WorldWideScience

Sample records for chamber kilns

  1. Celadon of Yue Kiln

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正Celadon of Yue Kiln comes from the famous ancient Chinese Yue kiln in Southern China. The earliest porcelain was successfully made in this very kiln in the Eastern Han Dynasty, so it is also honored as the "mother porcelain". The kiln stopped producing at the end of the Northern Song Dynasty and the early Southern

  2. Construction of simple kiln systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, W.; Rojczyk, U.

    1984-01-01

    For the rational manufacture of charcoal, different kiln designs have been developed, for which a detailed general view of their constructional peculiarities and performance together with a number of sectional diagrams and sketches of the principles are given. Starting from both horizontally and vertically structured charcoal kilns covered with earth, the study gas on to report on modern, transportable, perforated kiln covers made of steel. Kiln covers in cylindrical and truncated cone-shaped drum form are shown. Details of dimensions, transport weight and pyrotechnical advantages are given and recommendations as to the type of kiln to select (table of criteria for selection, advantages and snags of various different kiln systems).

  3. Energy saving in ceramic tile kilns: Cooling gas heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A great quantity of thermal energy is consumed in ceramic tile manufacture, mainly in the firing stage. The most widely used facilities are roller kilns, fuelled by natural gas, in which more than 50% of the energy input is lost through the flue gas and cooling gas exhaust stacks. This paper presents a calculation methodology, based on certain kiln operating parameters, for quantifying the energy saving obtained in the kiln when part of the cooling gases are recovered in the firing chamber and are not exhausted into the atmosphere. Energy savings up to 17% have been estimated in the studied case. Comparison of the theoretical results with the experimental data confirmed the validity of the proposed methodology. The study also evidenced the need to improve combustion process control, owing to the importance of the combustion process in kiln safety and energy efficiency. - Highlights: •Some energy input (30–35%) in ceramic roller kilns is lost through the cooling gas stack. •Cooling air is directly recovered in the combustion chamber, providing oxygen. •This energy recovery from the cooling gas stack has been quantified. •It has been proven that the proposed methodology to estimate energy savings is valid

  4. Destroying The Dragon Kilns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A television documentary and better transportation have brought illegal treasure hunters to Minqing County with devastating results for the region’s ancient kilns In Yiyou Village,Minqing County in south China’s Fujian Province ancient ceramic bowls,kettles and cups fitter the ground.The ancient treasures are relics from the Song and Yuan dynasties and date back almost a thousand years.

  5. Kiln emissions and potters' exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirtle, B; Teschke, K; van Netten, C; Brauer, M

    1998-10-01

    Some ten thousand British Columbia potters work in small private studios, cooperative facilities, educational institutions, or recreation centers. There has been considerable concern that this diffuse, largely unregulated activity may involve exposures to unacceptable levels of kiln emissions. Pottery kiln emissions were measured at 50 sites--10 from each of 5 categories: professional studios, recreation centers, elementary schools, secondary schools, and colleges. Area monitoring was done 76 cm from firing kilns and 1.6 m above the floor to assess breathing zone concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, fluorides, aldehydes, aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gold, iron, lead, lithium, magnesium, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium, silver, vanadium, and zinc. Personal exposures to the same metals were measured at 24 sites. Almost all measured values were well below permissible concentrations for British Columbia work sites and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit values (TLVs) with the following two exceptions. A single firing duration (495 minute) acrolein measurement adjacent to an electric kiln (0.109 ppm) exceeded these guidelines. One 15-minute sulfur dioxide measurement collected adjacent to a gas kiln (5.7 ppm) exceeded the ACGIH short-term exposure limit. The fact that concentrations in small, ventilated kiln rooms ranked among the highest measured gives rise to concern that unacceptable levels of contamination may exist where small kiln rooms remain unventilated. Custom designed exhaust hoods and industrial heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems were the most effective ventilation strategies. Passive diffusion and wall/window fans were least effective. PMID:9794068

  6. Lime Kiln Modeling. CFD and One-dimensional simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svedin, Kristoffer; Ivarsson, Christofer; Lundborg, Rickard

    2009-03-15

    The incentives for burning alternative fuels in lime kilns are growing. An increasing demand on thorough investigations of alternative fuel impact on lime kiln performance have been recognized, and the purpose of this project has been to develop a lime kiln CFD model with the possibility to fire fuel oil and lignin. The second part of the project consists of three technical studies. Simulated data from a one-dimensional steady state program has been used to support theories on the impact of biofuels and lime mud dryness. The CFD simulations was carried out in the commercial code FLUENT. Due to difficulties with the convergence of the model the calcination reaction is not included. The model shows essential differences between the two fuels. Lignin gives a different flame shape and a longer flame length compared to fuel oil. Mainly this depends on how the fuel is fed into the combustion chamber and how much combustion air that is added as primary and secondary air. In the case of lignin combustion the required amount of air is more than in the fuel oil case. This generates more combustion gas and a different flow pattern is created. Based on the values from turbulent reaction rate for the different fuels an estimated flame length can be obtained. For fuel oil the combustion is very intense with a sharp peak in the beginning and a rapid decrease. For lignin the combustion starts not as intense as for the fuel oil case and has a smoother shape. The flame length appears to be approximately 2-3 meter longer for lignin than for fuel oil based on turbulent reaction rate in the computational simulations. The first technical study showed that there are many benefits of increasing dry solids content in the lime mud going into a kiln such as increased energy efficiency, reduced TRS, and reduced sodium in the kiln. However, data from operating kilns indicates that these benefits can be offset by increasing exit gas temperature that can limit kiln production capacity. Simulated

  7. Solar lumber kiln. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to establish design parameters for the construction of small scale (1000 board foot capacity) lumber drying kiln which derives its thermal energy from the sun. Results of a six month monitoring period are presented, as well as second generation design considerations and simplified control logic. (LEW)

  8. 淮钢套筒窑下烧嘴掺烧焦炉煤气改造%Modification of mixed combustion of coke oven gas for lower combustion chamber in the annular shaft kiln of Huaisteel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张全生

    2014-01-01

    分析了煤气热值下降对石灰煅烧造成的影响,提出下燃烧室掺烧焦炉煤气方案,并对该方案进行了可行性分析,根据方案要求设计了一种新型燃气烧嘴,最后对整个方案的经济性进行了分析,保证了该改造方案无论从技术上还是经济上都能够满足要求。%The influence of lime calcinations effected by decreasing value converter gas was analyzed . A new scheme mixing coke oven gas in lower combustion chamber was proposed .And the feasibility of the scheme was analyzed .According to the design requirements , a new type of gas burner was de-signed.Finally the economical efficiency of this scheme was analyzed , which could be make sure the modification scheme was feasible .

  9. 淮钢套筒窑下烧嘴掺烧焦炉煤气改造%Modification of mixed combustion of coke oven gas for lower combustion chamber in the annular shaft kiln of Huaisteel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张全生

    2014-01-01

    The influence of lime calcinations effected by decreasing value converter gas was analyzed . A new scheme mixing coke oven gas in lower combustion chamber was proposed .And the feasibility of the scheme was analyzed .According to the design requirements , a new type of gas burner was de-signed.Finally the economical efficiency of this scheme was analyzed , which could be make sure the modification scheme was feasible .%分析了煤气热值下降对石灰煅烧造成的影响,提出下燃烧室掺烧焦炉煤气方案,并对该方案进行了可行性分析,根据方案要求设计了一种新型燃气烧嘴,最后对整个方案的经济性进行了分析,保证了该改造方案无论从技术上还是经济上都能够满足要求。

  10. Operationg experience of a lime kiln. ; D-KILN at Niigata mill. Kaseika rongu kiln no sogyo keiken. ; Hokuetsu niigata D kei KILN ni tuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arano, T. (Hokuetsu Paper Mills, Ltd., Niigata (Japan))

    1992-01-01

    The recaustizing kiln, Niigata Mill, Hokuetsu Paper Making being planned to be extended in the first step of production-increasing plan during a period from 1988 to 1990, its operation started in the green/white liquor clarification facilities in 1988 and, one year later, in the wet long lime kiln (D-KILN) in 1989. In that Mill, the production capacity of recaustizing kiln process is 520Om{sup 3}/D in green liquor clarification and 35OT/D in lime burning. The D-KILN is a wet type long kiln produced by Ahistrom. As for the operational status, the line burning rate in actual operation always surpasses its performance-guaranteeing value of 15OT/D. A continuous operation was actually recorded under a steady production of 180T/D at a burning modulus from 83 to 86%. The initial target of D-KILN is judged to have been nearly achieved by an almost trouble-free stabilized production capacity added with an application of different automatic control systems. 6figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Oxyfuel combustion in rotary kiln lime production

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Matias; Hökfors, Bodil; Backman, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study the impact of oxyfuel combustion applied to a rotary kiln producing lime. Aspects of interest are product quality, energy efficiency, stack gas composition, carbon dioxide emissions, and possible benefits related to carbon dioxide capture. The method used is based on multicomponent chemical equilibrium calculations to predict process conditions. A generic model of a rotary kiln for lime production was validated against operational data and literature. T...

  12. Mass transfer in rolling rotary kilns : a novel approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heydenrych, M.D.; Greeff, P.; Heesink, A. Bert M.; Versteeg, G.F.

    2002-01-01

    A novel approach to modeling mass transfer in rotary kilns or rotating cylinders is explored. The movement of gas in the interparticle voids in the bed of the kiln is considered, where particles move concentrically with the geometry of the kiln and gas is entrained by these particles. The approach c

  13. Design Robust Controller for Rotary Kiln

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar D. Hernández-Arboleda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a robust controller for a rotary kiln. The designed controller is a combination of a fractional PID and linear quadratic regulator (LQR, these are not used to control the kiln until now, in addition robustness criteria are evaluated (gain margin, phase margin, strength gain, rejecting high frequency noise and sensitivity applied to the entire model (controller-plant, obtaining good results with a frequency range of 0.020 to 90 rad/s, which contributes to the robustness of the system.

  14. Study on raw material origin of celadon porcelain bodies from Zhanggongxiang kiln and Qingliangsi kiln by chemical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) was used to measure seven major chemical composition of celadon porcelain body from Qingliangsi kiln in Baofeng and Zhanggongxiang kiln in Ruzhou. The contents of major chemical composition in each sample were selected to make scattering analysis. Their classes and raw material sources were determined. The conclusion is that the raw material origin of Ru porcelain bodies from Qingliangsi kiln in Baofeng is different from that from Zhanggongxiang kiln in Ruzhou, but they are closely related. Both the Ruguan porcelain bodies and MinRu porcelain bodies from Qingliangsi kiln during the Song Dynasty are basically from the same provenance. (authors)

  15. Analysis on the source of raw material of the celadon bodies from Zhanggongxiang kiln and Qingliangsi kiln by PIXE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Weijuan; GUO Musen; JIN Wenqing; LI Guoxia; XIE Jianzhong; Guo Min; Lu Xiaoke; GAO Zhengyao; CHEN Huansheng; Zhang Bin; SUN Xinmin

    2004-01-01

    The proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) is used to measure the chemical ingredients of seven main elements of each sample of celadon body from Qingliangsi kiln in Baofeng County and Zhanggongxiang kiln in Ruzhou City.The PIXE data are then analyzed by fuzzy cluster method,and the trend cluster diagram is obtained to determine their relation of classification and provenance. The result shows that the producing area of raw material of Ru porcelain bodies is concentrated in Qingliangsi kiln, while that of celadon bodies is slightly scattered in Zhanggongxiang kiln. The raw material origin of Ru porcelain bodies from Qingliangsi kiln in Baofeng County is different from that of Zhanggongxiang kiln in Ruzhou City. The materials of Ru Guan porcelain bodies and Ru Civil porcelain bodies in Qingliangsi kiln are basically the same.

  16. Assessment of air pollutant emissions from brick kilns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajarathnam, Uma; Athalye, Vasudev; Ragavan, Santhosh; Maithel, Sameer; Lalchandani, Dheeraj; Kumar, Sonal; Baum, Ellen; Weyant, Cheryl; Bond, Tami

    2014-12-01

    India has more than 100,000 brick kilns producing around 250 billion bricks annually. Indian brick industry is often a small scale industry and third largest consumer of coal in the country. With the growing demand for building materials and characterised by lack of pollution control measures the brick industry has a potential to cause adverse effects on the environment. This paper presents assessment of five brick making technologies based on the measurements carried out at seventeen individual brick kilns. Emissions of PM, SO2, CO and CO2 were measured and these emissions were used to estimate the emission factors for comparing the emissions across different fuel or operating conditions. Estimated emission from brick kilns in South Asia are about 0.94 million tonnes of PM; 3.9 million tonnes of CO and 127 million tonnes of CO2 per year. Among various technologies that are widely used in India, Zig zag and vertical shaft brick kilns showed better performance in terms of emissions over the traditional fixed chimney Bull's trench kilns. This suggests that the replacement of traditional technologies with Zig zag, vertical shaft brick kilns or other cleaner kiln technologies will contribute towards improvements in the environmental performance of brick kiln industry in the country. Zig zag kilns appear to be the logical replacement because of low capital investment, easy integration with the existing production process, and the possibility of retrofitting fixed chimney Bull's trench kilns into Zig zag firing.

  17. Digital Kilns and Furnaces——the Development Direction of Industrial Kilns and Furnaces in the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaoming; HUANG Zhichu; ZHANG Jiafan

    2006-01-01

    The digital manufacturing theory is applied to the special manufacturing equipments--industrial kilns and furnaces; the concept of digital kilns & furnaces is put forward. The present status of research and application for digital technologies in fuel industrial kilns & furnaces is also introduced. Then, take the case of gas fuel kilns & furnaces, their main key technical issues are discussed. Digital kilns & furnaces as an important constituent of the digital equipments are the crucial base of the digital manufacturing. The value of research on digital kilns & furnaces and the application prospect are undoubted. It will improve product quality, reduce the manpower cost, enhance product market competitive ability, promote comprehensively tradition industries such as ceramics, metallurgy industry,and so on.

  18. 40 CFR 63.1343 - Standards for kilns and in-line kiln/raw mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... limits are on a dry basis, corrected to 7 percent oxygen. All total hydrocarbon (THC) emission limits are... hydrocarbon (THC) limits and monthly for the 50 ppmv THC limit. (b) Existing kilns located at major sources... particulate matter control device is 204 °C (400 °F) or less. (4) Contain total hydrocarbons (THC), from...

  19. Spalling Resistant Bauxite Based Bricks for Cement Kiln

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaohui; Peng Xigao

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1.Scope This standard specifies the term,definition,classification,labeling,technical requirements,test methods,inspection rules,packing,marking,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of spalling resistant bauxite based bricks for cement kiln.This standard is applicable to the spalling resistant bauxite based bricks for cement kiln.

  20. 7 CFR 300.2 - Dry Kiln Operator's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in 7 CFR chapter III by the Director of the Office of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (b) The kiln drying schedules specified in the Dry Kiln Operator's Manual... Wood Articles” (7 CFR 319.40-1 through 319.40-11) may be imported into the United States....

  1. Static Model of Cement Rotary Kiln

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar D. Hernández-Arboleda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a static model of cement rotary kilns is proposed. The system model is obtained through polynomial series. The proposed model is contrasted with data of a real plant, where optimal results are obtained. Expected results are measured with respect to the clinker production and the combustible consumption is measured in relation with the consumption calorific. The expected result of the approach is the increase of the profitability of the factory through the decrease of the consumption of the combustible.

  2. Emissions and Char Quality of Flame-Curtain "Kon Tiki" Kilns for Farmer-Scale Charcoal/Biochar Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Cornelissen

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis of organic waste or woody materials yields charcoal, a stable carbonaceous product that can be used for cooking or mixed into soil, in the latter case often termed "biochar". Traditional kiln technologies for charcoal production are slow and without treatment of the pyrolysis gases, resulting in emissions of gases (mainly methane and carbon monoxide and aerosols that are both toxic and contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. In retort kilns pyrolysis gases are led back to a combustion chamber. This can reduce emissions substantially, but is costly and consumes a considerable amount of valuable ignition material such as wood during start-up. To overcome these problems, a novel type of technology, the Kon-Tiki flame curtain pyrolysis, is proposed. This technology combines the simplicity of the traditional kiln with the combustion of pyrolysis gases in the flame curtain (similar to retort kilns, also avoiding use of external fuel for start-up.A field study in Nepal using various feedstocks showed char yields of 22 ± 5% on a dry weight basis and 40 ± 11% on a C basis. Biochars with high C contents (76 ± 9%; n = 57, average surface areas (11 to 215 m2 g-1, low EPA16-PAHs (2.3 to 6.6 mg kg-1 and high CECs (43 to 217 cmolc/kg(average for all feedstocks, mainly woody shrubs were obtained, in compliance with the European Biochar Certificate (EBC.Mean emission factors for the flame curtain kilns were (g kg-1 biochar for all feedstocks; CO2 = 4300 ± 1700, CO = 54 ± 35, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC = 6 ± 3, CH4 = 30 ± 60, aerosols (PM10 = 11 ± 15, total products of incomplete combustion (PIC = 100 ± 83 and NOx = 0.4 ± 0.3. The flame curtain kilns emitted statistically significantly (p<0.05 lower amounts of CO, PIC and NOx than retort and traditional kilns, and higher amounts of CO2.With benefits such as high quality biochar, low emission, no need for start-up fuel, fast pyrolysis time and, importantly, easy and cheap

  3. Industrial hazardous waste treatment featuring a rotary kiln and grate furnace incinerator: a case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Pan; Ma, Zengyi; Yan, Jianhua; Chi, Yong; Ni, Mingjiang; Cen, Kefa

    2011-10-01

    As one of the fastest developing countries, China is facing severe problems concerning hazardous waste treatment and disposal. This paper presents a new incineration technology and demonstration project in eastern China. The incineration system includes a rotary kiln, a grate furnace for burning out the kiln residue and a flue gas post-combustion chamber. Flue gas treatment and emission control is based on: a quench tower, followed by dry hydrated lime and activated carbon injection, a dual bag filter system, and a wet scrubber. It demonstrated that this incineration technology can effectively dispose of industrial hazardous waste with variable and complex characteristics. Gas emissions meet the demands of the Chinese Environmental Protection Association standard. PMID:21746756

  4. spark chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    A few cosmic rays pass through your body every second of every day, no matter where you are. Look at the spark chamber to your right – every flash is the track made by a cosmic ray from outer space. The spark chamber is filled with a special gas mixture. Cosmic rays knock electrons out of the atoms in the gas. These electrons accelerate towards high voltage metal strips layered throughout the chamber, creating sparks like little bolts of lightning.

  5. spark chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    A few cosmic rays pass through your body every second of every day, no matter where you are. Look at the spark chamber to your right – every flash is the track made by a cosmic ray from outer space. The spark chamber is filled with a special gas mixture. Cosmic rays knock electrons out of the atoms in the gas. These electrons accelerate towards high voltage metal strips layered throughout the chamber, creating sparks like little bolts of lightning.

  6. Ussing Chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhout, J.; Wortelboer, H.; Verhoeckx, K.

    2015-01-01

    The Ussing chamber system is named after the Danish zoologist Hans Ussing, who invented the device in the 1950s to measure the short-circuit current as an indicator of net ion transport taking place across frog skin (Ussing and Zerahn, Acta Physiol Scand 23:110-127, 1951). Ussing chambers are increa

  7. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Proportional multi-wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle. Proportional wire chambers allow a much quicker reading than the optical or magnetoscriptive readout wire chambers.

  8. Utilization from Cement Kiln Dust in Removal of Acid Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed E.S.I. Saraya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The growth of industries and day to day changes in human activities has resulted in an increase in the volume and complexity of wastewater to the environment. Textile industry is one of the most water consumers industries of Egypt, thus discharges large amounts of wastewater effluents during processing, especially, in the coloring and washing steps. Cement kiln dust is a solid waste in cement manufacturing. Approximately 2.5-3.0 (6-9% million tons of cement kiln dust is produced annually in Egypt and that cause significant environmental problems. Approach: This study aims to investigate removal of some acid dyes from aqueous solution using cement kiln dust and monitoring the dye in colored cement kiln dust. Solution with 0.4 g L-1 concentration was treated with cement kiln dust until the color of dye disappears. The colored cement kiln residue was separate by filtration and dried. The concentration of dye was measured before and after treatment by UV-Vis spectroscopy as well as after washing of colored residue. Also, the colored residue was investigated with, XRD, IR and DSC techniques as well as the loss on ignition at 450°C. Results: The results found that the cement kiln dust has the power to remove all existing acid dyes and the residue has the same color of dye. When colored residue was washed with water, there was no back diffusion of dye in to water. This may be mainly due to chemical reaction that took place between cement kiln dust and dye. Thus analysis such as IR, XRD and DSC are in agreement with these results. Conclusion: CKD is efficient in the processes of dye removal from aqueous solutions. The interaction between acid dye and CKD is fast (just minutes. So, we suggest using spent CKD for dye removal of waste water.

  9. Air flow characteristics in an industrial wood pallet drying kiln

    OpenAIRE

    Tzempelikos, Dimitrios; Filios, Andronikos; Margaris, Dionisios

    2013-01-01

    The improvement and optimization of air-distribution systems in drying kilns contributes to the preservation of the quality, safety and shelf life of perishable products. The present study reports on the numerical solution of airflow within a two dimensional drying kiln enclosure loaded with wooden pallets. The performance of air flow field is examined with and without supply of wooden pallets. Different arrangements of the supplied wooden pallets are investigated as well as the use of a ...

  10. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1967-01-01

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber.Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  11. Vacuum chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed description is given of the vacuum chamber of the so-called experimental equipment DEMAS (double-arm-time-of-flight spectrometer) at the heavy ion accelerator U-400 at the JINR-Dubna. (author)

  12. Wood residues as fuel source for lime kilns. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip, R.J.; Azarniouch, M.K.

    1982-11-01

    Despite flow problems encountered when feeding wet hog fuel with mill-produced lime mud directly into the cold end of a pilot kiln, a decrease in fossil fuel consumption of approximately 20%, based on long term average product flow rates, was obtained. The flow problems consisted of material adherence onto the kiln wall, increased dusting and feed-end losses. The lime produced with hog fuel showed higher reactivity than lime produced without hog fuel. Upon causticizing a high-sulphidity mill green liquor, the equilibrium causticizing efficiency was not affected by the use of wood residues in calcining. However, there was some deterioration in the settling and filtration characteristics of the lime mud due to the presence of hog fuel contaminants. The normal fuel requirement per ton of lime in mill kilns is only about one third of that in the pilot kiln. Because most of the problems and limitations encountered in the pilot kiln were associated with the very high mass ratio of hog fuel to lime mud required to achieve even 20% replacement, fossil fuel substitution of 30 to 50% might be attainable in commercial-scale lime kilns. The ultimate goal of complete or near-complete substitution of fossil fuel by wood residues can be achieved by additional firing of dried (moisture content 10-15%) fines from the hot end of the kiln. Since this latter type of fuel is substantially more costly than wet, non-comminuted hog fuel, its usage should be minimized. 14 refs., 9 figs., 11 tabs.

  13. Cordierite Self Flow Castables for Kiln Furniture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENZhiqiang; B.Myhre; 等

    1999-01-01

    In addition to 0.5-4 mm cordierite,0-0.5 mm cordierite can be used to substitute counterpart alumina in both ultralow and low cement cordierite self slowing castables,total cordierite can cordierite self flowing castables,total cordierite can reach 49 wt%, approximately 60 vol% ,the self flowing value, apparent porosity,bulk density,permanent linear change and modulus of rupture are measured.When ultralow cement samples fired at and below 1300℃,codierite can incerease the hot strength of castables and promote mullite formation,When samples fired at 1350℃ ,HMOR is: A28>A35>A42>A49,but all o them are strong enough,When low cement samples re fired nd tested below 1300℃,the hot strength does not change very much with cordierite content generally,Cordierite containing castables for kiln furnitrure need to be fired at least 6 h at 1300℃-1350℃ for ultralow cement astables and at 1250℃-1300℃ for low cement castables,in order to make mullite formed.

  14. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Was used in ISR (Intersecting Storage Ring) split field magnet experiment. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  15. Robert Chambers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Biekart (Kees); D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractProfessor Robert Chambers is a Research Associate at the Institute of Development Studies (IDS), University of Sussex (Brighton, UK), where he has been based for the last 40 years, including as Professorial Research Fellow. He became involved in the field of development management in the

  16. Utilization from Cement Kiln Dust in Removal of Acid Dyes

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed E.S.I. Saraya; Mahmoud E.S. Aboul-Fetouh

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: The growth of industries and day to day changes in human activities has resulted in an increase in the volume and complexity of wastewater to the environment. Textile industry is one of the most water consumers industries of Egypt, thus discharges large amounts of wastewater effluents during processing, especially, in the coloring and washing steps. Cement kiln dust is a solid waste in cement manufacturing. Approximately 2.5-3.0 (6-9%) million tons of cement kiln dust is pr...

  17. Impact of kiln thermal energy demand and false air on cement kiln flue gas CO2 capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arachchige, Udara S.P.R.; Kawan, Dinesh; Tokheim, Lars-Andre [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); Melaaen, Morten C. [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); (Tel-Tek, Porsgrunn (Norway)

    2013-07-01

    The present study is focused on the effect of the specific thermal energy demand and the false air factor on carbon capture applied to cement kiln exhaust gases. The carbon capture process model was developed and implemented in Aspen Plus. The model was developed for flue gases from a typical cement clinker manufacturing plant. The specific thermal energy demand as well as the false air factor of the kiln system were varied in order to determine the effect on CO2 capture plant performance, such as the solvent regeneration energy demand. In general, an increase in the mentioned kiln system factors increases the regeneration energy demand. The reboiler energy demand is calculated as 3270, 3428 and 3589 kJ/kg clinker for a specific thermal energy of 3000, 3400 and 3800 kJ/kg clinker, respectively. Setting the false air factor to 25, 50 or 70% gives a reboiler energy demand of 3428, 3476, 3568 kJ/kg clinker, respectively.

  18. Analysis of the elemental composition of Tang Sancai from the four major kilns in China using EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Sancai was widely used in the Tang Dynasty, and the study of this pottery provides information about the sociocultural aspects of the Tang people. To understand the characteristics of the different kilns for the production of Tang Sancai, Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) was used to analyze 174 Tang Sancai shards. These specimens were selected from four production centers in the Tang Dynasty, namely, the Huangye Kiln, the Huangbu Kiln, the Xing Kiln and the Liquanfang Kiln. The results demonstrate that the clay bodies from different kilns have varying compositions, and each kiln has a unique elemental fingerprint. Of the 17 elements analyzed, TiO2 and Fe2O3 had distinctly different contents in the samples from the Huangye Kiln and the Huangbu Kiln. For the Xing Kiln and the Huangye Kiln, the characteristic elements are Fe2O3 and MnO. For the Xing Kiln and the Huangbu Kiln, the most dissimilar elements are TiO2, MnO and ZnO. When the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was employed, the data points for the Huangye Kiln, the Huangbu Kiln and the Xing Kiln fell into distinct areas. For the Liquanfang Kiln, the contents of Al2O3 and Fe2O3 in white-bodied samples are different from those of other colors, which indicates that at least two types of raw materials were used. When compared with the white-bodied samples from the other three kilns, the white-bodied samples from the Liquanfang Kiln were found to have compositions similar to those of the samples from the Huangye Kiln, rather than the Huangbu Kiln, although the latter is much closer geographically than the former. All the obtained data provide valuable scientific criteria for provenance identification for Tang Sancai of unknown origin

  19. Analysis of the elemental composition of Tang Sancai from the four major kilns in China using EDXRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bo; Liu, Long; Feng, Song-Lin; Xu, Qing; Feng, Xiang-Qian

    2014-01-01

    Tang Sancai was widely used in the Tang Dynasty, and the study of this pottery provides information about the sociocultural aspects of the Tang people. To understand the characteristics of the different kilns for the production of Tang Sancai, Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) was used to analyze 174 Tang Sancai shards. These specimens were selected from four production centers in the Tang Dynasty, namely, the Huangye Kiln, the Huangbu Kiln, the Xing Kiln and the Liquanfang Kiln. The results demonstrate that the clay bodies from different kilns have varying compositions, and each kiln has a unique elemental fingerprint. Of the 17 elements analyzed, TiO2 and Fe2O3 had distinctly different contents in the samples from the Huangye Kiln and the Huangbu Kiln. For the Xing Kiln and the Huangye Kiln, the characteristic elements are Fe2O3 and MnO. For the Xing Kiln and the Huangbu Kiln, the most dissimilar elements are TiO2, MnO and ZnO. When the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was employed, the data points for the Huangye Kiln, the Huangbu Kiln and the Xing Kiln fell into distinct areas. For the Liquanfang Kiln, the contents of Al2O3 and Fe2O3 in white-bodied samples are different from those of other colors, which indicates that at least two types of raw materials were used. When compared with the white-bodied samples from the other three kilns, the white-bodied samples from the Liquanfang Kiln were found to have compositions similar to those of the samples from the Huangye Kiln, rather than the Huangbu Kiln, although the latter is much closer geographically than the former. All the obtained data provide valuable scientific criteria for provenance identification for Tang Sancai of unknown origin.

  20. Analysis of the elemental composition of Tang Sancai from the four major kilns in China using EDXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Bo; Liu, Long [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Radiation and Nuclear Energy Technology, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Feng, Song-Lin; Xu, Qing [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Radiation and Nuclear Energy Technology, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Feng, Xiang-Qian, E-mail: fengxq@ihep.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Radiation and Nuclear Energy Technology, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Tang Sancai was widely used in the Tang Dynasty, and the study of this pottery provides information about the sociocultural aspects of the Tang people. To understand the characteristics of the different kilns for the production of Tang Sancai, Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) was used to analyze 174 Tang Sancai shards. These specimens were selected from four production centers in the Tang Dynasty, namely, the Huangye Kiln, the Huangbu Kiln, the Xing Kiln and the Liquanfang Kiln. The results demonstrate that the clay bodies from different kilns have varying compositions, and each kiln has a unique elemental fingerprint. Of the 17 elements analyzed, TiO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} had distinctly different contents in the samples from the Huangye Kiln and the Huangbu Kiln. For the Xing Kiln and the Huangye Kiln, the characteristic elements are Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MnO. For the Xing Kiln and the Huangbu Kiln, the most dissimilar elements are TiO{sub 2}, MnO and ZnO. When the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was employed, the data points for the Huangye Kiln, the Huangbu Kiln and the Xing Kiln fell into distinct areas. For the Liquanfang Kiln, the contents of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} in white-bodied samples are different from those of other colors, which indicates that at least two types of raw materials were used. When compared with the white-bodied samples from the other three kilns, the white-bodied samples from the Liquanfang Kiln were found to have compositions similar to those of the samples from the Huangye Kiln, rather than the Huangbu Kiln, although the latter is much closer geographically than the former. All the obtained data provide valuable scientific criteria for provenance identification for Tang Sancai of unknown origin.

  1. USE OF SOLAR KILN FOR THE DRYING OF SAWN WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Martins Stangerlin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the use of a solar kiln for the drying of woods of Eucalyptus tereticornis, Eucalyptus saligna and Corymbia citriodora, as well as comparing such a methodology to the air seasoning practice. In order to do so, it was built a solar kiln composed basically of wood structures, roofing with a double layer of PVC, sunlight internal collector and hot air circulation systems. The efficiency of the solar kiln was compared to the air seasoning in drying time and wood quality. In the same drying schedule, each species was submitted to the two drying approaches using a load of 55 boards in each method. Results indicated that the solar kiln was more efficient in drying time, around 2 to 5 times faster and final moisture content lower than the air drying. Adequate wood quality was observed in both drying methods, and no defects such as cup or collapse were observed. Furthermore, the correct piling up and drying process provided minimization of defects such as bow. The incidence of crook, end and surface checks were not significantly distinct between solar drying and air seasoning for the three woods studied.

  2. 7 CFR 305.28 - Kiln sterilization treatment schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Kiln sterilization treatment schedule. 305.28 Section 305.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... sterilization treatment schedule. T404-b-4 Dry bulb temperature( °F) Wet bulb depression( °F)...

  3. TRANSIENT SUPPRESSION PACKAGING FOR REDUCED EMISSIONS FROM ROTARY KILN INCINERATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were performed on a 73 kW rotary kiln incinerator simulator to determine whether innovative waste packaging designs might reduce transient emissions of products of incomplete combustion due to batch charging of containerized liquid surrogate waste compounds bound on g...

  4. ZrO2-Containing Refractories for Cement Rotary Kilns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Guotian; XU Yanqing

    2002-01-01

    ZrO2-containing refractories have been increasingly used for cement rotary kilns. This paper discusses how the properties and performance of ZrO2-containing. Refractories are inwroved in terms of chemical attack resistance, thermal shock resistance, thermal conductivity and mechanical stress.

  5. Charcoal kiln relicts - a favorable site for tree growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buras, Allan; Hirsch, Florian; van der Maaten, Ernst; Takla, Melanie; Räbiger, Christin; Cruz Garcia, Roberto; Schneider, Anna; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas; Wilmking, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Soils with incompletely combusted organic material (aka 'black carbon') are considered fertile for plant growth. Considerable enrichment of soils with black carbon is known from Chernozems, from anthropogenic induced altering of soils like the 'Terra Preta' in South America (e.g. Glaser, 2001), and from charcoal kiln relicts. Recent studies have reported a high spatial frequency of charcoal kiln relicts in the Northeastern German lowlands (Raab et al., 2015), which today are often overgrown by forest plantations. In this context the question arises whether these sites are favorable for tree growth. Here we compare the performance of 22 Pinus sylvestris individuals - a commonly used tree species in forestry - growing on charcoal kiln relicts with 22 control trees. Growth performance (height growth and diameter growth) of the trees was determined using dendrochronological techniques, i.e. standard ring-width measurements were undertaken on each two cores per tree and tree height was measured in the field. Several other wood properties such as annual wood density, average resin content, as well as wood chemistry were analyzed. Our results indicate that trees growing on charcoal kiln relicts grow significantly less and have a significantly lower wood density in comparison with control trees. Specific chemical components such as Manganese as well as resin contents were significantly higher in kiln trees. These results highlight that tree growth on charcoal kiln relicts is actually hampered instead of enhanced. Possibly this is a combined effect of differing physical soil properties which alter soil water accessibility for plants and differing chemical soil properties which may negatively affect tree growth either if toxic limits are surpassed or if soil nutrient availability is decreased. Additional soil analyses with respect to soil texture and soil chemistry shall reveal further insight into this hypothesis. Given the frequent distribution of charcoal kiln relicts in

  6. Development of cleaner-burning brick kilns in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Charles W; Corral, Alba Yadira; Lara, Antonio S

    2007-04-01

    The following results provide a comparison between net airborne contamination produced by the traditional form of kiln used in Northern Mexico and by those modified according to a design by Dr. Robert Marquez. What has become known as the MK style kiln was intended to significantly reduce contaminant emissions. The concept involves covering the kiln with a dome and channeling the output of an active kiln through a second, identical loaded kiln for its additional filtration of the effluents. Kilns of a pair are connected via clay brick channels. The roles are reversed after the initial kiln is refilled. Significant reductions in the particulate and gaseous emissions were achieved in the prototype system, but a connectional problem with recent kiln pairs has also limited the degree of operational success. The problem did not mask the potential of the MK kiln, as will be shown. Additional anticipated benefits to the owners of MK kilns, such as reduced operating cycles and decreased quantities of fuel, also have been verified. Key measurements made during all of the burns were of aerosol densities and buoyancies in the flues, kiln temperatures, and, on a number of occasions, chemical analyses of both aerosol and gaseous effluents. Continuous time histories of aerosol densities for most burns (of a total of -40) provide a basis for examining features and the effects of differing styles of operation with respect to burn efficiency and net contaminant masses. Covering the active kiln with a dome produces a net reduction in dry aerosol effluent mass of a factor between 5 and 10, whereas the addition of a filter kiln produces a net reduction of about a factor of 2. The use of used motor oil as a fuel further reduced aerosol contamination by -1 order of magnitude.

  7. Composite Control of Precalciner Exit Temperature in Cement Rotary Kiln

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晨; 诸静

    2003-01-01

    A composite control strategy for the precalciner exit temperature in cement kiln is introduced based on a mathematical model. In this model, the raw meal flow, coal powder flow and wind flow are taken as three input variables, the clinker fow and exit teperature of cement kiln are output variables, and other influencing factors are considered as disturbance. A composite control system is synthesied by integrating self-learning PID, fuzzy and feedforward function into a combined controller, and the arithmetics for the self-learning PID controller, fuzzy controller and feedforward controller are elaborated respectively. The control strategy has been realized by software in real practice at cement factory. Application results show that the composite control technology is superior to the general PID control in control effect, and is suitable to the industrial process control with slow parameter variation, nonlinearity and uncertainty.

  8. Performance of rotary kiln reactor for the elephant grass pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Conto, D; Silvestre, W P; Baldasso, C; Godinho, M

    2016-10-01

    The influence of process conditions (rotary speed/temperature) on the performance of a rotary kiln reactor for non-catalytic pyrolysis of a perennial grass (elephant grass) was investigated. The product yields, the production of non-condensable gases as well as the biochar properties were evaluated. The maximum H2 yield was close to that observed for catalytic pyrolysis processes, while the bio-oil yield was higher than reported for pyrolysis of other biomass in rotary kiln reactors. A H2/CO ratio suitable for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) was obtained. The biochars presented an alkaline pH (above 10) and interesting contents of nutrients, as well as low electrical conductivity, indicating a high potential as soil amendment. PMID:27367811

  9. Combustion of large solid fuels in cement rotary kilns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Rooma

    from traditional solid fossil fuels. This creates a need for new combustion equipment or modification of existing kiln systems, because alternative fuels may influence process stability and product quality. Process stability is mainly influenced by exposing the raw material bed in the rotary kiln...... (MBM), waste wood, sewage sludge, paper and plastics. The alternative fuel share of the total energy varies significantly from region to region, but the general trend is towards increased alternative fuel utilization. Solid alternative fuels typically have physical and chemical properties that differ...... fuels will be mixed into the cement raw materials, which is likely to affect process stability and clinker quality, as described above. The mixing of fuels and raw materials was studied experimentally in a pilot-scale rotary drum and was found to be a fast process, reaching steady state within few drum...

  10. Modeling and optimization of rotary kiln treating EAF dust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust from steel industries is listed by the United Sates EPA as a hazardous waste under the regulations of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act due to the presence of lead, cadmium and chlorine. The disposal of the approximately 650000 t of EAF dust per year in the U.S. and Canada is an expensive and unresolved problem for the majority of steel companies. The Waelz process has been considered as the best process for treating the EAF dust. A process model, combined thermodynamic modeling with heat transfer calculations, has been developed to simulate the chemical reactions, mass and heat transfer and heat balance in the kiln. The injection of air into the slag and the temperature profile along the kiln have been modeled. The effect of (CaO+MgO)/SiO2 on the solidus temperature of slag has also been predicted and discussed. Some optimized results have been presented.

  11. Study of the compositional differences among different kilns' Sancai of Tang Dynasty by SRXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sancai (Tri-color pottery) of Tang Dynasty is a kind of glaze pottery. The Sancai is famous for its distinctive color in China. The compositional differences among those kinds of kilns' Sancai haven't been studied until now. In this work SRXRF was used to analyze the specimens of two important Sancai kilns, i.e. Huangye and Huangbu kilns and to study the compositional differences among the two kinds of samples in the body. The contents of K, Rb, Sr, Zn and Zr in the body from Huangye kiln's are higher than those from Huangbu kiln's, contrary to the body contents of Ti, Mn, Fe and Y. Cr contents in both of the kilns' samples are comparable. The study contributes much to characterization study and provenience study of different kinds of Sancai of Tang Dynasty

  12. Multi-Objective Optimization of Mechanical Running Conditions of Large Scale Statically Indeterminate Rotary Kiln

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Xiaoping; Xiao Yougang; Wang Guangbin

    2006-01-01

    Combined with the second rotary kiln of Alumina Factory in Great Wall Aluminum Company, the mechanics characteristics of statically indeterminate large-scale rotary kiln with variable cross-sections is analyzed. In order to adjusting the runing axis of rotary kiln, taking the force equilibrium of the rollers and the minimum of relative axis deflection as the optimization goal, the multi-objective optimization model of mechanical running conditions of kiln rotary is set up. The mechanical running conditions of the second rotary kiln after multi-objective optimization adjustment are compared with those before adjustment and after routine adjustment. It shows that multi-objective optimization adjustment can make axis as direct as possible and can distribute kiln loads equally.

  13. Cement kiln dust: a potential feed ingredient for livestock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, W.E.

    1978-01-01

    Cement kiln dust (composition given) from a manufacturing plant in Georgia stimulated growth and improved feed efficiencies of steers provided a basal complete diet formulated to satisfy all known requirements. Carcasses of steers fed kiln dust had more fat over the ribs and a higher marbling score than controls; organ wts. were not different from controls. Reticulorumen pH was increased from 6.21 to 6.80 by the dust and the pH values of the abomasal. small-intestinal, and cecal contents were also increased. The ration containing kiln dust was higher in Pb, As, and Se than the control diet. Kidneys and livers from all steers contained no As or Hg; their Cd content was not affected by diet; kidneys of dust-fed steers had elevated, high-normal levels of Pb, but Pb of the liver was not affected; Se levels of kidney were elevated by feeding the dust, but the basal ration was marginal in Se, and no signs of Se toxicity were observed.

  14. Impact of kiln thermal energy demand and false air on cement kiln flue gas CO2 capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udara S. P. R. Arachchige, Dinesh Kawan, Lars-André Tokheim, Morten C. Melaaen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is focused on the effect of the specific thermal energy demand and the false air factor on carbon capture applied to cement kiln exhaust gases. The carbon capture process model was developed and implemented in Aspen Plus. The model was developed for flue gases from a typical cement clinker manufacturing plant. The specific thermal energy demand as well as the false air factor of the kiln system were varied in order to determine the effect on CO2 capture plant performance, such as the solvent regeneration energy demand. In general, an increase in the mentioned kiln system factors increases the regeneration energy demand. The reboiler energy demand is calculated as 3270, 3428 and 3589 kJ/kg clinker for a specific thermal energy of 3000, 3400 and 3800 kJ/kg clinker, respectively. Setting the false air factor to 25, 50 or 70% gives a reboiler energy demand of 3428, 3476, 3568 kJ/kg clinker, respectively.

  15. Directed Energy Anechoic Chamber

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Directed Energy Anechoic Chamber comprises a power anechoic chamber and one transverse electromagnetic cell for characterizing radiofrequency (RF) responses of...

  16. Study of Yue kiln ancient celadon by SRXRF and statistic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    20 elements of eighty ancient celadon samples were analyzed by using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF). V, Ni, Zn and Mn display variable dynastic orderliness. Results of statistic analysis show that Yue kiln ancient celadon has distinctively born character on different dynasty and kiln. The statistic analysis results of SRXRF and NAA are similar

  17. 40 CFR 63.1220 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hazardous waste burning cement kilns? 63.1220 Section 63.1220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., and Lightweight Aggregate Kilns § 63.1220 What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste... oxygen; (4) For arsenic, beryllium, and chromium, both: (i) Emissions in excess of 2.1 × 10−5...

  18. A Thermoelectric Waste-Heat-Recovery System for Portland Cement Rotary Kilns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qi; Li, Peng; Cai, Lanlan; Zhou, Pingwang; Tang, Di; Zhai, Pengcheng; Zhang, Qingjie

    2015-06-01

    Portland cement is produced by one of the most energy-intensive industrial processes. Energy consumption in the manufacture of Portland cement is approximately 110-120 kWh ton-1. The cement rotary kiln is the crucial equipment used for cement production. Approximately 10-15% of the energy consumed in production of the cement clinker is directly dissipated into the atmosphere through the external surface of the rotary kiln. Innovative technology for energy conservation is urgently needed by the cement industry. In this paper we propose a novel thermoelectric waste-heat-recovery system to reduce heat losses from cement rotary kilns. This system is configured as an array of thermoelectric generation units arranged longitudinally on a secondary shell coaxial with the rotary kiln. A mathematical model was developed for estimation of the performance of waste heat recovery. Discussions mainly focus on electricity generation and energy saving, taking a Φ4.8 × 72 m cement rotary kiln as an example. Results show that the Bi2Te3-PbTe hybrid thermoelectric waste-heat-recovery system can generate approximately 211 kW electrical power while saving 3283 kW energy. Compared with the kiln without the thermoelectric recovery system, the kiln with the system can recover more than 32.85% of the energy that used to be lost as waste heat through the kiln surface.

  19. 40 CFR 63.1221 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns? 63.1221 Section 63.1221 Protection of Environment... Kilns, and Lightweight Aggregate Kilns § 63.1221 What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste... arsenic, beryllium, and chromium, both: (i) In excess of 9.5 × 10−5 lbs combined emissions of...

  20. Modification of Waelz kiln processing of La Oroya zinc ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holloway, P.C.; Etsell, T.H.; Murland, A.L.

    2008-05-15

    La Oroya zinc ferrite (19.5% Zn, 26.6% Fe, 0.052% Ga, 0.075% In) was roasted with coal under conditions more oxidizing than normally used in a Waelz kiln, and the roasted residues were leached with 200 g/L H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Overall zinc recoveries of up to 97% were achieved, with 35% of the zinc reporting to the fume after roasting at 1,100{sup o}C with a bituminous coal addition of 20%. Under these conditions, 93.2% of the Cd, 13.4% of the Cu, 33% of the Ga, 61% of the In and 18.2% of the Pb were recovered either in the fume or in the leach solution. At 2006 metal prices, the value of the recovered metals is comparable to that obtained from commercial Waelz kiln processing of this residue. Zinc in the franklinite (ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) mineral is reduced to zinc vapor, and, after oxidation, some of the zinc is found as ZnO or as Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} in the roasted residue. Iron reacts to form either hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) or magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), with no metallic iron detected in the roasted residue, and less than 2% of the iron is solubilized during leaching. The residue produced after roasting and leaching is, therefore, much more stable than the residue from Waelz kiln processing and should be suitable for disposal in a landfill.

  1. Carpet As An Alternative Fuel in Cement Kilns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew J Realff

    2007-02-06

    Approximately 5 billion lbs of carpet will be removed from buildings in the US each year for the foreseeable future. This carpet is potentially a valuable resource because it contains plastic in the face of the carpet that can be re-used. However, there are many different types of carpet, and at least four major different plastics used to make the face. The face is woven through a backing fabric and held in place by a “glue” that is in most cases a latex cross-linked polymer which is heavily loaded with chalk (calcium carbonate). This backing has almost no value as a recycled material. In addition, carpet is a bulky material that is difficult to handle and ship and must be kept dry. It would be of significant benefit to the public if this stream of material could be kept out of landfills and some of its potential value unlocked by having high volume alternatives for recycled carpet use. The research question that this project investigated was whether carpet could be used as a fuel in a cement kiln. If this could be done successfully, there is significant capacity in the US cement industry to absorb carpet and use it as a fuel. Cement kilns could serve as a way to stimulate carpet collection and then side streams be taken for higher value uses. The research demonstrated that carpet was technically a suitable fuel, but was unable to conclude that the overall system could be economically feasible at this time with the constraints placed on the project by using an existing system for feeding the kiln. Collection and transportation were relatively straightforward, using an existing collector who had the capacity to collect high volumes of material. The shredding of the carpet into a suitable form for feeding was more challenging, but these problems were successfully overcome. The feeding of the carpet into the kiln was not successfully carried out reliably. The overall economics were not positive under the prevailing conditions of costs for transportation and size

  2. Ceramic production in medieval Yemen: the Yadhghat kiln site.

    OpenAIRE

    Rougeulle, Axelle

    2007-01-01

    While excavating the medieval trade entrepôt of Sharma on the coast of Hadramawt (Yemen), a survey in the hinterland led to the discovery of a contemporary ceramic production centre near the village of Yadhghat in the Wâdî Jerba. The site is mostly destroyed except for a dozen small buildings and several heaps of ceramic shards associated with traces of bone-fire kilns. Excavations yielded thousands of fragments of a typical coarse ware which was found in quantity at Sharma. The site also del...

  3. Method and apparatus for maximizing throughput of indirectly heated rotary kilns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, Ralph L; Smoot, Douglas L.; Hatfield, Kent E

    2016-06-21

    An apparatus and method for achieving improved throughput capacity of indirectly heated rotary kilns used to produce pyrolysis products such as shale oils or coal oils that are susceptible to decomposition by high kiln wall temperatures is disclosed. High throughput is achieved by firing the kiln such that optimum wall temperatures are maintained beginning at the point where the materials enter the heating section of the kiln and extending to the point where the materials leave the heated section. Multiple high velocity burners are arranged such that combustion products directly impact on the area of the kiln wall covered internally by the solid material being heated. Firing rates for the burners are controlled to maintain optimum wall temperatures.

  4. EVALUASI EFISIENSI PANAS DAN EMISI GAS RUMAH KACA PADA ROTARY KILN PABRIK SEMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farisa Ridha Mutiara

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Kiln is an equipment which has vital existence in the manufacture of cement. Kiln firing requires a hightemperature to produce a clinker. Higher combustion temperature allows heat transfer occurs on the surfacecoating on the walls of the kiln that is not evenly distributed, so most of the heat is absorbed. As a consequence,it requires large amounts of fuel. Heat efficiency in the kiln is important to know. Production of clinker in thekiln which occurs at high temperatures, will also release a variety of gases, such as CO2. Carbon dioxide isincluded as one of the greenhouse gas, this gas will negatively impact the earth's ozone. Therefore, need to knowthe range of greenhouse gas that is formed, in order to determine the appropriate mitigation and prevention.Evaluation result of heat efficiency in the kiln is 43,17% by generating greenhouse gas emissions amounted to6,173 tonnes CO2 equivalent / tonne of coal.

  5. Kiln process impact of alternative solid fuel combustion in the cement kiln main burner - Mathematical modelling and full-scale experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Ariyaratne, Hiromi Wijesinghe; Melaaen, Morten Christian; Tokheim, Lars André; Manjula, Edirisinghe V. P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Increased use of alternative fuels in cement kilns is a trend in the world. However, replacing fossil fuels like coal with different alternative fuels will give various impacts on the overall kiln process due to the fuel characteristics. Hence, it is important to know to what extent the fossil fuels can be replaced by different alternative fuels without severely changing process conditions, product quality or emissions. In the present study, a mass and energy balance for the combustion of dif...

  6. Combustion of large solid fuels in cement rotary kilns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Anders Rooma

    2012-03-15

    The cement industry has a significant interest in replacing fossil fuels with alternative fuels in order to minimize production costs and reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. These new alternative fuels are in particular solid fuels such as refuse derived fuel (RDF), tire-derived fuel (TDF), meat and bone meal (MBM), waste wood, sewage sludge, paper and plastics. This thesis provides an insight into the utilization of solid alternative fuels in the material inlet end of rotary kilns. This position is interesting because it allows utilization of large fuel particles, thereby eliminating the need for an expensive shredding of the fuels. The challenge, however, is that the solid fuels will be mixed into the cement raw materials, which is likely to affect process stability and clinker quality, as described above. The mixing of fuels and raw materials was studied experimentally in a pilot-scale rotary drum and was found to be a fast process, reaching steady state within few drum revolutions. Thus, heat transfer by conduction from the cement raw materials to the fuel particles is a major heat transfer mechanism rather than convection or radiation from the freeboard gas above the material bed. Consequently, the temperature of the cement raw materials becomes a factor of great importance for heating the fuel particles. Combustion of different alternative fuels has been investigated experimentally in a pilot-scale rotary furnace under conditions similar to those in the material inlet end of cement rotary kilns. The main focus was on tire rubber and pine wood which are relevant fuels in this context. Heating, drying and devolatilization of alternative fuels are fast processes that primarily depend on heat transfer and fuel particle size. Devolatilization of a large wood or tire particle with a thickness of 20 mm at 900 deg. C is for example around 2 minutes. By contrast, char oxidation is a slow process which may greatly reduce the amounts of solid fuels to be utilized in the

  7. Development of a three-dimensional CFD model for rotary lime kilns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lixin Tao; Blom, Roger (FS Dynamics Sweden AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Nordgren, Daniel (Innventia, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    In the calcium loop of the recovery cycle in a Kraft process of pulp and paper production, rotary lime kilns are used to convert the lime mud, mainly CaCO3, back to quick lime, CaO, for re-use in the causticizing process. The lime kilns are one of the major energy consumption devices for paper and pulp industry. Because of the rising oil price and new emission limits, the pulp mills have been forced to look for alternative fuels for their lime kilns. One interesting alternative to oil, often easily available at pulp mills, is biofuels such as sawdust and bark. However the practical kiln operation often encounters some difficulties because of the uncertainties around the biofuel impact on the lime kiln performance. A deeper understanding of the flame characteristics is required when shifting from oil to biofuels. Fortunately recent advances in modern Computational Fluid Dynamics, CFD, have provided the possibility to study and predict the detailed flame characteristics regarding the lime kiln performance. In this project a three-dimensional CFD model for rotary lime kilns has been developed. To simulate a rotary lime kiln the developed CFD model integrates the three essential sub-models, i.e. the freeboard hot flow model, the lime bed model and the rotating refractory wall model and it is developed based on the modern CFD package: FLUENT which is commercially available on the market. The numerical simulations using the developed CFD model have been performed for three selected kiln operations fired with three different fuel mixtures. The predicted results from the CFD modelling are presented and discussed in order to compare the impacts on the kiln performance due to the different firing conditions. During the development, the lime kiln at the Soedra Cell Moensteraas mill has been used as reference kiln. To validate the CFD model, in-plant measurements were carried out in the Moensteraas lime kiln during an experiment campaign. The results obtained from the

  8. Environmental production : use of waste materials in cement kilns in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ning

    2008-01-01

    This report mainly talks about utilizing the cement kiln to dispose wastes. In China, there are huge amounts of wastes can be produced every year. China government pays more attention to the environmental protection. The government wants to dispose the wastes securely. The cement kiln is a good ‘place’ to take the wastes. The cement kiln has a high temperature, long remaining time, and can solidify the heavy metals, dispose the solid, semi-solid or liquid wastes. To dispose the wa...

  9. Assessment of mercury emission at Norcem's cement kiln by use of 203 Hg tracer

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksen, Dag Øistein; Tokheim, Lars-André; Eriksen, T.A.; Meyer, Julien; Qvenild, Carsten

    2005-01-01

    In manufacture of cement clinker, mercury is introduced in the cement kiln system via the fuels and as constituents in the raw materials, i.e., limestone, iron ore, etc. The permissible emission of Hg to air is very low (0.05 mg/Nm3) due to its toxicity. Thus, it is important to know how mercury distributes and behaves in the kiln system. The objective of the study was to measure the distribution of mercury in the kiln system, to measure the hold up time of Hg, to measure the portion...

  10. Study on Hongzhou kiln porcelains of successive dynasties by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    400 sherds were collected from Hongzhou Kiln covering 8 periods from Eastern Han to Late Tang Dynasty/the Five Dynasties and their bodies were analysed by NAA. The results show that the elemental contents in different samples are quite distinct, even for those in the same period. It means no single element can be used as 'fingerprint' to distinguish the period. The curves of the contents of Na, Rb, Ba and Fe varying with time are very similar, like 'U' shape. As a colorant element, the content of Fe is consistent with the color of the body. The higher content of Fe is, the more dark of the body is. The outcome of principal component analysis (PCA) indicates that most of the sherds can be classified into 5 groups: (1) Eastern Han and Eastern Wu; (2) Western Jin, Eastern Jin and Southern Dynasties; (3) Sui; (4) Early Tang and Middle Tang; (5) Late Tang and Five Dynasties. (authors)

  11. Combustion of solid alternative fuels in the cement kiln burner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Linda Kaare

    , and particle size and shape. A one-dimensional mathematical model of the rotary kiln flame is developed to evaluate the influence of fuel properties and combustion system parameters on the fuel burnout and flame temperature profile. Two alternative fuel cases are simulated; dried sewage sludge and refuse...... derived fuel firing. Firing sewage sludge or refused derived fuel with large particles and high moisture contents at conditions similar to a coal fired flame results in an elongated flame and a burnout time exceeding the available time in suspension. Fuel pretreatment, i.e. grinding and drying...... and applying O2 enrichment it is found that full conversion of the large alternative fuel particles may be reached. The simplified mathematical model may serve as a tool for predicting the effect of introducing new fuels on burnout behaviour, and flame properties such as flame length and gas temperature...

  12. Two chamber reaction furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaugher, Richard D.

    1998-05-05

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700.degree. and 800.degree. C.) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800.degree. to 950.degree. C. to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product.

  13. Mixing large and small particles in a pilot scale rotary kiln

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Rooma; Aniol, Rasmus Wochnik; Larsen, Morten Boberg;

    2011-01-01

    The mixing of solid alternative fuel particles in cement raw materials was studied experimentally by visual observation in a pilot scale rotary kiln. Fuel particles were placed on top of the raw material bed prior to the experiment. The percentage of particles visible above the bed as a function...... of time was evaluated with the bed predominantly in the rolling bed mode. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of fuel particle size and shape, fuel particle density, rotary kiln fill degree and rotational speed. Large fuel particles and low-density fuel particles appeared more on top.......Results can be up-scaled to industrial conditions in cement rotary kilns and show that even relatively large fuel particles will predominantly be covered by raw material after less than 30s in the rotary kiln. This affects the heating and combustion mechanisms for the fuel particles....

  14. Energy auditing and recovery for dry type cement rotary kiln systems - a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engin, T.; Ari, V. [University of Sakarya (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-03-01

    Cement production has been one of the most energy intensive industries in the world. In order to produce clinker, rotary kilns are widely used in cement plants. This paper deals with the energy audit analysis of a dry type rotary kiln system working in a cement plant in Turkey. The kiln has a capacity of 600 ton-clinker per day. It was found that about 40% of the total input energy was being lost through hot flue gas (19.15%), cooler stack (5.61%) and kiln shell (15.11% convection plus radiation). Some possible ways to recover the heat losses are also introduced and discussed. Findings showed that approximately 15.6% of the total input energy (4 MW) could be recovered. (author)

  15. Case study: improvement of performance of cement industry rotary kilns by using a solid radiotracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present report, residence time distribution (RTD) of the cement blended raw meal has been determined by the use of 7,4x108 Bq (20 mCi) of La 40 as a dust radioactive tracer in the chemical form of La2O3. Five scintillation detector were installed alongside the kiln. Analysis and interpretation of response curves were made to draw conclusions about the improvement of the rotary kiln performance

  16. Theoretical and experimental studies on combustion of alternative fuels in cement kilns

    OpenAIRE

    Axelsen, Ernst Petter

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis, the utilization of alternative fuels for NOx reduction by means of reburning and advanced reburning is sonsidered. Laboratory experiments, full-scale experiments and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations are the basis of the thesis.The goal of the work was to characterize alternative fuels used in cement kilns, with focus on the processes taking place in the precalciner of the cement kiln. To facilitate testing under controlled process conditons, a lab-scale circulatin...

  17. The Influence of the Supporting Wheel Deflection of Large-scale Rotary Kiln on Maximum Contact Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xuejun; Qiu Weiliang; Yuan Yincai; Li Ping

    2006-01-01

    The relation between the maximum contact stress ratio and deflection angle is derived from Hertz contact theory when the deflection of rotary kiln supporting wheel happens. According to the analysis of practical example, the maximum contact stress ratio within the deflection range of rotary kiln supporting wheel is listed. The contact stress will increase largely when rotary kiln supporting wheel deflects with little angle,which probably will result in accidents correlating to safety. This will provide theory conference for the design,the operating condition analysis and adjusting of the rotary kiln.

  18. Study on the property of the production for Fengdongyan kiln in Early Ming dynasty by INAA and EDXRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Huang, Y.; Sun, H. Y.; Yan, L. T.; Feng, S. L.; Xu, Q.; Feng, X. Q.

    2016-08-01

    A lot of official wares carved "Guan" or the dragon patterns were excavated on the strata of Ming dynasty of the Fengdongyan kiln site at Dayao County. The imperial porcelain was fired in Hongwu and Yongle eras. However, the emergence of this imperial porcelain has triggered academic debate about the property of Fengdongyan kiln in the Early Ming dynasty. Based on the differences of the official kiln management, some scholars have determined that the property of the production for this kiln was the civilian kiln. According to the historical textural records and typology, others preliminary confirmed that Fengdongyan kiln was the official kiln. In this paper, the elemental compositions of body and glaze in imperial and civilian porcelain are study by INAA and EDXRF for determining the property of the production for this kiln in Early Ming dynasty. After the processing of experimental data by geochemical analysis and principal component analysis, the result show that the raw materials for making body and glaze in imperial porcelain are similar with those of the civilian porcelain and the degrees of elutriation for body can be slightly different in HW-M period of Ming dynasty. The analytical results support the view that the Fengdongyan kiln is civilian not official.

  19. Prototype multiwire proportional chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    Chambers of this type were initially developed within the Alpha project (finally not approved). They were designed such to minimize the radiation length with a view to a mass spectrometer of high resolution meant to replace the Omega detector. The chambers were clearly forerunners for the (drift) chambers later built for R606 with the novel technique of crimping the wires. See also photo 7510039X.

  20. Analysis of elemental composition of porcelains unearthed from Waguantan kiln site by PIXE–RBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •We analyzed 61 unearthed porcelain shards in Yuan Dynasty by PIXE–RBS. •An electron gun was installed to solve the electric charge accumulations. •The factor analysis was performed for the element compositions. •The “exotic group” porcelain samples unearthed were produced locally. -- Abstract: A method combining proton-induced X-ray emission spectrometry (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) was used to determine the composition of 61 porcelain shards from the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368 A.D.) unearthed from the Waguantan kiln site at Tianzhu County in Guizhou Province, China. Based on our previous experimental setup, an electron gun device with a LaB6 crystal cathode was installed to solve the problem created when the incident proton beams generated electric charge accumulations on the surfaces of the insulating porcelain samples, which induced a large bremsstrahlung background. The use of the electron gun has largely eliminated the large bremsstrahlung background and has therefore improved the detection limits for elements, especially for trace elements, and made it possible to determine the origin of the porcelains based on the trace elements. Major and trace elemental compositions of the porcelain bodies and glazes measured by PIXE and RBS were analyzed by the factor analysis method. The factor analysis showed that a few pieces of porcelain with a style similar to the porcelain of the Longquan kiln among the unearthed porcelains from the Waguantan kiln site did not have obvious differences in elemental compositions from other remaining porcelains unearthed from the Waguantan kiln site, indicating that the pieces of unearthed porcelain with the Longquan kiln style did in fact belong to the product fired locally by imitating the model of the Longquan celadon with local raw materials. This result therefore indicated that the Longquan kiln technology that originated from the Five Dynasties (907–960 A.D.) had been

  1. Analysis of elemental composition of porcelains unearthed from Waguantan kiln site by PIXE-RBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z.; Zhang, K.; Xia, C. D.; Liu, M. T.; Zhu, J. J.; An, Z.; Bai, B.

    2015-03-01

    A method combining proton-induced X-ray emission spectrometry (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) was used to determine the composition of 61 porcelain shards from the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368 A.D.) unearthed from the Waguantan kiln site at Tianzhu County in Guizhou Province, China. Based on our previous experimental setup, an electron gun device with a LaB6 crystal cathode was installed to solve the problem created when the incident proton beams generated electric charge accumulations on the surfaces of the insulating porcelain samples, which induced a large bremsstrahlung background. The use of the electron gun has largely eliminated the large bremsstrahlung background and has therefore improved the detection limits for elements, especially for trace elements, and made it possible to determine the origin of the porcelains based on the trace elements. Major and trace elemental compositions of the porcelain bodies and glazes measured by PIXE and RBS were analyzed by the factor analysis method. The factor analysis showed that a few pieces of porcelain with a style similar to the porcelain of the Longquan kiln among the unearthed porcelains from the Waguantan kiln site did not have obvious differences in elemental compositions from other remaining porcelains unearthed from the Waguantan kiln site, indicating that the pieces of unearthed porcelain with the Longquan kiln style did in fact belong to the product fired locally by imitating the model of the Longquan celadon with local raw materials. This result therefore indicated that the Longquan kiln technology that originated from the Five Dynasties (907-960 A.D.) had been propagated to the Waguantan kiln site of Guizhou Province in the Yuan Dynasty.

  2. Gas phase dispersion in a small rotary kiln

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made of nonideal flow of gas in a rotary kiln reactor. A rotating tube 0.165 m in diameter by 2.17 m long, with internal lifting flights, was operated at room temperature. Rotational speeds from 2.0 to 7.0 rpm, air flow rates from 0.351 to 4.178 m3/h, and solid contents of 0.0, 5.1, and 15.3% of tube volume were studied. Residence time distribution of the gas was measured by means of the pulse injection technique using a helium tracer. A model was developed based on dispersive flow that exchanges with a deadwater region. Two parameters, a dispersion number describing bulk gas flow and an interchange factor describing exchange between the flow region and the gas trapped in the solids bed, were sufficient to correlate the data, but these parameters are sensitive to experimental error. The model is applicable to analysis of other flow systems, such as packed beds

  3. Carbon dioxide sequestration in cement kiln dust through mineral carbonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntzinger, Deborah N; Gierke, John S; Kawatra, S Komar; Eisele, Timothy C; Sutter, Lawrence L

    2009-03-15

    Carbon sequestration through the formation of carbonates is a potential means to reduce CO2 emissions. Alkaline industrial solid wastes typically have high mass fractions of reactive oxides that may not require preprocessing, making them an attractive source material for mineral carbonation The degree of mineral carbonation achievable in cement kiln dust (CKD) underambienttemperatures and pressures was examined through a series of batch and column experiments. The overall extent and potential mechanisms and rate behavior of the carbonation process were assessed through a complementary set of analytical and empirical methods, including mass change, thermal analysis, and X-ray diffraction. The carbonation reactions were carried out primarily through the reaction of CO2 with Ca(OH)2, and CaCO3 was observed as the predominant carbonation product. A sequestration extent of over 60% was observed within 8 h of reaction without any modifications to the waste. Sequestration appears to follow unreacted core model theory where reaction kinetics are controlled by a first-order rate constant at early times; however, as carbonation progresses, the kinetics of the reaction are attenuated by the extent of the reaction due to diffusion control, with the extent of conversion never reaching completion. PMID:19368202

  4. Target chambers for gammashpere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, M.P.; Falout, J.W.; Nardi, B.G. [and others

    1995-08-01

    One of our responsibilities for Gammasphere, was designing and constructing two target chambers and associated beamlines to be used with the spectrometer. The first chamber was used with the early implementation phase of Gammasphere, and consisted of two spun-Al hemispheres welded together giving a wall thickness of 0.063 inches and a diameter of 12 inches.

  5. High resolution drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High precision drift chambers capable of achieving less than or equal to 50 μm resolutions are discussed. In particular, we compare so called cool and hot gases, various charge collection geometries, several timing techniques and we also discuss some systematic problems. We also present what we would consider an ''ultimate'' design of the vertex chamber. 50 refs., 36 figs., 6 tabs

  6. CHAMBER OF COMMERCE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Experience Japan The Japanese Chamber of Commerce and Industry will further promote its Japan-experience program and seek cooperation with various Chinese institutions.Between early May and June 2007,the chamber organized a Chinese college student delegation to Japan with the support from its members in China.

  7. BEBC bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    Looking up into the interior of BEBC bubble chamber from the expansion cylinder. At the top of the chamber two fish-eye lenses are installed and three other fish-eye ports are blanked off. In the centre is a heat exchanger.

  8. CFD modeling using PDF approach for investigating the flame length in rotary kilns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elattar, H. F.; Specht, E.; Fouda, A.; Bin-Mahfouz, Abdullah S.

    2016-02-01

    Numerical simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are performed to investigate the flame length characteristics in rotary kilns using probability density function (PDF) approach. A commercial CFD package (ANSYS-Fluent) is employed for this objective. A 2-D axisymmetric model is applied to study the effect of both operating and geometric parameters of rotary kiln on the characteristics of the flame length. Three types of gaseous fuel are used in the present work; methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO) and biogas (50 % CH4 + 50 % CO2). Preliminary comparison study of 2-D modeling outputs of free jet flames with available experimental data is carried out to choose and validate the proper turbulence model for the present numerical simulations. The results showed that the excess air number, diameter of kiln air entrance, radiation modeling consideration and fuel type have remarkable effects on the flame length characteristics. Numerical correlations for the rotary kiln flame length are presented in terms of the studied kiln operating and geometric parameters within acceptable error.

  9. Study on ancient porcelain of Loulinpo Kiln Site by nuclear analysis technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaozhou Kiln located at Tongchuan of Shanxi Province has lasted continuous history of firing celadon porcelain from Tang Dynasty (618-907A.D.) to Yuan Dynasty (1234-1368A.D.), The firing technology has had important effect for celadon porcelain of many kilns in ancient China. In Jin Dynasty (1127-1234A.D.) and Yuan Dynasty, because of lacking of raw material resources, the central site of Yaozhou Kiln moved from Tongchuan to Lidipo, Shangdian and Chenlu area. Luolinpo site belongs to Yaozhou Kiln series and is one kiln of Shangdian area. The bowl sherds samples of Yuan dynasty stratum excavated in recent year. The glaze color is celadon, black, dark brown and dark reddish brown respectively. Ten pieces of sherds of each glaze color were selected. The main chemical compositions of theses samples were analyzed by XRF and the trace elemental contents were determined by NAA. The result shown that the content of Fe2O3 can decide the kind of glaze color will be. The concentration of CaO, Na2O and K2O can be used to explain the developing process of firing techniques. Except samples of dark brown glaze, the contents of Fe2O3 and CaO change in small range. The proportions of these main chemical compositions of the porcelain with glaze color of black, celadon and dark reddish brown have little variation. But it was very different form some samples of dark brown glaze.

  10. Socio-environmental Impacts Associated with Burning Alternative Fuels in Clinker Kilns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. B. Mainier

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The pollutants found in emissions from cement plants depend on the processes used and the operation of the clinker kilns. Another crucial aspect concerns the characteristics of raw materials and fuels. The intensive use of fuels in rotary kilns of cement plants and the increasing fuel diversification, including fuels derived from coal and oil, from a multitude of industrial waste and from biomass, charcoal and agricultural waste (sugarcane bagasse, rice husk, is increasing the possibilities of combinations or mixtures of different fuels, known as blends. Thus, there are socio-environmental impacts associated with the burning of alternative fuels in clinker kilns. In view of the growing trend of entrepreneurs who want to target the waste produced in their unit and of the owners of the cement plants who want to reduce their production costs by burning a waste with lower cost than conventional fuels, it is necessary to warn that a minimum level of environmental care should be followed regarding these decisions. It is necessary to monitor the points of emission from cement kilns and in the wider area influenced by the plant, in order to improve environmental quality. Laboratory studies of burning vulcanised rubber contaminated with arsenic simulate the burning of used tyres in cement clinker kilns producing SO2 and As2O3.

  11. The Development of the Clay Tobacco Pipe Kiln in the British Isles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Peacey

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1982 Allan Peacey published a study in the form of a synthesis of two chronologically separated kilns used in the production of clay tobacco pipes (Peacey 1982, 3-17. The aims of the present work are: ◦to improve upon this framework ◦to establish how these type of structures fit into the broader picture; to fill the gaps, before, between and after these cameo views ◦to improve understanding of the technology employed and see the roots from which such technology developed. The primary objective is to catalogue all relevant material know to exist in museum and private collections. It is hoped that by this means an understanding of the varied physical characteristics will lead to the establishment of object or function categories around which reports may be structured. Contemporary source documents are also examined to shed further light upon the likely function of the archaeological material. Among the results achieved are the compilation of an extensive catalogue of material associated with tobacco pipe kilns; the establishment of type series for pipe kiln furniture and furniture supplements; a proposed development sequence for pipe kiln muffles; a pattern of consistency in kiln design throughout the study area, and details of the methods used for stem tipping. Readers will be able to view the archaeological evidence as distribution maps, and will be able to explore other aspects of the data through the timeline and site catalogues.

  12. Application of the Hand-instrument of Measurement of Tyre Gap and Diameter in Cement Rotary Kiln

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This article is concerned with the cement rotary kiln, the hand-instrument of measurements of tyre gap and the outer diameter. The accuracy of measurements of tyre gap and diameter is less than ±1mm. The hand- instrument wins two patents in China. It has been applied to the measurement for 16 sets of cement rotary kiln in China.

  13. Analysis of bluish-white porcelain of Fanchang kiln in Anhui province by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The minor and trace elements in the bluish-white porcelain bodies of Fanchang kiln in different dynasties were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Multivariable statistical analysis of the experimental data was carried out by SPSS software. The results show that the contents of Yb, Ta, Hf and Th varied notably between early and middle North Song Dynasty. The chemical compositions of Fanchang porcelain bodies can be divided into three groups corresponding to Five Dynasties, early Northern Song and middle Northern Song. Combined with the results of major elements analysis, we think that the raw materials of Fanchang kiln varied in different periods and the using up of fine raw materials was the main reason of Fanchang kiln's decline. (authors)

  14. 邢窑的艺术成就%The Artistic Achievement of Xing Kiln

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕翼飞; 毕南海

    2013-01-01

    Xing kiln is the important kiln in China’s kiln history. It burns white, bright and smooth porcelain Production. It opens the door to firing white porcelain. The production has broad shape, excellent decorations and deep rich cultural elements. It is a wonderful art form in Chinese Porcelain history.%邢窑是我国历史上重要的烧瓷窑场。它烧造出洁白莹润的白瓷制品,开创了我国烧造白瓷的先河。其器物造型气势博大、装饰技艺精湛,富含深邃的文化元素,是我国陶瓷百花园中的一朵奇葩。

  15. [Chemical composition and chromaticity characteristic of Jilan glaze of Ming and Qing official kilns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun-ming; Zhang, Mao-lin; Li, Qi-jiang; Wu, Juan; Quan, Kui-shan; Cao, Jian-wen

    2012-08-01

    Color glazes of Ming and Qing official kilns are excellent representatives of the famous ancient Chinese porcelains. The study of official ware with Jilan glaze has been an important topic. But it made slow progress due to the rarity of samples with strict production management and using system. The recipes, chemical composition and chromaticity characteristic of the Jilan samples excavated from official kilns in the Ming and Qing dynasties were first discussed by systematical testing with the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and color difference meter. The results showed that the porcelain stone content in Jilan bodies of official kiln in the Ming dynasty is higher than the samples of the Qing dynasty. The manganese content in Jilan glazes of the Ming dynasty is higher than that in the Qing dynasty, while the glaze ash addition and the lightness value in the glaze are opposite. PMID:23156793

  16. Devolatilization and Combustion of Tire Rubber and Pine Wood in a Pilot Scale Rotary Kiln

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders R.; Larsen, Morten B.; Glarborg, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    of industrial waste. In this study, devolatilization and combustion of large particles of tire rubber and pine wood with equivalent diameters of 10 mm to 26 mm are investigated in a pilot scale rotary kiln able to simulate the process conditions present in the material inlet end of cement rotary kilns....... Investigated temperatures varied from 700 to 1000 °C, and oxygen concentrations varied from 5% v/v O2 to 21% v/v O2. The devolatilization time of tire rubber and pine wood were found to mainly depend on temperature and particle size and were within 40 to 170 s. Rate limiting parameters for char oxidation...... of tire rubber and pine wood were found to be bulk oxygen concentration, mass transfer rate of oxygen, raw material fill degree, raw material characteristics, and temperature. Kiln rotational speed only had a minor effect on the char oxidation when the raw material bed was in a rolling motion. Initial...

  17. OPAL Jet Chamber Prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    OPAL was one of the four experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 - 2000. OPAL's central tracking system consists of (in order of increasing radius) a silicon microvertex detector, a vertex detector, a jet chamber, and z-chambers. All the tracking detectors work by observing the ionization of atoms by charged particles passing by: when the atoms are ionized, electrons are knocked out of their atomic orbitals, and are then able to move freely in the detector. These ionization electrons are detected in the dirfferent parts of the tracking system. This piece is a prototype of the jet chambers

  18. Study on trace element of Yue ware unearthed at different kiln sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴隽; 李家治; 郭景坤; 徐锴; 陈宝林

    1999-01-01

    The contents of trace element of Yue ware excavated in Shaoxing, Shanglinhu, Shangyu kiln sites and Hangzhou palace were analyzed by NAA technique. The data of trace element compositions were treated by statistical analysis. It is found that the sources of raw materials used in Shaoxing, Shanglinhu, Shangyu kiln sites are different and stable. Especially the discriminant function predicted for porcelain bodies provides high discriminatory power according to production site. It shows that Yue ware specimens excavated in Hangzhou palace were fired in Shanglinhu. It indicates the special function of trace element in the studies on site identification.

  19. Energy recovery from wastes : experience with solid alternative fuels combustion in a precalciner cement kiln

    OpenAIRE

    Tokheim, Lars-André; Gautestad, Tor; Axelsen, Ernst Petter; Bjerketvedt, Dag

    2001-01-01

    Today virtually all cement clinker burning processes take place in rotary kilns. A mixture of calcareous and argilaceous materials is heated to a temperature of about 1450 °C. In this process decarbonation followed by partial fusion occurs, and nodules of so-called clinker are formed. The cooled clinker is mixed with a few percent of gypsum, and ground into a fine meal – cement. The most modern cement kilns are equipped with a precalciner, in which most of the calcium carbonate...

  20. Toxic Test Chambers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Hazardous material test facility Both facilities have 16,000 cubic foot chambers, equipped with 5000 CFM CBR filter systems with an air change...

  1. ALICE Time Projection Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Lippmann, C

    2013-01-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main device in the ALICE 'central barrel' for the tracking and identification (PID) of charged particles. It has to cope with unprecedented densities of charges particles.

  2. Calorimetry with flash chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flash chambers used in the Fermilab E594 neutrino experiment are described, and their use in a calorimeter discussed. Resolutions obtained with a calibration beam are presented, and comments made about the pattern recognition capabilities of the calorimeter

  3. Vacuum chamber 'bicone'

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    This chamber is now in the National Museum of History and Technology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA, where it was exposed in an exhibit on the History of High Energy Accelerators (1977).

  4. Bubble chamber: antiproton annihilation

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    These images show real particle tracks from the annihilation of an antiproton in the 80 cm Saclay liquid hydrogen bubble chamber. A negative kaon and a neutral kaon are produced in this process, as well as a positive pion. The invention of bubble chambers in 1952 revolutionized the field of particle physics, allowing real tracks left by particles to be seen and photographed by expanding liquid that had been heated to boiling point.

  5. A Song Period Kiln-site at Chalu in Ninghai County, Zhejiang%浙江宁海县岔路宋代窑址

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁波市文物考古研究所; 宁海县文管会办公室

    2003-01-01

    In 1998, a kiln-site of the Song period was revealed at Chalu Town in Ninghai County, Zhejiang Province, in an excavation area of about 1,000 sq m. The vestiges discovered include a section of kiln-foundations, two sections of stone walls and six Ming period tombs. The kiln-site yielded a large amount of porcelain and a variety of kiln implements. The former belongs mainly to the type of bowl; the latter are for saggering, spurring and separating. The porcelain is largely coated with celadon glaze and decorated chiefly with incised, impressed and openworked dragon head and sea wave design. Some products and kiln implements bear inscriptions. The kiln must have functioned in the middle and late Northern Song period and belonged to the Yue system. The kiln implements unearthed in great numbers constitute valuable material to the study of firing technology.

  6. Energy efficiency of an innovative vertical axial rotary kiln for pottery production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés Forero Núñez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Colombia is a remarkablecoal producer and exporter worldwide; several sectors use this resource for electricity and thermal energy production. Among them, the ceramic industry consumed 118,590 tons in 2011. Most of the pottery production companies in this country arelocated in rural areas and use old coal fired kilns with low energy efficiencies, generating environmental effects to the population nearby. Despite of the importance of these industries to the small rural economies, the government agencies have closed them due to the lack of development on cleaner devices. This work aims to analyze the thermal behavior of an innovative vertical axial rotary kiln for pottery production, and the energy efficiency varying operation mode. The kiln operated during seven hours needed three hours for stabilizing sintering temperature at 800°C. The mean temperatures of the loading, drying, sintering and cooling stage were 204°C, 223°C, 809°C and 321°C respectively. The convection and radiation heat losses were 15 % whereas the flue gas heat losses 18 %.During continuous operation, the kiln energy efficiency was about 60 %. This design proven to reach the temperatures required in the firing stage of the pottery production; moreover, a gas fuel was fuelled making the process cleaner and more efficient than coal-fired systems.

  7. The Earliest Chinese Proto-Porcelain Excavated from Kiln Sites: An Elemental Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Li

    Full Text Available In June 2012, the Piaoshan kiln site was excavated in Huzhou, Zhejiang Province, which hitherto proved to be the earliest known Chinese proto-porcelain kiln. Judging from the decorative patterns of unearthed impressed stoneware and proto-porcelain sherds, the site was determined to date to the late Xia (c. 2070-c. 1600 BC, the first dynasty of China. Here, we report on proton-induced X-ray emission analyses of 118 proto-porcelain and 35 impressed stoneware sherds from Piaoshan and five subsequent kiln sites in the vicinity. Using principal components analysis on the major chemical compositions, we reveal the relationships between impressed stoneware and proto-porcelain samples from the six kiln sites. The sherds from different sites have distinctive chemical profiles. The results indicate that the raw materials were procured locally. We find a developmental tendency for early glazes towards mature calcium-based glaze. It is most likely that woody plant ashes with increased calcia-potash ratios were applied to the formula.

  8. The Earliest Chinese Proto-Porcelain Excavated from Kiln Sites: An Elemental Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Zhang, Bin; Cheng, Huansheng; Zheng, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    In June 2012, the Piaoshan kiln site was excavated in Huzhou, Zhejiang Province, which hitherto proved to be the earliest known Chinese proto-porcelain kiln. Judging from the decorative patterns of unearthed impressed stoneware and proto-porcelain sherds, the site was determined to date to the late Xia (c. 2070-c. 1600 BC), the first dynasty of China. Here, we report on proton-induced X-ray emission analyses of 118 proto-porcelain and 35 impressed stoneware sherds from Piaoshan and five subsequent kiln sites in the vicinity. Using principal components analysis on the major chemical compositions, we reveal the relationships between impressed stoneware and proto-porcelain samples from the six kiln sites. The sherds from different sites have distinctive chemical profiles. The results indicate that the raw materials were procured locally. We find a developmental tendency for early glazes towards mature calcium-based glaze. It is most likely that woody plant ashes with increased calcia-potash ratios were applied to the formula. PMID:26535583

  9. Provenance and indirect dating study on Hongzhou Kiln porcelains by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongzhou Kiln is one of the six leading celadon kilns in Tang Dynasty and plays an important role in the history of Chinese ceramics for its diverse decoration styles and innovative technology. Archaeologists divided Hongzhou Kiln production into 8 periods, i.e. Eastern Han and Eastern Wu, Western Jin, Eastern Jin, Southern Dynasties, Sui, Early Tang, Middle Tang, Late Tang and Five Dynasties. Up to now, 26 kiln sites have been discovered and excavated. A study on the chemical composition of the porcelains of different periods and provenance will help to know the developing process of Hongzhou celadon such as variation of raw materials, recipes, manufacturing technology, causes of prosperity and decline, etc. Over 200 sherds were collected and their body samples were analyzed by INAA. The compositional differences between samples with the same period but different provenance were observed. The contents of Na, Rb, Ba, Fe, Th, U, etc were found to be different among samples from different periods, which implies they may be used to identify the manufacturing age. The analytical data were further processed by principal component analysis (PCA). The statistical results show that all the sherds can be classified into 5 groups, (1) Eastern Han and Eastern Wu; (2) Western Jin, Eastern Jin and Southern Dynasties; (3) Sui; (4) Early Tang and Middle Tang; (5) Late Tang and Five Dynasties.

  10. Experimental and theoretical investigation on unburned coal char burnout in a pilot-scale rotary kiln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federico Cangialosi; Francesco Di Canio; Gianluca Intini; Michele Notarnicola; Lorenzo Liberti; Giulio Belz; Pompilio Caramuscio [Technical University of Bari, Taranto (Italy). Department of Environmental Engineering and Sustainable Development

    2006-11-15

    Oxidation reactivity studies are imperative for improving carbon re-burn technologies and valuing the heat content of unburned carbon within coal combustion ashes. Non-isothermal, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to examine the oxidation kinetics of unburned carbon in coal combustion fly ashes having different particle size distributions; TGA results were related to combustion efficiencies as measured in a bench-scale rotary kiln. The activation energy and pre-exponential factor were determined for the chemically-controlled reaction regime; the transition temperatures between chemically-controlled and partially diffusion-controlled combustion regimes were obtained for unburned carbon particles of different sizes. After the oxidation reaction rates were evaluated, the residence time distribution (RTD) of fly ashes in the rotary kiln were experimentally measured and the mean residence times related to process parameters, including the rotating velocity and kiln inclination. By comparing these results with an advective-dispersive model, the axial dispersion coefficient of fly ashes was determined. The reaction rates obtained by thermal analyses and the RTDs were used to predict combustion efficiencies within the kiln and oxidation conditions of unburned carbon using various processing options. 21 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Characterization, stability, and plant effects of kiln-produced wheat straw biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, A; Knoth de Zarruk, K; Steffens, M; Rasse, D P

    2013-01-01

    Biochar is a promising technology for improving soil quality and sequestering C in the long term. Although modern pyrolysis technologies are being developed, kiln technologies often remain the most accessible method for biochar production. The objective of the present study was to assess biochar characteristics, stability in soil, and agronomic effects of a kiln-produced biochar. Wheat-straw biochar was produced in a double-barrel kiln and analyzed by solid-state C nuclear magneticresonance spectroscopy. Two experiments were conducted with biochar mixed into an Ap-horizon sandy loam. In the first experiment, CO efflux was monitored for 3 mo in plant-free soil columns across four treatments (0, 10, 50, and 100 Mg biochar ha). In the second experiment, ryegrass was grown in pots having received 17 and 54 Mg biochar ha combined with four N rates from 144 to 288 kg N ha. Our kiln method generated a wheat-straw biochar with carbon content composed of 92% of aromatic structures. Our results suggest that the biochar lost impact on ryegrass yields. PMID:23673835

  12. Nitric oxide formation in an iron oxide pellet rotary kiln furnace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R A

    1998-01-01

    A one-dimensional numerical model was developed to simulate the effects of heat and mass transfer on the formation of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) in a rotary kiln furnace for iron oxide pellet induration. The modeled kiln has a length-to-diameter ratio of approximately seven. The principal mechanism of heat transfer is radiation from the flame, which was described by the net radiation method. The well known Zeldovich mechanism was used to predict thermal NOx generation. Temperature fluctuations in the vicinity of the flame were estimated with a clipped Gaussian probability density function. The thermal energy and mass balance model equations were solved numerically. The model is capable of predicting temperature profiles and NOx production rates in agreement with observed plant performance. The model was used to explore the effects of process changes on the total NOx formation in the kiln. It was concluded that the gas temperature as well as the partial pressure of oxygen in the process gases controls the rate of NOx formation. Lowering the temperature of the kiln gases by increasing the secondary air flow rates requires simultaneously decreasing the pellet production rate in order to maintain the pellet temperatures needed for blast furnace conditions. PMID:15655997

  13. Beijing Bianyifang,No.1 of the 600-year "Kiln-roast Duck"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Wei

    2006-01-01

    @@ The brand of Bianyifang was established in A.D.1416 (Yongle 14th, Ming dynasty), 590 years ago. It is one of the oldest restaurants in China, famous for its roast duck. Its unique method of kiln-roasting has been its trademark all throughout its history.

  14. Test burn with PCB-oil in a local cement kiln in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstensen, Kåre Helge; Mubarak, Azeez M; Gunadasa, H N; Wijagunasekara, Bandulasoma; Ratnayake, Niranjanie; Alwis, Ajith De; Fernando, Jayavilal

    2010-02-01

    The production and use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have ceased and most developed countries have disposed off their stocks long time ago. PCBs can however still be found in the environment and one important source is accumulated stocks in developing countries. Sound treatment of PCB is costly and most developing countries do not have dedicated hazardous waste incinerators or non-combustion technologies available for domestic disposal and can usually not afford export. High temperature cement kilns have been used to treat organic hazardous wastes in developed countries for decades and shown to constitute a sound option if well managed and controlled. In contrast to dedicated hazardous waste incinerators and other treatment techniques, cement kilns are already in place in virtually every country and may constitute a treatment option. The objective of this study was therefore to carry out the first test burn with PCB-oil in a developing country cement kiln and to assess its feasibility and destruction performance. The 3 d test burn demonstrated that the Sri Lankan cement kiln was able to destroy PCB in an irreversible and environmental sound manner without causing any new formation of PCDD/PCDF or HCB. The destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) was better than 99.9999% at the highest PCB feeding rate. PMID:20004933

  15. Dynamic measurement of mercury adsorption and oxidation on activated carbon in simulated cement kiln flue gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Anker Degn; Windelin, Christian;

    2012-01-01

    of the sulfite converter is short and typically within 2min. Dynamic mercury adsorption and oxidation tests on commercial activated carbons Darco Hg and HOK standard were performed at 150°C using simulated cement kiln gas and a fixed bed reactor system. It is shown that the converter and analyzer system...

  16. Effect of kilning and milling on the dough-making properties of oat flour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Londono, D.M.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Visser, R.G.F.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Hamer, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    Oats are mostly used for porridges, flakes, and cereal breakfast. The current oat kilning and milling methods are suited for these purposes. Bread-making applications have been explored, but the bread quality results are far from optimal. The goals of this study were to determine whether infrared (I

  17. SO2 Release as a Consequence of Alternative Fuel Combustion in Cement Rotary Kiln Inlets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortada Mut, Maria del Mar; Nørskov, Linda Kaare; Glarborg, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    The combustion of alternative fuels in direct contact with the bed material of the rotary kiln may cause local reducing conditions and, subsequently, decomposition of sulfates from cement raw materials, increasing the SO2 concentration in the gas phase. The decomposition of sulfates increases...

  18. Archaeomagnetic dating in Greece: new directional results from two contemporaneous kilns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tema, Evdokia

    2013-04-01

    Detailed archaeomagnetic study was carried out on a ceramic workshop excavated at Kato Achaia (Greece). Two ancient circular brick kilns were discovered during the works for the construction of a house at Parodos Papaflessa Street, in the center of Kato Achaia village. According to archaeological evidence, both kilns were part of a bigger ceramic workshop, probably used for the production of bricks or ceramics. Systematic archaeomagnetic sampling was carried out collecting 9 brick samples from the first kiln (KL3) and 12 brick samples from the second kiln (KL5). All samples were independently oriented in situ using a magnetic compass and an inclinometer. Systematic magnetic measurements have been carried out in order to determine the main magnetic carrier of the samples and to check their thermal stability. Isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) experiments pointed to magnetite and/or Ti-magnetite as the main magnetic minerals in most of the samples. These results are also confirmed by the thermal demagnetization of the three IRM components curves that in almost all cases show the dominance of the magnetically soft fraction (Hellenistic times. The new directional data together the most reliable archaeodirectional data from Greece previously published show that the directional secular variation of the Earth's magnetic field in Greece is well described for the 1600-1200 BC and 400 BC- 400 AD time periods while for other periods more reliable data are still necessary in order to guarantee reliable archaeomagnetic dating.

  19. Analysis of elemental composition of porcelains unearthed from Waguantan kiln site by PIXE–RBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Z. [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Zhang, K. [School of History and Culture, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Xia, C.D.; Liu, M.T.; Zhu, J.J. [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); An, Z., E-mail: anzhu@scu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Bai, B., E-mail: baibin@scu.edu.cn [School of History and Culture, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2015-03-01

    Highlights: •We analyzed 61 unearthed porcelain shards in Yuan Dynasty by PIXE–RBS. •An electron gun was installed to solve the electric charge accumulations. •The factor analysis was performed for the element compositions. •The “exotic group” porcelain samples unearthed were produced locally. -- Abstract: A method combining proton-induced X-ray emission spectrometry (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) was used to determine the composition of 61 porcelain shards from the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368 A.D.) unearthed from the Waguantan kiln site at Tianzhu County in Guizhou Province, China. Based on our previous experimental setup, an electron gun device with a LaB{sub 6} crystal cathode was installed to solve the problem created when the incident proton beams generated electric charge accumulations on the surfaces of the insulating porcelain samples, which induced a large bremsstrahlung background. The use of the electron gun has largely eliminated the large bremsstrahlung background and has therefore improved the detection limits for elements, especially for trace elements, and made it possible to determine the origin of the porcelains based on the trace elements. Major and trace elemental compositions of the porcelain bodies and glazes measured by PIXE and RBS were analyzed by the factor analysis method. The factor analysis showed that a few pieces of porcelain with a style similar to the porcelain of the Longquan kiln among the unearthed porcelains from the Waguantan kiln site did not have obvious differences in elemental compositions from other remaining porcelains unearthed from the Waguantan kiln site, indicating that the pieces of unearthed porcelain with the Longquan kiln style did in fact belong to the product fired locally by imitating the model of the Longquan celadon with local raw materials. This result therefore indicated that the Longquan kiln technology that originated from the Five Dynasties (907–960 A.D.) had been

  20. Assessment of macro and micro nutrients around brick kilns agricultural environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Halim Farhad Sikder

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Brick kiln is well known as one of the main sources of air pollution; however, the pollutants produced from it do not remain in the air, they ultimately fall down to the soil and pollute the surroundings, therefore, this study was carried out to assess the status of macro (N, P, K and S and micro nutrients (Fe, Mn and Zn, Cu in the agricultural environment near the brick kilns of Young Brahmaputra and Jamuna Floodplain soils. Composite soil and plant samples were collected from four distances such as 250 m, 500 m, 1000 m, and 1500 m in three different sites. Sulphur (2352–3378 mg kg−1, Zn (86–156 mg kg−1 and Cu (24.7–46.9 mg kg−1 are found in the elevated levels near brick kiln soils that is released due to burning of poor quality coal and fire woods. The alarming news is that plant uptake of S and micro nutrients in the nearest areas of the brick kilns are significantly higher than the areas far from the brick production and their concentration ranges from 23 mg kg−1 to 101 mg kg−1 for Zn, 10–41 mg kg−1 for Cu, 35–1309 mg kg−1 for Fe, 26–126 mg kg−1 for Mn and 2590–mg kg−1 for S. Data indicates both soil and plant received maximum amount of micronutrients and S concentrations within 500–1000 m distances from brick kilns. Iron and Mn concentrations vary within a permissible limit but the plant uptake is high. Nitrogen concentrations is increasing with the distance from the brick kilns in both soils and plants but no definite pattern of P and K accumulation was found. Research suggested avoiding agricultural practice nearby brick kiln soils due to micronutrient contamination in order to preserve adjoined agricultural environment.

  1. Study of provenance properties on ancient porcelain of Yue Kiln at Si-long-kou with NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese ancient porcelain history has lasted about three thousands years from Shang Dynasty (1100∼1600 BC). A large amount of ancient porcelain sherds with accuracy provenance and ages were excavated from a lot of kiln sites in China. Archaeologists and ceramic experts have recognized and researched it with excavated stratum, utensil shape, body quality, glaze color and painting pattern. However, the appearance characteristic of some ancient porcelain manufactured in different kilns is similar. Therefore, it is still difficult to identify the provenance and ages of the samples excavated from some sites using traditional methods. Up, to now, many problems of Chinese ancient porcelain are confused for archaeologist and collecting experts. The elemental composition of ancient porcelain shows certain information of provenance and age. Especially, the sorts and contents of the elements in porcelain didn't change, so it is very useful to determine the provenance of ancient porcelain with elemental composition characteristics. Provenance characteristic is the important scientific information to identify ancient porcelain wares excavated from sites and graves. The porcelain samples of Si-Long-Kou Yue kiln in Zhejiang Province of china have been analyzed with NAA in this paper. The provenance characteristic was compared with it of Hong-Zhou kiln of Jiang-Xi Province and Yao-Zhou kiln of Shan-Xi Province. The experimental data were studied with statistic methods. The results show that the chemical compositions of porcelain body samples for three kilns were different. The difference was been able identified. The porcelain body materials of both Si-Long-Kou Yue kiln and Hong-Zhou kiln of Jiang-Xi were similar. The samples of Yao-Zhou kiln in north of China existed obvious difference.

  2. Automated Electrostatics Environmental Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Carlos; Lewis, Dean C.; Buchanan, Randy K.; Buchanan, Aubri

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Electrostatics Chamber (MEC) is an environmental chamber designed primarily to create atmospheric conditions like those at the surface of Mars to support experiments on electrostatic effects in the Martian environment. The chamber is equipped with a vacuum system, a cryogenic cooling system, an atmospheric-gas replenishing and analysis system, and a computerized control system that can be programmed by the user and that provides both automation and options for manual control. The control system can be set to maintain steady Mars-like conditions or to impose temperature and pressure variations of a Mars diurnal cycle at any given season and latitude. In addition, the MEC can be used in other areas of research because it can create steady or varying atmospheric conditions anywhere within the wide temperature, pressure, and composition ranges between the extremes of Mars-like and Earth-like conditions.

  3. [Chemical composition and chromaticity characteristic of purple-gold glaze of Jingdezhen imperial kiln].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun-Ming; Li, Qi-Jiang; Zhang, Mao-Lin; Ding, Yin-Zhong; Cao, Jian-Wen; Liu, Xiao-Jing

    2014-03-01

    Color glaze is one of the four famous traditional ceramics of Jingdezhen, especially for the products from Ming and Qing Dynasties' official kilns which have rich connotation of technology and culture. The chemical composition and chromaticity characteristic of glaze and body of purple-gold glaze samples from Jingdezhen Ming and Qing Dynasties' official kilns were analyzed by energy dispersive X ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and colorimeter. Preliminary study on the composition, formula and chromaticity characteristic of glaze of purple-gold glaze samples of different period was carried out and the intrinsic causes of ifferences were discussed. The result shows that the concentration of magnesium and calcium in purple-gold glaze is different from the other glazes in Jingdezhen in the same time, probably due to the addition of auburn or brown limestone which is rich in magnesium. The purple-gold glaze sample of Ming Dynasty is darker chiefly because the concentration of magnesium and calcium is higher than the sample of Ming Dynasty which led to iron crystal separated, reducing the brightness and glossiness of glaze. In addition, the body of purple-gold glaze samples from Jingdezhen Ming and Qing Dynasties' official kilns has the characteristics of high silicon and low aluminum and the molar ratio of silicon to aluminum of samples from Ming Dynasty to Qing Dynasty declined, showing that the concentration of kaolin of sample's body of Ming dynasty was increased. The result of this experiment fill deficiency in the ceramic science and technology research in our country about purple-gold glaze from Ming and Qing Dynasties' official kilns and provides scientific material for comprehensive understanding of porcelain marking technology and intrinsic value of Jingdezhen official kiln. PMID:25208422

  4. Occupational Health Hazards of Women Working in Brick Kiln and Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G Vaidya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In brick kiln and construction industry the exposure to carbon monoxide and silica dust is the most common occupational hazard to the workers in these industries. A study on occupational health hazards of working women in these two unorganized sectors was undertaken by Lokmanya Medical Research Centre. Objectives: To study the effect of work site environment on the health of the women working in brick kiln and construction industry. An attempt was also made to study the seasonal changes in the concentration of carbon monoxide and dust at the worksite. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the working women (age 18-40 years at brick kilns and construction sites during summer and winter season. They were examined primarily to assess the effect of working environment on health. Gasteck Detector Pump of model 800 and air sampling instrument (SKC Air Check–52 were used to measure concentration of carbon monoxide and dust in the air respectively. Results: There were 66% of women who were in the age group of 18-40 years and most of them (94% were married. At brick kiln sites, average CO exposure was 62.8 ppm and 55.5 ppm and average dust exposure was 3 3 146.1 mg/m and 91.4 mg/m in summer and winter season respectively.At construction sites, average dust exposure was 41.5 ppm and 90.8 ppm in summer and winter. Conclusion: Both exposure to CO and dust were more in summer than in winter in brick kiln industry whereas in construction industry the exposure to dust was more in winter season. A high level of morbidity in the form of headache, bodyache, problems with vision, cough and breathlessness were observed in both industries. It is strongly recommended to take pollution control measures.

  5. Effects of bypass system on PCDD/F emission and chlorine circulation in cement kilns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Ming-Xiu; Fu, Jianying; Chen, Tong; Li, Yeqing; Zhang, Jiang; Li, Xiao-Dong; Yan, Jian-Hua; Buekens, Alfons

    2016-10-01

    A bypass at the kiln inlet allows the effective reduction of alkali chloride cycles and thus perhaps affects the emission of PCDD/Fs. Effects of bypass system on PCDD/F emission and chlorine circulation were studied in two typical dry cement kilns with 5000 ton/day clinker capacity in China and named CK1 and CK2, respectively. Firstly, the emission level of PCDD/Fs with the operation of bypass system was estimated in CK1, to certify that bypass system has a perfect adaption to the cement kiln regarding the PCDD/F emission even with the refuse derived fuel (RDF) as the replacement of fuel. On the other hand, the operating conditions in the CK2 were scrutinised by monitoring the concentrations of SO2, NH3 and HCl. In addition, the characteristics of raw meal, clinker, bag filter ash and bypass ash were also investigated by Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS), metal and chlorine analysis. The balance of chlorine showed that 18 % of the possible accumulated chlorine could be ejected from the cement kiln system when 2 % of kiln exhaust gas was extracted. Furthermore, the emission level of PCDD/Fs in the main flue gas also decreased from 0.037 ± 0.035 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3) to 0.019 ± 0.007 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3) with a reduction efficiency of 48.2 %. Most importantly, PCDD/F emission from the bypass system was proven to have rather minor effect on the total emission factor. The congener distributions of PCDD/Fs were also analysed in the flue gas and fly ash, before and after application of bypass system, to find cues to the formation mechanism.

  6. 试论观台金代磁州窑%On the Cizhou Kilns of the Jin Period at Guantai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张子英

    2001-01-01

    The author challenges the traditional argument that the Cizhou Kilns in Cizhou reached the peak of development during the Song dynasty. Based on ancient texts, agriculture and craft production became highly developed during te Jin dynasty, and archaeologists have found abundant ceramic products of the Cizhou Kilns dating to the Jin. These ceramics were various in type and elegant in style, and the production techniques were as good as those of the Song. The author, therefore, suggests that production of the Cizhou Kilns reached the highest level during the period of Shizong and Zhangzong in the Jin dynasy.

  7. micro strip gas chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    About 16 000 Micro Strip Gas Chambers like this one will be used in the CMS tracking detector. They will measure the tracks of charged particles to a hundredth of a millimetre precision in the region near the collision point where the density of particles is very high. Each chamber is filled with a gas mixture of argon and dimethyl ether. Charged particles passing through ionise the gas, knocking out electrons which are collected on the aluminium strips visible under the microscope. Such detectors are being used in radiography. They give higher resolution imaging and reduce the required dose of radiation.

  8. Heavy liquid bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1965-01-01

    The CERN Heavy liquid bubble chamber being installed in the north experimental hall at the PS. On the left, the 1180 litre body; in the centre the magnet, which can produce a field of 26 800 gauss; on the right the expansion mechanism.

  9. Wire chamber conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet contains program and the abstracts of the papers presented at the conference, most of them dealing with performance testing of various types of wire chambers. The publication of proceedings is planned as a special issue of 'Nuclear instruments and methods' later on. All abstracts are in English. An author index for the book of abstracts is given. (A.N.)

  10. Drift chamber detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers is presented. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysied, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author)

  11. LEP vacuum chamber, prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    Final prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber, see 8305170 for more details. Here we see the strips of the NEG pump, providing "distributed pumping". The strips are made from a Zr-Ti-Fe alloy. By passing an electrical current, they were heated to 700 deg C.

  12. OPAL Muon Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    OPAL was one of the 4 experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 to 2000. This is a slice of the outermost layer of OPAL : the muon chambers. This outside layer detects particles which are not stopped by the previous layers. These are mostly muons.

  13. LEP Vacuum Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This is a cut-out of a LEP vacuum chamber for dipole magnets showing the beam channel and the pumping channel with the getter (NEG) strip and its insulating supports. A water pipe connected to the cooling channel can also be seen at the back.The lead radiation shield lining is also shown. See also 8305563X.

  14. Scanning bubble chamber pictures

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    These were taken at the 2 m hydrogen bubble chamber. The photo shows an early Shiva system where the pre-measurements needed to qualify the event were done manually (cf photo 7408136X). The scanning tables were located in bld. 12. Gilberte Saulmier sits on foreground, Inge Arents at centre.

  15. The effect of alternative fuel combustion in the cement kiln main burner on production capacity and improvement with oxygen enrichment.

    OpenAIRE

    Ariyaratne, W. K. Hiromi; Melaaen, Morten Christian; Tokheim, Lars-André

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical model based on a mass and energy balance for the combustion in a cement rotary kiln was developed. The model was used to investigate the impact of replacing about 45 % of the primary coal energy by different alternative fuels. Refuse derived fuel, waste wood, solid hazardous waste and liquid hazardous waste were used in the modeling. The results showed that in order to keep the kiln temperature unchanged, and thereby maintain the required clinker quality, the production capa...

  16. Impact of ancient charcoal kilns on chemical properties of several forest soils after 2 centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufey, Joseph; Hardy, Brieuc; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Pyrogenic carbon plays a major role in soil biogeochemical processes and carbon budgets. Until the early 19th century, charcoal was the unique combustible used for iron metallurgy in Wallonia (Belgium). Traditional charcoal kilns were built directly in the forest: wood logs were piled into a mound and isolated from air oxygen with a covering of vegetation residues and soil before setting fire, inducing wood pyrolysis. Nowadays, ancient wood-charring platforms are still easy to identify on the forest floor as heightened domes of 10 meters in diameter characterized by a very dark topsoil horizon containing charcoal dust and fragments. Our goal is to assess the effects of wood charring at mound kiln sites on the properties of various forest soil types in Wallonia (Belgium), after two centuries. We sampled soil by horizon in 18 ancient kiln sites to 1.20 meter depth. The adjacent charcoal-unaffected soils were sampled the same way. We also collected recent charcoal fragments and topsoil samples from a still active charcoal kiln located close to Dole (France) to apprehend the evolution of soil properties over time. The pH, total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content, available phosphorus (Pav), cation exchange capacity at pH 7 (CEC), exchangeable cations (Ca++, Mg++, K+, Na+) and loss on ignition at 550°C (LI550) were measured on each soil sample. We separated the soil profiles in 5 groups based on the nature of soil substrate and pedogenesis for interpretation of the results. We show that the total carbon stock is significantly increased at kiln sites due to higher C concentrations and greater depth of the organo-mineral horizon. The C/N ratio in charcoal-enriched soil horizons is significantly higher than in the neighboring reference soils but clearly attenuated compared to pure wood-charcoal fragments. The CEC is higher in the charcoal-enriched soil horizons, not only due to higher C concentrations but also to increased CEC by carbon unit at kiln sites. The high

  17. 山东古代烧瓷窑炉结构分析%An analysis of the Structure of Ancient Porcelain-firing Kilns in Shandong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦彧

    2002-01-01

    The ancient porcelain-firing kilns of Shandong belonged to the system of dome kilns in North China. The present paper analyzes the 24 ancient kilns discovered in this region as to their shape in plan, internal structure and changes in fuel. It divides them into five types, sums up the features of each type, and points out their advantages and shortcomings, as well as technical changes. In the light of difference in fuel, the author assigned these types to two stages respectively. At the earlier stage, i.e. from Type I to type III, the fuel was firewood, and the third type of kiln constituted the mature form among the firewood kilns. At the later stage consisting of Types IV and V, coal was used as fuel, and Type V became the mature coal kiln for its proper structural proportion.

  18. Microscale Investigation of Arsenic Distribution and Species in Cement Product from Cement Kiln Coprocessing Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Yufei Yang; Jingchuan Xue; Qifei Huang

    2013-01-01

    To improve the understanding of the immobilization mechanism and the leaching risk of Arsenic (As) in the cement product from coprocessing wastes using cement kiln, distribution and species of As in cement product were determined by microscale investigation methods, including electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. In this study, sodium arsenate crystals (Na3AsO412H2O) were mixed with cement production raw materials and calcined to produce cement clinker. Then, ...

  19. Reinforcement Learning-Based Supervisory Control Strategy for a Rotary Kiln Process

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Xiaojie; Yue, Heng; Chai, Tianyou

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, we focus on the discussion about an implementation strategy of how to employ reinforcement learning in control of a typical complex industrial process to enhance control performance and adaptability for the variations of operating conditions of the automatic control system. Operation of large rotary kilns is difficult and relies on experienced human operators observing the burning status, because of their inherent complexities. Thus the problem of human-machine coordination i...

  20. Vertical two chamber reaction furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaugher, Richard D.

    1999-03-16

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700.degree. and 800.degree. C.) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800.degree. to 950.degree. C. to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product.

  1. Feasibility of disposing waste glyphosate neutralization liquor with cement rotary kiln

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The waste neutralization liquor was injected directly into the kiln system. • No obvious effect on the quality of cement clinker. • The disposing method was a zero-discharge process. • The waste liquor can be used as an alternative fuel to reduce the coal consumption. - Abstract: The waste neutralization liquor generated during the glyphosate production using glycine-dimethylphosphit process is a severe pollution problem due to its high salinity and organic components. The cement rotary kiln was proposed as a zero discharge strategy of disposal. In this work, the waste liquor was calcinated and the mineralogical phases of residue were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mineralogical phases and the strength of cement clinker were characterized to evaluate the influence to the products. The burnability of cement raw meal added with waste liquor and the calorific value of waste liquor were tested to evaluate the influence to the thermal state of the kiln system. The results showed that after the addition of this liquor, the differences of the main phases and the strength of cement clinker were negligible, the burnability of raw meal was improved; and the calorific value of this liquor was 6140 J/g, which made it could be considered as an alternative fuel during the actual production

  2. Feasibility of disposing waste glyphosate neutralization liquor with cement rotary kiln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Y.; Bao, Y.B.; Cai, X.L.; Chen, C.H. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Ye, X.C., E-mail: yexuchu@njtech.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • The waste neutralization liquor was injected directly into the kiln system. • No obvious effect on the quality of cement clinker. • The disposing method was a zero-discharge process. • The waste liquor can be used as an alternative fuel to reduce the coal consumption. - Abstract: The waste neutralization liquor generated during the glyphosate production using glycine-dimethylphosphit process is a severe pollution problem due to its high salinity and organic components. The cement rotary kiln was proposed as a zero discharge strategy of disposal. In this work, the waste liquor was calcinated and the mineralogical phases of residue were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mineralogical phases and the strength of cement clinker were characterized to evaluate the influence to the products. The burnability of cement raw meal added with waste liquor and the calorific value of waste liquor were tested to evaluate the influence to the thermal state of the kiln system. The results showed that after the addition of this liquor, the differences of the main phases and the strength of cement clinker were negligible, the burnability of raw meal was improved; and the calorific value of this liquor was 6140 J/g, which made it could be considered as an alternative fuel during the actual production.

  3. Optimum feeding rate of solid hazardous waste in a cement kiln burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.K. Hiromi Ariyaratne, Morten C. Melaaen, Lars-André Tokheim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid hazardous waste mixed with wood chips (SHW is a partly CO2 neutral fuel, and hence is a good candidate for substituting fossil fuels like pulverized coal in rotary kiln burners used in cement kiln systems. SHW is used in several cement plants, but the optimum substitution rate has apparently not yet been fully investigated. The present study aims to find the maximum possible replacement of coal by SHW, without negatively affecting the product quality, emissions and overall operation of the process. A full-scale experiment was carried out in the rotary kiln burner of a cement plant by varying the SHW substitution rate from 0 to 3 t/hr. Clinker quality, emissions and other relevant operational data from the experiment were analysed using fuel characteristics of coal and SHW. The results revealed that SHW could safely replace around 20% of the primary coal energy without giving negative effects. The limiting factor is the free lime content of the clinker. Results from the present study were also compared with results from a previous test using meat and bone meal.

  4. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL THROUGH KILN RECYCLING BY-PASS DUST IN A CEMENT FACTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mohsenzadeh, J. Nouri, A. Ranjbar, M. Mohammadian Fazli, A. A. Babaie

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a major problem in the industrial areas. Cement dust is one of the important environmental pollutants. In this study the possibility of dust recycling especially kiln dust which has significant importance regarding air pollution in the cement plant, was examined. Tehran cement factory is one of the most important Iranian factories which is located in Tehran. This factory produces high volume of pollutants that are released to in environment. The possibility of reusing of kiln by pass returned dust has been examined in this factory. Different percentages of kiln by-pass dust of this factory were added to products and outcomes of its presence in parameters such as chemical compound, granulation, primary and final catch time, volume expansion, consumed water and resistance of mortar were surveyed. The result indicated that by adding the amounts of 3-8 dust the mortar resistance increase, but adding more than 15%, the mortar resistance has been decreased. Survey in consumed water proved that adding dust to cement, the trend for consuming water is decreased. After dust addition dust, primary and final catch time were compared in different samples and data which showed decrease in dust added samples. Cements with dust added showed increase in auto clave expansion. Overally, results proved that, the best percentage rate of dust addition to the cement was 15%.

  5. A Numerical Assessment of the Air Flow Behaviour in a Conventional Compact Dry Kiln

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Zdanski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Convective drying is the most common drying strategy used in timber manufacturing industries in the developing world. In convective drying, the reduction rate of the moisture content is directly affected by the flow topology in the inlet and exit plenums and the air flow velocity in the channels formed by timber layers.Turbulence, boundary layer separation, vortex formation and recirculation regions are flow features that are intrinsically associated with the kiln geometry, which in turn dictate the flow velocity across the timber stack and, ultimately, the drying rate. Within this framework, this work presents a numerical study of the effects of the plenum width and inlet flow velocity in a compact dry kiln aiming to establish design recommendations to ensure the highest possible level of flow uniformity across the lumber stack. The numerical solution of the mathematical model is obtained through the finite-volume based Ansys CFX R flow solver. Validation of the numerical approximation is performed by comparing numerical and experimental flow velocities for a scale model of a kiln available in the literature.

  6. Distribution of Hg, As and Se in material and flue gas streams from preheater-precalciner cement kilns and vertical shaft cement kilns in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dahai; Peng, Zheng; Ding, Qiong; Karstensen, Kåre Helge; Engelsen, Christian J; Li, Li; Ren, Yong; Jiang, Chen

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of Hg, As, and Se in cement production. Two types of cement plants were studied, including the vertical shaft kiln (VSK) and preheater-precalciner kiln (PPK) processes. Determination of Hg, As, and Se in the main material and gas streams were performed. It was found that recycling of particulate matter captured by an air pollution control device caused a significant enrichment of Hg and As inside both processes. The total quantity of Hg entering the process and the quantity emitted to the atmosphere were found to be 10-109 and 6.3-38 mg, respectively, per ton of clinker produced. The average Hg emission was calculated to be around 41% of the total mercury input. The emissions found complied with the European Union (EU) limit and exceeded partly the U.S. limit. Furthermore, it was found that oxidized mercury was the dominant species in the PPK process, whereas the reduced form was dominant in the VSK process, due to the oxidizing and reducing gas conditions, respectively. Regarding the distribution of As and Se, the major amounts were bound to the solid materials, that is, cement clinker and particulate matter. Based on cement production data in China in 2013, the annual emissions of Hg and As were estimated to be in the range of 8.6-52 and 4.1-9.5 tons, respectively. PMID:26037967

  7. Multi-anode ionization chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E. (South Setauket, NY); Smith, Graham (Port Jefferson, NY); Mahler, George J. (Rocky Point, NY); Vanier, Peter E. (Setauket, NY)

    2010-12-28

    The present invention includes a high-energy detector having a cathode chamber, a support member, and anode segments. The cathode chamber extends along a longitudinal axis. The support member is fixed within the cathode chamber and extends from the first end of the cathode chamber to the second end of the cathode chamber. The anode segments are supported by the support member and are spaced along the longitudinal surface of the support member. The anode segments are configured to generate at least a first electrical signal in response to electrons impinging thereon.

  8. Vacuum Chambers for LEP sections

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The picture shows sections of the LEP vacuum chambers to be installed in the dipole magnets (left) and in the quadrupoles (right). The dipole chamber has three channels: the beam chamber, the pumping duct where the NEG (non-evaporabe getter) is installed and the water channel for cooling (on top in the picture). The pumping duct is connected to the beam chamber through holes in the separating wall. The thick lead lining to shield radiation can also be seen. These chambers were manufactured as extruded aluminium alloy profiles.

  9. The APS ceramic chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milton, S.; Warner, D.

    1994-07-01

    Ceramics chambers are used in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) machines at the locations of the pulsed kicker and bumper magnets. The ceramic will be coated internally with a resistive paste. The resistance is chosen to allow the low frequency pulsed magnet field to penetrate but not the high frequency components of the circulating beam. Another design goal was to keep the power density experienced by the resistive coating to a minimum. These ceramics, their associated hardware, the coating process, and our recent experiences with them are described.

  10. Review of wire chamber aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper makes an overview of the wire chamber aging problems as a function of various chamber design parameters. It emphasizes the chemistry point of view and many examples are drawn from the plasma chemistry field as a guidance for a possible effort in the wire chamber field. The paper emphasizes the necessity of variable tuning, the importance of purity of the wire chamber environment, as well as it provides a practical list of presently known recommendations. In addition, several models of the wire chamber aging are qualitatively discussed. The paper is based on a summary talk given at the Wire Chamber Aging Workshop held at LBL, Berkeley on January 16-17, 1986. Presented also at Wire Chamber Conference, Vienna, February 25-28, 1986. 74 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs

  11. Distributions, profiles and formation mechanisms of polychlorinated naphthalenes in cement kilns co-processing municipal waste incinerator fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guorui; Zhan, Jiayu; Zhao, Yuyang; Li, Li; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Fu, Jianjie; Li, Chunping; Zheng, Minghui

    2016-07-01

    Co-processing municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash in cement kilns is challenging because the unintentional production of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) during the process is not well understood. The distributions, profiles and formation mechanisms of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) as new POPs covered under Stockholm Convention in two cement kilns co-processing MSWI fly ash were studied. The average concentrations of PCNs in stack gas samples were 710 ng m(-3). The PCN concentration in particle samples collected from different process stages in the cement kilns ranged from 1.1 to 84.7 ng g(-1). Three process sites including suspension pre-heater boiler, humidifier tower, and the kiln back-end bag filter were identified to be the major formation sites of PCNs in cement kilns co-processing MSWI fly ash. The PCN distribution patterns were similar to that of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs), which indicates the possibility for simultaneous control of PCNs and PCDD/Fs in cement kilns co-processing fly ash. Chlorination was suggested to be an important formation mechanism of PCNs, and chlorination pathways of PCN congeners are proposed based on the congener profiles. Thermodynamic calculations, including relative thermal energies (ΔE) and standard free energy of formation (ΔG), and the charge densities of the carbon atoms in PCN supported the proposed chlorination mechanisms for PCN formation. The results presented in this study might provide helpful information for developing techniques and strategies to control PCN emissions during cement kilns co-processing MSWI fly ash.

  12. Distributions, profiles and formation mechanisms of polychlorinated naphthalenes in cement kilns co-processing municipal waste incinerator fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guorui; Zhan, Jiayu; Zhao, Yuyang; Li, Li; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Fu, Jianjie; Li, Chunping; Zheng, Minghui

    2016-07-01

    Co-processing municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash in cement kilns is challenging because the unintentional production of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) during the process is not well understood. The distributions, profiles and formation mechanisms of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) as new POPs covered under Stockholm Convention in two cement kilns co-processing MSWI fly ash were studied. The average concentrations of PCNs in stack gas samples were 710 ng m(-3). The PCN concentration in particle samples collected from different process stages in the cement kilns ranged from 1.1 to 84.7 ng g(-1). Three process sites including suspension pre-heater boiler, humidifier tower, and the kiln back-end bag filter were identified to be the major formation sites of PCNs in cement kilns co-processing MSWI fly ash. The PCN distribution patterns were similar to that of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs), which indicates the possibility for simultaneous control of PCNs and PCDD/Fs in cement kilns co-processing fly ash. Chlorination was suggested to be an important formation mechanism of PCNs, and chlorination pathways of PCN congeners are proposed based on the congener profiles. Thermodynamic calculations, including relative thermal energies (ΔE) and standard free energy of formation (ΔG), and the charge densities of the carbon atoms in PCN supported the proposed chlorination mechanisms for PCN formation. The results presented in this study might provide helpful information for developing techniques and strategies to control PCN emissions during cement kilns co-processing MSWI fly ash. PMID:27135696

  13. Council Chamber exhibition

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    To complete the revamp of CERN’s Council Chamber, a new exhibition is being installed just in time for the June Council meetings.   Panels will showcase highlights of CERN’s history, using some of the content prepared for the exhibitions marking 50 years of the PS, which were displayed in the main building last November. The previous photo exhibition in the Council Chamber stopped at the 1970s. To avoid the new panels becoming quickly out of date, photos are grouped together around specific infrastructures, rather than following a classic time-line. “We have put the focus on the accelerators – the world-class facilities that CERN has been offering researchers over the years, from the well-known large colliders to the lesser-known smaller facilities,” says Emma Sanders, who worked on the content. The new exhibition will be featured in a future issue of the Bulletin with photos and an interview with Fabienne Marcastel, designer of the exhibit...

  14. [Comparison of fixation effects of heavy metals between cement rotary kiln co-processing and cement solidification/stabilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun-li; Liu, Jian-guo; Li, Cheng; Jin, Yi-ying; Nie, Yong-feng

    2008-04-01

    Both cement rotary kiln co-processing hazardous wastes and cement solidification/stabilization could dispose heavy metals by fixation. Different fixation mechanisms lead to different fixation effects. The same amount of heavy metal compounds containing As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn were treated by the two kinds of fixation technologies. GB leaching test, TCLP tests and sequential extraction procedures were employed to compare the fixation effects of two fixation technologies. The leached concentration and chemical species distribution of heavy metals in two grounded mortar samples were analyzed and the fixation effects of two kinds of technologies to different heavy metals were compared. The results show the fixation effect of cement rotary kiln co-processing technology is better than cement solidification/stabilization technology to As, Pb, Zn. Calcinations in cement rotary kiln and then hydration help As, Pb, Zn contained in hazardous wastes transform to more steady chemical species and effectively dispose these heavy metals compounds. Cr3+ is liable to be converted to much more toxic and more mobile Cr6+ state in cement rotary kiln. And so Cr wastes are more fit for treatment by cement solidification/stabilization technology. The work could provide a basis when choosing disposal technologies for different heavy metals and be helpful to improve the application and development of cement rotary kiln co-processing hazardous wastes.

  15. Mush Column Magma Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, B. D.

    2002-12-01

    Magma chambers are a necessary concept in understanding the chemical and physical evolution of magma. The concept may well be similar to a transfer function in circuit or time series analysis. It does what needs to be done to transform source magma into eruptible magma. In gravity and geodetic interpretations the causative body is (usually of necessity) geometrically simple and of limited vertical extent; it is clearly difficult to `see' through the uppermost manifestation of the concentrated magma. The presence of plutons in the upper crust has reinforced the view that magma chambers are large pots of magma, but as in the physical representation of a transfer function, actual magma chambers are clearly distinct from virtual magma chambers. Two key features to understanding magmatic systems are that they are vertically integrated over large distances (e.g., 30-100 km), and that all local magmatic processes are controlled by solidification fronts. Heat transfer considerations show that any viable volcanic system must be supported by a vertically extensive plumbing system. Field and geophysical studies point to a common theme of an interconnected stack of sill-like structures extending to great depth. This is a magmatic Mush Column. The large-scale (10s of km) structure resembles the vertical structure inferred at large volcanic centers like Hawaii (e.g., Ryan et al.), and the fine scale (10s to 100s of m) structure is exemplified by ophiolites and deeply eroded sill complexes like the Ferrar dolerites of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The local length scales of the sill reservoirs and interconnecting conduits produce a rich spectrum of crystallization environments with distinct solidification time scales. Extensive horizontal and vertical mushy walls provide conditions conducive to specific processes of differentiation from solidification front instability to sidewall porous flow and wall rock slumping. The size, strength, and time series of eruptive behavior

  16. Multi-chamber ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the detector a single beta ionization source and a double- or three-chamber set-up is used, the chambers being designed in the shape of a truncated cone and facing each other with their bases. The source can be positioned with respect to the common center or modal electrode, the adjustment of the ionization in each chamber this becoming easier. The center or modal electrode also can be adjusted with respect to the source. (DG)

  17. White-and-blud porcelain of Hutian kiln in Ming dynasty studied by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of provenance, ages and distinguishing precious ancient porcelain from a fake of Chinese ancient porcelain by modern technologies arose greatly interesting in the circles of archaeologists and scientists in China. Concentration of major and trace elements of white-and-blue porcelain of Hutian kiln in Ming Dynasty were analyzed by PIXE, and elemental distributions of porcelain were analyzed by SPM. The results indicate the elemental distributions in the white glaze, blue glaze and body are homogeneous, respectively. It is a layer nearly 5-10 μm between the body and blue glaze. Probably, cobalt blue pigment used in the blue glaze comes from Jiangxi, Fujian province etc. (authors)

  18. Validity of archaeomagnetic field recording: an experimental pottery kiln at Coppengrave, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepp, Elisabeth; Leonhardt, Roman; Korte, Monika; Klett-Drechsel, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    Palaeomagnetic data obtained from archaeological materials are used for reconstructions of the Earth's magnetic field of the past millennia. While many studies tested the reliability of this recorder for palaeointensity only a few studies did this for direction. The study presents an archaeomagnetic and rock magnetic investigation applied to an experimental pottery kiln, which was operated in 2003 to produce stone ware. This kind of high-quality pottery needs a temperature of at least 1160 °C. Shortly before heating of the kiln direct absolute measurements of the absolute geomagnetic field vector have been carried out close to it. After cooling of the kiln 24 oriented palaeomagnetic samples have been taken. Although Curie temperatures are about 580 °C, that is the typical temperature for magnetite, thermal as well as alternating field demagnetisations reveal also a considerable amount of hematite as magnetic carrier. This mixture of magnetite and hematite is dominated by pseudo-single domain grains. Demagnetisation removed in some cases weak secondary components, but in most cases the specimens carried a single component thermoremanent magnetisation. The mean characteristic remanent magnetisation direction agrees on 95 per cent confidence level with the directly measured field direction. Archaeointensity was obtained from five specimens with the Thellier-Coe method and with the multiple-specimen palaeointensity domain-state corrected method. Six of these specimens also provided a result of the Dekkers-Böhnel method, which overestimated the archaeointensity by about 9 per cent compared to the direct value, while after correction for fraction the value agrees very well. For the multiple-specimen palaeointensity domain-state corrected method only fractions between 25 and 75 per cent have been used and specimens showing alteration have been excluded. Above 450 °C many specimens showed alteration of the magnetic grains. Because median destructive temperatures were

  19. Development of Fission Chamber Assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGJinwei; ZHANGWei; SONGXianying; LIXu

    2003-01-01

    The fission chambers which are gas counters with fissile material inside chamber,provide essential information for plasma opcharacteristics. In conjunction with the neutron flux monitor system these provide time-resolved measurements of the global neutron source strength and fusion power from thermal nuclear fusion reactor as ITER for all plasma conditions for which neutrons are produced.

  20. The Big European Bubble Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    1977-01-01

    The 3.70 metre Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC), dismantled on 9 August 1984. During operation it was one of the biggest detectors in the world, producing direct visual recordings of particle tracks. 6.3 million photos of interactions were taken with the chamber in the course of its existence.

  1. National Ignition Facility Target Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wavrik, R W; Cox, J R; Fleming, P J

    2000-10-05

    On June 11, 1999 the Department of Energy dedicated the single largest piece of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. The ten (10) meter diameter aluminum target high vacuum chamber will serve as the working end of the largest laser in the world. The output of 192 laser beams will converge at the precise center of the chamber. The laser beams will enter the chamber in two by two arrays to illuminate 10 millimeter long gold cylinders called hohlraums enclosing 2 millimeter capsule containing deuterium, tritium and isotopes of hydrogen. The two isotopes will fuse, thereby creating temperatures and pressures resembling those found only inside stars and in detonated nuclear weapons, but on a minute scale. The NIF Project will serve as an essential facility to insure safety and reliability of our nation's nuclear arsenal as well as demonstrating inertial fusion's contribution to creating electrical power. The paper will discuss the requirements that had to be addressed during the design, fabrication and testing of the target chamber. A team from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and LLNL with input from industry performed the configuration and basic design of the target chamber. The method of fabrication and construction of the aluminum target chamber was devised by Pitt-Des Moines, Inc. (PDM). PDM also participated in the design of the chamber in areas such as the Target Chamber Realignment and Adjustment System, which would allow realignment of the sphere laser beams in the event of earth settlement or movement from a seismic event. During the fabrication of the target chamber the sphericity tolerances had to be addressed for the individual plates. Procedures were developed for forming, edge preparation and welding of individual plates. Construction plans were developed to allow the field construction of the target chamber to occur parallel to other NIF construction activities. This

  2. Ion chamber based neutron detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derzon, Mark S; Galambos, Paul C; Renzi, Ronald F

    2014-12-16

    A neutron detector with monolithically integrated readout circuitry, including: a bonded semiconductor die; an ion chamber formed in the bonded semiconductor die; a first electrode and a second electrode formed in the ion chamber; a neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber; and the readout circuitry which is electrically coupled to the first and second electrodes. The bonded semiconductor die includes an etched semiconductor substrate bonded to an active semiconductor substrate. The readout circuitry is formed in a portion of the active semiconductor substrate. The ion chamber has a substantially planar first surface on which the first electrode is formed and a substantially planar second surface, parallel to the first surface, on which the second electrode is formed. The distance between the first electrode and the second electrode may be equal to or less than the 50% attenuation length for neutrons in the neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber.

  3. Degradation of Alumina and Magnesia Chrome refractory bricks in Portland cement kiln – Corrected version*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Addi K.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In cement plants, the refractory products are particularly confronted to partially liquid oxide phases at temperature ranging between 900°C and 1700°C. All constituents of these products have to resist not only to thermal constraints, but also to the thermochemical solicitations which result from contact material/coating. In order to study the phenomenon of degradation of refractory bricks in cement kilns and to identify the causes of their degradation, we proceed to the examination of industrial cases in cement kiln. Many chemical tests of the degraded refractory bricks have been done and the results acquired were compared to the ones not used. The analysis of the results is doing using different techniques (Loss of ignition, X-ray Fluorescence, X-ray Diffraction. The results show that the degradation of the used bricks in the clinkering and cooling zone is due to the infiltration of aggressive elements such us sulphur, alkali (Na2O, K2O .... The chemical interaction between the Portland clinker phases and refractory material has also an importance on the stability of the coating and consequently on the life of the refractories.

  4. The Concept, Design and Performance of a Novel Rotary Kiln Type Air-Staged Biomass Gasifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyuan Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tar formation is the main bottleneck for biomass gasification technology. A novel rotary kiln type biomass gasification process was proposed. The concept design was based on air staging and process separation. This concept was demonstrated on a pilot scale rotary kiln reactor under ambient pressure and autothermic conditions. The pilot scale gasifier was divided into three different reaction regions, which were oxidative degradation, partial oxidation and char gasification. A series of tests was conducted to investigate the effect of key parameters. The results indicate that under optimum operating conditions, a fuel gas with high heat value of about 5500 kJ/Nm3 and gas production rate of 2.32 Nm3/kg could be produced. Tar concentration in the fuel gas could be reduced to 108 mg/Nm3 (at the gasifier outlet and 38 mg/Nm3 (after gas conditioning. The cold gas efficiency and carbon conversion rate reached 75% and 78%, respectively. The performance of this gasification system shows considerable potential for implementation in distributed electricity and heat supply projects.

  5. [Release amount of heavy metals in cement product from co-processing waste in cement kiln].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Fei; Huang, Qi-Fei; Zhang, Xia; Yang, Yu; Wang, Qi

    2009-05-15

    Clinker was produced by Simulating cement calcination test, and concrete samples were also prepared according to national standard GB/T 17671-1999. Long-term cumulative release amount of heavy metals in cement product from co-processing waste in cement kiln was researched through leaching test which refers to EA NEN 7371 and EA NEN 7375, and one-dimensional diffusion model which is on the base of Fick diffusion law. The results show that availabilities of heavy metals are lower than the total amounts in concrete. The diffusion coefficients of heavy metals are different (Cr > As > Ni > Cd). During 30 years service, the cumulative release amounts of Cr, As, Ni and Cd are 4.43 mg/kg, 0.46 mg/kg, 1.50 mg/kg and 0.02 mg/kg, respectively, and the ratios of release which is the division of cumulative release amount and availability are 27.0%, 18.0%, 3.0% and 0.2%, respectively. The most important influence factor of cumulative release amount of heavy metal is the diffusion coefficient, and it is correlative to cumulative release amount. The diffusion coefficient of Cr and As should be controlled exactly in the processing of input the cement-kiln. PMID:19558131

  6. Variations and factors that influence the formation of polychlorinated naphthalenes in cement kilns co-processing solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Rong; Zhan, Jiayu; Liu, Guorui; Zhao, Yuyang; Zheng, Minghui

    2016-09-01

    Pilot studies of unintentionally produced pollutants should be performed before waste being co-processed in cement kilns. Polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) formation and emission from cement kilns co-processing sorted municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, and waste acid, however, have not previously been studied. Here, PCNs were analyzed in stack gas samples and solid samples from different stages of three cement production runs. PCN destruction efficiencies were higher when waste was co-processed (93.1% and 88.7% in two tests) than when waste was not co-processed (39.1%), so co-processing waste would not increase PCN outputs. The PCN concentrations were higher in particle samples from the C1 preheater and stages at back end of kiln than in particle samples from other stages, suggesting that cyclone preheater and back end of kiln should be focused for controlling PCN emissions. Besides that, based on the variation of PCN concentrations and corresponding operating conditions in different stages, the temperature, feeding materials, and chlorine content were suggested as the main factors influencing PCN formation. The PCN homologue and congener profiles suggested chlorination and dechlorination were the main PCN formation and decomposition pathways, and congeners CN-23, CN-46, and CN-59 appear to be appropriate indicators of PCNs emitted from coal-burning sources. PMID:27187059

  7. Variations and factors that influence the formation of polychlorinated naphthalenes in cement kilns co-processing solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Rong; Zhan, Jiayu; Liu, Guorui; Zhao, Yuyang; Zheng, Minghui

    2016-09-01

    Pilot studies of unintentionally produced pollutants should be performed before waste being co-processed in cement kilns. Polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) formation and emission from cement kilns co-processing sorted municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, and waste acid, however, have not previously been studied. Here, PCNs were analyzed in stack gas samples and solid samples from different stages of three cement production runs. PCN destruction efficiencies were higher when waste was co-processed (93.1% and 88.7% in two tests) than when waste was not co-processed (39.1%), so co-processing waste would not increase PCN outputs. The PCN concentrations were higher in particle samples from the C1 preheater and stages at back end of kiln than in particle samples from other stages, suggesting that cyclone preheater and back end of kiln should be focused for controlling PCN emissions. Besides that, based on the variation of PCN concentrations and corresponding operating conditions in different stages, the temperature, feeding materials, and chlorine content were suggested as the main factors influencing PCN formation. The PCN homologue and congener profiles suggested chlorination and dechlorination were the main PCN formation and decomposition pathways, and congeners CN-23, CN-46, and CN-59 appear to be appropriate indicators of PCNs emitted from coal-burning sources.

  8. Effects of co-processing sewage sludge in cement kiln on NOx, NH3 and PAHs emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Dong; Zhu, Tianle; Liu, Runwei; Lv, Qingzhi; Sun, Ye; Wang, Hongmei; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Fan

    2016-09-01

    The effects of co-processing sewage sludge in cement kiln on NOx, NH3 and PAHs emissions were systematically investigated in a cement production line in Beijing. The results show that co-processing the sewage sludge was helpful to reduce NOx emission, which primarily depends on the NH3 amount released from the sewage sludge. Meanwhile, NOx and NH3 concentrations in the flue gas have a negative correlation, and the contribution of feeding the sewage sludge to NOx removal decreased with the increase of injection amount of ammonia water in the SNCR system. Therefore, it is suggested that the injection amount of ammonia water in SNCR system may reduce to cut down the operating costs during co-processing the sewage sludge in cement kiln. In addition, the emission of total PAHs seems to increase with the increased amount of the sewage sludge feeding to the cement kiln. However, the distributions of PAHs were barely changed, and lower molecular weight PAHs were mainly distributed in gaseous phase, accounted for the major portion of PAHs when co-processing sewage sludge in cement kiln. PMID:27343866

  9. Cyclically controlled welding purge chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Robert L. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An arrangement for butt-welding cylindrical sections of large, thin-wall tanks includes a rotatable mandrel with side-by-side sets of radial position adjusters. Each set of adjusters bears on one of the tank sections adjacent the seam, to prevent the sections from sagging out-of-round. The mandrel rotates relative to the welder, so that a continuous seam is formed. A purge chamber is fixed in position behind the seam at the weld head, and is flushed with inert gas. The purge chamber includes a two-sided structure which is contiguous with the cylindrical sections and a circumferential vane to form an open-ended tube-like structure, through which the radial position adjusters pass as the mandrel and cylindrical workpiece sections rotate. The tube-like structure is formed into a chamber by a plurality of movable gates which are controlled to maintain a seal while allowing adjusters to progress through the purge chamber.

  10. The multigap resistive plate chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeballos, E. Cerron [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Crotty, I. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Hatzifotiadou, D. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Valverde, J. Lamas [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Univ. Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France); Neupane, S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Williams, M. C. S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Zichichi, A. [Univ. of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    2015-02-03

    The paper describes the multigap resistive plate chamber (RPC). This is a variant of the wide gap RPC. However it has much improved time resolution, while keeping all the other advantages of the wide gap RPC design.

  11. Brick Kiln Emissions Quantified with the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory During the Short Lived Climate Forcing (SLCF) 2013 Campaign in Guanajuato Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, E.; Knighton, W. B.; Herndon, S.; Roscioli, J. R.; Zavala, M.; Onasch, T. B.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kolb, C. E.; Molina, L. T.

    2013-12-01

    Brick kiln emissions are suspected to be a major source of atmospheric black carbon (BC) in developing countries; and black carbon's role as a short lived climate forcing (SLCF) pollutant is widely recognized. The SLCF-Mexico brick kiln study was conducted from 12-17 March 2013 in Mexico's Guanajuato state. Three different types of brick kilns were investigated (MK2, traditional, and traditional three tier) providing data on the effects of different kiln designs on particle and gas phase emissions. The BC and gaseous combustion emissions from these kilns were measured during both the fire stage and the subsequent smoldering stage with real-time instruments deployed on the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory, and quantified utilizing flux tracer gases released adjacent to the brick kiln. This method allows examination of the brick kiln plume's evolution as it transits downwind from the source. Particulate measurements conducted by the mobile laboratory included the multi angle absorption photometer (MAAP) to measure black carbon mass, cavity attenuated phase shift (CAPSext) monitor to measure extinction and soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) measurements of black carbon. The SP-AMS instrument combines the ability to measure black carbon with the ability to determine the chemical composition of the other particulate matter (PM) components associated with black carbon particles. The variance of PM chemical composition will be examined as a function of burning stage and kiln type and compared to other black carbon PM sources. Gas phase exhaust species measured included CO, CO2, NOx, SO2, CH4, C2H6, as well as a variety of VOCs (acetonitrile, benzene etc.) measured with a PTR-MS instrument. All of these measurements will be examined to construct emission ratios evaluating how these vary with different kiln types and different firing conditions. The evolution of particulate matter and gas phase species as they transit away from the source will also be examined.

  12. The HERMES Back Drift Chambers

    OpenAIRE

    al, S. Bernreuther et

    1998-01-01

    The tracking system of the HERMES spectrometer behind the bending magnet consists of two pairs of large planar 6-plane drift chambers. The design and performance of these chambers is described. This description comprises details on the mechanical and electronical design, information about the gas mixture used and its properties, results on alignment, calibration, resolution, and efficiencies, and a discussion of the experience gained through the first three years of operation.

  13. BEBC Big European Bubble Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    A view of the dismantling of the magnet of BEBC, the 3.7 m European Bubble Chamber : iron magnetic shielding ; lower and upper parts of the vacuum enclosure of the magnet; turbo-molecular vacuum pumps for the "fish-eye" windows; the two superconducting coils; a handling platform; the two cryostats suspended from the bar of the travelling crane which has a 170 ton carrying capacity. The chamber proper, not dismantled, is inside the shielding.

  14. Anterior chamber depth during hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracitelli CPB

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Carolina Pelegrini Barbosa Gracitelli,1 Francisco Rosa Stefanini,1 Fernando Penha,1 Miguel Ângelo Góes,2 Sérgio Antonio Draibe,2 Maria Eugênia Canziani,2 Augusto Paranhos Junior1 1Ophthalmology Department, 2Division of Nephrology, Federal University of São Paulo – UNIFESP, São Paulo, Brazil Background: Exacerbation of chronic glaucoma or acute glaucoma is occasionally observed in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD because of anterior chamber depth changes during this therapy. Purpose: To evaluate anterior chamber depth and axial length in patients during HD sessions. Methods: A total of 67 eyes of 35 patients were prospectively enrolled. Axial length and anterior chamber depth were measured using ultrasonic biometry, and these measures were evaluated at three different times during HD sessions. Body weight and blood pressure pre- and post-HD were also measured. Results: There was no difference in the axial length between the three measurements (P = 0.241. We observed a significantly decreased anterior chamber depth (P = 0.002 during HD sessions. Conclusion: Our results support the idea that there is a change in anterior chamber depth in HD sessions. Keywords: anterior chamber, hemodialysis, axial length, acute angle-closure glaucoma

  15. Thermal model for rotary kiln used in the production of Portland cement clinker; Modelo termico para forno rotativo utilizado para produzir clinquer de cimento Portland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Vanisa C.; Menon, Genesio J.; Silva, Rogerio J. [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Mecanica

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents a heat transfer model for a rotary kiln used for producing clinker of Portland cement. The temperatures will depend only on position throughout length of the kiln and time. It has been considered the heat loss through wall and the transferred heat to the solids. The finite element method has been utilized on a one-dimensional representation basis. From the results obtained it was possible to evaluate the kiln behavior, as starting point for a study of co-incineration of waste. (author)

  16. Survey of the Baihe Porcelain Kiln-site in Gongyi City,Henan%河南巩义市白河瓷窑遗址调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑州市文物考古研究所; 巩义市文物保护管理所

    2001-01-01

    In October and November of 1998, Zhengzhou Municipal Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology undertook a survey on the porcelain kiln site in the upper valley of the Baihe river, Gongyi City, Henan Province, and a great number of porcelain shards and kiln implements have been found. The findings are mainly from the Tang Dynasty, while some of them might have been the remains of the Sui and the Song Dynasties. The kiln site was famous for its white porcelain items and some of them were tributes to the Tang Emperors.

  17. Provenance and indirect dating study on Hongzhou Kiln porcelains by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 100 sherds were collected from Hongzhou Kiln of Jiangxi Province, China and their body samples were analyzed by INAA. The compositional differences between samples with the same period but different provenance were observed. The contents of Na, Rb, Ba, Fe, Th, U, etc., were found to be different among samples from different periods, which implies they may be used to identify the manufacturing age indirectly. The analytical data were further processed by principal components analysis (PCA). The statistical results show that all the sherds can be classified into 5 groups: (1) Eastern Han and Eastern Wu; (2) Western Jin, Eastern Jin and Southern Dynasties; (3) Sui; (4) Early Tang and Middle Tang; (5) Late Tang and Five Dynasties. (author)

  18. Modelling anhydrous weight loss of wood chips during torrefaction in a pilot kiln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repellin, Vincent; Govin, Alexandre; Guyonnet, Rene [Department of Physico-Chemistry of Multi-Components Materials (PMMC), SPIN Research Center, Ecole des Mines de Saint Etienne (EMSE), 158, Cours Fauriel, F-42023 Saint-Etienne (France); Rolland, Matthieu [Process Developments and Engineering Division, Chemical Engineering Department, Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP-Lyon), F-69390 Vernaison (France)

    2010-05-15

    Beech and spruce chips were torrefied in a batch rotating pilot kiln. For each torrefaction the temperature curve of the moving chips bed was recorded. The anhydrous weight loss (AWL) of each torrefaction was measured. Effect of torrefaction temperature and duration on the AWL was studied. In order to optimise short time torrefaction, models that can estimate the AWL from the chips temperature curve are required. Three phenomenological models were successfully applied. They all gave good correlations between experimental and calculated AWL. These three models can be employed to optimise industrial torrefaction. However, the more complex they are, the more difficult it is to understand their physical meaning. It is thus preferable to use simple model for the industrial control of torrefaction. (author)

  19. Theoretical and experimental studies on combustion of alternative fuels in cement kilns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis, the utilization of alternative fuels for NOx reduction by means of reburning and advanced reburning is considered. Laboratory experiments, full-scale experiments and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations are the basis of the thesis. The goal of the work was to characterize alternative fuels used in cement kilns, with focus on the processes taking place in the precalciner of the cement kiln. To facilitate testing under controlled process conditions, a lab-scale circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) reactor was designed and constructed. A co prehensive study on the fluidization regime in CFBC reactors and precalciners was required to ensure and verify that the operational regime in the CFBC reactor was similar to the regime in a precalciner. Different alternative fuels, such as refuse derived fuel, animal meal and solid hazardous waste, were tested in the CFBC reactor, which proved well suited for characterization of alternative fuels and investigations of NOx reduction, even though the operation of a CFBC reactor is quite complex and gives a certain variation in stability. Experiments with and without circulating mass in the CFBC reactor demonstrated the importance of executing the laboratory combustion experiments in an environment similar to that in the full-scale process, i.e. in the precalciner. Animal meal is believed to follow the reduction route of selective non-catalytic r duction or advanced reburning and to have a special capability of reducing NOx during increased NOx concentrations at the reactor inlet. The increased CO emissions during advanced reburning and reburning with animal meal are most likely to be due to the competition for the OH radical during oxidation of CO and of NH3. Furthermore, it was shown, for all fuels, that an increased concentration of NOx at the reactor inlet increases the ratio of NOx at the exit and NOx supplied. Full-scale experiments were executed at Norcem's kiln 6 in Brevik, using solid

  20. Theoretical and experimental studies on combustion of alternative fuels in cement kilns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axelsen, Ernst Petter

    2002-07-01

    In this thesis, the utilization of alternative fuels for NOx reduction by means of reburning and advanced reburning is considered. Laboratory experiments, full-scale experiments and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations are the basis of the thesis. The goal of the work was to characterize alternative fuels used in cement kilns, with focus on the processes taking place in the precalciner of the cement kiln. To facilitate testing under controlled process conditions, a lab-scale circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) reactor was designed and constructed. A co prehensive study on the fluidization regime in CFBC reactors and precalciners was required to ensure and verify that the operational regime in the CFBC reactor was similar to the regime in a precalciner. Different alternative fuels, such as refuse derived fuel, animal meal and solid hazardous waste, were tested in the CFBC reactor, which proved well suited for characterization of alternative fuels and investigations of NOx reduction, even though the operation of a CFBC reactor is quite complex and gives a certain variation in stability. Experiments with and without circulating mass in the CFBC reactor demonstrated the importance of executing the laboratory combustion experiments in an environment similar to that in the full-scale process, i.e. in the precalciner. Animal meal is believed to follow the reduction route of selective non-catalytic r duction or advanced reburning and to have a special capability of reducing NOx during increased NOx concentrations at the reactor inlet. The increased CO emissions during advanced reburning and reburning with animal meal are most likely to be due to the competition for the OH radical during oxidation of CO and of NH{sub 3}. Furthermore, it was shown, for all fuels, that an increased concentration of NOx at the reactor inlet increases the ratio of NOx at the exit and NOx supplied. Full-scale experiments were executed at Norcem's kiln 6 in Brevik, using

  1. Torrefaction of cedarwood in a pilot scale rotary kiln and the influence of industrial flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yanyang; Liu, Rujie; Yang, Qing; Yang, Haiping; Shao, Jingai; Draper, Christopher; Zhang, Shihong; Chen, Hanping

    2015-02-01

    Torrefaction of cedarwood was performed in a pilot-scale rotary kiln at various temperatures (200, 230, 260 and 290°C). The torrefaction properties, the influence on the grindability and hydroscopicity of the torrefied biomass were investigated in detail as well as the combustion performance. It turned out that, compared with raw biomass, the grindability and the hydrophobicity of the torrefied biomass were significantly improved, and the increasing torrefaction temperature resulted in a decrease in grinding energy consumption and an increase in the proportion of smaller-sized particles. The use of industrial flue gas had a significant influence on the behavior of cedarwood during torrefaction and the properties of the resultant solid products. To optimize the energy density and energy yield, the temperature of torrefaction using flue gas should be controlled within 260°C. Additionally, the combustion of torrefied samples was mainly the combustion of chars, with similar combustion characteristics to lignite.

  2. Application of coal-water slurry on the rotary calcining kiln of pedgion magnesium reduction process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hua-qing; XIE Shui-sheng; LIU Jin-ping; WU Peng-yue; HUANG Guo-jie

    2006-01-01

    Energy saving has been an important concept in modern industry especially to the countries and regions with energy shortage such as China and Japan. Utilization of Coal-Water Slurry (CWS) can improve the burning efficiency of coal and reduce the pollutions of soot, sulfide and the nitride by burning lump coal directly. The CWS is a promising energy saving technique and the effectual substitute of oil. The study on the preparation and application of the CWS has made progresses in many aspects. The present paper studied the basal problems for applying the CWS on the rotary kilns during the calcining-dolomite process in the magnesium factory, summarized the key points for the application process of the CWS and gave the corresponding solutions.

  3. Characterization and utilization of cement kiln dusts (CKDs) as partial replacements of Portland cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Om Shervan

    The characteristics of cement kiln dusts (CKDs) and their effects as partial replacement of Portland Cement (PC) were studied in this research program. The cement industry is currently under pressure to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and solid by-products in the form of CKDs. The use of CKDs in concrete has the potential to substantially reduce the environmental impact of their disposal and create significant cost and energy savings to the cement industry. Studies have shown that CKDs can be used as a partial substitute of PC in a range of 5--15%, by mass. Although the use of CKDs is promising, there is very little understanding of their effects in CKD-PC blends. Previous studies provide variable and often conflicting results. The reasons for the inconsistent results are not obvious due to a lack of material characterization data. The characteristics of a CKD must be well-defined in order to understand its potential impact in concrete. The materials used in this study were two different types of PC (normal and moderate sulfate resistant) and seven CKDs. The CKDs used in this study were selected to provide a representation of those available in North America from the three major types of cement manufacturing processes: wet, long-dry, and preheater/precalciner. The CKDs have a wide range of chemical and physical composition based on different raw material sources and technologies. Two fillers (limestone powder and quartz powder) were also used to compare their effects to that of CKDs at an equivalent replacement of PC. The first objective of this study was to conduct a comprehensive composition analysis of CKDs and compare their characteristics to PC. CKDs are unique materials that must be analyzed differently from PC for accurate chemical and physical analysis. The present study identifies the chemical and physical analytical methods that should be used for CKDs. The study also introduced a method to quantify the relative abundance of the different

  4. Mangrove community in an abandoned brick kiln: A structural and association analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Manna

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of brick kiln along the Hoogly rever sites of lower Bengal is very usual and this phenomenon is not only restricted to India alone but also to the other south Asian countries. The abandoned brick Kiln are important habitat for the formation of mangrove community due to tidal action, loose silty substratum and less anthropogenic interference. In this context, the aim of the present study is to visualize how the structural and association pattern regulate the community dynamics of a mangrove ecosystem. Materials and Methods: The entire study area was divided into 37 units (Quadrats of 27.31 sq m. Structural parameters like density, relative density, abundance, relative abundance, frequency, relative basal area were measured based on vegetation map, prepared through satellite image and ground truthing. Association indices (Ochiai, Dice and Jaccard were measured based on 2X2 contingency/species association table. Results: Out of 10 species under 10 genera and 9 families found in the present habitat, Sonneratia caseolaris is the only mangrove tree species with 155 individuals along with other mangrove associates like Cryptocoryne ciliata, Crinum viviparum, Acanthus ilicifolius and Derris scandens. The high importance value index of Sonneratia caseolaris, Cryptocoryne ciliata, and Crinum viviparum indicated their significant role in community formation. The strong positive association of these 3 species also suggests to help in developing community in stressed environment. Conclusion: Identification of such potential mangrove habitat and study of their community dynamics would be helpful to find out the nature of mangrove establishment for future afforestation programme of threatened mangrove species.

  5. Plasma chemistry in wire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an 55Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed

  6. Emulsion Chamber Technology Experiment (ECT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, John C.; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    1996-01-01

    The experimental objective of Emulsion Chamber Technology (ECT) was to develop space-borne emulsion chamber technology so that cosmic rays and nuclear interactions may subsequently be studied at extremely high energies with long exposures in space. A small emulsion chamber was built and flown on flight STS-62 of the Columbia in March 1994. Analysis of the several hundred layers of radiation-sensitive material has shown excellent post-flight condition and suitability for cosmic ray physics analysis at much longer exposures. Temperature control of the stack was 20 +/-1 C throughout the active control period and no significant deviations of temperature or pressure in the chamber were observed over the entire mission operations period. The unfortunate flight attitude of the orbiter (almost 90% Earth viewing) prevented any significant number of heavy particles (Z greater than or equal to 10) reaching the stack and the inverted flow of shower particles in the calorimeter has not allowed evaluation of absolute primary cosmic ray-detection efficiency nor of the practical time limits of useful exposure of these calorimeters in space to the level of detail originally planned. Nevertheless, analysis of the observed backgrounds and quality of the processed photographic and plastic materials after the flight show that productive exposures of emulsion chambers are feasible in low orbit for periods of up to one year or longer. The engineering approaches taken in the ECT program were proven effective and no major environmental obstacles to prolonged flight are evident.

  7. Study of provenance character on ancient celadon of Jin Dynasty produced in Yaozhou Kiln of Lidipo and Shangdian using nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaozhou ware is a typical product of celadon porcelain in northern China. It was very famous for the various color glazes, multiple utensils and unique grain pattern. Yaozhou kiln series were made of Tongchuan, Lidipo, Shangdian, Chenlu kiln site and etc in Shanxi Province of china. It is one of seven kiln series in China. Celadon samples of 63 pieces of sherds were collected, which excavated in stratum of Jin Dynasty (1127-1234A.D.) from Yaozhou kiln of Lidipo and Shangdian sites. The main and trace elements of theses specimens were analyzed by NAA and EDXRF respectively. The contents of 10 main and 18 trace elements were determined precisely. The experimental data are performed with factor and discrimination analysis of statistic method. The result indicates that the trace elements can reveal the provenance character of porcelain better than main compositions.

  8. Tohoku one meter bubble chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of Tohoku University and the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, IHI has developed a complete freon bubble chamber system successfully, which is used for photo analysis of elementary particles physics. This system will be delivered to Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) in Illinois (U.S.A.) and will be coupled with the superconducting accelerator (TEVATRON) for the study of elementary particles. The total system of the freon bubble chamber is composed of a stainless steel casting spherical bubble chamber with a diameter of about one meter, an expansion system for freon pressure control, hydraulic system for driving an expansion piston, a freon feed system, a temperature control system, an overall control system as well as camera and flashlight for photograph. (author)

  9. The CLAS drift chamber system

    CERN Document Server

    Mestayer, M D; Asavapibhop, B; Barbosa, F J; Bonneau, P; Christo, S B; Dodge, G E; Dooling, T; Duncan, W S; Dytman, S A; Feuerbach, R; Gilfoyle, G P; Gyurjyan, V; Hicks, K H; Hicks, R S; Hyde-Wright, C E; Jacobs, G; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Kossov, M; Kuhn, S E; Magahiz, R A; Major, R W; Martin, C; McGuckin, T; McNabb, J; Miskimen, R A; Müller, J A; Niczyporuk, B B; O'Meara, J E; Qin, L M; Raue, B A; Robb, J; Roudot, F; Schumacher, R A; Tedeschi, D J; Thompson, R A; Tilles, D; Tuzel, W; Vansyoc, K; Vineyard, M F; Weinstein, L B; Wilkin, G R; Yegneswaran, A; Yun, J

    2000-01-01

    Experimental Hall B at Jefferson Laboratory houses the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer, the magnetic field of which is produced by a superconducting toroid. The six coils of this toroid divide the detector azimuthally into six sectors, each of which contains three large multi-layer drift chambers for tracking charged particles produced from a fixed target on the toroidal axis. Within the 18 drift chambers are a total of 35,148 individually instrumented hexagonal drift cells. The novel geometry of these chambers provides for good tracking resolution and efficiency, along with large acceptance. The design and construction challenges posed by these large-scale detectors are described, and detailed results are presented from in-beam measurements.

  10. The CLAS drift chamber system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestayer, M.D.; Carman, D.S.; Asavaphibhop, B. [and others

    1999-04-01

    Experimental Hall B at Jefferson Laboratory houses the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer, the magnetic field of which is produced by a superconducting toroid. The six coils of this toroid divide the detector azimuthally into six sectors, each of which contains three large multi-layer drift chambers for tracking charged particles produced from a fixed target on a toroidal axis. Within the 18 drift chambers are a total of 35,148 individually instrumented hexagonal drift cells. The novel geometry of these chambers provides for good tracking resolution and efficiency, along with large acceptance. The design and construction challenges posed by these large-scale detectors are described, and detailed results are presented from in-beam measurements.

  11. "Flat-Fish" Vacuum Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    The picture shows a "Flat-Fish" vacuum chamber being prepared in the ISR workshop for testing prior to installation in the Split Field Magnet (SFM) at intersection I4. The two shells of each part were hydroformed from 0.15 mm thick inconel 718 sheet (with end parts in inconel 600 for easier manual welding to the arms) and welded toghether with two strips which were attached by means of thin stainless steel sheets to the Split Field Magnet poles in order to take the vertical component of the atmospheric pressure force. This was the thinnest vacuum chamber ever made for the ISR. Inconel material was chosen for its high elastic modulus and strenght at chamber bake-out temperature. In this picture the thin sheets transferring the vertical component of the atmosferic pressure force are attached to a support frame for testing. See also 7712182, 7712179.

  12. Impedances of Laminated Vacuum Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burov, A.; Lebedev, V.; /Fermilab

    2011-06-22

    First publications on impedance of laminated vacuum chambers are related to early 70s: those are of S. C. Snowdon [1] and of A. G. Ruggiero [2]; fifteen years later, a revision paper of R. Gluckstern appeared [3]. All the publications were presented as Fermilab preprints, and there is no surprise in that: the Fermilab Booster has its laminated magnets open to the beam. Being in a reasonable mutual agreement, these publications were all devoted to the longitudinal impedance of round vacuum chambers. The transverse impedance and the flat geometry case were addressed in more recent paper of K. Y. Ng [4]. The latest calculations of A. Macridin et al. [5] revealed some disagreement with Ref. [4]; this fact stimulated us to get our own results on that matter. Longitudinal and transverse impendances are derived for round and flat laminated vacuum chambers. Results of this paper agree with Ref. [5].

  13. Chemical and mineralogical alteration of ceramics from a Late Bronze Age kiln at Kommos, Crete: the effect on the formation of a reference group

    OpenAIRE

    Buxeda i Garrigós, Jaume; Kilikoglou, V; Day, P.M.

    2001-01-01

    The formation of reference groups comprises an important procedure in chemical provenance studies of archaeological pottery. Material from ancient kilns is thought to be especially suitable for reference groups, as it comprises a definite unit of past production. Pottery from the Late Minoan IA kiln excavated at Kommos, Crete was analysed in order to produce a reference group in this important area of Minoan ceramic production. The samples were characterized by a combination of techniques pro...

  14. Test chamber for alpha spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Robert P.

    1977-01-01

    Alpha emitters for low-level radiochemical analysis by measurement of alpha spectra are positioned precisely with respect to the location of a surface-barrier detector by means of a chamber having a removable threaded planchet holder. A pedestal on the planchet holder holds a specimen in fixed engagement close to the detector. Insertion of the planchet holder establishes an O-ring seal that permits the chamber to be pumped to a desired vacuum. The detector is protected against accidental contact and resulting damage.

  15. Excavation of the Yue Ware Making Kiln Site at Shimanong, Cixi City,Zhejiang%浙江慈溪市越窑石马弄窑址的发掘

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    浙江省文物考古研究所; 慈溪市文物管理委员会

    2001-01-01

    The Shimanong kiln-site is situated on the shore of the Baiyang Lake at Baiyang village of Minghe town in Cixi city; and, lying about 2.5km apart from the Shanglin Lake area, the producing center of Yue ware, it constituted an important part of the Shanglin Lake Kilns. In 1999, a rescuing excavation on the site revealed a dragon-shaped kiln commonly-seen in the Zhejiang area, which is constructed according to the terrain of the mountain slope and consists of the head, body and tail. The deposits show the superimposition of the kiln's ruins from different periods. To the south of the kiln is a wall constructed of saggers, which must have been remains of an auxiliary building. The porcelain unearthed is celadon, mostly coated with greenish-yellow, green or greenish-gray glaze and featuring variety in type and shape. In addition, there are many kiln implements. The primary deposits revealed in the excavation can be divided into three phases, which go back, respectively, to the turn between the mid and late stages of the Tang period, the final stage of the Tang to the early Five Dynasties period, and the early Northern Song.

  16. Numerical simulation of thermal-hydraulic processes in the riser chamber of installation for clinker production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borsuk Grzegorz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinker burning process has a decisive influence on energy consumption and the cost of cement production. A new problem is to use the process of decarbonization of alternative fuels from waste. These issues are particularly important in the introduction of a two-stage combustion of fuel in a rotary kiln without the typical reactor-decarbonizator. This work presents results of numerical studies on thermal-hydraulic phenomena in the riser chamber, which will be designed to burn fuel in the system where combustion air is supplied separately from the clinker cooler. The mathematical model is based on a combination of two methods of motion description: Euler description for the gas phase and Lagrange description for particles. Heat transfer between particles of raw material and gas was added to the numerical calculations. The main aim of the research was finding the correct fractional distribution of particles. For assumed particle distribution on the first stage of work, authors noted that all particles were carried away by the upper outlet to the preheater tower, what is not corresponding to the results of experimental studies. The obtained results of calculations can be the basis for further optimization of the design and operating conditions in the riser chamber with the implementation of the system.

  17. Numerical simulation of thermal-hydraulic processes in the riser chamber of installation for clinker production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsuk, Grzegorz; Dobrowolski, Bolesław; Nowosielski, Grzegorz; Wydrych, Jacek; Duda, Jerzy

    2016-03-01

    Clinker burning process has a decisive influence on energy consumption and the cost of cement production. A new problem is to use the process of decarbonization of alternative fuels from waste. These issues are particularly important in the introduction of a two-stage combustion of fuel in a rotary kiln without the typical reactor-decarbonizator. This work presents results of numerical studies on thermal-hydraulic phenomena in the riser chamber, which will be designed to burn fuel in the system where combustion air is supplied separately from the clinker cooler. The mathematical model is based on a combination of two methods of motion description: Euler description for the gas phase and Lagrange description for particles. Heat transfer between particles of raw material and gas was added to the numerical calculations. The main aim of the research was finding the correct fractional distribution of particles. For assumed particle distribution on the first stage of work, authors noted that all particles were carried away by the upper outlet to the preheater tower, what is not corresponding to the results of experimental studies. The obtained results of calculations can be the basis for further optimization of the design and operating conditions in the riser chamber with the implementation of the system.

  18. Cement Kiln Process Control Methods%水泥窑头工艺控制方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冰; 何云霄

    2014-01-01

    本文介绍了系统对水泥窑头生产线的组态方法,它使用西门子新型全集成控制系统PCS7,重点分析了关键工艺参数---入窑的二次风量,及其控制要求和影响因素,并提出了它的控制方法。%This paper describes the system configuration method for cement kiln production line that using Siemens new fully integrated control system PCS7, mainly analyzes the critical process parameter- secondary air volume when entering the kiln, the control requirements and influencing factors, and proposes control methods.

  19. Reasons for the Decline of Yue Kilns%试析越窑衰落的原因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白亚松

    2011-01-01

    越窑是中国历史上最早的青瓷名窑之一,它的衰落不仅有自身的原因,还受到外部因素的影响.本文从内外因两个方面对其衰落的原因进行了分析与探讨,旨在揭示历史真相,并给当今的陶瓷业界以启示.%Yue Kilns were one of the earliest kilns for firing celadon wares in Chinese history. They precipitously declined not only for their own reasons, but also for the influence from the outside. This paper is to explore the reasons of their decline from the inside and the outside to disclose the historical truth behind it and to provide some reference for contemporary ceramic communities.

  20. Simulation on Different Proportions of Coal and Natural Gas Co-combustion in a Rotary Lime Kiln

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Gu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Co-combustion of coal and natural gas is a promising technology in the production of active lime. For this technology, proper fuel proportion of coal and natural gas (α is one of the key parameters that requires significant thought. By means of numerical simulation, contrast studies on co-combustion with five different fuel proportions were carried out. This paper firstly puts forward the models used to describe the system based on the actual conditions. Then, numerical simulation results were analysed in detail to illustrate the co-combustion process and the velocity and temperature distribution in the kiln. Finally, comparisons of high temperature region, char conversion, length of calcining zone, CO and NOx emission and total heat transfer rate to the material bed were made in order to make a decision on fuel proportion. Synthetically considering, α=30% is a balance between benefits and costs for the rotary lime kiln studied.

  1. DELPHI's Ring Imaging Cherenkov Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    The hundreds of mirrors around this Ring Imaging Cherenkov Chamber reflect cones of light created by fast moving particles to a detector. The velocity of a particle can be measured by the size of the ring produced on the detector. DELPHI, which ran from 1989 to 2000 on the LEP accelerator, was primarily concerned with particle identification.

  2. Testing an hydrogen streamer chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    A 2x10 cm gap streamer chamber, 35x55 cm2 in surface, was built and tested at CERN. Good tracks of cosmic rays were obtained up to atmospheric pressure, see F. Rohrbach et al, CERN-LAL (Orsay) Collaboration, Nucl. Instr. Methods 141 (1977) 229. Michel Cathenoz stand on the center.

  3. Bubble chamber: colour enhanced tracks

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    This artistically-enhanced image of real particle tracks was produced in the Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC). Liquid hydrogen is used to create bubbles along the paths of the particles as a piston expands the medium. A magnetic field is produced in the detector causing the particles to travel in spirals, allowing charge and momentum to be measured.

  4. The TESLA Time Projection Chamber

    OpenAIRE

    Ghodbane, Nabil

    2002-01-01

    A large Time Projection Chamber is proposed as part of the tracking system for a detector at the TESLA electron positron linear collider. Different ongoing R&D studies are reviewed, stressing progress made on a new type readout technique based on Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors.

  5. The study of Influencing Maintenance Factors on Failures of Two gypsum Kilns by Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Alimohammadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Developing technology and using equipment in Iranian industries caused that maintenance system would be more important to use. Using proper management techniques not only increase the performance of production system but also reduce the failures and costs. The aim of this study was to determine the quality of maintenance system and the effects of its components on failures of kilns in two gypsum production companies using Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA. Furthermore the costs of failures were studied. After the study of gypsum production steps in the factories, FMEA was conducted by the determination of analysis insight, information gathering, making list of kilns’ component and filling up the FMEA’s tables. The effects of failures on production, how to fail, failure rate, failure severity, and control measures were studied. The evaluation of maintenance system was studied by a check list including questions related to system components. The costs of failures were determined by refer in accounting notebooks and interview with the head of accounting department. It was found the total qualities of maintenance system in NO.1 was more than NO.2 but because of lower quality of NO.1’s kiln design, number of failures and their costs were more. In addition it was determined that repair costs in NO.2’s kiln were about one third of NO.1’s. The low severity failures caused the most costs in comparison to the moderate and low ones. The technical characteristics of kilns were appeared to be the most important factors in reducing of failures and costs.

  6. Change Mechanism in Property and Microstruture of Magnesite—chrome Brick for Use in Super H—T Tunnel Kiln

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAOYang; SUNJu; 等

    1998-01-01

    On the basis of determination of property and microstructure of two kinds of primary MgO-Cr2O3 bricks and residual magnesite-chrome bricks for super H-T tunnel kiln,combining with the both residul bricks's application result,the paper expounds the change mechanism of the two kinds of magnesite-chrome bricks during the operation period,especially stresses the advantages of low Cr2O3 MgO-Cr2O3 bricks.

  7. Heavy metals in brick kiln located area using atomic absorption spectrophotometer: a case study from the city of Peshawar, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, M; Khan, Murad Ali; Jan, F Akbar; Ahmad, I

    2010-07-01

    Environmental pollution is one of the burning issues of the world. In developed countries, there are lot of awareness about the environment and the impact of various industries on their life and surroundings. A little has been done in this direction in developing countries. In Pakistan, a big problem is the rapid conglomeration of the brick kilns in the outskirts of nearly all the urban centers to cope with the rapid construction work in big cities. A huge amount of low-grade coal or rubber tires is used as fuel in a very non-scientific manner. The purpose of the present study was to look into the impact of the brick kilns on the different aspects of environmental pollution caused by these kilns. Concentration of metals Cu, Co, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, and Mn were measured on 36 soil samples collected from the area and the same number of plant samples in order to establish the distribution of heavy metals in the area and to determine the effect of this distribution on the surrounding atmosphere and the possible effects on human life.

  8. Secular variation between 5 and 10c CE in Japan: remeasurements of 2000 samples collected between 1960-70's from Sueki earthenware kilns in Osaka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, H.; Mochizuki, N.; Hatakeyama, T.

    2015-12-01

    In Japan, archeomagnetic measurements are vigorously developed for years, though it is not well known to paleomagnetism community in english. One of the works is massive archeomagnetic study of Suemura kiln group carried out in Osaka University in 1960's to early 70's. More than 500 kilns were excavated in Sakai city and vicinities, Osaka Prefecture, Japan. The kiln group is called as Suemura Kilns, and are for Sueki earthenware of 5c to 10c CE. About 300 kilns were sampled and most of the samples were measured at the time, and the results are reported in e.g. Hirooka (1971) and Shibuya (1980). However, the results have significant scatter in direction, which may be due to the limitation of old astatic magnetometer measurements and handwriting graphic determination of magnetic direction, and/or the lack of demagnetization. We recently inherited many of those samples and remeasured them with spinner magnetometer applying alternation field demagnetization (afd). The magnetizations are generally very stable, as usual as other archeomagnetic samples, and afd does not change the magnetic direction mostly. However, significant number of sites show large scatter in magnetic directions, which might be due to the wrong identification of kiln floor or disturbance at the time of collapsing or excavation. Taking kilns of α95<4o, we recovered 131 paleomagnetic directions. Although third of them are dated by pottery shape chronology, the range of each pottery style is not precisely known and the relation of the baked floor and the potteries excavated around kilns are not always clear. The carbon dating of those kilns are very scares. Thus we first try to draw secular variation curve in declination-inclination plot. With the rough ages of those kilns, it is pretty easy to draw the SVC. It is also numerically determined taking the distance of each direction from nearest point in SVC and the velocity change of the SVC as penalty function, within a couple of degrees in the error

  9. Technical Note: Historic gypsum-kilns (Morata de Tajuña, Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llamas Borrajo, J. F.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In the locality of Morata de Tajuña and surroundings there was an important settlement of gypsum pits and limekilns, together with other historical industries, now disappear. These activities were developed mainly during the 1960´s and 70´s, but its production decreased because of changes in the productive processes (substitution of discontinuous processes by continuous ones, higher kilns, etc. (1. Nevertheless, some of these furnaces still remain, as well as ancient workers who have provided important information. Within the research project funded by the Madrid´s Government, entitled: Industrial archaeology: Conservation of the mining and metallurgical heritage of Madrid (IV, ancient gypsum pits have been identified and inventoried. The ancient gypsiferous extraction history was recovered and the productive processes fluxes were reconstructed. The state of the heritage is evaluated and the conservation of some of the elements is recommended. Likewise, the intangible heritage was also investigated, being able to show a legend related with these kilns.En Morata de Tajuña y pueblos limítrofes hay una importante tradición yesera y calera, así como de otras industrias de materiales de la construcción ya desaparecidas, sobre todo en los años 60-70 del pasado siglo, debido a cambios en los sistemas productivos (paso de sistemas discontinuos a continuos, hornos mayores, etc. (1. Por eso aún se conservan algunos hornos y también viven antiguos productores, a los que hemos podido preguntar sobre los procesos productivos. En el marco de un proyecto de investigación de la Consejería de Educación de la Comunidad de Madrid titulado “Arqueología Industrial: conservación del patrimonio minero-metalúrgico madrileño (IV” se están identificando e inventariando viejas yeserías, recuperando la historia yesera local, reconstruyendo los flujos productivos y entrevistando a antiguos operarios. De esta manera, se pretende evaluar

  10. A new plant chamber facility PLUS coupled to the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR

    OpenAIRE

    Hohaus, T.; Kuhn, U.; S. Andres; Kaminski, M.; Rohrer, F.; Tillmann, R.; A. Wahner; R. Wegener; Yu, Z.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.

    2015-01-01

    A new PLant chamber Unit for Simulation (PLUS) for use with the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR (Simulation of Atmospheric PHotochemistry In a large Reaction Chamber) has been build and characterized at the Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Germany. The PLUS chamber is an environmentally controlled flow through plant chamber. Inside PLUS the natural blend of biogenic emissions of trees are mixed with synthetic air and are transferred to the SAPHIR chamber ...

  11. Development of multiwire proportional chambers

    CERN Multimedia

    Charpak, G

    1969-01-01

    It has happened quite often in the history of science that theoreticians, confronted with some major difficulty, have successfully gone back thirty years to look at ideas that had then been thrown overboard. But it is rare that experimentalists go back thirty years to look again at equipment which had become out-dated. This is what Charpak and his colleagues did to emerge with the 'multiwire proportional chamber' which has several new features making it a very useful addition to the armoury of particle detectors. In the 1930s, ion-chambers, Geiger- Muller counters and proportional counters, were vital pieces of equipment in nuclear physics research. Other types of detectors have since largely replaced them but now the proportional counter, in new array, is making a comeback.

  12. LEP vacuum chamber, early prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    The structure of LEP, with long bending magnets and little access to the vacuum chamber between them, required distributed pumping. This is an early prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber, made from extruded aluminium. The main opening is for the beam. The small channel to the right is for cooling water, to carry away the heat deposited by the synchroton radiation from the beam. The 4 slots in the channel to the left house the strip-shaped ion-getter pumps (see 7810255). The ion-getter pumps depended on the magnetic field of the bending magnets, too low at injection energy for the pumps to function well. Also, a different design was required outside the bending magnets. This design was therefore abandoned, in favour of a thermal getter pump (see 8301153 and 8305170).

  13. Actuator System with Dual Chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    (8), the lid having a shaft opening (17) for a shaft (6) coupled to the magnetic rotor (5), wherein the magnetic rotor (5), when inserted in the translator cylinder (2), is arranged to translate a linear movement of the translator cylinder (2) into a rotational movement of the magnetic rotor by using...... magnetic flux (82) interacting between the magnetic stator and the magnetic rotor, said rotational movements is being transferred through a shaft (6), the lid (8) with a shaft opening (17) arranged for receiving the shaft (6), wherein the shaft is arranged to make both the linear and the rotational...... movement in the shaft opening (17), the lid (8) being arranged for confining the second end (15) of the translator cylinder (2), the translator cylinder confined by the lid (8) forms,when divided by the magnetic rotor (5), a first chamber (TC) with a first volume and a second chamber(BC) with a second...

  14. MPS II drift chamber system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platner, E.D.

    1982-01-01

    The MPS II detectors are narrow drift space chambers designed for high position resolution in a magnetic field and in a very high particle flux environment. Central to this implementation was the development of 3 multi-channel custom IC's and one multi-channel hybrid. The system is deadtimeless and requires no corrections on an anode-to-anode basis. Operational experience and relevance to ISABELLE detectors is discussed.

  15. The KEK 1 m hydrogen bubble chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A medium size hydrogen bubble chamber has been constructed at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, KEK. The bubble chamber has been designed to be operated with a maximum rate of three times per half a second in every two second repetition time of the accelerator, by utilizing a hydraulic expansion system. The bubble chamber has a one meter diameter and a visible volume of about 280 l. A three-view stereo camera system is used for taking photographic pictures of the chamber. A 2 MW bubble chamber magnet is constructed. The main part of the bubble chamber vessel is supported by the magnet yoke. The magnet gives a maximum field of 18.4 kG at the centre of the fiducial volume of the chamber. The overall system of the KEK 1 m hydrogen bubble chamber facility is described in some detail. Some operational characteristics of the facility are also reported. (auth.)

  16. NRAO RF Anechoic Chamber & Antenna Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A shielded anechoic chamber measuring 15 by 15 by 37 feet is located in the Jansky Laboratory at Green Bank. This chamber has been outfitted as a far-field antenna...

  17. Processing of maize plants by rotary kiln pyrolysis; Veredlung von Maispflanzen durch Pyrolyse im Drehrohrreaktor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klose, W.; Wiest, W. [Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Energietechnik

    1996-12-31

    The fuel quality of maize plants is to be characterized by short, elementary and thermonalysis. The plants will be pyrolyzed in order to facilitate transport and storage. The formal kinetic parameters of three parallel reactions describing solid matter decomposition are defined by means of TG-DSC, and the reaction enthalpy is measured. Pyrolysis experiments in a rotary kiln converter in the kg range show a strong dependence of the product spectrum on process temperature. In particular, the pyrolysis gas yield increases with temperature at the expense of pyrolysis oil and water. (orig) [Deutsch] Zur energetischen Nutzung von Kulturpflanzen wird die brennstofftechnische Charakterisierung von Maispflanzen durch Kurz-, Elementar- und Thermoanalyse durchgefuehrt. Zur Reduzierung des Aufwands fuer Transport und Lagerung sollen die Pflanzen pyrolysiert weren. Mit Hilfe der TG-DSC werden formalkinetische Parameter von drei Parallelreaktionen zur Beschreibung der Feststoffzersetzung bestimmt und die Reaktionsenthalpie gemessen. Pyrolyseversuche in einem Drehrohrreaktor im Kilogramm-Massstab ergeben eine starke Abhaengigkeit des Produktspektrums von der Prozesstemperatur. Insbesondere steigt die Pyrolysegasausbeute auf Kosten der Bildung von Pyrolyseoel und Wasser mit der Temperatur stark an. (orig)

  18. Hydrothermal Characteristics of Blended Cement Pastes Containing Silica Sand Using Cement Kiln Dust as an Activator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The hydrothermal reactivity of silica sand was studied using cement kiln dust (CKD) as an activator in addition to the Portlandcement fraction of El-Karnak cement (a blend of ordinary Portland cement and ground sand). Autoclaved El-Karnak cementpastes were studied at pressures of 0.507, 1.013 and 1.520 MPa of saturated steam with respect to their compressive strength,kinetics of hydrothermal reaction and the phase composition of the formed hydrates. The role of CKD in affecting thephysicochemical and mechanical properties of El-Karnak cement pastes was studied by autoclaving of several pastes containing5, 7.5, 10 and 20% CKD at a pressure of 1.013 MPa of saturated steam. CKD was added either as a raw CKD (unwashed) orafter washing with water (washed CKD). The results of these physicochemical studies obtained could be related as much aspossible to the role of CKD (raw or washed) in affecting the hydrothermal reactivity of silica sand in El-Karnak cement pastes.

  19. Thermal Treatment of Mercury Mine Wastes Using a Rotary Solar Kiln

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Navarro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal desorption, by a rotary kiln of mercury contaminated soil and mine wastes, has been used in order to volatilize mercury from the contaminated medium. Solar thermal desorption is an innovative treatment that uses solar energy to increase the volatility of contaminants, which are removed from a solid matrix by a controlled air flow system. Samples of soils and mine wastes used in the experiments were collected in the abandoned Valle del Azogue mine (SE, Spain, where a complex ore, composed mainly of cinnabar, arsenic minerals (realgar and orpiment and stibnite, was mined. The results showed that thermal treatment at temperatures >400 °C successfully lowered the Hg content (2070–116 ppm to <15 mg kg−1. The lowest values of mercury in treated samples were obtained at a higher temperature and exposition time. The samples that showed a high removal efficiency (>99% were associated with the presence of significant contents of cinnabar and an equivalent diameter above 0.8 mm.

  20. Method for determining effective flame emissivity in a rotary kiln incinerator burning solid waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-cai DU; Qun-xing HUANG; Jian-hua YAN

    2012-01-01

    Temperature is the most important parameter for the improvement of combustion efficiency and the control of pollutants.In order to obtain accurate flame temperatures in a rotary kiln incinerator using non-intrusive thermographic method,the effective flame emissivity was studied.A combined narrow- and wide-band model and Mie scattering method were used to calculate the radiative properties for gases and fly-ash particles under different combustion conditions.The effects of the air/waste ratio and fly-ash particles on the effective flame emissivity were discussed.The results of numerical calculations showed that the effective emissivity decreased from 0.90 to 0.80 when the air/waste ratio increased from 1.0 to 1.8,and the effect of the fly-ash particles was ignorable under the conditions discussed in this paper.Experimental measurement results indicated that the accuracy of the thermographic temperature measurements improved significantly if the setting of the flame emissivity was adjusted according to the air/waste ratio.

  1. Action-Dependent Adaptive Critic Design Based Neurocontroller for Cement Precalciner Kiln

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baosheng Yang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many factors that can affect the calciner process of cement production, such as highly nonlinearity and time-lag, making it very difficult to establish an accurate model of the cement precalciner kiln (PCK system. In order to reduce transport energy consumption and to ensure the quality of cement clinker burning, one needs to explore different control methods from the traditional way. Adaptive Critic Design (ACD integrated neural network, reinforcement learning and dynamic programming techniques, is a new optimal method. As the PCK system parameters change frequently with high real-time property, ADACD (Action-Dependant ACD algorithm is used in PCK system to control the temperature of furnace export and oxygen content of exhaust. ADACD does not depend on the system model, it may use historical data to train a controller offline, and then adapt online. Also the BP network of artificial neural network is used to accomplish the network modeling, and action and critic modules of the algorithm. The results of simulation show that, after the fluctuations in the early control period, the controlled parameters tend to be stabilized guaranteeing the quality of cement clinker calcining.

  2. FTIR spectroscopic features of γ-ray influence on new cement kiln dust based glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddeek, Yasser B.; Mohamed, Gehan Y.; Shokry Hassan, H.; Mostafa, A. M. A.; Abd elfadeel, G.

    2015-08-01

    A harmful environmental problem such as cement kiln dust (CKD) was considered as a source of CaO and SiO2, which are useful oxides for the glass industry. So, Na2O, B2O3, Bi2O3, PbO and CKD were used to fabricate new borate based glasses. The structure of the prepared glasses was studied by FTIR before and after gamma irradiation at doses up to 120 kGy. Analysis of FTIR before irradiation revealed that CKD split the characteristic broad band of the vibrations of BO3 structural units into two bands and created two effective ranges of concentrations which were confirmed by N4 calculations. After gamma irradiation, the intensity of the FTIR bands decreased and the structure of glass was weakened when 0 ≤ CKD ≤ 23.5 mol% as a result of energy transferred by gamma rays. Increasing CKD beyond this limit created bridging oxygens, more covalent bonds and interlinked the structural groups of the glass network which may resist the irradiation effects. The glass containing 32 mol% of CKD showed higher resistance for radiation effects which was attributed to its strong covalent bonds and to [BiO6] and [PbO6] structural units.

  3. Growing and analyzing biofilms in flow chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Sternberg, Claus

    2011-01-01

    This unit describes the setup of flow chamber systems for the study of microbial biofilms, and methods for the analysis of structural biofilm formation. Use of flow chambers allows direct microscopic investigation of biofilm formation. The biofilms in flow chambers develop under hydrodynamic......, and disassembly and cleaning of the system. In addition, embedding and fluorescent in situ hybridization of flow chamber-grown biofilms are addressed....

  4. LEP vacuum chamber cross-section

    CERN Multimedia

    1987-01-01

    This diagram shows the layout of the vacuum chambers used at LEP, which was in operation at CERN between 1989 and 2000. Vacuum chambers are necessary in accelerators to prevent unwanted interactions that can destabilise the beam. The pump on the right sucks air out of the chamber allowing the beam to progress with minimal interactions.

  5. A cryogenic chamber for scattering measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, M. I.; Chepel, V.; Kuchenkov, A.; Gonçalves, O. D.; Schechter, H.

    1999-01-01

    We have constructed a cryogenic chamber to measure scattering cross sections of photons in liquids of low-boiling point. The chamber was tested with liquid xenon using a 137Cs radioactive source emitting 662 keV photons. The spectra obtained are presented and analyzed, attesting the good performance of the chamber for the desired purposes.

  6. Subminiature fission chamber with gas tight penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fission chambers suffer from gas leaks at electric feed-trough. This micro chamber suppresses that defect thanks to an alumina plug and welded seal of the chamber sleeve. This device is easy to produce at industrial scale with reduced dimensions (1,5 mm diameter, 25 mm length). It can work with 30 m long feeding cables. (D.L.). 3 figs

  7. Vacuum chamber at intersection I-6

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    The vacuum chamber at intersection region I-6, one of these where experiments in colliding-beam physics will be taking place. The "wheels" prevent the thin wall (1.5 mm) of the chamber from collapsing. The chamber is equipped with heating tapes and its wrapped in thermal insulation. Residual gas pressure at this and other similar regions is around 10_11.

  8. A Sensitive Cloud Chamber without Radioactive Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeze, Syoji; Itoh, Akio; Oyama, Ayu; Takahashi, Haruka

    2012-01-01

    We present a sensitive diffusion cloud chamber which does not require any radioactive sources. A major difference from commonly used chambers is the use of a heat sink as its bottom plate. The result of a performance test of the chamber is given. (Contains 8 figures.)

  9. Simple Cloud Chambers Using Gel Ice Packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Masahiro; Kubota, Miki

    2012-01-01

    Although cloud chambers are highly regarded as teaching aids for radiation education, school teachers have difficulty in using cloud chambers because they have to prepare dry ice or liquid nitrogen before the experiment. We developed a very simple and inexpensive cloud chamber that uses the contents of gel ice packs which can substitute for dry…

  10. Honeycomb Ceramics Firing in Shuttle Kiln and Its Energy Consumption%梭式窑烧制蜂窝陶瓷及能耗分折

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张全胜; 刘艳春; 曾令可

    2015-01-01

    梭式窑在陶瓷工业的应用非常广泛,是一种新型的间歇式陶瓷窑炉。本文通过采用梭式窑烧制蜂窝陶瓷的实践,从窑体、窑车的材料选取,码坯方式以及烧嘴和烟道的布设等方面分析了影响梭式窑内温度的主要因素及能耗高的原因,并提出了降低能耗的一些方法。%Shuttle kiln, a new type of intermittent ceramic kiln, is widely-used in ceramic industry. This paper analyzes the main factors that affect the temperature of shuttle kiln and the causes of its high energy consumption from the construction materials of kiln and kiln car, the loading modes and the layout of burners and gas ducts, and puts forth some methods for lowering its energy consumption.

  11. Experimental work on drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental work made on drift chambers is described in two chapters. In the firt chapter we present the description of the experimental installation used, as well as some details on the data adquisition systems and the characteristics on three ways used for calibration proposes (cosmic muons, β radiation and test beam using SPS at CERN facilities). The second chapter describes the defferent prototypes studied. The experimental set up and the analysis are given. Some results are discussed. The magnetic field effect is also studied. (Author)

  12. Pupillary block glaucoma following implantation of a posterior chamber pseudophakos in the anterior chamber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Anil

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Pupillary block glaucoma is a common complication of cataract surgery, especially following anterior chamber intraocular lens implantation. We report a case of pupillary block glaucoma with a posterior chamber IOL that was implanted in the anterior chamber following a complicated extracapsular cataract extraction. The case was successfully managed by explantation of the posterior chamber lens, anterior vitrectomy, peripheral iridectomy and secondary anterior chamber intraocular lens implantation. The intraocular pressure was controlled with a single topical antiglaucoma medication.

  13. Assessment of environmental pollution from brick kilns and their impacts on human health in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricks are the most essential component for expanding urbanization in Bangladesh. Brick kilns situated all over the country meet the demand of these bricks. But brick fields are causing some environmental problems too. The objective of this study is to identify the pattern of energy consumption in brick fields as well as their impacts on the environment. An attempt has been made to estimate the emission of pollutants (Green house gases and non- green house gases) from brick fields to assess the impacts of the pollutants on human health of the surrounding areas. In Bangladesh, the total number of brick fields is around 6000. Brick fields use coal, wood fuel and crude a mainly for burning bricks in the kiln. Estimation reveals that in Bangladesh for the years 2003-2004, the coal required was 1800 kton while the wood fuel required was 1260 kton. Estimation also reveals that for Bangladesh the annual emission of the pollutants are 7505931.01 tons CO/sub 2/, 943.93 tons CH/sub 4/, 128.40 tons N/sub 2/O, 21763.49 tons NO/sub x/, 40777.21 tons CO, 1698.48 tons NMVOC and 176223.04 tons SO/sub 2/. CO/sub 2/ emission is the most prominent from brick burning. Estimation shows that, for the present level of CO/sub 2/ emission in Bangladesh yearly afforestation required is about 1.4 x 10/sup 9/9 m/sup 2/ area. The emission causes some health problems among both the workers and local inhabitants. The concentration persist around brick fields (200 m) is very high and is 3000 micro g/m/sup 3/ for SO/sub 2/ and 300 micro g/m/sup 3/ for NO/sub x/ and PM-10 during winter, while for summer the concentration is 1000 micro g/m/sup 3/ and 125 micro g/m/sup 3/ respectively. From the high concentration of these pollutants people face some of the health problems. About 30% of the workers suffer from dizziness while 60% feel fatigue. The headache is the most common problem of all the workers and 75% suffer from it. Those working for many years feel fatigue more than the new comers, 55% and 3

  14. Stabilization/solidification of selenium-impacted soils using Portland cement and cement kiln dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Grubb, Dennis G; Reilly, Trevor L

    2009-09-15

    Stabilization/solidification (S/S) processes were utilized to immobilize selenium (Se) as selenite (SeO(3)(2-)) and selenate (SeO(4)(2-)). Artificially contaminated soils were prepared by individually spiking kaolinite, montmorillonite and dredged material (DM; an organic silt) with 1000 mg/kg of each selenium compound. After mellowing for 7 days, the Se-impacted soils were each stabilized with 5, 10 and 15% Type I/II Portland cement (P) and cement kiln dust (C) and then were cured for 7 and 28 days. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the S/S treatments. At 28 days curing, P doses of 10 and 15% produced five out of six TCLP-Se(IV) concentrations below 10mg/L, whereas only the 15% C in DM had a TCLP-Se(IV) concentration pozzolan doses up to 10 times less than the treatments that established the BDAT. Neither pozzolan was capable of reducing the TCLP-Se(VI) concentrations below 25mg/L. Se-soil-cement slurries aged for 30 days enabled the identification of Se precipitates by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). XRD and SEM-EDX analyses of the Se(IV)- and Se(VI)-soil-cement slurries revealed that the key selenium bearing phases for all three soil-cement slurries were calcium selenite hydrate (CaSeO(3).H(2)O) and selenate substituted ettringite (Ca(6)Al(2)(SeO(4))(3)(OH)(12).26H(2)O), respectively.

  15. Stabilization/solidification of selenium-impacted soils using Portland cement and cement kiln dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Deok Hyun, E-mail: dmoon10@hotmail.com [W.M. Keck Geoenvironmental Laboratory, Center for Environmental Systems, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States); Department of Environmental Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Grubb, Dennis G. [W.M. Keck Geoenvironmental Laboratory, Center for Environmental Systems, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States); Schnabel Engineering, LLC, 510 East Gay Street, West Chester, PA 19380 (United States); Reilly, Trevor L. [W.M. Keck Geoenvironmental Laboratory, Center for Environmental Systems, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Stabilization/solidification (S/S) processes were utilized to immobilize selenium (Se) as selenite (SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}) and selenate (SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-}). Artificially contaminated soils were prepared by individually spiking kaolinite, montmorillonite and dredged material (DM; an organic silt) with 1000 mg/kg of each selenium compound. After mellowing for 7 days, the Se-impacted soils were each stabilized with 5, 10 and 15% Type I/II Portland cement (P) and cement kiln dust (C) and then were cured for 7 and 28 days. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the S/S treatments. At 28 days curing, P doses of 10 and 15% produced five out of six TCLP-Se(IV) concentrations below 10 mg/L, whereas only the 15% C in DM had a TCLP-Se(IV) concentration <10 mg/L. Several treatments satisfied the USEPA TCLP best demonstrated available technology (BDAT) limits (5.7 mg/L) for selenium at pozzolan doses up to 10 times less than the treatments that established the BDAT. Neither pozzolan was capable of reducing the TCLP-Se(VI) concentrations below 25 mg/L. Se-soil-cement slurries aged for 30 days enabled the identification of Se precipitates by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). XRD and SEM-EDX analyses of the Se(IV)- and Se(VI)-soil-cement slurries revealed that the key selenium bearing phases for all three soil-cement slurries were calcium selenite hydrate (CaSeO{sub 3}.H{sub 2}O) and selenate substituted ettringite (Ca{sub 6}Al{sub 2}(SeO{sub 4}){sub 3}(OH){sub 12}.26H{sub 2}O), respectively.

  16. Soil stratigraphy of charcoal kiln remains (CKR) in the Litchfield Hills, CT, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Thomas; Hirsch, Florian; Ouimet, Will; Dethier, David

    2016-04-01

    Charcoal kiln relicts (CKRs) are small anthropogenic landforms that are often found in historic mining areas. CKRs have not been a big research topic yet but mainly were studied as by-products of archaeological excavations. In the last years newly available and very accurate Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) based on high-resolution Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) data have been used to identify these archaeological remains. In addition, findings of several thousands CKRs in the North German Lowland have increased the awareness that historical charcoal production may significantly contribute to Late Holocene landscape change. Besides the archaeological aspect of CKRs, potential impacts of charcoal burning on the ecology of modern soil landscapes and ecosystem processes must be considered. A relatively high density of CKRs is found in the Litchfield Hills nearby the town of West Cornwall, Litchfield County, CT, USA. The CKRs are especially well preserved on slopes of the tributary valleys of the Housatonic River and form little, circular ramparts with diameters normally less than ten meters. First, rough field surveys in Litchfield County in spring 2015 have suggested differences between soils inside and outside the CKR. Soils on the CKR seem to have relatively deep humus-rich and charcoal containing topsoils whereas the topsoils outside the CKR appear typically thinner and less rich in humus. More thorough investigations have been started in autumn 2015 to prove the hypothesis that properties, distribution and development of soils are controlled by archaeological remains of historical charcoal burning. We present preliminary results from our field studies conducted in October 2015. The stratigraphy and the extent of the 26 CKRs were studied using a sedimentological-pedological approach by coring and trenching. Our results indicate that in Litchfield County the CKRs were used twice and in quick succession. Before the second reuse, the rim of the platform was stabilized

  17. Increasing Energy Efficiency and Reducing Emissions from China's Cement Kilns. Audit Report of Two Cement Plants in Shandong Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Thekdi, Arvind [E3M, Inc., St. Paul, MN (United States); Lan, Wang [China Building Materials Academy, Beijing (China)

    2011-07-01

    The study documented in this report was initiated in order to conduct an energy assessment and to identify the relationship between combustion issues and emissions from cement kilns. A new suspension preheater/precalciner (NSP) rotary cement kiln at one cement manufacturing facility (referred to as Shui Ni 1 in this report) and a vertical shaft kiln (VSK) at another cement manufacturing facility (referred to as Shui Ni 2 in this report), which are both in Shandong Province, were selected to conduct the energy and emission assessments through collection of data. Based on analysis of the data collected during this assessment, several actions are suggested that could lead to reduction in coal use and reduction in emission of gaseous pollutants from the system.

  18. THE ARTISTIC STYLE OF GUAN KILN CELADON DURING THE SOUTHERN SONG DYNASTY%南宋官窑青瓷的艺术风格

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余卫华

    2011-01-01

    Song dynasty is the peak period of Chinese ceramic art, among which, Southern Song dynasty Guan Kiln celadon is the most graceful bearing. Based on documents and archaeological materials, the paper expounds the genesis of Song dynasty Guan Kiln, explores the artistic style, and analyses the formation causes of the artistic style of southern Song dynasty Guan Kiln.%宋代是中国陶瓷艺术的巅峰期,其中又以南宋官窑青瓷最具风神.文章以出土实物、传世品和文献资料为基础,论述了官窑的缘起,探讨了南宋官窑青瓷的艺术风格,分析了南宋官窑青瓷艺术风格的成因.

  19. PIXE analysis of proto-porcelain excavated from the Huoshaoshan kiln site in Deqing County, Zhejiang Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Zhejiang Province is an important producing area of proto-porcelain. Huoshaoshan kiln site in Deqing County is the only kiln known currently for firing proto-porcelain from the late Western Zhou Dynasty to the late Spring and Autumn Period. Also it is the earliest kiln site unearthed for only firing proto-porcelain so far. It is of great significance for the exploration of Chinese early celadon firing technology. Purpose: The aim is to disclose the elemental characteristics of these proto-porcelains and study the sources of the raw materials and relationship between these proto-porcelains. Methods: We selected 18 samples made at the early period (from the late Western Zhou Dynasty to the early Spring and Autumn Period), 15 samples made at the middle and last period (the last period of the middle Spring and Autumn Period), and 17 samples made at the last period (the last period of the late Spring and Autumn Period). Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was used to analyze these samples and measure the chemical compositions of these proto-porcelains. The factor analysis is used to study the sources of the raw materials and relationship between these proto-porcelains made in the different periods. Results: The results show that for the raw materials of body and glaze, the proto-porcelains at the last period are different from those at the early period, while the same as those at the middle and last period. Conclusion: PIXE combining with factor analysis can be used to study effectively the sources of the raw materials and relationship between these proto-porcelains. (authors)

  20. Emissions behavior and distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) from cement kilns in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tong; Guo, Ying; Li, Xiaodong; Lu, Shengyong; Yan, Jianhua

    2014-03-01

    The production of cement in China is accompanied by various emissions, such as fine particulate matter, heavy metals, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon dioxide…. Moreover, cement kiln presents a potential health risk to its surroundings, linking to emissions of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), in brief dioxins. Flue gas samples were collected from five typical cement kilns during twelve runs and were used to evaluate the levels and distribution of PCDD/Fs in the emissions from cement kilns. The PCDD/Fs concentrations (136 congeners) and I-TEQ values ranged from 2.3 to >40 ng/m(3) and 9.3~90.8 × 10(-3) ng I-TEQ/m(3), respectively, which were lower than the emission standard in China (0.1 ng I-TEQ/m(3)). In weight units, the dominant congeners were OCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, and OCDF; 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF is the largest contributor (36-66 %) to the total I-TEQ value of twelve runs. HxCDF and TCDF were the first two most abundant homologue groups (12-85 and 4-52 %), and the homologue concentration decreased with rising chlorine number for PCDDs. In addition, there was no marked difference in homologue profiles when solid wastes (refuse-derived fuel and municipal solid waste) and hazardous wastes (DDT and POPs) were combusted as supplemental fuels. The use of various supplemental fuels had no obvious effect on the fingerprint of PCDD/F homologues. Moreover, there was no significant difference in levels of PCDD/Fs emission due to the diversity of production capacity, which were consistent with reported previously. Air pollution control device had effect on the homologue profiles, and cement system with electrostatic precipitators (ESP) had more fractions of octachloro congeners to the total. PMID:24306724

  1. Physicist makes muon chamber sing

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    This Monitored Drift Tube detector, consisting of argon-CO2-filled aluminium tubes with a wire down the centre of each, will track muons in ATLAS; Tiecke used a single tube from one of these detectors to create the pipes in his organ. Particle physicists can make good musicians; but did you know particle detectors can make good music? That's what NIKHEF physicist Henk Tiecke learned when he used pipes cut from the ATLAS Monitored Drift Tube detector (MDT) to build his own working Dutch-style barrel organ in the autumn of 2005. 'I like to work with my hands,' said Tiecke, who worked as a senior physicist at NIKHEF, Amsterdam, on ZEUS until his retirement last summer. Tiecke had already constructed his barrel organ when he visited some colleagues in the ATLAS muon chambers production area at Nikhef in 2005. He noticed that the aluminium tubes they were using to build the chambers were about three centimetres in diameter-just the right size for a pipe in a barrel organ. 'The sound is not as nice as from wooden...

  2. Limits to Drift Chamber Resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Riegler, Werner

    1998-01-01

    ATLAS (A Large Toroidal LHC Apparatus) will be a general-purpose experiment at the Large Hadron Collider that will be operational at CERN in the year 2004. The ATLAS muon spectrometer aims for a momentum resolution of 10% for a transverse momentum of pT=1TeV. The precision tracking devices in the muon system will be high pressure drift tubes (MDTs) with a single wire resolution of 1100 chambers covering an area of ≈ 2500m2. The high counting rates in the spectrometer as well as the aim for excellent spatial resolution and high efficiency put severe constraints on the MDT operating parameters. This work describes a detailed study of all the resolution limiting factors in the ATLAS environment. A ’full chain’ simulation of the MDT response to photons and charged particles as well as quantitative comparisons with measurements was performed. The good agreement between simulation and measurements resulted in a profound understanding of the drift chamber processes and the individual contributions to the spat...

  3. Comparison of medieval decorated floor-tiles with clay and tile fragments from the kilns at Bistrup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1976 two tile kilns with numerous wasters of ornamented tiles were excavated at Bistrup near Roskilde. Identical ornaments had earlier been found on floor-tiles from seven sites, mainly churches, in north and east Zealand. The question arose whether some of these tiles were made locally or whether all tiles carrying this particular ornamentation were made at Bistrup. Preliminary results obtained from a comparison of the tiles with material from Bistrup means of neutron activation analysis indicate that not all tiles were made at Bistrup. (author)

  4. Neutron-chamber detectors and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detector applications in Nuclear Safeguards and Waste Management have included measuring neutrons from fission and (alpha,n) reactions with well-moderated neutron proportional counters, often embedded in a slab of polyethylene. Other less-moderated geometries are useful for detecting both bare and moderated fission-source neutrons with good efficiency. The neutron chamber is an undermoderated detector design comprising a large, hollow, polyethylene-walled chamber containing one or more proportional counters. Neutron-chamber detectors are relatively inexpensive; can have large apertures, usually through a thin chamber wall; and offer very good detection efficiency per dollar. Neutron-chamber detectors have also been used for monitoring vehicles and for assaying large crates of transuranic waste. Our Monte Carlo calculations for a new application (monitoring low-density waste for concealed plutonium) illustrate the advantages of the hollow-chamber design for detecting moderated fission sources. 9 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  5. A mathematical model of aerosol holding chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zak, M; Madsen, J; Berg, E;

    1999-01-01

    A mathematical model of aerosol delivery from holding chambers (spacers) was developed incorporating tidal volume (VT), chamber volume (Vch), apparatus dead space (VD), effect of valve insufficiency and other leaks, loss of aerosol by immediate impact on the chamber wall, and fallout of aerosol...... in the chamber with time. Four different spacers were connected via filters to a mechanical lung model, and aerosol delivery during "breathing" was determined from drug recovery from the filters. The formula correctly predicted the delivery of budesonide aerosol from the AeroChamber (Trudell Medical, London......, Ontario, Canada), NebuChamber (Astra, Södirtälje, Sweden) and Nebuhaler (Astra) adapted for babies. The dose of fluticasone proportionate delivered by the Babyhaler (Glaxco Wellcome, Oxbridge, Middlesex, UK) was 80% of that predicted, probably because of incomplete priming of this spacer. Of the above...

  6. Repatriation of Gamma Chambers Exported by India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT) is engaged in the production and supply of laboratory gamma chambers. The gamma chambers are self-shielded devices in which a number of 60Co source pencils placed in a cylindrical cage. The gamma chambers are type approved as a device and a transportation package separately by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board. BRIT has exported number of such gamma chambers. For some of the gamma chambers, the type approval validity period is over and can no longer be transported. Hence, the radiation sources need to be transferred to a type approved package before transportation. BRIT has decommissioned five such gamma chambers so far and sources have been repatriated back to India. (author)

  7. Legacies of the bubble chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legacies are what we pass on to those who follow us, the foundations on which the next advances in our science are being made; the things by which we shall be remembered, recorded in learned journals, written in the text books -food for the historians of science. This is not a summary, and it will draw no conclusions. It is a personal view which will look a little wider than the main physics results to include a mention of one or two of the technologies and methods handed on to both particle physics and other branches of sciences, a brief reference to bubble chamber pictures as aids in teaching, and a comment on the challenge now increasingly applied in the UK - and perhaps elsewhere -as a criterion for funding research: will it contribute to ''wealth creation''? (orig.)

  8. Drift chamber tracking with neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss drift chamber tracking with a commercial log VLSI neural network chip. Voltages proportional to the drift times in a 4-layer drift chamber were presented to the Intel ETANN chip. The network was trained to provide the intercept and slope of straight tracks traversing the chamber. The outputs were recorded and later compared off line to conventional track fits. Two types of network architectures were studied. Applications of neural network tracking to high energy physics detector triggers is discussed

  9. Vacuum Chamber for the Booster Bending Magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    To minimize eddy currents, induced by the rising magnetic field, the chamber was made from thin stainless steel of high specific electric resistance. For mechanical stength, it was corrugated in a hydro-forming process. The chamber is curved, to follow the beam's orbital path. Under vacuum, the chamber tends to staighten, the ceramic spacer along half of its length keeps it in place (see also 7402458).

  10. Vapor wall deposition in Teflon chambers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, X; R. H. Schwantes; R. C. McVay; H Lignell; M. M. Coggon; Flagan, R C; Seinfeld, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Teflon chambers are ubiquitous in studies of atmospheric chemistry. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation can be substantially underestimated owing to deposition of SOA-forming compounds to chamber walls. We present here an experimental protocol to constrain the nature of wall deposition of organic vapors in Teflon chambers. We measured the wall deposition rates of 25 oxidized organic compounds generated from the photooxidation of isoprene, toluene, α-pinene, and dodecan...

  11. Bubble chamber: Omega production and decay

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    This image is taken from one of CERN's bubble chambers and shows the decay of a positive kaon in flight. The decay products of this kaon can be seen spiraling in the magnetic field of the chamber. The invention of bubble chambers in 1952 revolutionized the field of particle physics, allowing real tracks left by particles to be seen and photographed by expanding liquid that has been heated to boiling point.

  12. Drift chamber tracking with neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, C.S.; Denby, B.; Haggerty, H.

    1992-10-01

    We discuss drift chamber tracking with a commercial log VLSI neural network chip. Voltages proportional to the drift times in a 4-layer drift chamber were presented to the Intel ETANN chip. The network was trained to provide the intercept and slope of straight tracks traversing the chamber. The outputs were recorded and later compared off line to conventional track fits. Two types of network architectures were studied. Applications of neural network tracking to high energy physics detector triggers is discussed.

  13. D0 central tracking chamber performance studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzuto, D.

    1991-12-01

    The performance of the completed DO central tracking chamber was studied using cosmic rays at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. Also studied was a prototype tracking chamber identical in design to the completed DO tracking chamber. The prototype chamber was exposed to a collimated beam of 150 GeV pions at the Fermilab NWA test facility. Results indicate an R{Phi} tracking resolution compatible with the limitations imposed by physical considerations, excellent 2 track resolution, and a high track reconstruction efficiency along with a good rejection power against {gamma} {yields} e {sup +} e{sup {minus}} events.

  14. D0 central tracking chamber performance studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of the completed DO central tracking chamber was studied using cosmic rays at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. Also studied was a prototype tracking chamber identical in design to the completed DO tracking chamber. The prototype chamber was exposed to a collimated beam of 150 GeV pions at the Fermilab NWA test facility. Results indicate an RΦ tracking resolution compatible with the limitations imposed by physical considerations, excellent 2 track resolution, and a high track reconstruction efficiency along with a good rejection power against γ → e + e- events

  15. Bicone vacuum chamber for ISR intersection

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    This is one of the bicone chambers made of titanium for experiment R 702. The central corrugated part had a very thin titanium wall (0.28 mm). The first of these chambers collapsed in its central part when baked at 300 C (August 1975). After an intensive effort to develop better quality and reproducible welds for this special material, the ISR workshop was able to build two new chambers of this type. One of them was installed at I 7 for R 702 in 1976 and worked perfectly. It was at that time the most "transparent" intersection vacuum chamber. See also 7609219, 7609221.

  16. Precision Radio Frequency Anechoic Chamber Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Performs measurements and calibration of antennas for satellites and aircraft or groundbased systems. The chamber is primarily used for optimizing antenna...

  17. Removal of lead by using Raschig rings manufactured with mixture of cement kiln dust, zeolite and bentonite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, A; Afshin, H; Behsaz, H

    2012-07-15

    The present investigation is a follow-up of study on manufacturing Raschig ring for removal of lead from aqueous solution. The mixtures were formulated using cement kiln dust, zeolite, and bentonite, normally used as natural adsorbents in the industrial scale, according to mixture design algorithm and response surface method. The pastes were prepared by addition of 28.0wt.% de-ionized water, containing 0.1wt.% carboxymethyl cellulose, with mixed powders. The adsorbents were fabricated by extrusion of the pastes in Raschig ring form and calcination at 500°C after drying in oven. The effects of starting materials on the mechanical behavior of rings were studied from view point of mixture design algorithm to optimize the adsorbent composition. This method demonstrated to yield valuable information on the effects of used materials on mechanical characteristics. The study concluded that the strength, reliability and sorption capacity of ring can be simultaneously optimized by the addition of 47.5wt.% cement kiln dust, 32.5wt.% zeolite, and 20.0wt.% bentonite. In the next part of work, the sorption kinetics was investigated. The kinetic study indicated that the modified model can successfully correlate the sorption data. The equilibrium result showed the possibility of lead immobilization by fabricated rings. PMID:22608209

  18. Waste Heat Recovery by Closed-Loop Oscillating Heat Pipe with Check Valve from Pottery Kilns for Energy Thrift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Meena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to design, construct and test the waste heat recovery by closed-loop oscillating heat pipe with check valve from pottery kilns for energy thrift, were used the working fluids with a filling ratio of 50%. The (CLOHO/CV was made of copper capillary tube with inside diameter of 2.03 mm. The lengths of evaporator and condenser section were 20 cm. The lengths of adiabatic section 10 cm. The number of turn was 40 meandering turns. The ratio of number of check valves was 0.04. The evaporator section was heated by hot gas, while the condenser section was cooled by fresh air. From the experiment, it indicated that the working fluid changes form water to R123, the heat transfer rate increased to 4,800 and 7,900 Watts and the effectiveness increased from 0.32 to 0.44. The CLOHP/CV heat exchanger can reduce the quantity of using gas in pottery kilns and achieve energy thrift.

  19. Former charcoal kiln sites where forest was cleared for cultivation: a case study of old biochar in cropland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Brieuc; Dufey, Joseph E.; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The use of biochar as a soil amendment is being increasingly investigated as a win-win solution for mitigating the anthropic CO2 emissions and improving soil fertility. However, data on the long term impact of chars on soil properties are scarce, although they are crucial for better understanding the implications of large scale application of highly persistent biochars to soil. In Wallonia (Belgium), old charcoal kilns are found in most of the area that was forested in the late 18th century. Since then, a non-negligible part of the forest has been cleared for cultivation. Today, old charcoal-making platforms can be seen on bare soils as circular or elliptic black spots due to charcoal enrichment. In order to assess the long-term (>200 years) effects of biochar on soil chemical properties, seventeen kiln sites were chosen in several cropland areas of Wallonia on loessic luvisols (14) and loamy cambisols (3). Composite samples were taken in the ploughing layer (0 - 25 cm) and the underlying horizon (35 - 50 cm) in and out the kiln sites. The pH, total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents, oxidizable carbon (CW&B), available phosphorus (Pav), cation exchange capacity at pH 7 (CEC), exchangeable cations content (Ca++, Mg++, K+, Na+) and loss on ignition at 550°C (LI550) were measured. In order to assess the impact of cultivation on charcoal aging, we also sampled four kiln sites on loessic luvisols under forest. Here, we show that charcoal, diluted laterally by successive tillage, acts as a carbon surplus in the topsoil layer of the black spots. The charcoal-enriched horizon is characterized by higher CEC, C/N and C/LI550 ratio compared to the reference soil. Cultivation of former forest soils accelerates charcoal aging, likely due to a combined effect of mechanical (tillage splits charcoal fragments in smaller pieces and increases soil aeration) and biological actions (promoted by improved trophic conditions due to application of amendments and fertilizers over many

  20. First industrial scale pre combustion chamber at the Wildegg cement plant; Premiere chambre de precombustion industrielle pour pneux usages a la cimenterie de Wildegg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertschinger, P. [Jura-Cement-Fabriken, Wildegg (Switzerland)

    2001-10-01

    This article presents the main components of the Wildegg cement plant of Jura-Cement-Fabriken company (Switzerland): a roller mill for the production of raw meal, a four-stage cyclone preheater, a staggered combustion calciner, a rotary kiln, and a reciprocating grate cooler. The article stresses on the design and test-phase of the pre-calciner and of the pre-combustion chamber for the use of used tyres as fuel substitutes with the goals of reaching up to 60-80% of tyres in the total pre-calciner fuel and without residues. The use of tyres has had no negative effect on the pollutant emissions with unchanged CO and VOC emissions and NO{sub x} emissions actually reduced by up to 40%. (J.S.)

  1. Jian-Kiln Rabbit-fur Teacup,the Song Dynasty%宋代建窑兔毫盏探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏

    2015-01-01

    兔毫盏是宋代建窑最具特色的代表性瓷器之一,本文以福建建窑窑址、窑炉和兔毫盏等实物为切入点,系统梳理了宋代建窑兔毫盏的器形、釉面、瓷胎、圈足、底款等特点,并通过对当时人文环境的介绍分析,阐述了兔毫盏能成为一代名瓷的一家之见及当代以宋朝兔毫盏为起点的产品工艺开发现状。%'Rabbit fur'teacup is one of the most representative chinas of The Song Dynasty .This article uses objects such as Jian -Kiln Kiln site ,Kilns and'rabbit fur'teacups of Fujian Province as o‐pening ,and systematically tease out the the shape ,the glaze surface ,the porcelain -roughcast ,the circular stand of Jian -Kiln'rabbit fur'teacup ,and explained.

  2. [Chemical composition analysis of bluish-white porcelain unearthed from Fanchang kiln, Anhui province by wave disperse X-ray fluorescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-zhang; Zhang, Ju-zhong; Zan, Yi

    2010-08-01

    Fanchang kiln was the earliest Chinese bluish-white porcelain kiln which first fired this special porcelain class as early as in Five Dynasties (AD 907-960). However, this important kiln declined rapidly in the middle North Song dynasty (AD 1023-1085). As to the decline reason, it is still not clearly identified till now. In order to find the truth, wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) was used to determine the elemental abundance patterns of its porcelain bodies in Five Dynasties, the early North Song dynasty and the middle North Song dynasty. The analytical results indicate that the chemical compositions of major, minor and trace elements in porcelain bodies changed greatly in the middle North Song dynasty. Combined with the results of INAA and glaze study, this change in elemental composition should be caused by the change in porcelain raw materials or body-making crafts. Meanwhile, it was just this change that led to the quality decline of raw material and rapid collapse of Fan-chang kiln in the middle North Song dynasty shortly after its establishment. PMID:20939361

  3. Space Power Facility Reverberation Chamber Calibration Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Catherine C.; Dolesh, Robert J.; Garrett, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the process and results of calibrating the Space Environmental Test EMI Test facility at NASA Plum Brook Space Power Facility according to the specifications of IEC61000-4-21 for susceptibility testing from 100 MHz to 40 GHz. The chamber passed the field uniformity test, in both the empty and loaded conditions, making it the world's largest Reverberation Chamber.

  4. An ionization chamber with magnetic levitated electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Kawaguchi, T

    1999-01-01

    A new type of ionization chamber which has magnetically levitated electrodes has been developed. The electrodes are supplied voltages for the repelling of ions by a battery which is also levitated with the electrodes. The characteristics of this ionization chamber are investigated in this paper.

  5. Supersonic Jet Interactions in a Plenum Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Venugopal

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding thè supersonic jet interactions in a plenum chamber is essential for thè design of hot launch systems. Static tests were conducted in a small-scale rocket motor ioaded with a typical nitramine propellaiit to produce a nozzle exit Mach number of 3. This supersonic jet is made to interact with plenum chambers having both open and closed sides. The distance between thè nozzle exit and thè back piate of plenum chamber are varied from 2. 5 to 7. 0 times thè nozzle exit diameter. The pressure rise in thè plenum chamber was measured using pressure transducers mounted at different locatìons. The pressure-time data were analysed to obtain an insight into thè flow field in thè plenum chamber. The maximum pressure exerted on thè back piate of plenum chamber is about 25-35 per cent. of thè maximum stagnation pressure developed in thè rocket motor. Ten static tests were carried out to obtain thè effect of axial distance between thè nozzle exit and thè plenum chamber back piate, and stagnation pressure in thè rocket motoron thè flow field in thè open-sided and closed-sided plenum chambers configurations.

  6. Chamber Music's Lesson in Performing Confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Darrel W.

    1983-01-01

    Chamber music has the advantage of offering the student maximum exposure as an individual performer. The absence of a conductor means that the student assumes the role of interpreter, thereby gaining musical maturity. For these reasons, curriculum hours should be more evenly divided between chamber music and larger ensembles. (CS)

  7. Results from the MAC Vertex chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, H.N.

    1987-05-01

    The design, construction, and performance characteristics of a high precision gaseous drift chamber made of thin walled proportional tubes are described. The device achieved an average spatial resolution of 45 ..mu..m in use for physics analysis with the MAC detector. The B-lifetime result obtained with this chamber is discussed.

  8. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anaerobic chamber. 866.2120 Section 866.2120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber....

  9. KHD combustion chamber. Flexible use of alternative fuels in the cement plant; KHD Brennkammer. Flexibler Einsatz von alternativen Brennstoffen im Zementwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuermann, Heiko [Humboldt Wedag GmbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    In many parts of the world, the use of alternative fuels is a recognized measure for reducing the CO{sub 2} emissions that result from burning primary fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas. Alternative or secondary fuels are the terms used for combustible residues from industrial and commercial manufacturing processes, agricultural production, and sorted municipal refuse. Due to the wide range of possible sources of alternative fuels, there is very great variation in their energy content, ash, moisture content, particle size, form, density etc., so there is no patent solution for their use in a cement plant. For proper operation of the rotary kiln, it is particularly important to use alternative fuel qualities that have good heat value and reactivity in order to achieve a stable, hot sintering zone and to completely burnout the highest possible amount of the fuel while it is suspended in the air stream. Combustion in the calciner places fewer demands on the properties of the alternative fuels than combustion in the rotary kiln burner does. This means that the calciner is the ideal combustion point for the usage of alternative fuels. To enable maximum possible flexibility for the combustion of widely differing alternative fuels in the calciner, KHD Humboldt Wedag offers the option of installing a combustion chamber in the modular PYROCLON calciner system. Due to the operating characteristics of this combustion chamber, which are described in the following sections of this article, even alternative fuels with low heat values and a low degree of preparation can be safely and completely burnt. (orig.)

  10. Compact ion chamber based neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derzon, Mark S.; Galambos, Paul C.; Renzi, Ronald F.

    2015-10-27

    A directional neutron detector has an ion chamber formed in a dielectric material; a signal electrode and a ground electrode formed in the ion chamber; a neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber; readout circuitry which is electrically coupled to the signal and ground electrodes; and a signal processor electrically coupled to the readout circuitry. The ion chamber has a pair of substantially planar electrode surfaces. The chamber pressure of the neutron absorbing material is selected such that the reaction particle ion trail length for neutrons absorbed by the neutron absorbing material is equal to or less than the distance between the electrode surfaces. The signal processor is adapted to determine a path angle for each absorbed neutron based on the rise time of the corresponding pulse in a time-varying detector signal.

  11. Ionization-chamber smoke detector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Robert F.

    1976-10-19

    This invention relates to an improved smoke-detection system of the ionization-chamber type. In the preferred embodiment, the system utilizes a conventional detector head comprising a measuring ionization chamber, a reference ionization chamber, and a normally non-conductive gas triode for discharging when a threshold concentration of airborne particulates is present in the measuring chamber. The improved system is designed to reduce false alarms caused by fluctuations in ambient temperature. Means are provided for periodically firing the gas discharge triode and each time recording the triggering voltage required. A computer compares each triggering voltage with its predecessor. The computer is programmed to energize an alarm if the difference between the two compared voltages is a relatively large value indicative of particulates in the measuring chamber and to disregard smaller differences typically resulting from changes in ambient temperature.

  12. Wet drift chambers for precise luminosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of high-precision compact drift chambers has been a vital component of the OPAL luminosity monitor since the start of data-taking at LEP. They were augmented in 1992 by the addition of Small Angle Reference Chambers with a very similar design to the original chamber. The performance of the chambers is reviewed, highlighting both the importance of using polyalkylene glycol (Breox) to maintain a uniform and parallel electric field and the construction techniques used to sustain the required field strength. We describe some of the operating problems, with their solutions, and show how the chambers have been used in achieving a systematic error of 0.41% on the luminosity measurement. ((orig.))

  13. Monitored Drift Chambers in the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Herten, G

    Monitored Drift Chambers (MDT) are used in the ATLAS Detector to measure the momentum of high energy muons. They consist of drift tubes, which are filled with an Ar-CO2 gas mixture at 3 bar gas pressure. About 1200 drift chambers are required for ATLAS. They are up to 6 m long. Nevertheless the position of every wire needs to be known with a precision of 20 µm within a chamber. In addition, optical alignment sensors are required to measure the relative position of adjacent chambers with a precision of 30µm. This gigantic task seems impossible at first instance. Indeed it took many years of R&D to invent the right tools and methods before the first chamber could be built according to specifications. Today, at the time when 50% of the chambers have been produced, we are confident that the goal for ATLAS can be reached. The mechanical precision of the chambers could be verified with the x-ray tomograph at CERN. This ingenious device, developed for the MDT system, is able to measure the wire position insid...

  14. Making MUSIC: A multiple sampling ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multiple sampling ionization chamber (MUSIC) was developed for use in conjunction with the Atlas scattering chamber (ATSCAT). This chamber was developed to study the (α, p) reaction in stable and radioactive beams. The gas filled ionization chamber is used as a target and detector for both particles in the outgoing channel (p + beam particles for elastic scattering or p + residual nucleus for (α, p) reactions). The MUSIC detector is followed by a Si array to provide a trigger for anode events. The anode events are gated by a gating grid so that only (α, p) reactions where the proton reaches the Si detector result in an anode event. The MUSIC detector is a segmented ionization chamber. The active length of the chamber is 11.95 in. and is divided into 16 equal anode segments (3.5 in. x 0.70 in. with 0.3 in. spacing between pads). The dead area of the chamber was reduced by the addition of a Delrin snout that extends 0.875 in. into the chamber from the front face, to which a mylar window is affixed. 0.5 in. above the anode is a Frisch grid that is held at ground potential. 0.5 in. above the Frisch grid is a gating grid. The gating grid functions as a drift electron barrier, effectively halting the gathering of signals. Setting two sets of alternating wires at differing potentials creates a lateral electric field which traps the drift electrons, stopping the collection of anode signals. The chamber also has a reinforced mylar exit window separating the Si array from the target gas. This allows protons from the (α, p) reaction to be detected. The detection of these protons opens the gating grid to allow the drift electrons released from the ionizing gas during the (α, p) reaction to reach the anode segment below the reaction

  15. Making MUSIC: A multiple sampling ionization chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumard, B. [Argonne National Laboratory, Building 203 H-113, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)]. E-mail: shumard@phy.anl.gov; Henderson, D.J. [Argonne National Laboratory, Building 203 H-113, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Rehm, K.E. [Argonne National Laboratory, Building 203 H-113, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Tang, X.D. [Argonne National Laboratory, Building 203 H-113, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    A multiple sampling ionization chamber (MUSIC) was developed for use in conjunction with the Atlas scattering chamber (ATSCAT). This chamber was developed to study the ({alpha}, p) reaction in stable and radioactive beams. The gas filled ionization chamber is used as a target and detector for both particles in the outgoing channel (p + beam particles for elastic scattering or p + residual nucleus for ({alpha}, p) reactions). The MUSIC detector is followed by a Si array to provide a trigger for anode events. The anode events are gated by a gating grid so that only ({alpha}, p) reactions where the proton reaches the Si detector result in an anode event. The MUSIC detector is a segmented ionization chamber. The active length of the chamber is 11.95 in. and is divided into 16 equal anode segments (3.5 in. x 0.70 in. with 0.3 in. spacing between pads). The dead area of the chamber was reduced by the addition of a Delrin snout that extends 0.875 in. into the chamber from the front face, to which a mylar window is affixed. 0.5 in. above the anode is a Frisch grid that is held at ground potential. 0.5 in. above the Frisch grid is a gating grid. The gating grid functions as a drift electron barrier, effectively halting the gathering of signals. Setting two sets of alternating wires at differing potentials creates a lateral electric field which traps the drift electrons, stopping the collection of anode signals. The chamber also has a reinforced mylar exit window separating the Si array from the target gas. This allows protons from the ({alpha}, p) reaction to be detected. The detection of these protons opens the gating grid to allow the drift electrons released from the ionizing gas during the ({alpha}, p) reaction to reach the anode segment below the reaction.

  16. Qualitative Study on Clinico-Social Problems of Brick-Kiln Workers: A Study from Anand-Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kumar Sharma, Arun Varun, Mansi Patel

    2013-01-01

    Results: In the current study it was found that the condition of these migrant brick kiln workers is very pathetic on account of number of conditions. All the workers were migrant and marginal workers with migration duration of 8 months every year and then they are going back to the native place. These workers were mostly illiterate or had primary education. Females were unedu-cated. These workers are getting daily wages and there is no holi-day as such. The days these workers don’t work are non-paid days. Almost all these workers complained of bodily pains. Children in these families are usually suffering from respiratory tract infections, diarrhea and intestinal infections. Conclusions: Irrespective of the migration status, local gover-nance should do something for their benefit and health so that some decent work can be ensured.

  17. A New Kind of Eco-Cement Made of Cement Kiln Dust and Granular Blast Furnace Slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A research project was conducted to manufacture eco-cement for sustainable development using cement kiln dust( CKD ) and granular blast furnace slag( GBFS ).In the project, the burning process and mineral compositions of CKD clinker were investigated.Dife rent mineralizers such as CaSO4 and CaF2 , sulfur and alkali content were considered.The strength of CKD and GBFS eco-cement were evaluated.The results indicate the CKD clinker can not only form ordinary cement clinker minerals such as C3 S, C2 S and C4 AF, but also form strength to the Portland cement grade 32.5 when blend proportion is properly applied.

  18. Use of Factory-Waste Shingles and Cement Kiln Dust to Enhance the Performance of Soil Used in Road Works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental work was conducted to study the use of factory-waste roof shingles to enhance the properties of fine-grained soil used in road works. Cement kiln dust (CKD, a cogenerated product of Portland cement manufacturing, was used as a stabilizing agent while the processed shingles were added to enhance the soil tensile strength. The effects of shingles on strength and stability were evaluated using the unconfined compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and California Bearing Ratio (CBR tests. The results showed that the use of CKD alone resulted in a considerable increase in the unconfined compressive strength but had a small effect on the tensile strength. The addition of shingles substantially improved the tensile strength of the stabilized soil. A significant reduction in the capillary rise and a slight decrease in the permeability were obtained as a result of shingle addition. An optimal shingle content of 10% is recommended to stabilize the soil.

  19. Modelling of carbonisation of renewable fuels in a rotary kiln reactor; Modellierung der Karbonisierung nachwachsender Rohstoffe im Drehrohrreaktor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klose, W.; Schinkel, A.P. [Univ. Kassel (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Energietechnik

    1998-09-01

    The contribution models the pyrolysis of corn in a rotary kiln reactor. The model comprises a solution of the two-dimensional energy and mass balances for the solid phase. The movement of the solid matter inside the reactor is described by model equations. The influence of various operating parameters on the pyrolysis process is discussed, i.e. temperature, rotational speed, length and angle of inclination of the tube. (orig.) [Deutsch] In diesem Beitrag wird die Pyrolyse von Mais im Drehrohrreaktor modelliert. Das Modell beinhaltet die Loesung der 2dimensionalen Energie- und Stoffbilanzen fuer die feste Phase. Die Gutbewegung im Drehrohr wird mit Hilfe von Modellansaetzen beschrieben. Es wird der Einfluss der Betriebsparameter Temperatur, Drehzahl, Laenge und Neigungswinkel des Rohres auf die Pyrolyse diskutiert. (orig.)

  20. Effect of incorporating hydrothermal, kilned and defatted oats on antioxidant and chapatti making properties of wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujral, Hardeep Singh; Sharma, Paras; Gill, Balmeet Singh; Kaur, Sumandeep

    2013-06-01

    Oats were subjected to treatments like defatting, hydrothermal cooking and kilning, milled into flour and then the control and treated flours were incorporated into wheat flour at 25% and 50% levels and chapatti making behaviour and antioxidant properties were studied. The treatments significantly affected the antioxidant properties of oats. Incorporating oat flours to wheat increased total phenolic content but lowered the antioxidant activity however both were decreased significantly upon baking. The reducing power of the oat blended flour was higher than the wheat flours and ranged from 8.0 to 15.5 μmol AAE/g and was further increased upon baking. The metal chelating activity of flour blends varied from 62.0% to 73.8% and further increased upon baking. After baking the total flavonoid content was lowered and ranged from 308 to 389 μg CE/g. The non-enzymatic browning index significantly increased up to 27.6% upon baking.

  1. 回转窑焚烧处理有机废液%Discussion Rotary Kiln Incineration of Organic Waste Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗劲松; 何睿; 杨兆标

    2015-01-01

    The technical points of kiln treatment of organic waste was analyzed,Effect of the pre treat-ment,choice of feeding equipment,atomization effect,calorific value of the waste feed rate on incineration system were explored,the influence of the organic waste calorific value on the burning operating parameters and fuel consumption were studied.%分析了回转窑处理有机废液的技术要点,探究预处理方式、进料设备的选择、雾化效果、热值及废液进料量对焚烧系统的影响,着重研究了有机废液热值对焚烧运行参数和油耗的影响。

  2. Effect on the energy efficiency of tunnel kilns manufacturing structural clay products of fluoride emission. Phase 3. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-12-31

    The Phase 3 project involved the firing of test bricks under full scale and normal process conditions in four different plants utilizing tunnel kilns. Placement of test bricks across diagonal cross-sections of brick hacks facilitated a limited investigation of fluoride loss characteristics versus hack siting. Comparative effects were observed among the different raw material and additive blends comprising the test bricks. The effects of density of car packing and other process conditions were observed. Analytical comparisons were made between dried unfired and fired brick fluoride contents to yield interpretable fluoride changes. Key conclusions indicated that major factors in controlling fluoride losses were: material (with calcium content a likely control leader), car packing density and cross-section (with the lower-loss materials most affected). Recommended future work would centre on correlation between full scale process fluoride losses and a select group of cationic components (particularly calcium) in the raw materials. 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  3. APS Storage Ring vacuum chamber fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1104-m circumference Advanced Photon Source Storage Ring Vacuum System is composed of 240 individual sections, which are fabricated from a combination of aluminum extrusions and machined components. The vacuum chambers will have 3800 weld joints, each subject to strict vacuum requirements, as well as a variety of related design criteria. The vacuum criteria and chamber design are reviewed, including a discussion of the weld joint geometries. The critical fabrication process parameters for meeting the design requirements are discussed. The experiences of the prototype chamber fabrication program are presented. Finally, the required facilities preparation for construction activity is briefly described. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  4. Growing and Analyzing Biofilms in Flow Chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Sternberg, Claus

    2011-01-01

    This unit describes the setup of flow chamber systems for the study of microbial biofilms, and methods for the analysis of structural biofilm formation. Use of flow chambers allows direct microscopic investigation of biofilm formation. The biofilms in flow chambers develop under hydrodynamic......, and disassembly and cleaning of the system. In addition, embedding and fluorescent in situ hybridization of flow chamber–grown biofilms are addressed. Curr. Protoc. Microbiol. 21:1B.2.1-1B.2.17. © 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc....

  5. Cloud chamber photographs of the cosmic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Rochester, George Dixon

    1952-01-01

    Cloud Chamber Photographs of the Cosmic Radiation focuses on cloud chamber and photographic emulsion wherein the tracks of individual subatomic particles of high energy are studied. The publication first offers information on the technical features of operation and electrons and cascade showers. Discussions focus on the relationship in time and space of counter-controlled tracks; techniques of internal control of the cloud chamber; cascade processes with artificially-produced electrons and photons; and nuclear interaction associated with an extensive shower. The manuscript then elaborates on

  6. Bubble chamber: Omega production and decay

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    This image is of real particle tracks taken from the CERN 2 m liquid hydrogen bubble chamber and shows the production and decay of a negative omega particle. A negative kaon enters the chamber which decays into many particles, including a negative omega that travels a short distance before decaying into more particles. The invention of bubble chambers in 1952 revolutionized the field of particle physics, allowing real tracks left by particles to be seen and photographed by expanding liquid that had been heated to boiling point.

  7. LEP vacuum chamber, cross-section

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    Cross-section of the final prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber. The elliptic main-opening is for the beam. The small channel to the left is for the cooling water, to carry away the heat deposited by the synchrotron radiation. The square channel to the right houses the Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) pump. The chamber is made from extruded aluminium. Its outside is clad with lead, to stop the synchrotron radiation emitted by the beam. For good adherence between Pb and Al, the Al chamber was coated with a thin layer of Ni. Ni being slightly magnetic, some resulting problems had to be overcome. See also 8301153.

  8. Evaluation of near-infrared tunable diode lasers for detection of transient emissions from a rotary kiln.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaddix, Christopher R.; Ottesen, David K.; Allendorf, Sarah W.; Miller, C. Andy (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC); Lemieux, Paul M. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC)

    2003-12-01

    Near-infrared tunable diode lasers (TDLs) were evaluated for their suitability as fast-response combustion performance indicators during tests at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's pilot-scale Rotary Kiln Incinerator Simulator (RKIS) facility. Transient emissions (i.e., 'puffs') of various magnitudes and duration were generated by injecting a mixture of toluene and methylene chloride into the rotary kiln, through use of a computer-controlled liquid gun or by ram-loading containers of the waste surrogate adsorbed onto corncob. Two wavelength-modulated TDLs that span carbon monoxide (CO) and methane absorption lines at 1.57 and 1.65 pm, respectively, provided information on these species as well as total laser transmittance (an indicator of soot loading). Fiber-optic cables transmitted the laser light from the remotely situated TDLs to two line-of-sight measurement locations. In addition, the TDLs were used with a multi-pass optical cell to perform more sensitive extractive measurements. Over the optical pathlength available in this facility, in situ measurements of methane down to a concentration of {approx} 100 ppm were demonstrated during non-sooty conditions. CO could not be reliably quantified in situ, even at concentrations as high as 0.7%, due to the combination of weak absorption line strength and interfering water and carbon-dioxide hot-bands. The soot produced during the toluene/methylene chloride puffs typically attenuated over 90% of the TDL laser beam, preventing effective in situ TDL measurements during the puffs. In contrast, the extractive TDL measurements demonstrated good accuracy and sensitivity for both methane and CO under all reactor conditions. Furthermore, the in situ laser transmittance profiles during the puffs provided new insights into the composition of the puffs as a function of puff magnitude and residence time.

  9. Developing cloud chambers with high school students

    CERN Document Server

    Ishizuka, Ryo; Sato, Shoma; Zeze, Syoji

    2013-01-01

    The result and outcome of the cloud chamber project, which aims to develop a cloud chamber useful for science education is reported in detail. A project includes both three high school students and a teacher as a part of Super Science High School (SSH) program in our school. We develop a dry ice free cloud chamber using salt and ice (or snow). Technical detail of the chamber is presented. We also argue how the project affects student's cognition, motivation, academic skills and behavior. The research project had been done in very similar way to those of professional researchers, i.e., planning research, applying fund, writing a paper and giving a talk in conferences. From interviews with students, we learn that such style of scientific activity is very effective in promoting student's motivation for learning science.

  10. Developing Cloud Chambers with High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Ryo; Tan, Nobuaki; Sato, Shoma; Zeze, Syoji

    The result and outcome of the cloud chamber project, which aims to develop a cloud chamber useful for science education is reported in detail. A project includes both three high school students and a teacher as a part of Super Science High School (SSH) program in our school. We develop a dry-ice-free cloud chamber using salt and ice (or snow). Technical details of the chamber are described. We also argue how the project have affected student's cognition, motivation, academic skills and behavior. The research project has taken steps of professional researchers, i.e., in planning research, applying fund, writing a paper and giving a talk in conferences. From interviews with students, we have learnt that such style of scientific activity is very effective in promoting student's motivation for learning science.

  11. RADAR Anechoic Chamber/RCS Measurements Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The RF Anechoic Chamber is 56 feet long by 12 feet high by 13.5 feet wide, with an adjoining electronic computer control room. A double door entrance at one end of...

  12. High Performance Methane Thrust Chamber (HPMTC) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop a High-Performance Methane Thrust Chamber (HPMRE) to meet the demands of advanced chemical propulsion systems for deep-space mission...

  13. MAN-IN-SIMULANT TEST (MIST) CHAMBER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The MIST chamber uses methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen) vapor as a simulant for HD agent to conduct system level evaluations of chemical protective ensembles....

  14. Instrumentation and measurements of temperatures of a load of bricks in a tunnel kiln using natural gas; Instrumentacao e medicao de temperaturas em uma carga de tijolos no interior de um forno tunel a gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahn, T.G.; Lehmkuhl, W.A.; Hartke, Rafael Fernando; Dadam, A.P.; Nicolau, V.P. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The analysis of the thermal efficiency of ceramics kilns, a big difficulty is the experimental determination of the temperature distribution inside the kiln load. The biggest challenge is the instrumentation, since the sensors should accompany the brick load through out the kiln, which may reach a length greater than 100 m, with their connection cables exposed to temperature greater than 300 deg C. These results are important to identify under what conditions are submitted internal layers of the brick load, to determine the best brick arrangements in cart load. This work permits a best understanding of firing cycles used in the tunnels kilns. The mathematical treatment and understanding of the data will permit to create experimental analysis tools, which should be useful in other problems. (author)

  15. Using a ceramic chamber in kicker magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurennoy, S.

    1993-05-01

    A ceramic chamber inside kicker magnets can provide the relevant field risetime. On the other hand, some metallic coating inside has to prevent static charge buildup and shield the beam from ceramic and ferrite at high frequencies to avoid possible resonances. The issues concerning the metallized ceramic chamber, such as coupling impedances and requirements on the coating, are studied to find a compromise solution for kickers of the Medium Energy Booster at the Superconducting Super Collider.

  16. A very large multigap resistive plate chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Cerron-Zeballos, E; Hatzifotiadou, D; Kim, D W; Lamas-Valverde, J; Lee, S C; Platner, E D; Roberts, J; Williams, M C S; Zichichi, A

    1999-01-01

    We have built and tested a very large multigap resistive plate chamber (MRPC). We discuss the suitability of the multigap RPC for the construction of large area modules. We give details of the construction technique and results from a scan across the surface of the chamber. We also report on the implementation of `half-strip resolution', where we improve the spatial resolution by a factor 2 without increasing the number of read-out channels. (9 refs).

  17. Impact excited strain gage for multiwire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for measuring multiwire chamber tension by impact excitation of mechanical oscillations and measuring their periods is described. A flowsheet of an automated electron gaugeis presented; the gauge provides high efficiency and possibility for measurements under conditions of difficult availability of the multiwire chamber system. The range of tension measurements is 0.5-70 g for gilded tugsten wires of 20 μm in diameter and 60 cm length

  18. The world's largest time projection chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Peter Glassel, the technical coordinator for the ALICE time projection chamber, is seen sitting inside the detector; the largest in the world at nearly 100 cubic metres. Thousands of wires are connected to read out electronic data produced as particles are created in lead-lead collisions at the centre of the detector. These particles will cause the medium within the time projection chamber to ionise along their tracks allowing the particle paths to be recreated.

  19. Georges Charpak and his multiwire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    In 1968, Georges Charpak developed the 'multiwire proportional chamber', a gas-filled box with a large number of parallel detector wires, each connected to individual amplifiers. Linked to a computer, it could achieve a counting rate a thousand times better than existing techniques - without a camera in sight. From left to right, Georges Charpak, Fabio Sauli and Jean-Claude Santiard working on a multiwire chamber in 1970.

  20. Tracking with wire chambers at high luminosities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, G.G. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (USA) Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Radiation damage and rate limitations impose severe constraints on wire chambers at the SSC. Possible conceptual designs for wire chamber tracking systems that satisfy these constraints are discussed. Computer simulation studies of tracking in such systems are presented. Simulations of events from interesting physics at the SSC, including hits from minimum bias background events, are examined. Results of some preliminary pattern recognition studies are given. 11 refs., 10 figs.

  1. Virtual Calibration Chamber CPT on Ticino sand

    OpenAIRE

    Butlanska, Joanna; Arroyo Alvarez de Toledo, Marcos; Gens Solé, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The following paper surnmarizes results of CPT's performed in virtual calibration chamber (VCC) built with a 3D model based on the distinct element method (DEM). A discrete material tailored to mimic Ticino sand is tested at different densities, stress and stress history. The limit cone tip resistance from the numerical experiments shows quantitative agreement with different empirical curves summarizing previous tests on Ticino sand in physical calibration chambers (ENEL and ISMES).

  2. The CDF vertex time projection chamber system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vertex time projection chamber (VTPC) system is one of the major components of the charged particle tracking system for the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). The chambers cover about seven units of pseudorapidity (η) and must be capable of handling substantially more than the 30-35 charged particle tracks produced by typical anti pp collisions at center-of-mass energies of 1.8 TeV. The chambers are optimized to provide the good pattern recognition in the r-z view required to locate the event vertex, measure the overall event topology, and to complement the r-φ tracking in the large axial wire drift chamber that surrounds them. The chambers provide r-z information using TDC data from sense wire signals. Information on the φ of tracks is obtained from cathode pad signals on a subset of chambers read out by a FADC system. A similar system measures dE/dx of tracks in the forward cones surrounding the exiting beams. Because of the large number of photons that pass through the detector during each collision, novel techniques are required to reduce the amount of material in the chamber. These techniques include a custom surface mount integrated circuit preamplifier, epoxy-graphite and Kapton covered foam structural members, and miniature coaxial signal cables. The mechanical construction of the chamber, radiation length vs angle, and details of the electronics are described. The event reconstruction, corrections, and preliminary performance results for 1.8 TeV anti pp collisions are also discussed. (orig.)

  3. The Gargamelle heavy liquid bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    This image shows the Gargamelle heavy liquid bubble chamber. It was used to detect particles in experiments at the PS between 1970 and 1976 before being moved to the SPS. In 1973, while working on the PS, it detected the first neutral current, an interaction vital to the electroweak theory. In 1978 a large fissure appeared in the body of the chamber and Gargamelle was stopped in 1979.

  4. Characteristic parameters of drift chambers calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present here the methods we used to analyse the characteristic parameters of drift chambers. The algorithms to calculate the electric potential in any point for any drift chamber geometry are presented. We include the description of the programs used to calculate the electric field, the drift paths, the drift velocity and the drift time. The results and the errors are discussed. (Author) 7 refs

  5. A model to forecast magma chamber rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, John; Drymoni, Kyriaki; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2016-04-01

    An understanding of the amount of magma available to supply any given eruption is useful for determining the potential eruption magnitude and duration. Geodetic measurements and inversion techniques are often used to constrain volume changes within magma chambers, as well as constrain location and depth, but such models are incapable of calculating total magma storage. For example, during the 2012 unrest period at Santorini volcano, approximately 0.021 km3 of new magma entered a shallow chamber residing at around 4 km below the surface. This type of event is not unusual, and is in fact a necessary condition for the formation of a long-lived shallow chamber. The period of unrest ended without culminating in eruption, i.e the amount of magma which entered the chamber was insufficient to break the chamber and force magma further towards the surface. Using continuum-mechanics and fracture-mechanics principles, we present a model to calculate the amount of magma contained at shallow depth beneath active volcanoes. Here we discuss our model in the context of Santorini volcano, Greece. We demonstrate through structural analysis of dykes exposed within the Santorini caldera, previously published data on the volume of recent eruptions, and geodetic measurements of the 2011-2012 unrest period, that the measured 0.02% increase in volume of Santorini's shallow magma chamber was associated with magmatic excess pressure increase of around 1.1 MPa. This excess pressure was high enough to bring the chamber roof close to rupture and dyke injection. For volcanoes with known typical extrusion and intrusion (dyke) volumes, the new methodology presented here makes it possible to forecast the conditions for magma-chamber failure and dyke injection at any geodetically well-monitored volcano.

  6. Numerical simulation of magma chamber dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Antonella; Papale, Paolo; Montagna, Chiara Paola; Vassalli, Melissa; Giudice, Salvatore; Cassioli, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    Magma chambers are characterized by periodic arrivals of deep magma batches that give origin to complex patterns of magma convection and mixing, and modify the distribution of physical quantities inside the chamber. We simulate the transient, 2D, multi-component homogeneous dynamics in geometrically complex dyke+chamber systems, by means of GALES, a finite element parallel C++ code solving mass, momentum and energy equations for multi-component homogeneous gas-liquid (± crystals) mixtures in compressible-to-incompressible flow conditions. Code validation analysis includes several cases from the classical engineering literature, corresponding to a variety of subsonic to supersonic gas-liquid flow regimes (see http://www.pi.ingv.it/~longo/gales/gales.html). The model allows specification of the composition of the different magmas in the domain, in terms of ten major oxides plus the two volatile species H2O and CO2. Gas-liquid thermodynamics are modeled by using the compositional dependent, non-ideal model in Papale et al. (Chem.. Geol., 2006). Magma properties are defined in terms of local pressure, temperature, and composition including volatiles. Several applications are performed within domains characterized by the presence of one or more magma chambers and one or more dykes, with different geometries and characteristic size from hundreds of m to several km. In most simulations an initial compositional interface is placed at the top of a feeding dyke, or at larger depth, with the deeper magma having a lower density as a consequence of larger volatile content. The numerical results show complex patterns of magma refilling in the chamber, with alternating phases of magma ingression and magma sinking from the chamber into the feeding dyke. Intense mixing takes place in feeding dykes, so that the new magma entering the chamber is always a mixture of the deep and the initially resident magma. Buoyant plume rise occurs through the formation of complex convective

  7. The GODDESS ionization chamber: developing robust windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Rose; Baugher, Travis; Cizewski, Jolie; Pain, Steven; Ratkiewicz, Andrew; Goddess Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Reaction studies of nuclei far from stability require high-efficiency arrays of detectors and the ability to identify beam-like particles, especially when the beam is a cocktail beam. The Gammasphere ORRUBA Dual Detectors for Experimental Structure Studies (GODDESS) is made up of the Oak Ridge-Rutgers University Barrel Array (ORRUBA) of silicon detectors for charged particles inside of the gamma-ray detector array Gammasphere. A high-rate ionization chamber is being developed to identify beam-like particles. Consisting of twenty-one alternating anode and cathode grids, the ionization chamber sits downstream of the target chamber and is used to measure the energy loss of recoiling ions. A critical component of the system is a thin and robust mylar window which serves to separate the gas-filled ionization chamber from the vacuum of the target chamber with minimal energy loss. After construction, windows were tested to assure that they would not break below the required pressure, causing harm to the wire grids. This presentation will summarize the status of the ionization chamber and the results of the first tests with beams. This work is supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy and National Science Foundation.

  8. Quality control of ATLAS muon chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Fabich, Adrian

    ATLAS is a general-purpose experiment for the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Its Muon Spectrometer will require ∼ 5500m2 of precision tracking chambers to measure the muon tracks along a spectrometer arm of 5m to 15m length, embedded in a magnetic field of ∼ 0.5T. The precision tracking devices in the Muon System will be high pressure drift tubes (MDTs). Approximately 370,000 MDTs will be assembled into ∼ 1200 drift chambers. The performance of the MDT chambers is very much dependent on the mechanical quality of the chambers. The uniformity and stability of the performance can only be assured providing very high quality control during production. Gas tightness, high-voltage behaviour and dark currents are global parameters which are common to gas detectors. For all chambers, they will be tested immediately after the chamber assembly at every production site. Functional tests, for example radioactive source scans and cosmic-ray runs, will be performed in order to establish detailed performan...

  9. In vitro penetration of bleaching agents into the pulp chamber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Valera, M C; Mancini, M N G;

    2004-01-01

    To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures.......To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures....

  10. Bulkhead chamber ignition for internal combustion engines. Schottkammerzuendung fuer Verbrennungsmotore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, G.

    1990-12-06

    Bulkhead chamber ignition makes for reliable ignition of different fuels (e.g. petrol or diesel) in internal combustion engines (multifuel engine) that can be operated with an extremely lean fuel-air mixture. This is realized by an open chamber (referred to as bulkhead chamber in the following) inside the combustion chamber which diverts a fraction of the compressed fuel-air mixture from the combustion chamber. After this the pressure in the bulkhead chamber is increased until the mixture ignites spontaneously. The combustion pressure drives back the piston and opens the bulkhead chamber. Then the compressed fuel-air mixture in the combustion chamber is ignited by the released combustion gas.

  11. RESEARCH ON OPTIMIZATION OF THE STRUCTURE OF CERAMIC INDUSTRIAL KILN BODY'S MASONRY MATERIALL%陶瓷工业窑炉窑体砌筑材料结构优化探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈功备; 胡国林; 陈鹏

    2011-01-01

    This paper has designed the calculation program of kiln-body lost heat by means of Visual Basic. Studied on various kiln structures, the figures of kiln-body lost heat has been obtained, which can be used for kiln-design. Through of analyzing of the kiln-cost the optimal kiln structure has been also suggested.%用Visual Basic(简称VB)设计了窑体散热计算程序,通过对不同陶瓷工业窑的窑体砌筑材料方案的探讨,得出了当代陶瓷窑炉典型窑体砌筑方案的窑体散热图,可供窑炉设计人员计算时查询。本文还对各窑体结构进行了成本分析,提出了保证年热损失费用与窑体保温工程投资的年分摊费用之和为最小值结构方案。

  12. MEASUREMENT OF SECOND AIR TEMPERATURE OF CLINKER ROTOR KILN%水泥回转窑的二次风温测量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简淼夫; 张薇; 李昌勇

    2001-01-01

    对水泥回转窑二次风温的测量误差来源进行了分析,指出了现行二次风温定义的测量点不便进行实测,造成实际选择的测量点不满足定义要求是测量误差的主要来源,并提出了新的理论二次风温的定义和测量方法。%The error sources of measuring the second air temperature of the clinker rotor, kiln were studied. It indicated that main error is difference between the measurement position of definition of the second air temperature used in the kiln and the real position of the measurement. Based on this results, a new definition and measurement method of the second air temperature was offered.

  13. 轮带裂纹的修复补焊工艺%Repairing Welding Process of the Crack in Rotary Kiln

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    生利英

    2012-01-01

    The repairing welding process for the cracks in rotary kiln was introduced. Practices prove that, taking the process measures, such as preheating before welding, CO2 gas shielded arc welding and Lincoln flux cored wire, annealing after welding and multiple penetration testing and ultrasonic exploration welding process, can guarantee to achieve the desired effect after welding in rotary kiln.%介绍回转窑轮带裂纹修复补焊工艺.实践证明,通过采取焊前预热,CO2tAr气体保护焊和林肯药芯焊丝,焊后退火及焊接过程中多次渗透探伤和超声波探伤等焊接工艺,可以保证补焊后轮带达到预期使用效果.

  14. Design of Ultra-wide Tunnel Kiln for Sanitary Ceramics%卫生陶瓷超大截面隧道窑的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭俊平; 曾令可

    2015-01-01

    Building an ultra-wide tunnel kiln is one of the most effective ways to increase sanitary ceramic output and reduce energy consumption. This paper discusses critical issues on wide tunnel kiln design and construction with the aim to contribute to the energy conservation, product quality and quantity enhancement, and market competitiveness improvement of enterprises in this industry.%制备宽断面隧道窑是卫生陶瓷增加产量、节能降耗最有效的手段之一,本文就宽断面隧道窑设计及建造中的关键性问题进行陈述,祈望能为行业的节能降耗,产量更上一层楼,增加企业市场竞争力作贡献。

  15. 浅谈烧结砖生产线隧道窑的保温节能%Energy-saving methods of tunnel kiln

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新海; 李存葆; 张绘杰

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes several energy-saving methods of tunnel kiln, such as handling of tunnel kiln wall and vault insulation structure, selection of insulation materials, brick setting, firing process and recovery of waste heat.%论述了烧结砖生产线隧道窑节能的重要性,介绍了几种隧道窑节能降耗的途径。主要从隧道窑窑墙、窑顶保温结构的处理和保温材料的选择以及从坯垛码放、烧成工艺及余热回收等方面来增强隧道窑的保温节能效果。

  16. NO{sub x} formation in cement industry clinker kilns; Formacao de NO{sub x} em fornos rotativos de producao de clinquer da industria do cimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Signoretti, Valdir Tesche; Silva, Rogerio Jose da [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)], e-mail: valdirsg@unifei.edu.br, e-mail: rogeriojs@unifei.edu.br

    2006-07-01

    This work estimates the concentration of pollutant Nox generated in the process of combustion of petroleum coke and tires in rotary kiln for clinker production in the cement industry. Using a mixture of petroleum coke and tires in the burning process, the No{sub x} and CO emissions will be evaluated in kilns with precalciner with tertiary air. The emissions will be analyzed in this installation type still considering the staging combustion as a form of reduction of the Nox emissions. The proposed model is based on the knowledge of the chemical species concentrations involved in the chemical equilibrium and also in the knowledge of the reaction kinetics of Nox and CO formation in the combustion process. It is also done in this work a revision on No{sub x}, So{sub x} and CO concerning issues related to their formation and presenting the main controlling technologies of these pollutants used in the cement industry. (author)

  17. The Baking Process of 46.8m2 Glass Melting Kiln%46.8 m2玻璃熔炉的烘炉

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文昌

    2000-01-01

    本文针对46.8m2玻璃熔窑烘炉的全过程-烘炉曲线的制定、烘炉准备和烘炉三方面的工作作了介绍。%This paper introduces the whole process of the baking of 46.8m2 glass kiln. Theprocess includes :laying out baking curve, baking preparation and whole baking process.

  18. Investigation of Swirling Flows in Mixing Chambers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh Jian Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation analyzed the three-dimensional momentum and mass transfer characteristics arising from multiple inlets and a single outlet in micromixing chamber. The chamber consists of a right square prism, an octagonal prism, or a cylinder. Numerical results which were presented in terms of velocity vector plots and concentration distributions indicated that the swirling flows inside the chamber dominate the mixing index. Particle trajectories were utilized to demonstrate the rotational and extensional local flows which produce steady stirring, and the configuration of colored particles at the outlet section expressed at different Re represented the mixing performance qualitatively. The combination of the Taylor dispersion and the vorticity was first introduced and made the mixing successful. The effects of various geometric parameters and Reynolds numbers on the mixing characteristics were investigated. An optimal design of the cylindrical chamber with 4 inlets can be found. At larger Reynolds number, Re>15, more inertia caused the powerful swirling flows in the chamber, and more damping effect on diffusion was diminished, which then increased the mixing performance.

  19. Study and analysis of drift chamber parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work deals mainly with drift chambers. In the first chapter a summary of drift chamber properties is presented. The information has been collected from the extensive bibliography available in this field. A very simple calculation procedure of drift chamber parameters has been developed and is presented in detail in the second chapter. Some prototypes have been made following two geometries (multidrift chamber and Z-chambers). Several installations have been used for test and calibration of these prototypes. A complete description of these installations is given in the third chapter. Cosmic rays, beta particles from a Ru106 radiactive source and a test beam in the WA (West Area) of SPS at CERN have been used for experimental purposes. The analysis and the results are described for the different setups. The experimental measurements have been used to produce a complete cell parametrization (position as function of drift time) and to obtain spatial resolution values (in the range of 200-250 um). Experimental results are in good agreement with numerical calculations. (Author)

  20. Proportional chambers for the Σ installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two types of proportional chambers used in experiments with SIGMA set are considered. The main parameters of detecting electronics, high-voltage, low-voltage and gas supplies are presented. The first type chambers consist of the round or square frames of sheet foiled glass-cloth-base laminate, on which surface electrode lands and joints between them are applied by photographic printing. The second type chamber electrodes are also made of the sheet foiled glass-cloth-base laminate as strips arranged at the ends of two rectangular metallic profiles. The chamber sensitive regions vary from 64x64 mm to 768x2500 mm. The chambers are used for more than 15 years in different experiments, such as determination of elastic scattering, study of J/ψ and ψ' particle production, search for charm particles in hadron interactions, measuring the change of π--meson polarizability, study of μ+μ-π- system production. The experience of past years manifested their high efficiency and reliability

  1. Tuned Chamber Core Panel Acoustic Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Noah H.; Allen, Albert R.

    2016-01-01

    This report documents acoustic testing of tuned chamber core panels, which can be used to supplement the low-frequency performance of conventional acoustic treatment. The tuned chamber core concept incorporates low-frequency noise control directly within the primary structure and is applicable to sandwich constructions with a directional core, including corrugated-, truss-, and fluted-core designs. These types of sandwich structures have long, hollow channels (or chambers) in the core. By adding small holes through one of the facesheets, the hollow chambers can be utilized as an array of low-frequency acoustic resonators. These resonators can then be used to attenuate low-frequency noise (below 400 Hz) inside a vehicle compartment without increasing the weight or size of the structure. The results of this test program demonstrate that the tuned chamber core concept is effective when used in isolation or combined with acoustic foam treatments. Specifically, an array of acoustic resonators integrated within the core of the panels was shown to improve both the low-frequency absorption and transmission loss of the structure in targeted one-third octave bands.

  2. 传统钧瓷窑炉结构及装烧工艺%THE TRADITIONAL KILN STRUCTURE AND FIRE TECHNOLOGY FOR JUN PORCELAIN WARES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎飞; 王双华

    2009-01-01

    通过对传统钧瓷窑炉中比较有代表性的馒头窑和风箱炉钧窑的基本结构和装烧工艺的研究,分析了窑炉的不同结构和不同的装烧方式对烧成效果的影响.结果表明密封性能好的窑炉以及相应的保温烧成制度与钧瓷釉面呈色、纹路和釉画的形成有重要的关系.%This paper researched the basic structure and fire technology of traditional Jun wares such as dome kiln and air box kiln. The different structure and fire technology was described. The results show that the kiln with good airtight coating and according heat holding system affected the color of Jun ware's glaze, glaze line and painting made by the fire.

  3. Case study of an MBT plant producing SRF for cement kiln co-combustion, coupled with a bioreactor landfill for process residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Mario; Dellavedova, Stefano; Rigamonti, Lucia; Scotti, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes the performances of the energy recovery pathway from the residual waste based on the production of a Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF) to be exploited via co-combustion in a cement kiln. The SRF is produced in a single stream Mechanical-Biological Treatment plant, where bio-drying of the waste is followed by mechanical refining in order to fulfil the quality requirements by the cement kilns. Peculiar of this MBT is the fact that sorting residues are disposed in a nearby landfill, managed according to a bioreactor approach, where landfill gas is collected for electric energy recovery. A detailed mass and energy balance of the system is presented based on one year operational data, followed by its Life Cycle Assessment. Results show that the system is energetically and environmentally effective, with most of the impacts being more than compensated by the savings of materials and energy. Major role in determining such outcome is the displacement of petcoke in the cement kiln, both in terms of its fossil CO2 emissions and of its life cycle impacts, including the trans-oceanic transport. To check the robustness of the results, two sensitivity analyses are performed on the landfill gas collection efficiency and on the avoided electric energy mix. PMID:26601731

  4. Change of Pressing Chamber Conicalness at Briquetting Process in Briquetting Machine Pressing Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Križan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will present the impact of the conical shape of a pressing chamber, an important structural parameter. Besides the known impact of the technological parameters of pressing chambers, it is also very important to pay attention to their structural parameters. In the introduction, we present a theoretical analysis of pressing chamber conicalness. An experiment aimed at detecting this impact was performed at our institute, and it showed that increasing the conicalness of a pressing chamber improves the quality of the final briquettes. The conicalness of the pressing chamber has a significanteffect on the final briquette quality and on the construction of briquetting machines. The experimental findings presented here show the importance of this parameter in the briquetting process.

  5. Residence-Time Distributions in Laminar Flows and During the Passage of Granular Solids Through Rotary Kilns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on residence-time distributions are important in the design of apparatus for the chemical industry. Radioactive tracers can be useful in many cases, e.g. where a pulse technique is desired. Two examples are given in which a pulse of radioactive tracer is used. The first example deals with the residence-time distribution of a laminar, Newtonian flow in an annulus. This problem arises especially in the extrusion and injection moulding of polymers and in the coating of wires with plastics. In these cases the fractions of polymer with long residence times may have other properties than the polymer that flows fastest, because the polymerization reaction or the degradation reactions go on during the process. Two difficulties are to be considered: (a) the tracer pulse (a radioactive Au-sol suspended in the liquid used) cannot be distributed over the cross-section in proportion to the local flow velocity, and (b) the outflowing liquid must be sampled discontinuously. Both effects have been studied and corrections are indicated. When these corrections are applied to the measured distribution curve, the result is in fair agreement with the calculated residence-time distribution. The second example considers the residence-time distribution in a granular solid (sand) passing through a rotary kiln. The response was measured at the outlet to a pulse at the inlet of radioactive material (sand impregnated with a solution of radioactive AuCl3). When calculating the residence-time distribution from the experimental data, difficulties were encountered because the duration of the pulse was of the same order of magnitude as the average residence time. Considering this, it was found that the axial dispersion of the flow of sand could be described by an effective dispersion coefficient. This dispersion coefficient proved to be very low (order of magnitude 10-5 m2/s); hence, in practical situations, the flow of granular material through a rotary kiln may often be considered as a plug

  6. Drift chamber tracking with neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the very high event rates projected for experiments at the SSC and LHC, it is important to investigate new approaches to on line pattern recognition. The use of neural networks for pattern recognition. The use of neural networks for pattern recognition in high energy physics detectors has been an area of very active research. The authors discuss drift chamber tracking with a commercial analog VLSI neural network chip. Voltages proportional to the drift times in a 4-layer drift chamber were presented to the Intel ETANN chip. The network was trained to provide the intercept and slope of straight tracks traversing the chamber. The outputs were recorded and later compared off line to conventional track fits. Two types of network architectures were studied. Applications of neural network tracking to high energy physics detector triggers is discussed

  7. Classification of the LHC BLM Ionization Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Stockner, M; Fabjan, Christian Wolfgang; Holzer, E B; Kramer, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The LHC beam loss monitoring (BLM) system must prevent the super conducting magnets from quenching and protect the machine components from damage. The main monitor type is an ionization chamber. About 4000 of them will be installed around the ring. The lost beam particles initiate hadronic showers through the magnets and other machine components. These shower particles are measured by the monitors installed on the outside of the accelerator equipment. For the calibration of the BLM system the signal response of the ionization chamber is simulated in GEANT4 for all relevant particle types and energies (keV to TeV range). For validation, the simulations are compared to measurements using protons, neutrons, photons and mixed radiation fields at various energies and intensities. This paper will focus on the signal response of the ionization chamber to various particle types and energies including space charge effects at high ionization densities.

  8. Posing the first LEAR vacuum chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1982-01-01

    The photo shows one of the four bending magnets of LEAR. They were of C-type with the opening ('mouth') to the outside of the ring (yoke to the inside). Last preparations are made before the vacuum chamber is slid through the mouth into the magnet. Stochastic cooling pickups/kickers were installed inside the chamber. One can distinguish a large number of feed-throughs on the chamber (leading to the pickup/kicker gaps). The free space in the middle of the block was left to offer room for an internal target in the magnet. This possibility was never exploited. Instead it is used here, to accommodate a pumping port for the high vacuum system. Michel Chanel (left) and Pierre Lefevre admire the mechanics at work.

  9. Rapid-Cycling Bubble-Chamber, details

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Parts of the hydraulic expansion system of the Rapid-Cycling Bubble-Chamber (RCBC). RCBC was the largest of 3 rapid-cycling bubble-chambers (the others were LEBC and HOLEBC), used as target- and vertex-detectors within the European Hybrid Spectrometer (EHS) in the SPS North Area (EHN1). RCBC contained 250 l of liquid hydrogen and was located inside a 3 T superconducting magnet. It was designed for 30 expansions/s (100 times faster than BEBC), the system shown here allowed 50 expansions/s. RCBC operated from 1981 to 1983 for experiments NA21, NA22 and NA23 at a rate of 15 expansions/s, clocking up a total of over 4 million. In the rear, at left, is bearded Lucien Veillet; Augustin Didona is at the right. See also 8001009. The installation of the piston assembly in the RCBC chamber body is shown in the Annual Report 1980, p.65.

  10. Thermal Vacuum Chamber Repressurization with Instrument Purging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woronowicz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    At the end of James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) OTIS (Optical Telescope Element-OTE-Integrated Science Instrument Module-ISIM) cryogenic vacuum testing in NASA Johnson Space Centers (JSCs) thermal vacuum (TV) Chamber A, contamination control (CC) engineers are mooting the idea that chamber particulate material stirred up by the repressurization process may be kept from falling into the ISIM interior to some degree by activating instrument purge flows over some initial period before opening the chamber valves. This memo describes development of a series of models designed to describe this process. These are strung together in tandem to estimate overpressure evolution from which net outflow velocity behavior may be obtained. Creeping flow assumptions are then used to determine the maximum particle size that may be kept suspended above the ISIM aperture, keeping smaller particles from settling within the instrument module.

  11. Design of the CLIC Quadrupole Vacuum Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Garion, C

    2010-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider, under study, requires vacuum chambers with a very small aperture, of the order of 8 mm in diameter, and with a length up to around 2 m for the main beam quadrupoles. To keep the very tight geometrical tolerances on the quadrupoles, no bake out is allowed. The main issue is to reach UHV conditions (typically 10-9 mbar static pressure) in a system where the vacuum performance is driven by water outgassing. For this application, a thinwalled stainless steel vacuum chamber with two ante chambers equipped with NEG strips, is proposed. The mechanical design, especially the stability analysis, is shown. The key technologies of the prototype fabrication are given. Vacuum tests are carried out on the prototypes. The test set-up as well as the pumping system conditions are presented.

  12. On Fengxi Kilns in Modern Times and the Innovative Kilning of Five-colored Ceramics%近代枫溪潮州窑与大窑五彩瓷的创烧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李炳炎

    2013-01-01

    Based on literature review, objects research and oral history analysis, this article shows an up⁃dated research on the innovative kilning of Fengxi Kiln’s five-colored ceramics, introducing its historical back⁃grounds, technical characters and overseas marketing in modern times. The conclusion of this article points out that the design and manufacture of the Fengxi Kiln’s five-colored ceramics have tremendous historical influ⁃ence, not only in creativity with distinct times features, but in its important role as the “cosmopolitan ceramic industry”.%  该文通过文献、实物、口述历史等资料,就近代枫溪大窑五彩瓷创烧的历史背景、工艺特色、外销等方面进行探讨,指出:“枫溪大窑五彩”的创烧,有着重要的历史意义,不仅在工艺上具有创新性、时代性,而且体现枫溪潮州窑在近代“世界性窑业”中的影响。

  13. A view inside the Gargamelle bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    Gargamelle was the name given to a big bubble chamber built at the Saclay Laboratory in France during the late 1960s. It was designed principally for the detection at CERN of the elusive particles called neutrinos. A bubble chamber contains a liquid under pressure, which reveals the tracks of electrically charged particles as trails of tiny bubbles when the pressure is reduced. Neutrinos have no charge, and so leave no tracks, but the aim with Gargamelle was "see neutrinos" by making visible any charged particles set in motion by the interaction of neutrinos in the liquid

  14. Cosmic Muon Detector Using Proportional Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Varga, Dezső; Hamar, Gergő; Molnár, Janka Sára; Oláh, Éva; Pázmándi, Péter

    2015-01-01

    A set of classical multi-wire proportional chambers were designed and constructed with the main purpose of efficient cosmic muon detection. These detectors are relatively simple to construct, and at the same time are low cost, making them ideal for educational purposes. The detector layers have efficiencies above 99% for minimum ionizing cosmic muons, and their position resolution is about 1 cm, that is, particle trajectories are clearly observable. Visualization of straight tracks is possible using an LED array, with the discriminated and latched signal driving the display. Due to the exceptional operating stability of the chambers, the design can also be used for cosmic muon telescopes.

  15. Quasi-Porous Plug With Vortex Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J. V.

    1985-01-01

    Pressure-letdown valve combines quasi-porous-plug and vortex-chamber in one controllable unit. Valve useful in fossil-energy plants for reducing pressures in such erosive two-phase process streams as steam/water, coal slurries, or combustion gases with entrained particles. Quasi-Porous Plug consists of plenums separated by perforated plates. Number or size of perforations increases with each succeeding stage to compensate for expansion. In Vortex Chamber, control flow varies to control swirl and therefore difference between inlet and outlet pressures.

  16. Calibration of a pencil ionization chamber with and without preamplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, Ana Figueiredo

    2004-01-01

    The pencil ionization chamber is a cylindrical dosimeter developed for computed tomography beams. Many kinds of ionization chambers have a preamplifier connected to the chamber to make it electrically more stable, specially for field instruments. In this study, the performance of a Victoreen pencil ionization chamber with the original preamplifier and after its removal was compared. The objective of the preamplifier removal was to enable connecting the chamber to other kinds of electromete...

  17. 30 CFR 77.305 - Access to drying chambers, hot gas inlet chambers and ductwork; installation and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Access to drying chambers, hot gas inlet... drying chambers, hot gas inlet chambers and ductwork; installation and maintenance. Drying chambers, hot... dust and the loss of fluidizing air....

  18. Utilizing TEMPO surface estimates to determine changes in emissions, community exposure and environmental impacts from cement kilns across North America using alternative fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegg, M. J.; Gibson, M. D.; Asamany, E.

    2015-12-01

    A major problem faced by all North American (NA) Governments is managing solid waste from residential and non-residential sources. One way to mitigate the need to expand landfill sites across NA is waste diversion for use as alternative fuel in industries such as cement manufacture. Currently, waste plastic, tires, waste shingles and other high carbon content waste destined for landfill are being explored, or currently used, as an alternative supplemental fuels for use in cement kilns across NA. While this is an attractive, environmentally sustainable solution, significant knowledge gaps remain in our fundamental understanding of whether these alternative fuels may lead to increased air pollution emissions from cement kilns across NA. The long-term objective of using TEMPO is to advance fundamental understanding of uncharacterized air pollution emissions and to assess the actual or potential environmental and health impacts of these emissions from cement kilns across NA. TEMPO measurements will be made in concert with in-situ observations augmented by air dispersion, land-use regression and receptor modelling. This application of TEMPO follows on from current research on a series of bench scale and pilot studies for Lafarge Canada Inc., that investigated the change in combustion emissions from various mixtures of coal (C), petroleum coke (PC) and non-recyclable alternative fuels. From our work we demonstrated that using an alternative fuel mixture in a cement kiln has potential to reduce emissions of CO2 by 34%; reduce NOx by 80%, and reduce fuel SO2 emissions by 98%. We also provided evidence that there would be a significant reduction in the formation of secondary ground-level ozone (O3) and secondary PM2.5 in downwind stack plumes if alternative waste derived fuels are used. The application of air dispersion, source apportionment, land use regression; together with remote sensing offers a powerful set of tools with the potential to improve air pollution

  19. Study on elemental features of Longquan celadon at Fengdongyan kiln site in Yuan and Ming Dynasties by EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) is used to determine the chemical compositions of Longquan celadon body and glaze at Fengdongyan kiln in Yuan and Ming Dynasties. In order to analyze the elemental features in different cultural periods, 196 typical Longquan celadon shards are selected including the Early Yuan (EY), the Middle and Late Yuan (MLY), the Early Ming (EM) and the Middle Ming (MM) periods. The results indicate that the contents of K2O, CaO, TiO2 and Fe2O3 for celadon body and glaze are various in different cultural periods. The b values b=RO/(RO+R2O), RO represents for alkali-earth metal elements and R2O stands for alkali metal elements) show that the glazes of Longquan celadon in Yuan and Ming Dynasties belong to the category of calcium-alkali glaze. The principal component analysis (PCA) exhibits that the raw materials used for body and glaze in four periods have the inheritance relation. The only difference is that the raw materials for glaze in MM period were similar to those in EM period. The producing and firing technology of Longquan celadon had reached a higher level in the Early Ming Dynasty.

  20. Study on elemental features of Longquan celadon at Fengdongyan kiln site in Yuan and Ming Dynasties by EDXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, L. [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analysis Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yu Quan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China); Feng, S.L., E-mail: fengsl@ihep.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analysis Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yu Quan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China); Feng, X.Q.; Xu, Q.; Yan, L.T.; Ma, B.; Liu, L. [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analysis Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yu Quan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2012-12-01

    The energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) is used to determine the chemical compositions of Longquan celadon body and glaze at Fengdongyan kiln in Yuan and Ming Dynasties. In order to analyze the elemental features in different cultural periods, 196 typical Longquan celadon shards are selected including the Early Yuan (EY), the Middle and Late Yuan (MLY), the Early Ming (EM) and the Middle Ming (MM) periods. The results indicate that the contents of K{sub 2}O, CaO, TiO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} for celadon body and glaze are various in different cultural periods. The b values b=RO/(RO+R{sub 2}O), RO represents for alkali-earth metal elements and R{sub 2}O stands for alkali metal elements) show that the glazes of Longquan celadon in Yuan and Ming Dynasties belong to the category of calcium-alkali glaze. The principal component analysis (PCA) exhibits that the raw materials used for body and glaze in four periods have the inheritance relation. The only difference is that the raw materials for glaze in MM period were similar to those in EM period. The producing and firing technology of Longquan celadon had reached a higher level in the Early Ming Dynasty.

  1. Framework for the Energetic Assessment of South and South-East Asia Fixed Chimney Bull’s Trench Kiln

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brun Niccolò Le

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major sources of fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emission in South and South-East Asia is brick manufacturing. One of the most commonly implemented technologies for brick manufacturing in this region is the fixed chimney Bull’s trench kiln (FCBTK. This type of technology largely depends on manual labour and is very inefficient when compared to more modern technologies. Because the adoption of more advanced technologies is hindered by the socio-economical background, the much needed innovations in the brick sector are necessarily related to improving/modifying the FCBTK already operational. However, few scientific studies have been conducted on FCBTK probably due to the basic level of technological development. Such studies are however important to systematically and methodologically assess the challenges and solutions in FCBTK. In this study we develop a thermo-energetic model to evaluate the importance of the parameters pertained to FCBTK construction and operation. The prospective of this study is to build an initial thermo-energetic framework that will serve as a basis to investigate possible energetic improvements.

  2. Quantification of the Reduced Environmental Impacts with Use of Co-Processing in Cement Kilns in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Tiwary

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Coupled with resource conservation and reduced carbon emissions, co-processing technology is a preferable alternative for sound and environmental friendly waste disposal over incinerators & non-scientific methods. It is not only solution to the waste disposal menace, but also reduces burden on secured landfills & TSDFs. Apart from using energy and material value of wastes, co-processing not only fixes the inorganic content of the wastes within the clinker, but also, it destroys the wastes completely due to high temperature and long residence time, avoiding need of further processing as in case of incineration. Trial run identifies wastes suitable for co-processing, source emission monitoring assesses environmental impacts and the quantification of reduced environmental impacts gives a clear picture of actual benefits of co-processing. The results show that the suggested process is efficient, economized and environmental friendly, particularly for a populated country, such as India, as there was no adverse effect on quality of cement, stack emission and air quality of environment due to co-processing of variety of identified wastes in cement kiln. Also, the quantified data of coal saved, CO2 emissions reduced & landfill volume avoided by the waste utilization will help in convincing all the stakeholders that co-processing of waste is the best environmentally sound technology for waste disposal. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.69.3.6736

  3. Effect of coal levels during direct reduction roasting of high phosphorus oolitic hematite ore in a tunnel kiln

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yongli; Sun Tichang; Zou Anhua; Xu Chengyan

    2012-01-01

    The effect of coal levels on phosphorus removal from a high phosphorus oolitic hematite ore after direct reduction roasting have been investigated.Raw ore,coal,and a dephosphorization agent were mixed and the mixture was then roasted in a tunnel kiln.The roasted products were treated by two stages of grinding followed by magnetic separation.XRD and SEM-EDS examination of the products was used to analyze differences in the roasted products.The results show that coal is one of the most important factors affecting the direct reduction roasting process.When the inner coal levels increased from 0% to 15% the iron grade decreased linearly from 94.94% to 88.81% and the iron recovery increased from 55.94% to 92.94%.At the same time the phosphorus content increased from 0.045% to 0.231%.Increasing the inner coal levels also caused more hematite to be reduced to metallic iron but the oolitic structure of the roasted product was preserved in the presence of high coal loading.The phase of the phosphorus in raw ore was not changed after direct reduction roasting.The effect of coal on the phosphorus content in the H-concentrate arises from changes in the difficulty of mechanically liberating the metallic iron from the phosphorus bearing minerals.

  4. Pressurized ionization chamber detectors for industrial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of the thickness of the sheets made of different materials, e.g. metal, plastic, paper, cellulose, rubber, etc., is one of many industrial applications of nuclear techniques. The ionizing radiation detectors of ionization chamber type are based on measuring the variations in either exposure rate (for gamma radiation) or absorbed dose rate (for beta radiation) occurring in materials of different thickness, placed between the radiation source and the detector. The variations in exposure rate and absorbed dose rate can be traced by using radiation detectors of the ionization chamber type, which convert the exposure rate, X point, or the absorbed dose rate, D point, into a proportional electric current. The more stable the ionization current of the chambers (keeping a constant exposure rate or absorbed dose rate), the slighter the variations that can be detected in either exposure rate or absorbed dose rate, hence in the absorbing material placed between the radiation source and the detector. Based on these facts, several variants of such detectors, including the ionization chamber CIS-P5M-100Kr, CIS-P2M-1000Kr and CIS-P8M-70Kr, have been made. (author)

  5. The arrival of the CLOUD chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN AVC

    2009-01-01

    The team from the CLOUD experiment - the world’s first experiment using a high-energy particle accelerator to study the climate - were on cloud nine after the arrival of their new three-metre diameter cloud chamber. This marks the end of three years’ R&D; and design, and the start of preparations for data taking later this year.

  6. Acoustical-Levitation Chamber for Metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Trinh, E.; Wang, T. G.; Elleman, D. D.; Jacobi, N.

    1983-01-01

    Sample moved to different positions for heating and quenching. Acoustical levitation chamber selectively excited in fundamental and second-harmonic longitudinal modes to hold sample at one of three stable postions: A, B, or C. Levitated object quickly moved from one of these positions to another by changing modes. Object rapidly quenched at A or C after heating in furnace region at B.

  7. Vacuum chamber for intersection I-4

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    Vacuum chamber for intersection I-4 of the ISR being assembled inside a wooden mock-up of the gap of the split-field magnet. The central round-cylinder section is provisional and is to be replaced by an elliptic-cylinder section to give more space vertically for installation of detectors. Supports for the central section are of carbon fibre composite.

  8. IKAR, a ionization chamber for WA9

    CERN Document Server

    1976-01-01

    This ionization chamber arrived at CERN from Leningrad for a high precision study of hadron elastic scattering by a CERN-Clermont-Ferrand-Leningrad-Lyon-Uppsala Collaboration in the H3 beam (WA9). G.A. Korolev (third from right) looks at the drawings.

  9. Chamber transport for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review is given of research on chamber transport for HIF (heavy ion fusion) dating from the first HIF Workshop in 1976 to the present. Chamber transport modes are categorized into ballistic transport modes and channel-like modes. Four major HIF reactor studies are summarized (HIBALL-II, HYLIFE-II, Prometheus-H, OSIRIS), with emphasis on the chamber transport environment. In general, many beams are used to provide the required symmetry and to permit focusing to the required small spots. Target parameters are then discussed, with a summary of the individual heavy ion beam parameters required for HIF. The beam parameters are then classified as to their line charge density and perveance, with special emphasis on the perveance limits for radial space charge spreading, for the space charge limiting current, and for the magnetic (Alfven) limiting current. The major experiments on ballistic transport (SFFE, Sabre beamlets, GAMBLE II, NTX, NDCX) are summarized, with specific reference to the axial electron trapping limit for charge neutralization. The major experiments on channel-like transport (GAMBLE II channel, GAMBLE II self-pinch, LBNL channels, GSI channels) are discussed. The status of current research on HIF chamber transport is summarized, and the value of future NDCX-II transport experiments for the future of HIF is noted

  10. Prototype vacuum chamber for ISR intersection region

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The vacuum chambers at the ISR interaction regions had to be as transparent as possible to the secondary particles emerging from the collision points. Made from stainless steel or titanium, only a fraction of a millimeter thick, they were most delicate to handle.

  11. Prototype Vacuum Chamber for ISR Intersection Region

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The vacuum chambers at the ISR interaction region had to be as transparent as possible to the secondary particles emerging from the collision points. Made from stainless steel or titanium, only a fraction of a millimeter thick, they were most delicate to handle.

  12. Chamber transport for heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Craig L., E-mail: clolson66@msn.com

    2014-01-01

    A brief review is given of research on chamber transport for HIF (heavy ion fusion) dating from the first HIF Workshop in 1976 to the present. Chamber transport modes are categorized into ballistic transport modes and channel-like modes. Four major HIF reactor studies are summarized (HIBALL-II, HYLIFE-II, Prometheus-H, OSIRIS), with emphasis on the chamber transport environment. In general, many beams are used to provide the required symmetry and to permit focusing to the required small spots. Target parameters are then discussed, with a summary of the individual heavy ion beam parameters required for HIF. The beam parameters are then classified as to their line charge density and perveance, with special emphasis on the perveance limits for radial space charge spreading, for the space charge limiting current, and for the magnetic (Alfven) limiting current. The major experiments on ballistic transport (SFFE, Sabre beamlets, GAMBLE II, NTX, NDCX) are summarized, with specific reference to the axial electron trapping limit for charge neutralization. The major experiments on channel-like transport (GAMBLE II channel, GAMBLE II self-pinch, LBNL channels, GSI channels) are discussed. The status of current research on HIF chamber transport is summarized, and the value of future NDCX-II transport experiments for the future of HIF is noted.

  13. Anterior Chamber Live Loa loa: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagmeni, G; Cheuteu, R; Bilong, Y; Wiedemann, P

    2016-01-01

    We reported a case of unusual intraocular Loa loa in a 27-year-old patient who presented with painful red eye. Biomicroscopy revealed a living and active adult worm in the anterior chamber of the right eye. After surgical extraction under local anesthesia, parasitological identification confirmed L. loa filariasis. PMID:27441005

  14. A mathematical model of aerosol holding chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zak, M; Madsen, J; Berg, E;

    1999-01-01

    , Ontario, Canada), NebuChamber (Astra, Södirtälje, Sweden) and Nebuhaler (Astra) adapted for babies. The dose of fluticasone proportionate delivered by the Babyhaler (Glaxco Wellcome, Oxbridge, Middlesex, UK) was 80% of that predicted, probably because of incomplete priming of this spacer. Of the above...

  15. Anterior Chamber Live Loa loa: Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagmeni, G.; Cheuteu, R.; Bilong, Y.; Wiedemann, P.

    2016-01-01

    We reported a case of unusual intraocular Loa loa in a 27-year-old patient who presented with painful red eye. Biomicroscopy revealed a living and active adult worm in the anterior chamber of the right eye. After surgical extraction under local anesthesia, parasitological identification confirmed L. loa filariasis. PMID:27441005

  16. Drift Chambers detectors; Detectores de deriva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, I.; Martinez laso, L.

    1989-07-01

    We present here a review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysed, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author) 115 refs.

  17. Wave Phenomena in an Acoustic Resonant Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mary E.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the design and operation of a high Q acoustical resonant chamber which can be used to demonstrate wave phenomena such as three-dimensional normal modes, Q values, densities of states, changes in the speed of sound, Fourier decomposition, damped harmonic oscillations, sound-absorbing properties, and perturbation and scattering problems.…

  18. SEPAC system test in NASDA space chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obayashi, T.; Kuriki, K.; Kawashima, N.; Nagatomo, M.; Kudo, I.; Ninomiya, K.; Ushirokawa, A.; Ejiri, M.; Sasaki, S.

    1980-01-01

    Test results of the second NASDA space chamber test using SEPAC (Space Experiment with Particle Acceleration) prototype models are reviewed. A safety level of electrical charge is determined, the electromagnetic interference effect caused by an electron beam and MPD arcjet firing is evaluated, and beam spread for EBA software mask design is measured.

  19. Liquid ionization chambers for LET determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Franz-Joachim; Bassler, Niels; Tölli, Heikki;

    Liquid ionization chambers [1] (LICs) have have been used in the last decades as background dosemeters. Since a few years LICs are also commercially available for dosimetry and are used for measurements of dose distributions where a high spatial distribution is necessary. Also in the last decades...

  20. Development of Master Chamber Software for Data Acquisition of Ionization Chamber for Indus 2 RRCAT

    OpenAIRE

    Priyesh Soni; Mrs. B. Harita; Nawaz Ali Sayed

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this paper was to Develop Master control software for DAQ of ionization chamber for INDUS-2 beam lines for detection of X-ray flux by an Ionization chamber that will remotely control and monitor the ultra low current signal detection analog module precisely. This application will be useful to measure the intensity of X-ray flux through ionization chamber in a beam line of synchrotron radiation source which is mounted in INDUS-2. It is one of new technique of detection. Beam l...

  1. Anterior chamber fixation of a posterior chamber intraocular lens: A novel technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sahap Kükner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the implantation of a posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL in the anterior chamber (AC with the haptics passing through two iridectomies to the posterior chamber. A total of 33 eyes of 33 patients with inadequate posterior capsular support due to either previous aphakia or posterior capsular rupture during cataract extraction were included in the study. A double iridectomy was performed on all patients using a vitrectomy probe on the midperiphery of the iris. IOLs were implanted in the AC, and the haptics were passed through the iridectomies to the posterior chamber. The mean follow-up time was 25.3 months. AC hemorrhage occurred in five patients during the iridectomy procedure. Corneal edema was detected in eight of 14 patients with primary IOL insertions. Haptic dislocation was detected in only one patient. This technique may be a good alternative to scleral-fixated IOL implantation in eyes with aphakia.

  2. Achievable field strength in reverberation chambers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Eulig

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Feldvariable Kammern (FVK, engl.: modestirred- chamber werden unter anderem für EMV-Störfestigkeitsprüfungen verwendet. Ein häufig genanntes Argument, das die Einführung dieser Kammern als normgerechte Prüfumgebung vorantreiben soll, ist eine hohe Feldstärke, die im Vergleich zu anderen Testumgebungen mit relativ moderaten HF-Leistungen erreicht werden kann. Besonders für sicherheitskritische Geräte, wie Komponenten aus der Avionik- oder KFZ-Industrie, sind heutzutage Testfeldstärken von mehreren 100 V/m notwendig. Derart hohe Feldstärken können in Umgebungen, die ein ebenes Wellenfeld erzeugen oder nachbilden, nur mit großen HFLeistungen generiert werden. Durch die Resonanzeigenschaften einer FVK können demgegenüber mit sehr viel weniger Leistung und damit Verstärkeraufwand vergleichbare Werte der Feldstärke erzeugt werden. Allerdings sinkt mit zunehmendem Volumen die erreichbare Feldstärke bei gleicher Speiseleistung. Idealerweise sollen Feldvariable Kammern bei möglichst niedrigen Frequenzen für EMVTests nutzbar sein, was jedoch ein großes Kammervolumen erfordert. Das Problem, bei niedrigen Frequenzen hohe Feldstärken erzeugen zu können, relativiert deshalb den Vorteil von FVKn gegenüber bekannten Testumgebungen bei niedrigen Testfrequenzen. Der Posterbeitrag erläutert, welche Feldstärken in verschieden großen Feldvariablen Kammern beim Einspeisen einer bestimmten hochfrequenten Leistung erreicht werden können. Anhand dieser Ergebnisse wird aufgezeigt, oberhalb welcher Grenzfrequenz eine Anwendung von FVKn nur sinnvoll erscheint. Mode-stirred chambers (MSCs can be used for radiated immunity tests in EMC testing. Advantageous compared to conventional test methods is the high field strength which can here be generated with less RF-Power. This point is often the main argument for pushing the standardization of MSCs as an other EMC testing environment. Especially for safety-critical electronic equipment like avionic or

  3. Conversion of lime kilns from oil firing to biofuel firing: Operating experience and modelling; Konvertering av mesaugnar fraan olje- till biobraensleeldning: Drifterfarenheter och modellering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadsborn, Rickard; Berglin, Niklas; Richards, Tobias

    2007-12-15

    Alternative fuels and techniques affect the operation of the lime kiln and the recausticizing plant, as well as the liquor cycle. An important effect is due to the introduction of non-process elements (NPEs), e.g. potassium, phosphorus and magnesium that accumulate in the liquor and lime cycles, respectively. Temperature profile and flame stability in the kiln also tend to change, which may have effects on ring formation. Availability and maintenance requirements for different technical solutions are important for the real saving of fossil fuel that can be reached over a longer period. The project has aimed to compile experience of the type indicated above, and to develop tools that may facilitate conversion to biofuel firing. The objective has been to gain comprehensive knowledge of the biofuels that can be used for lime kiln firing and compare them, focusing on practical experience from the plants that use or have used biofuels. One goal has been to develop validated models that can be used to describe changes that occur in the lime kiln and the chemical recovery cycle when changing fuels. The primary target group for the report is people working with energy and process related tasks in the pulp industry, and those delivering fuels or system solutions to the industry. The project has comprised data collection and modelling, as well as interviews with operations managers and visits to the mills that have several years of experience with firing of biofuels to replace oil in the lime kiln. A compilation of operating experience shows that conversion to biofuel firing is fully possible with both bark and wood powder, or with fuel gas from gasification of bark or wood shavings, and that the biofuel can replace the main part of the fuel oil in the lime kiln. However, the possibility to introduce biofuels into the lime kiln varies from mill to mill, as the mill have different possibilities to handle variations in availability of the kiln and mass flows of lime. In

  4. A new plant chamber facility PLUS coupled to the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hohaus

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A new PLant chamber Unit for Simulation (PLUS for use with the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR (Simulation of Atmospheric PHotochemistry In a large Reaction Chamber has been build and characterized at the Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Germany. The PLUS chamber is an environmentally controlled flow through plant chamber. Inside PLUS the natural blend of biogenic emissions of trees are mixed with synthetic air and are transferred to the SAPHIR chamber where the atmospheric chemistry and the impact of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC can be studied in detail. In PLUS all important enviromental parameters (e.g. temperature, PAR, soil RH etc. are well-controlled. The gas exchange volume of 9.32 m3 which encloses the stem and the leafes of the plants is constructed such that gases are exposed to FEP Teflon film and other Teflon surfaces only to minimize any potential losses of BVOCs in the chamber. Solar radiation is simulated using 15 LED panels which have an emission strength up to 800 μmol m−2 s−1. Results of the initial characterization experiments are presented in detail. Background concentrations, mixing inside the gas exchange volume, and transfer rate of volatile organic compounds (VOC through PLUS under different humidity conditions are explored. Typical plant characteristics such as light and temperature dependent BVOC emissions are studied using six Quercus Ilex trees and compared to previous studies. Results of an initial ozonolysis experiment of BVOC emissions from Quercus Ilex at typical atmospheric concentrations inside SAPHIR are presented to demonstrate a typical experimental set up and the utility of the newly added plant chamber.

  5. A new plant chamber facility PLUS coupled to the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohaus, T.; Kuhn, U.; Andres, S.; Kaminski, M.; Rohrer, F.; Tillmann, R.; Wahner, A.; Wegener, R.; Yu, Z.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.

    2015-11-01

    A new PLant chamber Unit for Simulation (PLUS) for use with the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR (Simulation of Atmospheric PHotochemistry In a large Reaction Chamber) has been build and characterized at the Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Germany. The PLUS chamber is an environmentally controlled flow through plant chamber. Inside PLUS the natural blend of biogenic emissions of trees are mixed with synthetic air and are transferred to the SAPHIR chamber where the atmospheric chemistry and the impact of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) can be studied in detail. In PLUS all important enviromental parameters (e.g. temperature, PAR, soil RH etc.) are well-controlled. The gas exchange volume of 9.32 m3 which encloses the stem and the leafes of the plants is constructed such that gases are exposed to FEP Teflon film and other Teflon surfaces only to minimize any potential losses of BVOCs in the chamber. Solar radiation is simulated using 15 LED panels which have an emission strength up to 800 μmol m-2 s-1. Results of the initial characterization experiments are presented in detail. Background concentrations, mixing inside the gas exchange volume, and transfer rate of volatile organic compounds (VOC) through PLUS under different humidity conditions are explored. Typical plant characteristics such as light and temperature dependent BVOC emissions are studied using six Quercus Ilex trees and compared to previous studies. Results of an initial ozonolysis experiment of BVOC emissions from Quercus Ilex at typical atmospheric concentrations inside SAPHIR are presented to demonstrate a typical experimental set up and the utility of the newly added plant chamber.

  6. The physics of Resistive Plate Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Riegler, Werner

    2004-01-01

    Over the last 3 years we investigated theoretical aspects of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) in order to clarify some of the outstanding questions on space charge effects, high efficiency of small gap RPCs, charge spectra, signal shape and time resolution. In a series of reports we analyzed RPC performance including all detector aspects covering primary ionization, avalanche multiplication, space charge effects, signal induction in presence of resistive materials, crosstalk along detectors with long strips and front-end electronics. Using detector gas parameters entirely based on theoretical predictions and physical models for avalanche development and space charge effects we are able to reproduce measurements for 2 and 0.3 mm RPCs to very high accuracy without any additional assumptions. This fact gives a profound insight into the workings of RPCs and also underlines the striking difference in operation regime when compared to wire chambers. A summary of this work as well as recent results on three-dimensiona...

  7. Tailored vacuum chambers for ac magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed LAMPF-II accelerator has a 60-Hz booster synchrotron and a 3-Hz main ring. To provide a vacuum enclosure inside the magnets with low eddy-current losses and minimal field distortion, yet capable of carrying rf image currents and providing beam stabilization, we propose an innovative combination pipe. Structurally, the enclosure is high-purity alumina ceramic, which is strong, radiation resistant, and has good vacuum properties. Applied to the chamber are thin, spaced, silver conductors using adapted thick-film technology. The conductor design can be tailored to the stabilization requirements, for example, longitudinal conductors for image currents, circumferential for transverse stabilization. The inside of the chamber has a thin, resistive coating to avoid charge build-up. The overall 60-Hz power loss is less than 100 W/m

  8. HYLIFE-II reactor chamber mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical design features of the reactor chamber for the HYLIFE-II inertial confinement fusion power plant are presented. A combination of oscillating and steady, molten salt streams are used for shielding and blast protection. The system is designed for an 8 Hz repetition rate. Beam path clearing, between shots, is accomplished with the oscillating flow. The mechanism for generating the oscillating streams is described. A design configuration of the vessel wall allows adequate cooling and provides extra shielding to reduce thermal stresses to tolerable levels. The bottom portion of the reactor chamber is designed to minimize splash back of the high velocity (20 m/s) salt streams and also recover up to half of the dynamic head

  9. Reproducibility of the chamber scarification test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1996-01-01

    The chamber scarification test is a predictive human skin irritation test developed to rank the irritation potential of products and ingredients meant for repeated use on normal and diseased skin. 12 products or ingredients can be tested simultaneously on the forearm skin of each volunteer....... The test combines with the procedure scratching of the skin at each test site and subsequent closed patch tests with the products, repeated daily for 3 days. The test is performed on groups of human volunteers: a skin irritant substance or products is included in each test as a positive control......, and a compound with low irritant potential as a negative control, to obtain relative characterization of the irritant potential of the unknown products. The outcome of tests with a positive and negative control product used repeatedly in 13 chamber scarification tests over a 7-year period is reported, and shows...

  10. The fast Ice Nucleus chamber FINCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundke, U.; Nillius, B.; Jaenicke, R.; Wetter, T.; Klein, H.; Bingemer, H.

    2008-11-01

    We present first results of our new developed Ice Nucleus (IN) counter FINCH from the sixth Cloud and Aerosol Characterization Experiment (CLACE 6) campaign at Jungfraujoch station, 3571 m asl. Measurements were made at the total and the ICE CVI inlet. Laboratory measurements of ice onset temperatures by FINCH are compared to those of the static diffusion chamber FRIDGE (FRankfurt Ice Deposition Freezing Experiment). Within the errors of both new instruments the results compare well to published data.

  11. The Bern Infinitesimal Bubble Chamber (BIBC)

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    The chamber body was machined from a block of aluminium. The visible volume was cylindrical with 65 mm diameter and 35 mm depth. It was filled with propane or freon. It was meant as vertex detector in the search of short-lived particles. It was also used with in-line holography resulting in 8 µm bubble size and 9 cm depth of the field. See E. Ramseyer, B. Hahn and E. Hugentobler, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 201 (1982) 335.

  12. Comment on 'Proton beam monitor chamber calibration'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmans, Hugo; Vatnitsky, Stanislav M

    2016-09-01

    We comment on a recent article (Gomà et al 2014 Phys. Med. Biol. 59 4961-71) which compares different routes of reference dosimetry for the energy dependent beam monitor calibration in scanned proton beams. In this article, a 3% discrepancy is reported between a Faraday cup and a plane-parallel ionization chamber in the experimental determination of the number of protons per monitor unit. It is further claimed that similar discrepancies between calorimetry and ionization chamber based dosimetry indicate that [Formula: see text]-values tabulated for proton beams in IAEA TRS-398 might be overestimated. In this commentary we show, however, that this supporting argument misrepresents the evidence in the literature and that the results presented, together with published data, rather confirm that there exist unresolved problems with Faraday cup dosimetry. We also show that the comparison in terms of the number of protons gives a biased view on the uncertainty estimates for both detectors while the quantity of interest is absorbed dose to water or dose-area-product to water, even if a beam monitor is calibrated in terms of the number of protons. Gomà et al (2014 Phys. Med. Biol. 59 4961-71) also report on the discrepancy between cylindrical and plane-parallel ionization chambers and confirm experimentally that in the presence of a depth dose gradient, theoretical values of the effective point of measurement, or alternatively a gradient correction factor, account for the discrepancy. We believe this does not point to an error or shortcoming of IAEA TRS-398, which prescribes taking the centre of cylindrical ionization chambers as reference point, since it recommends reference dosimetry to be performed in the absence of a depth dose gradient. But these observations reveal that important aspects of beam monitor calibration in scanned proton beams are not addressed in IAEA TRS-398 given that those types of beams were not widely implemented at the time of its publication

  13. High pressure hydrogen time projection chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a high pressure hydrogen gas time projection chamber which consists of two cylindrical drift regions each 45 cm in diameter and 75 cm long. Typically, at 15 atm of H2 with 2 kV/cm drift field and 7 kV on the 35μ sense wires, the drift velocity is about 0.5 cm/μsec and the spatial resolution +-200μ

  14. Improvement of a New Gas Ionization Chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to identify heavier elements, we have developed a new longitudinal field gas ionization chamber (IC)with an angle of 30° of plate (as shown in Fig.1). The IC is operated in flowing iso-butane gas at a pressure of 10kPa. After testing by using a 3- component α particle source and comparing with the old longitudinal field

  15. Development and progress in resistive plate chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hong-Fang; WU Jian

    2004-01-01

    Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) is a robust and low cost gas detector, which is extensively used in high-energy physics, cosmic and astroparticle physics experiments. Over the past twenty years, as a particle detector,RPC has made remarkable progress. The main achievements, features and results of experiemantal tests including R&D and production of the RPCs by several Chinese groups in recent years are reported in this article.

  16. Neutron measurements performed with miniature fission chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research aims at proposing solutions regarding instruments to perform neutron flow measurements in nuclear power reactors and to perform measurements of the reaction rates of highly radioactive transuranic fissile elements in experimental reactors. This research is also part of a program aimed at the adjustment of the Cadarache cross section set. The report defines the instrumentation, recalls the operation of fission chambers, discusses the implemented instrumentation, and discusses the obtained measurements

  17. Vacuum Chamber for the Booster Bending Magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    To minimise eddy currents, induced by the rising magnetic field, the chamber was made from thin stainless steel of high specific electric resistance. For mechanical strength, it was corrugated in a hydro-forming process. The cross-section was designed for maximum strength and maximum aperture. To accept particles with simultaneous large amplitudes in both planes, the cross-section approaches a rectangular shape (see also 7402463).

  18. Wire chambers with their magnetostrictive readout

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    This set of wire chamber planes shaped as a cylinder sector was installed inside the magnet of a polarized spin target modified to allow as well momentum analysis of the produced particles. The experiment (S126) was set up by the CERN-Trieste Collaboration in the PS beam m9 to measure spin effects in the associated production of of a positive kaon and a positive Sigma by interaction of a positive pion with polarized protons.

  19. Foreign Body Embedded in Anterior Chamber Angle

    OpenAIRE

    Shmuel Graffi; Beatrice Tiosano; Ran Ben Cnaan; Jonathan Bahir; Modi Naftali

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. We present a case of a metallic foreign body embedded in the anterior chamber angle. After standing in close proximity to a construction worker breaking a tile, a 26-year-old woman using soft contact lens for the correction of mild myopia presented to emergency department for evaluation of a foreign body sensation of her right eye. Methods and Results. Diagnosis was confirmed by gonioscopic examination and a noncontrast CT scan of head and orbits. The foreign body was removed by...

  20. Angular resolution of stacked resistive plate chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Samuel, Deepak; Murgod, Lakshmi P

    2016-01-01

    We present here detailed derivations of mathematical expressions for the angular resolution of a set of stacked resistive plate chambers (RPCs). The expressions are validated against experimental results using data collected from the prototype detectors (without magnet) of the upcoming India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO). In principle, these expressions can be used for any other detector with an architecture similar to that of RPCs.

  1. Design of an ionization diffusion chamber detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prototype of an Ionization Diffusion Chamber detector has been made. It is a silindrical glass, 20 cm in diameter, 13,5 cm in height, air gas filled, operated at room pressure and room temperature at the top of this instrument while for the box temperature dry ice (CO2 solid) temperature is used. This detector is ready for seeing alpha and beta particle tracks. (author)

  2. The 'Diogene' detector, 4π drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Diogene' is a detector with a solid angle near the steradian 4π, mainly comprising a drift chamber and capable of detecting in coincidence several tens of charged particles. Built by several laboratories (Dph-N/Saclay, CRN/Strasbourg and LPC/Clermont-Ferrand) it should be ready round about June 1980 to use the heavy ion beams of Saturne II for studying the multiple production of pions and protons in central collisions of relativistic heavy ions

  3. Bubble Chambers for Experiments in Nuclear Astrophysics

    OpenAIRE

    DiGiovine, B.; Henderson, D.; Holt, R. J.; Rehm, K. E.; Raut, R.; Robinson, A.; Sonnenschein, A.; Rusev, G.; A.P. Tonchev; Ugalde, C.

    2015-01-01

    A bubble chamber has been developed to be used as an active target system for low energy nuclear astrophysics experiments. Adopting ideas from dark matter detection with superheated liquids, a detector system compatible with gamma-ray beams has been developed. This detector alleviates some of the limitations encountered in standard measurements of the minute cross sections of interest to stellar environments. While the astrophysically relevant nuclear reaction processes at hydrostatic burning...

  4. Bubble chamber: D meson production and decay

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    This event shows real particle tracks from the Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC), which was used to observe neutrino and hadron beams between 1973 and 1984 from the PS and SPS accelerators. In this event a neutrino interacts with a proton producing an excited D meson. A labeled diagram is seen on the right as the particles spiral in the magnetic field of the detector.

  5. SONTRAC: A solar neutron track chamber detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, T. L.; Frye, G. M., Jr.; Owens, A.

    1985-01-01

    The recent detection on the solar maximum mission (SMM) satellite of high energy neutrons emitted during large solar flares has provided renewed incentive to design a neutron detector which has the sensitivity, energy resolution, and time resolution to measure the neutron time and energy spectra with sufficient precision to improve our understanding of the basic flare processes. Over the past two decades a variety of neutron detectors has been flown to measure the atmospheric neutron intensity above 10 MeV and to search for solar neutrons. The SONTRAC (Solar Neutron Track Chamber) detector, a new type of neutron detector which utilizes n-p scattering and has a sensitivity 1-3 orders of magnitude greater than previous instruments in the 20-200 MeV range is described. The energy resolution is 1% for neutron kinetic energy, T sub n 50 MeV. When used with a coded aperture mask at 50 m (as would be possible on the space station) an angular resolution of approx. 4 arc sec could be achieved, thereby locating the sites of high energy nuclear interactions with an angular precision comparable to the existing x-ray experiments on SMM. The scintillation chamber is investigated as a track chamber for high energy physics, either by using arrays of scintillating optical fibers or by optical imaging of particle trajectories in a block of scintillator.

  6. Posterior Chamber Hemorrhage during Fluorescein Angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel A. P. Vilela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides the first reported case of acute posterior chamber hemorrhage during fluorescein angiography (FA. This is a case review with serial color photographs of the anterior segment. A 76-year-old male was referred for angiographic control of age-related macular degeneration. He was pseudophakic OU, BCVA 20/40 OU. He had mild hypertension, but not diabetes. He had had two previous angiograms without adverse effects. Difficulty was experienced in obtaining the images owing to a progressive reduction in the transparency of the media. A dense hemorrhage in the posterior chamber of the right eye was found, involving the visual axis. Thorough biomicroscopy, gonioscopy, and ultrasonic biomicroscopy showed that part of one of the haptics of the right intraocular lens (IOL was touching and tearing the posterior face of the iris, without any visible synechiae, iris, or angle neovascularization. Anterior segment FA and posterior ultrasonography were normal. No similar case has been described in the literature involving dense progressive bleeding located in the capsular bag and posterior chamber, without any detectable triggering ocular event other than mydriasis and fluorescein injection. Contact of the iris or sulcus with part of the intraocular lens, aggravated by the intense use of mydriatics during the FA procedure, probably caused bleeding to happen.

  7. Chamber Design For Slow Nucleation Protein Crystal Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusey, Marc Lee

    1995-01-01

    Multiple-chamber dialysis apparatus grows protein crystals on Earth or in microgravity with minimum of intervention by technician. Use of multiple chambers provides gradation of nucleation and growth rates.

  8. RF Anechoic Chambers, Tri-Service Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In collaboration with the Navy, there are 12 RF Anechoic and static free exposure chambers located at TSRL. These chambers cover the majority of the RF spectrum and...

  9. Introduction to the Workshop "30 years of bubble chamber physics"

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgio GiacomelliUniversity of Bologna and INFN, Bologna, Italy

    2014-01-01

    After some recollections of the early bubble chamber times, a brief overview of the golden age of the field is made, including its legacy and the use of bubble chamber events for the popularization of science.

  10. 40 CFR 63.1205 - What are the standards for hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns that are effective...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... any waste heat recovery system) to 400 °F or lower based on the average of the test run average... of the combustion gas temperature at the exit of the (last) combustion chamber (or exit of any waste heat recovery system) to 400 °F or lower based on the average of the test run average temperatures....

  11. Smart ionization chamber for gamma-ray monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Drndarević Vujo R.; Jevtić Nenad J.; Rajović Vladimir M.; Stanković Srboljub J.

    2014-01-01

    A design and implementation of a smart ionization chamber suitable for connection into gamma radiation monitoring networks is presented in this paper. The smart ionization chamber consists of air-equivalent one liter ionization chamber with associated electronics and a built-in memory for storage of electronic data specifications. Generally, operating and measurement characteristics of the used ionization chamber are written into the memory chip attached to...

  12. Cone penetration tests in a virtual calibration chamber

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo Alvarez de Toledo, Marcos; Butlanska, Joanna; Gens Solé, Antonio; Calvetti, Francesco; Jamiolkowski, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A virtual calibration chamber was built using a threedimensional model based on the discrete-element method. The chamber was then filled with a scaled granular equivalent of Ticino sand, the material properties of which were selected by curve-fitting triaxial tests. Cone penetration tests were then performed under different initial densities and isotropic stresses. Penetration resistance in the virtual calibration chamber was affected by the same cone/chamber size effect that affects ph...

  13. The Impedance of the Ceramic Chamber in J-PARC

    CERN Document Server

    Shobuda, Yoshihiro; Ohmi, Kazuhito; Toyama, Takeshi

    2005-01-01

    The ceramic chamber is adopted at the RCS (rapid cycling synchrotron) in J-PARC. The copper stripes are on the outer surface of the chamber in order to shield the electro-magnetic field produced by the beam. The inner surface of the chamber is coated by TiN to suppress the secondary electron emission. In this paper, we calculate the strength of electro-magnetic field produced by the beam and evaluate the impedance of this ceramic chamber.

  14. The study of ancient porcelain of Hutian kiln site from Five dynasty (902-979) to Ming dynasty (1368-1644) by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minor and trace elements of 398 pieces of ancient porcelain of Hutian kiln site from Five dynasty (AD 902-979) to Ming dynasty (AD 1368-1644) were determined by instrumental neutron activate analysis (INAA). The data of INAA and PCA show the ages of all the porcelain can be divided into Five dynasty, Northern Song dynasty, Southern Song dynasty, Early Yuan dynasty, Later Yuan dynasty and Ming dynasty according to their chemical compositions. Moreover, some archaeological questions about the ancient porcelain are discussion also. (author)

  15. Application of Waste Heat Recovery Technology for Lime Shaft Kiln%白灰竖窑余热回收技术应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑荣; 张岩峰

    2014-01-01

    Cast iron finned-tube radiator was adopted in the design with suitable fume flowrate, successfully solving the problem of waste heat recovery from higher dust content and lower temperature fumes of kilns and bringing significant economic and social benefits.%设计采用铸铁翼片管散热器,合理确定烟气流速,成功解决了炉窑类含尘浓度高温度相对较低烟气的余热回收问题,经济和社会效益显著。

  16. Herds of methane chambers grazing bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinham, Alistair; Dunbabin, Matthew

    2014-05-01

    Water to air methane emissions from freshwater reservoirs can be dominated by sediment bubbling (ebullitive) events. Previous work to quantify methane bubbling from a number of Australian sub-tropical reservoirs has shown that this can contribute as much as 95% of total emissions. These bubbling events are controlled by a variety of different factors including water depth, surface and internal waves, wind seiching, atmospheric pressure changes and water levels changes. Key to quantifying the magnitude of this emission pathway is estimating both the bubbling rate as well as the areal extent of bubbling. Both bubbling rate and areal extent are seldom constant and require persistent monitoring over extended time periods before true estimates can be generated. In this paper we present a novel system for persistent monitoring of both bubbling rate and areal extent using multiple robotic surface chambers and adaptive sampling (grazing) algorithms to automate the quantification process. Individual chambers are self-propelled and guided and communicate between each other without the need for supervised control. They can maintain station at a sampling site for a desired incubation period and continuously monitor, record and report fluxes during the incubation. To exploit the methane sensor detection capabilities, the chamber can be automatically lowered to decrease the head-space and increase concentration. The grazing algorithms assign a hierarchical order to chambers within a preselected zone. Chambers then converge on the individual recording the highest 15 minute bubbling rate. Individuals maintain a specified distance apart from each other during each sampling period before all individuals are then required to move to different locations based on a sampling algorithm (systematic or adaptive) exploiting prior measurements. This system has been field tested on a large-scale subtropical reservoir, Little Nerang Dam, and over monthly timescales. Using this technique

  17. Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Dissipation within a Euthanasia Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djoufack-Momo, Shelly M; Amparan, Ashlee A; Grunden, Beverly; Boivin, Gregory P

    2014-01-01

    CO2 euthanasia is used widely for small laboratory animals, such as rodents. A common necessity in many animal research facilities is to euthanize mice in sequential batches. We assessed the effects of several variables on the time it took for CO2 to dissipate within a chamber. Using standard euthanasia time, changes in flow rate were compared between a slow 15% fill rate for 7 min, and a slow 15% followed by a rapid 50% filling for a total of 5 min. Additional variables assessed included the effects of opening the lid after the completion of chamber filling, turning the chamber over after completion of filling, and the use and removal of a cage from within the chamber. For all trials, CO2 levels in the chambers peaked between 50% and 80%. After the gas was turned off, the concentration of CO2 dropped to below 10% CO2 within 2 min, except when the lid was left on the chamber, where concentration levels remained above 10% after 20 min. CO2 dissipation was significantly faster when the chamber was turned upside down after filling. Significant interaction effects occurred among the factors of cage presence within the chamber, flow rate, and chamber position. Only leaving the lid on the chamber had any practical implication for delaying CO2 dissipation. We recommend that users allow 2 min for CO2 to clear from the chamber before subsequent euthanasia procedures, unless the chamber is manipulated to increase the dissipation rate. PMID:25199098

  18. 21 CFR 878.5650 - Topical oxygen chamber for extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Topical oxygen chamber for extremities. 878.5650... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 878.5650 Topical oxygen chamber for extremities. (a) Identification. A topical oxygen chamber for extremities is a device...

  19. Installation and Commissioning of the new GLM Implantation Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Pohl, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Summer student report about the work with the new implantation chamber for the GLM branch of ISOLDE. In the context of this project an API for the vacuum system of the new chamber was developed and implemented in web application that will be used to control the new implantation chamber at some point.

  20. Bi-cone vacuum chamber in the ISR

    CERN Multimedia

    1976-01-01

    The "bi-cone" vacuum chamber in ISR intersection I-7, for experiment R702. Made from 0.28 mm thick titanium, it was at its time the most transparent chamber ever built. Ian Wilson is standing next to the chamber. See also 7609219.

  1. Characterization of a homemade ionization chamber for radiotherapy beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Lucio P; Perini, Ana P; dos Santos, Gelson P; Xavier, Marcos; Khoury, Helen J; Caldas, Linda V E

    2012-07-01

    A homemade cylindrical ionization chamber was studied for routine use in therapy beams of (60)Co and X-rays. Several characterization tests were performed: leakage current, saturation, ion collection efficiency, polarity effect, stability, stabilization time, chamber orientation and energy dependence. All results obtained were within international recommendations. Therefore the homemade ionization chamber presents usefulness for routine dosimetric procedures in radiotherapy beams.

  2. Anechoic chamber in industrial plants. [construction materials and structural design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpert, E.; Juncu, O.; Lorian, R.; Marfievici, D.; Mararu, I.

    1974-01-01

    A light anechoic chamber for routine acoustical measurements in the machine building industry is reported. The outer housing of the chamber consists of modules cast in glass fiber reinforced polyester resin; the inner housing consists of pyramidal modules cut out of sound absorbing slates. The parameters of this anechoic chamber facilitate acoustical measurements according to ISO and CAEM recommendations.

  3. Test of an undulated vacuum chamber for the ISR

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    This picture shows mechanical tests of an undulated vacuum chamber for downstream arms of ISR intersections. This chamber, made of 0.3 mm thick inconel, had inner dimensions of 150 mm by 50 mm. The deflection under vacuum is measured by dial gauges. On the left one sees the large vessel where vacuum chambers were tested at pressures above atmospheric pressure.

  4. Characterization of a homemade ionization chamber for radiotherapy beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Lucio P; Perini, Ana P; dos Santos, Gelson P; Xavier, Marcos; Khoury, Helen J; Caldas, Linda V E

    2012-07-01

    A homemade cylindrical ionization chamber was studied for routine use in therapy beams of (60)Co and X-rays. Several characterization tests were performed: leakage current, saturation, ion collection efficiency, polarity effect, stability, stabilization time, chamber orientation and energy dependence. All results obtained were within international recommendations. Therefore the homemade ionization chamber presents usefulness for routine dosimetric procedures in radiotherapy beams. PMID:22153889

  5. Engineering analyses of large precision cathode strip chambers for GEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvath, J.A.; Belser, F.C.; Pratuch, S.M.; Wuest, C.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Mitselmakher, G. [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States); Gordeev, A. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Johnson, C.V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)]|[Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States); Polychronakos, V.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Golutvin, I.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    1993-10-21

    Structural analyses of large precision cathode strip chambers performed up to the date of this publication are documented. Mechanical property data for typical chamber materials are included. This information, originally intended to be an appendix to the {open_quotes}CSC Structural Design Bible,{close_quotes} is presented as a guide for future designers of large chambers.

  6. EDXRFS Analysis of Chinawares from the Jun Kiln in Jin and Yuan Dynasties%能量色散X射线荧光光谱法分析金元时代的钧窑瓷器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐承泰; 李清临

    2012-01-01

    EDXRFS was applied to the study o{ composition of body and glaze of 16 samples of chinawares produced from the Jun Kiln in the era of Jin and Yuan dynasties. The composition of the body was shown to bear the characteristic of high alumina and low silica contents of northern chinawares, while the glaze was found to have the composition of CaO-K2O-SiO2 Al2O3 system. In addition, close similarities in compositions of the body and glaze were found between the chinawares produced from the Jun kilns of the Jin and Yuan dynasties and of the North Song synasty. As shown in the scattergram of factor analysis, the difference in compositions of samples from Jun kiln of the Jin and Yuan dynasties was very significant, while the difference in compositions of samples from the official Jun kiln of North Song dynasty was very small. There was the relationship of inheritance and development of technologies between Jun kiln of Jin and Yuan dynasties and Jun kiln run by local people in North Song dynasty; and the control and monitoring of raw materials, directions and technologies in the production of chinaware of Jun kiln in the Jin and Yuan dynasties were found less strict than in North Song dynasty, which revealed that the production of Jun kiln in Jin and Yuan dynasty was coming to a declining period.%应用能量色散X射线荧光光谱法测定了16个金元时期钧窑瓷器胎、釉样品的化学组成。由结果可知:金元钧瓷胎具有低硅高铝的北方瓷器特点,釉则多为钙碱釉。金元时期样品与北宋时期钧窑瓷器胎釉化学组成比较,金元时期钧窑样品的化学组成变化较大,从因子分析散点图可见,北宋钧官窑样品化学组成变化不大;金元钧窑与北宋钧民窑样品制作工艺上存在继承和发展的关系,但金元时期对原料选择和配方的控制已不如北宋时期严格,反映出金元时期的钧窑已处于衰落阶段。

  7. Baking and Adjustment of 66 m Natural Gas Tunnel Kiln Produced by Swindell Dressier International Company%66m美国SD天然气隧道窑的烘烤与调试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏兴; 刘剑

    2011-01-01

    Reasonable baking system was propitious to extending the life of tunnel kiln.Checking and preparation before baking, method and notice for baking was introduced into the baking and adjustment of 66 m natural gas tunnel kiln produced.%合理的烘调制度,有利于延长隧道窑的使用寿命。笔者主要从烘调前的检查准备工作、烘调方法及烘调注意事项等几个方面对66m美国SD天然气隧道窑的烘调过程进行综述。

  8. A novel non invasive measurement of hemodynamic parameters: Comparison of single-chamber ventricular and dual-chamber pacemaker

    OpenAIRE

    Ingrid M. Pardede; Yoga Yuniadi

    2008-01-01

    We carried out a cross sectional study to analyze hemodynamic parameters of single-chamber ventricular pacemaker compared with dual-chamber pacemaker by using thoracic electrical bioimpedance monitoring method (Physio Flow™) - a novel simple non-invasive measurement. A total of 48 consecutive outpatients comprised of 27 single chamber pacemaker and 21 dual chamber were analyzed. We measured cardiac parameters: heart rate, stroke volume index, cardiac output index, estimated ejection fraction,...

  9. A novel non invasive measurement of hemodynamic parameters: Comparison of single-chamber ventricular and dual-chamber pacemaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid M. Pardede

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We carried out a cross sectional study to analyze hemodynamic parameters of single-chamber ventricular pacemaker compared with dual-chamber pacemaker by using thoracic electrical bioimpedance monitoring method (Physio Flow™ - a novel simple non-invasive measurement. A total of 48 consecutive outpatients comprised of 27 single chamber pacemaker and 21 dual chamber were analyzed. We measured cardiac parameters: heart rate, stroke volume index, cardiac output index, estimated ejection fraction, end diastolic volume, early diastolic function ratio, thoracic fluid index, and systemic parameters: left cardiac work index and systemic vascular resistance index. Baseline characteristic and pacemaker indication were similar in both groups. Cardiac parameters assessment revealed no significant difference between single-chamber pacemaker and dual-chamber pacemaker in heart rate, stroke volume index, cardiac index, estimated ejection fraction, end-diastolic volume, thoracic fluid index. There was significantly higher early diastolic function ratio in single-chamber pacemaker compared to dual-chamber pacemaker: 92% (10.2-187.7% vs. 100.6% (48.7-403.2%; p=0.006. Systemic parameters assessment revealed significantly higher left cardiac work index in single-chamber group than dual-chamber group 4.9 kg.m/m² (2.8-7.6 kg.m/m² vs. 4.3 kg.m/m² (2.9-7.2 kg.m/m²; p=0.004. There was no significant difference on systemic vascular resistance in single-chamber compared to dual-chamber pacemaker. Single-chamber ventricular pacemaker provides similar stroke volume, cardiac output and left cardiac work, compared to dual-chamber pacemaker. A non-invasive hemodynamic measurement using thoracic electrical bioimpedance is feasible for permanent pacemaker outpatients. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 25-32Keywords: Permanent pacemaker, single chamber, dual chamber, thoracic electrical bioimpedance, hemodynamic parameter

  10. SHAPE OF PRESSING CHAMBER FOR WOOD BIOMASS COMPACTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Krizan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this contribution is to present results of analyse of mathematical models of wood biomass compacting. Doesn't exist a lot of models which describes real state in pressing chamber and amount of factors impact at compacting process and thereby on briquette quality. According to our suggestion have also constructional parameters of pressing chamber (pressing spout and pressing ram expressive impact on result briquette quality. We did theoretical analyses which showed us that impact on briquette quality have also change of pressing chamber length, change of friction coefficient, change of pressing chamber conicalness and also change of pressing chamber diameter.

  11. Advanced photon source experience with vacuum chambers for insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last five years, a new approach to the design and fabrication of extruded aluminum vacuum chambers for insertion devices was developed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). With this approach, three different versions of the vacuum chamber, with vertical apertures of 12 mm, 8 mm, and 5 mm, were manufactured and tested. Twenty chambers were installed into the APS vacuum system. All have operated with beam, and 16 have been coupled with insertion devices. Two different vacuum chambers with vertical apertures of 16 mm and 11 mm were developed for the BESSY-II storage ring and 3 of 16 mm chambers were manufactured

  12. Measuring the sensitivity of a boron-lined ion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron-lined ion chambers are used to monitor external neutron flux from fissionable materials assembled at the Los Alamos Critical Assembly Experiment Facility. The sensitivity of these chambers must be measured periodically in order to detect changes in filling gas and to evaluate other factors that may affect chamber performance. We delineate a procedure to measure ion chamber response using a particular neutron source (239PuBe) in a particular moderating geometry of polyethylene. We also discuss use of the amplifier, high-voltage power supply, recorders, and scram circuits that comprise the complete ion chamber monitoring system

  13. Liquid rocket combustion chamber acoustic characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândido Magno de Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 40 years, many solid and liquid rocket motors have experienced combustion instabilities. Among other causes, there is the interaction of acoustic modes with the combustion and/or fluid dynamic processes inside the combustion chamber. Studies have been showing that, even if less than 1% of the available energy is diverted to an acoustic mode, combustion instability can be generated. On one hand, this instability can lead to ballistic pressure changes, couple with other propulsion systems such as guidance or thrust vector control, and in the worst case, cause motor structural failure. In this case, measures, applying acoustic techniques, must be taken to correct/minimize these influences on the combustion. The combustion chamber acoustic behavior in operating conditions can be estimated by considering its behavior in room conditions. In this way, acoustic tests can be easily performed, thus identifying the cavity modes. This paper describes the procedures to characterize the acoustic behavior in the inner cavity of four different configurations of a combustion chamber. Simple analytical models are used to calculate the acoustic resonance frequencies and these results are compared with acoustic natural frequencies measured at room conditions. Some comments about the measurement procedures are done, as well as the next steps for the continuity of this research. The analytical and experimental procedures results showed good agreement. However, limitations on high frequency band as well as in the identification of specific kinds of modes indicate that numerical methods able to model the real cavity geometry and an acoustic experimental modal analysis may be necessary for a more complete analysis. Future works shall also consider the presence of passive acoustic devices such as baffles and resonators capable of introducing damping and avoiding or limiting acoustic instabilities.

  14. Liquid Engine Design: Effect of Chamber Dimensions on Specific Impulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggard, Lindsay; Leahy, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Which assumption of combustion chemistry - frozen or equilibrium - should be used in the prediction of liquid rocket engine performance calculations? Can a correlation be developed for this? A literature search using the LaSSe tool, an online repository of old rocket data and reports, was completed. Test results of NTO/Aerozine-50 and Lox/LH2 subscale and full-scale injector and combustion chamber test results were found and studied for this task. NASA code, Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA) was used to predict engine performance using both chemistry assumptions, defined here. Frozen- composition remains frozen during expansion through the nozzle. Equilibrium- instantaneous chemical equilibrium during nozzle expansion. Chamber parameters were varied to understand what dimensions drive chamber C* and Isp. Contraction Ratio is the ratio of the nozzle throat area to the area of the chamber. L is the length of the chamber. Characteristic chamber length, L*, is the length that the chamber would be if it were a straight tube and had no converging nozzle. Goal: Develop a qualitative and quantitative correlation for performance parameters - Specific Impulse (Isp) and Characteristic Velocity (C*) - as a function of one or more chamber dimensions - Contraction Ratio (CR), Chamber Length (L ) and/or Characteristic Chamber Length (L*). Determine if chamber dimensions can be correlated to frozen or equilibrium chemistry.

  15. New development of holography in particle detectors: application to bubble chambers and streamer chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes the contribution of holography in two particle detectors well used in high energy physics. A first part presents the possibilities of a double beam holographic set up with diffuse illumination in the case of large scale bubble chamber (more than 1000 litres). The second part introduces the results obtained by the use of an in-line holographic recording in a streamer chamber (a streamer is the electroluminescent state of an electronic avalanche). In both cases, the new possibilities offered by these developments are discussed (resolution and depth of field of holographic images)

  16. THE PRE-TRIAL CHAMBER JUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Laurentiu DUMBRAVA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of this work lies in important changes in the new Code of Criminal Procedure, amendments justified by the new realities of a democratic society in which criminal procedural rules must be adapted according to the daily realities in the achievement of justice. The purpose of the paper is given by the need of approaching at a theoretically level the institution of The Pre-Trial Chamber Judge, given that so far there have not been developed any works on the subject. This paper addresses both practitioners and litigants.

  17. THE PRE-TRIAL CHAMBER JUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Laurenţiu DUMBRAVĂ

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of this work lies in important changes in the new Code of Criminal Procedure, amendments justified by the new realities of a democratic society in which criminal procedural rules must be adapted according to the daily realities in the achievement of justice. The purpose of the paper is given by the need of approaching at a theoretically level the institution of The Pre-Trial Chamber Judge, given that so far there have not been developed any works on the subject. This paper addresses both practitioners and litigants.

  18. Bubble Chamber Research Group Microcomputer Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A distributed data acquisition system has been developed by the Bubble Chamber Research Group at the Rutherford Appleton laboratory for use with their film measuring machines. The system is based upon a set of microcomputers linked together with a VAX 11/780 computer, in a local area computer network. This network is of the star type and uses a packet switching technique. Each film measuring machine is equipped with a microcomputer which controls the function of the table, buffers data and enhances the interface between operators and machines. This paper provides a detailed description of each microcomputer and can be used as a reference manual for these computers. (author)

  19. Chamber service module (CSM1) for MDT

    CERN Document Server

    Binchi, P

    2002-01-01

    CSM-1 is the second and latest version of the high speed electronic unit whose primary task is to multiplex serial data from up to 18 ASD /TDC cards located at the ends of the Monitored Drift Tubes. Each CSM will capture data from all 24 channel TDC (AMT-2 units) of a given chamber and transfer it along a single optic fiber to the MROD, the event builder and readout driver. The core of the board is a Xilinx VirtexII FPGA which will use JTAG protocol (IEEE Std. 1149.1) for logic configuration parameter loading.

  20. Simulation of the CMS Resistive Plate Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Hadjiiska, R; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Dimitrov, A; Beernaert, K; Cimmino, A; Costantini, S; Garcia, G; Lellouch, J; Marinov, A; Ocampo, A; Strobbe, N; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Verwilligen, P; Yazgan, E; Zaganidis, N; Aleksandrov, A; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Rodozov, M; Shopova, M; Sultanov, G; Ban, Y; Cai, J; Xue, Z; Ge, Y; Li, Q; Qian, S; Avila, C; Chaparro, L F; Gomez, J P; Moreno, B Gomez; Oliveros, A F Osorio; Sanabria, J C; Assran, Y; Sharma, A; Abbrescia, M; Colaleo, A; Pugliese, G; Loddo, F; Calabria, C; Maggi, M; Benussi, L; Bianco, S; Colafranceschi, S; Piccolo, D; Carrillo, C; Iorio, O; Buontempo, S; Paolucci, P; Vitulo, P; Berzano, U; Gabusi, M; Kang, M; Lee, K S; Park, S K; Shin, S; Kim, M S; Seo, H; Goh, J; Choi, Y; Shoaib, M

    2013-01-01

    The Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) muon subsystem contributes significantly to the formation of the trigger decision and reconstruction of the muon trajectory parameters. Simulation of the RPC response is a crucial part of the entire CMS Monte Carlo software and directly influences the final physical results. An algorithm based on the parametrization of RPC efficiency, noise, cluster size and timing for every strip has been developed. Experimental data obtained from cosmic and proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV have been used for determination of the parameters. A dedicated validation procedure has been developed. A good agreement between the simulated and experimental data has been achieved.

  1. Smart ionization chamber for gamma-ray monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drndarević Vujo R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A design and implementation of a smart ionization chamber suitable for connection into gamma radiation monitoring networks is presented in this paper. The smart ionization chamber consists of air-equivalent one liter ionization chamber with associated electronics and a built-in memory for storage of electronic data specifications. Generally, operating and measurement characteristics of the used ionization chamber are written into the memory chip attached to the chamber. A microcontroller-based data acquisition system with a mixed-mode interface has been implemented for the purpose of reading electronic data specifications from the memory chip, and for configuration and interfacing of the ionization chamber to the monitoring network using plug-and-play concept. The details of smart ionization chamber implementation and test results are included in the paper. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR36047 i br. TR32043

  2. A new ring-shaped graphite monitor ionization chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizumi, M.T., E-mail: mairaty@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN - CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000, Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil); Caldas, L.V.E., E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN - CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000, Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-21

    A ring-shaped monitor ionization chamber was developed at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares. This ionization chamber presents an entrance window of aluminized polyester foil. The guard ring and collecting electrode are made of graphite coated Lucite plates. The main difference between this new ionization chamber and commercial monitor chambers is its ring-shaped design. The new monitor chamber has a central hole, allowing the passage of the direct radiation beam without attenuation; only the penumbra radiation is measured by the sensitive volume. This kind of ionization chamber design has already been tested, but using aluminium electrodes. By changing the electrode material from aluminium to a graphite coating, an improvement in the chamber response stability was expected. The pre-operational tests, as saturation curve, recombination loss and polarity effect showed satisfactory results. The repeatability and the long-term stability tests were also evaluated, showing good agreement with international recommendations.

  3. Design and commissioning of a semi-confined blast chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.M. SNYMAN; F.J. MOSTERT; W. GRUNDLING

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design, test and analysis of a scaled cylindrical blast chamber. The blast chamber is a one-fifth dimensional size replica of the full-scale blast chamber (Emily). The blast chamber is semi-confined as one end is open. The scaled blast chamber is used to test concepts for closing the open end and allows the gas to vent at the same time. ANSYS AUTODYN calculated the pressure time histories for different closure scenarios. Comparing the results suggested a viable scenario, namely a structure consisting of a circular disc and a frame positioned at the open end of the blast chamber. The structure and cylindrical blast chamber were subjected to scaled blast tests and the pressure results are presented and discussed.

  4. Golden Jubilee photos: The first CERN bubble chamber

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    In the 1950s and 1960s, bubble and spark chambers were the dominant experimental tools in high-energy physics. While spark chambers were usually built and fitted to specific experiments, bubble chambers were constructed as general purpose devices that could be used for a variety of experiments. At CERN, the bubble chamber programme started under Charles Peyrou in the late 1950s. The first of CERN's bubble chambers, a 30 cm hydrogen chamber, is seen here being inserted into its vacuum tank. The HBC30, as it was called, took its first beam from the SC in 1959. One of the first pictures taken, of a positive pion-proton interaction, began a long series of pretty images for which bubble chambers would become famous. When it stopped operating in spring 1962, the HBC30 had consumed 150 km of film in its 3 years of operation.

  5. The emission of particulate matters and heavy metals from cement kilns – case study: co-incineration of tires in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Todorović

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Co-incineration of wastes started more than 20 years ago. In the last 10 years, the use of alternative fuels in the cement industry is continuously increasing. The use of solid wastes in cement kilns is one of the best technologies for a complete and safe destruction of these wastes, due to the fact that there is a simultaneous benefit of destroying wastes and getting the energy. However, particulate matters (PM and gaseous chemicals emitted from a source into the environment could be directly transmitted to humans through air inhalation. Therefore, for accurate health risk estimation, the emission of pollutants must be determined. In this work, the analysis of the emission of different pollutants when replacing partially the fuel type used in a cement kiln is done. PM, PM10, heavy metals and inorganic pollutants are analyzed. The methods used for sampling and analysis are the standard methods suggested by the EU regulations for stack analysis. Experimental results have shown the encouraging results: in particular clinker characteristics were unmodified, and stack emissions (NOx, SO2 and CO mainly were in the case of tires, slightly incremented but remaining almost always below the law imposed limits, and in some cases were even decreased.

  6. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): Emissions of particulate matter from wood and dung cooking fires, brick kilns, generators, trash and crop residue burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Elizabeth; Jayarathne, Thilina; Stockwell, Chelsea; Christian, Ted; Bhave, Prakash; Siva Praveen, Puppala; Panday, Arnico; Adhikari, Sagar; Maharjan, Rashmi; Goetz, Doug; DeCarlo, Peter; Saikawa, Eri; Yokelson, Robert

    2016-04-01

    The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMASTE) field campaign targeted the in situ characterization of widespread and under-sampled combustion sources. In Kathmandu and the Terai, southern Nepal's flat plains, samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were collected from wood and dung cooking fires (n = 22), generators (n = 2), groundwater pumps (n = 2), clamp kilns (n = 3), zig-zag kilns (n = 3), trash burning (n = 4), one heating fire, and one crop residue fire. Co-located measurements of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds allowed for the application of the carbon mass balance approach to estimate emission factors for PM2.5, elemental carbon, organic carbon, and water-soluble inorganic ions. Organic matter was chemically speciated using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, sterols, n-alkanes, hopanes, steranes, and levoglucosan, which accounted for 2-8% of the measured organic carbon. These data were used to develop molecular-marker based profiles for use in source apportionment modeling. This study provides quantitative emission factors for particulate matter and its constituents for many important combustion sources in Nepal and South Asia.

  7. Investigation into the use of cement kiln dust in high density sludge (HDS) treatment of acid mine water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Allison L; Walsh, Margaret E

    2015-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential to replace lime with cement kiln dust (CKD) in high density sludge (HDS) treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD). The bench-scale study used two water samples: AMD sampled from a lead-zinc mine with high concentrations of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and arsenic (As) (Fe/Zn-AMD) and a synthetic AMD solution (Syn-AMD) spiked with ferric sulfate (Fe2(SO4)3). Arsenic was found to be significantly reduced with CKD-HDS treatment of Fe/Zn-AMD compared to lime-HDS treatment, to concentrations below the stringent mine effluent discharge regulation of 0.10 mg As/L (i.e., 0.04 ± 0.02 mg/L). Both CKD- and lime-HDS treatment of the two AMD samples resulted in settled water Fe concentrations above the stringent discharge guideline of 0.3 mg Fe/L. CKD addition in the HDS process also resulted in high settled water turbidity, above typical discharge guidelines of 15 mg TSS/L. CKD-HDS treatment was found to result in significantly improved settled solids (i.e., sludge) quality compared to that generated in the lime-HDS process. HDS treatment with CKD resulted in 25-88% lower sludge volume indices, 2 to 9 times higher % wet solids, and 10 to 20 times higher % dry solids compared to lime addition. XRD and XPS testing indicated that CKD-HDS sludge consisted of mainly CaCO3 and SiO2 with Fe(3+) precipitates attached at particle surfaces. XRD and XPS testing of the lime-HDS generated sludge showed that it consisted of non-crystalline Fe oxides typical of sludge formed from precipitates with a high water concentration. Increased sedimentation rates were also found for CKD (1.3 cm/s) compared to lime (0.3 cm/s). The increased solids loading with CKD addition compared to lime addition in the HDS process was suggested to both promote surface complexation of metal precipitates with insoluble CKD particles and increase compression effects during Type IV sedimentation. These mechanisms collectively contributed to the reduced water content of

  8. Spatial analysis of charcoal kiln remains in the former royal forest district Tauer (Lower Lusatia, North German Lowlands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Alexandra; Schneider, Anna; Bonhage, Alexander; Takla, Melanie; Hirsch, Florian; Müller, Frank; Rösler, Horst; Heußner, Karl-Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Archaeological excavations have revealed more than thousand charcoal kiln remains (CKRs) in the prefield of the active opencast lignite mine Jänschwalde, situated about 150 km SE of Berlin (SE Brandenburg, Germany). The charcoal was mainly produced for the ironwork Peitz nearby, which operated from the 16th to the mid-19th centuries. In a first approach, to estimate the dimension of the charcoal production, CKRs were mapped on shaded-relief maps (SRMs) derived from high-resolution LiDAR data (Raab et al. 2015). Subsequently, for a selected test area, identified CKRs on the SRMs were compared with archaeologically excavated CKRs in the field. This survey showed a considerably number of falsely detected sites. Therefore, the data was critically re-evaluated using additional relief visualisations. Further, we extended the CKR mapping to areas which are not archaeologically investigated. The study area, the former royal forest district Tauer, consists of two separate areas: the Tauersche Heide (c. 96 km2 area) N of Peitz and the area Jänschwalde (c. 32 km2 area) NE of Peitz. The study area is characterized by a flat topography. Different former and current anthropogenic uses (e.g., military training, solar power plant, forestry measures) have affected the study area, resulting in extensive disturbances of the terrain surface. The revised CKR abundance in the study area Jänschwalde was considerably smaller than the numbers produced by our first approach. Further, the CKR mapping revealed, that a total record of the CKRs is not possible for various reasons. Despite these limitations, a solid database can be provided for a much larger area than before. Basic statistic parameters of the CKR diameters and all comparative statistical tests were calculated using SPSS. To detect underlying spatial relationships in the CKR site distribution, we applied the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic, a method to test for local spatial autocorrelation between neighbouring sites. The test is

  9. BEBC, the Big European Bubble Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    The vessel of the Big European Bubble Chamber, BEBC, was installed at the beginning of the 1970s. The large stainless-steel vessel, measuring 3.7 metres in diameter and 4 metres in height, was filled with 35 cubic metres of liquid (hydrogen, deuterium or a neon-hydrogen mixture), whose sensitivity was regulated by means of a huge piston weighing 2 tonnes. During each expansion, the trajectories of the charged particles were marked by a trail of bubbles, where liquid reached boiling point as they passed through it. The first images were recorded in 1973 when BEBC, equipped with the largest superconducting magnet in service at the time, first received beam from the PS. In 1977, the bubble chamber was exposed to neutrino and hadron beams at higher energies of up to 450 GeV after the SPS came into operation. By the end of its active life in 1984, BEBC had delivered a total of 6.3 million photographs to 22 experiments devoted to neutrino or hadron physics. Around 600 scientists from some fifty laboratories through...

  10. Wire chamber radiation detector with discharge control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wire chamber radiation detector has spaced apart parallel electrodes and grids defining an ignition region in which charged particles or other ionizing radiations initiate brief localized avalanche discharges and defining an adjacent memory region in which sustained glow discharges are initiated by the primary discharges. Conductors of the grids at each side of the memory section extend in orthogonal directions enabling readout of the X-Y coordinates of locations at which charged particles were detected by sequentially transmitting pulses to the conductors of one grid while detecting transmissions of the pulses to the orthogonal conductors of the other grid through glow discharges. One of the grids bounding the memory region is defined by an array of conductive elements each of which is connected to the associated readout conductor through a separate resistance. The wire chamber avoids ambiguities and imprecisions in the readout of coordinates when large numbers of simultaneous or near simultaneous charged particles have been detected. Down time between detection periods and the generation of radio frequency noise are also reduced

  11. LET measurements with a liquid ionization chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegami, Sara

    2013-02-08

    Deep-seated tumors can be efficiently treated with heavy charged particles. The characteristic depth dose profile inside the tissue (Bragg peak) allows to deliver a high dose inside the tumor, while sparing the neighboring healthy tissue. As compared to protons, heavy ions like carbon or oxygen produce a higher amount of ionization events along their track (and in particular at the end of the ion beam path), resulting in an irreparable damage to the DNA of the tumor cells. The density of such ionization events is described in terms of Linear Energy Transfer (LET), an important physical quantity, but difficult to be measured directly. The aim of this work is to determine LET of hadrontherapy beams by using Liquid Ionization Chambers (LIC). The ionization signal in LICs is affected by recombination effects that depend on the LET of the incident radiation. Differences in recombination effects in LICs and air-filled ionization chambers can be exploited to obtain the recombination index, which can be related to the LET, calculated by Monte Carlo methods. We thus developed a method to construct a calibration curve, which relates the recombination index with the LET at each depth in water. The result of this work can be used for online monitoring of the ion beam quality.

  12. COLDDIAG: A Cold Vacuum Chamber for Diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Casalbuoni, S; Gerstl, S; Grau, A W; Hagelstein, M; Saez de Jauregui, D; Boffo, C; Sikler, G; Baglin, V; Cox, M P; Schouten, J C; Cimino, R; Commisso, M; Spataro, B; Mostacci, A; Wallen, E J; Weigel, R; Clarke, J; Scott, D; Bradshaw, T; Jones, R; Shinton, I

    2011-01-01

    One of the still open issues for the development of superconducting insertion devices is the understanding of the beam heat load. With the aim of measuring the beam heat load to a cold bore and the hope to gain a deeper understanding in the beam heat load mechanisms, a cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics is under construction. The following diagnostics will be implemented: i) retarding field analyzers to measure the electron energy and flux, ii) temperature sensors to measure the total heat load, iii) pressure gauges, iv) and mass spectrometers to measure the gas content. The inner vacuum chamber will be removable in order to test different geometries and materials. This will allow the installation of the cryostat in different synchrotron light sources. COLDDIAG will be built to fit in a short straight section at ANKA. A first installation at the synchrotron light source Diamond is foreseen in June 2011. Here we describe the technical design report of this device and the planned measurements with beam.

  13. Bubble chambers for experiments in nuclear astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiovine, B.; Henderson, D.; Holt, R. J.; Raut, R.; Rehm, K. E.; Robinson, A.; Sonnenschein, A.; Rusev, G.; Tonchev, A. P.; Ugalde, C.

    2015-05-01

    A bubble chamber has been developed to be used as an active target system for low energy nuclear astrophysics experiments. Adopting ideas from dark matter detection with superheated liquids, a detector system compatible with γ-ray beams has been developed. This detector alleviates some of the limitations encountered in standard measurements of the minute cross-sections of interest to stellar environments. While the astrophysically relevant nuclear reaction processes at hydrostatic burning temperatures are dominated by radiative captures, in this experimental scheme we measure the time-reversed processes. Such photodisintegrations allow us to compute the radiative capture cross-sections when transitions to excited states of the reaction products are negligible. Due to the transformation of phase space, the photodisintegration cross-sections are up to two orders of magnitude higher. The main advantage of the new target-detector system is a density several orders of magnitude higher than conventional gas targets. Also, the detector is virtually insensitive to the γ-ray beam itself, thus allowing us to detect only the products of the nuclear reaction of interest. The development and the operation as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the bubble chamber are discussed.

  14. Bubble chambers for experiments in nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bubble chamber has been developed to be used as an active target system for low energy nuclear astrophysics experiments. Adopting ideas from dark matter detection with superheated liquids, a detector system compatible with γ-ray beams has been developed. This detector alleviates some of the limitations encountered in standard measurements of the minute cross-sections of interest to stellar environments. While the astrophysically relevant nuclear reaction processes at hydrostatic burning temperatures are dominated by radiative captures, in this experimental scheme we measure the time-reversed processes. Such photodisintegrations allow us to compute the radiative capture cross-sections when transitions to excited states of the reaction products are negligible. Due to the transformation of phase space, the photodisintegration cross-sections are up to two orders of magnitude higher. The main advantage of the new target-detector system is a density several orders of magnitude higher than conventional gas targets. Also, the detector is virtually insensitive to the γ-ray beam itself, thus allowing us to detect only the products of the nuclear reaction of interest. The development and the operation as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the bubble chamber are discussed

  15. Tests of Cathode Strip Chamber Prototypes

    CERN Document Server

    Bonushkin, Yuri; Chrisman, David; Durkin, S; Ferguson, Thomas; Giacomelli, Paolo; Gorn, William; Hauser, Jay; Hirschfelder, J; Hoftiezer, John; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Kisselev, Oleg; Klem, Daniel; Korytov, Andrey; Layter, John G; Lennous, Paul; Ling, Ta-Yung; Matthey, Christina; Medved, Serguei; Minor, C; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Müller, Thomas; Otwinowski, Stanislaw; Preston, L; Prokofiev, O E; Rush, Chuck J; Schenk, P; Sedykh, Yu; Smirnov, Igor; Soulimov, V; Vaniachine, A; Vercelli, T; Wuest, Craig R; Zeng, Ji-Yang; von Goeler, Eberhard

    1997-01-01

    We report on the results of testing two six-layer 0.6 x 0.6 cm^2 cathode strip chamber ( CSC) prototypes in a muon beam at CERN. The prototypes were designed to simulate sections of the end-cap muon system of the Compact Muon Solenoid ( CMS) detector which will be installed at the Large Hadron Collider ( LHC). We measured the spatial and time resolutions of each chamber for different gains, different orientations with respect to the beam direction and different strength magnetic fields. The single-layer spatial resolution of a prototype with a strip pitch of 15.88 mm ranged from 78 micron to 468 micron, depending on whether the particle passed between two cathode strips or through the center of a strip; its six-layer resolution was found to be 44 micron. The single-layer spatial resolution of a prototype with a strip pitch of 6.35 mm ranged from 54 to 66 micron; its six-layer resolution w as found to be 23 micron. The efficiency for collecting an anode wire signal from one of six layers within a 20 ns time wi...

  16. Characterization of a homemade ionization chamber for radiotherapy beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, Lucio P., E-mail: lpneves@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Perini, Ana P., E-mail: aperini@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Santos, Gelson P. dos, E-mail: gpsantos@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Xavier, Marcos, E-mail: mxavier@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Khoury, Helen J., E-mail: khoury@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Departamento de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Luiz Freire 1000, 50740-540 Recife (Brazil); Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    A homemade cylindrical ionization chamber was studied for routine use in therapy beams of {sup 60}Co and X-rays. Several characterization tests were performed: leakage current, saturation, ion collection efficiency, polarity effect, stability, stabilization time, chamber orientation and energy dependence. All results obtained were within international recommendations. Therefore the homemade ionization chamber presents usefulness for routine dosimetric procedures in radiotherapy beams. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A homemade ionization chamber was studied for routine use in radiotherapy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Several characterization tests were performed and the results were satisfactory. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This chamber was compared to commercial ones and the results were similar. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This chamber is suitable for calibration procedures in {sup 60}Co beams.

  17. Preliminary studies of a new monitor ionization chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizumi, Maíra T; Vivolo, Vitor; Caldas, Linda V E

    2010-01-01

    A new monitor ionization chamber was developed at Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN) in order to monitor X-ray beams. The main difference of this monitor ionization chamber in relation to other monitor chambers is its geometry, which consists of a ring-shaped sensitive volume. Because of this geometry, the monitor chamber has a central hole through which the direct radiation beam passes. The operational characteristics of the monitor chamber were evaluated: saturation, ion collection efficiency and polarity effect. Besides these tests, the short- and medium-term stabilities of its response were also evaluated. During the tests the leakage current was always negligible. All results showed values within those recommended internationally (IEC, 1997. Medical electrical equipment-dosimeters with ionization chambers and/or semi-conductor detectors as used in X-ray diagnostic imaging. IEC 61674. International Electrotechnical Commission, Genève).

  18. PERIODIC DYADIC GREEN'S FUNCTION FOR FIELD ANALYSIS IN EMC CHAMBER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lv Feiyan; Ding Jianjin; Sha Fei

    2006-01-01

    Herein a novel Dyadic Green's Function (DGF) is presented to calculate the field in ElectroMagnetic Compatibility (EMC) chamber. Due to the difficulty of simulating the whole chamber environment, the analysis combines the DGF formulation and the FEM method, with the latter deals with the reflection from absorbers. With DGF formulation for infinite periodic array structures, this paper investigates electromagnetic field in chamber with truncated arrays. The reflection from the absorber serves as the virtual source contributing to the total field. Hence the whole chamber field calculation can be separated from the work of absorber model set-up. Practically the field homogeneity test and Normal Site Attenuation (NSA) test are carried out to evaluate the chamber performance. Based on the method in this paper, the simulation results agree well with the test, and predict successfully the victim frequency points of the chamber.

  19. Construction and performance of the PHENIX pad chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the Pad Chamber detector system in the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The three station system provides space points along each track in the spectrometer arms at mid-rapidity and covers a total area of 88 m2. Its main functions are to provide the track coordinate along the beam and to ensure reliable pattern recognition at very high particle multiplicity. A new concept for two dimensional wire chamber readout via its finely segmented cathode was developed. The full readout system, comprising 172 800 electronic channels, is described together with the challenging design of the chambers. The electronics, mounted on the outer chamber face, together with the chamber itself amounts to 1.2% of a radiation length. Results from cosmic ray tests, showing an average efficiency better than 99.5% for all chambers are presented. The experiences from the full scale operation in the first run are reported

  20. Ballistic-neutralized chamber transport of intense heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of intense heavy ion beams propagating in an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor chamber are presented. The ballistic-neutralized transport scheme studied uses 4 GeV Pb+1 ion beams injected into a low-density, gas-filled reactor chamber and the beam is ballistically focused onto an ICF target before entering the chamber. Charge and current neutralization of the beam is provided by the low-density background gas. The ballistic-neutralized simulations include stripping of the beam ions as the beam traverses the chamber as well as ionization of the background plasma. In addition, a series of simulations are presented that explore the charge and current neutralization of the ion beam in an evacuated chamber. For this vacuum transport mode, neutralizing electrons are only drawn from sources near the chamber entrance

  1. Emulsion chamber observations and interpretation (HE 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, M.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental results from Emulsion Chamber (EC) experiments at mountain altitudes or at higher levels using flying carriers are examined. The physical interest in this field is concentrated on the strong interaction at the very high energy region exceeding the accelerator energy, also on the primary cosmic ray intensity and its chemical composition. Those experiments which observed cosmic ray secondaries gave information on high energy interaction characteristics through the analyses of secondary spectra, gamma-hadron families and C-jets (direct observation of the particle production occuring at the carbon target). Problems of scaling violation in fragmentation region, interaction cross section, transverse momentum of produced secondaries, and some peculiar features of exotic events are discussed.

  2. Development of an optical digital ionisation chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are developing a new device for optically detecting and imaging the track of a charged particle in a gas. The electrons in the particle track are made to oscillate rapidly by the application of an external, short duration, high voltage, RF electric field. The excited electrons produce additional ionisation and electronic excitation of the gas molecules in their immediate vicinity, leading to copious light emission (fluorescence) from the selected gas, allowing the location of the electrons along the track to be determined. Two digital cameras simultaneously scan the emitted light across two perpendicular planes outside the chamber containing the gas. The information thus obtained for a given track can be used to infer relevant quantities for microdosimetry and dosimetry, e.g. energy deposited, LET, and track structure in the gas. The design of such a device now being constructed and methods of obtaining the dosimetric data from the digital output will be described. (author)

  3. The coated cathode conductive layer chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a gaseous detector consisting of thin anode strips vacuum-evaporated on one side of a 100 μ thick plastic layer, alternating on the back side of the same foil with wider parallel cathode strips. Ionizatin released in a drift space on the anode side is amplified and detected much in the same way as in the microstrip gas chamber; in our detector however spontaenous breakdown due to surface currents is completely avoided by the presence of the insulating layer between anodes and cathodes. To reduce surface and volume charging up, we have used polymer foils with a moderate volume resistivity. The first results show good efficiency, good plateaux and time resolution in detecting low-rate minimum ionizing electrons. Although not suited for high rate or good energy resolution applications, this kind of detector seems rather promising for realizing cheaply large active surfaces. (orig.)

  4. RETAINED STONE PIECE IN ANTERIOR CHAMBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZvornicaninJasmin, Nadarevic-VodencarevicAmra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We read with interest the article by Surekha et al. regarding the retained stone piece in anterior chamber. Similar to the results of previous studies, the authors found that delayed intraocular foreign body (IOFB management can result in good visual outcome without an apparent increased risk of endophthalmitis or other deleterious side effects. However, the authors failed to explain the exact reason for the diminution of vision in patients left eye. It is unclear what the uncorrected visual acuity was and what kind of correction was used, more precisely type and amount of cylinder, given the presence of the corneal opacity. Since the size of the IOFB is approximately 4x4x1mm, significant irido-corneal angle changes resulting in intraocular pressure raise and optic nerve head damage can be expected. Traumatic glaucoma following open globe injury can occur in 2.7 to 19% of cases, with several risk factors associated with glaucoma development (advanced age, poor visual acuity at presentation,perforating rather than penetrating ocular injury,lens injury, presence of vitreous hemorrhage and presence of an IOFB. Earlier reportsof latetraumaticoptic neuropathy onset, even after several years, indicate that this possibility cannot be completely ruled out too. Therefore, repeated intraocular pressure measurements, gonioscopy, pupillary reaction assessment, together with through posterior segment examination including visual field and optical coherence tomography examinations can be useful in determining the possible optic nerve damage as one of the possible reasons for visual acuity reduction. The authors did not suggest any operative treatment at this time. However, it should bear in mind that the inert anterior chamber IOFB could be a risk factor for non-infectious endophthalmitis development even after many years. Also, long term retained anterior chamber foreign body leads to permanent endothelial cell loss and can even result in a corneal

  5. Foreign Body Embedded in Anterior Chamber Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Graffi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We present a case of a metallic foreign body embedded in the anterior chamber angle. After standing in close proximity to a construction worker breaking a tile, a 26-year-old woman using soft contact lens for the correction of mild myopia presented to emergency department for evaluation of a foreign body sensation of her right eye. Methods and Results. Diagnosis was confirmed by gonioscopic examination and a noncontrast CT scan of head and orbits. The foreign body was removed by an external approach without utilizing a magnet. The patient's final outcome was favorable. Discussion. The above is a rare clinical situation, which is impossible to detect on slit-lamp examination without a gonioscopic view. Proper imaging and a specific management are mandatory in order to achieve favorable outcome.

  6. Echo chambers in the age of misinformation

    CERN Document Server

    Del Vicario, Michela; Zollo, Fabiana; Petroni, Fabio; Scala, Antonio; Caldarelli, Guido; Stanley, H Eugene; Quattrociocchi, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The wide availability of user-provided content in online social media facilitates the aggregation of people around common interests, worldviews, and narratives. Despite the enthusiastic rhetoric on the part of some that this process generates "collective intelligence", the WWW also allows the rapid dissemination of unsubstantiated conspiracy theories that often elicite rapid, large, but naive social responses such as the recent case of Jade Helm 15 -- where a simple military exercise turned out to be perceived as the beginning of the civil war in the US. We study how Facebook users consume information related to two different kinds of narrative: scientific and conspiracy news. We find that although consumers of scientific and conspiracy stories present similar consumption patterns with respect to content, the sizes of the spreading cascades differ. Homogeneity appears to be the primary driver for the diffusion of contents, but each echo chamber has its own cascade dynamics. To mimic these dynamics, we introdu...

  7. Resistive plate chambers for tomography and radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Thomay

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs are widely used in high energy physics for both tracking and triggering purposes, due to their excellent time resolution, rate capability, and good spatial resolution. RPCs can be produced cost-effectively on large scales, are of rugged build, and have excellent detection efficiency for charged particles. Our group has successfully built a Muon Scattering Tomography (MST prototype, using 12 RPCs to obtain tracking information of muons going through a target volume of ~ 50 cm × 50 cm × 70 cm, reconstructing both the incoming and outgoing muon tracks. The required spatial granularity is achieved by using 330 readout strips per RPC with 1.5 mm pitch. The RPCs have shown an efficiency above 99% and an estimated intrinsic resolution below 1.1 mm. Due to these qualities, RPCs provide excellent candidates for usage in volcano radiography.

  8. Bubble Chambers for Experiments in Nuclear Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    DiGiovine, B; Holt, R J; Rehm, K E; Raut, R; Robinson, A; Sonnenschein, A; Rusev, G; Tonchev, A P; Ugalde, C

    2015-01-01

    A bubble chamber has been developed to be used as an active target system for low energy nuclear astrophysics experiments. Adopting ideas from dark matter detection with superheated liquids, a detector system compatible with gamma-ray beams has been developed. This detector alleviates some of the limitations encountered in standard measurements of the minute cross sections of interest to stellar environments. While the astrophysically relevant nuclear reaction processes at hydrostatic burning temperatures are dominated by radiative captures, in this experimental scheme we measure the time-reversed processes. Such photodisintegrations allow us to compute the radiative capture cross sections when transitions to excited states of the reaction products are negligible. Due to the transformation of phase space, the photodisintegration cross sections are up to two orders of magnitude higher. The main advantage of the new target-detector system is a density several orders of magnitude higher than conventional gas tar...

  9. 木材干燥窑结构对窑内空气流动特性的影响%Influence of Structure of Wood Drying Kiln on Air Flow Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杨; 吴哲; 曹军

    2012-01-01

    A study was performed to simulate the air flow characteristics in wood drying kilns with different structures with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technology. The influences of drying kiln structures and ventilation velocity on velocity distribution, flow structure and flow uniformity were analyzed. Curved baffle plates were installed in the drying kilns. It was shown that the air flow basically turned into horizontal flow, and the uniformity of air flow at different channels increased greatly after curved baffle plates were installed in the drying kilns. Thereby, the uniformity of velocity field in the drying kilns was improved. Different ventilation velocities had little influence on the uniformity of flow field under the same condition.%采用CFD技术模拟了不同结构木材干燥窑内气流运动规律,探讨了干燥窑结构和送风速度对窑内流场速度分布、流动结构以及流动均匀性等参数的影响,并采用导流挡板对窑内流场进行了改善.结果表明:在于燥窑内装置导流板后,气流在木材堆进口处基本变为水平流动,不同通道内的气流速度差别显著减小,从而提高了干燥窑内部速度场的均匀性;在相同的木材量下,送风速度的大小对窑内流场的均匀性影响不大.

  10. 浙江永嘉龙下唐代青瓷窑址发掘简报%The Excavation of the Celadon Kiln of the Tang Dynasty at Longxia in Yongjia County, Zhejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    为配合温州市绕城高速公路的建设,2005年12月-2006年1月,浙江省文物考古研究所与温州市文物保护考古所、永嘉县文化馆联合对永嘉县龙下窑址进行了抢救性发掘。窑址位于温州市永嘉县瓯北镇龙下村北的山坡上,西距楠溪江约两公里,西北、西南分别距上塘镇与温州市区约10公里(图一)。%In December 2005 through January 2006, Zhejiang Provincial Institute of Cuhural Relics and Ar- chaeology, Wenzhou Municipal Institute of Cultural Relics Conservation and Archaeology and Cultural Center of Yongjia County made cooperative rescue excavation to the Longxia kiln site in Yongjia Coun- ty. The kiln site was located on the hillside to the north of Longxia Village in Oubei Town, Yongjia County, Wenzhou City; this excavation uncovered areas of about 100 sq m, from which one kiln was recovered and large amounts of celadon shards were unearthed, the original categories of which were pots, bowls, teacups, jars, plates, basins, cosmetic cases, dishes, grinding rollers, washers, palm bowls, lamps, etc. The typological characteristics and the styles of the incised decorative designs showed that the date of Longxia kiln site was roughly corresponding to that of I-Iehuaxin kiln site at Shanglinhu in Yuyao County, both of which were in the late Tang Dynasty

  11. Double anterior chamber in a patient with glaucoma and microspherophakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Khakshoor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 16-year-old woman with microspherophakia and secondary open angle glaucoma. The patient presented with a membrane dividing the anterior chamber into two segments without edema or Descemet′s membrane detachment. Slit lamp biomicroscopy, Pentacam, and specular microscopy images were obtained. Double anterior chamber is primarily found in patients with anterior chamber anomalies when there is no history of surgery or trauma.

  12. Tests of a novel design of Resistive Plate Chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel design of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs), using only a single resistive plate, is being proposed. Based on this design, two large size prototype chambers were constructed and were tested with cosmic rays and in particle beams. The tests confirmed the viability of this new approach. In addition to showing an improved single-particle response compared to the traditional 2-plate design, the novel chambers also prove to be suitable for calorimetric applications

  13. THERMAL RADIATION LOAD ON TEMPERATURE REGIMES IN PLANT GROWTH CHAMBERS

    OpenAIRE

    Hamasaki, T; Okada, Masumi

    2000-01-01

    In enclosed environments such as a plant growth chamber, thermal radiation plays an important role in determining heat balance and therefore the resultant temperature regimes. In artificially illuminated chambers, a significant level of thermal radiation is emitted from the lamps and/or the lamp house surface. Though there are both shortwave and longwave components in thermal radiation, our measurements in two different chamber designs, with and without thermal radiation filters, showed the l...

  14. CFD Simulation Evaluation for Flow Distribution of the Closed Chamber

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Bin; Wang Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Taking a closed chamber flow field as object, this paper establishes the 3D model of the Closed Chamber. With the conclusion of flow distribution and gasoline vapor concentration distribution of the Closed Chamber reached via the CFD software of Fluent and experiment research, this paper analyzes the flow distribution and concentration distribution of gasoline vapor. Several improvement projects are proposed, such as improving the wind circulation system to optimize the indoor gas concentrati...

  15. Reconstruction of data in low-mass magnetostrictive chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reconstruction of spark positions in a set of low-mass spark chambers with remote magnetostrictive readout, used in a study of the reaction π-p → K0 Λ, is described. The main detectors used were optical spark chambers but in order to provide information close to the vertices low-mass magnetostrictive chambers were fitted inside the cone of the superconducting polarised target magnet. (U.K.)

  16. Tests of a Novel Design of Resistive Plate Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Bilki, B; Freund, B; Neubüser, C; Onel, Y; Repond, J; Schlereth, J; Xia, L

    2015-01-01

    A novel design of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs), using only a single resistive plate, is being proposed. Based on this design, two large size prototype chambers were constructed and were tested with cosmic rays and in particle beams. The tests confirmed the viability of this new approach. In addition to showing an improved single-particle response compared to the traditional 2-plate design, the novel chambers also prove to be suitable for calorimetric applications.

  17. Analysis and solution on the lower combustion chamber collapse of annular shaft kilns%石灰套筒窑下燃烧室坍塌分析及解决方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晓锋

    2010-01-01

    该文的研究不仅对环形套筒窑的成功改造,保证连续稳定生产有借鉴意义,同时也为低热值燃气的高效利用提出了新的思路和方向,为减少工业窑炉燃烧过程的污染物排放提供了一个很好的研究实例.

  18. Vacuum Chamber for the Measurement System of the Beam Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abakumova, E.; Achasov, M.; Dong, HaiYi; Qu, HuaMin; Krasnov, A.; Kosarev, A.; Muchnoi, N.; Pyata, E.; Xiao, Qiong; Mo, XiaoHu; Wang, YiFang; Zhukov, A.

    Vacuum chamber for the beam energy measurement system based on the Compton backscattering method is presented. The main elements of the chamber are GaAs entrance viewport and a copper mirror. The viewport design provides baking out of the vacuum chamber up to 250 °C. To produce the viewport, an original technology based on brazing GaAs plate by lead has been developed. The vacuum chambers were installed at the BEPC-II and VEPP-4 M colliders. After installation the residual gas pressure is about 10-10 Torr.

  19. Radiation Target Area Sample Environmental Chamber (RTASEC) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Payload Systems Inc. proposes the Radiation Target Area Sample Environmental Chamber (RTASEC) as an innovative approach enabling radiobiologists to investigate the...

  20. Explosive Containment Chamber Vulnerability to Chemical Munition Fragment Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benham, R.A.; Fischer, S.H.; Kipp, M.E.; Martinez, R.R.

    1999-02-01

    Scenarios in which the explosive burster charge in a chemical munition accidentally detonates inside demilitarization containment chambers are analyzed. The vulnerability of an inner Auxiliary Pressure Vessel and the primary Explosive Containment Chamber to impact by fragments from the largest explosive charge expected to be placed in these chambers (M426, 8 inch, chemical, 7 lbs Comp B) is evaluated. Numerical (CTH) and empirical (ConWep) codes are used to characterize the munition fragments, and assess the consequences of their impact and penetration on the walls of these vessels. Both pristine and corroded configurations of the munition have been considered, with and without liquid agent fill. When the munition burster charge detonates, munition case fragments impact and perforate the Auxiliary Pressure Vessel wall, resulting in extensive breakup of this inner chamber and the formation of additional fragments. These residual munition case and Auxiliary Pressure Vessel fragments have sufficient mass and velocity to crater the Explosive Containment Chamber inner wall layer, with accompanying localized permanent deformation (bulging) of both the inner and outer chamber walls. The integrity of the Explosive Containment Chamber was retained under all of the APV / munition configurations considered in this study, with no evidence that primary (munition) or secondary (munition and Auxiliary Pressure Vessel) fragments will perforate the inner chamber wall. Limited analyses of munition detonation without the Auxiliary Pressure Vessel present indicate that some munition span fragments could form under those conditions that have sufficient mass and velocity to perforate the inner wall of the Explosive Containment Chamber.

  1. The Other Shoe: An Early Operant Conditioning Chamber for Pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, Takayuki; Lattal, Kennon A

    2016-05-01

    We describe an early operant conditioning chamber fabricated by Harvard University instrument maker Ralph Gerbrands and shipped to Japan in 1952 in response to a request of Professor B. F. Skinner by Japanese psychologists. It is a rare example, perhaps the earliest still physically existing, of such a chamber for use with pigeons. Although the overall structure and many of the components are similar to contemporary pigeon chambers, several differences are noted and contrasted to evolutionary changes in this most important laboratory tool in the experimental analysis of behavior. The chamber also is testimony to the early internationalization of behavior analysis. PMID:27606188

  2. Development of Beryllium Vacuum Chamber Technology for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Veness, R; Dorn, C

    2011-01-01

    Beryllium is the material of choice for the beam vacuum chambers around collision points in particle colliders due to a combination of transparency to particles, high specific stiffness and compatibility with ultra-high vacuum. New requirements for these chambers in the LHC experiments have driven the development of new methods for the manufacture of beryllium chambers. This paper reviews the requirements for experimental vacuum chambers. It describes the new beryllium technology adopted for the LHC and experience gained in the manufacture and installation.

  3. Evaluation of Vortex Chamber Concepts for Liquid Rocket Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Huu Phuoc; Knuth, Williams; Michaels, Scott; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Rocket-based combined-cycle engines (RBBC) being considered at NASA for future generation launch vehicles feature clusters of small rocket thrusters as part of the engine components. Depending on specific RBBC concepts, these thrusters may be operated at various operating conditions including power level and/or propellant mixture ratio variations. To pursue technology developments for future launch vehicles, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is examining vortex chamber concepts for the subject cycle engine application. Past studies indicated that the vortex chamber schemes potentially have a number of advantages over conventional chamber methods. Due to the nature of the vortex flow, relatively cooler propellant streams tend to flow along the chamber wall. Hence, the thruster chamber can be operated without the need of any cooling techniques. This vortex flow also creates strong turbulence, which promotes the propellant mixing process. Consequently, the subject chamber concepts not only offer the system simplicity but they also would enhance the combustion performance. The test results showed that the chamber performance was markedly high even at a low chamber length-to- diameter ratio (L/D). This incentive can be translated to a convenience in the thrust chamber packaging.

  4. Development of Master Chamber Software for Data Acquisition of Ionization Chamber for Indus 2 RRCAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyesh Soni

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper was to Develop Master control software for DAQ of ionization chamber for INDUS-2 beam lines for detection of X-ray flux by an Ionization chamber that will remotely control and monitor the ultra low current signal detection analog module precisely. This application will be useful to measure the intensity of X-ray flux through ionization chamber in a beam line of synchrotron radiation source which is mounted in INDUS-2. It is one of new technique of detection. Beam line area is highly restricted because of hazardous radiation, so through this application remote interfacing is provided for the ultra low current signal detection card that can be controlled by Master software. The development of such type arrangement we used software in C#.NET there are many issues like develop code, Design forms, to achieve the specified response from the CPU card, code developed in C# .NET. Initially, I explored and gained the knowledge of C#.NET. I practices some small modular projects as part to learn how the system works. I used programming language C#.NET architecture version 3.5 in Visual Studio 2008

  5. 水泥窑处理工业废物的工厂实验研究%Plant Test of Industrial Waste Disposal in a Cement Kiln

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘阳生; 韩杰; 白庆中

    2003-01-01

    Destruction of industrial waste in cement rotary kilns (CRKs) is an alternative technology for thetreatment of certain types of industrial waste (IW). In this paper, three typical types of industrial wastes wereco-incinerated in the CRK at Beijing Cement Plant to determine the effects of waste disposal (especially solid wastedisposal) on the quality of clinker and the concentration of pollutants in air emission. Experimental results showthat (1) waste disposal does not affect the quality of clinker and fly ash, and fly ash after the IW disposal can still beused in the cement production, (2) heavy metals from IW are immobilized and stabilized in the clinker and cement,and (3) concentration of pollutants in air emission is far below than the permitted values in the China NationalStandard-Air Pollutants Emission Standard (GB 16297-1996).

  6. Influence of kiln and air drying on redistribution of low-molecular sugars and nitrogenous compounds in scots pine (`pinus sylvestris l.`) and consequences for mould susceptibility. Thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terziev, N.

    1994-12-31

    Drying of wood is linked up with the transport of free and bound water and will be of major importance for the redistribution of water soluble substances. Therefore this study treats the influence of drying on the redistribution of soluble sugars and nitrogen, including both transport- and chemical processes. Moreover the study deals with durability aspects: the influence of different kiln drying schedules and their parameters on the redistribution of low-molecular sugars and nitrogenous compounds--as a widely used method in practice air drying is also included in the study; investigation of the effect of different drying treatments on susceptibility to mold growth; and an attempt to shed light on the migration of water soluble substances above and under the fiber saturation point.

  7. Quantifying the "chamber effect" in CO2 flux measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihermaa, Leena; Childs, Amy; Long, Hazel; Waldron, Susan

    2014-05-01

    The significance of aquatic CO2 emissions has received attention in recent years. For example annual aquatic emissions in the Amazon basin have been estimated as 500 Mt of carbon1. Methods for determining the flux rates include eddy covariance flux tower measurements, flux estimates calculated from partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in water and the use floating flux chambers connected to an infra-red gas analyser. The flux chamber method is often used because it is portable, cheaper and allows smaller scale measurements. It is also a direct method and hence avoids problems related to the estimation of the gas transfer coefficient that is required when fluxes are calculated from pCO2. However, the use of a floating chamber may influence the flux measurements obtained. The chamber shields the water underneath from effects of wind which could lead to lower flux estimates. Wind increases the flux rate by i) causing waves which increase the surface area for efflux, and ii) removing CO2 build up above the water surface, hence maintaining a higher concentration gradient. Many floating chambers have an underwater extension of the chamber below the float to ensure better seal to water surface and to prevent any ingress of atmospheric air when waves rock the chamber. This extension may cause additional turbulence in flowing water and hence lead to overestimation of flux rates. Some groups have also used a small fan in the chamber headspace to ensure thorough mixing of air in the chamber. This may create turbulence inside the chamber which could increase the flux rate. Here we present results on the effects of different chamber designs on the detected flux rates. 1Richey et al. 2002. Outgassing from Amazonian rivers and wetlands as a large tropical source of atmospheric CO2. Nature 416: 617-620.

  8. SOBRE LA EDAD DE LOS HORNOS DE CAL EN EL ÁREA MAYA (About the age of the lime kilns in the Maya area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Ortiz Ruiz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La investigación que presentamos es sobre el hallazgo y la datación arqueomagnética de hornos de cal en el área maya, México. La relevancia de la datación arqueomagnética consiste en localizar las construcciones arquitectónicas y dilucidar el periodo de utilización por las sociedades que habitaron la zona de ubicación de dichas construcciones. Asumimos que se trataba de hornos prehispánicos por su asociación con el contexto de la excavación. Sin embargo, los resultados de la combinación de dataciones y métodos arqueométricos permitieron ubicar estas estructuras en distintos periodos de utilización y, por tanto, asumir la continuidad de esta tecnología productiva más allá del periodo prehispánico. Asimismo los trabajos de datación nos permiten clarificar la utilización de esta tecnología y práctica productiva en dicha zona cultural. ENGLISH: The investigation presented here is related to the discovery and archaeomagnetic dating of lime kilns in the Maya area, Mexico. The relevance of such dating is to locate architectural constructions and elucidate the period of use by societies that are responsible for their construction. We assume a prehispanic period for the kilns because of their context within the excavation. The combination of dating methods and archaeometric experiments allowed the identification of different periods of use and, therefore, suggests the persistence of this production technology beyond the prehispanic period. Dating work also allows us to clarify the use of this technology and productive practices in this cultural area.

  9. Some Features of Aerodynamics of Cyclonic Chamber with Free Exit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Orekhov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper cites results of an experimental research in aerodynamics of a cyclonic chamber with a free exit that has a large relative length. Distributions of aerodynamic stream characteristics depending on geometry of working volume of the cyclonic chamber are given in the paper. Calculative dependences are proposed in the paper.

  10. Performance of vintage direct reading pocket ionization chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Robert J; Harvey, John A; Kearfott, Kimberlee J

    2010-05-01

    The linearity, accuracy, and precision of each of two groups of vintage 51.6 microC-kg-1 maximum scale passive direct reading pocket ionization chambers, each from a different manufacturer and all aged at least 50 years since manufacture, were tested. The pocket ionization chambers were suspended on a phantom and exposed using a 137Cs source. Variations from trial to trial were smaller than variations from chamber to chamber. The average percent standard deviations ranged from 5.7% to 14% across all exposures. The accuracy of the dosimeter readings increased as the exposure level increased. Percent error from known exposure values decreased as exposure increased. An independent samples t test indicated there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups only at a delivered exposure of 6.45 microC-kg-1. Testing was performed in a 222Rn drum to determine the effect of Rn on the pocket ionization chambers. Exposure of five chambers to an average Rn level of 4.70 kBq m-3 and thirty chambers to 3.86 kBq m-3 over a 7-d period produced abnormally high readings at least three times background in eight of the 35 chambers tested.

  11. ALICE Time Projection Chamber (TPC) Readout Sector in Lab

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main particle tracking detector in ALICE. Charged particles crossing the gas of the TPC knock electrons out of their atoms, which drift in the eletric field. By measuring the arrival of electrons at the end of the chamber, at segments such as the one shown here, the TPC will reconstruct the paths of the original charged particles.

  12. Monte Carlo Simulation Optimizing Design of Grid Ionization Chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG; Yu-lai; WANG; Qiang; YANG; Lu

    2013-01-01

    The grid ionization chamber detector is often used for measuring charged particles.Based on Monte Carlo simulation method,the energy loss distribution and electron ion pairs of alpha particle with different energy have been calculated to determine suitable filling gas in the ionization chamber filled with

  13. Mycocardial perfusion scintigraphy using a new technique, the mesh chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 10cm x 10cm chamber has been used in conjunction with a new reconstruction algorithm. Ongoing investigations are testing system performance, including three-dimensional resolution and contrast ratio for various objects. The chambers have had some reliability problems. 30 references, 7 figures

  14. A hyperbaric oxygen chamber for animal experimental purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U.M. Djasim (Urville); L. Spiegelberg (Linda); E.B. Wolvius (Eppo); K.G.H. van der Wal (Karel)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractFacilities for hyperbaric oxygen therapy that are suitable for animal experimental research are scarce. In this paper, the authors introduce a hyperbaric oxygen chamber that was developed specifically for animal experimental purposes. The hyperbaric oxygen chamber was designed to meet a

  15. Anterior chamber cholesterolosis in a patient with retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bryan K; Say, Emil Anthony T; Chévez-Barrios, Patricia; Lee, Thomas C; Kim, Jonathan W

    2016-01-01

    Anterior chamber cholesterolosis is a rare phenomenon typically associated with non-neoplastic conditions such as hyphema or Coats disease; it has never been reported to be associated with intraocular malignancy. We report a case of anterior chamber cholesterolosis presenting in the setting of retinoblastoma and discuss clinical features relevant for its differentiation from Coats disease. PMID:27330481

  16. Application of Chaboche Model in Rocket Thrust Chamber Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asraff, Ahmedul Kabir; Suresh Babu, Sheela; Babu, Aneena; Eapen, Reeba

    2015-12-01

    Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines are commonly used in space technology. Thrust chamber is one of the most important subsystems of a rocket engine. The thrust chamber generates propulsive thrust force for flight of the rocket by ejection of combustion products at supersonic speeds. Often double walled construction is employed for these chambers. The thrust chamber investigated here has its hot inner wall fabricated out of a high thermal conductive material like copper alloy and outer wall made of stainless steel. Inner wall is subjected to high thermal and pressure loads during operation of engine due to which it will be in the plastic regime. Main reasons for the failure of such chambers are fatigue in the plastic range (called as low cycle fatigue since the number of cycles to failure will be low in plastic range), creep and thermal ratcheting. Elasto plastic material models are required to simulate the above effects through a cyclic stress analysis. This paper gives the details of cyclic stress analysis carried out for the thrust chamber using different plasticity model combinations available in ANSYS (Version 15) FE code. The best model among the above is applied in the cyclic stress analysis of two dimensional (plane strain and axisymmetric) and three dimensional finite element models of thrust chamber. Cyclic life of the chamber is calculated from stress-strain graph obtained from above analyses.

  17. Construction of a drift chamber prototype for the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General design features of a small size drift chamber prototype are described in this report. Prototype construction has taken place at CIEMAT and we explain in detail the assembly procedure. This activity is part of a long term project to mass produce chambers for the muon barrel detector of the CMS experiment which will be installed at CERN. (Author)

  18. The muon chambers take centre stage at CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The CMS muon chambers are now starting to arrive at CERN in significant numbers. All in all, the muon system of the CMS detector will comprise some 1400 of these chambers. Twenty percent of those for the endcaps have already been installed, while the assembly of those for the barrel will start in December.

  19. Influence of chamber misalignment on cased telescoped (CT) ammunition accuracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. CORRIVEAU; C. FLORIN PETRE

    2016-01-01

    As part of a research program, it was desired to better understand the impact of the rotating chamber alignment with the barrel throat on the precision and accuracy of a novel cased telescoped (CT) ammunition firing rifle. In order to perform the study, a baseline CT ammunition chamber which was concentric with a Mann barrel bore was manufactured. Additionally, six chambers were manufactured with an offset relative to the barrel bore. These chambers were used to simulate a misaligned chamber relative to the bore axis. Precision and accuracy tests were then performed at 200 m in an indoor range under controlled conditions. For this project, 5.56 mm CT ammunition was used. As the chamber axis offset relative to the gun bore was increased, the mean point of impact was displaced away from the target center. The shift in the impact location is explained by the presence of in-bore yaw which results in lateral throw-off and aerodynamic jump components. The linear theory of ballistics is used to establish a relationship between the chamber misalignment and the resulting projectile mean point of impact for a rifle developed to fire CT ammunition. This relationship allows for the prediction of the mean point of impact given a chamber misalignment.

  20. Damage Diagnosis for High Temperature Coke-oven Chamber Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Masato; Sakaida, Michitaka; Fujikake, Yohichi; Irie, Keisuke

    Metallurgical coke is needed as reducing reagent and energy source in blast furnaces. Most of coke ovens in Japan have been working over 30 years and have become gradually decrepit. A coke oven consists of many coking chambers, and each chamber is 6 m high, 16 m long and 0.4m wide. Uneven damage at the chamber-wall surface such as brick erosion and carbon deposition disturbs production because the coke is pushed horizontally when discharged from the chamber. To diagnose the chamber wall which is constantly sustained at a high temperature, we have developed a water-cooling heat-resistance probe. Line scan cameras mounted in the probe obtain thermal images of the entire chamber-wall surfaces with high resolution. In addition, to measure topographical information of the wall, a laser light-section method combined with line-scan-camera imaging has been considered. It is emphasized that the diagnosis probe works under enormously severe conditions, such as at a temperature of over 1000°C and inside a width of only 0.4m. Clarifying the appearance of chamber-wall damages in operating aged coke ovens, we proposed the index relating unevenness of a chamber-wall surface to pushing load. The index is utilized for the guidance enabling effective repairs of damaged oven walls.

  1. The electronics readout system for the OPAL Vertex Drift Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vertex Drift Chamber for the OPAL experiment at LEP provides high quality track co-ordinates using multi-hit sub-nanosecond timing to detect the drifted electrons. This paper explains the electronic techniques that have been devised and implemented for the detector. The overall performance of the system is demonstrated with measurements from the final OPAL chamber. (author)

  2. Dynamic chamber armor behavior in IFE and MFE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chamber wall armor is subject to demanding conditions in both inertial fusion energy (IFE) and magnetic fusion energy (MFE) chambers. This paper assesses the requirements on armor imposed by the operating conditions in IFE and MFE, including energy deposition density, time of deposition and frequencies, and discusses their impact on the performance of the candidate armor materials

  3. Influence of chamber misalignment on cased telescoped (CT ammunition accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Corriveau

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As part of a research program, it was desired to better understand the impact of the rotating chamber alignment with the barrel throat on the precision and accuracy of a novel cased telescoped (CT ammunition firing rifle. In order to perform the study, a baseline CT ammunition chamber which was concentric with a Mann barrel bore was manufactured. Additionally, six chambers were manufactured with an offset relative to the barrel bore. These chambers were used to simulate a misaligned chamber relative to the bore axis. Precision and accuracy tests were then performed at 200 m in an indoor range under controlled conditions. For this project, 5.56 mm CT ammunition was used. As the chamber axis offset relative to the gun bore was increased, the mean point of impact was displaced away from the target center. The shift in the impact location is explained by the presence of in-bore yaw which results in lateral throw-off and aerodynamic jump components. The linear theory of ballistics is used to establish a relationship between the chamber misalignment and the resulting projectile mean point of impact for a rifle developed to fire CT ammunition. This relationship allows for the prediction of the mean point of impact given a chamber misalignment.

  4. Dosimetry of Cobalt 60 Gamma Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Upadhyay

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Ferrous sulphate-benzoic acid-xylen(tl orange (FBX dosimetric system is linear in the range fl|0m 0.01 Gy to 10 Gy and can be used in the case of a nuclear accident, for documenting clinical doses in total-body irradiations in radiation therapy as well as for measuring daily radiation dose during external beam therapy because of its tissue-equivallency. FBX system is stable up to 15 days in the range 15 - 60 degree centigrade. It is independent of photon energy up to 3 ke V and is fairly dose rate in dependent in the range from 0.01 to 2.5 Gy/min. Besides its use in radiation therapy, external beam therapy and nuclear accidents, the present study shows that this dosimeter can be effectively used for determining positional variation inside the gamma chamber. This has been detected by placing dosimetric solutions in small bottles kept in two racks of the phantom in a symmetrical fashion. Average variations in two tracks were found to be 2.74 per cent, 0.33 per cent, 4 per cent and 4.83 per cent.

  5. Chemistry of radiation damage to wire chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, J.

    1992-08-01

    Proportional counters are used to study aspects of radiation damage to wire chambers (wire aging). Principles of low-pressure, rf plasma chemistry are used to predict the plasma chemistry in electron avalanches (1 atm, dc). (1) Aging is studied in CF{sub 4}/iC{sub 4}H{sub 10} gas mixtures. Wire deposits are analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy. An apparent cathode aging process resulting in loss of gain rather than in a self-sustained current is observed in CF{sub 4}-rich gases. A four-part model considering plasma polymerization of the hydrocarbon, etching of wire deposits by CF{sub 4}, acceleration of deposition processes in strongly etching environments, and reactivity of the wire surface is developed to understand anode wire aging in CF{sub 4}/iC{sub 4}H{sub 10} gases. Practical guidelines suggested by the model are discussed. (2) Data are presented to suggest that trace amounts of Freons do not affect aging rates in either dimethyl ether or Ar/C{sub 2}H{sub 6}. Apparent loss of gain is explained by attachment of primary electrons to a continuously increasing concentration of Freon 11 (CCl{sub 3}F) in the counter gas. An increase in the concentration of Freon 11 in dimethyl ether is caused by a distillation process in the gas supply bottle and is a natural consequence of the unequal volatilities of the two compounds.

  6. Detector Physics of Resistive Plate Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Lippmann, Christian; Riegler, W

    2003-01-01

    Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) are gaseous parallel plate avalanche detectors that implement electrodes made from a material with a high volume resistivity between 10^7 and 10^12 Ohm cm. Large area RPCs with 2mm single gaps operated in avalanche mode provide above 98% efficiency and a time resolution of around 1ns up to a flux of several kHz/cm2. These Trigger RPCs will, as an example, equip the muon detector system of the ATLAS experiment at CERN on an area of 3650m2 and with 355.000 independent read out channels. Timing RPCs with a gas gap of 0.2 to 0.3mm are widely used in multi gap configurations and provide 99% efficiency and time resolution down to 50ps. While their performance is comparable to existing scintillator-based Time-Of-Flight (TOF) technology, Timing RPCs feature a significantly, up to an order of magnitude, lower price per channel. They will for example equip the 176m2 TOF barrel of the ALICE experiment at CERN with 160.000 independent read out cells. RPCs were originally operated in stream...

  7. Data acquisition system for a deuteration chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work present is focusing auxiliary in the experiment the reaction of fusion in cold in the laboratory of Physical of Plasmas of Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares. These systems of acquisition of data concrete to register in line surface of pressure and temperature in the gap of 5.6 x 10-4 to 1 x 103 and -270 to 1300 Centigrade degrees with help of personal computer. The manner of purchase in chamber of Deuterium is per middle of thermocouple with the object of whereas any control of the temperature in different point in the some of manner the signal of in for the system is the thermocouple (milli volts), the conversion analogy a digital is mean of Cad of 12 bits rate double slope the out is mean the PPI to send the signal to P C of these manner the read of the thermocouples is translate graphic or digital in the screen of the P C. In the phase of pressure element sensor is measure type Pirani, the measure is of manner of temperature. (Author)

  8. The PHENIX Drift Chamber Front End Electroncs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancake, C.; Velkovska, J.; Pantuev, V.; Fong, D.; Hemmick, T.

    1998-04-01

    The PHENIX Drift Chamber (DC) is designed to operate in the high particle flux environment of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and provide high resolution track measurements. It is segmented into 80 keystones with 160 readout channels each. The Front End Electronics (FEE) developed to meet the demanding operating conditions and the large number of readout channels of the DC will be discussed. It is based on two application specific integrated circuits: the ASD8 and the TMC-PHX1. The ASD8 chip contains 8 channels of bipolar amplifier-shaper-discriminator with 6 ns shaping time and ≈ 20 ns pulse width, which satisfies the two track resolution requirements. The TMC-PHX1 chip is a high-resolution multi-hit Time-to-Digital Converter. The outputs from the ASD8 are digitized in the Time Memory Cell (TMC) every (clock period)/32 or 0.78 ns (at 40 MHz), which gives the intrinsic time resolution of the system. A 256 words deep dual port memory keeps 6.4 μs time history of data at 40 MHz clock. Each DC keystone is supplied with 4 ASD8/TMC boards and one FEM board, which performs the readout of the TMC-PHX1's, buffers and formats the data to be transmitted over the Glink. The slow speed control communication between the FEM and the system is carried out over ARCNET. The full readout chain and the data aquisition system are being tested.

  9. A Fast Ionization Chamber for GODDESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumb, R. T.; Lipman, A. S.; Baugher, T.; Cizewski, J. A.; Ratkiewicz, A.; Pain, S. D.; Kozub, R. L.

    2014-09-01

    Transfer reactions are among the main methods used in nuclear physics to probe the structure of nuclei. Such information is needed to constrain nuclear models and to understand various nucleosynthesis processes. In many cases, the nuclear level densities are too high to be resolved in transfer reactions via charged particle detection alone. This problem and issues arising from contaminants in radioactive beams can be addressed by using particle- γ coincidence techniques along with heavy recoil identification in inverse kinematics. A device to accomplish these tasks is Gammasphere ORRUBA: Dual Detectors for Experimental Structure Studies (GODDESS), currently being commissioned for the ATLAS facility at ANL. We are currently building a compact, tilted grid ionization chamber for GODDESS to detect and identify beam-like recoils near zero degrees in the lab. The tilt (30 degrees off normal to the beam) helps the ion pairs to be detected quickly, after drifting only a short distance away from the beam axis. This reduces the response time, allowing counting rates of ~500,000/s. The design and current status of the project will be presented. Research supported by the U. S. DOE.

  10. Simulated equilibrium factor studies in radon chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiehchi Chu; Holing Liu [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Nuclear Science

    1996-05-01

    A series of experiments have been conducted to study the influences of environmental parameters on the equilibrium factor. Most of them were carried out in a walk-in type chamber. The deposition velocity was calculated using the Jacobi model. The ranges of the environmental parameters studied in the experiments are humidity 30-90% r.h. and radon concentration 2-40 kBqm{sup -3}. The aerosol sources included electric fumigator, mosquito coil, incense, a cigarette with the particle concentration 2000-6500 cm{sup -3} and the attachment rate 10-350 h{sup -1}. The results of the experiment show that the equilibrium factor tends to decrease as the radon concentration increases. On the other hand, the equilibrium factor tends to increase as the humidity increases, and so is the increasing attachment rate. Of all the parameters mentioned above, the influence that aerosols have on the equilibrium factor is the predominant factor. The calculated deposition velocity for the unattached fraction of radon daughters tends to increase as the radon concentration increases. However, it tends to decrease as the humidity increases. (Author).

  11. Resistive plate chambers in positron emission tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Paulo; Blanco, Alberto; Couceiro, Miguel; Ferreira, Nuno C.; Lopes, Luís; Martins, Paulo; Ferreira Marques, Rui; Fonte, Paulo

    2013-07-01

    Resistive plate chambers (RPC) were originally deployed for high energy physics. Realizing how their properties match the needs of nuclear medicine, a LIP team proposed applying RPCs to both preclinical and clinical positron emission tomography (RPC-PET). We show a large-area RPC-PET simulated scanner covering an axial length of 2.4m —slightly superior to the height of the human body— allowing for whole-body, single-bed RPC-PET acquisitions. Simulations following NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association, USA) protocols yield a system sensitivity at least one order of magnitude larger than present-day, commercial PET systems. Reconstruction of whole-body simulated data is feasible by using a dedicated, direct time-of-flight-based algorithm implemented onto an ordered subsets estimation maximization parallelized strategy. Whole-body RPC-PET patient images following the injection of only 2mCi of 18-fluorodesoxyglucose (FDG) are expected to be ready 7 minutes after the 6 minutes necessary for data acquisition. This compares to the 10-20mCi FDG presently injected for a PET scan, and to the uncomfortable 20-30minutes necessary for its data acquisition. In the preclinical field, two fully instrumented detector heads have been assembled aiming at a four-head-based, small-animal RPC-PET system. Images of a disk-shaped and a needle-like 22Na source show unprecedented sub-millimeter spatial resolution.

  12. Monolithic JFET preamplifier for ionization chamber calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prototype preamplifier circuit is presented for use in SSC ionization chamber calorimeters. It consists of a new type of silicon integrated circuit comprised of very low noise junction FET (JFET) components. Presently, monolithic preamplifier circuits for use in highly segmented detectors are made of implanted channel JFETs or MOS devices. While such circuits solve the density problems, they do not perform to the same level of low noise characteristics as found in discrete JFET components. The JFETs which comprise this new integrated circuit preserve the excellent low noise performance normally found only in discrete JFETs. JFETs also are much more radiation resistant and less prone to damage by electromagnetic discharges than MOS transistors. Two innovative fabrication processes are discussed. They solve the difficult gate-to-gate isolation problem needed to manufacture JFET integrated circuits. Both allow the use of an epitaxially formed channel and a diffused gate, as in standard discrete JFET processing. This, presumably, results in JFETs which exhibit lower noise than those made with implanted channels. 11 refs., 9 figs

  13. R3B time projection chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legou P.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Within the international FAIR project, the R3B collaboration (Reaction studies with Radioactive Relativistic beams will be in charge of the physics program with secondary beams of energy between 200 and 1500MeV per nucleon. Central to the R3B set-up will be a large-aperture superconducting magnet under construction at CEA-Saclay. An international collaboration has been formed to work on the design of a large time-projection chamber (TPC to be installed behind this magnet to cover the full phase-space of the charged fragments produced in the target. Within this collaboration, tests of detector prototypes were performed with the heavy-ions beams at GSI Darmstadt. These prototypes were equipped with a gaseous Micromegas detector. Two amplification technologies were tested, either conventional or resistive Micromegas and two construction concepts, bulk-Micromegas or micro-meshes screwed on the PCB. We will present the results of the last beam and the 1m TPC station which will be dedicated to make tests using the real drift distance and compare the performances of micromegas and GEM.

  14. Redefining Female Desire: Angela Carter's Bloody Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Antonella Abeni

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the debate about the nature and representation of female sexual desire, on the trend to follow men patterns, who often would have been identified in pornography, involving Angela Carter’s work.This author has analyzed the issue of female desire in The Sadeian Woman, re-evaluating the use of pornography in "moral" sense, ie reversing the fundamentals and misogynistic stereotypes about the differences between the sexes.In contrast, scholars such as Andrea Dworkin believe pornography inextricably linked to the subjugation and humiliation of the female body, while Carter, starting from the work of De Sade, reconfigures the ideas at the base of the imaginary of erotic, putting pornography "in the service" of feminine instincts liberation.Among Carter’s works that gave rise to more debates and discussions is The Bloody Chamber, a collection of rewriting fairy tales in which some stories such as The Tiger's Wife and The Company of Wolves had provoked critical reactions.This article analyses some passages of those tales, combining them with the ideas expressed by the author in her famous essay, demonstrating the originality and unconventionality of her interpretation of female desire, subject to misunderstanding and disputes, but strongly appreciated in recent years .

  15. Chemistry of radiation damage to wire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proportional counters are used to study aspects of radiation damage to wire chambers (wire aging). Principles of low-pressure, rf plasma chemistry are used to predict the plasma chemistry in electron avalanches (1 atm, dc). (1) Aging is studied in CF4/iC4H10 gas mixtures. Wire deposits are analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy. An apparent cathode aging process resulting in loss of gain rather than in a self-sustained current is observed in CF4-rich gases. A four-part model considering plasma polymerization of the hydrocarbon, etching of wire deposits by CF4, acceleration of deposition processes in strongly etching environments, and reactivity of the wire surface is developed to understand anode wire aging in CF4/iC4H10 gases. Practical guidelines suggested by the model are discussed. (2) Data are presented to suggest that trace amounts of Freons do not affect aging rates in either dimethyl ether or Ar/C2H6. Apparent loss of gain is explained by attachment of primary electrons to a continuously increasing concentration of Freon 11 (CCl3F) in the counter gas. An increase in the concentration of Freon 11 in dimethyl ether is caused by a distillation process in the gas supply bottle and is a natural consequence of the unequal volatilities of the two compounds

  16. He leak testing of Indus-2 dipole vacuum chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Centre for Advanced Technology is developing its second synchrotron radiation source INDUS-2 which is a 2.5 GeV electron storage ring. Dipole vacuum chambers are the vital components of Indus-2 vacuum system. Each of these chambers is approx. 3.6 m long and 0.67 m wide with 24 nos. of ports of various sizes. The dipole chambers were made by machining two halves and they are then lip welded together. The dipole chamber has approx. 14 m of total weld length and it was leak tested for leak tightness of the order of 10-10 mbar 1/s. Helium mass spectrometer leak detector (HMSLD) was utilized for the leak testing. Subsequently the leaks of various orders in welding joints were repaired and leak tightness achieved. This paper describes the experiences during leak testing of 20 nos. of aluminum dipole chambers for INDUS-2

  17. THERMAL UNIFORMITY OF LIQUID HELIUM IN ELECTRON BUBBLE CHAMBER.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WANG,L.; JIA,L.

    2002-07-22

    A CRYOGENIC RESEARCH APPARATUS TO MEASURE THE MOVEMENT OF ELECTRONS UNDER A HIGH ELECTRIC FIELD IN A LIQUID HELIUM BATH WAS DESIGNED AND BUILT AT THE BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY AND THE NEVIS LABORATORY OF COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY. THE LIQUID HELIUM CHAMBER IS A DOUBLE WALLED CYLINDRICAL CONTAINER EQUIPPED WITH 5 OPTICS WINDOWS AND 10 HIGH VOLTAGE CABLES. TO SHIELD THE LIQUID HELIUM CHAMBER AGAINST THE EXTERNAL HEAT LOADS AND TO PROVIDE THE THERMAL UNIFORMITY IN THE LIQUID HELIUM CHAMBER, THE DOUBLE WALLED JACKET WAS COOLED BY A PUMPED HELIUM BATH. THE HELIUM CHAMBER WAS BUILT INTO A COMMERICAL LN2 / LHE CRYOSTAT. THIS PAPER PRESENTS THE DESIGN AND THE NUMERICAL SIMULATION ANALYSIS ON THERMAL UNIFORMITY OF THE ELECTRON BUBBLE CHAMBER.

  18. Summary on Titanium Nitride Coating of SNS Ring Vacuum Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Robert J; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Weiss, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    The inner surfaces of the 248 m Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring vacuum chambers are coated with ~100 nm of titanium nitride (TiN) to reduce the secondary electron yield (SEY) of the chamber walls. There are approximately 100 chambers and kicker modules, some up to 5 m in length and 36 cm in diameter, coated with TiN. The coating is deposited by means of reactive DC magnetron sputtering using a cylindrical magnetron with internal permanent magnets. This cathode configuration generates a deposition rate sufficient to meet the required production schedule and produces stoichiometric films with good adhesion, low SEY and acceptable outgassing. Moreover, the cathode magnet configuration allows for simple changes in length and has been adapted to coat the wide variety of chambers and components contained within the arc, injection, extraction, collimation and RF regions. Chamber types, quantities and the cathode configurations used to coat them are presented herein. A brief summary of the salient co...

  19. Limited streamer chamber testing and quality evaluation in ASTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limited streamer chambers are extensively used for high-energy and nuclear physics experiments in accelerator and underground laboratories. The tracking system of LVD, an underground experiment to study muons and nutrino astronomy, will use roughly 15000 limited streamer chambers and 100000 external pickup strips with digital readout electronics. In the article the different aspects of chamber operation that serve to establish a testing procedure and to define acceptance criteria for selecting reliable and long-life devices, are discussed. The procedures and the results obtained from a long-term test to evaluate streamer chamber quality, based upon a sample of 2900 items, are described. The selection tests and the long-term observations have been performed in the ASTRA laboratory, established at the Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati to carry out quality control procedures for streamer chambers on a large scale and in a controlled environment

  20. Effects of air humidity on ionization chamber response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the effect of air humidity on four different ionization chamber cap materials verified earlier studies (Kristensen and Sundbom, 1981; Mijnheer et al., 1983) and extended our understanding of the problem. We found nylon and A-150 plastic caps swell as they absorb water from the air. This accounts for as much as 2.5% increase in ionization response. Graphite chambers readily absorb and desorb water from the air. This creates a problem in maintaining dry air in a wet graphite chamber. Humid air has a different density and W value than dry air (Niatel, 1969, 1975). This decreases the charge collected in a wet graphite chamber. We observe a decrease in response of approximately 2%, a value greater than can be accounted for by these effects alone. Polyethylene chambers are unaffected by humid air. 4 refs., 9 figs