Mei; Lee, Meng-Shiou

    2017-01-01

    Uraria crinita is widely used as a popular folk drink; however, little is known about how the post-harvest operations affect the chemical composition and bioactivity of UC. We assessed three drying methods (Oven-drying, Air-drying, Sun-drying), as well as the Oven-drying temperature using metabolomics approaches and bioactivity assays. The samples processed at 40 degree show a greater effect on the levels of estrogen receptor-alpha activity and nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 activity, anti-oxidative activity, and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition compared with the other samples. A multivariate analysis showed a clear separation between the 40 degree Oven-dried samples and the other samples, which is consistent with the results of bioactivity assay. These results are ascribed to at least two-fold increase in the concentrations of flavonoids, spatholosineside A and triterpenoids in the oven-dried samples compared with the other groups. The proposed Oven-drying method at 40 degree results in an improved quality of UC. PMID:28079108

  6. Study of hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural formation in cakes during baking in different ovens, using a validated multiple-stage extraction-based analytical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petisca, Catarina; Henriques, Ana Rita; Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad; Pinho, Olívia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2013-12-15

    A procedure for extraction of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural from cakes was validated. Higher yield was achieved by multiple step extraction with water/methanol (70/30) and clarification with Carrez I and II reagents. Oven type and baking time strongly influenced HMF, moisture and volatile profile of model cakes, whereas furfural content was not significantly affected. No correlation was found between these parameters. Baking time influenced moisture and HMF formation in cakes from traditional and microwave ovens but not in steam oven cakes. Significant moisture decrease and HMF increase (3.63, 9.32, and 41.9 mg kg(-1)dw at 20, 40 and 60 min, respectively) were observed during traditional baking. Cakes baked by microwave also presented a significant increase of HMF (up to 16.84 mg kg(-1)dw at 2.5 min). Steam oven cakes possessed the highest moisture content and no significant differences in HMF and furfural. This oven is likely to form low HMF and furfural, maintaining cake moisture and aroma compounds.

  7. Additional heating with twin flue for improving oven end temperature%改善炉头温度的双火道补充加热方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘保成; 陈凤昌; 王洪博

    2013-01-01

    针对使用富煤气和贫煤气加热对生产工艺的影响,提出了改善炉头温度的双火道补充加热方案,改善了炉头温度的均匀系数,确保全炉温度的均匀性,同时保证了炉头焦炭及全炉焦炭均匀成熟,提高焦炉寿命。%In view of the affect of using rich gas and lean gas heating to the production process , this paper proposed a solution of additional heating with twin flue for improving oven end temperature which would improve uniformity coefficient of oven end temperature ,ensure uniformity of the entire oven, guarantee mature carbonization of the coke at oven end and that of the entire oven as well as prolong the service life of the battery .

  8. Calibration of a pencil ionization chamber with and without preamplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, Ana Figueiredo

    2004-01-01

    The pencil ionization chamber is a cylindrical dosimeter developed for computed tomography beams. Many kinds of ionization chambers have a preamplifier connected to the chamber to make it electrically more stable, specially for field instruments. In this study, the performance of a Victoreen pencil ionization chamber with the original preamplifier and after its removal was compared. The objective of the preamplifier removal was to enable connecting the chamber to other kinds of electromete...

  9. Ultra-low mass drift chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assiro, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Cappelli, L. [Università di Cassino e del Lazio Meridionale (Italy); Cascella, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Dipartimento Matematica e Fisica, Università del Salento (Italy); De Lorenzis, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione, Università del Salento (Italy); Grancagnolo, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Ignatov, F. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); L' Erario, A.; Maffezzoli, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione, Università del Salento (Italy); Miccoli, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Onorato, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Università G. Marconi, Roma (Italy); Perillo, M. [EnginSoft S.p.a., Trento (Italy); Piacentino, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Fermilab, Batavia, IL (United States); Università G. Marconi, Roma (Italy); Rella, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione, Università del Salento (Italy); Rossetti, F. [EnginSoft S.p.a., Trento (Italy); Spedicato, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Tassielli, G., E-mail: giovanni.tassielli@le.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Università G. Marconi, Roma (Italy); and others

    2013-08-01

    We present a novel low mass drift chamber concept, developed in order to fulfill the stringent requirements imposed by the experiments for extremely rare processes, which require high resolutions (order of 100–200 keV/c) for particle momenta in a range (50–100 MeV/c) totally dominated by the multiple scattering contribution. We describe a geometry optimization procedure and a new wiring strategy with a feed-through-less wire anchoring system developed and tested on a drift chamber prototype under completion at INFN-Lecce.

  10. A view inside the Gargamelle bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    Gargamelle was the name given to a big bubble chamber built at the Saclay Laboratory in France during the late 1960s. It was designed principally for the detection at CERN of the elusive particles called neutrinos. A bubble chamber contains a liquid under pressure, which reveals the tracks of electrically charged particles as trails of tiny bubbles when the pressure is reduced. Neutrinos have no charge, and so leave no tracks, but the aim with Gargamelle was "see neutrinos" by making visible any charged particles set in motion by the interaction of neutrinos in the liquid

  11. Cosmic Muon Detector Using Proportional Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Varga, Dezső; Hamar, Gergő; Molnár, Janka Sára; Oláh, Éva; Pázmándi, Péter

    2015-01-01

    A set of classical multi-wire proportional chambers were designed and constructed with the main purpose of efficient cosmic muon detection. These detectors are relatively simple to construct, and at the same time are low cost, making them ideal for educational purposes. The detector layers have efficiencies above 99% for minimum ionizing cosmic muons, and their position resolution is about 1 cm, that is, particle trajectories are clearly observable. Visualization of straight tracks is possible using an LED array, with the discriminated and latched signal driving the display. Due to the exceptional operating stability of the chambers, the design can also be used for cosmic muon telescopes.

  12. Optimization of formulation of soy-cakes baked in infrared-microwave combination oven by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şakıyan, Özge

    2015-05-01

    The aim of present work is to optimize the formulation of a functional cake (soy-cake) to be baked in infrared-microwave combination oven. For this optimization process response surface methodology was utilized. It was also aimed to optimize the processing conditions of the combination baking. The independent variables were the baking time (8, 9, 10 min), the soy flour concentration (30, 40, 50 %) and the DATEM (diacetyltartaric acid esters of monoglycerides) concentration (0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 %). The quality parameters that were examined in the study were specific volume, weight loss, total color change and firmness of the cake samples. The results were analyzed by multiple regression; and the significant linear, quadratic, and interaction terms were used in the second order mathematical model. The optimum baking time, soy-flour concentration and DATEM concentration were found as 9.5 min, 30 and 0.72 %, respectively. The corresponding responses of the optimum points were almost comparable with those of conventionally baked soy-cakes. So it may be declared that it is possible to produce high quality soy cakes in a very short time by using infrared-microwave combination oven.

  13. Modeling the kinetics of methane conversion in steam reforming process of coke-oven gas based on experimental data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jia-yuan; ZHOU Jie-min

    2007-01-01

    Steam-reforming is an effective approach for upgrading methane and hydrocarbon of coke-oven gas into CO and H2, but the kinetic behavior needs more study. We investigated the conversion of methane in coke-oven gas by steam reforming process in an electric tubular flow at 14 kPa with temperature varying from 500℃ to 950℃, and developed a kenetic model for , ignoring the effects of adsorption and diffusion. The optimal dynamic conditions for methane conversion 14 kPa are as follows: the ratio of the amount of water to the amount of methane is from 1.1 to 1.3; the reaction temperature is from 1 223 K to 1 273 K. The methane conversion rate is larger than 95% when the ratio of the amount of water to the amount of methane is 1.2 at a temperature above 1 223 K with the residence time up to 0.75 s.

  14. Correlation between self-ignition of a dust layer on a hot surface and in baskets in an oven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janes, A; Carson, D; Accorsi, A; Chaineaux, J; Tribouilloy, B; Morainvillers, D

    2008-11-30

    Evaluation of self-ignition hazard of bulk materials requires experimental determination of self-ignition temperatures as a function of volume. There are two standardised methods: (1) determination of the self-ignition temperature of dust samples in oven and (2) measurement of the self-ignition temperature of a dust layer deposited on a hot surface. Sometimes, the sample behaviour during these tests makes the second method difficult to apply. The self-ignition phenomena in these two tests rely on the same principles. Their results are interpreted with the help of theoretical relations. The correlation described in this paper can be considered acceptable to deduce self-ignition temperature of a dust layer, based on results of self-ignition of the same dust in heating ovens, if the Biot number (alpha) can be estimated. Uncertainty on the correlation is near 30K. This uncertainty is on the same order of magnitude as the difference in the self-ignition temperature on a hot surface for thickness between 5 and 15 mm.

  15. Influences of hydrogen-enriched atmosphere under coke oven gas injection on reduction swelling behaviors of oxidized pellet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙红明; 王宏涛; 狄瞻霞; 春铁军; 柳政根

    2016-01-01

    It is of great importance to elucidate reduction swelling behaviors and reaction mechanism of oxidized pellet in hydrogen-enriched atmosphere under coke oven gas injection. In this work, the effects of hydrogen concentration in N2−CO−H2 atmosphere with unchanged CO content on reduction swelling behaviors of oxidized pellet at 1173 K were studied, to clarify the mechanism of hydrogen-enriched reduction and exclude the influences of CO. Then, the reduction swelling behaviors of oxidized pellet at 1173 K in actual atmosphere under coke oven gas (COG) injection, got from the simulation results of multi-fluid blast furnace model, were investigated. The results show that with the concentration of hydrogen increasing in N2−CO−H2 gas from 2% to 18%, the reduction swelling index of pellet decreases from 10.12% to 5.57% while the reduction ratio of pellet increases obviously from 39.85% to 69.58%. In addition, with COG injection rate increasing from 0 to 152.34 m3/t, the reduction swelling index of pellet decreases slightly from 10.71% to 9.54% while the reduction ratio of pellet is increased from 31.57% to 36.39%. The microstructures of pellet are transformed from the platy structure to the flocculent structure.

  16. Effect of Radiation Leakage of Microwave Oven on Rat Serum Testosterone at Pre and Post Pubertal Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Zare

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since discovery of high frequency waves, their biological effects have been in great attention. Increased male fertility problems proposed their possible relation to use of microwaves. Testes are of very active body tissues, which can be affected by these waves. Age of exposure may also be an important factor. Methods: This study was carried out to evaluated testosterone level in rats exposed to microwave radiation at pre and post puberty. For this study 18 adult (2 month old and 18 immature (1 month old male rats were selected and each group divided in two groups, control and test group. Test groups were exposed to 2450 MHZ microwaves produced by microwave oven (LG Brant, three times a day, 30 minute each time. Control groups were kept in laboratory at same temperature and light condition. After 60 days blood was collected by heart puncture and testosterone was measured in serum by RIA method. Mean testosterone levels were compared by T-test. Result: The results showed that in immature group testosterone has not changed significantly compare to control group; however in adult group this value was significantly decreased in test group in comparison with control (P<0.005. Conclusion: exposure to microwaves leakage of microwave oven decreased testosterone in adult male rats, which may be due to its direct effect on Leydig cells or indirectly through its effect on pituitary and hypothalamus.

  17. Cosmos caudatus as a potential source of polyphenolic compounds: optimisation of oven drying conditions and characterisation of its functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediani, Ahmed; Abas, Faridah; Khatib, Alfi; Tan, Chin Ping

    2013-08-29

    The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of oven thermal processing of Cosmos caudatus on the total polyphenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (DPPH) of two different solvent extracts (80% methanol, and 80% ethanol). Sonication was used to extract bioactive compounds from this herb. The results showed that the optimised conditions for the oven drying method for 80% methanol and 80% ethanol were 44.5 °C for 4 h with an IC₅₀ of 0.045 mg/mL and 43.12 °C for 4.05 h with an IC₅₀ of 0.055 mg/mL, respectively. The predicted values for TPC under the optimised conditions for 80% methanol and 80% ethanol were 16.5 and 15.8 mg GAE/100 g DW, respectively. The results obtained from this study demonstrate that Cosmos caudatus can be used as a potential source of antioxidants for food and medicinal applications.

  18. Evaluation of differential antitermitic activities of Lantana camara oven-dried tissues against Reticufitermes virginicus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhonglin Yuan; Xingl Ping Hu

    2011-01-01

    Chemical-treated soil or physical barriers have been the most commonly used approach for termite management.We hypothesized that a barrier of soil incorporated with oven-dried Lantana camara L.tissues could prevent termite infestation.We first examined the antitermitic effects of the dried tissues from two cultivars (‘Mozelle’ and ‘New Gold’)on the subterranean termite,Reticulitermes virginicus (Banks) (Isoptera:Rhinotermitidae).Results show that all of the tissues of Mozelle had greater antitermic activity than corresponding tissues of New Gold,and leaves had greater termiticidal effects than flowers and stems.When termites were exposed to the test materials in a no-choice bioassay,the 24-day test resulted in a significant reduction of survival (52.5%-88.6%),running speed (18.2%-37.3%),live weight (21.8%-53.5%) and body water content (33.2%-56.2%) compared to the control.The consumption of leaves and flowers was exiguous.When used as 25% tissue mulch-barrier,the oven-dried lantana tissues decreased termite tunneling and wood consumption and increased termite mortality.The decreased survival,vigor,and low consumption indicate a toxic and anti-feeding property of the materials tested.The results therefore support our hypothesis that the dried lantana tissues possess antitermitic activities.

  19. Occupational coke oven emissions exposure and risk of abnormal liver function: modifications of body mass index and hepatitis virus infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Hu; B. Chen; J. Qian; L. Jin; T. Jin; D. Lu [Fudan University, Shanghai (China). Department of Occupational and Environmental Health

    2010-03-15

    Occupational coke oven emissions (COEs) have been considered an important health issue. However, there are no conclusive data on human hepatic injury due to COE exposure. The association of COE exposure with liver function was explored and the effects of modification of potential non-occupational factors were assessed. 705 coke oven workers and 247 referents were investigated. Individual cumulative COE exposure was quantitatively estimated. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), {gamma}-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C antibody were measured. Among those with high COE exposure, the adjusted ORs of abnormal ALT and AST were 5.23 (95% CI 2.66 to 10.27) and 1.95 (95% CI 1.18 to 3.52), respectively. Overweight individuals (body mass index (BMI) {>=}25 kg/m{sup 2}) with high COE exposure had elevated risks of abnormal ALT (adjusted OR 23.93, 95% CI 8.73 to 65.62) and AST (adjusted OR 5.18, 95% CI 2.32 to 11.58). Risk of liver damage in hepatitis B virus- or hepatitis C virus-positive individuals with COE exposure was also elevated. Long-term exposure to COE increases the risk of liver dysfunction, which is more prominent among those with higher BMI and hepatitis virus infection. The risk assessment of liver damage associated with COE exposure should take BMI and hepatitis virus infection into consideration.

  20. Focused-microwave-assisted reaction in flow injection spectrophotometry: a new liquid-vapor separation chamber for determination of reducing sugars in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A F; Fatibello-Filho, O; Nóbrega, J A

    2001-10-31

    The usefulness of an unsegmented liquid/vapor phases flow injection system for determining reducing sugars in wines using a focalized poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) coiled reactor positioned at the output antenna of a domestic microwave oven at 700 W is demonstrated. In this system, sample or reference solution is mixed to 2.5 mol l(-1) sodium hydroxide and 6.8 mmol l(-1) potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) solutions previously merged in a confluence point and the reducing sugars (glucose plus fructose) were oxidized by potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) solution into the PTFE coiled reactor positioned in the microwave oven cavity. After phases separation at a proposed separation chamber (SC), the decrease of K(3)Fe(CN)(6) concentration in the liquid phase was measured at 420 nm. Using this SC, a favorable dispersion profile and a decrease of hydrodynamic pressure were observed. The flow procedure presented similar sensitivities to glucose and fructose in the experimental conditions adopted, allowing the determination of the reducing sugars content (fructose plus glucose concentrations) in the concentration range from 40 to 400 mumol l(-1) with a detection limit of 9 mumol l(-1). The RSD was 1.9% for a 120 mumol l(-1) fructose solution (n=12) and the analytical frequency was 54 h(-1). The results obtained for reducing sugars in several wines using the proposed flow system and those obtained using the Somogyi-Nelson batch procedure were in agreement at the 95% confidence level.

  1. Drift Chambers detectors; Detectores de deriva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, I.; Martinez laso, L.

    1989-07-01

    We present here a review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysed, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author) 115 refs.

  2. A mathematical model of aerosol holding chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zak, M; Madsen, J; Berg, E

    1999-01-01

    , Ontario, Canada), NebuChamber (Astra, Södirtälje, Sweden) and Nebuhaler (Astra) adapted for babies. The dose of fluticasone proportionate delivered by the Babyhaler (Glaxco Wellcome, Oxbridge, Middlesex, UK) was 80% of that predicted, probably because of incomplete priming of this spacer. Of the above...

  3. Acoustical-Levitation Chamber for Metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Trinh, E.; Wang, T. G.; Elleman, D. D.; Jacobi, N.

    1983-01-01

    Sample moved to different positions for heating and quenching. Acoustical levitation chamber selectively excited in fundamental and second-harmonic longitudinal modes to hold sample at one of three stable postions: A, B, or C. Levitated object quickly moved from one of these positions to another by changing modes. Object rapidly quenched at A or C after heating in furnace region at B.

  4. Prototype Vacuum Chamber for ISR Intersection Region

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The vacuum chambers at the ISR interaction region had to be as transparent as possible to the secondary particles emerging from the collision points. Made from stainless steel or titanium, only a fraction of a millimeter thick, they were most delicate to handle.

  5. Multiphysics Nuclear Thermal Rocket Thrust Chamber Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ten-See

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this effort is t o develop an efficient and accurate thermo-fluid computational methodology to predict environments for hypothetical thrust chamber design and analysis. The current task scope is to perform multidimensional, multiphysics analysis of thrust performance and heat transfer analysis for a hypothetical solid-core, nuclear thermal engine including thrust chamber and nozzle. The multiphysics aspects of the model include: real fluid dynamics, chemical reactivity, turbulent flow, and conjugate heat transfer. The model will be designed to identify thermal, fluid, and hydrogen environments in all flow paths and materials. This model would then be used to perform non- nuclear reproduction of the flow element failures demonstrated in the Rover/NERVA testing, investigate performance of specific configurations and assess potential issues and enhancements. A two-pronged approach will be employed in this effort: a detailed analysis of a multi-channel, flow-element, and global modeling of the entire thrust chamber assembly with a porosity modeling technique. It is expected that the detailed analysis of a single flow element would provide detailed fluid, thermal, and hydrogen environments for stress analysis, while the global thrust chamber assembly analysis would promote understanding of the effects of hydrogen dissociation and heat transfer on thrust performance. These modeling activities will be validated as much as possible by testing performed by other related efforts.

  6. IKAR, a ionization chamber for WA9

    CERN Document Server

    1976-01-01

    This ionization chamber arrived at CERN from Leningrad for a high precision study of hadron elastic scattering by a CERN-Clermont-Ferrand-Leningrad-Lyon-Uppsala Collaboration in the H3 beam (WA9). G.A. Korolev (third from right) looks at the drawings.

  7. Heat-barrier coatings for combustion chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, H. W.

    1970-01-01

    Arc-plasma-sprayed layered coating of graded Inconel and zirconia protects film-coolant ring below injector plate of rocket engine combustion chamber. Interfacial temperature is designed for minimum buildup of stress and to avoid melting of the metal phase in the graded layers.

  8. Using reverberation chambers for EM measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank B.J.

    2010-01-01

    Reverberation chambers (RC) are being used for several decades. The main advantage is the high field strength which can be generated, with only modest power. In the last few years the use of RCs became much popular, for testing multi-path propagation for communication links, or testing the coupling

  9. Chamber transport for heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Craig L., E-mail: clolson66@msn.com

    2014-01-01

    A brief review is given of research on chamber transport for HIF (heavy ion fusion) dating from the first HIF Workshop in 1976 to the present. Chamber transport modes are categorized into ballistic transport modes and channel-like modes. Four major HIF reactor studies are summarized (HIBALL-II, HYLIFE-II, Prometheus-H, OSIRIS), with emphasis on the chamber transport environment. In general, many beams are used to provide the required symmetry and to permit focusing to the required small spots. Target parameters are then discussed, with a summary of the individual heavy ion beam parameters required for HIF. The beam parameters are then classified as to their line charge density and perveance, with special emphasis on the perveance limits for radial space charge spreading, for the space charge limiting current, and for the magnetic (Alfven) limiting current. The major experiments on ballistic transport (SFFE, Sabre beamlets, GAMBLE II, NTX, NDCX) are summarized, with specific reference to the axial electron trapping limit for charge neutralization. The major experiments on channel-like transport (GAMBLE II channel, GAMBLE II self-pinch, LBNL channels, GSI channels) are discussed. The status of current research on HIF chamber transport is summarized, and the value of future NDCX-II transport experiments for the future of HIF is noted.

  10. Anterior Chamber Live Loa loa: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagmeni, G; Cheuteu, R; Bilong, Y; Wiedemann, P

    2016-01-01

    We reported a case of unusual intraocular Loa loa in a 27-year-old patient who presented with painful red eye. Biomicroscopy revealed a living and active adult worm in the anterior chamber of the right eye. After surgical extraction under local anesthesia, parasitological identification confirmed L. loa filariasis.

  11. Precision electronics for ionization chamber measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santry, D.C.; Bowes, G.C.; Munzenmayer, K.

    1987-01-01

    By using commercially available units, an electrometer and an IBM personal computer, it was relatively inexpensive and simple to assemble a system which permits ..gamma..-ray-emitting radionuclide activities to be measured in an ionization chamber with an uncertainty of + - 0.5% and a reproducibility of + - 0.05%.

  12. Isolation of Drosophila egg chambers for imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parton, Richard M; Vallés, Ana Maria; Dobbie, Ian M; Davis, Ilan

    2010-04-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is an important model for basic research into the molecular mechanisms underlying cell function and development, as well as a major biomedical research tool. A significant advantage of Drosophila is the ability to apply live cell imaging to a variety of living tissues that can be dissected and imaged in vivo, ex vivo, or in vitro. Drosophila egg chambers, for example, have proven to be a useful model system for studying border cell migration, Golgi unit transport, the rapid movement of mRNA and protein particles, and the role of microtubules in meiosis and oocyte differentiation. A crucial first step before imaging is preparation of the experimental material to ensure physiological relevance and to achieve the best conditions for image quality. Early- to mid-stage egg chambers cannot be mounted in an aqueous-based medium, because this causes a change in microtubule organization and follicle cell morphology. Such egg chambers survive better in Halocarbon oil, which allows free diffusion of oxygen, has low viscosity, and thus prevents dehydration and hypoxia. With a refractive index similar to glycerol, Halocarbon oil also has good optical properties for imaging. It also provides a good environment for injection and is particularly useful for long-term imaging of embryos. However, unlike with aqueous solutions, changes in the medium are not possible. This protocol describes the isolation of Drosophila egg chambers.

  13. The arrival of the CLOUD chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN AVC

    2009-01-01

    The team from the CLOUD experiment - the world’s first experiment using a high-energy particle accelerator to study the climate - were on cloud nine after the arrival of their new three-metre diameter cloud chamber. This marks the end of three years’ R&D; and design, and the start of preparations for data taking later this year.

  14. 首钢焦炉煤气系统的优化分析%Analysis of Shougang coke oven gas system optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈浩; 任红艳

    2012-01-01

    Based on the optimization of coke oven gas system, the surplus coke oven gas will be applied in boiler combustion to generate electricity and be converted to the mixed gas, the radiation of coke oven gas reduced effectively and the cost of electricity generation also reduced to a certain extent, the stability of converter gas system guaranteed and the recycling economy is realized.%通过对焦炉煤气系统的优化,将富余焦炉煤气应用于锅炉燃烧发电及合成混合煤气,可有效地降低焦炉煤气的放散,在一定程度上降低发电成本,同时保证转炉煤气系统的稳定,实现循环经济.

  15. Development of Master Chamber Software for Data Acquisition of Ionization Chamber for Indus 2 RRCAT

    OpenAIRE

    Priyesh Soni; Mrs. B. Harita; Nawaz Ali Sayed

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this paper was to Develop Master control software for DAQ of ionization chamber for INDUS-2 beam lines for detection of X-ray flux by an Ionization chamber that will remotely control and monitor the ultra low current signal detection analog module precisely. This application will be useful to measure the intensity of X-ray flux through ionization chamber in a beam line of synchrotron radiation source which is mounted in INDUS-2. It is one of new technique of detection. Beam l...

  16. Resfriamento rápido de fornos de carbonização Fast cooling of mud ovens of carbonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delly Oliveira Filho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A importância dos recursos naturais renováveis no mundo é crescente. No processo produtivo do carvão vegetal, é possível aumentar a eficiência global de transformação da lenha de eucalipto em carvão vegetal. Em processos industriais, o tempo de resfriamento da massa de carvão varia de 6 a 8 dias, com a utilização do resfriamento natural da massa de carvão, sendo que a temperatura para a abertura dos fornos de carbonização é de cerca de 60 ºC, e a temperatura inicial da massa de carvão em torno de 480 ºC. Sendo assim, foi estudado um sistema de resfriamento de fornos de carbonização utilizando injeção de vapor de água, com o objetivo de reduzir o tempo de resfriamento do carvão. Foram construídos um forno tipo contêiner em escala de laboratório, de dimensões iguais a 3,0 x 2,0 x 1,6 m e um sistema de queima dos gases provenientes da carbonização da lenha, instrumentado com termopares tipo K e um sistema de aquisição de dados, nos Laboratórios de Energia na Agricultura e de Pré-Processamento de Produtos Agrícolas do Departamento de Engenharia Agrícola da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais. Foi utilizada também uma caldeira para geração de vapor para o resfriamento rápido do forno. O tempo de resfriamento da massa de carvão foi reduzido em cerca de dois dias pela injeção de vapor de água, quando comparado com o processo de resfriamento natural.The importance of renewable natural resources in the world is growing. In the production process of charcoal it is possible to increase the overall efficiency of transformation of eucalyptus wood in charcoal. In industrial process cooling time of the charcoal mass varies from 6 to 8 days, using the natural cooling of the charcoal mass, and the temperature for the opening of the mud ovens is about 60 ºC and the initial temperature of the charcoal mass is around 480 ºC. Thus, it was studied a system of cooling oven carbonization using injection

  17. 对各种炼焦工艺及无回收焦炉的评述%Commentary on Various Cokemaking Process and No Recovery Coke Oven Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟英飞

    2001-01-01

    The present developing situation and direction of cokemaking processes in the counties all over the world is described and comment is made mainly on the advantages and disadvantages of no recovery coke oven batteries and on the limitation of no recovery coke oven battery developing in our country.%介绍了世界各国炼焦工艺的开发现状及发展方向,重点评述了无回收焦炉的优缺点,及在我国发展无回收焦炉的局限性。

  18. Anterior chamber fixation of a posterior chamber intraocular lens: A novel technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sahap Kükner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the implantation of a posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL in the anterior chamber (AC with the haptics passing through two iridectomies to the posterior chamber. A total of 33 eyes of 33 patients with inadequate posterior capsular support due to either previous aphakia or posterior capsular rupture during cataract extraction were included in the study. A double iridectomy was performed on all patients using a vitrectomy probe on the midperiphery of the iris. IOLs were implanted in the AC, and the haptics were passed through the iridectomies to the posterior chamber. The mean follow-up time was 25.3 months. AC hemorrhage occurred in five patients during the iridectomy procedure. Corneal edema was detected in eight of 14 patients with primary IOL insertions. Haptic dislocation was detected in only one patient. This technique may be a good alternative to scleral-fixated IOL implantation in eyes with aphakia.

  19. Achievable field strength in reverberation chambers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Eulig

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Feldvariable Kammern (FVK, engl.: modestirred- chamber werden unter anderem für EMV-Störfestigkeitsprüfungen verwendet. Ein häufig genanntes Argument, das die Einführung dieser Kammern als normgerechte Prüfumgebung vorantreiben soll, ist eine hohe Feldstärke, die im Vergleich zu anderen Testumgebungen mit relativ moderaten HF-Leistungen erreicht werden kann. Besonders für sicherheitskritische Geräte, wie Komponenten aus der Avionik- oder KFZ-Industrie, sind heutzutage Testfeldstärken von mehreren 100 V/m notwendig. Derart hohe Feldstärken können in Umgebungen, die ein ebenes Wellenfeld erzeugen oder nachbilden, nur mit großen HFLeistungen generiert werden. Durch die Resonanzeigenschaften einer FVK können demgegenüber mit sehr viel weniger Leistung und damit Verstärkeraufwand vergleichbare Werte der Feldstärke erzeugt werden. Allerdings sinkt mit zunehmendem Volumen die erreichbare Feldstärke bei gleicher Speiseleistung. Idealerweise sollen Feldvariable Kammern bei möglichst niedrigen Frequenzen für EMVTests nutzbar sein, was jedoch ein großes Kammervolumen erfordert. Das Problem, bei niedrigen Frequenzen hohe Feldstärken erzeugen zu können, relativiert deshalb den Vorteil von FVKn gegenüber bekannten Testumgebungen bei niedrigen Testfrequenzen. Der Posterbeitrag erläutert, welche Feldstärken in verschieden großen Feldvariablen Kammern beim Einspeisen einer bestimmten hochfrequenten Leistung erreicht werden können. Anhand dieser Ergebnisse wird aufgezeigt, oberhalb welcher Grenzfrequenz eine Anwendung von FVKn nur sinnvoll erscheint. Mode-stirred chambers (MSCs can be used for radiated immunity tests in EMC testing. Advantageous compared to conventional test methods is the high field strength which can here be generated with less RF-Power. This point is often the main argument for pushing the standardization of MSCs as an other EMC testing environment. Especially for safety-critical electronic equipment like avionic or

  20. A new plant chamber facility PLUS coupled to the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohaus, T.; Kuhn, U.; Andres, S.; Kaminski, M.; Rohrer, F.; Tillmann, R.; Wahner, A.; Wegener, R.; Yu, Z.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.

    2015-11-01

    A new PLant chamber Unit for Simulation (PLUS) for use with the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR (Simulation of Atmospheric PHotochemistry In a large Reaction Chamber) has been build and characterized at the Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Germany. The PLUS chamber is an environmentally controlled flow through plant chamber. Inside PLUS the natural blend of biogenic emissions of trees are mixed with synthetic air and are transferred to the SAPHIR chamber where the atmospheric chemistry and the impact of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) can be studied in detail. In PLUS all important enviromental parameters (e.g. temperature, PAR, soil RH etc.) are well-controlled. The gas exchange volume of 9.32 m3 which encloses the stem and the leafes of the plants is constructed such that gases are exposed to FEP Teflon film and other Teflon surfaces only to minimize any potential losses of BVOCs in the chamber. Solar radiation is simulated using 15 LED panels which have an emission strength up to 800 μmol m-2 s-1. Results of the initial characterization experiments are presented in detail. Background concentrations, mixing inside the gas exchange volume, and transfer rate of volatile organic compounds (VOC) through PLUS under different humidity conditions are explored. Typical plant characteristics such as light and temperature dependent BVOC emissions are studied using six Quercus Ilex trees and compared to previous studies. Results of an initial ozonolysis experiment of BVOC emissions from Quercus Ilex at typical atmospheric concentrations inside SAPHIR are presented to demonstrate a typical experimental set up and the utility of the newly added plant chamber.

  1. A new plant chamber facility, PLUS, coupled to the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohaus, T.; Kuhn, U.; Andres, S.; Kaminski, M.; Rohrer, F.; Tillmann, R.; Wahner, A.; Wegener, R.; Yu, Z.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.

    2016-03-01

    A new PLant chamber Unit for Simulation (PLUS) for use with the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR (Simulation of Atmospheric PHotochemistry In a large Reaction Chamber) has been built and characterized at the Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Germany. The PLUS chamber is an environmentally controlled flow-through plant chamber. Inside PLUS the natural blend of biogenic emissions of trees is mixed with synthetic air and transferred to the SAPHIR chamber, where the atmospheric chemistry and the impact of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) can be studied in detail. In PLUS all important environmental parameters (e.g., temperature, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), soil relative humidity (RH)) are well controlled. The gas exchange volume of 9.32 m3 which encloses the stem and the leaves of the plants is constructed such that gases are exposed to only fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) Teflon film and other Teflon surfaces to minimize any potential losses of BVOCs in the chamber. Solar radiation is simulated using 15 light-emitting diode (LED) panels, which have an emission strength up to 800 µmol m-2 s-1. Results of the initial characterization experiments are presented in detail. Background concentrations, mixing inside the gas exchange volume, and transfer rate of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) through PLUS under different humidity conditions are explored. Typical plant characteristics such as light- and temperature- dependent BVOC emissions are studied using six Quercus ilex trees and compared to previous studies. Results of an initial ozonolysis experiment of BVOC emissions from Quercus ilex at typical atmospheric concentrations inside SAPHIR are presented to demonstrate a typical experimental setup and the utility of the newly added plant chamber.

  2. 焦炉推焦粉尘治理工艺选择及设备配置%Technological Selection of Dust Treatment and Equipment Collocation While Coking in Coke Oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜乃斌; 邢显昌

    2012-01-01

      The article probes into the technological selection of dust treatment and equipment col ocation while coke choosing in coke oven; makes focus on and analyzes the three main topics of flue dust col ection, transportation and dust filter-ing of dust treatment in coke oven tapping.

  3. Reproducibility of the chamber scarification test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1996-01-01

    The chamber scarification test is a predictive human skin irritation test developed to rank the irritation potential of products and ingredients meant for repeated use on normal and diseased skin. 12 products or ingredients can be tested simultaneously on the forearm skin of each volunteer....... The test combines with the procedure scratching of the skin at each test site and subsequent closed patch tests with the products, repeated daily for 3 days. The test is performed on groups of human volunteers: a skin irritant substance or products is included in each test as a positive control......, and a compound with low irritant potential as a negative control, to obtain relative characterization of the irritant potential of the unknown products. The outcome of tests with a positive and negative control product used repeatedly in 13 chamber scarification tests over a 7-year period is reported, and shows...

  4. The KLOE drift chamber VCI 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adinolfi, M.; Aloisio, A.; Ambrosino, F.; Andryakov, A.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Anulli, F.; Bacci, C.; Bankamp, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Bellini, F.; Bencivenni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Bocci, V.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Bulychjov, S.A.; Cabibbo, G.; Calcaterra, A.; Caloi, R.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Carboni, G.; Cardini, A.; Casarsa, M.; Cataldi, G.; Ceradini, F.; Cervell, F.; Cevenini, F.; Chiefari, G.; Ciambrone, P.; Conetti, S.; Conticelli, S.; De Lucia, E. E-mail: erika.delucia@roma1.infn.it; De Robertis, G.; De Sangro, R.; De Simone, P.; De Zorzi, G.; Dell' Agnello, S.; Denig, A.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Falco, S.; Doria, A.; Drago, E.; Elia, V.; Erriquez, O.; Farilla, A.; Felici, G.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Finocchiaro, G.; Forti, C.; Franceschi, A.; Franzini, P.; Gao, M.L.; Gatti, C.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Golovatyuk, V.; Gorini, E.; Grancagnolo, F.; Grandegger, W.; Graziani, E.; Guarnaccia, P.; Hagel, U. von.; Han, H.G.; Han, S.W.; Huang, X.; Incagli, M.; Ingrosso, L.; Jang, Y.Y.; Kim, W.; Kluge, W.; Kulikov, V.; Lacava, F.; Lanfranchi, G.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Lomtadze, F.; Luisi, C.; Mao, C.S.; Martemianov, M.; Matsyuk, M.; Mei, W.; Merola, L.; Messi, R.; Miscetti, S.; Moalem, A.; Moccia, S.; Moulson, M.; Mueller, S.; Murtas, F.; Napolitano, M.; Nedosekin, A.; Panareo, M.; Pacciani, L.; Pages, P.; Palutan, M.; Paoluzi, L.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passalacqua, L.; Passaseo, M.; Passeri, A.; Patera, V.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, G.; Picca, D.; Pirozzi, G.; Pistillo, C.; Pollack, M.; Pontecorvo, L.; Primavera, M.; Ruggieri, F.; Santangelo, P.; Santovetti, E.; Saracino, G.; Schamberger, R.D.; Schwick, C.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Scuri, F.; Sfiligoi, I.; Shan, J.; Silano, P.; Spadaro, T.; Spagnolo, S.; Spiriti, E.; Stanescu, C.; Tong, G.L.; Tortora, L.; Valente, E.; Valente, P.; Valeriani, B.; Venanzoni, G.; Veneziano, S.; Wu, Y.; Xie, Y.G.; Zhao, P.P.; Zhou, Y

    2002-02-01

    The main goal of the KLOE experiment at the Frascati DAPHINE phi-factory is the study CP violation in kaon decays. The tracking device of the experiment is a drift chamber whose dimensions, 4 m of diameter and 3.3 m length, provide a large acceptance volume for the decay products of low momentum K{sub L} ({lambda}{sub L}=3.4 m). A complete stereo geometry with 12.582 cells arranged in 58 layers guarantees a high and uniform efficiency in the reconstruction of the charged K{sub L} decays. Very light materials have been chosen both for the drift medium, a helium-based gas mixture, and for the mechanical structure, made of carbon fiber, to minimize multiple scattering and conversion of low-energy photons. The design requirements, the adopted solutions together with the calibration procedure and the tracking performances of the drift chamber are discussed.

  5. The KLOE drift chamber VCI 2001

    CERN Document Server

    Adinolfi, M; Ambrosino, F; Andryakov, A; Antonelli, A; Antonelli, M; Anulli, F; Bacci, C; Bankamp, A; Barbiellini, G; Bellini, F; Bencivenni, G; Bertolucci, Sergio; Bini, C; Bloise, C; Bocci, V; Bossi, F; Branchini, P; Bulychjov, S A; Cabibbo, G; Calcaterra, A; Caloi, R; Campana, P; Capon, G; Carboni, G; Cardini, A; Casarsa, M; Cataldi, G; Ceradini, F; Cervell, F; Cevenini, F; Chiefari, G; Ciambrone, P; Conetti, S; Conticelli, S; De Lucia, E; De Robertis, G; De Simone, P; De Zorzi, G; De Sangro, R; Dell'Agnello, S; Denig, A; Di Domenico, A; Di Donato, C; Di Falco, S; Doria, A; Drago, E; Elia, V; Erriquez, O; Farilla, A; Felici, G; Ferrari, A; Ferrer, M L; Finocchiaro, G; Forti, C; Franceschi, A; Franzini, P; Gao, M L; Gatti, C; Gauzzi, P; Giovannella, S; Golovatyuk, V; Gorini, E; Grancagnolo, F; Grandegger, W; Graziani, E; Guarnaccia, P; Han, H G; Han, S W; Huang, X; Incagli, M; Ingrosso, L; Jang, Y Y; Kim, W; Kluge, W; Kulikov, V; Lacava, F; Lanfranchi, G; Lee-Franzini, J; Lomtadze, F; Luisi, C; Mao Chen Sheng; Martemyanov, M; Matsyuk, M; Mei, W; Merola, L; Messi, R; Miscetti, S; Moalem, A; Moccia, S; Moulson, M; Murtas, F; Müller, S; Napolitano, M; Nedosekin, A; Pacciani, L; Pagès, P; Palutan, M; Panareo, M; Paoluzi, L; Pasqualucci, E; Passalacqua, L; Passaseo, M; Passeri, A; Patera, V; Petrolo, E; Petrucci, Guido; Picca, D; Pirozzi, G; Pistillo, C; Pollack, M; Pontecorvo, L; Primavera, M; Ruggieri, F; Santangelo, P; Santovetti, E; Saracino, G; Schamberger, R D; Schwick, C; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Scuri, F; Sfiligoi, I; Shan, J; Silano, P; Spadaro, T; Spagnolo, S; Spiriti, E; Stanescu, C; Tong, G L; Tortora, L; Valente, E; Valente, P; Valeriani, B; Venanzoni, G; Veneziano, Stefano; Von Hagel, U; Wu, Y; Xie, Y G; Zhao, P P; Zhou, Y

    2002-01-01

    The main goal of the KLOE experiment at the Frascati DAPHINE phi-factory is the study CP violation in kaon decays. The tracking device of the experiment is a drift chamber whose dimensions, 4 m of diameter and 3.3 m length, provide a large acceptance volume for the decay products of low momentum K sub L (lambda sub L =3.4 m). A complete stereo geometry with 12.582 cells arranged in 58 layers guarantees a high and uniform efficiency in the reconstruction of the charged K sub L decays. Very light materials have been chosen both for the drift medium, a helium-based gas mixture, and for the mechanical structure, made of carbon fiber, to minimize multiple scattering and conversion of low-energy photons. The design requirements, the adopted solutions together with the calibration procedure and the tracking performances of the drift chamber are discussed.

  6. RF Anechoic Chambers, Tri-Service Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In collaboration with the Navy, there are 12 RF Anechoic and static free exposure chambers located at TSRL. These chambers cover the majority of the RF spectrum and...

  7. Vacuum Chamber for the Booster Bending Magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    To minimise eddy currents, induced by the rising magnetic field, the chamber was made from thin stainless steel of high specific electric resistance. For mechanical strength, it was corrugated in a hydro-forming process. The cross-section was designed for maximum strength and maximum aperture. To accept particles with simultaneous large amplitudes in both planes, the cross-section approaches a rectangular shape (see also 7402463).

  8. Improvement of a New Gas Ionization Chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to identify heavier elements, we have developed a new longitudinal field gas ionization chamber (IC)with an angle of 30° of plate (as shown in Fig.1). The IC is operated in flowing iso-butane gas at a pressure of 10kPa. After testing by using a 3- component α particle source and comparing with the old longitudinal field

  9. Sequential Notch activation regulates ventricular chamber development

    OpenAIRE

    D'Amato, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    Tesis doctoral inédita, leída en la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Medicina, Departamento de Bioquímica. Fecha de lectura: 15 de enero de 2016 Ventricular chamber morphogenesis is a beautiful example of tissue interactions orchestrating a precise gene regulatory network essential for tissue patterning, cellular proliferation and differentiation that ultimately lead to a fully compacted and functional adult ventricle. The Notch signaling pathway is a crucial regulator ...

  10. Development and progress in resistive plate chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hong-Fang; WU Jian

    2004-01-01

    Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) is a robust and low cost gas detector, which is extensively used in high-energy physics, cosmic and astroparticle physics experiments. Over the past twenty years, as a particle detector,RPC has made remarkable progress. The main achievements, features and results of experiemantal tests including R&D and production of the RPCs by several Chinese groups in recent years are reported in this article.

  11. Angular resolution of stacked resistive plate chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Samuel, Deepak; Murgod, Lakshmi P

    2016-01-01

    We present here detailed derivations of mathematical expressions for the angular resolution of a set of stacked resistive plate chambers (RPCs). The expressions are validated against experimental results using data collected from the prototype detectors (without magnet) of the upcoming India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO). In principle, these expressions can be used for any other detector with an architecture similar to that of RPCs.

  12. Bubble chamber: D meson production and decay

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    This event shows real particle tracks from the Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC), which was used to observe neutrino and hadron beams between 1973 and 1984 from the PS and SPS accelerators. In this event a neutrino interacts with a proton producing an excited D meson. A labeled diagram is seen on the right as the particles spiral in the magnetic field of the detector.

  13. Wire chambers with their magnetostrictive readout

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    This set of wire chamber planes shaped as a cylinder sector was installed inside the magnet of a polarized spin target modified to allow as well momentum analysis of the produced particles. The experiment (S126) was set up by the CERN-Trieste Collaboration in the PS beam m9 to measure spin effects in the associated production of of a positive kaon and a positive Sigma by interaction of a positive pion with polarized protons.

  14. Update on Scroll Compressor Chamber Geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Ian; Groll, Eckhard; Braun, James; King, Galen

    2010-01-01

    The geometry of the scroll compressor determines the efficiency of the scroll compressor and controls all elements of its operation. It is therefore critical to be able to accurately model the volumes of the compressor over the course of a revolution. This paper proposes a novel quasi-analytic formulation of the suction, compression and discharge chambers based on a change of variables from involute angle to polar integration angle. This solution has been compared against a reference polyg...

  15. The Bern Infinitesimal Bubble Chamber (BIBC)

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    The chamber body was machined from a block of aluminium. The visible volume was cylindrical with 65 mm diameter and 35 mm depth. It was filled with propane or freon. It was meant as vertex detector in the search of short-lived particles. It was also used with in-line holography resulting in 8 µm bubble size and 9 cm depth of the field. See E. Ramseyer, B. Hahn and E. Hugentobler, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 201 (1982) 335.

  16. Visual-Inspection Probe For Cryogenic Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Steve; Valenzuela, James; Yoshinaga, Jay

    1990-01-01

    Visual-inspection probe that resembles borescope enables observer at ambient temperature to view objects immersed in turbulent flow of liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen, or other cryogenic fluid. Design of probe fairly conventional, except special consideration given to selection of materials and to thermal expansion to provide for expected range of operating temperatures. Penetrates wall of cryogenic chamber to provide view of interior. Similar probe illuminates scene. View displayed on video monitor.

  17. Sperm Cell Dynamics in Shallow Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condat, Carlos; Marconi, Veronica; Guidobaldi, Alejandro; Giojalas, Laura; Silhanek, Alejandro; Jeyaram, Yogesh; Moshchalkov, Victor

    2015-03-01

    Self-propelled microorganisms are attracted to surfaces. This makes their dynamic behavior in restricted geometries very different from that observed in the bulk. Here we analyze the motion of spermatozoids confined to shallow chambers, investigating the nature of the cell trajectories and their accumulation near the side boundaries. Observed cell trajectories are composed of a succession of quasi-circular and quasi-linear segments. This suggests that the cells follow a path of intermittent trappings near the top and down surfaces separated by stretches of quasi-free motion near the center of the gap. Use of microstructured petal-shaped edges limits accumulation near the borders and contributes to increase the concentration in the chamber interior. System stabilization occurs over times of the order of minutes, which agrees well with a theoretical estimate that assumes that the cell mean-square displacement is largely due to the quasi-linear segments. Pure quasi-circular trajectories would require several hours to stabilize. Our estimates also indicate that stabilization proceeds 2.5 times faster in the rosette geometries than in the smooth-edged chambers, which is another practical reason to prefer the former.

  18. Posterior Chamber Hemorrhage during Fluorescein Angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel A. P. Vilela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides the first reported case of acute posterior chamber hemorrhage during fluorescein angiography (FA. This is a case review with serial color photographs of the anterior segment. A 76-year-old male was referred for angiographic control of age-related macular degeneration. He was pseudophakic OU, BCVA 20/40 OU. He had mild hypertension, but not diabetes. He had had two previous angiograms without adverse effects. Difficulty was experienced in obtaining the images owing to a progressive reduction in the transparency of the media. A dense hemorrhage in the posterior chamber of the right eye was found, involving the visual axis. Thorough biomicroscopy, gonioscopy, and ultrasonic biomicroscopy showed that part of one of the haptics of the right intraocular lens (IOL was touching and tearing the posterior face of the iris, without any visible synechiae, iris, or angle neovascularization. Anterior segment FA and posterior ultrasonography were normal. No similar case has been described in the literature involving dense progressive bleeding located in the capsular bag and posterior chamber, without any detectable triggering ocular event other than mydriasis and fluorescein injection. Contact of the iris or sulcus with part of the intraocular lens, aggravated by the intense use of mydriatics during the FA procedure, probably caused bleeding to happen.

  19. Smart ionization chamber for gamma-ray monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Drndarević Vujo R.; Jevtić Nenad J.; Rajović Vladimir M.; Stanković Srboljub J.

    2014-01-01

    A design and implementation of a smart ionization chamber suitable for connection into gamma radiation monitoring networks is presented in this paper. The smart ionization chamber consists of air-equivalent one liter ionization chamber with associated electronics and a built-in memory for storage of electronic data specifications. Generally, operating and measurement characteristics of the used ionization chamber are written into the memory chip attached to...

  20. An Enhancing Effect of Gold Nanoparticles on the Lethal Action of 2450 MHz Electromagnetic Radiation in Microwave Oven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollazadeh-Moghaddam, Kamyar; Moradi, Bardia Varasteh; Dolatabadi-Bazaz, Reza; Shakibae, Mojtaba; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza

    2011-10-01

    Today, there is an increasing interest in the use of metal nanoparticles in health sciences. Amongst all nanoparticles, the gold nanoparticles have been known to kill the cancer cells under hyperthermic condition by near-infrared frequency electromagnetic waves. On the other hand, although there are different physiochemical methods for disinfection of microbial pollution, however applications of irradiated gold nanoparticles against microorganisms have not yet been investigated. In this study, gold nanoparticles were prepared using D-glucose and characterized (particle size microwave oven operated at low power (100 W), was investigated by time-kill course assay against Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) ATCC 29737. The results showed that application of gold nanoparticles can enhance the lethal effect of low power microwave in a very short exposure time (5 s).

  1. [Studies on the Ras p21 levels in workers exposed to coal tar pitch and coke oven volatiles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Wu, Y; Chen, C

    1998-09-30

    To study the effects of serum p21 levels on the health of coal tar pitch(CTP) and coke oven volatiles (COV) workers recognized as the high risk population of pulmonary carcinoma, serum p21 levels among 24 cases of CTP workers, 25 cases of COV workers and 12 cases of normal control were detected with the method of Western Blotting. The results showed that the mean serum p21 level in exposed group was significantly higher than that in the normal control (366.8 vs 1270.7, P < 0.001). In the COV workers, serum p21 level in coke furnace workers was remarkably higher than that in the workers with other types of work. There were no differences for p21 among workers with different work years and between workers with or without smoking history. It indicates that CTP and COV can cause the p21 protein level increase in the occupational population.

  2. Preparation and characterization of a homemade Josephson junction prepared from a thin film sintered in a domestic microwave oven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Gustavo Quereza; Moreto, Jeferson Aparecido [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia Goiano (IFGO), Rio Verde, GO (Brazil); Zadorosny, Rafael; Silveira, Joao Borsil; Carvalho, Claudio Luiz [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil); Cena, Cicero Rafael, E-mail: gustavoquereza@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (IFSP), Birigui, SP (Brazil)

    2016-03-15

    A homemade Josephson junction was successfully obtained using a superconductor thin film of the BSCCO system. The film was deposited on a lanthanum aluminate, produced from a commercial powder with a nominal composition Bi{sub 1.8}Pb{sub 0.4}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub x}, was thermally treated by a domestic microwave oven. The XRD analysis of the film indicated the coexistence of Bi-2212 and Bi-2223 phases and SEM images revealed that a typical superconductor plate-like morphology was formed. From the electrical characterization, performed using DC four probes technique, it was observed an onset superconducting transition temperature measured around 81K. At the current-voltage characteristics curve, a step of electric current at zero-voltage could be observed, an indicative that the tunneling Josephson occurred. (author)

  3. Large volume injection in gas chromatography using the through oven transfer adsorption desorption interface operating under vacuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón, Álvaro; Toledano, Rosa M; Gea, Sara; Cortés, José M; Vázquez, Ana M; Villén, Jesús

    2014-06-01

    The present work describes a modification of the Through Oven Transfer Adsorption Desorption (TOTAD) interface, consisting of coupling a vacuum system to reduce the consumption of the helium needed to totally remove the eluent for large volume injection (LVI) in gas chromatography (GC). Two different retention materials in the liner of the TOTAD interface were evaluated: Tenax TA, which was seen to be unsuitable for working under vacuum conditions, and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which provided satisfactory repeatability as well as a good sensitivity. No variability was observed in the retention times in either case. Solutions containing organophosphorous pesticides in two different solvents, a polar (methanol/water) and a non-polar (hexane) solvent, were used to evaluate the modification. The vacuum system coupled to the TOTAD interface allowed up to 90% helium to be saved without affecting the performance.

  4. Microwave drying of granules containing a moisture-sensitive drug: a promising alternative to fluid bed and hot air oven drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Sze Nam; Johansen, Anne Lene; Gu, Li; Karlsen, Jan; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2005-07-01

    The impact of microwave drying and binders (copolyvidone and povidone) on the degradation of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and physical properties of granules were compared with conventional drying methods. Moist granules containing ASA were prepared using a high shear granulator and dried with hot air oven, fluid bed or microwave (static or dynamic bed) dryers. Percent ASA degradation, size and size distribution, friability and flow properties of the granules were determined. Granules dried with the dynamic bed microwave dryer showed the least amount of ASA degradation, followed by fluid bed dryer, static bed microwave oven and hot air oven. The use of microwave drying with a static granular bed adversely affected ASA degradation and drying capability. Dynamic bed microwave dryer had the highest drying capability followed by fluid bed, static bed microwave dryer and conventional hot air oven. The intensity of microwave did not affect ASA degradation, size distribution, friability and flow properties of the granules. Mixing/agitating of granules during drying affected the granular physical properties studied. Copolyvidone resulted in lower amount of granular residual moisture content and ASA degradation on storage than povidone, especially for static bed microwave drying. In conclusion, microwave drying technology has been shown to be a promising alternative for drying granules containing a moisture-sensitive drug.

  5. Preliminary evidence of oxidation in standard oven drying of cotton: attenuated total reflectance/ Fourier transform spectroscopy, colorimetry, and particulate matter formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisture is paramount to cotton fiber properties dictating harvesting, ginning, storage and spinning as well as others. Currently, oven drying in air is often utilized to generate the percentage of moisture in cotton fibers. Karl Fischer Titration another method for cotton moisture, has been compa...

  6. Applications of Microwave in Organic Synthesis: An Improved One-step Synthesis of Metallophthalocyanines and a New Modified Microwave Oven for Dry Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalie Bar; Messaoud Hachemi; Mohamed Hammadi; Didier Villemin

    2001-01-01

    Metallophthalocyanine complexes are obtained quickly and efficiently by the reaction of phthalodinitrile with hydrated metallic salts without solvent and under microwave irradiation. The use of a modified commercial microwave oven to perform this type of reactions under dry conditions is described. Metallophthalocyanines and metallododecachlorophthalocyanines of some divalent metals can be also obtained from phthalic or tetrachlorophthalic anhydrides with hydrated metallic salt and urea under...

  7. Anechoic chamber in industrial plants. [construction materials and structural design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpert, E.; Juncu, O.; Lorian, R.; Marfievici, D.; Mararu, I.

    1974-01-01

    A light anechoic chamber for routine acoustical measurements in the machine building industry is reported. The outer housing of the chamber consists of modules cast in glass fiber reinforced polyester resin; the inner housing consists of pyramidal modules cut out of sound absorbing slates. The parameters of this anechoic chamber facilitate acoustical measurements according to ISO and CAEM recommendations.

  8. Characterization of a homemade ionization chamber for radiotherapy beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Lucio P; Perini, Ana P; dos Santos, Gelson P; Xavier, Marcos; Khoury, Helen J; Caldas, Linda V E

    2012-07-01

    A homemade cylindrical ionization chamber was studied for routine use in therapy beams of (60)Co and X-rays. Several characterization tests were performed: leakage current, saturation, ion collection efficiency, polarity effect, stability, stabilization time, chamber orientation and energy dependence. All results obtained were within international recommendations. Therefore the homemade ionization chamber presents usefulness for routine dosimetric procedures in radiotherapy beams.

  9. Test of an undulated vacuum chamber for the ISR

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    This picture shows mechanical tests of an undulated vacuum chamber for downstream arms of ISR intersections. This chamber, made of 0.3 mm thick inconel, had inner dimensions of 150 mm by 50 mm. The deflection under vacuum is measured by dial gauges. On the left one sees the large vessel where vacuum chambers were tested at pressures above atmospheric pressure.

  10. Bi-cone vacuum chamber in the ISR

    CERN Multimedia

    1976-01-01

    The "bi-cone" vacuum chamber in ISR intersection I-7, for experiment R702. Made from 0.28 mm thick titanium, it was at its time the most transparent chamber ever built. Ian Wilson is standing next to the chamber. See also 7609219.

  11. Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Dissipation within a Euthanasia Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djoufack-Momo, Shelly M; Amparan, Ashlee A; Grunden, Beverly; Boivin, Gregory P

    2014-01-01

    CO2 euthanasia is used widely for small laboratory animals, such as rodents. A common necessity in many animal research facilities is to euthanize mice in sequential batches. We assessed the effects of several variables on the time it took for CO2 to dissipate within a chamber. Using standard euthanasia time, changes in flow rate were compared between a slow 15% fill rate for 7 min, and a slow 15% followed by a rapid 50% filling for a total of 5 min. Additional variables assessed included the effects of opening the lid after the completion of chamber filling, turning the chamber over after completion of filling, and the use and removal of a cage from within the chamber. For all trials, CO2 levels in the chambers peaked between 50% and 80%. After the gas was turned off, the concentration of CO2 dropped to below 10% CO2 within 2 min, except when the lid was left on the chamber, where concentration levels remained above 10% after 20 min. CO2 dissipation was significantly faster when the chamber was turned upside down after filling. Significant interaction effects occurred among the factors of cage presence within the chamber, flow rate, and chamber position. Only leaving the lid on the chamber had any practical implication for delaying CO2 dissipation. We recommend that users allow 2 min for CO2 to clear from the chamber before subsequent euthanasia procedures, unless the chamber is manipulated to increase the dissipation rate. PMID:25199098

  12. A cylindrical drift chamber with azimuthal and axial position readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bar-Yam, Z.; Cummings, J.P.; Dowd, J.P.; Eugenio, P.; Hayek, M.; Kern, W.; King, E.; Shenhav, N.; Chung, S.U.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Olchanski, C.; Weygand, D.P.; Willutzki, H.J.; Brabson, B.B.; Crittenden, R.R.; Dzierba, A.R.; Gunter, J.; Lindenbusch, R.; Rust, D.R.; Scott, E.; Smith, P.T.; Sulanke, T.; Teige, S.; Denisov, S.; Dushkin, A.; Kochetkov, V.; Lipaev, V.; Popov, A.; Shein, I.; Soldatov, A.; Anoshina, E.V.; Bodyagin, V.A.; Demianov, A.I.; Gribushin, A.M.; Kodolova, O.L.; Korotkikh, V.L.; Kostin, M.A.; Ostrovidov, A.I.; Sarycheva, L.I.; Sinev, N.B.; Vardanyan, I.N.; Yershov, A.A.; Adams, T.; Bishop, J.M.; Cason, N.M.; Sanjari, A.H.; LoSecco, J.M.; Manak, J.J.; Shephard, W.D.; Stienike, D.L.; Taegar, S.A.; Thompson, D.R.; Brown, D.S.; Pedlar, T.; Seth, K.K.; Wise, J.; Zhao, D.; Adams, G.S.; Napolitano, J.; Nozar, M.; Smith, J.A.; Witkowski, M. [Massachusetts Univ., North Dartmouth, MA (United States)]|[Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, L.I., NY 11973 (United States)]|[Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States)]|[Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino (Russian Federation)]|[Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)]|[University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)]|[Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)]|[Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    1997-02-21

    A cylindrical multiwire drift chamber with axial charge-division has been constructed and used in experiment E852 at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It serves as a trigger element and as a tracking device for recoil protons in {pi}{sup -}p interactions. We describe the chamber`s design considerations, details of its construction, electronics, and performance characteristics. (orig.).

  13. Installation and Commissioning of the new GLM Implantation Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Pohl, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Summer student report about the work with the new implantation chamber for the GLM branch of ISOLDE. In the context of this project an API for the vacuum system of the new chamber was developed and implemented in web application that will be used to control the new implantation chamber at some point.

  14. Engineering analyses of large precision cathode strip chambers for GEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvath, J.A.; Belser, F.C.; Pratuch, S.M.; Wuest, C.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Mitselmakher, G. [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States); Gordeev, A. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Johnson, C.V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)]|[Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States); Polychronakos, V.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Golutvin, I.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    1993-10-21

    Structural analyses of large precision cathode strip chambers performed up to the date of this publication are documented. Mechanical property data for typical chamber materials are included. This information, originally intended to be an appendix to the {open_quotes}CSC Structural Design Bible,{close_quotes} is presented as a guide for future designers of large chambers.

  15. Herds of methane chambers grazing bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinham, Alistair; Dunbabin, Matthew

    2014-05-01

    Water to air methane emissions from freshwater reservoirs can be dominated by sediment bubbling (ebullitive) events. Previous work to quantify methane bubbling from a number of Australian sub-tropical reservoirs has shown that this can contribute as much as 95% of total emissions. These bubbling events are controlled by a variety of different factors including water depth, surface and internal waves, wind seiching, atmospheric pressure changes and water levels changes. Key to quantifying the magnitude of this emission pathway is estimating both the bubbling rate as well as the areal extent of bubbling. Both bubbling rate and areal extent are seldom constant and require persistent monitoring over extended time periods before true estimates can be generated. In this paper we present a novel system for persistent monitoring of both bubbling rate and areal extent using multiple robotic surface chambers and adaptive sampling (grazing) algorithms to automate the quantification process. Individual chambers are self-propelled and guided and communicate between each other without the need for supervised control. They can maintain station at a sampling site for a desired incubation period and continuously monitor, record and report fluxes during the incubation. To exploit the methane sensor detection capabilities, the chamber can be automatically lowered to decrease the head-space and increase concentration. The grazing algorithms assign a hierarchical order to chambers within a preselected zone. Chambers then converge on the individual recording the highest 15 minute bubbling rate. Individuals maintain a specified distance apart from each other during each sampling period before all individuals are then required to move to different locations based on a sampling algorithm (systematic or adaptive) exploiting prior measurements. This system has been field tested on a large-scale subtropical reservoir, Little Nerang Dam, and over monthly timescales. Using this technique

  16. A novel non invasive measurement of hemodynamic parameters: Comparison of single-chamber ventricular and dual-chamber pacemaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid M. Pardede

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We carried out a cross sectional study to analyze hemodynamic parameters of single-chamber ventricular pacemaker compared with dual-chamber pacemaker by using thoracic electrical bioimpedance monitoring method (Physio Flow™ - a novel simple non-invasive measurement. A total of 48 consecutive outpatients comprised of 27 single chamber pacemaker and 21 dual chamber were analyzed. We measured cardiac parameters: heart rate, stroke volume index, cardiac output index, estimated ejection fraction, end diastolic volume, early diastolic function ratio, thoracic fluid index, and systemic parameters: left cardiac work index and systemic vascular resistance index. Baseline characteristic and pacemaker indication were similar in both groups. Cardiac parameters assessment revealed no significant difference between single-chamber pacemaker and dual-chamber pacemaker in heart rate, stroke volume index, cardiac index, estimated ejection fraction, end-diastolic volume, thoracic fluid index. There was significantly higher early diastolic function ratio in single-chamber pacemaker compared to dual-chamber pacemaker: 92% (10.2-187.7% vs. 100.6% (48.7-403.2%; p=0.006. Systemic parameters assessment revealed significantly higher left cardiac work index in single-chamber group than dual-chamber group 4.9 kg.m/m² (2.8-7.6 kg.m/m² vs. 4.3 kg.m/m² (2.9-7.2 kg.m/m²; p=0.004. There was no significant difference on systemic vascular resistance in single-chamber compared to dual-chamber pacemaker. Single-chamber ventricular pacemaker provides similar stroke volume, cardiac output and left cardiac work, compared to dual-chamber pacemaker. A non-invasive hemodynamic measurement using thoracic electrical bioimpedance is feasible for permanent pacemaker outpatients. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 25-32Keywords: Permanent pacemaker, single chamber, dual chamber, thoracic electrical bioimpedance, hemodynamic parameter

  17. 焦炉烟囱 NO x排放控制刍议%Comment on control of NOx emission from chimney of coke oven battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡承祐

    2013-01-01

    The new national standard“ Emission standard of pollutants for coking chemical industry”regulates the requirement for control of NO x emission from chimney of coke oven battery .The techni-cal measures on design of heating system of coke oven battery and treatment of oven flue gas after it is discharged from the battery for control of NO x emission are expounded in this paper .The author also makes brief description of technology on denitrification of flue gas by using SCR process and sug -gests that in order to meet the requirement of the national standard for control of NO x emission from chimney of coke oven battery located in the “special region”, flue gas discharged from the coke oven battery should be further treated by using SCR denitrification technology with learning experience of Tokyo Gas gained from test of pilot plant and engineering .%新的国家标准《炼焦化学工业污染物排放标准》提出了焦炉烟囱的NOx 排放控制要求。本文从焦炉加热系统的设计和对焦炉烟道废气的后处理2个层面论述了焦炉烟囱NOx 排放控制的技术措施,简要介绍了SCR烟气脱硝技术,提出了借鉴日本东京煤气公司的中试与工程经验,采用SCR脱硝技术对焦炉烟道废气进行后处理,以达到国家标准对“特别地区”焦炉烟囱的NOx排放控制要求。

  18. The Evolution and Development of Cephalopod Chambers and Their Shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemanis, Robert; Korn, Dieter; Zachow, Stefan; Rybacki, Erik; Hoffmann, René

    2016-01-01

    The Ammonoidea is a group of extinct cephalopods ideal to study evolution through deep time. The evolution of the planispiral shell and complexly folded septa in ammonoids has been thought to have increased the functional surface area of the chambers permitting enhanced metabolic functions such as: chamber emptying, rate of mineralization and increased growth rates throughout ontogeny. Using nano-computed tomography and synchrotron radiation based micro-computed tomography, we present the first study of ontogenetic changes in surface area to volume ratios in the phragmocone chambers of several phylogenetically distant ammonoids and extant cephalopods. Contrary to the initial hypothesis, ammonoids do not possess a persistently high relative chamber surface area. Instead, the functional surface area of the chambers is higher in earliest ontogeny when compared to Spirula spirula. The higher the functional surface area the quicker the potential emptying rate of the chamber; quicker chamber emptying rates would theoretically permit faster growth. This is supported by the persistently higher siphuncular surface area to chamber volume ratio we collected for the ammonite Amauroceras sp. compared to either S. spirula or nautilids. We demonstrate that the curvature of the surface of the chamber increases with greater septal complexity increasing the potential refilling rates. We further show a unique relationship between ammonoid chamber shape and size that does not exist in S. spirula or nautilids. This view of chamber function also has implications for the evolution of the internal shell of coleoids, relating this event to the decoupling of soft-body growth and shell growth.

  19. Smart ionization chamber for gamma-ray monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drndarević Vujo R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A design and implementation of a smart ionization chamber suitable for connection into gamma radiation monitoring networks is presented in this paper. The smart ionization chamber consists of air-equivalent one liter ionization chamber with associated electronics and a built-in memory for storage of electronic data specifications. Generally, operating and measurement characteristics of the used ionization chamber are written into the memory chip attached to the chamber. A microcontroller-based data acquisition system with a mixed-mode interface has been implemented for the purpose of reading electronic data specifications from the memory chip, and for configuration and interfacing of the ionization chamber to the monitoring network using plug-and-play concept. The details of smart ionization chamber implementation and test results are included in the paper. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR36047 i br. TR32043

  20. Golden Jubilee photos: The first CERN bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    In the 1950s and 1960s, bubble and spark chambers were the dominant experimental tools in high-energy physics. While spark chambers were usually built and fitted to specific experiments, bubble chambers were constructed as general purpose devices that could be used for a variety of experiments. At CERN, the bubble chamber programme started under Charles Peyrou in the late 1950s. The first of CERN's bubble chambers, a 30 cm hydrogen chamber, is seen here being inserted into its vacuum tank. The HBC30, as it was called, took its first beam from the SC in 1959. One of the first pictures taken, of a positive pion-proton interaction, began a long series of pretty images for which bubble chambers would become famous. When it stopped operating in spring 1962, the HBC30 had consumed 150 km of film in its 3 years of operation.

  1. A new ring-shaped graphite monitor ionization chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizumi, M.T., E-mail: mairaty@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN - CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000, Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil); Caldas, L.V.E., E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN - CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000, Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-21

    A ring-shaped monitor ionization chamber was developed at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares. This ionization chamber presents an entrance window of aluminized polyester foil. The guard ring and collecting electrode are made of graphite coated Lucite plates. The main difference between this new ionization chamber and commercial monitor chambers is its ring-shaped design. The new monitor chamber has a central hole, allowing the passage of the direct radiation beam without attenuation; only the penumbra radiation is measured by the sensitive volume. This kind of ionization chamber design has already been tested, but using aluminium electrodes. By changing the electrode material from aluminium to a graphite coating, an improvement in the chamber response stability was expected. The pre-operational tests, as saturation curve, recombination loss and polarity effect showed satisfactory results. The repeatability and the long-term stability tests were also evaluated, showing good agreement with international recommendations.

  2. Design and commissioning of a semi-confined blast chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.M. SNYMAN; F.J. MOSTERT; W. GRUNDLING

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design, test and analysis of a scaled cylindrical blast chamber. The blast chamber is a one-fifth dimensional size replica of the full-scale blast chamber (Emily). The blast chamber is semi-confined as one end is open. The scaled blast chamber is used to test concepts for closing the open end and allows the gas to vent at the same time. ANSYS AUTODYN calculated the pressure time histories for different closure scenarios. Comparing the results suggested a viable scenario, namely a structure consisting of a circular disc and a frame positioned at the open end of the blast chamber. The structure and cylindrical blast chamber were subjected to scaled blast tests and the pressure results are presented and discussed.

  3. Liquid rocket combustion chamber acoustic characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândido Magno de Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 40 years, many solid and liquid rocket motors have experienced combustion instabilities. Among other causes, there is the interaction of acoustic modes with the combustion and/or fluid dynamic processes inside the combustion chamber. Studies have been showing that, even if less than 1% of the available energy is diverted to an acoustic mode, combustion instability can be generated. On one hand, this instability can lead to ballistic pressure changes, couple with other propulsion systems such as guidance or thrust vector control, and in the worst case, cause motor structural failure. In this case, measures, applying acoustic techniques, must be taken to correct/minimize these influences on the combustion. The combustion chamber acoustic behavior in operating conditions can be estimated by considering its behavior in room conditions. In this way, acoustic tests can be easily performed, thus identifying the cavity modes. This paper describes the procedures to characterize the acoustic behavior in the inner cavity of four different configurations of a combustion chamber. Simple analytical models are used to calculate the acoustic resonance frequencies and these results are compared with acoustic natural frequencies measured at room conditions. Some comments about the measurement procedures are done, as well as the next steps for the continuity of this research. The analytical and experimental procedures results showed good agreement. However, limitations on high frequency band as well as in the identification of specific kinds of modes indicate that numerical methods able to model the real cavity geometry and an acoustic experimental modal analysis may be necessary for a more complete analysis. Future works shall also consider the presence of passive acoustic devices such as baffles and resonators capable of introducing damping and avoiding or limiting acoustic instabilities.

  4. Finite Element Analysis of Reverberation Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunting, Charles F.; Nguyen, Duc T.

    2000-01-01

    The primary motivating factor behind the initiation of this work was to provide a deterministic means of establishing the validity of the statistical methods that are recommended for the determination of fields that interact in -an avionics system. The application of finite element analysis to reverberation chambers is the initial step required to establish a reasonable course of inquiry in this particularly data-intensive study. The use of computational electromagnetics provides a high degree of control of the "experimental" parameters that can be utilized in a simulation of reverberating structures. As the work evolved there were four primary focus areas they are: 1. The eigenvalue problem for the source free problem. 2. The development of a complex efficient eigensolver. 3. The application of a source for the TE and TM fields for statistical characterization. 4. The examination of shielding effectiveness in a reverberating environment. One early purpose of this work was to establish the utility of finite element techniques in the development of an extended low frequency statistical model for reverberation phenomena. By employing finite element techniques, structures of arbitrary complexity can be analyzed due to the use of triangular shape functions in the spatial discretization. The effects of both frequency stirring and mechanical stirring are presented. It is suggested that for the low frequency operation the typical tuner size is inadequate to provide a sufficiently random field and that frequency stirring should be used. The results of the finite element analysis of the reverberation chamber illustrate io-W the potential utility of a 2D representation for enhancing the basic statistical characteristics of the chamber when operating in a low frequency regime. The basic field statistics are verified for frequency stirring over a wide range of frequencies. Mechanical stirring is shown to provide an effective frequency deviation.

  5. Ionization Chamber for Prompt Fission Neutron Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    ZEYNALOV Sh.; ZEYNALOVA O. V.; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Sedyshev, P.; SHVETSOV V.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we report recent achievements in design of twin back-to-back ionization chamber (TIC) for fission fragment (FF) mass and kinetic energy measurement. Correlated FF kinetic energies, their masses and the angle of FF in respect to the axes in 3D Cartesian coordinates can be determined from analysis of the heights and shapes of the pulses induced by the fission fragments on the anodes of TIC. Anodes of TIC were designed as consisting of isolated strips each having independent electro...

  6. Simulation of the CMS Resistive Plate Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Hadjiiska, R; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Dimitrov, A; Beernaert, K; Cimmino, A; Costantini, S; Garcia, G; Lellouch, J; Marinov, A; Ocampo, A; Strobbe, N; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Verwilligen, P; Yazgan, E; Zaganidis, N; Aleksandrov, A; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Rodozov, M; Shopova, M; Sultanov, G; Ban, Y; Cai, J; Xue, Z; Ge, Y; Li, Q; Qian, S; Avila, C; Chaparro, L F; Gomez, J P; Moreno, B Gomez; Oliveros, A F Osorio; Sanabria, J C; Assran, Y; Sharma, A; Abbrescia, M; Colaleo, A; Pugliese, G; Loddo, F; Calabria, C; Maggi, M; Benussi, L; Bianco, S; Colafranceschi, S; Piccolo, D; Carrillo, C; Iorio, O; Buontempo, S; Paolucci, P; Vitulo, P; Berzano, U; Gabusi, M; Kang, M; Lee, K S; Park, S K; Shin, S; Kim, M S; Seo, H; Goh, J; Choi, Y; Shoaib, M

    2013-01-01

    The Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) muon subsystem contributes significantly to the formation of the trigger decision and reconstruction of the muon trajectory parameters. Simulation of the RPC response is a crucial part of the entire CMS Monte Carlo software and directly influences the final physical results. An algorithm based on the parametrization of RPC efficiency, noise, cluster size and timing for every strip has been developed. Experimental data obtained from cosmic and proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV have been used for determination of the parameters. A dedicated validation procedure has been developed. A good agreement between the simulated and experimental data has been achieved.

  7. THE PRE-TRIAL CHAMBER JUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Laurentiu DUMBRAVA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of this work lies in important changes in the new Code of Criminal Procedure, amendments justified by the new realities of a democratic society in which criminal procedural rules must be adapted according to the daily realities in the achievement of justice. The purpose of the paper is given by the need of approaching at a theoretically level the institution of The Pre-Trial Chamber Judge, given that so far there have not been developed any works on the subject. This paper addresses both practitioners and litigants.

  8. THE PRE-TRIAL CHAMBER JUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Laurenţiu DUMBRAVĂ

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of this work lies in important changes in the new Code of Criminal Procedure, amendments justified by the new realities of a democratic society in which criminal procedural rules must be adapted according to the daily realities in the achievement of justice. The purpose of the paper is given by the need of approaching at a theoretically level the institution of The Pre-Trial Chamber Judge, given that so far there have not been developed any works on the subject. This paper addresses both practitioners and litigants.

  9. Drift Chamber Alignment using Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Kotwal, Ashutosh V

    2014-01-01

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is a general-purpose experimental apparatus with an inner tracking detector for measuring charged particles, surrounded by a calorimeter for measurements of electromagnetic and hadronic showers, and a muon detector system. We present a technique for, and results of, a precise relative alignment of the drift chamber wires of the CDF tracker. This alignment has been an important component of the track momentum calibration, which is the basis for the charged-lepton calibration for the measurement of the W boson mass at CDF.

  10. Adhesive sealing of the pulp chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, S; Zhang, Y; Pereira, P N; Pashley, D H

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate quantitatively the ability of four different filling materials to seal the orifices of root canals as a secondary seal after root canal therapy. Forty extracted human molar teeth were used. The top of pulp chambers and distal halves of the roots were removed using an Isomet saw. The canal orifices were temporarily sealed with a gutta-percha master cone without sealer. The pulp chambers were then treated with a self-etching primer adhesive system (Clearfil SE Bond), a wet bonding system (One-Step), a 4-methacryloyloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride adhesive system (C&B Metabond), or a reinforced zinc oxide-eugenol (IRM). The specimens were randomly divided into four groups of 10 each. A fluid filtration method was used for quantitative evaluation of leakage. Measurements of fluid movement were made at 2-min intervals for 8 min. The quality of the seal of each specimen was measured by fluid filtration immediately and after 1 day, 1 wk, and 1 month. Even after 1 month the resins showed an excellent seal. Zinc oxide-eugenol had significantly more leakage when compared with the resin systems (p < 0.05). Adhesive resins should be considered as a secondary seal to prevent intraorifice microleakage.

  11. LET measurements with a liquid ionization chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegami, Sara

    2013-02-08

    Deep-seated tumors can be efficiently treated with heavy charged particles. The characteristic depth dose profile inside the tissue (Bragg peak) allows to deliver a high dose inside the tumor, while sparing the neighboring healthy tissue. As compared to protons, heavy ions like carbon or oxygen produce a higher amount of ionization events along their track (and in particular at the end of the ion beam path), resulting in an irreparable damage to the DNA of the tumor cells. The density of such ionization events is described in terms of Linear Energy Transfer (LET), an important physical quantity, but difficult to be measured directly. The aim of this work is to determine LET of hadrontherapy beams by using Liquid Ionization Chambers (LIC). The ionization signal in LICs is affected by recombination effects that depend on the LET of the incident radiation. Differences in recombination effects in LICs and air-filled ionization chambers can be exploited to obtain the recombination index, which can be related to the LET, calculated by Monte Carlo methods. We thus developed a method to construct a calibration curve, which relates the recombination index with the LET at each depth in water. The result of this work can be used for online monitoring of the ion beam quality.

  12. COLDDIAG: A Cold Vacuum Chamber for Diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Casalbuoni, S; Gerstl, S; Grau, A W; Hagelstein, M; Saez de Jauregui, D; Boffo, C; Sikler, G; Baglin, V; Cox, M P; Schouten, J C; Cimino, R; Commisso, M; Spataro, B; Mostacci, A; Wallen, E J; Weigel, R; Clarke, J; Scott, D; Bradshaw, T; Jones, R; Shinton, I

    2011-01-01

    One of the still open issues for the development of superconducting insertion devices is the understanding of the beam heat load. With the aim of measuring the beam heat load to a cold bore and the hope to gain a deeper understanding in the beam heat load mechanisms, a cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics is under construction. The following diagnostics will be implemented: i) retarding field analyzers to measure the electron energy and flux, ii) temperature sensors to measure the total heat load, iii) pressure gauges, iv) and mass spectrometers to measure the gas content. The inner vacuum chamber will be removable in order to test different geometries and materials. This will allow the installation of the cryostat in different synchrotron light sources. COLDDIAG will be built to fit in a short straight section at ANKA. A first installation at the synchrotron light source Diamond is foreseen in June 2011. Here we describe the technical design report of this device and the planned measurements with beam.

  13. BEBC, the Big European Bubble Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    The vessel of the Big European Bubble Chamber, BEBC, was installed at the beginning of the 1970s. The large stainless-steel vessel, measuring 3.7 metres in diameter and 4 metres in height, was filled with 35 cubic metres of liquid (hydrogen, deuterium or a neon-hydrogen mixture), whose sensitivity was regulated by means of a huge piston weighing 2 tonnes. During each expansion, the trajectories of the charged particles were marked by a trail of bubbles, where liquid reached boiling point as they passed through it. The first images were recorded in 1973 when BEBC, equipped with the largest superconducting magnet in service at the time, first received beam from the PS. In 1977, the bubble chamber was exposed to neutrino and hadron beams at higher energies of up to 450 GeV after the SPS came into operation. By the end of its active life in 1984, BEBC had delivered a total of 6.3 million photographs to 22 experiments devoted to neutrino or hadron physics. Around 600 scientists from some fifty laboratories through...

  14. Emulsion chamber experiments; critical comments and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamada, M. [School of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan)

    2006-01-15

    Emulsion chamber data give valuable information about particle production in the forward region of very high-energy nuclear interactions. Many characteristics of high-energy atmospheric families, observed by emulsion chambers, have not been fully described by simulations employing existing nuclear interaction models. Some of the events and the phenomena observed in emulsion chamber experiments have been considered to be unusual and new, never seen in lower energy accelerator experiments. We re-examine emulsion chamber data critically in order to get unbiased views of these unusual events and phenomena. It is shown that some of the previous interpretations need to be changed. We take up for the discussions scaling violation in C-jets, Centauro events, alignment of showers in high-energy families, hadrons of anomalous absorption in thick lead chambers. We will also discuss the results on the hybrid experiments of emulsion chamber and EAS-array.

  15. Characterization of a homemade ionization chamber for radiotherapy beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, Lucio P., E-mail: lpneves@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Perini, Ana P., E-mail: aperini@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Santos, Gelson P. dos, E-mail: gpsantos@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Xavier, Marcos, E-mail: mxavier@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Khoury, Helen J., E-mail: khoury@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Departamento de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Luiz Freire 1000, 50740-540 Recife (Brazil); Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    A homemade cylindrical ionization chamber was studied for routine use in therapy beams of {sup 60}Co and X-rays. Several characterization tests were performed: leakage current, saturation, ion collection efficiency, polarity effect, stability, stabilization time, chamber orientation and energy dependence. All results obtained were within international recommendations. Therefore the homemade ionization chamber presents usefulness for routine dosimetric procedures in radiotherapy beams. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A homemade ionization chamber was studied for routine use in radiotherapy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Several characterization tests were performed and the results were satisfactory. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This chamber was compared to commercial ones and the results were similar. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This chamber is suitable for calibration procedures in {sup 60}Co beams.

  16. Preliminary studies of a new monitor ionization chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizumi, Maíra T; Vivolo, Vitor; Caldas, Linda V E

    2010-01-01

    A new monitor ionization chamber was developed at Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN) in order to monitor X-ray beams. The main difference of this monitor ionization chamber in relation to other monitor chambers is its geometry, which consists of a ring-shaped sensitive volume. Because of this geometry, the monitor chamber has a central hole through which the direct radiation beam passes. The operational characteristics of the monitor chamber were evaluated: saturation, ion collection efficiency and polarity effect. Besides these tests, the short- and medium-term stabilities of its response were also evaluated. During the tests the leakage current was always negligible. All results showed values within those recommended internationally (IEC, 1997. Medical electrical equipment-dosimeters with ionization chambers and/or semi-conductor detectors as used in X-ray diagnostic imaging. IEC 61674. International Electrotechnical Commission, Genève).

  17. PERIODIC DYADIC GREEN'S FUNCTION FOR FIELD ANALYSIS IN EMC CHAMBER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lv Feiyan; Ding Jianjin; Sha Fei

    2006-01-01

    Herein a novel Dyadic Green's Function (DGF) is presented to calculate the field in ElectroMagnetic Compatibility (EMC) chamber. Due to the difficulty of simulating the whole chamber environment, the analysis combines the DGF formulation and the FEM method, with the latter deals with the reflection from absorbers. With DGF formulation for infinite periodic array structures, this paper investigates electromagnetic field in chamber with truncated arrays. The reflection from the absorber serves as the virtual source contributing to the total field. Hence the whole chamber field calculation can be separated from the work of absorber model set-up. Practically the field homogeneity test and Normal Site Attenuation (NSA) test are carried out to evaluate the chamber performance. Based on the method in this paper, the simulation results agree well with the test, and predict successfully the victim frequency points of the chamber.

  18. RETAINED STONE PIECE IN ANTERIOR CHAMBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZvornicaninJasmin, Nadarevic-VodencarevicAmra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We read with interest the article by Surekha et al. regarding the retained stone piece in anterior chamber. Similar to the results of previous studies, the authors found that delayed intraocular foreign body (IOFB management can result in good visual outcome without an apparent increased risk of endophthalmitis or other deleterious side effects. However, the authors failed to explain the exact reason for the diminution of vision in patients left eye. It is unclear what the uncorrected visual acuity was and what kind of correction was used, more precisely type and amount of cylinder, given the presence of the corneal opacity. Since the size of the IOFB is approximately 4x4x1mm, significant irido-corneal angle changes resulting in intraocular pressure raise and optic nerve head damage can be expected. Traumatic glaucoma following open globe injury can occur in 2.7 to 19% of cases, with several risk factors associated with glaucoma development (advanced age, poor visual acuity at presentation,perforating rather than penetrating ocular injury,lens injury, presence of vitreous hemorrhage and presence of an IOFB. Earlier reportsof latetraumaticoptic neuropathy onset, even after several years, indicate that this possibility cannot be completely ruled out too. Therefore, repeated intraocular pressure measurements, gonioscopy, pupillary reaction assessment, together with through posterior segment examination including visual field and optical coherence tomography examinations can be useful in determining the possible optic nerve damage as one of the possible reasons for visual acuity reduction. The authors did not suggest any operative treatment at this time. However, it should bear in mind that the inert anterior chamber IOFB could be a risk factor for non-infectious endophthalmitis development even after many years. Also, long term retained anterior chamber foreign body leads to permanent endothelial cell loss and can even result in a corneal

  19. Nuclear Fission Investigation with Twin Ionization Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeynalova, O.; Zeynalov, Sh.; Nazarenko, M.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to report the recent results, obtained in development of digital pulse processing mathematics for prompt fission neutron (PFN) investigation using twin ionization chamber (TIC) along with fast neutron time-of-flight detector (ND). Due to well known ambiguities in literature (see refs. [4, 6, 9 and 11]), concerning a pulse induction on TIC electrodes by FF ionization, we first presented detailed mathematical analysis of fission fragment (FF) signal formation on TIC anode. The analysis was done using Ramo-Shockley theorem, which gives relation between charged particle motion between TIC electrodes and so called weighting potential. Weighting potential was calculated by direct numerical solution of Laplace equation (neglecting space charge) for the TIC geometry and ionization, caused by FF. Formulae for grid inefficiency (GI) correction and digital pulse processing algorithms for PFN time-of-flight measurements and pulse shape analysis are presented and discussed.

  20. Echo chambers in the age of misinformation

    CERN Document Server

    Del Vicario, Michela; Zollo, Fabiana; Petroni, Fabio; Scala, Antonio; Caldarelli, Guido; Stanley, H Eugene; Quattrociocchi, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The wide availability of user-provided content in online social media facilitates the aggregation of people around common interests, worldviews, and narratives. Despite the enthusiastic rhetoric on the part of some that this process generates "collective intelligence", the WWW also allows the rapid dissemination of unsubstantiated conspiracy theories that often elicite rapid, large, but naive social responses such as the recent case of Jade Helm 15 -- where a simple military exercise turned out to be perceived as the beginning of the civil war in the US. We study how Facebook users consume information related to two different kinds of narrative: scientific and conspiracy news. We find that although consumers of scientific and conspiracy stories present similar consumption patterns with respect to content, the sizes of the spreading cascades differ. Homogeneity appears to be the primary driver for the diffusion of contents, but each echo chamber has its own cascade dynamics. To mimic these dynamics, we introdu...

  1. Bubble Chambers for Experiments in Nuclear Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    DiGiovine, B; Holt, R J; Rehm, K E; Raut, R; Robinson, A; Sonnenschein, A; Rusev, G; Tonchev, A P; Ugalde, C

    2015-01-01

    A bubble chamber has been developed to be used as an active target system for low energy nuclear astrophysics experiments. Adopting ideas from dark matter detection with superheated liquids, a detector system compatible with gamma-ray beams has been developed. This detector alleviates some of the limitations encountered in standard measurements of the minute cross sections of interest to stellar environments. While the astrophysically relevant nuclear reaction processes at hydrostatic burning temperatures are dominated by radiative captures, in this experimental scheme we measure the time-reversed processes. Such photodisintegrations allow us to compute the radiative capture cross sections when transitions to excited states of the reaction products are negligible. Due to the transformation of phase space, the photodisintegration cross sections are up to two orders of magnitude higher. The main advantage of the new target-detector system is a density several orders of magnitude higher than conventional gas tar...

  2. Induced signals in resistive plate chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Riegler, W

    2002-01-01

    We derive theorems for induced signals on electrodes embedded in a medium with a position and frequency dependent permittivity $\\vep(\\vx,s)$ and conductivity $\\sigma(\\vx,s)$ that are connected with arbitrary discrete elements. The problem is treated using the quasi-static approximation of Maxwell's equations for weakly conducting media \\cite{melcher}\\cite{quasi}. The induced signals can be derived by time dependent weighting fields and potentials and the result is the same as the one given in \\cite{gatti}. We also show how these time dependent weighting fields can be derived from electrostatic solutions. Finally we will apply the results to Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) where we discuss the effects of the resistive plates and thin resistive layers on the signals induced on plane electrodes and strips.

  3. Optical Alignment System for the PHENIX Muon Tracking Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Murata, J; Armendariz, R L; Brooks, M L; Horaguchi, T; Kamihara, N; Kobayashi, H; Lee, D M; Shibata, T A; Sondheim, W E

    2003-01-01

    A micron-precision optical alignment system (OASys) for the PHENIX muon tracking chambers is developed. To ensure the required mass resolution of vector meson detection, the relative alignment between three tracking station chambers must be monitored with a precision of 25$\\mu$m. The OASys is a straightness monitoring system comprised of a light source, lens and CCD camera, used for determining the initial placement as well as for monitoring the time dependent movement of the chambers on a micron scale.

  4. The Other Shoe: An Early Operant Conditioning Chamber for Pigeons

    OpenAIRE

    Sakagami, Takayuki; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe an early operant conditioning chamber fabricated by Harvard University instrument maker Ralph Gerbrands and shipped to Japan in 1952 in response to a request of Professor B. F. Skinner by Japanese psychologists. It is a rare example, perhaps the earliest still physically existing, of such a chamber for use with pigeons. Although the overall structure and many of the components are similar to contemporary pigeon chambers, several differences are noted and contrasted to evolutionary...

  5. Ageing tests for the MEG II drift chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venturini, M., E-mail: marco.venturini@pi.infn.it [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Baldini, A.M. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Baracchini, E. [ICEPP, University of Tokyo 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Cei, F.; D' Onofrio, A. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Dussoni, S.; Galli, L.; Grassi, M. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Nicolò, D. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Signorelli, G.; Tenchini, F. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Zermini, A. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    The MEG II drift chamber will track positrons from μ{sup +} decays in a very harsh environment. For testing the robustness of the chamber to ageing effects an irradiation facility was set up at INFN Pisa. - Highlights: • We built up an X-ray facility for ageing studies of particle detectors. • Stable irradiation conditions were obtained over one-month timescale. • A moderate gain loss is expected for the MEG II drift chamber.

  6. Tests of a Novel Design of Resistive Plate Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Bilki, B; Freund, B; Neubüser, C; Onel, Y; Repond, J; Schlereth, J; Xia, L

    2015-01-01

    A novel design of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs), using only a single resistive plate, is being proposed. Based on this design, two large size prototype chambers were constructed and were tested with cosmic rays and in particle beams. The tests confirmed the viability of this new approach. In addition to showing an improved single-particle response compared to the traditional 2-plate design, the novel chambers also prove to be suitable for calorimetric applications.

  7. Neovascular glaucoma treatment with extraction of anterior chamber fibrovascular tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Jeroni; Carreras, Elisa; Kudsieh, Bachar; Canut, Maribel

    2013-08-01

    The use of antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor to treat neovascular glaucoma yields good anatomic results in most cases. However, this type of glaucoma can cause angle closure with decompensation of intraocular pressure secondary to fibrovascular tissue contraction in the anterior chamber. Our surgical technique treats the cause by removing the anterior chamber fibrous complex after administration of antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor, thus restoring the chamber angle.

  8. The experimental and numerical investigation of a grooved vapor chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Ming [Key Laboratory of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation, Ministry of Education and Key Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Energy Conversion, Beijing Education Commission, College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100022 (China); Liu Zhongliang [Key Laboratory of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation, Ministry of Education and Key Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Energy Conversion, Beijing Education Commission, College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100022 (China)], E-mail: liuzhl@bjut.edu.cn; Ma Guoyuan [Key Laboratory of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation, Ministry of Education and Key Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Energy Conversion, Beijing Education Commission, College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100022 (China)

    2009-02-15

    An effective thermal spreader can achieve more uniform heat flux distribution and thus enhance heat dissipation of heat sinks. Vapor chamber is one of highly effective thermal spreaders. In this paper, a novel grooved vapor chamber was designed. The grooved structure of the vapor chamber can improve its axial and radial heat transfer and also can form the capillary loop between condensation and evaporation surfaces. The effect of heat flux, filling amount and gravity to the performance of this vapor chamber is studied by experiment. From experiment, we also obtained the best filling amount of this grooved vapor chamber. By comparing the thermal resistance of a solid copper plate with that of the vapor chamber, it is suggested that the critical heat flux condition should be maintained to use vapor chamber as efficient thermal spreaders for electronics cooling. A two-dimensional heat and mass transfer model for the grooved vapor chamber is developed. The numerical simulation results show the thickness distribution of liquid film in the grooves is not uniform. The temperature and velocity field in vapor chamber are obtained. The thickness of the liquid film in groove is mainly influenced by pressure of vapor and liquid beside liquid-vapor interface. The thin liquid film in heat source region can enhance the performance of vapor chamber, but if the starting point of liquid film is backward beyond the heat source region, the vapor chamber will dry out easily. The optimal filling ratio should maintain steady thin liquid film in heat source region of vapor chamber. The vapor condenses on whole condensation surface, so that the condensation surface achieves great uniform temperature distribution. By comparing the experimental results with numerical simulation results, the reliability of the numerical model can be verified.

  9. Double anterior chamber in a patient with glaucoma and microspherophakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Khakshoor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 16-year-old woman with microspherophakia and secondary open angle glaucoma. The patient presented with a membrane dividing the anterior chamber into two segments without edema or Descemet′s membrane detachment. Slit lamp biomicroscopy, Pentacam, and specular microscopy images were obtained. Double anterior chamber is primarily found in patients with anterior chamber anomalies when there is no history of surgery or trauma.

  10. Antioxidant activity in barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.) grains roasted in a microwave oven under conditions optimized using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omwamba, Mary; Hu, Qiuhui

    2010-01-01

    Microwave processing and cooking of foods is a recent development that is gaining momentum in household as well as large-scale food applications. Barley contains phenol compounds which possess antioxidant activity. In this study the microwave oven roasting condition was optimized to obtain grains with high antioxidant activity measured as the ability to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. Antioxidant activity of grains roasted under optimum conditions was assessed based on DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of oxidation in linoleic acid system. The optimum condition for obtaining roasted barley with high antioxidant activity (90.5% DPPH inhibition) was found to be at 600 W microwave power, 8.5 min roasting time, and 61.5 g or 2 layers of grains. The roasting condition influenced antioxidant activity both individually and interactively. Statistical analysis showed that the model was significant (P < 0.0001). The acetone extract had significantly high inhibition of lipid peroxidation and DPPH radical scavenging activity compared to the aqueous extract and alpha-tocopherol. The reducing power of acetone extracts was not significantly different from alpha-tocopherol. The acetone extract had twice the amount of phenol content compared to the aqueous extract indicating its high extraction efficiency. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of phenol acids, amino phenols, and quinones. The aqueous extract did not contain 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde and 4-hydroxycinnamic acid which are phenol compounds reported to contribute to antioxidant activity in barley grain.

  11. Endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase H de-N-glycosylation in a domestic microwave oven: application to biomarker discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Elena; Schwedler, Christian; Kaup, Matthias; Iona Braicu, Elena; Gröne, Jörn; Lauscher, Johannes C; Sehouli, Jalid; Zimmermann, Matthias; Tauber, Rudolf; Berger, Markus; Blanchard, Véronique

    2013-02-01

    Sample preparation is the rate-limiting step in glycan analysis workflows. Among all of the steps, enzymatic digestions, which are usually performed overnight, are the most time-consuming. In the current study, we report an economical and fast preparation of N-glycans from serum, including microwave-assisted enzymatic digestion in the absence of denaturing chemicals and solvents during the release. To this end, we used a household microwave oven to accelerate both pronase and endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase H (Endo H) digestions. Purification was then performed using self-made SP20SS and carbon tips. We were able to prepare samples in 55 min instead of 21 h. Finally, the method was applied in the context of oncological biomarker discovery exemplarily to ovarian and colon cancer. We observed a significant downregulation of sialylated hybrid structures in ovarian cancer samples using capillary electrophoresis-laser-induced fluorescence (CE-LIF). Furthermore, sepsis, a systemic inflammatory response syndrome, was also included in the study to understand whether the changes observed in ovarian cancer patients were due to the cancer itself or to the inflammation that usually accompanies its development. Because sialylated hybrid structures were upregulated in sepsis samples, the downregulation of these structures in ovarian cancer is specific to the cancer itself and, therefore, could be used as a biomarker.

  12. 正确认识微波炉辐射%Correct Understanding of the Radiation of Microwave Oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄智成

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the definition, the characteristics, and the harm for body, the radiation limit, the structure, and the test items of microwave. And it also introduces the statistical data of radiation test result of microwave oven, and the matters needed attention for using and choosing the microwave. It hopes to eliminate the customers’ fear to use microwave, and strengthen customers’ scientific literacy.%本文用浅白的语言介绍什么是微波、微波的特性、对人体危害、微波辐射限值、微波炉的结构、标准测试项目、实际微波炉辐射测试结果统计数据以及选购和使用微波炉注意事项等,希望消除消费者对微波炉的恐惧心理,增强消费者科学素养。

  13. Set-up and first operation of a plasma oven for treatment of low level radioactive wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachtrodt Frederik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental device for plasma treatment of low and intermediate level radioactive waste was built and tested in several design variations. The laboratory device is designed with the intention to study the general effects and difficulties in a plasma incineration set-up for the further future development of a larger scale pilot plant. The key part of the device consists of a novel microwave plasma torch driven by 200 W electric power, and operating at atmospheric pressure. It is a specific design characteristic of the torch that a high peak temperature can be reached with a low power input compared to other plasma torches. Experiments have been carried out to analyze the effect of the plasma on materials typical for operational low-level wastes. In some preliminary cold tests the behavior of stable volatile species e. g., caesium was investigated by TXRF measurements of material collected from the oven walls and the filtered off-gas. The results help in improving and scaling up the existing design and in understanding the effects for a pilot plant, especially for the off-gas collection and treatment.

  14. Efficiency of methods for Karl Fischer determination of water in oils based on oven evaporation and azeotropic distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, William; Jalbert, Jocelyn; Gilbert, Roland; Cedergren, Anders

    2003-03-15

    The efficiency of azeotropic distillation and oven evaporation techniques for trace determination of water in oils has recently been questioned by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), on the basis of measurements of the residual water found after the extraction step. The results were obtained by volumetric Karl Fischer (KF) titration in a medium containing a large excess of chloroform (> or = 65%), a proposed prerequisite to ensure complete release of water from the oil matrix. In this work, the extent of this residual water was studied by means of a direct zero-current potentiometric technique using a KF medium containing more than 80% chloroform, which is well above the concentration recommended by NIST. A procedure is described that makes it possible to correct the results for dilution errors as well as for chemical interference effects caused by the oil matrix. The corrected values were found to be in the range of 0.6-1.5 ppm, which should be compared with the 12-34 ppm (uncorrected values) reported by NIST for the same oils. From this, it is concluded that the volumetric KF method used by NIST gives results that are much too high.

  15. Exergoeconomic analysis of the power generation system using blast furnace and coke oven gas in a Brazilian steel mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Modesto; S.A. Nebra [Federal University of ABC, Santo Andre (Brazil). Center of Engineering

    2009-08-15

    The rational use of energy has become a priority for all industries in Brazil, mainly after the energy rationing in 2001. Methodologies to quantify and improve the performance of plants that consume and generate electricity and thermal energy are being used to reach this goal. Exergoeconomic analysis provides a complete diagnosis of a plant, both in exergetic and in monetary values. This study shows the methodology used to assess the power generation system of the Companhia Siderurgica Tubarao (CST). The current system is based on a regenerative Rankine cycle using two gases from steel production - blast furnace gas (BFG) and coke oven gas (COG) - to generate electric power and occasionally steam for the process. Use of the Theory of Exergetic Cost allowed determination of monetary and exergetic costs. Moreover, indicators such as cost variation, relative cost variation, and exergoeconomic factors were calculated to determine the influence of each component in the make-up of plant costs and to find the best way of decreasing generation costs of energy and process steam.

  16. Use of Coke Oven Gas during shutdown period of Direct Reduced Iron Plant for Steam Generation: Experimentation and Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish C. Dalai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of any country is largely based on its magnitude of industrial growth. Steel industries in India took a leading role in the world after mid-sixties. During the last five decades, the steel industries all over the world made considerable developments in new methods for reducing iron ore directly to metallic iron for use as commercial scrap substitute in the manufacture of steels. BSL has been producing steel and other products over last two decades and the above process is used in BSL for one decade. Direct reduction is a process, which extracts high metallic solid iron by removing oxygen from iron ore or any other iron oxides without passing through molten stage, i.e. solid state reduction. The product, so formed is known as directly reduced tron (DRI or Sponge Iron. Due to shortage of raw material or any other problem in DRI sections, the DRI section undergoes a temporary short down. During the shutdown period the equipments tend to be idle. To keep the equipment ready for operation as well as to maintain the plants economy an alternate methodology is used in this research. Various operations are: CO gas from Coke Oven, DRI, Steam Generation, and Power Generation.

  17. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations in Chinese coke oven workers relative to job category, respirator usage, and cigarette smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bo Chen; Yunping Hu; Lixing Zheng; Qiangyi Wang; Yuanfen Zhou; Taiyi Jin [Fudan University, Shanghai (China). School of Public Health

    2007-09-15

    1-Hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is a biomarker of recent exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We investigated whether urinary 1-OHP concentrations in Chinese coke oven workers (COWs) are modulated by job category, respirator usage, and cigarette smoking. The present cross-sectional study measured urinary 1-OHP concentrations in 197 COWs from Coking plant I and 250 COWs from Coking plant II, as well as 220 unexposed referents from Control plant I and 56 referents from Control plant II. Urinary 1-OHP concentrations (geometric mean, {mu}mol/mol creatinine) were 5.18 and 4.21 in workers from Coking plants I and II, respectively. The highest 1-OHP levels in urine were found among topside workers including lidmen, tar chasers, and whistlers. Benchmen had higher 1-OHP levels than other workers at the sideoven. Above 75% of the COWs exceeded the recommended occupational exposure limit of 2.3 {mu}mol/mol creatinine. Respirator usage and increased body mass index (BMI) slightly reduced 1-OHP levels in COWs. Cigarette smoking significantly increased urinary 1-OHP levels in unexposed referents but had no effect in COWs. Chinese COWs, especially topside workers and benchmen, are exposed to high levels of PAHs. Urinary 1-OHP concentrations appear to be modulated by respirator usage and BMI in COWs, as well as by smoking in unexposed referents.

  18. The Other Shoe: An Early Operant Conditioning Chamber for Pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, Takayuki; Lattal, Kennon A

    2016-05-01

    We describe an early operant conditioning chamber fabricated by Harvard University instrument maker Ralph Gerbrands and shipped to Japan in 1952 in response to a request of Professor B. F. Skinner by Japanese psychologists. It is a rare example, perhaps the earliest still physically existing, of such a chamber for use with pigeons. Although the overall structure and many of the components are similar to contemporary pigeon chambers, several differences are noted and contrasted to evolutionary changes in this most important laboratory tool in the experimental analysis of behavior. The chamber also is testimony to the early internationalization of behavior analysis.

  19. PICO Bubble Chambers for Dark Matter Searches: Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, Russell; PICO Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The PICO collaboration uses bubble chambers to search for WIMP dark matter particles. The bubble chambers are operated in a moderately superheated state, providing superb rejection of the dominant gamma background, and are filled with fluorinated target fluids ideally suited for investigating spin-dependent WIMP-proton interactions. PICO currently operates a 2-liter (PICO-2L) and a 32-liter (PICO-60) bubble chamber at the SNOLAB deep underground laboratory. I will discuss recent activities by the PICO collaboration to understand and mitigate an anomalous background that has impacted previous dark matter searches, plans for the operating experiments, and prospects for a future ton-scale PICO bubble chamber.

  20. Refrigerating systems for the big CERN bubble chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Giger, U; Trepp, C

    1974-01-01

    A combined helium-hydrogen refrigerator has been installed for cooling the new CERN bubble chamber at Geneva. This article describes the cool-down of the bubble chamber and magnet, as well as emergency operation and control of the refrigerator. Besides the choice of basic conception and circuit, the plant components are dealt with too. The function of the bubble chamber and the development of the CERN proton synchrotron are described in order to facilitate understanding of the relationship between the Sulzer cryogenic plant and the CERN bubble chamber. Installations and equipment not manufactured by Sulzer are also mentioned. (1 refs).

  1. Performance Testing of the CMS Cathode Strip Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Breedon, Richard; Andreev, M. Tripathi V; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Lisowsky, B; Matthey, Christina; Rakness, Gregory; Wenman, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The production, installation, and testing of 468 cathode strip chambers for the endcap muon system of the CMS experiment played a critical role in the preparation of the endcap muon system for the final commissioning. Common testing procedures and sets of standard equipment were used at 5 international assembly centers. The chambers were then thoroughly retested after shipment to CERN. Final testing was performed after chamber installation on the steel disks in the CMS detector assembly building. The structure of the detector quality control procedure is presented along with the results of chamber performance validation tests.

  2. Radiation Target Area Sample Environmental Chamber (RTASEC) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Payload Systems Inc. proposes the Radiation Target Area Sample Environmental Chamber (RTASEC) as an innovative approach enabling radiobiologists to investigate the...

  3. Procurement specification high vacuum test chamber and pumping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cormick, J. E.

    1976-05-31

    The specification establishes requirements for a high-vacuum test chamber, associated vacuum pumps, valves, controls, and instrumentation that shall be designed and fabricated for use as a test chamber for testing a closed loop Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) Ground Demonstration System (GDS). The vacuum system shall include all instrumentation required for pressure measurement and control of the vacuum pumping system. A general outline of the BIPS-GDS in the vacuum chamber and the preliminary piping and instrumentation interface to the vacuum chamber are shown.

  4. Development of Beryllium Vacuum Chamber Technology for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Veness, R; Dorn, C

    2011-01-01

    Beryllium is the material of choice for the beam vacuum chambers around collision points in particle colliders due to a combination of transparency to particles, high specific stiffness and compatibility with ultra-high vacuum. New requirements for these chambers in the LHC experiments have driven the development of new methods for the manufacture of beryllium chambers. This paper reviews the requirements for experimental vacuum chambers. It describes the new beryllium technology adopted for the LHC and experience gained in the manufacture and installation.

  5. Evaluation of Vortex Chamber Concepts for Liquid Rocket Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Huu Phuoc; Knuth, Williams; Michaels, Scott; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Rocket-based combined-cycle engines (RBBC) being considered at NASA for future generation launch vehicles feature clusters of small rocket thrusters as part of the engine components. Depending on specific RBBC concepts, these thrusters may be operated at various operating conditions including power level and/or propellant mixture ratio variations. To pursue technology developments for future launch vehicles, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is examining vortex chamber concepts for the subject cycle engine application. Past studies indicated that the vortex chamber schemes potentially have a number of advantages over conventional chamber methods. Due to the nature of the vortex flow, relatively cooler propellant streams tend to flow along the chamber wall. Hence, the thruster chamber can be operated without the need of any cooling techniques. This vortex flow also creates strong turbulence, which promotes the propellant mixing process. Consequently, the subject chamber concepts not only offer the system simplicity but they also would enhance the combustion performance. The test results showed that the chamber performance was markedly high even at a low chamber length-to- diameter ratio (L/D). This incentive can be translated to a convenience in the thrust chamber packaging.

  6. Methylation of CpG island of p14(ARK), p15(INK4b) and p16(INK4a) genes in coke oven workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Li, X; Ge, L; Yang, J; Sun, J; Niu, Q

    2015-02-01

    To detect the blood genomic DNA methylation in coke oven workers and find a possible early screening index for occupational lung cancer, 74 coke oven workers as the exposed group and 47 water pump workers as the controls were surveyed, and urine samples and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected. Airborne benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) levels in workplace and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-Py) levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. DNA damage of PBMCs and the p14(ARK), p15(INK4b) and p16(INK4a) gene CpG island methylation in the promoter region were detected by comet assay and methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction techniques, respectively. Results show that compared with the controls, concentration of airborne B[a]Ps was elevated in the coke plant, and urinary 1-OH-Py's level and DNA olive tail moment in comet assay were significantly increased in the coke oven workers, and p14(ARK), p15(INK4b) and p16(INK4a) gene methylation rates were also significantly increased. With the working years and urinary 1-OH-Py's level, the rates of p14(ARK) and p16(INK4a) gene methylation were significantly increased while that of p15(INK4b) gene methylation displayed no statistical change. We conclude that PBMCs' p14(ARK) and p16(INK4a) gene methylation may be used for screening and warning lung cancer in coke oven workers.

  7. Applications of Microwave in Organic Synthesis: An Improved One-step Synthesis of Metallophthalocyanines and a New Modified Microwave Oven for Dry Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Bar

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Metallophthalocyanine complexes are obtained quickly and efficiently by the reaction of phthalodinitrile with hydrated metallic salts without solvent and under microwave irradiation. The use of a modified commercial microwave oven to perform this type of reactions under dry conditions is described. Metallophthalocyanines and metallododecachlorophthalocyanines of some divalent metals can be also obtained from phthalic or tetrachlorophthalic anhydrides with hydrated metallic salt and urea under microwave irradiation and without solvent.

  8. Oxygen and coke oven gas (COG) consumption optimization at hot stove of Usiminas blast furnace 3; Otimizacao do consumo de oxigenio e GCO nos regeneradores do alto forno 3 da Usiminas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervino, Marco Antonio; Bastos, Moises Hofer [Usiminas, Ipatinga, MG (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents the model developed for determination of the correlation between oxygen and coke oven gas (COG) consumption in the hot stove at Usiminas blast furnace 3, the applicability and results obtained. (author)

  9. Oven, microwave, and combination roasting of peanuts: comparison of inactivation of salmonella surrogate Enterococcus faecium, color, volatiles, flavor, and lipid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alicia L; Perry, Jennifer J; Marshall, Julie A; Yousef, Ahmed E; Barringer, Sheryl A

    2014-08-01

    Peanut safety and quality were evaluated for different roasting technologies. Shelled raw peanuts were roasted using an oven at 163 to 204 °C, microwave, or oven and microwave combinations. The lethal effect of these treatments was investigated on peanuts inoculated with the Salmonella surrogate, Enterococcus faecium and stored at room temperature for 1 h, 24 h, or 7 d before roasting. Roasted peanut color, odor activity values (OAVs), descriptive sensory panel analysis, free fatty acid, and peroxide values were determined. Color and OAVs were also analyzed on 2 commercial peanut butters. OAVs were calculated using volatile levels quantified with selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry and known odor thresholds. All treatments resulted in a minimum of 3 log reduction of inoculated bacterial population. Resistance to the process was not influenced by storage of inoculated peanuts prior to treatment. Roasting by different methods produced equivalent, commercially ideal L* color. Based on the OAVs, treatments had similar volatiles important to flavor compared to the commercial samples. Descriptive sensory analysis showed no significant difference between the roasting treatments for most of the sensory attributes. Lipid oxidation was not significantly different between the roasting methods, displaying no evidence that roasting time or temperature affected lipid oxidation, when ideal color was produced. These results suggest that oven, microwave, or combination roasting should be sufficient to mitigate the threat of Salmonella contamination and produce similar color, OAVs, sensory attributes, and lipid oxidation results.

  10. Latest information about development of gas-fueled steam convection ovens; Ou en est la mise au point du four a gaz a convection de vapeur au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, T. [Tokyo-gas co., Ltd. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    In Japan, gas has been the main source of heat for heating-type culinary equipment in the food service industry, however, this situation has been recently changing. One reason for this is the introduction of electric steam convection ovens. To promote the use of gas steam convection ovens that can compete with electric appliances, Tokyo Gas has conducted the following development projects. Firstly, we set development targets for gas appliances to out-perform the best electric appliances, and were able to develop appliance products that met the targets. Secondly, in order to develop new markets for gas appliances, we worked on the development of compact appliances with a comparatively low initial cost, launching the world's smallest product in this category in October 1998. Thirdly, in order to make gas appliances as widely used here as they are in Europe and America, we developed appliances with costs cut by 30%, and in October 1999 we launched the cheapest gas steam convection oven in the domestic market. We plan to continue providing technological expertise to domestic manufacturers, enhancing our line-up with top performance gas appliances at even lower cost. (author)

  11. Development of Master Chamber Software for Data Acquisition of Ionization Chamber for Indus 2 RRCAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyesh Soni

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper was to Develop Master control software for DAQ of ionization chamber for INDUS-2 beam lines for detection of X-ray flux by an Ionization chamber that will remotely control and monitor the ultra low current signal detection analog module precisely. This application will be useful to measure the intensity of X-ray flux through ionization chamber in a beam line of synchrotron radiation source which is mounted in INDUS-2. It is one of new technique of detection. Beam line area is highly restricted because of hazardous radiation, so through this application remote interfacing is provided for the ultra low current signal detection card that can be controlled by Master software. The development of such type arrangement we used software in C#.NET there are many issues like develop code, Design forms, to achieve the specified response from the CPU card, code developed in C# .NET. Initially, I explored and gained the knowledge of C#.NET. I practices some small modular projects as part to learn how the system works. I used programming language C#.NET architecture version 3.5 in Visual Studio 2008

  12. The Evolution and Development of Cephalopod Chambers and Their Shape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lemanis

    Full Text Available The Ammonoidea is a group of extinct cephalopods ideal to study evolution through deep time. The evolution of the planispiral shell and complexly folded septa in ammonoids has been thought to have increased the functional surface area of the chambers permitting enhanced metabolic functions such as: chamber emptying, rate of mineralization and increased growth rates throughout ontogeny. Using nano-computed tomography and synchrotron radiation based micro-computed tomography, we present the first study of ontogenetic changes in surface area to volume ratios in the phragmocone chambers of several phylogenetically distant ammonoids and extant cephalopods. Contrary to the initial hypothesis, ammonoids do not possess a persistently high relative chamber surface area. Instead, the functional surface area of the chambers is higher in earliest ontogeny when compared to Spirula spirula. The higher the functional surface area the quicker the potential emptying rate of the chamber; quicker chamber emptying rates would theoretically permit faster growth. This is supported by the persistently higher siphuncular surface area to chamber volume ratio we collected for the ammonite Amauroceras sp. compared to either S. spirula or nautilids. We demonstrate that the curvature of the surface of the chamber increases with greater septal complexity increasing the potential refilling rates. We further show a unique relationship between ammonoid chamber shape and size that does not exist in S. spirula or nautilids. This view of chamber function also has implications for the evolution of the internal shell of coleoids, relating this event to the decoupling of soft-body growth and shell growth.

  13. Quantifying the "chamber effect" in CO2 flux measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihermaa, Leena; Childs, Amy; Long, Hazel; Waldron, Susan

    2014-05-01

    The significance of aquatic CO2 emissions has received attention in recent years. For example annual aquatic emissions in the Amazon basin have been estimated as 500 Mt of carbon1. Methods for determining the flux rates include eddy covariance flux tower measurements, flux estimates calculated from partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in water and the use floating flux chambers connected to an infra-red gas analyser. The flux chamber method is often used because it is portable, cheaper and allows smaller scale measurements. It is also a direct method and hence avoids problems related to the estimation of the gas transfer coefficient that is required when fluxes are calculated from pCO2. However, the use of a floating chamber may influence the flux measurements obtained. The chamber shields the water underneath from effects of wind which could lead to lower flux estimates. Wind increases the flux rate by i) causing waves which increase the surface area for efflux, and ii) removing CO2 build up above the water surface, hence maintaining a higher concentration gradient. Many floating chambers have an underwater extension of the chamber below the float to ensure better seal to water surface and to prevent any ingress of atmospheric air when waves rock the chamber. This extension may cause additional turbulence in flowing water and hence lead to overestimation of flux rates. Some groups have also used a small fan in the chamber headspace to ensure thorough mixing of air in the chamber. This may create turbulence inside the chamber which could increase the flux rate. Here we present results on the effects of different chamber designs on the detected flux rates. 1Richey et al. 2002. Outgassing from Amazonian rivers and wetlands as a large tropical source of atmospheric CO2. Nature 416: 617-620.

  14. Current status of patent technologies of coke oven gas to natural gas in China%国内焦炉气制天然气专利技术发展现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜雄伟

    2012-01-01

    Current status of patent technologies of coke oven gas to natural gas in China is described in this paper. Two main production processes of coke oven gas to natural gas are analyzed, named " coke oven gas methanation to natural gas" process and "coke oven gas purification and separation to natural gas" process. Patent applications of conversion technologies from coke oven gas to natural gas by organizations or individuals who have the technologies in China are introduced. It is pointed out that the project implementation of coke oven gas to natural gas has a very important significance for coking industry to develop energy-saving and emission-reduction circular economy.%综述了国内焦炉气制天然气专利技术发展现状,分析了国内焦炉气制天然气技术的2种主要工艺,“焦炉气甲烷化制备天然气”工艺和“焦炉气联合净化分离制备天然气”工艺.介绍了目前国内焦炉气制天然气技术拥有单位或个人专利申请情况,指出焦炉气制天然气项目的实施对焦化行业节能减排及发展循环经济等具有重要意义.

  15. Performance of vintage direct reading pocket ionization chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Robert J; Harvey, John A; Kearfott, Kimberlee J

    2010-05-01

    The linearity, accuracy, and precision of each of two groups of vintage 51.6 microC-kg-1 maximum scale passive direct reading pocket ionization chambers, each from a different manufacturer and all aged at least 50 years since manufacture, were tested. The pocket ionization chambers were suspended on a phantom and exposed using a 137Cs source. Variations from trial to trial were smaller than variations from chamber to chamber. The average percent standard deviations ranged from 5.7% to 14% across all exposures. The accuracy of the dosimeter readings increased as the exposure level increased. Percent error from known exposure values decreased as exposure increased. An independent samples t test indicated there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups only at a delivered exposure of 6.45 microC-kg-1. Testing was performed in a 222Rn drum to determine the effect of Rn on the pocket ionization chambers. Exposure of five chambers to an average Rn level of 4.70 kBq m-3 and thirty chambers to 3.86 kBq m-3 over a 7-d period produced abnormally high readings at least three times background in eight of the 35 chambers tested.

  16. Neutron induced current pulses in fission chambers. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taboas, A L; Buck, W L

    1978-01-01

    The mechanism of neutron induced current pulse generation in fission chambers is discussed. By application of the calculated detector transfer function to proposed detector current pulse shapes, and by comparison with actually observed detector output voltage pulses, a credible, semi-empirical, trapezoidal pulse shape of chamber current is obtained.

  17. Influence of chamber misalignment on cased telescoped (CT) ammunition accuracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. CORRIVEAU; C. FLORIN PETRE

    2016-01-01

    As part of a research program, it was desired to better understand the impact of the rotating chamber alignment with the barrel throat on the precision and accuracy of a novel cased telescoped (CT) ammunition firing rifle. In order to perform the study, a baseline CT ammunition chamber which was concentric with a Mann barrel bore was manufactured. Additionally, six chambers were manufactured with an offset relative to the barrel bore. These chambers were used to simulate a misaligned chamber relative to the bore axis. Precision and accuracy tests were then performed at 200 m in an indoor range under controlled conditions. For this project, 5.56 mm CT ammunition was used. As the chamber axis offset relative to the gun bore was increased, the mean point of impact was displaced away from the target center. The shift in the impact location is explained by the presence of in-bore yaw which results in lateral throw-off and aerodynamic jump components. The linear theory of ballistics is used to establish a relationship between the chamber misalignment and the resulting projectile mean point of impact for a rifle developed to fire CT ammunition. This relationship allows for the prediction of the mean point of impact given a chamber misalignment.

  18. Monte Carlo Simulation Optimizing Design of Grid Ionization Chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG; Yu-lai; WANG; Qiang; YANG; Lu

    2013-01-01

    The grid ionization chamber detector is often used for measuring charged particles.Based on Monte Carlo simulation method,the energy loss distribution and electron ion pairs of alpha particle with different energy have been calculated to determine suitable filling gas in the ionization chamber filled with

  19. Experimental results obtained in the vibrating intrinsic reverberation chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank; Boudenot, Jean-Claude; Etten, van Wim

    2000-01-01

    Measurements have been performed in a vibrating intrinsic reverberation chamber (VIRC). This chamber has varying angles between wall, floor and ceiling. Inside the VIRC a diffuse, statistically uniform electromagnetic field is created without the use of a mechanical rotating mode stirrer. In compari

  20. ALICE Time Projection Chamber (TPC) Readout Sector in Lab

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main particle tracking detector in ALICE. Charged particles crossing the gas of the TPC knock electrons out of their atoms, which drift in the eletric field. By measuring the arrival of electrons at the end of the chamber, at segments such as the one shown here, the TPC will reconstruct the paths of the original charged particles.

  1. Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC) Sag Measurements and Predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Kriesel, K; Loveless, D

    1997-01-01

    We describe the measurements of sag on P1A 2 layer prototype Cathode Strip Chamber and compare the results with calculated values. Using this information we predict the sag of P1 6-layer chamber with the present design for the aluminium frame, and compare this value to measured sag.

  2. Chamber personnel's use of Nitrox 50 during hyperbaric oxygen treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Marco Bo; Jansen, Tejs; Sifakis, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of using Nitrox 50 as breathing gas during attendance in a multiplace hyperbaric chamber.......We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of using Nitrox 50 as breathing gas during attendance in a multiplace hyperbaric chamber....

  3. The muon chambers take centre stage at CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The CMS muon chambers are now starting to arrive at CERN in significant numbers. All in all, the muon system of the CMS detector will comprise some 1400 of these chambers. Twenty percent of those for the endcaps have already been installed, while the assembly of those for the barrel will start in December.

  4. A hyperbaric oxygen chamber for animal experimental purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U.M. Djasim (Urville); L. Spiegelberg (Linda); E.B. Wolvius (Eppo); K.G.H. van der Wal (Karel)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractFacilities for hyperbaric oxygen therapy that are suitable for animal experimental research are scarce. In this paper, the authors introduce a hyperbaric oxygen chamber that was developed specifically for animal experimental purposes. The hyperbaric oxygen chamber was designed to meet a

  5. In vivo monitoring of angiogenesis within Matrigel chambers using MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, David Alberg; Ley, Carsten Dan; Simonsen, Helle Juhl;

    that a gel containing pro- angiogenic agents held within a chamber may be positioned sub-cutaneously in mice and the angiogenic process followed using MR methods. This approach allows an individual animal to be followed with time in order to stu- dy the initial development of vasculature within the chambers...

  6. In vivo monitoring of angiogenesis within Matrigel chambers using MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, David; Ley, Carsten Dan; Søgaard, Lise Vejby;

    2006-01-01

    that a gel containing pro-angiogenic agents held within a chamber may be positioned sub-cutaneously in mice and the angiogenic process followed using MR methods. This approach allows an individual animal to be followed with time in order to study the initial development of vasculature within the chambers....

  7. Calibration of PICO Bubble Chamber Dark Matter Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Miaotianzi; PICO Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The PICO Collaboration builds bubble chambers for the direct detection of WIMP dark matter. I will present the suite of calibration experiments performed to measure the sensitivity of these chambers to nuclear recoils (the expected WIMP signal) and to gamma rays (a common background to the WIMP signal). These calibrations include measurements with a 10-ml C3F8 bubble chamber at Northwestern University and with a 30-ml C3F8 bubble chamber deployed in the University of Montreal's tandem Van de Graaf facility, giving the bubble chamber response to a variety of gamma rays, broad-spectrum neutron sources, and mono-energetic low energy neutrons. I will compare our measured sensitivities to those predicted by a simple thermodynamic model and will show how the results impact our ability to detect dark matter, with a focus on light WIMP searches. Supported by DOE Grant: DE-SC0012161.

  8. Design of a Hyperbaric Chamber for Pressure Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Sazali Shahmir Fikhri bin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A hyperbaric chamber is an application of a pressure vessel to test the integrity of components and equipments subjected to high pressure. The chamber comprises of several main parts such as a shell, heads, instrumentation attachments, threaded fasteners and support. This paper describes the design of hyperbaric chamber for pressure testing that compiles to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel code. The design approach adopted is the “design by formula” method. A structural analysis of the hyperbaric chamber with a cylindrical shell and a vertical orientation, based on an operating pressure of 34.5 MPa, was done. The analysis of the stress distribution shows that the normalized principal stresses acting on the chamber are within the yield envelop based on the maximum distortional energy criteria.

  9. Wireless transmission of biosignals for hyperbaric chamber applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Vidal, Carlos; Gracia, Luis; Carmona, Cristian; Alorda, Bartomeu; Salinas, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a wireless system to send biosignals outside a hyperbaric chamber avoiding wires going through the chamber walls. Hyperbaric chambers are becoming more and more common due to new indications of hyperbaric oxygen treatments. Metallic walls physically isolate patients inside the chamber, where getting a patient’s vital signs turns into a painstaking task. The paper proposes using a ZigBee-based network to wirelessly transmit the patient's biosignals to the outside of the chamber. In particular, a wearable battery supported device has been designed, implemented and tested. Although the implementation has been conducted to transmit the electrocardiography signal, the device can be easily adapted to consider other biosignals. PMID:28296900

  10. Method for measuring anterior chamber volume by image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Gaoshou; Zhang, Junhong; Wang, Ruichang; Wang, Bingsong; Wang, Ningli

    2007-12-01

    Anterior chamber volume (ACV) is very important for an oculist to make rational pathological diagnosis as to patients who have some optic diseases such as glaucoma and etc., yet it is always difficult to be measured accurately. In this paper, a method is devised to measure anterior chamber volumes based on JPEG-formatted image files that have been transformed from medical images using the anterior-chamber optical coherence tomographer (AC-OCT) and corresponding image-processing software. The corresponding algorithms for image analysis and ACV calculation are implemented in VC++ and a series of anterior chamber images of typical patients are analyzed, while anterior chamber volumes are calculated and are verified that they are in accord with clinical observation. It shows that the measurement method is effective and feasible and it has potential to improve accuracy of ACV calculation. Meanwhile, some measures should be taken to simplify the handcraft preprocess working as to images.

  11. Miniature environmental chambers for temperature humidity bias testing of microelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Michael David; Mayer, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Environmental chambers are commonly used for reliability testing of microelectronics and other products and materials. These chambers are large, expensive, and limit electrical connectivity to devices under test. In this paper, we present a collection of ten small, low-cost environmental chambers, with humidity control based on mixtures of water and glycerol placed inside the chambers. We demonstrate relative humidities from 44% to 90%, at temperatures from 30 to 85 °C, enabling industry-standard testing at 85% humidity and 85 °C. The division of samples between ten separate chambers allows different conditions to be applied to each sample, in order to quickly characterize the effects of the environment on device reliability, enabling extrapolation to estimate lifetimes in working conditions.

  12. THERMAL UNIFORMITY OF LIQUID HELIUM IN ELECTRON BUBBLE CHAMBER.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WANG,L.; JIA,L.

    2002-07-22

    A CRYOGENIC RESEARCH APPARATUS TO MEASURE THE MOVEMENT OF ELECTRONS UNDER A HIGH ELECTRIC FIELD IN A LIQUID HELIUM BATH WAS DESIGNED AND BUILT AT THE BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY AND THE NEVIS LABORATORY OF COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY. THE LIQUID HELIUM CHAMBER IS A DOUBLE WALLED CYLINDRICAL CONTAINER EQUIPPED WITH 5 OPTICS WINDOWS AND 10 HIGH VOLTAGE CABLES. TO SHIELD THE LIQUID HELIUM CHAMBER AGAINST THE EXTERNAL HEAT LOADS AND TO PROVIDE THE THERMAL UNIFORMITY IN THE LIQUID HELIUM CHAMBER, THE DOUBLE WALLED JACKET WAS COOLED BY A PUMPED HELIUM BATH. THE HELIUM CHAMBER WAS BUILT INTO A COMMERICAL LN2 / LHE CRYOSTAT. THIS PAPER PRESENTS THE DESIGN AND THE NUMERICAL SIMULATION ANALYSIS ON THERMAL UNIFORMITY OF THE ELECTRON BUBBLE CHAMBER.

  13. Dosimetry of Cobalt 60 Gamma Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Upadhyay

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Ferrous sulphate-benzoic acid-xylen(tl orange (FBX dosimetric system is linear in the range fl|0m 0.01 Gy to 10 Gy and can be used in the case of a nuclear accident, for documenting clinical doses in total-body irradiations in radiation therapy as well as for measuring daily radiation dose during external beam therapy because of its tissue-equivallency. FBX system is stable up to 15 days in the range 15 - 60 degree centigrade. It is independent of photon energy up to 3 ke V and is fairly dose rate in dependent in the range from 0.01 to 2.5 Gy/min. Besides its use in radiation therapy, external beam therapy and nuclear accidents, the present study shows that this dosimeter can be effectively used for determining positional variation inside the gamma chamber. This has been detected by placing dosimetric solutions in small bottles kept in two racks of the phantom in a symmetrical fashion. Average variations in two tracks were found to be 2.74 per cent, 0.33 per cent, 4 per cent and 4.83 per cent.

  14. The PHENIX Drift Chamber Front End Electroncs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancake, C.; Velkovska, J.; Pantuev, V.; Fong, D.; Hemmick, T.

    1998-04-01

    The PHENIX Drift Chamber (DC) is designed to operate in the high particle flux environment of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and provide high resolution track measurements. It is segmented into 80 keystones with 160 readout channels each. The Front End Electronics (FEE) developed to meet the demanding operating conditions and the large number of readout channels of the DC will be discussed. It is based on two application specific integrated circuits: the ASD8 and the TMC-PHX1. The ASD8 chip contains 8 channels of bipolar amplifier-shaper-discriminator with 6 ns shaping time and ≈ 20 ns pulse width, which satisfies the two track resolution requirements. The TMC-PHX1 chip is a high-resolution multi-hit Time-to-Digital Converter. The outputs from the ASD8 are digitized in the Time Memory Cell (TMC) every (clock period)/32 or 0.78 ns (at 40 MHz), which gives the intrinsic time resolution of the system. A 256 words deep dual port memory keeps 6.4 μs time history of data at 40 MHz clock. Each DC keystone is supplied with 4 ASD8/TMC boards and one FEM board, which performs the readout of the TMC-PHX1's, buffers and formats the data to be transmitted over the Glink. The slow speed control communication between the FEM and the system is carried out over ARCNET. The full readout chain and the data aquisition system are being tested.

  15. A Fast Ionization Chamber for GODDESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumb, R. T.; Lipman, A. S.; Baugher, T.; Cizewski, J. A.; Ratkiewicz, A.; Pain, S. D.; Kozub, R. L.

    2014-09-01

    Transfer reactions are among the main methods used in nuclear physics to probe the structure of nuclei. Such information is needed to constrain nuclear models and to understand various nucleosynthesis processes. In many cases, the nuclear level densities are too high to be resolved in transfer reactions via charged particle detection alone. This problem and issues arising from contaminants in radioactive beams can be addressed by using particle- γ coincidence techniques along with heavy recoil identification in inverse kinematics. A device to accomplish these tasks is Gammasphere ORRUBA: Dual Detectors for Experimental Structure Studies (GODDESS), currently being commissioned for the ATLAS facility at ANL. We are currently building a compact, tilted grid ionization chamber for GODDESS to detect and identify beam-like recoils near zero degrees in the lab. The tilt (30 degrees off normal to the beam) helps the ion pairs to be detected quickly, after drifting only a short distance away from the beam axis. This reduces the response time, allowing counting rates of ~500,000/s. The design and current status of the project will be presented. Research supported by the U. S. DOE.

  16. Redefining Female Desire: Angela Carter's Bloody Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Antonella Abeni

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the debate about the nature and representation of female sexual desire, on the trend to follow men patterns, who often would have been identified in pornography, involving Angela Carter’s work.This author has analyzed the issue of female desire in The Sadeian Woman, re-evaluating the use of pornography in "moral" sense, ie reversing the fundamentals and misogynistic stereotypes about the differences between the sexes.In contrast, scholars such as Andrea Dworkin believe pornography inextricably linked to the subjugation and humiliation of the female body, while Carter, starting from the work of De Sade, reconfigures the ideas at the base of the imaginary of erotic, putting pornography "in the service" of feminine instincts liberation.Among Carter’s works that gave rise to more debates and discussions is The Bloody Chamber, a collection of rewriting fairy tales in which some stories such as The Tiger's Wife and The Company of Wolves had provoked critical reactions.This article analyses some passages of those tales, combining them with the ideas expressed by the author in her famous essay, demonstrating the originality and unconventionality of her interpretation of female desire, subject to misunderstanding and disputes, but strongly appreciated in recent years .

  17. Simulated equilibrium factor studies in radon chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiehchi Chu; Holing Liu [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Nuclear Science

    1996-05-01

    A series of experiments have been conducted to study the influences of environmental parameters on the equilibrium factor. Most of them were carried out in a walk-in type chamber. The deposition velocity was calculated using the Jacobi model. The ranges of the environmental parameters studied in the experiments are humidity 30-90% r.h. and radon concentration 2-40 kBqm{sup -3}. The aerosol sources included electric fumigator, mosquito coil, incense, a cigarette with the particle concentration 2000-6500 cm{sup -3} and the attachment rate 10-350 h{sup -1}. The results of the experiment show that the equilibrium factor tends to decrease as the radon concentration increases. On the other hand, the equilibrium factor tends to increase as the humidity increases, and so is the increasing attachment rate. Of all the parameters mentioned above, the influence that aerosols have on the equilibrium factor is the predominant factor. The calculated deposition velocity for the unattached fraction of radon daughters tends to increase as the radon concentration increases. However, it tends to decrease as the humidity increases. (Author).

  18. Detector Physics of Resistive Plate Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Lippmann, Christian; Riegler, W

    2003-01-01

    Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) are gaseous parallel plate avalanche detectors that implement electrodes made from a material with a high volume resistivity between 10^7 and 10^12 Ohm cm. Large area RPCs with 2mm single gaps operated in avalanche mode provide above 98% efficiency and a time resolution of around 1ns up to a flux of several kHz/cm2. These Trigger RPCs will, as an example, equip the muon detector system of the ATLAS experiment at CERN on an area of 3650m2 and with 355.000 independent read out channels. Timing RPCs with a gas gap of 0.2 to 0.3mm are widely used in multi gap configurations and provide 99% efficiency and time resolution down to 50ps. While their performance is comparable to existing scintillator-based Time-Of-Flight (TOF) technology, Timing RPCs feature a significantly, up to an order of magnitude, lower price per channel. They will for example equip the 176m2 TOF barrel of the ALICE experiment at CERN with 160.000 independent read out cells. RPCs were originally operated in stream...

  19. Chemistry of radiation damage to wire chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, J.

    1992-08-01

    Proportional counters are used to study aspects of radiation damage to wire chambers (wire aging). Principles of low-pressure, rf plasma chemistry are used to predict the plasma chemistry in electron avalanches (1 atm, dc). (1) Aging is studied in CF{sub 4}/iC{sub 4}H{sub 10} gas mixtures. Wire deposits are analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy. An apparent cathode aging process resulting in loss of gain rather than in a self-sustained current is observed in CF{sub 4}-rich gases. A four-part model considering plasma polymerization of the hydrocarbon, etching of wire deposits by CF{sub 4}, acceleration of deposition processes in strongly etching environments, and reactivity of the wire surface is developed to understand anode wire aging in CF{sub 4}/iC{sub 4}H{sub 10} gases. Practical guidelines suggested by the model are discussed. (2) Data are presented to suggest that trace amounts of Freons do not affect aging rates in either dimethyl ether or Ar/C{sub 2}H{sub 6}. Apparent loss of gain is explained by attachment of primary electrons to a continuously increasing concentration of Freon 11 (CCl{sub 3}F) in the counter gas. An increase in the concentration of Freon 11 in dimethyl ether is caused by a distillation process in the gas supply bottle and is a natural consequence of the unequal volatilities of the two compounds.

  20. Lactose and galactose content in cheese results in overestimation of moisture by vacuum oven and microwave methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H; Rankin, S A; Fonseca, L M; Milani, F X

    2014-05-01

    Moisture determination in cheese is a critical test for regulatory compliance, functionality, and economic reasons. Common methods for moisture determination in cheese rely upon the thermal volatilization of water from cheese and calculation of moisture content based on the resulting loss of mass. Residual sugars, such as lactose and galactose, are commonly present in cheeses at levels ranging from trace amounts to 5%. These sugars are capable of reacting with other compounds in cheese, especially under the thermal conditions required for moisture determination, to yield volatile reaction products. The hypothesis of this work is that residual sugars in cheese will be converted into volatile compounds over the course of moisture determination at a level sufficient to result in overestimated cheese moisture. A full-factorial statistical design was used to evaluate the effects of cheese type, sugar type, sugar level, method type, and all interactions. Cheddar and low-moisture, part-skim (LMPS) Mozzarella cheeses were prepared with 1, 3, and 5% added lactose or galactose, and subjected to either vacuum oven or microwave-based moisture determination methods. Browning index and colorimetry were measured to characterize the color and extent of browning. Volatile analyses were performed to provide chemical evidence of the reactions proposed. The presence of residual sugars altered moisture calculations as a function of cheese type, sugar type, sugar level, method type, and numerous interactions. At higher concentrations of residual sugar, the percentage moisture determinations were increased by values of up to 1.8. Measures of browning reactions, including browning index, colorimetry, and volatile profiles demonstrate that the proposed browning reactions played a causative role. This work establishes the need to consider cheese type, sugar type, sugar levels, and method type as a means of more accurately determining moisture levels.