WorldWideScience

Sample records for chamber kilns

  1. Celadon of Yue Kiln

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正Celadon of Yue Kiln comes from the famous ancient Chinese Yue kiln in Southern China. The earliest porcelain was successfully made in this very kiln in the Eastern Han Dynasty, so it is also honored as the "mother porcelain". The kiln stopped producing at the end of the Northern Song Dynasty and the early Southern

  2. Fabrication works on rotary kiln fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotary kiln has been widely used in incineration and studied by many researches. Solid wastes of various shapes, sizes and heat value can be fed into rotary kiln either in batches or continually. Waste combustion in rotary kiln involves rotation method and the residence time depends on the length and diameter of the rotary kiln and the total stichomythic air given to the system.Rocking system is another technology used in incinerator. In the rocking system, internal elements in the combustion chamber move to transports and mix the burning waste so that all combustible material in the waste is fully burnt. Another technology in incinerator is the fluidized bed. This method uses air to fluidized the sand thus enhancing the combustion process. The total air is controlled in order to obtain a suitable fluidized condition.This preliminary study was conducted to study the feasibility of an incinerator system when three components viz. the rotary kiln, rocking system and fluidized bed are combined. This research was also conducted to obtain preliminary data parameters of the three components such as the suitable temperature, the angle of the kiln, residence time, total air for fluidization, rocking speed and the devolatilization rate. The samples used in this research were the palm oil kernel shells. (Author)

  3. Community Geothermal Technology Program: Experimental lumber drying kiln. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leaman, D.; Irwin, B.

    1989-10-01

    Goals were to demonstrate feasibility of using the geothermal waste effluent from the HGP-A well as a heat source for a kiln operation to dry hardwoods, develop drying schedules, and develop automatic systems to monitor/control the geothermally heated lumber dry kiln systems. The feasibility was demonstrated. Lumber was dried in periods of 2 to 6 weeks in the kiln, compared to 18 months air drying and 6--8 weeks using a dehumidified chamber. Larger, plate-type heat exchangers between the primary fluid and water circulation systems may enable the kiln to reach the planned temperatures (180--185 F). However, the King Koa partnership cannot any longer pursue the concept of geothermal lumber kilns.

  4. Construction of simple kiln systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, W.; Rojczyk, U.

    1984-01-01

    For the rational manufacture of charcoal, different kiln designs have been developed, for which a detailed general view of their constructional peculiarities and performance together with a number of sectional diagrams and sketches of the principles are given. Starting from both horizontally and vertically structured charcoal kilns covered with earth, the study gas on to report on modern, transportable, perforated kiln covers made of steel. Kiln covers in cylindrical and truncated cone-shaped drum form are shown. Details of dimensions, transport weight and pyrotechnical advantages are given and recommendations as to the type of kiln to select (table of criteria for selection, advantages and snags of various different kiln systems).

  5. Energy saving in ceramic tile kilns: Cooling gas heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A great quantity of thermal energy is consumed in ceramic tile manufacture, mainly in the firing stage. The most widely used facilities are roller kilns, fuelled by natural gas, in which more than 50% of the energy input is lost through the flue gas and cooling gas exhaust stacks. This paper presents a calculation methodology, based on certain kiln operating parameters, for quantifying the energy saving obtained in the kiln when part of the cooling gases are recovered in the firing chamber and are not exhausted into the atmosphere. Energy savings up to 17% have been estimated in the studied case. Comparison of the theoretical results with the experimental data confirmed the validity of the proposed methodology. The study also evidenced the need to improve combustion process control, owing to the importance of the combustion process in kiln safety and energy efficiency. - Highlights: •Some energy input (30–35%) in ceramic roller kilns is lost through the cooling gas stack. •Cooling air is directly recovered in the combustion chamber, providing oxygen. •This energy recovery from the cooling gas stack has been quantified. •It has been proven that the proposed methodology to estimate energy savings is valid

  6. Kiln emissions and potters' exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirtle, B; Teschke, K; van Netten, C; Brauer, M

    1998-10-01

    Some ten thousand British Columbia potters work in small private studios, cooperative facilities, educational institutions, or recreation centers. There has been considerable concern that this diffuse, largely unregulated activity may involve exposures to unacceptable levels of kiln emissions. Pottery kiln emissions were measured at 50 sites--10 from each of 5 categories: professional studios, recreation centers, elementary schools, secondary schools, and colleges. Area monitoring was done 76 cm from firing kilns and 1.6 m above the floor to assess breathing zone concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, fluorides, aldehydes, aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gold, iron, lead, lithium, magnesium, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium, silver, vanadium, and zinc. Personal exposures to the same metals were measured at 24 sites. Almost all measured values were well below permissible concentrations for British Columbia work sites and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit values (TLVs) with the following two exceptions. A single firing duration (495 minute) acrolein measurement adjacent to an electric kiln (0.109 ppm) exceeded these guidelines. One 15-minute sulfur dioxide measurement collected adjacent to a gas kiln (5.7 ppm) exceeded the ACGIH short-term exposure limit. The fact that concentrations in small, ventilated kiln rooms ranked among the highest measured gives rise to concern that unacceptable levels of contamination may exist where small kiln rooms remain unventilated. Custom designed exhaust hoods and industrial heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems were the most effective ventilation strategies. Passive diffusion and wall/window fans were least effective. PMID:9794068

  7. Lime Kiln Modeling. CFD and One-dimensional simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svedin, Kristoffer; Ivarsson, Christofer; Lundborg, Rickard

    2009-03-15

    The incentives for burning alternative fuels in lime kilns are growing. An increasing demand on thorough investigations of alternative fuel impact on lime kiln performance have been recognized, and the purpose of this project has been to develop a lime kiln CFD model with the possibility to fire fuel oil and lignin. The second part of the project consists of three technical studies. Simulated data from a one-dimensional steady state program has been used to support theories on the impact of biofuels and lime mud dryness. The CFD simulations was carried out in the commercial code FLUENT. Due to difficulties with the convergence of the model the calcination reaction is not included. The model shows essential differences between the two fuels. Lignin gives a different flame shape and a longer flame length compared to fuel oil. Mainly this depends on how the fuel is fed into the combustion chamber and how much combustion air that is added as primary and secondary air. In the case of lignin combustion the required amount of air is more than in the fuel oil case. This generates more combustion gas and a different flow pattern is created. Based on the values from turbulent reaction rate for the different fuels an estimated flame length can be obtained. For fuel oil the combustion is very intense with a sharp peak in the beginning and a rapid decrease. For lignin the combustion starts not as intense as for the fuel oil case and has a smoother shape. The flame length appears to be approximately 2-3 meter longer for lignin than for fuel oil based on turbulent reaction rate in the computational simulations. The first technical study showed that there are many benefits of increasing dry solids content in the lime mud going into a kiln such as increased energy efficiency, reduced TRS, and reduced sodium in the kiln. However, data from operating kilns indicates that these benefits can be offset by increasing exit gas temperature that can limit kiln production capacity. Simulated

  8. 淮钢套筒窑下烧嘴掺烧焦炉煤气改造%Modification of mixed combustion of coke oven gas for lower combustion chamber in the annular shaft kiln of Huaisteel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张全生

    2014-01-01

    The influence of lime calcinations effected by decreasing value converter gas was analyzed . A new scheme mixing coke oven gas in lower combustion chamber was proposed .And the feasibility of the scheme was analyzed .According to the design requirements , a new type of gas burner was de-signed.Finally the economical efficiency of this scheme was analyzed , which could be make sure the modification scheme was feasible .%分析了煤气热值下降对石灰煅烧造成的影响,提出下燃烧室掺烧焦炉煤气方案,并对该方案进行了可行性分析,根据方案要求设计了一种新型燃气烧嘴,最后对整个方案的经济性进行了分析,保证了该改造方案无论从技术上还是经济上都能够满足要求。

  9. General industrial kilns; Ippan kogyoro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, H.

    1999-07-20

    In this paper, technology trend of general industrial kilns except iron-melting furnaces and incinerators is introduced. NEDO is seeking enterprises carrying out field tests of energy saving type furnaces that recovery exhaust heat by heat accumulating exchanger, preheat air to high temperature and then blow it into furnace, reduce oxygen density in the furnace and burn fuel with air of high temperature. Steel plate type heating furnace, tun dish preheating furnace for continuous casting and mesh belt type brazing furnace are reported as the furnaces using the heat accumulating exchanger. As examples of converting impulse fuel system into a bogie type anneal furnace or an electric furnace for copper alloy quenching, catalyst-free denitrification technology of the steel plate type heating furnace, and vacuum furnace for sintering ceramics, metal powders etc. are introduced. Cement kilns using waste in cement raw material, and vertical limekiln resolving fluorocarbon gas, are reported. As the rest, glass, optical lens, engineering ceramics, low water content and low cement castable, carbon nanometer tube and synthesis of high quality diamond are described. (NEDO)

  10. Operationg experience of a lime kiln. ; D-KILN at Niigata mill. Kaseika rongu kiln no sogyo keiken. ; Hokuetsu niigata D kei KILN ni tuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arano, T. (Hokuetsu Paper Mills, Ltd., Niigata (Japan))

    1992-01-01

    The recaustizing kiln, Niigata Mill, Hokuetsu Paper Making being planned to be extended in the first step of production-increasing plan during a period from 1988 to 1990, its operation started in the green/white liquor clarification facilities in 1988 and, one year later, in the wet long lime kiln (D-KILN) in 1989. In that Mill, the production capacity of recaustizing kiln process is 520Om{sup 3}/D in green liquor clarification and 35OT/D in lime burning. The D-KILN is a wet type long kiln produced by Ahistrom. As for the operational status, the line burning rate in actual operation always surpasses its performance-guaranteeing value of 15OT/D. A continuous operation was actually recorded under a steady production of 180T/D at a burning modulus from 83 to 86%. The initial target of D-KILN is judged to have been nearly achieved by an almost trouble-free stabilized production capacity added with an application of different automatic control systems. 6figs., 3 tabs.

  11. EDXRF analysis of Yanhedian Ru kiln and Jun official kiln porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical components of the body and glaze samples of some Ru porcelains from Yanhedian kiln and Jun official porcelains from Juntai kiln are determined by the technology of Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence(EDXRF) in this work. The difference of the two kiln's glaze and body are analyzed by factor analysis method of Multi-dimensional statistical analysis. The results indicate that Yanhedian Ru porcelains can be well distinguished from Jun official porcelains from Juntai kiln. This evidence once again proves that Jun ceramics and Ru ceramics can be distinguished obviously. (authors)

  12. Oxyfuel combustion in rotary kiln lime production

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Matias; Hökfors, Bodil; Backman, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study the impact of oxyfuel combustion applied to a rotary kiln producing lime. Aspects of interest are product quality, energy efficiency, stack gas composition, carbon dioxide emissions, and possible benefits related to carbon dioxide capture. The method used is based on multicomponent chemical equilibrium calculations to predict process conditions. A generic model of a rotary kiln for lime production was validated against operational data and literature. T...

  13. A feasibility study to determine the functionality of a novel rocking kiln - fluidized bed reactor for the treatment of waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotary kiln has been widely used in incineration and studied by many researches. Solid wastes of various shapes, sizes and heat value can be fed into rotary kiln either in batches or continually. Waste combustion in rotary kiln involves rotation method and the residence time depends on the length and diameter of the rotary kiln and the total stoichiometric air given to the system. Rocking system is another technology used in incinerator. In the rocking system, internal elements in the combustion chamber move to transports and mix the burning waste so that all combustible material in the waste is fully burnt. Another technology in incinerator is the fluidized bed This method uses air to fluidized the sand thus enhancing the combustion process. The total air is controlled in order to obtain a suitable fluidized condition This preliminary study was conducted to study the feasibility of an incinerator system when three components viz. the rotary kiln, rocking system and fluidized bed are combined This research was also conducted to obtain preliminary data parameters of the three components such as the suitable temperature, the angle of the kiln, residence time, total air for fluidization, rocking speed and the devolatilization rate. The samples used in this research were the palm oil kernel shells. The results of the studies showed that the palm oil kernel shells combusted evenly using the new parameters. (Author)

  14. Combustion of large solid fuels in cement rotary kilns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Rooma

    reducing conditions, which increases the tendency for deposit formations in the rotary kiln material inlet end, kiln riser duct and lower cyclone stages. Clinker quality may also be affected by minor compounds from the fuel ashes or from unburned carbon leaving the rotary kiln with the clinker. This thesis...

  15. Design Robust Controller for Rotary Kiln

    OpenAIRE

    Omar D. Hernández-Arboleda; Paula A. Ortiz-Valencia; Jorge A. Herrera-Cuartas

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a robust controller for a rotary kiln. The designed controller is a combination of a fractional PID and linear quadratic regulator (LQR), these are not used to control the kiln until now, in addition robustness criteria are evaluated (gain margin, phase margin, strength gain, rejecting high frequency noise and sensitivity) applied to the entire model (controller-plant), obtaining good results with a frequency range of 0.020 to 90 rad/s, which contributes to t...

  16. Design Robust Controller for Rotary Kiln

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar D. Hernández-Arboleda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a robust controller for a rotary kiln. The designed controller is a combination of a fractional PID and linear quadratic regulator (LQR, these are not used to control the kiln until now, in addition robustness criteria are evaluated (gain margin, phase margin, strength gain, rejecting high frequency noise and sensitivity applied to the entire model (controller-plant, obtaining good results with a frequency range of 0.020 to 90 rad/s, which contributes to the robustness of the system.

  17. Study on raw material origin of celadon porcelain bodies from Zhanggongxiang kiln and Qingliangsi kiln by chemical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) was used to measure seven major chemical composition of celadon porcelain body from Qingliangsi kiln in Baofeng and Zhanggongxiang kiln in Ruzhou. The contents of major chemical composition in each sample were selected to make scattering analysis. Their classes and raw material sources were determined. The conclusion is that the raw material origin of Ru porcelain bodies from Qingliangsi kiln in Baofeng is different from that from Zhanggongxiang kiln in Ruzhou, but they are closely related. Both the Ruguan porcelain bodies and MinRu porcelain bodies from Qingliangsi kiln during the Song Dynasty are basically from the same provenance. (authors)

  18. Surplus biomass through energy efficient kilns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → The magnitude of the national heat demand for drying lumber in kilns is established. → Each part of the total heat consumption is divided and shown between the main drying conditions. → The potential to increase the energy efficiency in kilns with available techniques is presented. → The market demand for the biomass, available with increase kiln energy efficiency, is reviled. -- Abstract: The use of biomass in the European Union has increased since the middle of the 1990s, mostly because of high subsidies and CO2 emission regulation through the Kyoto protocol. The sawmills are huge biomass suppliers to the market; out of the Swedish annual lumber production of 16.4 Mm3, 95% is produced by medium to large-volume sawmills with a lumber quotient of 47%. The remaining part is produced as biomass. An essential part (12%) of the entering timber is used for supply of heat in their production processes, mostly in the substantial drying process. The drying process is the most time and heat consuming process in the sawmill. This study was undertaken to determine the sawmills' national use of energy and potential magnitude of improvements. If the drying process can be made more effective, sawmills' own use of biomass can be decreased and allow a considerably larger supply to the biomass market through processed or unprocessed biomass, heat or electricity production. The national electricity and heat usage when drying the lumber have been analysed by theoretical evaluation and experimental validation at a batch kiln. The main conclusion is that the heat consumption for drying lumber among the Swedish sawmills is 4.9 TW h/year, and with available state-of-the-art techniques it is possible to decrease the national heat consumption by approximately 2.9 TW h. This additional amount of energy corresponds to the market's desire for larger energy supply.

  19. Digital Kilns and Furnaces——the Development Direction of Industrial Kilns and Furnaces in the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaoming; HUANG Zhichu; ZHANG Jiafan

    2006-01-01

    The digital manufacturing theory is applied to the special manufacturing equipments--industrial kilns and furnaces; the concept of digital kilns & furnaces is put forward. The present status of research and application for digital technologies in fuel industrial kilns & furnaces is also introduced. Then, take the case of gas fuel kilns & furnaces, their main key technical issues are discussed. Digital kilns & furnaces as an important constituent of the digital equipments are the crucial base of the digital manufacturing. The value of research on digital kilns & furnaces and the application prospect are undoubted. It will improve product quality, reduce the manpower cost, enhance product market competitive ability, promote comprehensively tradition industries such as ceramics, metallurgy industry,and so on.

  20. 40 CFR 63.1343 - Standards for kilns and in-line kiln/raw mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... limits are on a dry basis, corrected to 7 percent oxygen. All total hydrocarbon (THC) emission limits are... hydrocarbon (THC) limits and monthly for the 50 ppmv THC limit. (b) Existing kilns located at major sources... particulate matter control device is 204 °C (400 °F) or less. (4) Contain total hydrocarbons (THC), from...

  1. 7 CFR 300.2 - Dry Kiln Operator's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in 7 CFR chapter III by the Director of the Office of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (b) The kiln drying schedules specified in the Dry Kiln Operator's Manual... Wood Articles” (7 CFR 319.40-1 through 319.40-11) may be imported into the United States....

  2. Spalling Resistant Bauxite Based Bricks for Cement Kiln

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaohui; Peng Xigao

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1.Scope This standard specifies the term,definition,classification,labeling,technical requirements,test methods,inspection rules,packing,marking,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of spalling resistant bauxite based bricks for cement kiln.This standard is applicable to the spalling resistant bauxite based bricks for cement kiln.

  3. Emissions and Char Quality of Flame-Curtain "Kon Tiki" Kilns for Farmer-Scale Charcoal/Biochar Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Cornelissen

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis of organic waste or woody materials yields charcoal, a stable carbonaceous product that can be used for cooking or mixed into soil, in the latter case often termed "biochar". Traditional kiln technologies for charcoal production are slow and without treatment of the pyrolysis gases, resulting in emissions of gases (mainly methane and carbon monoxide and aerosols that are both toxic and contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. In retort kilns pyrolysis gases are led back to a combustion chamber. This can reduce emissions substantially, but is costly and consumes a considerable amount of valuable ignition material such as wood during start-up. To overcome these problems, a novel type of technology, the Kon-Tiki flame curtain pyrolysis, is proposed. This technology combines the simplicity of the traditional kiln with the combustion of pyrolysis gases in the flame curtain (similar to retort kilns, also avoiding use of external fuel for start-up.A field study in Nepal using various feedstocks showed char yields of 22 ± 5% on a dry weight basis and 40 ± 11% on a C basis. Biochars with high C contents (76 ± 9%; n = 57, average surface areas (11 to 215 m2 g-1, low EPA16-PAHs (2.3 to 6.6 mg kg-1 and high CECs (43 to 217 cmolc/kg(average for all feedstocks, mainly woody shrubs were obtained, in compliance with the European Biochar Certificate (EBC.Mean emission factors for the flame curtain kilns were (g kg-1 biochar for all feedstocks; CO2 = 4300 ± 1700, CO = 54 ± 35, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC = 6 ± 3, CH4 = 30 ± 60, aerosols (PM10 = 11 ± 15, total products of incomplete combustion (PIC = 100 ± 83 and NOx = 0.4 ± 0.3. The flame curtain kilns emitted statistically significantly (p<0.05 lower amounts of CO, PIC and NOx than retort and traditional kilns, and higher amounts of CO2.With benefits such as high quality biochar, low emission, no need for start-up fuel, fast pyrolysis time and, importantly, easy and cheap

  4. Emissions and Char Quality of Flame-Curtain "Kon Tiki" Kilns for Farmer-Scale Charcoal/Biochar Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Gerard; Pandit, Naba Raj; Taylor, Paul; Pandit, Bishnu Hari; Sparrevik, Magnus; Schmidt, Hans Peter

    2016-01-01

    Flame Curtain Biochar Kilns Pyrolysis of organic waste or woody materials yields charcoal, a stable carbonaceous product that can be used for cooking or mixed into soil, in the latter case often termed "biochar". Traditional kiln technologies for charcoal production are slow and without treatment of the pyrolysis gases, resulting in emissions of gases (mainly methane and carbon monoxide) and aerosols that are both toxic and contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. In retort kilns pyrolysis gases are led back to a combustion chamber. This can reduce emissions substantially, but is costly and consumes a considerable amount of valuable ignition material such as wood during start-up. To overcome these problems, a novel type of technology, the Kon-Tiki flame curtain pyrolysis, is proposed. This technology combines the simplicity of the traditional kiln with the combustion of pyrolysis gases in the flame curtain (similar to retort kilns), also avoiding use of external fuel for start-up. Biochar Characteristics A field study in Nepal using various feedstocks showed char yields of 22 ± 5% on a dry weight basis and 40 ± 11% on a C basis. Biochars with high C contents (76 ± 9%; n = 57), average surface areas (11 to 215 m2 g-1), low EPA16—PAHs (2.3 to 6.6 mg kg-1) and high CECs (43 to 217 cmolc/kg)(average for all feedstocks, mainly woody shrubs) were obtained, in compliance with the European Biochar Certificate (EBC). Gas Emission Factors Mean emission factors for the flame curtain kilns were (g kg-1 biochar for all feedstocks); CO2 = 4300 ± 1700, CO = 54 ± 35, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) = 6 ± 3, CH4 = 30 ± 60, aerosols (PM10) = 11 ± 15, total products of incomplete combustion (PIC) = 100 ± 83 and NOx = 0.4 ± 0.3. The flame curtain kilns emitted statistically significantly (pemission, no need for start-up fuel, fast pyrolysis time and, importantly, easy and cheap construction and operation the flame curtain technology represent a promising

  5. Industrial hazardous waste treatment featuring a rotary kiln and grate furnace incinerator: a case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Pan; Ma, Zengyi; Yan, Jianhua; Chi, Yong; Ni, Mingjiang; Cen, Kefa

    2011-10-01

    As one of the fastest developing countries, China is facing severe problems concerning hazardous waste treatment and disposal. This paper presents a new incineration technology and demonstration project in eastern China. The incineration system includes a rotary kiln, a grate furnace for burning out the kiln residue and a flue gas post-combustion chamber. Flue gas treatment and emission control is based on: a quench tower, followed by dry hydrated lime and activated carbon injection, a dual bag filter system, and a wet scrubber. It demonstrated that this incineration technology can effectively dispose of industrial hazardous waste with variable and complex characteristics. Gas emissions meet the demands of the Chinese Environmental Protection Association standard. PMID:21746756

  6. Air flow characteristics in an industrial wood pallet drying kiln

    OpenAIRE

    Tzempelikos, Dimitrios; Filios, Andronikos; Margaris, Dionisios

    2013-01-01

    The improvement and optimization of air-distribution systems in drying kilns contributes to the preservation of the quality, safety and shelf life of perishable products. The present study reports on the numerical solution of airflow within a two dimensional drying kiln enclosure loaded with wooden pallets. The performance of air flow field is examined with and without supply of wooden pallets. Different arrangements of the supplied wooden pallets are investigated as well as the use of a ...

  7. Utilization from Cement Kiln Dust in Removal of Acid Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed E.S.I. Saraya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The growth of industries and day to day changes in human activities has resulted in an increase in the volume and complexity of wastewater to the environment. Textile industry is one of the most water consumers industries of Egypt, thus discharges large amounts of wastewater effluents during processing, especially, in the coloring and washing steps. Cement kiln dust is a solid waste in cement manufacturing. Approximately 2.5-3.0 (6-9% million tons of cement kiln dust is produced annually in Egypt and that cause significant environmental problems. Approach: This study aims to investigate removal of some acid dyes from aqueous solution using cement kiln dust and monitoring the dye in colored cement kiln dust. Solution with 0.4 g L-1 concentration was treated with cement kiln dust until the color of dye disappears. The colored cement kiln residue was separate by filtration and dried. The concentration of dye was measured before and after treatment by UV-Vis spectroscopy as well as after washing of colored residue. Also, the colored residue was investigated with, XRD, IR and DSC techniques as well as the loss on ignition at 450°C. Results: The results found that the cement kiln dust has the power to remove all existing acid dyes and the residue has the same color of dye. When colored residue was washed with water, there was no back diffusion of dye in to water. This may be mainly due to chemical reaction that took place between cement kiln dust and dye. Thus analysis such as IR, XRD and DSC are in agreement with these results. Conclusion: CKD is efficient in the processes of dye removal from aqueous solutions. The interaction between acid dye and CKD is fast (just minutes. So, we suggest using spent CKD for dye removal of waste water.

  8. Stack emissions tests in a brick manufacturing Hoffmann kiln: firing of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaque, C A García; Hässig, A Gonzales; Mendoza, C Acosta

    2010-07-01

    This article reviews the results obtained from stack emissions analysis during the co-firing process of municipal solid waste (MSW) from the municipality of Tabio, Colombia, in a Hoffmann-type brick kiln. MSW (2 tonne) was incinerated and about 18.5 tonnes of clay were processed into brick using one and four kiln chambers, respectively. During the process, the following emissions were investigated: particulate emissions, emissions of SO(2), SO(3), NO( X), metals (Sb, As, Cd, Co, Sn, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Hg), hydrofluoric and hydrochloric acid, hydrocarbons (such as methane) and emission of polychlorinated dioxins and furans. Also, CO emissions were monitored during each test to evaluate the influence of MSW co-firing on that parameter. The observed emissions concentrations proved to be below the threshold values issued by MAVDT, the environmental authority in Colombia, indicating that the emissions were under control during the proposed process. In addition, statistical analysis showed that the emissions were 10-40% below the regulation limit with a confidence of 95%. PMID:20124317

  9. spark chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    A few cosmic rays pass through your body every second of every day, no matter where you are. Look at the spark chamber to your right – every flash is the track made by a cosmic ray from outer space. The spark chamber is filled with a special gas mixture. Cosmic rays knock electrons out of the atoms in the gas. These electrons accelerate towards high voltage metal strips layered throughout the chamber, creating sparks like little bolts of lightning.

  10. spark chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    A few cosmic rays pass through your body every second of every day, no matter where you are. Look at the spark chamber to your right – every flash is the track made by a cosmic ray from outer space. The spark chamber is filled with a special gas mixture. Cosmic rays knock electrons out of the atoms in the gas. These electrons accelerate towards high voltage metal strips layered throughout the chamber, creating sparks like little bolts of lightning.

  11. Wood residues as fuel source for lime kilns. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip, R.J.; Azarniouch, M.K.

    1982-11-01

    Despite flow problems encountered when feeding wet hog fuel with mill-produced lime mud directly into the cold end of a pilot kiln, a decrease in fossil fuel consumption of approximately 20%, based on long term average product flow rates, was obtained. The flow problems consisted of material adherence onto the kiln wall, increased dusting and feed-end losses. The lime produced with hog fuel showed higher reactivity than lime produced without hog fuel. Upon causticizing a high-sulphidity mill green liquor, the equilibrium causticizing efficiency was not affected by the use of wood residues in calcining. However, there was some deterioration in the settling and filtration characteristics of the lime mud due to the presence of hog fuel contaminants. The normal fuel requirement per ton of lime in mill kilns is only about one third of that in the pilot kiln. Because most of the problems and limitations encountered in the pilot kiln were associated with the very high mass ratio of hog fuel to lime mud required to achieve even 20% replacement, fossil fuel substitution of 30 to 50% might be attainable in commercial-scale lime kilns. The ultimate goal of complete or near-complete substitution of fossil fuel by wood residues can be achieved by additional firing of dried (moisture content 10-15%) fines from the hot end of the kiln. Since this latter type of fuel is substantially more costly than wet, non-comminuted hog fuel, its usage should be minimized. 14 refs., 9 figs., 11 tabs.

  12. Ussing Chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhout, J.; Wortelboer, H.; Verhoeckx, K.

    2015-01-01

    The Ussing chamber system is named after the Danish zoologist Hans Ussing, who invented the device in the 1950s to measure the short-circuit current as an indicator of net ion transport taking place across frog skin (Ussing and Zerahn, Acta Physiol Scand 23:110-127, 1951). Ussing chambers are increa

  13. Kiln-drying hardwood dimension parts. Research paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, W.T.; Schroeder, J.G.

    1980-12-01

    The level of mill rejects of furniture cuttings dried noted in this investigation is obviously too high to be tolerable. Crook in the long cuttings and cup in the wide cuttings were the major reasons for rejection. Other shorter and narrower cuttings had a much lower rejection rate--one that probably could be tolerated. Although some end checking occurred, and there was some evidence that end coating would reduce this occurrence, end checking caused no rejections. Other drying defects, such as honeycomb or surface checking, were practically nonexistent regardless of kiln schedule. Because kiln schedule did not significantly affect quality, the use of accelerated drying schedules for drying interior frame parts apparently is feasible. Regardless of the kiln schedule used, successful commercial drying of long or wide cuttings, or of both, from lumber cut from small, low-grade bolts will require special measures to control warp. This may also be true for similar cuttings from standard No. 2 Common lumber.

  14. Utilization from Cement Kiln Dust in Removal of Acid Dyes

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed E.S.I. Saraya; Mahmoud E.S. Aboul-Fetouh

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: The growth of industries and day to day changes in human activities has resulted in an increase in the volume and complexity of wastewater to the environment. Textile industry is one of the most water consumers industries of Egypt, thus discharges large amounts of wastewater effluents during processing, especially, in the coloring and washing steps. Cement kiln dust is a solid waste in cement manufacturing. Approximately 2.5-3.0 (6-9%) million tons of cement kiln dust is pr...

  15. Wire Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1986-01-01

    Two wire chambers made originally for the R807 Experiment at CERN's Intersecting Storage Rings. In 1986 they were used for the PS 201 experiment (Obelix Experiment) at LEAR, the Low Energy Antiproton Ring. The group of researchers from Turin, using the chambers at that time, changed the acquisition system using for the first time 8 bit (10 bit non linear) analog to digital conversion for incoming signals from the chambers. The acquisition system was controlled by 54 CPU and 80 digital signal processors. The power required for all the electronics was 40 kW. For the period, this system was one of the most powerful on-line apparatus in the world. The Obelix Experiment was closed in 1996. To find more about how a wire chamber works, see the description for object CERN-OBJ-DE-038.

  16. Vacuum chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed description is given of the vacuum chamber of the so-called experimental equipment DEMAS (double-arm-time-of-flight spectrometer) at the heavy ion accelerator U-400 at the JINR-Dubna. (author)

  17. Impact of kiln thermal energy demand and false air on cement kiln flue gas CO2 capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arachchige, Udara S.P.R.; Kawan, Dinesh; Tokheim, Lars-Andre [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); Melaaen, Morten C. [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); (Tel-Tek, Porsgrunn (Norway)

    2013-07-01

    The present study is focused on the effect of the specific thermal energy demand and the false air factor on carbon capture applied to cement kiln exhaust gases. The carbon capture process model was developed and implemented in Aspen Plus. The model was developed for flue gases from a typical cement clinker manufacturing plant. The specific thermal energy demand as well as the false air factor of the kiln system were varied in order to determine the effect on CO2 capture plant performance, such as the solvent regeneration energy demand. In general, an increase in the mentioned kiln system factors increases the regeneration energy demand. The reboiler energy demand is calculated as 3270, 3428 and 3589 kJ/kg clinker for a specific thermal energy of 3000, 3400 and 3800 kJ/kg clinker, respectively. Setting the false air factor to 25, 50 or 70% gives a reboiler energy demand of 3428, 3476, 3568 kJ/kg clinker, respectively.

  18. Analysis of the elemental composition of Tang Sancai from the four major kilns in China using EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Sancai was widely used in the Tang Dynasty, and the study of this pottery provides information about the sociocultural aspects of the Tang people. To understand the characteristics of the different kilns for the production of Tang Sancai, Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) was used to analyze 174 Tang Sancai shards. These specimens were selected from four production centers in the Tang Dynasty, namely, the Huangye Kiln, the Huangbu Kiln, the Xing Kiln and the Liquanfang Kiln. The results demonstrate that the clay bodies from different kilns have varying compositions, and each kiln has a unique elemental fingerprint. Of the 17 elements analyzed, TiO2 and Fe2O3 had distinctly different contents in the samples from the Huangye Kiln and the Huangbu Kiln. For the Xing Kiln and the Huangye Kiln, the characteristic elements are Fe2O3 and MnO. For the Xing Kiln and the Huangbu Kiln, the most dissimilar elements are TiO2, MnO and ZnO. When the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was employed, the data points for the Huangye Kiln, the Huangbu Kiln and the Xing Kiln fell into distinct areas. For the Liquanfang Kiln, the contents of Al2O3 and Fe2O3 in white-bodied samples are different from those of other colors, which indicates that at least two types of raw materials were used. When compared with the white-bodied samples from the other three kilns, the white-bodied samples from the Liquanfang Kiln were found to have compositions similar to those of the samples from the Huangye Kiln, rather than the Huangbu Kiln, although the latter is much closer geographically than the former. All the obtained data provide valuable scientific criteria for provenance identification for Tang Sancai of unknown origin

  19. Analysis of the elemental composition of Tang Sancai from the four major kilns in China using EDXRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bo; Liu, Long; Feng, Song-Lin; Xu, Qing; Feng, Xiang-Qian

    2014-01-01

    Tang Sancai was widely used in the Tang Dynasty, and the study of this pottery provides information about the sociocultural aspects of the Tang people. To understand the characteristics of the different kilns for the production of Tang Sancai, Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) was used to analyze 174 Tang Sancai shards. These specimens were selected from four production centers in the Tang Dynasty, namely, the Huangye Kiln, the Huangbu Kiln, the Xing Kiln and the Liquanfang Kiln. The results demonstrate that the clay bodies from different kilns have varying compositions, and each kiln has a unique elemental fingerprint. Of the 17 elements analyzed, TiO2 and Fe2O3 had distinctly different contents in the samples from the Huangye Kiln and the Huangbu Kiln. For the Xing Kiln and the Huangye Kiln, the characteristic elements are Fe2O3 and MnO. For the Xing Kiln and the Huangbu Kiln, the most dissimilar elements are TiO2, MnO and ZnO. When the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was employed, the data points for the Huangye Kiln, the Huangbu Kiln and the Xing Kiln fell into distinct areas. For the Liquanfang Kiln, the contents of Al2O3 and Fe2O3 in white-bodied samples are different from those of other colors, which indicates that at least two types of raw materials were used. When compared with the white-bodied samples from the other three kilns, the white-bodied samples from the Liquanfang Kiln were found to have compositions similar to those of the samples from the Huangye Kiln, rather than the Huangbu Kiln, although the latter is much closer geographically than the former. All the obtained data provide valuable scientific criteria for provenance identification for Tang Sancai of unknown origin.

  20. Analysis of the elemental composition of Tang Sancai from the four major kilns in China using EDXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Bo; Liu, Long [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Radiation and Nuclear Energy Technology, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Feng, Song-Lin; Xu, Qing [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Radiation and Nuclear Energy Technology, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Feng, Xiang-Qian, E-mail: fengxq@ihep.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Radiation and Nuclear Energy Technology, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Tang Sancai was widely used in the Tang Dynasty, and the study of this pottery provides information about the sociocultural aspects of the Tang people. To understand the characteristics of the different kilns for the production of Tang Sancai, Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) was used to analyze 174 Tang Sancai shards. These specimens were selected from four production centers in the Tang Dynasty, namely, the Huangye Kiln, the Huangbu Kiln, the Xing Kiln and the Liquanfang Kiln. The results demonstrate that the clay bodies from different kilns have varying compositions, and each kiln has a unique elemental fingerprint. Of the 17 elements analyzed, TiO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} had distinctly different contents in the samples from the Huangye Kiln and the Huangbu Kiln. For the Xing Kiln and the Huangye Kiln, the characteristic elements are Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MnO. For the Xing Kiln and the Huangbu Kiln, the most dissimilar elements are TiO{sub 2}, MnO and ZnO. When the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was employed, the data points for the Huangye Kiln, the Huangbu Kiln and the Xing Kiln fell into distinct areas. For the Liquanfang Kiln, the contents of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} in white-bodied samples are different from those of other colors, which indicates that at least two types of raw materials were used. When compared with the white-bodied samples from the other three kilns, the white-bodied samples from the Liquanfang Kiln were found to have compositions similar to those of the samples from the Huangye Kiln, rather than the Huangbu Kiln, although the latter is much closer geographically than the former. All the obtained data provide valuable scientific criteria for provenance identification for Tang Sancai of unknown origin.

  1. 40 CFR 63.1221 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns? 63.1221 Section 63.1221 Protection of Environment... Kilns, and Lightweight Aggregate Kilns § 63.1221 What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns? (a) Emission and hazardous waste feed limits for existing...

  2. Research on performance of cement with kiln dust-activated coal gangue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun Mei Wang; Jing Wang; Li Rong Yang [Hebei University of Science and Technology, Tangshan (China)

    2009-07-01

    The setting times and strength of cement substituting kiln dust-activated coal gangue for part of clinker was tested. The performance of sulphate resistance and restraining alkali silica reaction (ASR) of cement with 30% kiln dust-activated coal gangue was studied. The results indicate: the setting times of cement mixed with kiln dust-activated coal gangue is delayed and the early strength and later strength of cement with 10% kiln dust-activated coal gangue is improved to some extent, but the strength is reduced with farther increasing the content of kiln dust-activated coal gangue that replaces clinker, and obviously decreased when content of kiln dust-activated coal gangue is 30%; the performance of resisting sulphate of cement with 30% kiln dust-activated coal gangue is better enhanced; ASR is restrained to some extent.

  3. USE OF SOLAR KILN FOR THE DRYING OF SAWN WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Martins Stangerlin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the use of a solar kiln for the drying of woods of Eucalyptus tereticornis, Eucalyptus saligna and Corymbia citriodora, as well as comparing such a methodology to the air seasoning practice. In order to do so, it was built a solar kiln composed basically of wood structures, roofing with a double layer of PVC, sunlight internal collector and hot air circulation systems. The efficiency of the solar kiln was compared to the air seasoning in drying time and wood quality. In the same drying schedule, each species was submitted to the two drying approaches using a load of 55 boards in each method. Results indicated that the solar kiln was more efficient in drying time, around 2 to 5 times faster and final moisture content lower than the air drying. Adequate wood quality was observed in both drying methods, and no defects such as cup or collapse were observed. Furthermore, the correct piling up and drying process provided minimization of defects such as bow. The incidence of crook, end and surface checks were not significantly distinct between solar drying and air seasoning for the three woods studied.

  4. 7 CFR 305.28 - Kiln sterilization treatment schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Kiln sterilization treatment schedule. 305.28 Section 305.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... sterilization treatment schedule. T404-b-4 Dry bulb temperature( °F) Wet bulb depression( °F)...

  5. TRANSIENT SUPPRESSION PACKAGING FOR REDUCED EMISSIONS FROM ROTARY KILN INCINERATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were performed on a 73 kW rotary kiln incinerator simulator to determine whether innovative waste packaging designs might reduce transient emissions of products of incomplete combustion due to batch charging of containerized liquid surrogate waste compounds bound on g...

  6. Charcoal kiln relicts - a favorable site for tree growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buras, Allan; Hirsch, Florian; van der Maaten, Ernst; Takla, Melanie; Räbiger, Christin; Cruz Garcia, Roberto; Schneider, Anna; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas; Wilmking, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Soils with incompletely combusted organic material (aka 'black carbon') are considered fertile for plant growth. Considerable enrichment of soils with black carbon is known from Chernozems, from anthropogenic induced altering of soils like the 'Terra Preta' in South America (e.g. Glaser, 2001), and from charcoal kiln relicts. Recent studies have reported a high spatial frequency of charcoal kiln relicts in the Northeastern German lowlands (Raab et al., 2015), which today are often overgrown by forest plantations. In this context the question arises whether these sites are favorable for tree growth. Here we compare the performance of 22 Pinus sylvestris individuals - a commonly used tree species in forestry - growing on charcoal kiln relicts with 22 control trees. Growth performance (height growth and diameter growth) of the trees was determined using dendrochronological techniques, i.e. standard ring-width measurements were undertaken on each two cores per tree and tree height was measured in the field. Several other wood properties such as annual wood density, average resin content, as well as wood chemistry were analyzed. Our results indicate that trees growing on charcoal kiln relicts grow significantly less and have a significantly lower wood density in comparison with control trees. Specific chemical components such as Manganese as well as resin contents were significantly higher in kiln trees. These results highlight that tree growth on charcoal kiln relicts is actually hampered instead of enhanced. Possibly this is a combined effect of differing physical soil properties which alter soil water accessibility for plants and differing chemical soil properties which may negatively affect tree growth either if toxic limits are surpassed or if soil nutrient availability is decreased. Additional soil analyses with respect to soil texture and soil chemistry shall reveal further insight into this hypothesis. Given the frequent distribution of charcoal kiln relicts in

  7. PREPP [Process Experimental Pilot Plant] rotary kiln seals: Problem and resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) is a facility designed to demonstrate processing of low level chemical and transuranic hazardous waste. The plant includes equipment for handling the incoming waste containers, shredding, incineration and cooling the waste, grouting the residue and scrubbing and filtration of the off gas. The process incinerator is a rotary kiln approximately 8-1/2 ft diameter and 25 ft long with a rotary seal assembly at each end. Each seal assembly consists of a primary, secondary and tertiary seal, with a positive air pressure between primary and secondary seals to prevent out-leakage from the kiln. The kiln operates at 0.5 inch water negative pressure. From the very outset the kiln seals exhibited excessive drag which taxed the kiln drive capacity and excessive in-leakage which limited kiln temperature. An engineering evaluation concluded that the original seals supplied by the kiln vendor could not accommodate expansion and centerline shift of the kiln resulting from heatup of the kiln and its support system. A totally new concept kiln seal design has been generated to replace the (modified) original seals. This new seal system has been designed to provide a very tight long lasting seal which will accommodate the 1.5 inch axial shift and up to 1 inch radial movement of the kiln shell. Design lifetime of the seal is 10,000 operating hours between major maintenance services while maintaining an acceptable leak rate hot or cold, rotating or stopped. The design appears adaptable to any size kiln and is suitable for retrofit to existing kilns. A one-third scale prototype seal assembly is being built to verify the concept prior to construction of the 10 ft diameter seals for the PREPP rotary kiln. 4 figs

  8. Cement Kiln Flue Gas Recovery Scrubber Project; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cement Kiln Flue Gas Recovery Scrubber Project was a technical success and demonstrated the following: CKD can be used successfully as the sole reagent for removing SO2 from cement kiln flue gas, with removal efficiencies of 90 percent or greater; Removal efficiencies for HCl and VOCs were approximately 98 percent and 70 percent, respectively; Particulate emissions were low, in the range of 0.005 to 0.007 grains/standard cubic foot; The treated CKD sorbent can be recycled to the kiln after its potassium content has been reduced in the scrubber, thereby avoiding the need for landfilling; The process can yield fertilizer-grade K2SO4, a saleable by-product; and Waste heat in the flue gas can provide the energy required for evaporation and crystallization in the by-product recovery operation. The demonstration program established the feasibility of using the Recovery Scrubber(trademark) for desulfurization of flue gas from cement kilns, with generally favorable economics, assuming tipping fees are available for disposal of ash from biomass combustion. The process appears to be suitable for commercial use on any type of cement kiln. EPA has ruled that CKD is a nonhazardous waste, provided the facility meets Performance Standards for the Management of CKD (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1999d). Therefore, regulatory drivers for the technology focus more on reduction of air pollutants and pollution prevention, rather than on treating CKD as a hazardous waste. Application of the Recovery Scrubbe(trademark) concept to other waste-disposal operations, where pollution and waste reductions are needed, appears promising

  9. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Was used in ISR (Intersecting Storage Ring) split field magnet experiment. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  10. Robert Chambers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Biekart (Kees); D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractProfessor Robert Chambers is a Research Associate at the Institute of Development Studies (IDS), University of Sussex (Brighton, UK), where he has been based for the last 40 years, including as Professorial Research Fellow. He became involved in the field of development management in the

  11. Ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ionization chamber X-ray detector is described. It comprises a flat cathode sheet parallel to an anode which has a perforated insulating layer on its surface. An open grid, a thin perforated metal sheet is disposed on the insulating layer - the perforations of the layer and sheet are aligned. There is a detector gas and means for maintaining the grid at an electric potential between that of the anode and cathode and for measuring the current flow from the anode to the cathode. The grid shields the anode from the electric field produced by the positive ions which flow towards the cathode and this permits an independent measurement of the electron current flowing to the anode; even when the X-ray pulse length is not much shorter than the ion drift time. The recovery time of the ionization chamber is thus decreased by several orders of magnitude over previous chambers. The grid will normally be fixed to the anode and by shielding the anode from the cathode electric field, tends to eliminate capacitive microphone currents which would otherwise flow in the anode circuit. (U.K.)

  12. Composite Control of Precalciner Exit Temperature in Cement Rotary Kiln

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晨; 诸静

    2003-01-01

    A composite control strategy for the precalciner exit temperature in cement kiln is introduced based on a mathematical model. In this model, the raw meal flow, coal powder flow and wind flow are taken as three input variables, the clinker fow and exit teperature of cement kiln are output variables, and other influencing factors are considered as disturbance. A composite control system is synthesied by integrating self-learning PID, fuzzy and feedforward function into a combined controller, and the arithmetics for the self-learning PID controller, fuzzy controller and feedforward controller are elaborated respectively. The control strategy has been realized by software in real practice at cement factory. Application results show that the composite control technology is superior to the general PID control in control effect, and is suitable to the industrial process control with slow parameter variation, nonlinearity and uncertainty.

  13. Performance of rotary kiln reactor for the elephant grass pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Conto, D; Silvestre, W P; Baldasso, C; Godinho, M

    2016-10-01

    The influence of process conditions (rotary speed/temperature) on the performance of a rotary kiln reactor for non-catalytic pyrolysis of a perennial grass (elephant grass) was investigated. The product yields, the production of non-condensable gases as well as the biochar properties were evaluated. The maximum H2 yield was close to that observed for catalytic pyrolysis processes, while the bio-oil yield was higher than reported for pyrolysis of other biomass in rotary kiln reactors. A H2/CO ratio suitable for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) was obtained. The biochars presented an alkaline pH (above 10) and interesting contents of nutrients, as well as low electrical conductivity, indicating a high potential as soil amendment. PMID:27367811

  14. Modeling and optimization of rotary kiln treating EAF dust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust from steel industries is listed by the United Sates EPA as a hazardous waste under the regulations of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act due to the presence of lead, cadmium and chlorine. The disposal of the approximately 650000 t of EAF dust per year in the U.S. and Canada is an expensive and unresolved problem for the majority of steel companies. The Waelz process has been considered as the best process for treating the EAF dust. A process model, combined thermodynamic modeling with heat transfer calculations, has been developed to simulate the chemical reactions, mass and heat transfer and heat balance in the kiln. The injection of air into the slag and the temperature profile along the kiln have been modeled. The effect of (CaO+MgO)/SiO2 on the solidus temperature of slag has also been predicted and discussed. Some optimized results have been presented.

  15. Sulfur Release during Alternative fuels Combustion in Cement Rotary Kilns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortada Mut, Maria del Mar

    are of high importance for SO 2 release because it is shown that introducing the same total amount of gas, the highest reducing agent concentration fo r a short period released a higher total SO 2 amount compared to the lowest concentration during a long period. A mathematical reaction based model...... but the effect of sulfur content in the bed cannot be predicted. Further development regarding particle motion according to the rotational speed may be needed. Furthermore, a model for predicting the tendency of build-ups for a kiln system is developed based on the prediction of SO 3 and Cl concentrations...... total SO 2 amount compared to the lowest concentration during a long period. A mathematical reaction based model for predicting sulfur release caused by volatiles from wood particles fired in the material kiln inlet is developed and evaluated against pilot scale data, which shows that the model follows...

  16. Study of the compositional differences among different kilns' Sancai of Tang Dynasty by SRXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sancai (Tri-color pottery) of Tang Dynasty is a kind of glaze pottery. The Sancai is famous for its distinctive color in China. The compositional differences among those kinds of kilns' Sancai haven't been studied until now. In this work SRXRF was used to analyze the specimens of two important Sancai kilns, i.e. Huangye and Huangbu kilns and to study the compositional differences among the two kinds of samples in the body. The contents of K, Rb, Sr, Zn and Zr in the body from Huangye kiln's are higher than those from Huangbu kiln's, contrary to the body contents of Ti, Mn, Fe and Y. Cr contents in both of the kilns' samples are comparable. The study contributes much to characterization study and provenience study of different kinds of Sancai of Tang Dynasty

  17. Cement kiln dust: a potential feed ingredient for livestock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, W.E.

    1978-01-01

    Cement kiln dust (composition given) from a manufacturing plant in Georgia stimulated growth and improved feed efficiencies of steers provided a basal complete diet formulated to satisfy all known requirements. Carcasses of steers fed kiln dust had more fat over the ribs and a higher marbling score than controls; organ wts. were not different from controls. Reticulorumen pH was increased from 6.21 to 6.80 by the dust and the pH values of the abomasal. small-intestinal, and cecal contents were also increased. The ration containing kiln dust was higher in Pb, As, and Se than the control diet. Kidneys and livers from all steers contained no As or Hg; their Cd content was not affected by diet; kidneys of dust-fed steers had elevated, high-normal levels of Pb, but Pb of the liver was not affected; Se levels of kidney were elevated by feeding the dust, but the basal ration was marginal in Se, and no signs of Se toxicity were observed.

  18. Impact of kiln thermal energy demand and false air on cement kiln flue gas CO2 capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udara S. P. R. Arachchige, Dinesh Kawan, Lars-André Tokheim, Morten C. Melaaen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is focused on the effect of the specific thermal energy demand and the false air factor on carbon capture applied to cement kiln exhaust gases. The carbon capture process model was developed and implemented in Aspen Plus. The model was developed for flue gases from a typical cement clinker manufacturing plant. The specific thermal energy demand as well as the false air factor of the kiln system were varied in order to determine the effect on CO2 capture plant performance, such as the solvent regeneration energy demand. In general, an increase in the mentioned kiln system factors increases the regeneration energy demand. The reboiler energy demand is calculated as 3270, 3428 and 3589 kJ/kg clinker for a specific thermal energy of 3000, 3400 and 3800 kJ/kg clinker, respectively. Setting the false air factor to 25, 50 or 70% gives a reboiler energy demand of 3428, 3476, 3568 kJ/kg clinker, respectively.

  19. Chamber transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OLSON,CRAIG L.

    2000-05-17

    Heavy ion beam transport through the containment chamber plays a crucial role in all heavy ion fusion (HIF) scenarios. Here, several parameters are used to characterize the operating space for HIF beams; transport modes are assessed in relation to evolving target/accelerator requirements; results of recent relevant experiments and simulations of HIF transport are summarized; and relevant instabilities are reviewed. All transport options still exist, including (1) vacuum ballistic transport, (2) neutralized ballistic transport, and (3) channel-like transport. Presently, the European HIF program favors vacuum ballistic transport, while the US HIF program favors neutralized ballistic transport with channel-like transport as an alternate approach. Further transport research is needed to clearly guide selection of the most attractive, integrated HIF system.

  20. A Thermoelectric Waste-Heat-Recovery System for Portland Cement Rotary Kilns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qi; Li, Peng; Cai, Lanlan; Zhou, Pingwang; Tang, Di; Zhai, Pengcheng; Zhang, Qingjie

    2015-06-01

    Portland cement is produced by one of the most energy-intensive industrial processes. Energy consumption in the manufacture of Portland cement is approximately 110-120 kWh ton-1. The cement rotary kiln is the crucial equipment used for cement production. Approximately 10-15% of the energy consumed in production of the cement clinker is directly dissipated into the atmosphere through the external surface of the rotary kiln. Innovative technology for energy conservation is urgently needed by the cement industry. In this paper we propose a novel thermoelectric waste-heat-recovery system to reduce heat losses from cement rotary kilns. This system is configured as an array of thermoelectric generation units arranged longitudinally on a secondary shell coaxial with the rotary kiln. A mathematical model was developed for estimation of the performance of waste heat recovery. Discussions mainly focus on electricity generation and energy saving, taking a Φ4.8 × 72 m cement rotary kiln as an example. Results show that the Bi2Te3-PbTe hybrid thermoelectric waste-heat-recovery system can generate approximately 211 kW electrical power while saving 3283 kW energy. Compared with the kiln without the thermoelectric recovery system, the kiln with the system can recover more than 32.85% of the energy that used to be lost as waste heat through the kiln surface.

  1. Study of Yue kiln ancient celadon by SRXRF and statistic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    20 elements of eighty ancient celadon samples were analyzed by using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF). V, Ni, Zn and Mn display variable dynastic orderliness. Results of statistic analysis show that Yue kiln ancient celadon has distinctively born character on different dynasty and kiln. The statistic analysis results of SRXRF and NAA are similar

  2. Study on provenance of Ru porcelain in yanhedian kiln and official jun porcelain by EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To understand the provenance relationship of Ru porcelain in Yanhedian kiln and official Jun porcelain , with energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF) measured 56 Ru porcelain in Yanhedian kiln and official Jun porcelain samples of chemical composition of the main volume, analysis results show: Yanhedian kiln Ru porcelain bodies Al2O3 average content Outpaces official Jun porcelain bodies, SiO2, K2O average below official Jun porcelain bodies; Yanhedian kiln Ru porcelain glazes Al2O3 average content Outpaces official Jun porcelain glaze, SiO2, CaO average significantly lower than Jun glaze, two primary body and glaze on porcelain to chemical composition of the averages vary. A display of the peacekeeping two-dimensional scatter analysis supplies of official Jun porcelain bodies focused, Yanhedia kiln Ru porcelain bodies birth supplies comparatively, Jun and Yanhedian kiln Ru porcelain bodies material habitats near but not identical. The official Jun porcelain glazes origin focused, glaze formula changes less, and Yanhedia kiln Ru porcelain glazes origin and formula are scattered. Therefore, Yanhedian kiln Ru porcelain samples and the Official Jun porcelain samples can be commendably differentiated by EDXRF testing and chemical composition scatter analysis. (authors)

  3. Leaching from waste incineration bottom ashes treated in a rotary kiln

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyks, Jiri; Nesterov, Igor; Mogensen, Erhardt;

    2011-01-01

    Leaching from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash treated in a rotary kiln was quantified using a combination of lab-scale leaching experiments and geochemical modelling. Thermal treatment in the rotary kiln had no significant effect on the leaching of Al, Ba, Ca, Mg, Si, Sr, Zn, sulfate...

  4. Modification of Waelz kiln processing of La Oroya zinc ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holloway, P.C.; Etsell, T.H.; Murland, A.L.

    2008-05-15

    La Oroya zinc ferrite (19.5% Zn, 26.6% Fe, 0.052% Ga, 0.075% In) was roasted with coal under conditions more oxidizing than normally used in a Waelz kiln, and the roasted residues were leached with 200 g/L H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Overall zinc recoveries of up to 97% were achieved, with 35% of the zinc reporting to the fume after roasting at 1,100{sup o}C with a bituminous coal addition of 20%. Under these conditions, 93.2% of the Cd, 13.4% of the Cu, 33% of the Ga, 61% of the In and 18.2% of the Pb were recovered either in the fume or in the leach solution. At 2006 metal prices, the value of the recovered metals is comparable to that obtained from commercial Waelz kiln processing of this residue. Zinc in the franklinite (ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) mineral is reduced to zinc vapor, and, after oxidation, some of the zinc is found as ZnO or as Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} in the roasted residue. Iron reacts to form either hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) or magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), with no metallic iron detected in the roasted residue, and less than 2% of the iron is solubilized during leaching. The residue produced after roasting and leaching is, therefore, much more stable than the residue from Waelz kiln processing and should be suitable for disposal in a landfill.

  5. Carpet As An Alternative Fuel in Cement Kilns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew J Realff

    2007-02-06

    Approximately 5 billion lbs of carpet will be removed from buildings in the US each year for the foreseeable future. This carpet is potentially a valuable resource because it contains plastic in the face of the carpet that can be re-used. However, there are many different types of carpet, and at least four major different plastics used to make the face. The face is woven through a backing fabric and held in place by a “glue” that is in most cases a latex cross-linked polymer which is heavily loaded with chalk (calcium carbonate). This backing has almost no value as a recycled material. In addition, carpet is a bulky material that is difficult to handle and ship and must be kept dry. It would be of significant benefit to the public if this stream of material could be kept out of landfills and some of its potential value unlocked by having high volume alternatives for recycled carpet use. The research question that this project investigated was whether carpet could be used as a fuel in a cement kiln. If this could be done successfully, there is significant capacity in the US cement industry to absorb carpet and use it as a fuel. Cement kilns could serve as a way to stimulate carpet collection and then side streams be taken for higher value uses. The research demonstrated that carpet was technically a suitable fuel, but was unable to conclude that the overall system could be economically feasible at this time with the constraints placed on the project by using an existing system for feeding the kiln. Collection and transportation were relatively straightforward, using an existing collector who had the capacity to collect high volumes of material. The shredding of the carpet into a suitable form for feeding was more challenging, but these problems were successfully overcome. The feeding of the carpet into the kiln was not successfully carried out reliably. The overall economics were not positive under the prevailing conditions of costs for transportation and size

  6. Coal acid mine drainage treatment using cement kiln dust

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar Alberto Martínez; Jorge Iván Tobón; Juan Guillermo Morales

    2014-01-01

    Sulphurs are present in different rocks. During mining activities and the sulphur removal processes Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) may be produced, by sulphate ions (SO4 2-) in solution. AMDs are the main source of pollution from mining operations and in Colombia their discharge into natural bodies of water must comply with national environmental regulations (pH between 5 and 9). Cement Kiln Dust (CKD), with calcium carbonate as its main component, from a Cementos Argos S.A. plant was used to neutr...

  7. Ceramic production in medieval Yemen: the Yadhghat kiln site.

    OpenAIRE

    Rougeulle, Axelle

    2007-01-01

    While excavating the medieval trade entrepôt of Sharma on the coast of Hadramawt (Yemen), a survey in the hinterland led to the discovery of a contemporary ceramic production centre near the village of Yadhghat in the Wâdî Jerba. The site is mostly destroyed except for a dozen small buildings and several heaps of ceramic shards associated with traces of bone-fire kilns. Excavations yielded thousands of fragments of a typical coarse ware which was found in quantity at Sharma. The site also del...

  8. Method and apparatus for maximizing throughput of indirectly heated rotary kilns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, Ralph L; Smoot, Douglas L.; Hatfield, Kent E

    2016-06-21

    An apparatus and method for achieving improved throughput capacity of indirectly heated rotary kilns used to produce pyrolysis products such as shale oils or coal oils that are susceptible to decomposition by high kiln wall temperatures is disclosed. High throughput is achieved by firing the kiln such that optimum wall temperatures are maintained beginning at the point where the materials enter the heating section of the kiln and extending to the point where the materials leave the heated section. Multiple high velocity burners are arranged such that combustion products directly impact on the area of the kiln wall covered internally by the solid material being heated. Firing rates for the burners are controlled to maintain optimum wall temperatures.

  9. Kiln process impact of alternative solid fuel combustion in the cement kiln main burner - Mathematical modelling and full-scale experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Ariyaratne, Hiromi Wijesinghe; Melaaen, Morten Christian; Tokheim, Lars André; Manjula, Edirisinghe V. P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Increased use of alternative fuels in cement kilns is a trend in the world. However, replacing fossil fuels like coal with different alternative fuels will give various impacts on the overall kiln process due to the fuel characteristics. Hence, it is important to know to what extent the fossil fuels can be replaced by different alternative fuels without severely changing process conditions, product quality or emissions. In the present study, a mass and energy balance for the combustion of dif...

  10. Combustion of large solid fuels in cement rotary kilns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Anders Rooma

    2012-03-15

    The cement industry has a significant interest in replacing fossil fuels with alternative fuels in order to minimize production costs and reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. These new alternative fuels are in particular solid fuels such as refuse derived fuel (RDF), tire-derived fuel (TDF), meat and bone meal (MBM), waste wood, sewage sludge, paper and plastics. This thesis provides an insight into the utilization of solid alternative fuels in the material inlet end of rotary kilns. This position is interesting because it allows utilization of large fuel particles, thereby eliminating the need for an expensive shredding of the fuels. The challenge, however, is that the solid fuels will be mixed into the cement raw materials, which is likely to affect process stability and clinker quality, as described above. The mixing of fuels and raw materials was studied experimentally in a pilot-scale rotary drum and was found to be a fast process, reaching steady state within few drum revolutions. Thus, heat transfer by conduction from the cement raw materials to the fuel particles is a major heat transfer mechanism rather than convection or radiation from the freeboard gas above the material bed. Consequently, the temperature of the cement raw materials becomes a factor of great importance for heating the fuel particles. Combustion of different alternative fuels has been investigated experimentally in a pilot-scale rotary furnace under conditions similar to those in the material inlet end of cement rotary kilns. The main focus was on tire rubber and pine wood which are relevant fuels in this context. Heating, drying and devolatilization of alternative fuels are fast processes that primarily depend on heat transfer and fuel particle size. Devolatilization of a large wood or tire particle with a thickness of 20 mm at 900 deg. C is for example around 2 minutes. By contrast, char oxidation is a slow process which may greatly reduce the amounts of solid fuels to be utilized in the

  11. Development of a three-dimensional CFD model for rotary lime kilns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lixin Tao; Blom, Roger (FS Dynamics Sweden AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Nordgren, Daniel (Innventia, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    In the calcium loop of the recovery cycle in a Kraft process of pulp and paper production, rotary lime kilns are used to convert the lime mud, mainly CaCO3, back to quick lime, CaO, for re-use in the causticizing process. The lime kilns are one of the major energy consumption devices for paper and pulp industry. Because of the rising oil price and new emission limits, the pulp mills have been forced to look for alternative fuels for their lime kilns. One interesting alternative to oil, often easily available at pulp mills, is biofuels such as sawdust and bark. However the practical kiln operation often encounters some difficulties because of the uncertainties around the biofuel impact on the lime kiln performance. A deeper understanding of the flame characteristics is required when shifting from oil to biofuels. Fortunately recent advances in modern Computational Fluid Dynamics, CFD, have provided the possibility to study and predict the detailed flame characteristics regarding the lime kiln performance. In this project a three-dimensional CFD model for rotary lime kilns has been developed. To simulate a rotary lime kiln the developed CFD model integrates the three essential sub-models, i.e. the freeboard hot flow model, the lime bed model and the rotating refractory wall model and it is developed based on the modern CFD package: FLUENT which is commercially available on the market. The numerical simulations using the developed CFD model have been performed for three selected kiln operations fired with three different fuel mixtures. The predicted results from the CFD modelling are presented and discussed in order to compare the impacts on the kiln performance due to the different firing conditions. During the development, the lime kiln at the Soedra Cell Moensteraas mill has been used as reference kiln. To validate the CFD model, in-plant measurements were carried out in the Moensteraas lime kiln during an experiment campaign. The results obtained from the

  12. Directed Energy Anechoic Chamber

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Directed Energy Anechoic Chamber comprises a power anechoic chamber and one transverse electromagnetic cell for characterizing radiofrequency (RF) responses of...

  13. Environmental production : use of waste materials in cement kilns in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ning

    2008-01-01

    This report mainly talks about utilizing the cement kiln to dispose wastes. In China, there are huge amounts of wastes can be produced every year. China government pays more attention to the environmental protection. The government wants to dispose the wastes securely. The cement kiln is a good ‘place’ to take the wastes. The cement kiln has a high temperature, long remaining time, and can solidify the heavy metals, dispose the solid, semi-solid or liquid wastes. To dispose the wa...

  14. Mixing large and small particles in a pilot scale rotary kiln

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Rooma; Aniol, Rasmus Wochnik; Larsen, Morten Boberg;

    2011-01-01

    The mixing of solid alternative fuel particles in cement raw materials was studied experimentally by visual observation in a pilot scale rotary kiln. Fuel particles were placed on top of the raw material bed prior to the experiment. The percentage of particles visible above the bed as a function of.......Results can be up-scaled to industrial conditions in cement rotary kilns and show that even relatively large fuel particles will predominantly be covered by raw material after less than 30s in the rotary kiln. This affects the heating and combustion mechanisms for the fuel particles....

  15. Devolatilization and Combustion of Tire Rubber and Pine Wood in a Pilot Scale Rotary Kiln

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders R.; Larsen, Morten B.; Glarborg, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    tire rubber and pine wood were found to be bulk oxygen concentration, mass transfer rate of oxygen, raw material fill degree, raw material characteristics, and temperature. Kiln rotational speed only had a minor effect on the char oxidation when the raw material bed was in a rolling motion. Initial...... industrial waste. In this study, devolatilization and combustion of large particles of tire rubber and pine wood with equivalent diameters of 10 mm to 26 mm are investigated in a pilot scale rotary kiln able to simulate the process conditions present in the material inlet end of cement rotary kilns...

  16. Assessment of mercury emission at Norcem's cement kiln by use of 203 Hg tracer

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksen, Dag Øistein; Tokheim, Lars-André; Eriksen, T.A.; Meyer, Julien; Qvenild, Carsten

    2005-01-01

    In manufacture of cement clinker, mercury is introduced in the cement kiln system via the fuels and as constituents in the raw materials, i.e., limestone, iron ore, etc. The permissible emission of Hg to air is very low (0.05 mg/Nm3) due to its toxicity. Thus, it is important to know how mercury distributes and behaves in the kiln system. The objective of the study was to measure the distribution of mercury in the kiln system, to measure the hold up time of Hg, to measure the portion...

  17. Study on Hongzhou kiln porcelains of successive dynasties by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    400 sherds were collected from Hongzhou Kiln covering 8 periods from Eastern Han to Late Tang Dynasty/the Five Dynasties and their bodies were analysed by NAA. The results show that the elemental contents in different samples are quite distinct, even for those in the same period. It means no single element can be used as 'fingerprint' to distinguish the period. The curves of the contents of Na, Rb, Ba and Fe varying with time are very similar, like 'U' shape. As a colorant element, the content of Fe is consistent with the color of the body. The higher content of Fe is, the more dark of the body is. The outcome of principal component analysis (PCA) indicates that most of the sherds can be classified into 5 groups: (1) Eastern Han and Eastern Wu; (2) Western Jin, Eastern Jin and Southern Dynasties; (3) Sui; (4) Early Tang and Middle Tang; (5) Late Tang and Five Dynasties. (authors)

  18. Energy auditing and recovery for dry type cement rotary kiln systems - a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engin, T.; Ari, V. [University of Sakarya (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-03-01

    Cement production has been one of the most energy intensive industries in the world. In order to produce clinker, rotary kilns are widely used in cement plants. This paper deals with the energy audit analysis of a dry type rotary kiln system working in a cement plant in Turkey. The kiln has a capacity of 600 ton-clinker per day. It was found that about 40% of the total input energy was being lost through hot flue gas (19.15%), cooler stack (5.61%) and kiln shell (15.11% convection plus radiation). Some possible ways to recover the heat losses are also introduced and discussed. Findings showed that approximately 15.6% of the total input energy (4 MW) could be recovered. (author)

  19. Theoretical and experimental studies on combustion of alternative fuels in cement kilns

    OpenAIRE

    Axelsen, Ernst Petter

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis, the utilization of alternative fuels for NOx reduction by means of reburning and advanced reburning is sonsidered. Laboratory experiments, full-scale experiments and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations are the basis of the thesis.The goal of the work was to characterize alternative fuels used in cement kilns, with focus on the processes taking place in the precalciner of the cement kiln. To facilitate testing under controlled process conditons, a lab-scale circulatin...

  20. Case study: improvement of performance of cement industry rotary kilns by using a solid radiotracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present report, residence time distribution (RTD) of the cement blended raw meal has been determined by the use of 7,4x108 Bq (20 mCi) of La 40 as a dust radioactive tracer in the chemical form of La2O3. Five scintillation detector were installed alongside the kiln. Analysis and interpretation of response curves were made to draw conclusions about the improvement of the rotary kiln performance

  1. Study on the property of the production for Fengdongyan kiln in Early Ming dynasty by INAA and EDXRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Huang, Y.; Sun, H. Y.; Yan, L. T.; Feng, S. L.; Xu, Q.; Feng, X. Q.

    2016-08-01

    A lot of official wares carved "Guan" or the dragon patterns were excavated on the strata of Ming dynasty of the Fengdongyan kiln site at Dayao County. The imperial porcelain was fired in Hongwu and Yongle eras. However, the emergence of this imperial porcelain has triggered academic debate about the property of Fengdongyan kiln in the Early Ming dynasty. Based on the differences of the official kiln management, some scholars have determined that the property of the production for this kiln was the civilian kiln. According to the historical textural records and typology, others preliminary confirmed that Fengdongyan kiln was the official kiln. In this paper, the elemental compositions of body and glaze in imperial and civilian porcelain are study by INAA and EDXRF for determining the property of the production for this kiln in Early Ming dynasty. After the processing of experimental data by geochemical analysis and principal component analysis, the result show that the raw materials for making body and glaze in imperial porcelain are similar with those of the civilian porcelain and the degrees of elutriation for body can be slightly different in HW-M period of Ming dynasty. The analytical results support the view that the Fengdongyan kiln is civilian not official.

  2. Analysis of elemental composition of porcelains unearthed from Waguantan kiln site by PIXE–RBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •We analyzed 61 unearthed porcelain shards in Yuan Dynasty by PIXE–RBS. •An electron gun was installed to solve the electric charge accumulations. •The factor analysis was performed for the element compositions. •The “exotic group” porcelain samples unearthed were produced locally. -- Abstract: A method combining proton-induced X-ray emission spectrometry (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) was used to determine the composition of 61 porcelain shards from the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368 A.D.) unearthed from the Waguantan kiln site at Tianzhu County in Guizhou Province, China. Based on our previous experimental setup, an electron gun device with a LaB6 crystal cathode was installed to solve the problem created when the incident proton beams generated electric charge accumulations on the surfaces of the insulating porcelain samples, which induced a large bremsstrahlung background. The use of the electron gun has largely eliminated the large bremsstrahlung background and has therefore improved the detection limits for elements, especially for trace elements, and made it possible to determine the origin of the porcelains based on the trace elements. Major and trace elemental compositions of the porcelain bodies and glazes measured by PIXE and RBS were analyzed by the factor analysis method. The factor analysis showed that a few pieces of porcelain with a style similar to the porcelain of the Longquan kiln among the unearthed porcelains from the Waguantan kiln site did not have obvious differences in elemental compositions from other remaining porcelains unearthed from the Waguantan kiln site, indicating that the pieces of unearthed porcelain with the Longquan kiln style did in fact belong to the product fired locally by imitating the model of the Longquan celadon with local raw materials. This result therefore indicated that the Longquan kiln technology that originated from the Five Dynasties (907–960 A.D.) had been

  3. Analysis of elemental composition of porcelains unearthed from Waguantan kiln site by PIXE-RBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z.; Zhang, K.; Xia, C. D.; Liu, M. T.; Zhu, J. J.; An, Z.; Bai, B.

    2015-03-01

    A method combining proton-induced X-ray emission spectrometry (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) was used to determine the composition of 61 porcelain shards from the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368 A.D.) unearthed from the Waguantan kiln site at Tianzhu County in Guizhou Province, China. Based on our previous experimental setup, an electron gun device with a LaB6 crystal cathode was installed to solve the problem created when the incident proton beams generated electric charge accumulations on the surfaces of the insulating porcelain samples, which induced a large bremsstrahlung background. The use of the electron gun has largely eliminated the large bremsstrahlung background and has therefore improved the detection limits for elements, especially for trace elements, and made it possible to determine the origin of the porcelains based on the trace elements. Major and trace elemental compositions of the porcelain bodies and glazes measured by PIXE and RBS were analyzed by the factor analysis method. The factor analysis showed that a few pieces of porcelain with a style similar to the porcelain of the Longquan kiln among the unearthed porcelains from the Waguantan kiln site did not have obvious differences in elemental compositions from other remaining porcelains unearthed from the Waguantan kiln site, indicating that the pieces of unearthed porcelain with the Longquan kiln style did in fact belong to the product fired locally by imitating the model of the Longquan celadon with local raw materials. This result therefore indicated that the Longquan kiln technology that originated from the Five Dynasties (907-960 A.D.) had been propagated to the Waguantan kiln site of Guizhou Province in the Yuan Dynasty.

  4. Analysis of the parameters affecting energy consumption of a rotary kiln in cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the effects of refractory bricks and formation of anzast layer on the specific energy consumption of a rotary kiln are investigated. Thermodynamic analysis of the kiln is performed to achieve effective and efficient energy management scheme. Actual data, which are taken from a cement plant located in Gaziantep, Turkey, are used in numerical calculations to obtain energy balance for the system. It is calculated that 12.5 MW of energy is lost from the surface of the kiln which accounts for the 11.3% of the total energy input to the unit. The specific energy consumption for clinker production is determined to be 3735.45 kJ/kg clinker. The formation of anzast layer and the use of high quality magnesia spinel and high alumina refractory bricks provide 7.27% reduction in energy consumption corresponding to a saving of 271.78 MJ per ton of clinker production. It is recognized that the anzast layer has an important role for durability of the refractory bricks and heat transfer out of the kiln. The applications prevent the emission of 1614.48 tons of CO2 per year to the atmosphere. - Highlights: •We analyzed a rotary kiln and investigated the first law and second law efficiency values. •Performance assessment of a kiln indicates that the burning process involves energy and exergy losses. •The anzast layer affect the efficiency and production capacity of the kiln. •The specific energy consumption for clinker production is determined

  5. Gas phase dispersion in a small rotary kiln

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made of nonideal flow of gas in a rotary kiln reactor. A rotating tube 0.165 m in diameter by 2.17 m long, with internal lifting flights, was operated at room temperature. Rotational speeds from 2.0 to 7.0 rpm, air flow rates from 0.351 to 4.178 m3/h, and solid contents of 0.0, 5.1, and 15.3% of tube volume were studied. Residence time distribution of the gas was measured by means of the pulse injection technique using a helium tracer. A model was developed based on dispersive flow that exchanges with a deadwater region. Two parameters, a dispersion number describing bulk gas flow and an interchange factor describing exchange between the flow region and the gas trapped in the solids bed, were sufficient to correlate the data, but these parameters are sensitive to experimental error. The model is applicable to analysis of other flow systems, such as packed beds

  6. Study of meterial distribution of Tang tricolor from Huangye kiln

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using the proton induced X-ray enission (PIXE) method, the measurements of the oxide compound content have veen carried out for the selected 18 samples of Tang tricolor in Huangye kiln. For ascertaining the classification and origin relation of the samples the principal component analysis method was adopted, and the results indicate that the chemical compositions of Tang tricolor body with diggerent glaze colors are close, which shows that their raw material habitat distribution is quite concentrative. But the prescriptions of diffierent color glaze are different. The content of CoO is more than others in blue glaze; CuO is more than others in green glaze; Fe2O3 is more than others in brown and yellow glaze; A12O3 is less than others but SiO2 is more in white glaze, which shows that glazers material origin is diffierent, but brown and yellow glaze are close and even the same in chemistry component. (authors)

  7. Hydrogen fluoride damage to vegetation from peri-urban brick kilns in Asia: A growing but unrecognised problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid urbanisation of many cities in south and south-east Asia has increased the demand for bricks, which are typically supplied from brick kilns in peri-urban areas. We report visible foliar damage to mango, apricot and plum trees in the vicinity of traditional Bull’s Trench brick kilns in Peshawar, Pakistan. Visible injury symptoms, hydrogen fluoride concentrations in air, and foliar fluoride concentrations were all greater in the vicinity of brick kilns than at more distant sites, indicating that fluoride emissions from brick kilns were the main cause of damage. Interviews with local farmers established the significant impact of this damage on their livelihoods. Since poorly regulated brick kilns are often found close to important peri-urban agricultural areas, we suggest that this may be a growing but unrecognised environmental problem in regions of Asia where emission control in brick kilns has not been improved. - Highlights: ► Demand for bricks is increasing in many parts of Asia. ► Fluoride emissions from brick kilns may pose a threat to peri-urban agriculture. ► We found extensive injury to fruit orchards close to brick kilns in Peshawar. ► Local farmers suffered large economic losses but did not identify brick kilns as a cause of this. ► The extent of crop damage from brick kilns with poor emission control in the region may not be fully recognised. - Hydrogen fluoride emissions from brick kilns may cause extensive but unrecognised damage to peri-urban crops in Asia.

  8. The Development of the Clay Tobacco Pipe Kiln in the British Isles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Peacey

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1982 Allan Peacey published a study in the form of a synthesis of two chronologically separated kilns used in the production of clay tobacco pipes (Peacey 1982, 3-17. The aims of the present work are: ◦to improve upon this framework ◦to establish how these type of structures fit into the broader picture; to fill the gaps, before, between and after these cameo views ◦to improve understanding of the technology employed and see the roots from which such technology developed. The primary objective is to catalogue all relevant material know to exist in museum and private collections. It is hoped that by this means an understanding of the varied physical characteristics will lead to the establishment of object or function categories around which reports may be structured. Contemporary source documents are also examined to shed further light upon the likely function of the archaeological material. Among the results achieved are the compilation of an extensive catalogue of material associated with tobacco pipe kilns; the establishment of type series for pipe kiln furniture and furniture supplements; a proposed development sequence for pipe kiln muffles; a pattern of consistency in kiln design throughout the study area, and details of the methods used for stem tipping. Readers will be able to view the archaeological evidence as distribution maps, and will be able to explore other aspects of the data through the timeline and site catalogues.

  9. Study on ancient porcelain of Loulinpo Kiln Site by nuclear analysis technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaozhou Kiln located at Tongchuan of Shanxi Province has lasted continuous history of firing celadon porcelain from Tang Dynasty (618-907A.D.) to Yuan Dynasty (1234-1368A.D.), The firing technology has had important effect for celadon porcelain of many kilns in ancient China. In Jin Dynasty (1127-1234A.D.) and Yuan Dynasty, because of lacking of raw material resources, the central site of Yaozhou Kiln moved from Tongchuan to Lidipo, Shangdian and Chenlu area. Luolinpo site belongs to Yaozhou Kiln series and is one kiln of Shangdian area. The bowl sherds samples of Yuan dynasty stratum excavated in recent year. The glaze color is celadon, black, dark brown and dark reddish brown respectively. Ten pieces of sherds of each glaze color were selected. The main chemical compositions of theses samples were analyzed by XRF and the trace elemental contents were determined by NAA. The result shown that the content of Fe2O3 can decide the kind of glaze color will be. The concentration of CaO, Na2O and K2O can be used to explain the developing process of firing techniques. Except samples of dark brown glaze, the contents of Fe2O3 and CaO change in small range. The proportions of these main chemical compositions of the porcelain with glaze color of black, celadon and dark reddish brown have little variation. But it was very different form some samples of dark brown glaze.

  10. Jet mixing in a down-scaled model of a rotary kiln

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Sofia; Johansson, Simon

    2015-11-01

    Rotary kilns are large, cylindrical, rotating ovens with a burner in one end that are used in various industrial processes to heat up materials to high temperatures. Kiln burners are characterized by long diffusion flames where the combustion process is largely controlled by turbulent diffusion mixing between the burner fuel jet and the surrounding combustion air. The combustion air flow patterns have a significant effect on the mixing and hence the combustion efficiency and flame shape, motivating a systematic study of the kiln aerodynamics and the mixing characteristics. In this work, a downscaled, isothermal model of a rotary kiln is investigated experimentally through simultaneous particle image velocimetry and planar laser-induced fluorescence measurements. The kiln is modeled as a cylinder with three inlets in one end; two semicircular-shaped inlets for what is called the secondary fluid divided by a wall in between, called the back plate, where the burner nozzle is located. Three momentum flux ratios of the secondary fluid are investigated, and the interaction with the burner jet is scrutinized. It is found that the burner jet characteristics, its mixing with the secondary fluid and the resulting flow field surrounding the jet are dependent on the momentum flux ratio.

  11. A Comparative Analysis of Corn Drying in Stabil 3000 Dry Kiln Using Different Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Kiš

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural entrepreneurship has been boosted by land concentration, organization of farms, and the establishment of new small centers for admission, processing, and storage. At the same time former large organizations failed, which diverted the process of handling agricultural products. The trend of small dry kilns and storage facilities from 1 to 5 t/h is growing. New customers, who do not have proper knowledge and criteria when choosing proper equipment, are usually offered dry kilns of foreign production. Trade representatives who sell dry kilns also lack the necessary specialist knowledge as it is the case with their customers. The research project considered STABIL 3000 dry kilns produced by “Seting“, Delnice and used for seed drying. The dry-kilns used natural gas and fuel oil. We determined incombustible carbohydrons as well as the presence of harmful substances belonging to polycyclic aromatic carbohydrons (PAHs on the seeds after the drying process. For this purpose we used a device known as employed the EPA 550.1 and EPA 625 method.

  12. CFD modeling using PDF approach for investigating the flame length in rotary kilns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elattar, H. F.; Specht, E.; Fouda, A.; Bin-Mahfouz, Abdullah S.

    2016-02-01

    Numerical simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are performed to investigate the flame length characteristics in rotary kilns using probability density function (PDF) approach. A commercial CFD package (ANSYS-Fluent) is employed for this objective. A 2-D axisymmetric model is applied to study the effect of both operating and geometric parameters of rotary kiln on the characteristics of the flame length. Three types of gaseous fuel are used in the present work; methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO) and biogas (50 % CH4 + 50 % CO2). Preliminary comparison study of 2-D modeling outputs of free jet flames with available experimental data is carried out to choose and validate the proper turbulence model for the present numerical simulations. The results showed that the excess air number, diameter of kiln air entrance, radiation modeling consideration and fuel type have remarkable effects on the flame length characteristics. Numerical correlations for the rotary kiln flame length are presented in terms of the studied kiln operating and geometric parameters within acceptable error.

  13. Socio-environmental Impacts Associated with Burning Alternative Fuels in Clinker Kilns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. B. Mainier

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The pollutants found in emissions from cement plants depend on the processes used and the operation of the clinker kilns. Another crucial aspect concerns the characteristics of raw materials and fuels. The intensive use of fuels in rotary kilns of cement plants and the increasing fuel diversification, including fuels derived from coal and oil, from a multitude of industrial waste and from biomass, charcoal and agricultural waste (sugarcane bagasse, rice husk, is increasing the possibilities of combinations or mixtures of different fuels, known as blends. Thus, there are socio-environmental impacts associated with the burning of alternative fuels in clinker kilns. In view of the growing trend of entrepreneurs who want to target the waste produced in their unit and of the owners of the cement plants who want to reduce their production costs by burning a waste with lower cost than conventional fuels, it is necessary to warn that a minimum level of environmental care should be followed regarding these decisions. It is necessary to monitor the points of emission from cement kilns and in the wider area influenced by the plant, in order to improve environmental quality. Laboratory studies of burning vulcanised rubber contaminated with arsenic simulate the burning of used tyres in cement clinker kilns producing SO2 and As2O3.

  14. A remote engineering solution for automating a roller hearth kiln

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Bosco da Mota Alves

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Remote engineering (also known as online engineering may be defined as a combination of control engineering and telematics. In this area, specific activities require computacional skills in order to develop projects where electrical devives are monitored and / or controlled, in an intercative way, through a distributed network (e.g. Intranet or Internet. In our specific case, we will be dealing with an industrial plant. Within the last few years, there has been an increase in the number of activities related to remote engineering, which may be connected to the phenomenon of the large extension experienced by the Internet (e.g. bandwith, number of users, development tools, etc.. This increase opens new and future possibilities to the implementation of advance teleworking (or e-working positions. In this paper we present the architecture for a remote application, accessible through the Internet, able to monitor and control a roller hearth kiln, used in a ceramics industry for firing materials. The proposed architecture is based on a micro web server, whose main function is to monitor and control the firing process, by reading the data from a series of temperature sensors and by controlling a series of electronic valves and servo motors. This solution is also intended to be a low-cost alternative to other potential solutions. The temperature readings are obtained through K-type thermopairs and the gas flow is controlled through electrovalves. As the firing process should not be stopped before its complete end, the system is equipped with a safety device for that specific purpose. For better understanding the system to be automated and its operation we decided to develop a scale model (100:1 and experiment on it the devised solution, based on a Micro Web Server.

  15. GREENHOUSE GASES FROM SMALL-SCALE COMBUSTION DEVICES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, CHARCOAL-MAKING KILNS IN THAILAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of measurements of airborne emissions, during typical operating conditions, from charcoal-making kilns commonly used in the developing world. The kilns tested were of five types: brick beehive, mud beehive, earth mound, rice husk mound, and single (oil) d...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1205 - What are the standards for hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns that are effective...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Emissions Standards and Operating Limits for Incinerators, Cement Kilns, and Lightweight Aggregate Kilns...) Mercury in excess of 120 µg/dscm corrected to 7 percent oxygen; (3) Lead and cadmium in excess of 250 µg... must also notify in writing the RCRA authority that you are complying with this option; (2) Mercury...

  17. Application of the Hand-instrument of Measurement of Tyre Gap and Diameter in Cement Rotary Kiln

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This article is concerned with the cement rotary kiln, the hand-instrument of measurements of tyre gap and the outer diameter. The accuracy of measurements of tyre gap and diameter is less than ±1mm. The hand- instrument wins two patents in China. It has been applied to the measurement for 16 sets of cement rotary kiln in China.

  18. Analysis of bluish-white porcelain of Fanchang kiln in Anhui province by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The minor and trace elements in the bluish-white porcelain bodies of Fanchang kiln in different dynasties were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Multivariable statistical analysis of the experimental data was carried out by SPSS software. The results show that the contents of Yb, Ta, Hf and Th varied notably between early and middle North Song Dynasty. The chemical compositions of Fanchang porcelain bodies can be divided into three groups corresponding to Five Dynasties, early Northern Song and middle Northern Song. Combined with the results of major elements analysis, we think that the raw materials of Fanchang kiln varied in different periods and the using up of fine raw materials was the main reason of Fanchang kiln's decline. (authors)

  19. [Chemical composition and chromaticity characteristic of Jilan glaze of Ming and Qing official kilns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun-ming; Zhang, Mao-lin; Li, Qi-jiang; Wu, Juan; Quan, Kui-shan; Cao, Jian-wen

    2012-08-01

    Color glazes of Ming and Qing official kilns are excellent representatives of the famous ancient Chinese porcelains. The study of official ware with Jilan glaze has been an important topic. But it made slow progress due to the rarity of samples with strict production management and using system. The recipes, chemical composition and chromaticity characteristic of the Jilan samples excavated from official kilns in the Ming and Qing dynasties were first discussed by systematical testing with the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and color difference meter. The results showed that the porcelain stone content in Jilan bodies of official kiln in the Ming dynasty is higher than the samples of the Qing dynasty. The manganese content in Jilan glazes of the Ming dynasty is higher than that in the Qing dynasty, while the glaze ash addition and the lightness value in the glaze are opposite. PMID:23156793

  20. Multi-disciplinary dating of a baked clay kiln excavated at Chieri, Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tema, Evdokia; Fantino, Fulvio; Ferrara, Enzo; Lo Giudice, Alessandro; Re, Alessandro; Barello, Federico; Vella, Silvia; Cirillo, Luigi; Gulmini, Monica

    2014-05-01

    A combined archaeological, archaeomagnetic and thermoluminescence study has been carried out on a rescue excavation kiln, discovered at Chieri, Northern Italy. Rock magnetic experiments indicate the dominance of a low coercivity magnetic phase, such as magnetite and/or Ti-magnetite as the main carrier of the remanent magnetization. Stepwise thermal demagnetization experiments generally show a stable characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM). The mean archaeomagnetic direction, calculated from 17 independently oriented samples, is D=18.2o, I=66.8o with α95=2.6o and k=184. Archaeomagnetic dating of the kiln has been obtained after comparison of the kiln's ChRM direction with the reference curves produced by the SHA.DIF.3K European regional geomagnetic field model. Independent dating of the kiln has also been obtained from thermoluminescence (TL) study of two baked clay samples coming from the kiln's walls. The environmental dose has been measured in situ using field dosimeters. Accurate TL procedures have been followed for the calculation of annual dose and eventually the TL age. The combination of the archaeological evidence, archaeomagnetic and TL datings suggest that the last usage of the kiln occurred around the 17th century AD. Comparison of the results obtained from the different methods shows the relevant potential of these techniques on dating of baked clay artefacts; yet it also highlights the range of uncertainty sources affecting measurements, related to the samples and/or to the environment, and the utility of dating cross-checking for obtaining reliable dates.

  1. Energy recovery from wastes : experience with solid alternative fuels combustion in a precalciner cement kiln

    OpenAIRE

    Tokheim, Lars-André; Gautestad, Tor; Axelsen, Ernst Petter; Bjerketvedt, Dag

    2001-01-01

    Today virtually all cement clinker burning processes take place in rotary kilns. A mixture of calcareous and argilaceous materials is heated to a temperature of about 1450 °C. In this process decarbonation followed by partial fusion occurs, and nodules of so-called clinker are formed. The cooled clinker is mixed with a few percent of gypsum, and ground into a fine meal – cement. The most modern cement kilns are equipped with a precalciner, in which most of the calcium carbonate...

  2. Fuzzy modeling and control of the calcination process in a kiln

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcination kilns are strongly nonlinear, multivariable processes, that only can be modeled with great uncertainty. In order to get a quality product and ensure the process efficiency, the controller must keep a prescribed temperature profile optimizing the fuel consumption. In this paper, a design methodology of a multivariable fuzzy controller for a nickel calcination kiln is presented. The controller structure is a classical one, and uses the Mamdani fuzzy inference system. In simulation results the fuzzy controller exhibits a great robustness in presence of several types of disturbances, and a better performance than the PID in same conditions is observed. (author)

  3. Dynamic measurement of mercury adsorption and oxidation on activated carbon in simulated cement kiln flue gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Anker Degn; Windelin, Christian;

    2012-01-01

    of the sulfite converter is short and typically within 2min. Dynamic mercury adsorption and oxidation tests on commercial activated carbons Darco Hg and HOK standard were performed at 150°C using simulated cement kiln gas and a fixed bed reactor system. It is shown that the converter and analyzer...... applied. A sodium sulfite-based converter material was prepared by dry impregnation of sodium sulfite and calcium sulfate powders on zeolite pellets using water glass as binder. The sulfite converter works well at 500°C with less than 10ppmv HCl in the simulated cement kiln flue gas. The 95% response time...

  4. Study on trace element of Yue ware unearthed at different kiln sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴隽; 李家治; 郭景坤; 徐锴; 陈宝林

    1999-01-01

    The contents of trace element of Yue ware excavated in Shaoxing, Shanglinhu, Shangyu kiln sites and Hangzhou palace were analyzed by NAA technique. The data of trace element compositions were treated by statistical analysis. It is found that the sources of raw materials used in Shaoxing, Shanglinhu, Shangyu kiln sites are different and stable. Especially the discriminant function predicted for porcelain bodies provides high discriminatory power according to production site. It shows that Yue ware specimens excavated in Hangzhou palace were fired in Shanglinhu. It indicates the special function of trace element in the studies on site identification.

  5. Streamer chamber: pion decay

    CERN Multimedia

    1992-01-01

    The real particles produced in the decay of a positive pion can be seen in this image from a streamer chamber. Streamer chambers consist of a gas chamber through which a strong pulsed electric field is passed, creating sparks as a charged particle passes through it. A magnetic field is added to cause the decay products to follow curved paths so that their charge and momentum can be measured.

  6. Prototype multiwire proportional chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    Chambers of this type were initially developed within the Alpha project (finally not approved). They were designed such to minimize the radiation length with a view to a mass spectrometer of high resolution meant to replace the Omega detector. The chambers were clearly forerunners for the (drift) chambers later built for R606 with the novel technique of crimping the wires. See also photo 7510039X.

  7. Electromagnetic reverberation chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Besnier, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Dedicated to a complete presentation on all aspects of reverberation chambers, this book provides the physical principles behind these test systems in a very progressive manner. The detailed panorama of parameters governing the operation of electromagnetic reverberation chambers details various applications such as radiated immunity, emissivity, and shielding efficiency experiments.In addition, the reader is provided with the elements of electromagnetic theory and statistics required to take full advantage of the basic operational rules of reverberation chambers, including calibration proc

  8. BEBC bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    Looking up into the interior of BEBC bubble chamber from the expansion cylinder. At the top of the chamber two fish-eye lenses are installed and three other fish-eye ports are blanked off. In the centre is a heat exchanger.

  9. High resolution drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High precision drift chambers capable of achieving less than or equal to 50 μm resolutions are discussed. In particular, we compare so called cool and hot gases, various charge collection geometries, several timing techniques and we also discuss some systematic problems. We also present what we would consider an ''ultimate'' design of the vertex chamber. 50 refs., 36 figs., 6 tabs

  10. A Song Period Kiln-site at Chalu in Ninghai County, Zhejiang%浙江宁海县岔路宋代窑址

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁波市文物考古研究所; 宁海县文管会办公室

    2003-01-01

    In 1998, a kiln-site of the Song period was revealed at Chalu Town in Ninghai County, Zhejiang Province, in an excavation area of about 1,000 sq m. The vestiges discovered include a section of kiln-foundations, two sections of stone walls and six Ming period tombs. The kiln-site yielded a large amount of porcelain and a variety of kiln implements. The former belongs mainly to the type of bowl; the latter are for saggering, spurring and separating. The porcelain is largely coated with celadon glaze and decorated chiefly with incised, impressed and openworked dragon head and sea wave design. Some products and kiln implements bear inscriptions. The kiln must have functioned in the middle and late Northern Song period and belonged to the Yue system. The kiln implements unearthed in great numbers constitute valuable material to the study of firing technology.

  11. Test burn with PCB-oil in a local cement kiln in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstensen, Kåre Helge; Mubarak, Azeez M; Gunadasa, H N; Wijagunasekara, Bandulasoma; Ratnayake, Niranjanie; Alwis, Ajith De; Fernando, Jayavilal

    2010-02-01

    The production and use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have ceased and most developed countries have disposed off their stocks long time ago. PCBs can however still be found in the environment and one important source is accumulated stocks in developing countries. Sound treatment of PCB is costly and most developing countries do not have dedicated hazardous waste incinerators or non-combustion technologies available for domestic disposal and can usually not afford export. High temperature cement kilns have been used to treat organic hazardous wastes in developed countries for decades and shown to constitute a sound option if well managed and controlled. In contrast to dedicated hazardous waste incinerators and other treatment techniques, cement kilns are already in place in virtually every country and may constitute a treatment option. The objective of this study was therefore to carry out the first test burn with PCB-oil in a developing country cement kiln and to assess its feasibility and destruction performance. The 3 d test burn demonstrated that the Sri Lankan cement kiln was able to destroy PCB in an irreversible and environmental sound manner without causing any new formation of PCDD/PCDF or HCB. The destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) was better than 99.9999% at the highest PCB feeding rate. PMID:20004933

  12. Characterization, stability, and plant effects of kiln-produced wheat straw biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, A; Knoth de Zarruk, K; Steffens, M; Rasse, D P

    2013-01-01

    Biochar is a promising technology for improving soil quality and sequestering C in the long term. Although modern pyrolysis technologies are being developed, kiln technologies often remain the most accessible method for biochar production. The objective of the present study was to assess biochar characteristics, stability in soil, and agronomic effects of a kiln-produced biochar. Wheat-straw biochar was produced in a double-barrel kiln and analyzed by solid-state C nuclear magneticresonance spectroscopy. Two experiments were conducted with biochar mixed into an Ap-horizon sandy loam. In the first experiment, CO efflux was monitored for 3 mo in plant-free soil columns across four treatments (0, 10, 50, and 100 Mg biochar ha). In the second experiment, ryegrass was grown in pots having received 17 and 54 Mg biochar ha combined with four N rates from 144 to 288 kg N ha. Our kiln method generated a wheat-straw biochar with carbon content composed of 92% of aromatic structures. Our results suggest that the biochar lost impact on ryegrass yields. PMID:23673835

  13. The Earliest Chinese Proto-Porcelain Excavated from Kiln Sites: An Elemental Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Li

    Full Text Available In June 2012, the Piaoshan kiln site was excavated in Huzhou, Zhejiang Province, which hitherto proved to be the earliest known Chinese proto-porcelain kiln. Judging from the decorative patterns of unearthed impressed stoneware and proto-porcelain sherds, the site was determined to date to the late Xia (c. 2070-c. 1600 BC, the first dynasty of China. Here, we report on proton-induced X-ray emission analyses of 118 proto-porcelain and 35 impressed stoneware sherds from Piaoshan and five subsequent kiln sites in the vicinity. Using principal components analysis on the major chemical compositions, we reveal the relationships between impressed stoneware and proto-porcelain samples from the six kiln sites. The sherds from different sites have distinctive chemical profiles. The results indicate that the raw materials were procured locally. We find a developmental tendency for early glazes towards mature calcium-based glaze. It is most likely that woody plant ashes with increased calcia-potash ratios were applied to the formula.

  14. The Earliest Chinese Proto-Porcelain Excavated from Kiln Sites: An Elemental Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Zhang, Bin; Cheng, Huansheng; Zheng, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    In June 2012, the Piaoshan kiln site was excavated in Huzhou, Zhejiang Province, which hitherto proved to be the earliest known Chinese proto-porcelain kiln. Judging from the decorative patterns of unearthed impressed stoneware and proto-porcelain sherds, the site was determined to date to the late Xia (c. 2070-c. 1600 BC), the first dynasty of China. Here, we report on proton-induced X-ray emission analyses of 118 proto-porcelain and 35 impressed stoneware sherds from Piaoshan and five subsequent kiln sites in the vicinity. Using principal components analysis on the major chemical compositions, we reveal the relationships between impressed stoneware and proto-porcelain samples from the six kiln sites. The sherds from different sites have distinctive chemical profiles. The results indicate that the raw materials were procured locally. We find a developmental tendency for early glazes towards mature calcium-based glaze. It is most likely that woody plant ashes with increased calcia-potash ratios were applied to the formula. PMID:26535583

  15. Provenance and indirect dating study on Hongzhou Kiln porcelains by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongzhou Kiln is one of the six leading celadon kilns in Tang Dynasty and plays an important role in the history of Chinese ceramics for its diverse decoration styles and innovative technology. Archaeologists divided Hongzhou Kiln production into 8 periods, i.e. Eastern Han and Eastern Wu, Western Jin, Eastern Jin, Southern Dynasties, Sui, Early Tang, Middle Tang, Late Tang and Five Dynasties. Up to now, 26 kiln sites have been discovered and excavated. A study on the chemical composition of the porcelains of different periods and provenance will help to know the developing process of Hongzhou celadon such as variation of raw materials, recipes, manufacturing technology, causes of prosperity and decline, etc. Over 200 sherds were collected and their body samples were analyzed by INAA. The compositional differences between samples with the same period but different provenance were observed. The contents of Na, Rb, Ba, Fe, Th, U, etc were found to be different among samples from different periods, which implies they may be used to identify the manufacturing age. The analytical data were further processed by principal component analysis (PCA). The statistical results show that all the sherds can be classified into 5 groups, (1) Eastern Han and Eastern Wu; (2) Western Jin, Eastern Jin and Southern Dynasties; (3) Sui; (4) Early Tang and Middle Tang; (5) Late Tang and Five Dynasties.

  16. Emissions study of co-firing waste carpet in a rotary kiln.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Paul; Stewart, Eric; Realff, Matthew; Mulholland, James A

    2004-01-01

    Post-consumer carpet represents a high volume, high energy content waste stream. As a fuel for co-firing in cement kilns, waste carpet, like waste tires, has potential advantages. Technological challenges to be addressed include assessing potential emissions, in particular NO emissions (from nylon fiber carpets), and optimizing the carpet feed system. This paper addresses the former. Results of pilot-scale rotary kiln experiments demonstrate the potential for using post-consumer waste carpet as a fuel in cement kilns. Continuous feeding of shredded carpet fiber and ground carpet backing, at rates of up to 30% of total energy input, resulted in combustion without transient puffs and with almost no increase in CO and other products of incomplete combustion as compared to kiln firing natural gas only. NO emissions increased with carpet waste co-firing due to the nitrogen content of nylon fiber. In these experiments with shredded fiber and finely ground backing, carpet nitrogen conversion to NO ranged from 3 to 8%. Conversion increased with enhanced mixing of the carpet material and air during combustion. Carpet preparation and feeding method are controlling factors in fuel N conversion. PMID:15125542

  17. Nitric oxide formation in an iron oxide pellet rotary kiln furnace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R A

    1998-01-01

    A one-dimensional numerical model was developed to simulate the effects of heat and mass transfer on the formation of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) in a rotary kiln furnace for iron oxide pellet induration. The modeled kiln has a length-to-diameter ratio of approximately seven. The principal mechanism of heat transfer is radiation from the flame, which was described by the net radiation method. The well known Zeldovich mechanism was used to predict thermal NOx generation. Temperature fluctuations in the vicinity of the flame were estimated with a clipped Gaussian probability density function. The thermal energy and mass balance model equations were solved numerically. The model is capable of predicting temperature profiles and NOx production rates in agreement with observed plant performance. The model was used to explore the effects of process changes on the total NOx formation in the kiln. It was concluded that the gas temperature as well as the partial pressure of oxygen in the process gases controls the rate of NOx formation. Lowering the temperature of the kiln gases by increasing the secondary air flow rates requires simultaneously decreasing the pellet production rate in order to maintain the pellet temperatures needed for blast furnace conditions. PMID:15655997

  18. Beijing Bianyifang,No.1 of the 600-year "Kiln-roast Duck"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Wei

    2006-01-01

    @@ The brand of Bianyifang was established in A.D.1416 (Yongle 14th, Ming dynasty), 590 years ago. It is one of the oldest restaurants in China, famous for its roast duck. Its unique method of kiln-roasting has been its trademark all throughout its history.

  19. Energy efficiency of an innovative vertical axial rotary kiln for pottery production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés Forero Núñez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Colombia is a remarkablecoal producer and exporter worldwide; several sectors use this resource for electricity and thermal energy production. Among them, the ceramic industry consumed 118,590 tons in 2011. Most of the pottery production companies in this country arelocated in rural areas and use old coal fired kilns with low energy efficiencies, generating environmental effects to the population nearby. Despite of the importance of these industries to the small rural economies, the government agencies have closed them due to the lack of development on cleaner devices. This work aims to analyze the thermal behavior of an innovative vertical axial rotary kiln for pottery production, and the energy efficiency varying operation mode. The kiln operated during seven hours needed three hours for stabilizing sintering temperature at 800°C. The mean temperatures of the loading, drying, sintering and cooling stage were 204°C, 223°C, 809°C and 321°C respectively. The convection and radiation heat losses were 15 % whereas the flue gas heat losses 18 %.During continuous operation, the kiln energy efficiency was about 60 %. This design proven to reach the temperatures required in the firing stage of the pottery production; moreover, a gas fuel was fuelled making the process cleaner and more efficient than coal-fired systems.

  20. Archaeomagnetic dating in Greece: new directional results from two contemporaneous kilns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tema, Evdokia

    2013-04-01

    Detailed archaeomagnetic study was carried out on a ceramic workshop excavated at Kato Achaia (Greece). Two ancient circular brick kilns were discovered during the works for the construction of a house at Parodos Papaflessa Street, in the center of Kato Achaia village. According to archaeological evidence, both kilns were part of a bigger ceramic workshop, probably used for the production of bricks or ceramics. Systematic archaeomagnetic sampling was carried out collecting 9 brick samples from the first kiln (KL3) and 12 brick samples from the second kiln (KL5). All samples were independently oriented in situ using a magnetic compass and an inclinometer. Systematic magnetic measurements have been carried out in order to determine the main magnetic carrier of the samples and to check their thermal stability. Isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) experiments pointed to magnetite and/or Ti-magnetite as the main magnetic minerals in most of the samples. These results are also confirmed by the thermal demagnetization of the three IRM components curves that in almost all cases show the dominance of the magnetically soft fraction (Hellenistic times. The new directional data together the most reliable archaeodirectional data from Greece previously published show that the directional secular variation of the Earth's magnetic field in Greece is well described for the 1600-1200 BC and 400 BC- 400 AD time periods while for other periods more reliable data are still necessary in order to guarantee reliable archaeomagnetic dating.

  1. Experimental and theoretical investigation on unburned coal char burnout in a pilot-scale rotary kiln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federico Cangialosi; Francesco Di Canio; Gianluca Intini; Michele Notarnicola; Lorenzo Liberti; Giulio Belz; Pompilio Caramuscio [Technical University of Bari, Taranto (Italy). Department of Environmental Engineering and Sustainable Development

    2006-11-15

    Oxidation reactivity studies are imperative for improving carbon re-burn technologies and valuing the heat content of unburned carbon within coal combustion ashes. Non-isothermal, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to examine the oxidation kinetics of unburned carbon in coal combustion fly ashes having different particle size distributions; TGA results were related to combustion efficiencies as measured in a bench-scale rotary kiln. The activation energy and pre-exponential factor were determined for the chemically-controlled reaction regime; the transition temperatures between chemically-controlled and partially diffusion-controlled combustion regimes were obtained for unburned carbon particles of different sizes. After the oxidation reaction rates were evaluated, the residence time distribution (RTD) of fly ashes in the rotary kiln were experimentally measured and the mean residence times related to process parameters, including the rotating velocity and kiln inclination. By comparing these results with an advective-dispersive model, the axial dispersion coefficient of fly ashes was determined. The reaction rates obtained by thermal analyses and the RTDs were used to predict combustion efficiencies within the kiln and oxidation conditions of unburned carbon using various processing options. 21 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Analysis of elemental composition of porcelains unearthed from Waguantan kiln site by PIXE–RBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Z. [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Zhang, K. [School of History and Culture, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Xia, C.D.; Liu, M.T.; Zhu, J.J. [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); An, Z., E-mail: anzhu@scu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Bai, B., E-mail: baibin@scu.edu.cn [School of History and Culture, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2015-03-01

    Highlights: •We analyzed 61 unearthed porcelain shards in Yuan Dynasty by PIXE–RBS. •An electron gun was installed to solve the electric charge accumulations. •The factor analysis was performed for the element compositions. •The “exotic group” porcelain samples unearthed were produced locally. -- Abstract: A method combining proton-induced X-ray emission spectrometry (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) was used to determine the composition of 61 porcelain shards from the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368 A.D.) unearthed from the Waguantan kiln site at Tianzhu County in Guizhou Province, China. Based on our previous experimental setup, an electron gun device with a LaB{sub 6} crystal cathode was installed to solve the problem created when the incident proton beams generated electric charge accumulations on the surfaces of the insulating porcelain samples, which induced a large bremsstrahlung background. The use of the electron gun has largely eliminated the large bremsstrahlung background and has therefore improved the detection limits for elements, especially for trace elements, and made it possible to determine the origin of the porcelains based on the trace elements. Major and trace elemental compositions of the porcelain bodies and glazes measured by PIXE and RBS were analyzed by the factor analysis method. The factor analysis showed that a few pieces of porcelain with a style similar to the porcelain of the Longquan kiln among the unearthed porcelains from the Waguantan kiln site did not have obvious differences in elemental compositions from other remaining porcelains unearthed from the Waguantan kiln site, indicating that the pieces of unearthed porcelain with the Longquan kiln style did in fact belong to the product fired locally by imitating the model of the Longquan celadon with local raw materials. This result therefore indicated that the Longquan kiln technology that originated from the Five Dynasties (907–960 A.D.) had been

  3. Design of Refractory Linings for Balanced Energy Efficiency, Uptime, and Capacity in Lime Kilns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorog, John Peter [ORNL; Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Walker, Harold [Refratechnik North America, Inc.; Leary, William R [ORNL; Ellis, Murray [Australian Paper, Co.

    2014-01-01

    The rotary kilns used by the pulp and paper industry to regenerate lime in the Kraft process are very energy intensive. Throughout the 90 s, in response to increasing fuel prices, the industry used back up insulation in conjunction with the high alumina brick used to line the burning zones of their kilns. While this improved energy efficiency, the practice of installing insulating brick behind the working lining increased the inner wall temperatures. In the worst case, due to the increased temperatures, rapid brick failures occurred causing unscheduled outages and expensive repairs. Despite these issues, for the most part, the industry continued to use insulating refractory linings in that the energy savings were large enough to offset any increase in the cost of maintaining the refractory lining. Due to the dramatic decline in the price of natural gas in some areas combined with mounting pressures to increasing production of existing assets, over the last decade, many mills are focusing more on increasing the uptime of their kilns as opposed to energy savings. To this end, a growing number of mills are using basic (magnesia based) brick instead of high alumina brick to line the burning zone of the kiln since the lime mud does not react with these bricks at the operating temperatures of the burning zone of the kiln. In the extreme case, a few mills have chosen to install basic brick in the front end of the kiln running a length equivalent to 10 diameters. While the use of basic brick can increase the uptime of the kiln and reduce the cost to maintain the refractory lining, it does dramatically increase the heat losses resulting from the increased operating temperatures of the shell. Also, over long periods of time operating at these high temperatures, damage can occur in the shell. There are tradeoffs between energy efficiency, capacity and uptime. When fuel prices are very high, it makes sense to insulate the lining. When fuel prices are lower, trading some

  4. Assessment of macro and micro nutrients around brick kilns agricultural environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Halim Farhad Sikder

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Brick kiln is well known as one of the main sources of air pollution; however, the pollutants produced from it do not remain in the air, they ultimately fall down to the soil and pollute the surroundings, therefore, this study was carried out to assess the status of macro (N, P, K and S and micro nutrients (Fe, Mn and Zn, Cu in the agricultural environment near the brick kilns of Young Brahmaputra and Jamuna Floodplain soils. Composite soil and plant samples were collected from four distances such as 250 m, 500 m, 1000 m, and 1500 m in three different sites. Sulphur (2352–3378 mg kg−1, Zn (86–156 mg kg−1 and Cu (24.7–46.9 mg kg−1 are found in the elevated levels near brick kiln soils that is released due to burning of poor quality coal and fire woods. The alarming news is that plant uptake of S and micro nutrients in the nearest areas of the brick kilns are significantly higher than the areas far from the brick production and their concentration ranges from 23 mg kg−1 to 101 mg kg−1 for Zn, 10–41 mg kg−1 for Cu, 35–1309 mg kg−1 for Fe, 26–126 mg kg−1 for Mn and 2590–mg kg−1 for S. Data indicates both soil and plant received maximum amount of micronutrients and S concentrations within 500–1000 m distances from brick kilns. Iron and Mn concentrations vary within a permissible limit but the plant uptake is high. Nitrogen concentrations is increasing with the distance from the brick kilns in both soils and plants but no definite pattern of P and K accumulation was found. Research suggested avoiding agricultural practice nearby brick kiln soils due to micronutrient contamination in order to preserve adjoined agricultural environment.

  5. Study of provenance properties on ancient porcelain of Yue Kiln at Si-long-kou with NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese ancient porcelain history has lasted about three thousands years from Shang Dynasty (1100∼1600 BC). A large amount of ancient porcelain sherds with accuracy provenance and ages were excavated from a lot of kiln sites in China. Archaeologists and ceramic experts have recognized and researched it with excavated stratum, utensil shape, body quality, glaze color and painting pattern. However, the appearance characteristic of some ancient porcelain manufactured in different kilns is similar. Therefore, it is still difficult to identify the provenance and ages of the samples excavated from some sites using traditional methods. Up, to now, many problems of Chinese ancient porcelain are confused for archaeologist and collecting experts. The elemental composition of ancient porcelain shows certain information of provenance and age. Especially, the sorts and contents of the elements in porcelain didn't change, so it is very useful to determine the provenance of ancient porcelain with elemental composition characteristics. Provenance characteristic is the important scientific information to identify ancient porcelain wares excavated from sites and graves. The porcelain samples of Si-Long-Kou Yue kiln in Zhejiang Province of china have been analyzed with NAA in this paper. The provenance characteristic was compared with it of Hong-Zhou kiln of Jiang-Xi Province and Yao-Zhou kiln of Shan-Xi Province. The experimental data were studied with statistic methods. The results show that the chemical compositions of porcelain body samples for three kilns were different. The difference was been able identified. The porcelain body materials of both Si-Long-Kou Yue kiln and Hong-Zhou kiln of Jiang-Xi were similar. The samples of Yao-Zhou kiln in north of China existed obvious difference.

  6. [Chemical composition and chromaticity characteristic of purple-gold glaze of Jingdezhen imperial kiln].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun-Ming; Li, Qi-Jiang; Zhang, Mao-Lin; Ding, Yin-Zhong; Cao, Jian-Wen; Liu, Xiao-Jing

    2014-03-01

    Color glaze is one of the four famous traditional ceramics of Jingdezhen, especially for the products from Ming and Qing Dynasties' official kilns which have rich connotation of technology and culture. The chemical composition and chromaticity characteristic of glaze and body of purple-gold glaze samples from Jingdezhen Ming and Qing Dynasties' official kilns were analyzed by energy dispersive X ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and colorimeter. Preliminary study on the composition, formula and chromaticity characteristic of glaze of purple-gold glaze samples of different period was carried out and the intrinsic causes of ifferences were discussed. The result shows that the concentration of magnesium and calcium in purple-gold glaze is different from the other glazes in Jingdezhen in the same time, probably due to the addition of auburn or brown limestone which is rich in magnesium. The purple-gold glaze sample of Ming Dynasty is darker chiefly because the concentration of magnesium and calcium is higher than the sample of Ming Dynasty which led to iron crystal separated, reducing the brightness and glossiness of glaze. In addition, the body of purple-gold glaze samples from Jingdezhen Ming and Qing Dynasties' official kilns has the characteristics of high silicon and low aluminum and the molar ratio of silicon to aluminum of samples from Ming Dynasty to Qing Dynasty declined, showing that the concentration of kaolin of sample's body of Ming dynasty was increased. The result of this experiment fill deficiency in the ceramic science and technology research in our country about purple-gold glaze from Ming and Qing Dynasties' official kilns and provides scientific material for comprehensive understanding of porcelain marking technology and intrinsic value of Jingdezhen official kiln. PMID:25208422

  7. Occupational Health Hazards of Women Working in Brick Kiln and Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G Vaidya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In brick kiln and construction industry the exposure to carbon monoxide and silica dust is the most common occupational hazard to the workers in these industries. A study on occupational health hazards of working women in these two unorganized sectors was undertaken by Lokmanya Medical Research Centre. Objectives: To study the effect of work site environment on the health of the women working in brick kiln and construction industry. An attempt was also made to study the seasonal changes in the concentration of carbon monoxide and dust at the worksite. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the working women (age 18-40 years at brick kilns and construction sites during summer and winter season. They were examined primarily to assess the effect of working environment on health. Gasteck Detector Pump of model 800 and air sampling instrument (SKC Air Check–52 were used to measure concentration of carbon monoxide and dust in the air respectively. Results: There were 66% of women who were in the age group of 18-40 years and most of them (94% were married. At brick kiln sites, average CO exposure was 62.8 ppm and 55.5 ppm and average dust exposure was 3 3 146.1 mg/m and 91.4 mg/m in summer and winter season respectively.At construction sites, average dust exposure was 41.5 ppm and 90.8 ppm in summer and winter. Conclusion: Both exposure to CO and dust were more in summer than in winter in brick kiln industry whereas in construction industry the exposure to dust was more in winter season. A high level of morbidity in the form of headache, bodyache, problems with vision, cough and breathlessness were observed in both industries. It is strongly recommended to take pollution control measures.

  8. 试论观台金代磁州窑%On the Cizhou Kilns of the Jin Period at Guantai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张子英

    2001-01-01

    The author challenges the traditional argument that the Cizhou Kilns in Cizhou reached the peak of development during the Song dynasty. Based on ancient texts, agriculture and craft production became highly developed during te Jin dynasty, and archaeologists have found abundant ceramic products of the Cizhou Kilns dating to the Jin. These ceramics were various in type and elegant in style, and the production techniques were as good as those of the Song. The author, therefore, suggests that production of the Cizhou Kilns reached the highest level during the period of Shizong and Zhangzong in the Jin dynasy.

  9. OPAL Jet Chamber Prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    OPAL was one of the four experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 - 2000. OPAL's central tracking system consists of (in order of increasing radius) a silicon microvertex detector, a vertex detector, a jet chamber, and z-chambers. All the tracking detectors work by observing the ionization of atoms by charged particles passing by: when the atoms are ionized, electrons are knocked out of their atomic orbitals, and are then able to move freely in the detector. These ionization electrons are detected in the dirfferent parts of the tracking system. This piece is a prototype of the jet chambers

  10. Gridded ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved ionization chamber type x-ray detector comprises a heavy gas at high pressure disposed between an anode and a cathode. An open grid structure is disposed adjacent the anode and is maintained at a voltsge intermediate between the cathode and anode potentials. The electric field which is produced by positive ions drifting toward the cathode is thus shielded from the anode. Current measuring circuits connected to the anode are, therefore, responsive only to electron current flow within the chamber and the recovery time of the chamber is shortened. The grid structure also serves to shield the anode from electrical currents which might otherwise be induced by mechanical vibrations in the ionization chamber structure

  11. ALICE Time Projection Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Lippmann, C

    2013-01-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main device in the ALICE 'central barrel' for the tracking and identification (PID) of charged particles. It has to cope with unprecedented densities of charges particles.

  12. Toxic Test Chambers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Hazardous material test facility Both facilities have 16,000 cubic foot chambers, equipped with 5000 CFM CBR filter systems with an air change...

  13. Calorimetry with flash chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flash chambers used in the Fermilab E594 neutrino experiment are described, and their use in a calorimeter discussed. Resolutions obtained with a calibration beam are presented, and comments made about the pattern recognition capabilities of the calorimeter

  14. Bubble chamber: antiproton annihilation

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    These images show real particle tracks from the annihilation of an antiproton in the 80 cm Saclay liquid hydrogen bubble chamber. A negative kaon and a neutral kaon are produced in this process, as well as a positive pion. The invention of bubble chambers in 1952 revolutionized the field of particle physics, allowing real tracks left by particles to be seen and photographed by expanding liquid that had been heated to boiling point.

  15. Gridded Ionization Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper the working principles of a gridded ionization chamber are given, and all the different factors that determine its resolution power are analyzed in detail. One of these devices, built in the Physics Division of the JEN and designed specially for use in measurements of alpha spectroscopy, is described. finally the main applications, in which the chamber can be used, are shown. (Author) 17 refs

  16. The effect of alternative fuel combustion in the cement kiln main burner on production capacity and improvement with oxygen enrichment.

    OpenAIRE

    Ariyaratne, W. K. Hiromi; Melaaen, Morten Christian; Tokheim, Lars-André

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical model based on a mass and energy balance for the combustion in a cement rotary kiln was developed. The model was used to investigate the impact of replacing about 45 % of the primary coal energy by different alternative fuels. Refuse derived fuel, waste wood, solid hazardous waste and liquid hazardous waste were used in the modeling. The results showed that in order to keep the kiln temperature unchanged, and thereby maintain the required clinker quality, the production capa...

  17. Target Chamber Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantillo, Anthony; Watson, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    A system has been developed to allow remote actuation of sensors in a high vacuum target chamber used with a particle accelerator. Typically, sensors of various types are placed into the target chamber at specific radial and angular positions relative to the beam line and target. The chamber is then evacuated and the experiments are performed for those sensor positions. Then, the chamber is opened, the sensors are repositioned to new angles or radii, and the process is repeated, with a separate pump-down cycle for each set of sensor positions. The new sensor positioning system allows scientists to pre-set the radii of up to a dozen sensors, and then remotely actuate their angular positions without breaking the vacuum of the target chamber. This reduces the time required to reposition sensors from 6 hours to 1 minute. The sensors are placed into one of two tracks that are separately actuated using vacuum-grade stepping motors. The positions of the sensors are verified using absolute optical rotary encoders, and the positions are accurate to 0.5 degrees. The positions of the sensors are electronically recorded and time-stamped after every change. User control is through a GUI using LabVIEW.

  18. Impact of ancient charcoal kilns on chemical properties of several forest soils after 2 centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufey, Joseph; Hardy, Brieuc; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Pyrogenic carbon plays a major role in soil biogeochemical processes and carbon budgets. Until the early 19th century, charcoal was the unique combustible used for iron metallurgy in Wallonia (Belgium). Traditional charcoal kilns were built directly in the forest: wood logs were piled into a mound and isolated from air oxygen with a covering of vegetation residues and soil before setting fire, inducing wood pyrolysis. Nowadays, ancient wood-charring platforms are still easy to identify on the forest floor as heightened domes of 10 meters in diameter characterized by a very dark topsoil horizon containing charcoal dust and fragments. Our goal is to assess the effects of wood charring at mound kiln sites on the properties of various forest soil types in Wallonia (Belgium), after two centuries. We sampled soil by horizon in 18 ancient kiln sites to 1.20 meter depth. The adjacent charcoal-unaffected soils were sampled the same way. We also collected recent charcoal fragments and topsoil samples from a still active charcoal kiln located close to Dole (France) to apprehend the evolution of soil properties over time. The pH, total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content, available phosphorus (Pav), cation exchange capacity at pH 7 (CEC), exchangeable cations (Ca++, Mg++, K+, Na+) and loss on ignition at 550°C (LI550) were measured on each soil sample. We separated the soil profiles in 5 groups based on the nature of soil substrate and pedogenesis for interpretation of the results. We show that the total carbon stock is significantly increased at kiln sites due to higher C concentrations and greater depth of the organo-mineral horizon. The C/N ratio in charcoal-enriched soil horizons is significantly higher than in the neighboring reference soils but clearly attenuated compared to pure wood-charcoal fragments. The CEC is higher in the charcoal-enriched soil horizons, not only due to higher C concentrations but also to increased CEC by carbon unit at kiln sites. The high

  19. The KLOE drift chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adinolfi, M.; Aloisio, A.; Ambrosino, F.; Andryakov, A.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Anulli, F.; Bacci, C.; Bankamp, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Bellini, F.; Bencivenni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Bocci, V.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Bulychjov, S.A.; Cabibbo, G.; Calcaterra, A.; Caloi, R.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Carboni, G.; Cardini, A.; Casarsa, M.; Cataldi, G.; Ceradini, F.; Cervelli, F.; Cevenini, F.; Chiefari, G.; Ciambrone, P.; Conetti, S.; Conticelli, S.; Lucia, E. De; Robertis, G. De; Sangro, R. De; Simone, P. De; Zorzi, G. De; Dell' Agnello, S.; Denig, A.; Domenico, A. Di; Donato, C. Di; Falco, S. Di; Doria, A.; Drago, E.; Elia, V.; Erriquez, O.; Farilla, A.; Felici, G.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Finocchiaro, G.; Forti, C.; Franceschi, A.; Franzini, P.; Gao, M.L.; Gatti, C.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Golovatyuk, V.; Gorini, E.; Grancagnolo, F.; Grandegger, W.; Graziani, E.; Guarnaccia, P.; Hagel, U.V.; Han, H.G.; Han, S.W.; Huang, X.; Incagli, M.; Ingrosso, L.; Jang, Y.Y.; Kim, W.; Kluge, W.; Kulikov, V.; Lacava, F.; Lanfranchi, G.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Lomtadze, F.; Luisi, C.; Mao, C.S.; Martemianov, M.; Matsyuk, M.; Mei, W.; Merola, L.; Messi, R.; Miscetti, S.; Moalem, A.; Moccia, S.; Moulson, M.; Mueller, S.; Murtas, F.; Napolitano, M.; Nedosekin, A.; Panareo, M.; Pacciani, L.; Pages, P.; Palutan, M.; Paoluzi, L.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passalacqua, L.; Passaseo, M.; Passeri, A.; Patera, V.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, G.; Picca, D.; Pirozzi, G.; Pistillo, C.; Pollack, M.; Pontecorvo, L.; Primavera, M.; Ruggieri, F.; Santangelo, P.; Santovetti, E.; Saracino, G.; Schamberger, R.D.; Schwick, C.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Scuri, F.; Sfiligoi, I.; Shan, J.; Silano, P.; Spadaro, T.; Spagnolo, S.; Spiriti, E.; Stanescu, C.; Tong, G.L.; Tortora, L.; Valente, E.; Valente, P. E-mail: paolo.valente@lnf.infn.it; Valeriani, B.; Venanzoni, G.; Veneziano, S.; Wu, Y.; Xie, Y.G.; Zhao, P.P.; Zhou, Y

    2001-04-01

    The tracking detector of the KLOE experiment is 4 m diameter, 3.3 m length drift chamber, designed to contain a large fraction of the decays of low-energy K{sub L} produced at the Frascati DAPHINE phi-factory. The chamber is made by a thin carbon fiber structure and operated with a helium-based gas mixture in order to minimise conversion of low-energy photons and multiple scattering inside the sensitive volume. The tracking information is provided by 58 layers of stereo wires defing 12,582 cells, 2x2 cm{sup 2} in size in the 12 innermost layers and 3x3 cm{sup 2} in the outer ones. Details of the chamber design, calibration procedure and tracking performances are presented.

  20. The KLOE drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tracking detector of the KLOE experiment is 4 m diameter, 3.3 m length drift chamber, designed to contain a large fraction of the decays of low-energy KL produced at the Frascati DAPHINE phi-factory. The chamber is made by a thin carbon fiber structure and operated with a helium-based gas mixture in order to minimise conversion of low-energy photons and multiple scattering inside the sensitive volume. The tracking information is provided by 58 layers of stereo wires defing 12,582 cells, 2x2 cm2 in size in the 12 innermost layers and 3x3 cm2 in the outer ones. Details of the chamber design, calibration procedure and tracking performances are presented

  1. Automated Electrostatics Environmental Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Carlos; Lewis, Dean C.; Buchanan, Randy K.; Buchanan, Aubri

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Electrostatics Chamber (MEC) is an environmental chamber designed primarily to create atmospheric conditions like those at the surface of Mars to support experiments on electrostatic effects in the Martian environment. The chamber is equipped with a vacuum system, a cryogenic cooling system, an atmospheric-gas replenishing and analysis system, and a computerized control system that can be programmed by the user and that provides both automation and options for manual control. The control system can be set to maintain steady Mars-like conditions or to impose temperature and pressure variations of a Mars diurnal cycle at any given season and latitude. In addition, the MEC can be used in other areas of research because it can create steady or varying atmospheric conditions anywhere within the wide temperature, pressure, and composition ranges between the extremes of Mars-like and Earth-like conditions.

  2. Microscale Investigation of Arsenic Distribution and Species in Cement Product from Cement Kiln Coprocessing Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Yufei Yang; Jingchuan Xue; Qifei Huang

    2013-01-01

    To improve the understanding of the immobilization mechanism and the leaching risk of Arsenic (As) in the cement product from coprocessing wastes using cement kiln, distribution and species of As in cement product were determined by microscale investigation methods, including electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. In this study, sodium arsenate crystals (Na3AsO412H2O) were mixed with cement production raw materials and calcined to produce cement clinker. Then, ...

  3. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among brick kiln workers in rural Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leeberk Raja Inbaraj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A variety of musculoskeletal disorders and discomfort are seen among brick kiln workers, where heavy physical work is associated with awkward working postures and manual handling of materials, leading to significant morbidity. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in unorganized brick kiln industries in villages of Vellore district of Tamil Nadu and included 310 brick kiln workers. Modified Nordic Questionnaire was used to survey the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and the intensity of pain was assessed by the body pain discomfort scale. Results: The mean age of the workers was 37 ΁ 13.2 years with a range of 18-85 years. 62% (n = 192 had normal body mass index, whereas 27% (n = 85 were undernourished. The commonest posture adopted at work was squatting (67% followed by standing (14%. Majority of workers (87%, n = 269 reported to having symptoms of pain currently of which 51% (n = 158 had pain during work. Chronic low back ache (LBA (1 year prevalence -59% and acute LBA (1 week prevalence-33% were the commonest followed by chronic knee pain. More than 10 years of work was significantly associated (P < 0.05 with acute LBA and acute and chronic knee pain. Severity of the pain was also significantly (t statistic 2.476, P < 0.05 associated with job dissatisfaction. Conclusion: Long-term brick kiln workers, who adopt a specific posture for prolonged periods, have severe musculoskeletal pain that interferes with activities of daily living and reduces job satisfaction. Health education on frequent postural change, implementation and monitoring of laws among unorganized industries are recommended to bring down morbidity due to musculoskeletal disorders (MSD.

  4. Reinforcement Learning-Based Supervisory Control Strategy for a Rotary Kiln Process

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Xiaojie; Yue, Heng; Chai, Tianyou

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, we focus on the discussion about an implementation strategy of how to employ reinforcement learning in control of a typical complex industrial process to enhance control performance and adaptability for the variations of operating conditions of the automatic control system. Operation of large rotary kilns is difficult and relies on experienced human operators observing the burning status, because of their inherent complexities. Thus the problem of human-machine coordination i...

  5. Research on the Desulfurization Gypsum of the Rotary Kiln with the Finned Tube

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zongyu; Xin, Zhaoxiang; Jie LI; Zhao, Hongming

    2010-01-01

    The calcination technology of the desulfurization gypsum decides the product quality directly. The production process and property of the desulfurization gypsum has been described and themerits and faults of the conventional calcination technologies have been analyzed. The calcination technology of the desulfurization gypsum of the rotary kiln with the finned tube was chose for the research. The structure and workflow of the calcinatory has been analyzed, and the results showed the advantages...

  6. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL THROUGH KILN RECYCLING BY-PASS DUST IN A CEMENT FACTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mohsenzadeh, J. Nouri, A. Ranjbar, M. Mohammadian Fazli, A. A. Babaie

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a major problem in the industrial areas. Cement dust is one of the important environmental pollutants. In this study the possibility of dust recycling especially kiln dust which has significant importance regarding air pollution in the cement plant, was examined. Tehran cement factory is one of the most important Iranian factories which is located in Tehran. This factory produces high volume of pollutants that are released to in environment. The possibility of reusing of kiln by pass returned dust has been examined in this factory. Different percentages of kiln by-pass dust of this factory were added to products and outcomes of its presence in parameters such as chemical compound, granulation, primary and final catch time, volume expansion, consumed water and resistance of mortar were surveyed. The result indicated that by adding the amounts of 3-8 dust the mortar resistance increase, but adding more than 15%, the mortar resistance has been decreased. Survey in consumed water proved that adding dust to cement, the trend for consuming water is decreased. After dust addition dust, primary and final catch time were compared in different samples and data which showed decrease in dust added samples. Cements with dust added showed increase in auto clave expansion. Overally, results proved that, the best percentage rate of dust addition to the cement was 15%.

  7. A Numerical Assessment of the Air Flow Behaviour in a Conventional Compact Dry Kiln

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Zdanski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Convective drying is the most common drying strategy used in timber manufacturing industries in the developing world. In convective drying, the reduction rate of the moisture content is directly affected by the flow topology in the inlet and exit plenums and the air flow velocity in the channels formed by timber layers.Turbulence, boundary layer separation, vortex formation and recirculation regions are flow features that are intrinsically associated with the kiln geometry, which in turn dictate the flow velocity across the timber stack and, ultimately, the drying rate. Within this framework, this work presents a numerical study of the effects of the plenum width and inlet flow velocity in a compact dry kiln aiming to establish design recommendations to ensure the highest possible level of flow uniformity across the lumber stack. The numerical solution of the mathematical model is obtained through the finite-volume based Ansys CFX R flow solver. Validation of the numerical approximation is performed by comparing numerical and experimental flow velocities for a scale model of a kiln available in the literature.

  8. Feasibility of disposing waste glyphosate neutralization liquor with cement rotary kiln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Y.; Bao, Y.B.; Cai, X.L.; Chen, C.H. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Ye, X.C., E-mail: yexuchu@njtech.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • The waste neutralization liquor was injected directly into the kiln system. • No obvious effect on the quality of cement clinker. • The disposing method was a zero-discharge process. • The waste liquor can be used as an alternative fuel to reduce the coal consumption. - Abstract: The waste neutralization liquor generated during the glyphosate production using glycine-dimethylphosphit process is a severe pollution problem due to its high salinity and organic components. The cement rotary kiln was proposed as a zero discharge strategy of disposal. In this work, the waste liquor was calcinated and the mineralogical phases of residue were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mineralogical phases and the strength of cement clinker were characterized to evaluate the influence to the products. The burnability of cement raw meal added with waste liquor and the calorific value of waste liquor were tested to evaluate the influence to the thermal state of the kiln system. The results showed that after the addition of this liquor, the differences of the main phases and the strength of cement clinker were negligible, the burnability of raw meal was improved; and the calorific value of this liquor was 6140 J/g, which made it could be considered as an alternative fuel during the actual production.

  9. Feasibility of disposing waste glyphosate neutralization liquor with cement rotary kiln

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The waste neutralization liquor was injected directly into the kiln system. • No obvious effect on the quality of cement clinker. • The disposing method was a zero-discharge process. • The waste liquor can be used as an alternative fuel to reduce the coal consumption. - Abstract: The waste neutralization liquor generated during the glyphosate production using glycine-dimethylphosphit process is a severe pollution problem due to its high salinity and organic components. The cement rotary kiln was proposed as a zero discharge strategy of disposal. In this work, the waste liquor was calcinated and the mineralogical phases of residue were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mineralogical phases and the strength of cement clinker were characterized to evaluate the influence to the products. The burnability of cement raw meal added with waste liquor and the calorific value of waste liquor were tested to evaluate the influence to the thermal state of the kiln system. The results showed that after the addition of this liquor, the differences of the main phases and the strength of cement clinker were negligible, the burnability of raw meal was improved; and the calorific value of this liquor was 6140 J/g, which made it could be considered as an alternative fuel during the actual production

  10. Development of electro fused aggregates for use in refractories for the burning zone of cement kilns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electro fused aggregates are largely used in refractory production due to the better performance reached when they are employed. In this work electro fused aggregates were designed for application in refractories for the burning zone of cement kilns. Initially reaction evaluation was conducted aiming the identification of the most prone refractory systems when single refractory phases react with Portland cement phases at high temperatures. In the next step, raw materials of the best refractory systems were electro fused to generate different aggregate compositions. The electro fused aggregates properties were evaluated and the classified ones were used to produce refractory bricks for the burning zone of cement kilns. General characteristics of these bricks were measured and compared with a standard magnesia-spinel refractory. Aggregates of the system Mg O - TiO2 - Ca O, more specifically aggregates belonged to the compatibility triangle Mg O - Mg2TiO4 - CaTiO3, showed suitable characteristics for development of refractories for the burning zone cement kilns. (author)

  11. Production Of Bio fuel Starter From Biomass Waste Using Rocking Kiln Fluidized Bed System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biggest biomass source in Malaysia comes from oil palm industry. According to the statistic in 2010, Malaysia produced 40 million tones per year of biomass of which 30 million tones of biomass originated from the oil palm industries. The biomass waste such as palm kernel shell can be used to produce activated carbon and bio fuel starter. A new type of rotary kiln, called Rocking Kiln Fluidized Bed (RKFB) was developed in Nuclear Malaysia to utilize the large amount of the biomass to produce high value added products. This system is capable to process biomass with complete combustion to produce bio fuel starter. With this system, the produced charcoal has calorific value, 33MJ/ kg that is better than bituminous coal with calorific value, 25-30 MJ/ kg. In this research, the charcoals produced were further used to produce the bio fuel starter. This paper will elaborate the experimental set-up of the Rocking Kiln Fluidized Bed (RKFB) for bio fuel starter production and the quality of the produced bio fuel starter. (author)

  12. Optimum feeding rate of solid hazardous waste in a cement kiln burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.K. Hiromi Ariyaratne, Morten C. Melaaen, Lars-André Tokheim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid hazardous waste mixed with wood chips (SHW is a partly CO2 neutral fuel, and hence is a good candidate for substituting fossil fuels like pulverized coal in rotary kiln burners used in cement kiln systems. SHW is used in several cement plants, but the optimum substitution rate has apparently not yet been fully investigated. The present study aims to find the maximum possible replacement of coal by SHW, without negatively affecting the product quality, emissions and overall operation of the process. A full-scale experiment was carried out in the rotary kiln burner of a cement plant by varying the SHW substitution rate from 0 to 3 t/hr. Clinker quality, emissions and other relevant operational data from the experiment were analysed using fuel characteristics of coal and SHW. The results revealed that SHW could safely replace around 20% of the primary coal energy without giving negative effects. The limiting factor is the free lime content of the clinker. Results from the present study were also compared with results from a previous test using meat and bone meal.

  13. Distribution of Hg, As and Se in material and flue gas streams from preheater-precalciner cement kilns and vertical shaft cement kilns in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dahai; Peng, Zheng; Ding, Qiong; Karstensen, Kåre Helge; Engelsen, Christian J; Li, Li; Ren, Yong; Jiang, Chen

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of Hg, As, and Se in cement production. Two types of cement plants were studied, including the vertical shaft kiln (VSK) and preheater-precalciner kiln (PPK) processes. Determination of Hg, As, and Se in the main material and gas streams were performed. It was found that recycling of particulate matter captured by an air pollution control device caused a significant enrichment of Hg and As inside both processes. The total quantity of Hg entering the process and the quantity emitted to the atmosphere were found to be 10-109 and 6.3-38 mg, respectively, per ton of clinker produced. The average Hg emission was calculated to be around 41% of the total mercury input. The emissions found complied with the European Union (EU) limit and exceeded partly the U.S. limit. Furthermore, it was found that oxidized mercury was the dominant species in the PPK process, whereas the reduced form was dominant in the VSK process, due to the oxidizing and reducing gas conditions, respectively. Regarding the distribution of As and Se, the major amounts were bound to the solid materials, that is, cement clinker and particulate matter. Based on cement production data in China in 2013, the annual emissions of Hg and As were estimated to be in the range of 8.6-52 and 4.1-9.5 tons, respectively. PMID:26037967

  14. Wire chamber conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet contains program and the abstracts of the papers presented at the conference, most of them dealing with performance testing of various types of wire chambers. The publication of proceedings is planned as a special issue of 'Nuclear instruments and methods' later on. All abstracts are in English. An author index for the book of abstracts is given. (A.N.)

  15. Scanning bubble chamber pictures

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    These were taken at the 2 m hydrogen bubble chamber. The photo shows an early Shiva system where the pre-measurements needed to qualify the event were done manually (cf photo 7408136X). The scanning tables were located in bld. 12. Gilberte Saulmier sits on foreground, Inge Arents at centre.

  16. LEP Vacuum Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This is a cut-out of a LEP vacuum chamber for dipole magnets showing the beam channel and the pumping channel with the getter (NEG) strip and its insulating supports. A water pipe connected to the cooling channel can also be seen at the back.The lead radiation shield lining is also shown. See also 8305563X.

  17. Drift chamber detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers is presented. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysied, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author)

  18. LEP vacuum chamber, prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    Final prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber, see 8305170 for more details. Here we see the strips of the NEG pump, providing "distributed pumping". The strips are made from a Zr-Ti-Fe alloy. By passing an electrical current, they were heated to 700 deg C.

  19. Distributions, profiles and formation mechanisms of polychlorinated naphthalenes in cement kilns co-processing municipal waste incinerator fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guorui; Zhan, Jiayu; Zhao, Yuyang; Li, Li; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Fu, Jianjie; Li, Chunping; Zheng, Minghui

    2016-07-01

    Co-processing municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash in cement kilns is challenging because the unintentional production of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) during the process is not well understood. The distributions, profiles and formation mechanisms of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) as new POPs covered under Stockholm Convention in two cement kilns co-processing MSWI fly ash were studied. The average concentrations of PCNs in stack gas samples were 710 ng m(-3). The PCN concentration in particle samples collected from different process stages in the cement kilns ranged from 1.1 to 84.7 ng g(-1). Three process sites including suspension pre-heater boiler, humidifier tower, and the kiln back-end bag filter were identified to be the major formation sites of PCNs in cement kilns co-processing MSWI fly ash. The PCN distribution patterns were similar to that of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs), which indicates the possibility for simultaneous control of PCNs and PCDD/Fs in cement kilns co-processing fly ash. Chlorination was suggested to be an important formation mechanism of PCNs, and chlorination pathways of PCN congeners are proposed based on the congener profiles. Thermodynamic calculations, including relative thermal energies (ΔE) and standard free energy of formation (ΔG), and the charge densities of the carbon atoms in PCN supported the proposed chlorination mechanisms for PCN formation. The results presented in this study might provide helpful information for developing techniques and strategies to control PCN emissions during cement kilns co-processing MSWI fly ash. PMID:27135696

  20. Three chamber negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A negative ion vessel is divided into an excitation chamber, a negative ionization chamber and an extraction chamber by two magnetic filters. Input means introduces neutral molecules into a first chamber where a first electron discharge means vibrationally excites the molecules which migrate to a second chamber. In the second chamber a second electron discharge means ionizes the molecules, producing negative ions which are extracted into or by a third chamber. A first magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the negative ionization chamber from the excitation chamber. A second magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the extraction chamber from the negative ionizing chamber. An extraction grid at the end of the negative ion vessel attracts negative ions into the third chamber and accelerates them. Another grid, located adjacent to the extraction grid, carries a small positive voltage in order to inhibit positive ions from migrating into the extraction chamber and contour the plasma potential. Additional electrons can be suppressed from the output flux using ExB forces provided by magnetic field means and the extractor grid electric potential

  1. Scintillations in ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High purity Ar and mixtures of Ar with 1% CH4, 3% CH4, CO2 and N2, respectively, have been applied for fission fragment detection in a gridded ionization chamber. Gas scintillation has been observed simultaneously with a photomultiplier VALVO-XP 2041. Whereas all mixtures work equally well as an ionization gas, only Ar + 3% N2 shows a primary scintillation yield sufficient for fas timing. (orig.)

  2. Double chambered right ventricle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Yu, Yun Jeong; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-12-15

    Fourteen cases of double chambered right ventricle were diagnosed angiographically and of these nine cases were confirmed after operation and autopsy at Seoul National University Hospital in recent four years since 1979. The clinical and radiological findings with the emphasis on the cinecardiographic findings were analysed. The summaries of the analysis are as follows: 1. Among 14 cases, 6 cases were male and 8 cases were female. Age distribution was from 4 years to 36 years. 2. In chest x-ray findings, pulmonary vascularity was increased in 8 cases, decreased in 4 cases, and normal in 2 cases. Cardiomegaly was observed in 8 cases and other showed normal heart size. 3. In cinecardiography, 11 cases had interventricular septal defect. Among these 11 cases, VSD located in proximal high pressure chamber was in 2 cases and located in distal low pressure chamber was in 9 cases. 4. The location of aberrant muscle bundle in sinus portion of right ventricle was in 8 cases. In the rest 6 cases, the aberrant muscle bundle was located below the infundibulum of right ventricle. 5. For accurate diagnosis and differential diagnosis with other congenital cardiac anomalies such as Tetralogy of Fallot or isolated pulmonic stenosis, biplane cineangiography and catheterization is an essential procedure.

  3. Validity of archaeomagnetic field recording: an experimental pottery kiln at Coppengrave, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepp, Elisabeth; Leonhardt, Roman; Korte, Monika; Klett-Drechsel, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Palaeomagnetic data obtained from archaeological materials are used for reconstructions of the Earth's magnetic field of the past millennia. While many studies tested the reliability of this recorder for palaeointensity only a few studies did this for direction. The study presents an archaeomagnetic and rock magnetic investigation applied to an experimental pottery kiln, which was operated in 2003 to produce stone ware. This kind of high-quality pottery needs a temperature of at least 1160 °C. Shortly before heating of the kiln direct absolute measurements of the absolute geomagnetic field vector have been carried out close to it. After cooling of the kiln 24 oriented palaeomagnetic samples have been taken. Although Curie temperatures are about 580 °C, that is the typical temperature for magnetite, thermal as well as alternating field demagnetisations reveal also a considerable amount of hematite as magnetic carrier. This mixture of magnetite and hematite is dominated by pseudo-single domain grains. Demagnetisation removed in some cases weak secondary components, but in most cases the specimens carried a single component thermoremanent magnetisation. The mean characteristic remanent magnetisation direction agrees on 95 per cent confidence level with the directly measured field direction. Archaeointensity was obtained from five specimens with the Thellier–Coe method and with the multiple-specimen palaeointensity domain-state corrected method. Six of these specimens also provided a result of the Dekkers–Böhnel method, which overestimated the archaeointensity by about 9 per cent compared to the direct value, while after correction for fraction the value agrees very well. For the multiple-specimen palaeointensity domain-state corrected method only fractions between 25 and 75 per cent have been used and specimens showing alteration have been excluded. Above 450 °C many specimens showed alteration of the magnetic grains. Because median destructive

  4. PIXE analysis of proto-porcelain excavated from Tingziqiao kiln site of Deqing (China)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was used to analyze the proto-porcelain excavated from Tingziqiao kiln site of Warring States (475-221 BC) in Deqing County of Zhejiang Province, China. It was found that the porcelain body and glaze differ from each other in recipes. The porcelain clay of high silicon and low aluminum might be used to make the body of proto-porcelain. Lime and plant or wood ashes might be added into the glaze of the proto-porcelain. Cluster analysis was done to reveal the compositional relationship between the proto-porcelain samples. (authors)

  5. White-and-blud porcelain of Hutian kiln in Ming dynasty studied by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of provenance, ages and distinguishing precious ancient porcelain from a fake of Chinese ancient porcelain by modern technologies arose greatly interesting in the circles of archaeologists and scientists in China. Concentration of major and trace elements of white-and-blue porcelain of Hutian kiln in Ming Dynasty were analyzed by PIXE, and elemental distributions of porcelain were analyzed by SPM. The results indicate the elemental distributions in the white glaze, blue glaze and body are homogeneous, respectively. It is a layer nearly 5-10 μm between the body and blue glaze. Probably, cobalt blue pigment used in the blue glaze comes from Jiangxi, Fujian province etc. (authors)

  6. Validity of archaeomagnetic field recording: an experimental pottery kiln at Coppengrave, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepp, Elisabeth; Leonhardt, Roman; Korte, Monika; Klett-Drechsel, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    Palaeomagnetic data obtained from archaeological materials are used for reconstructions of the Earth's magnetic field of the past millennia. While many studies tested the reliability of this recorder for palaeointensity only a few studies did this for direction. The study presents an archaeomagnetic and rock magnetic investigation applied to an experimental pottery kiln, which was operated in 2003 to produce stone ware. This kind of high-quality pottery needs a temperature of at least 1160 °C. Shortly before heating of the kiln direct absolute measurements of the absolute geomagnetic field vector have been carried out close to it. After cooling of the kiln 24 oriented palaeomagnetic samples have been taken. Although Curie temperatures are about 580 °C, that is the typical temperature for magnetite, thermal as well as alternating field demagnetisations reveal also a considerable amount of hematite as magnetic carrier. This mixture of magnetite and hematite is dominated by pseudo-single domain grains. Demagnetisation removed in some cases weak secondary components, but in most cases the specimens carried a single component thermoremanent magnetisation. The mean characteristic remanent magnetisation direction agrees on 95 per cent confidence level with the directly measured field direction. Archaeointensity was obtained from five specimens with the Thellier-Coe method and with the multiple-specimen palaeointensity domain-state corrected method. Six of these specimens also provided a result of the Dekkers-Böhnel method, which overestimated the archaeointensity by about 9 per cent compared to the direct value, while after correction for fraction the value agrees very well. For the multiple-specimen palaeointensity domain-state corrected method only fractions between 25 and 75 per cent have been used and specimens showing alteration have been excluded. Above 450 °C many specimens showed alteration of the magnetic grains. Because median destructive temperatures were

  7. Vacuum Chambers for LEP sections

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The picture shows sections of the LEP vacuum chambers to be installed in the dipole magnets (left) and in the quadrupoles (right). The dipole chamber has three channels: the beam chamber, the pumping duct where the NEG (non-evaporabe getter) is installed and the water channel for cooling (on top in the picture). The pumping duct is connected to the beam chamber through holes in the separating wall. The thick lead lining to shield radiation can also be seen. These chambers were manufactured as extruded aluminium alloy profiles.

  8. Wire chambers revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiwire proportional chambers (MWPCs) have long been used as position-sensitive charged particle detectors in nuclear and high-energy physics. MWPCs are large-area gas-filled ionisation chambers in which large arrays of fine wires are used to measure the position of ionisation produced in the gas by the passage of charged particles. The important properties of MWPCs are high-spatial-resolution, large-area, high-count-rate performance at low cost. For research applications, detectors several metres square have been built and small-area detectors have a charged particle resolution of 0.4 mm at a count rate of several million per second. Modification is required to MWPCs for nuclear medicine imaging. A gamma rays or X-rays cannot be detected directly, they must be converted into photo- or Compton scatter electrons. Photon-electron conversion requires the use of high atomic number materials in the body of the chamber. Pressurised xenon is the most useful form of ''gas only'' photon-electron convertor and has been used successfully in a gamma camera for the detection of gamma rays at energies below 100 keV. This camera has been developed specifically for high-count-rate first-pass cardiac imaging. This high-pressure xenon gas MWPC is the key to a highly competitive system which can outperform scintillator-based systems. The count rate performance is close to a million counts per second and the intrinsic spatial resolution is better than the best scintillator-based camera.The only clinical detector have been developed for positron emission tomography, where thin lead or lead-glass can provide an acceptable convertor for 511 keV photons. Two MWPC positron cameras have been evaluated clinically and one is now routine use in clinical oncology. The problems of detection efficiency have not been solved by these detectors although reliability and large-area PET imaging have been proven. (orig./HSI)

  9. Review of wire chamber aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper makes an overview of the wire chamber aging problems as a function of various chamber design parameters. It emphasizes the chemistry point of view and many examples are drawn from the plasma chemistry field as a guidance for a possible effort in the wire chamber field. The paper emphasizes the necessity of variable tuning, the importance of purity of the wire chamber environment, as well as it provides a practical list of presently known recommendations. In addition, several models of the wire chamber aging are qualitatively discussed. The paper is based on a summary talk given at the Wire Chamber Aging Workshop held at LBL, Berkeley on January 16-17, 1986. Presented also at Wire Chamber Conference, Vienna, February 25-28, 1986. 74 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs

  10. Is child labour a substitute for adult labour?: A case study of brick kiln workers in Tamil Nadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    Augendra Bhukuth; Jérôme Ballet

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to highlight that child labour is complementary to adult labour in the brick kiln industry. Design/methodology/approach – The paper presents a case study of bonded labourers in the brick kiln industry of Southeast India. Findings – The paper finds that child labour is used by parents in the moulding process in order to avoid falling into debt bondage. In this industry, brick making is organized as a home-based enterprise. Thus, child labour increases the...

  11. Council Chamber exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    To complete the revamp of CERN’s Council Chamber, a new exhibition is being installed just in time for the June Council meetings.   Panels will showcase highlights of CERN’s history, using some of the content prepared for the exhibitions marking 50 years of the PS, which were displayed in the main building last November. The previous photo exhibition in the Council Chamber stopped at the 1970s. To avoid the new panels becoming quickly out of date, photos are grouped together around specific infrastructures, rather than following a classic time-line. “We have put the focus on the accelerators – the world-class facilities that CERN has been offering researchers over the years, from the well-known large colliders to the lesser-known smaller facilities,” says Emma Sanders, who worked on the content. The new exhibition will be featured in a future issue of the Bulletin with photos and an interview with Fabienne Marcastel, designer of the exhibit...

  12. Cardiac chamber scintiscanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two methods of cardiac chamber scintiscanning, i.e. 'first pass' and 'ECG-triggered' examinations, are explained and compared. Two tables indicate the most significant radiation doses of the applied radio tracers, i.e. 99m-Tc-pertechnetate and 99m-Tc-HSA, to which a patient is exposed. These averaged values are calculated from various data given in specialised literature. On the basis of data given in literature, an effective half-life of approximately 5 hours in the intravascular space was calculated for the erythrocytes labelled with technetium 99m. On this basis, the radiation doses for the patients due to 99m-Tc-labelled erythrocytes are estimated. The advantages and disadvantages of the two methods applied for cardiac chamber scintiscanning are put into contrast and compared with the advantages and disadvantages of the quantitative X-ray cardiography of the left heart. The still existing problems connected with the assessment of ECG-triggered images are discussed in detail. The author performed investigations of his own, which concerned the above-mentioned problems. (orig./MG)

  13. Effect of flue gas recirculation during oxy-fuel combustion in a rotary cement kiln

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of Flue Gas Recirculation (FGR) during Oxy-Fuel Combustion in a Rotary Cement Kiln was analyzed by using a CFD model applied to coal combustion process. The CFD model is based on 3D-balance equations for mass, species, energy and momentum. Turbulence and radiation model coupled to a chemical kinetic mechanism for pyrolysis processes, gas–solid and gas–gas reactions was included to predicts species and flame temperature distribution, as well as convective and radiation energy fluxes. The model was used to study coal combustion with air and with oxygen for FGR between 30 and 85% as controller parameter for temperature in the process. Flame length effect and heat transfer by convection and radiation to the clinkering process for several recirculation ratios was studied. Theoretical studies predicted a located increase of energy flux and a reduction in flame length with respect to the traditional system which is based on air combustion. The impact of FGR on the oxy-fuel combustion process and different energy scenarios in cement kilns to increase energy efficiency and clinker production were studied and evaluated. Simulation results were in close agreement with experimental data, where the maximum deviation was 7%

  14. The relationship between heat flux and NOx emissions in gas-fired rotary kilns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heat flux distribution and emission characteristic of natural gas burners with a range of significantly different mixing characteristics are compared both in a pilot-scale cement kiln simulator and in operating rotary kilns. One burner type tested in the simulator combines a precessing jet and a high-momentum axial jet whereas the other type is the generic multi-channel burner of the International Flame Research Foundation. The processing jet burner was found to produce higher peak and total heat flux than a multi-channel burner flame optimised to provide good external recirculation, based on the Craya Curtet parameter. However, the NOx emissions from both burners are found to be similar, in contrast to typically large reductions found in industrial installations. This apparent discrepancy is explained by considering the NOx emissions and the heat flux together, since the heat flux is controlled differently in the two facilities. The results demonstrate that the relationship between heat flux and NOx emissions should be considered together in any comparison of different combustion systems. (Author)

  15. Degradation of Alumina and Magnesia Chrome refractory bricks in Portland cement kiln – Corrected version*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Addi K.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In cement plants, the refractory products are particularly confronted to partially liquid oxide phases at temperature ranging between 900°C and 1700°C. All constituents of these products have to resist not only to thermal constraints, but also to the thermochemical solicitations which result from contact material/coating. In order to study the phenomenon of degradation of refractory bricks in cement kilns and to identify the causes of their degradation, we proceed to the examination of industrial cases in cement kiln. Many chemical tests of the degraded refractory bricks have been done and the results acquired were compared to the ones not used. The analysis of the results is doing using different techniques (Loss of ignition, X-ray Fluorescence, X-ray Diffraction. The results show that the degradation of the used bricks in the clinkering and cooling zone is due to the infiltration of aggressive elements such us sulphur, alkali (Na2O, K2O .... The chemical interaction between the Portland clinker phases and refractory material has also an importance on the stability of the coating and consequently on the life of the refractories.

  16. Influence of the composition of cement kiln dust on its interaction with fly ash and slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaunsali, Piyush, E-mail: chaunsa2@illinois.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL 61801 (United States); Peethamparan, Sulapha, E-mail: speetham@clarkson.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Cement kiln dust (CKD), a by-product of the cement industry, contains significant amounts of alkali, free lime, chloride and sulfate. Wide variation reported in the chemical composition of CKDs limits their potential application as a sustainable binder component in concrete. In the current study, the performance of two different CKDs as components in a novel binder is evaluated. Several binders are developed by blending CKDs with fly ash or slag. Binders with 70% CKD were prepared at a water-to-binder ratio of 0.4, and heat-cured at 75 °C to accelerate the strength development. The hydration progress was monitored using X-ray diffraction, and morphological examination was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Ettringite and calcium aluminosilicate hydrate (C-A-S-H) were identified as the main hydration products in the hardened binder system. Strength development of CKD-based binder was found to be significantly influenced by its free lime and sulfate contents. -- Highlights: •Interaction of cement kiln dust with fly ash and slag was explored. •CKD with higher free lime and sulfate content increased the strength of binder. •C-S-H like reaction gel with fibrillar morphology is observed in CKD-based binders.

  17. [Release amount of heavy metals in cement product from co-processing waste in cement kiln].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Fei; Huang, Qi-Fei; Zhang, Xia; Yang, Yu; Wang, Qi

    2009-05-15

    Clinker was produced by Simulating cement calcination test, and concrete samples were also prepared according to national standard GB/T 17671-1999. Long-term cumulative release amount of heavy metals in cement product from co-processing waste in cement kiln was researched through leaching test which refers to EA NEN 7371 and EA NEN 7375, and one-dimensional diffusion model which is on the base of Fick diffusion law. The results show that availabilities of heavy metals are lower than the total amounts in concrete. The diffusion coefficients of heavy metals are different (Cr > As > Ni > Cd). During 30 years service, the cumulative release amounts of Cr, As, Ni and Cd are 4.43 mg/kg, 0.46 mg/kg, 1.50 mg/kg and 0.02 mg/kg, respectively, and the ratios of release which is the division of cumulative release amount and availability are 27.0%, 18.0%, 3.0% and 0.2%, respectively. The most important influence factor of cumulative release amount of heavy metal is the diffusion coefficient, and it is correlative to cumulative release amount. The diffusion coefficient of Cr and As should be controlled exactly in the processing of input the cement-kiln. PMID:19558131

  18. Mush Column Magma Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, B. D.

    2002-12-01

    Magma chambers are a necessary concept in understanding the chemical and physical evolution of magma. The concept may well be similar to a transfer function in circuit or time series analysis. It does what needs to be done to transform source magma into eruptible magma. In gravity and geodetic interpretations the causative body is (usually of necessity) geometrically simple and of limited vertical extent; it is clearly difficult to `see' through the uppermost manifestation of the concentrated magma. The presence of plutons in the upper crust has reinforced the view that magma chambers are large pots of magma, but as in the physical representation of a transfer function, actual magma chambers are clearly distinct from virtual magma chambers. Two key features to understanding magmatic systems are that they are vertically integrated over large distances (e.g., 30-100 km), and that all local magmatic processes are controlled by solidification fronts. Heat transfer considerations show that any viable volcanic system must be supported by a vertically extensive plumbing system. Field and geophysical studies point to a common theme of an interconnected stack of sill-like structures extending to great depth. This is a magmatic Mush Column. The large-scale (10s of km) structure resembles the vertical structure inferred at large volcanic centers like Hawaii (e.g., Ryan et al.), and the fine scale (10s to 100s of m) structure is exemplified by ophiolites and deeply eroded sill complexes like the Ferrar dolerites of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The local length scales of the sill reservoirs and interconnecting conduits produce a rich spectrum of crystallization environments with distinct solidification time scales. Extensive horizontal and vertical mushy walls provide conditions conducive to specific processes of differentiation from solidification front instability to sidewall porous flow and wall rock slumping. The size, strength, and time series of eruptive behavior

  19. Experiments with a spark chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors constructed an experimental spark chamber with a useable volume of 7 x 7 x 5 cm having six parallel 2-mm thick stainless steel plates. The distance between each plate is 8 mm. The chamber is filled with neon under a pressure of one atmosphere. On applying a pulse of about 10 keV on the plates immediately after the passage of a charged particle through the chamber, sparks form along the trajectory of the particle and may easily be photographed. The chamber was first used with cosmic ray μ mesons and then put into the π-meson beam of the SATURN synchrocyclotron. The efficiency of the chamber as a function of voltage and retardation of the applied electric pulse and the dead time are given. The first results obtained with a chamber of 10-litre volume are also presented. (author)

  20. Multi-chamber ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the detector a single beta ionization source and a double- or three-chamber set-up is used, the chambers being designed in the shape of a truncated cone and facing each other with their bases. The source can be positioned with respect to the common center or modal electrode, the adjustment of the ionization in each chamber this becoming easier. The center or modal electrode also can be adjusted with respect to the source. (DG)

  1. Variations and factors that influence the formation of polychlorinated naphthalenes in cement kilns co-processing solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Rong; Zhan, Jiayu; Liu, Guorui; Zhao, Yuyang; Zheng, Minghui

    2016-09-01

    Pilot studies of unintentionally produced pollutants should be performed before waste being co-processed in cement kilns. Polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) formation and emission from cement kilns co-processing sorted municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, and waste acid, however, have not previously been studied. Here, PCNs were analyzed in stack gas samples and solid samples from different stages of three cement production runs. PCN destruction efficiencies were higher when waste was co-processed (93.1% and 88.7% in two tests) than when waste was not co-processed (39.1%), so co-processing waste would not increase PCN outputs. The PCN concentrations were higher in particle samples from the C1 preheater and stages at back end of kiln than in particle samples from other stages, suggesting that cyclone preheater and back end of kiln should be focused for controlling PCN emissions. Besides that, based on the variation of PCN concentrations and corresponding operating conditions in different stages, the temperature, feeding materials, and chlorine content were suggested as the main factors influencing PCN formation. The PCN homologue and congener profiles suggested chlorination and dechlorination were the main PCN formation and decomposition pathways, and congeners CN-23, CN-46, and CN-59 appear to be appropriate indicators of PCNs emitted from coal-burning sources. PMID:27187059

  2. Effects of co-processing sewage sludge in cement kiln on NOx, NH3 and PAHs emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Dong; Zhu, Tianle; Liu, Runwei; Lv, Qingzhi; Sun, Ye; Wang, Hongmei; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Fan

    2016-09-01

    The effects of co-processing sewage sludge in cement kiln on NOx, NH3 and PAHs emissions were systematically investigated in a cement production line in Beijing. The results show that co-processing the sewage sludge was helpful to reduce NOx emission, which primarily depends on the NH3 amount released from the sewage sludge. Meanwhile, NOx and NH3 concentrations in the flue gas have a negative correlation, and the contribution of feeding the sewage sludge to NOx removal decreased with the increase of injection amount of ammonia water in the SNCR system. Therefore, it is suggested that the injection amount of ammonia water in SNCR system may reduce to cut down the operating costs during co-processing the sewage sludge in cement kiln. In addition, the emission of total PAHs seems to increase with the increased amount of the sewage sludge feeding to the cement kiln. However, the distributions of PAHs were barely changed, and lower molecular weight PAHs were mainly distributed in gaseous phase, accounted for the major portion of PAHs when co-processing sewage sludge in cement kiln. PMID:27343866

  3. Gaseous pollutants from brick kiln industry decreased the growth, photosynthesis, and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrees, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Shah, Aamir Mehmood; Abbas, Farhat; Saleem, Farhan; Rizwan, Muhammad; Hina, Saadia; Jabeen, Fariha; Ali, Shafaqat

    2016-05-01

    Gaseous pollutant emissions from brick kiln industries deteriorate the current state of ambient air quality in Pakistan and worldwide. These gaseous pollutants affect the health of plants and may decrease plant growth and yield. A field experiment that was conducted to monitor the concentration of gaseous pollutants emitted mainly from brick kilns in the ambient air and associated impacts on the growth and physiological attributes of the two wheat (Triticum spp.) cultivars. Plants were grown at three sites, including control (Ayub Agriculture Research Institute, AARI), low pollution (LP) site (Small Estate Industry), and high pollution (HP) site (Sidar Bypass), of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Monitoring of ambient air pollution at experimental sites was carried out using the state-of-art ambient air analyzers. Plants were harvested after 120 days of germination and were analyzed for different growth attributes. Results showed that the hourly average concentration of gaseous air pollutants CO, NO2, SO2, and PM10 at HP site were significantly higher than the LP and control sites. Similarly, gaseous pollutants decreased plant height, straw and grain yield, photosynthesis and increased physical injury, and metal concentrations in the grains. However, wheat response toward gaseous pollutants did not differ between cultivars (Galaxy and 8173) studied. Overall, the results indicated that brick kiln emissions could reduce the performance of wheat grown in the soils around kilns and confirm the adverse impacts of pollutants on the growth, yield, and quality of the wheat. PMID:27048492

  4. A spark-chamber spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A programme of developing techniques for the construction and use of spark chambers in high-energy physics experiments has been undertaken. Several methods of construction have been tested and found satisfactory. One method is to cement aluminium plates to frames made from glass or Plexiglas strips. Another is to place the aluminium plates in grooves machined in Plexiglas, forming a ''shelf'' design. A chamber made of rows of wires was successfully operated with a He-alcohol mixture. These chambers can either be filled with gas and sealed, or gas can be passed through them continuously. Chambers have been constructed with plates of various thicknesses ranging from 0.032 in downwards. The operation of the chambers with various spacings between the plates was also investigated. The performance of these chambers, when filled with several different gases (Ne, He, A) and with gas-alcohol mixtures, has been investigated. Several methods of applying high-voltage pulses to the chambers have been attempted. The results of these investigations are presented. Spark chambers placed in a magnetic field can be used in principle to determine the momentum of charged particles and if lead converter-plates are incorporated with them, the resulting system should serve as a gamma-ray spectrometer of high resolution and high efficiency. A magnet with an 18-in useful diameter and a 13000-G field is being fitted with spark chambers, whose performance will be tested with cosmic rays and with an accelerator beam. Results from such tests are presented. (author)

  5. Brick Kiln Emissions Quantified with the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory During the Short Lived Climate Forcing (SLCF) 2013 Campaign in Guanajuato Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, E.; Knighton, W. B.; Herndon, S.; Roscioli, J. R.; Zavala, M.; Onasch, T. B.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kolb, C. E.; Molina, L. T.

    2013-12-01

    Brick kiln emissions are suspected to be a major source of atmospheric black carbon (BC) in developing countries; and black carbon's role as a short lived climate forcing (SLCF) pollutant is widely recognized. The SLCF-Mexico brick kiln study was conducted from 12-17 March 2013 in Mexico's Guanajuato state. Three different types of brick kilns were investigated (MK2, traditional, and traditional three tier) providing data on the effects of different kiln designs on particle and gas phase emissions. The BC and gaseous combustion emissions from these kilns were measured during both the fire stage and the subsequent smoldering stage with real-time instruments deployed on the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory, and quantified utilizing flux tracer gases released adjacent to the brick kiln. This method allows examination of the brick kiln plume's evolution as it transits downwind from the source. Particulate measurements conducted by the mobile laboratory included the multi angle absorption photometer (MAAP) to measure black carbon mass, cavity attenuated phase shift (CAPSext) monitor to measure extinction and soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) measurements of black carbon. The SP-AMS instrument combines the ability to measure black carbon with the ability to determine the chemical composition of the other particulate matter (PM) components associated with black carbon particles. The variance of PM chemical composition will be examined as a function of burning stage and kiln type and compared to other black carbon PM sources. Gas phase exhaust species measured included CO, CO2, NOx, SO2, CH4, C2H6, as well as a variety of VOCs (acetonitrile, benzene etc.) measured with a PTR-MS instrument. All of these measurements will be examined to construct emission ratios evaluating how these vary with different kiln types and different firing conditions. The evolution of particulate matter and gas phase species as they transit away from the source will also be examined.

  6. Kiln control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bob

    2016-03-01

    In reply to the feature article “Bubble signatures revealed in antique artefacts” by Stephen C Wallace and Geraldine Kenney-Wallace (January pp34-38) about how physics can help to tell a real antique porcelain object from a fake.

  7. Thermal model for rotary kiln used in the production of Portland cement clinker; Modelo termico para forno rotativo utilizado para produzir clinquer de cimento Portland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Vanisa C.; Menon, Genesio J.; Silva, Rogerio J. [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Mecanica

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents a heat transfer model for a rotary kiln used for producing clinker of Portland cement. The temperatures will depend only on position throughout length of the kiln and time. It has been considered the heat loss through wall and the transferred heat to the solids. The finite element method has been utilized on a one-dimensional representation basis. From the results obtained it was possible to evaluate the kiln behavior, as starting point for a study of co-incineration of waste. (author)

  8. Survey of the Baihe Porcelain Kiln-site in Gongyi City,Henan%河南巩义市白河瓷窑遗址调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑州市文物考古研究所; 巩义市文物保护管理所

    2001-01-01

    In October and November of 1998, Zhengzhou Municipal Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology undertook a survey on the porcelain kiln site in the upper valley of the Baihe river, Gongyi City, Henan Province, and a great number of porcelain shards and kiln implements have been found. The findings are mainly from the Tang Dynasty, while some of them might have been the remains of the Sui and the Song Dynasties. The kiln site was famous for its white porcelain items and some of them were tributes to the Tang Emperors.

  9. National Ignition Facility Target Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wavrik, R W; Cox, J R; Fleming, P J

    2000-10-05

    On June 11, 1999 the Department of Energy dedicated the single largest piece of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. The ten (10) meter diameter aluminum target high vacuum chamber will serve as the working end of the largest laser in the world. The output of 192 laser beams will converge at the precise center of the chamber. The laser beams will enter the chamber in two by two arrays to illuminate 10 millimeter long gold cylinders called hohlraums enclosing 2 millimeter capsule containing deuterium, tritium and isotopes of hydrogen. The two isotopes will fuse, thereby creating temperatures and pressures resembling those found only inside stars and in detonated nuclear weapons, but on a minute scale. The NIF Project will serve as an essential facility to insure safety and reliability of our nation's nuclear arsenal as well as demonstrating inertial fusion's contribution to creating electrical power. The paper will discuss the requirements that had to be addressed during the design, fabrication and testing of the target chamber. A team from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and LLNL with input from industry performed the configuration and basic design of the target chamber. The method of fabrication and construction of the aluminum target chamber was devised by Pitt-Des Moines, Inc. (PDM). PDM also participated in the design of the chamber in areas such as the Target Chamber Realignment and Adjustment System, which would allow realignment of the sphere laser beams in the event of earth settlement or movement from a seismic event. During the fabrication of the target chamber the sphericity tolerances had to be addressed for the individual plates. Procedures were developed for forming, edge preparation and welding of individual plates. Construction plans were developed to allow the field construction of the target chamber to occur parallel to other NIF construction activities. This

  10. National Ignition Facility Target Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On June 11, 1999 the Department of Energy dedicated the single largest piece of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. The ten (10) meter diameter aluminum target high vacuum chamber will serve as the working end of the largest laser in the world. The output of 192 laser beams will converge at the precise center of the chamber. The laser beams will enter the chamber in two by two arrays to illuminate 10 millimeter long gold cylinders called hohlraums enclosing 2 millimeter capsule containing deuterium, tritium and isotopes of hydrogen. The two isotopes will fuse, thereby creating temperatures and pressures resembling those found only inside stars and in detonated nuclear weapons, but on a minute scale. The NIF Project will serve as an essential facility to insure safety and reliability of our nation's nuclear arsenal as well as demonstrating inertial fusion's contribution to creating electrical power. The paper will discuss the requirements that had to be addressed during the design, fabrication and testing of the target chamber. A team from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and LLNL with input from industry performed the configuration and basic design of the target chamber. The method of fabrication and construction of the aluminum target chamber was devised by Pitt-Des Moines, Inc. (PDM). PDM also participated in the design of the chamber in areas such as the Target Chamber Realignment and Adjustment System, which would allow realignment of the sphere laser beams in the event of earth settlement or movement from a seismic event. During the fabrication of the target chamber the sphericity tolerances had to be addressed for the individual plates. Procedures were developed for forming, edge preparation and welding of individual plates. Construction plans were developed to allow the field construction of the target chamber to occur parallel to other NIF construction activities. This was

  11. Ion chamber based neutron detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derzon, Mark S; Galambos, Paul C; Renzi, Ronald F

    2014-12-16

    A neutron detector with monolithically integrated readout circuitry, including: a bonded semiconductor die; an ion chamber formed in the bonded semiconductor die; a first electrode and a second electrode formed in the ion chamber; a neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber; and the readout circuitry which is electrically coupled to the first and second electrodes. The bonded semiconductor die includes an etched semiconductor substrate bonded to an active semiconductor substrate. The readout circuitry is formed in a portion of the active semiconductor substrate. The ion chamber has a substantially planar first surface on which the first electrode is formed and a substantially planar second surface, parallel to the first surface, on which the second electrode is formed. The distance between the first electrode and the second electrode may be equal to or less than the 50% attenuation length for neutrons in the neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber.

  12. Torrefaction of cedarwood in a pilot scale rotary kiln and the influence of industrial flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yanyang; Liu, Rujie; Yang, Qing; Yang, Haiping; Shao, Jingai; Draper, Christopher; Zhang, Shihong; Chen, Hanping

    2015-02-01

    Torrefaction of cedarwood was performed in a pilot-scale rotary kiln at various temperatures (200, 230, 260 and 290°C). The torrefaction properties, the influence on the grindability and hydroscopicity of the torrefied biomass were investigated in detail as well as the combustion performance. It turned out that, compared with raw biomass, the grindability and the hydrophobicity of the torrefied biomass were significantly improved, and the increasing torrefaction temperature resulted in a decrease in grinding energy consumption and an increase in the proportion of smaller-sized particles. The use of industrial flue gas had a significant influence on the behavior of cedarwood during torrefaction and the properties of the resultant solid products. To optimize the energy density and energy yield, the temperature of torrefaction using flue gas should be controlled within 260°C. Additionally, the combustion of torrefied samples was mainly the combustion of chars, with similar combustion characteristics to lignite. PMID:25497055

  13. Application of coal-water slurry on the rotary calcining kiln of pedgion magnesium reduction process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hua-qing; XIE Shui-sheng; LIU Jin-ping; WU Peng-yue; HUANG Guo-jie

    2006-01-01

    Energy saving has been an important concept in modern industry especially to the countries and regions with energy shortage such as China and Japan. Utilization of Coal-Water Slurry (CWS) can improve the burning efficiency of coal and reduce the pollutions of soot, sulfide and the nitride by burning lump coal directly. The CWS is a promising energy saving technique and the effectual substitute of oil. The study on the preparation and application of the CWS has made progresses in many aspects. The present paper studied the basal problems for applying the CWS on the rotary kilns during the calcining-dolomite process in the magnesium factory, summarized the key points for the application process of the CWS and gave the corresponding solutions.

  14. Provenance and indirect dating study on Hongzhou Kiln porcelains by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 100 sherds were collected from Hongzhou Kiln of Jiangxi Province, China and their body samples were analyzed by INAA. The compositional differences between samples with the same period but different provenance were observed. The contents of Na, Rb, Ba, Fe, Th, U, etc., were found to be different among samples from different periods, which implies they may be used to identify the manufacturing age indirectly. The analytical data were further processed by principal components analysis (PCA). The statistical results show that all the sherds can be classified into 5 groups: (1) Eastern Han and Eastern Wu; (2) Western Jin, Eastern Jin and Southern Dynasties; (3) Sui; (4) Early Tang and Middle Tang; (5) Late Tang and Five Dynasties. (author)

  15. Theoretical and experimental studies on combustion of alternative fuels in cement kilns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis, the utilization of alternative fuels for NOx reduction by means of reburning and advanced reburning is considered. Laboratory experiments, full-scale experiments and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations are the basis of the thesis. The goal of the work was to characterize alternative fuels used in cement kilns, with focus on the processes taking place in the precalciner of the cement kiln. To facilitate testing under controlled process conditions, a lab-scale circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) reactor was designed and constructed. A co prehensive study on the fluidization regime in CFBC reactors and precalciners was required to ensure and verify that the operational regime in the CFBC reactor was similar to the regime in a precalciner. Different alternative fuels, such as refuse derived fuel, animal meal and solid hazardous waste, were tested in the CFBC reactor, which proved well suited for characterization of alternative fuels and investigations of NOx reduction, even though the operation of a CFBC reactor is quite complex and gives a certain variation in stability. Experiments with and without circulating mass in the CFBC reactor demonstrated the importance of executing the laboratory combustion experiments in an environment similar to that in the full-scale process, i.e. in the precalciner. Animal meal is believed to follow the reduction route of selective non-catalytic r duction or advanced reburning and to have a special capability of reducing NOx during increased NOx concentrations at the reactor inlet. The increased CO emissions during advanced reburning and reburning with animal meal are most likely to be due to the competition for the OH radical during oxidation of CO and of NH3. Furthermore, it was shown, for all fuels, that an increased concentration of NOx at the reactor inlet increases the ratio of NOx at the exit and NOx supplied. Full-scale experiments were executed at Norcem's kiln 6 in Brevik, using solid

  16. Theoretical and experimental studies on combustion of alternative fuels in cement kilns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axelsen, Ernst Petter

    2002-07-01

    In this thesis, the utilization of alternative fuels for NOx reduction by means of reburning and advanced reburning is considered. Laboratory experiments, full-scale experiments and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations are the basis of the thesis. The goal of the work was to characterize alternative fuels used in cement kilns, with focus on the processes taking place in the precalciner of the cement kiln. To facilitate testing under controlled process conditions, a lab-scale circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) reactor was designed and constructed. A co prehensive study on the fluidization regime in CFBC reactors and precalciners was required to ensure and verify that the operational regime in the CFBC reactor was similar to the regime in a precalciner. Different alternative fuels, such as refuse derived fuel, animal meal and solid hazardous waste, were tested in the CFBC reactor, which proved well suited for characterization of alternative fuels and investigations of NOx reduction, even though the operation of a CFBC reactor is quite complex and gives a certain variation in stability. Experiments with and without circulating mass in the CFBC reactor demonstrated the importance of executing the laboratory combustion experiments in an environment similar to that in the full-scale process, i.e. in the precalciner. Animal meal is believed to follow the reduction route of selective non-catalytic r duction or advanced reburning and to have a special capability of reducing NOx during increased NOx concentrations at the reactor inlet. The increased CO emissions during advanced reburning and reburning with animal meal are most likely to be due to the competition for the OH radical during oxidation of CO and of NH{sub 3}. Furthermore, it was shown, for all fuels, that an increased concentration of NOx at the reactor inlet increases the ratio of NOx at the exit and NOx supplied. Full-scale experiments were executed at Norcem's kiln 6 in Brevik, using

  17. Modelling anhydrous weight loss of wood chips during torrefaction in a pilot kiln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repellin, Vincent; Govin, Alexandre; Guyonnet, Rene [Department of Physico-Chemistry of Multi-Components Materials (PMMC), SPIN Research Center, Ecole des Mines de Saint Etienne (EMSE), 158, Cours Fauriel, F-42023 Saint-Etienne (France); Rolland, Matthieu [Process Developments and Engineering Division, Chemical Engineering Department, Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP-Lyon), F-69390 Vernaison (France)

    2010-05-15

    Beech and spruce chips were torrefied in a batch rotating pilot kiln. For each torrefaction the temperature curve of the moving chips bed was recorded. The anhydrous weight loss (AWL) of each torrefaction was measured. Effect of torrefaction temperature and duration on the AWL was studied. In order to optimise short time torrefaction, models that can estimate the AWL from the chips temperature curve are required. Three phenomenological models were successfully applied. They all gave good correlations between experimental and calculated AWL. These three models can be employed to optimise industrial torrefaction. However, the more complex they are, the more difficult it is to understand their physical meaning. It is thus preferable to use simple model for the industrial control of torrefaction. (author)

  18. Mangrove community in an abandoned brick kiln: A structural and association analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Manna

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of brick kiln along the Hoogly rever sites of lower Bengal is very usual and this phenomenon is not only restricted to India alone but also to the other south Asian countries. The abandoned brick Kiln are important habitat for the formation of mangrove community due to tidal action, loose silty substratum and less anthropogenic interference. In this context, the aim of the present study is to visualize how the structural and association pattern regulate the community dynamics of a mangrove ecosystem. Materials and Methods: The entire study area was divided into 37 units (Quadrats of 27.31 sq m. Structural parameters like density, relative density, abundance, relative abundance, frequency, relative basal area were measured based on vegetation map, prepared through satellite image and ground truthing. Association indices (Ochiai, Dice and Jaccard were measured based on 2X2 contingency/species association table. Results: Out of 10 species under 10 genera and 9 families found in the present habitat, Sonneratia caseolaris is the only mangrove tree species with 155 individuals along with other mangrove associates like Cryptocoryne ciliata, Crinum viviparum, Acanthus ilicifolius and Derris scandens. The high importance value index of Sonneratia caseolaris, Cryptocoryne ciliata, and Crinum viviparum indicated their significant role in community formation. The strong positive association of these 3 species also suggests to help in developing community in stressed environment. Conclusion: Identification of such potential mangrove habitat and study of their community dynamics would be helpful to find out the nature of mangrove establishment for future afforestation programme of threatened mangrove species.

  19. Study of provenance character on ancient celadon of Jin Dynasty produced in Yaozhou Kiln of Lidipo and Shangdian using nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaozhou ware is a typical product of celadon porcelain in northern China. It was very famous for the various color glazes, multiple utensils and unique grain pattern. Yaozhou kiln series were made of Tongchuan, Lidipo, Shangdian, Chenlu kiln site and etc in Shanxi Province of china. It is one of seven kiln series in China. Celadon samples of 63 pieces of sherds were collected, which excavated in stratum of Jin Dynasty (1127-1234A.D.) from Yaozhou kiln of Lidipo and Shangdian sites. The main and trace elements of theses specimens were analyzed by NAA and EDXRF respectively. The contents of 10 main and 18 trace elements were determined precisely. The experimental data are performed with factor and discrimination analysis of statistic method. The result indicates that the trace elements can reveal the provenance character of porcelain better than main compositions.

  20. Chemical and mineralogical alteration of ceramics from a Late Bronze Age kiln at Kommos, Crete: the effect on the formation of a reference group

    OpenAIRE

    Buxeda i Garrigós, Jaume; Kilikoglou, V; Day, P.M.

    2001-01-01

    The formation of reference groups comprises an important procedure in chemical provenance studies of archaeological pottery. Material from ancient kilns is thought to be especially suitable for reference groups, as it comprises a definite unit of past production. Pottery from the Late Minoan IA kiln excavated at Kommos, Crete was analysed in order to produce a reference group in this important area of Minoan ceramic production. The samples were characterized by a combination of techniques pro...

  1. The multigap resistive plate chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeballos, E. Cerron [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Crotty, I. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Hatzifotiadou, D. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Valverde, J. Lamas [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Univ. Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France); Neupane, S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Williams, M. C. S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Zichichi, A. [Univ. of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    2015-02-03

    The paper describes the multigap resistive plate chamber (RPC). This is a variant of the wide gap RPC. However it has much improved time resolution, while keeping all the other advantages of the wide gap RPC design.

  2. Cyclically controlled welding purge chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Robert L. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An arrangement for butt-welding cylindrical sections of large, thin-wall tanks includes a rotatable mandrel with side-by-side sets of radial position adjusters. Each set of adjusters bears on one of the tank sections adjacent the seam, to prevent the sections from sagging out-of-round. The mandrel rotates relative to the welder, so that a continuous seam is formed. A purge chamber is fixed in position behind the seam at the weld head, and is flushed with inert gas. The purge chamber includes a two-sided structure which is contiguous with the cylindrical sections and a circumferential vane to form an open-ended tube-like structure, through which the radial position adjusters pass as the mandrel and cylindrical workpiece sections rotate. The tube-like structure is formed into a chamber by a plurality of movable gates which are controlled to maintain a seal while allowing adjusters to progress through the purge chamber.

  3. The HERMES Back Drift Chambers

    OpenAIRE

    al, S. Bernreuther et

    1998-01-01

    The tracking system of the HERMES spectrometer behind the bending magnet consists of two pairs of large planar 6-plane drift chambers. The design and performance of these chambers is described. This description comprises details on the mechanical and electronical design, information about the gas mixture used and its properties, results on alignment, calibration, resolution, and efficiencies, and a discussion of the experience gained through the first three years of operation.

  4. BEBC Big European Bubble Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    A view of the dismantling of the magnet of BEBC, the 3.7 m European Bubble Chamber : iron magnetic shielding ; lower and upper parts of the vacuum enclosure of the magnet; turbo-molecular vacuum pumps for the "fish-eye" windows; the two superconducting coils; a handling platform; the two cryostats suspended from the bar of the travelling crane which has a 170 ton carrying capacity. The chamber proper, not dismantled, is inside the shielding.

  5. Cement Kiln Process Control Methods%水泥窑头工艺控制方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冰; 何云霄

    2014-01-01

    本文介绍了系统对水泥窑头生产线的组态方法,它使用西门子新型全集成控制系统PCS7,重点分析了关键工艺参数---入窑的二次风量,及其控制要求和影响因素,并提出了它的控制方法。%This paper describes the system configuration method for cement kiln production line that using Siemens new fully integrated control system PCS7, mainly analyzes the critical process parameter- secondary air volume when entering the kiln, the control requirements and influencing factors, and proposes control methods.

  6. SO2 Release as a Consequence of Alternative Fuel Combustion in Cement Rotary Kiln Inlets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortada Mut, Maria del Mar; Nørskov, Linda Kaare; Glarborg, Peter; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2015-01-01

    The combustion of alternative fuels in direct contact with the bed material of the rotary kiln may cause local reducing conditions and, subsequently, decomposition of sulfates from cement raw materials, increasing the SO2 concentration in the gas phase. The decomposition of sulfates increases the...... sulfur circulation and may be problematic because high sulfur circulation can cause sticky material buildup, affecting the process operation of the cement kiln system. The SO2 release from cement raw materials during combustion of pine wood and tire rubber has been studied experimentally in a high...... introduced in different concentrations under the bed material. A threshold concentration for each reducing gas, below which no SO2 release occurs, was found. Introduction of the same molar amount of gas in different concentrations during different time periods showed that a higher reducing gas concentration...

  7. Simulation on Different Proportions of Coal and Natural Gas Co-combustion in a Rotary Lime Kiln

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Gu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Co-combustion of coal and natural gas is a promising technology in the production of active lime. For this technology, proper fuel proportion of coal and natural gas (α is one of the key parameters that requires significant thought. By means of numerical simulation, contrast studies on co-combustion with five different fuel proportions were carried out. This paper firstly puts forward the models used to describe the system based on the actual conditions. Then, numerical simulation results were analysed in detail to illustrate the co-combustion process and the velocity and temperature distribution in the kiln. Finally, comparisons of high temperature region, char conversion, length of calcining zone, CO and NOx emission and total heat transfer rate to the material bed were made in order to make a decision on fuel proportion. Synthetically considering, α=30% is a balance between benefits and costs for the rotary lime kiln studied.

  8. Anterior chamber depth during hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracitelli CPB

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Carolina Pelegrini Barbosa Gracitelli,1 Francisco Rosa Stefanini,1 Fernando Penha,1 Miguel Ângelo Góes,2 Sérgio Antonio Draibe,2 Maria Eugênia Canziani,2 Augusto Paranhos Junior1 1Ophthalmology Department, 2Division of Nephrology, Federal University of São Paulo – UNIFESP, São Paulo, Brazil Background: Exacerbation of chronic glaucoma or acute glaucoma is occasionally observed in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD because of anterior chamber depth changes during this therapy. Purpose: To evaluate anterior chamber depth and axial length in patients during HD sessions. Methods: A total of 67 eyes of 35 patients were prospectively enrolled. Axial length and anterior chamber depth were measured using ultrasonic biometry, and these measures were evaluated at three different times during HD sessions. Body weight and blood pressure pre- and post-HD were also measured. Results: There was no difference in the axial length between the three measurements (P = 0.241. We observed a significantly decreased anterior chamber depth (P = 0.002 during HD sessions. Conclusion: Our results support the idea that there is a change in anterior chamber depth in HD sessions. Keywords: anterior chamber, hemodialysis, axial length, acute angle-closure glaucoma

  9. Air ionization wire plane chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation Measurement for protection level instrumentation requires large number of detectors. Since the number is large, the detector should be cost effective and yet should have good sensitivity. Gas detectors with presently available microelectronics and signal processing capabilities opened a new era in radiation monitoring. Present paper describes the use of air filled multi anode grid planes as detector for alpha detection. Due to multiple anode wire planes, the charge collection efficiency of the air ionization chamber is higher as compared to conventional ionization chamber. The signal from this Wire Plane Chamber (WPC) has a faster and narrower pulse shape as compared to conventional two-electrode chamber of similar dimensions. The reduction in capacitance also improves the signal to noise ratio so that air can be used as the ionization medium without any special cleaning procedure etc and it may be possible to use even engineering plastic as the structural material for the chamber. The paper gives the results obtained so far with this air ionization chamber. (author)

  10. Deterioration and Degradation of Aquatic Systems Due to Brick Kiln Industries – A Study in Cachar District, Assam.

    OpenAIRE

    Sushmita; Mithra Dey

    2015-01-01

    Brick industries are unorganised, rural, small scale industries in Cachar district of Assam which play an important role in economic development of the entire region. It has been observed during the study that these brick industries are responsible for large scale environmental problems like land degradation, air pollution, water quality degradation and loss of biodiversity. The present study deals with the quality of water in the selected brick kilns in Cachar district and its degradation du...

  11. The study of Influencing Maintenance Factors on Failures of Two gypsum Kilns by Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Alimohammadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Developing technology and using equipment in Iranian industries caused that maintenance system would be more important to use. Using proper management techniques not only increase the performance of production system but also reduce the failures and costs. The aim of this study was to determine the quality of maintenance system and the effects of its components on failures of kilns in two gypsum production companies using Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA. Furthermore the costs of failures were studied. After the study of gypsum production steps in the factories, FMEA was conducted by the determination of analysis insight, information gathering, making list of kilns’ component and filling up the FMEA’s tables. The effects of failures on production, how to fail, failure rate, failure severity, and control measures were studied. The evaluation of maintenance system was studied by a check list including questions related to system components. The costs of failures were determined by refer in accounting notebooks and interview with the head of accounting department. It was found the total qualities of maintenance system in NO.1 was more than NO.2 but because of lower quality of NO.1’s kiln design, number of failures and their costs were more. In addition it was determined that repair costs in NO.2’s kiln were about one third of NO.1’s. The low severity failures caused the most costs in comparison to the moderate and low ones. The technical characteristics of kilns were appeared to be the most important factors in reducing of failures and costs.

  12. Design and development of a small scale lime kiln for production of custom-made lime binder

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Válek, Jan; Matas, Tomáš; Jiroušek, Josef

    Glasgow: University of the West of Scotland, 2013 - (Hughes, J.) ISBN 978-1-903978-44-3. [Historic mortars conference /3./. Glasgow (GB), 11.09.2013-13.09.2013] R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF11P01OVV010 Keywords : experimental lime kiln * small scale lime production * replicas of historic mortars * cultural heritage protection Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  13. Respiratory symptoms and illnesses among brick kiln workers: a cross sectional study from rural districts of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Shiraz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occupational risk factors are one of the major causes of respiratory illnesses and symptoms, and account for 13% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 11% of asthma worldwide. Majority of brick kilns in Pakistan use wood and coal for baking the bricks which makes the brick kiln workers susceptible to high exposure of air pollution. This study was designed to describe frequency of chronic respiratory symptoms and illnesses and study the association between these symptoms and different types of work. Methods This was a questionnaire based cross sectional survey conducted among the brick kiln workers in Larkana and Dadu districts, Sindh, Pakistan. A total of 340 adult men were assessed using translated version of the American Thoracic Society Division of Lung Disease (ATS-DLD questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was done to determine the relationship between various socio-demographic and occupational factors (age, education, type of work, number of years at work, smoking status, and the respiratory symptoms and illnesses (chronic cough, chronic phlegm, wheeze, Chronic Bronchitis and asthma. Results Results of the study show that 22.4% workers had chronic cough while 21.2% reported chronic phlegm. 13.8% had two or more attacks of shortness of breath with wheezing. 17.1% workers were suffering from Chronic Bronchitis while 8.2% reported physician diagnosed asthma. Amongst the non-smoking workers 8.9% had Chronic Bronchitis. Multivariate analysis found that workers involved in brick baking were more likely to have Chronic Bronchitis (OR= 3.7, 95% CI 1.1-11.6, p= Conclusion A high frequency of respiratory symptoms and illnesses was observed among brick kiln workers. Age, nature of work and smoking were strong predictors of developing these symptoms and illnesses.

  14. Application of a rotary kiln for the treatment of carbonaceous materials of the selective waste polymer and biomass type

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kříž, Vlastimil; Bičáková, Olga; Náhunková, Jana

    Ostrava: VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava, 2011 - (Fečko, P.; Čablík, V.), 7-11 ISBN 978-80-248-2387-4. [International Conference on Environment and Mineral Processing /15./. Ostrava (CZ), 08.06.2011-10.06.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : rotary kiln * pyrolysis * biomass Subject RIV: DM - Solid Waste and Recycling

  15. Deterioration and Degradation of Aquatic Systems Due to Brick Kiln Industries – A Study in Cachar District, Assam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushmita De

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Brick industries are unorganised, rural, small scale industries in Cachar district of Assam which play an important role in economic development of the entire region. It has been observed during the study that these brick industries are responsible for large scale environmental problems like land degradation, air pollution, water quality degradation and loss of biodiversity. The present study deals with the quality of water in the selected brick kilns in Cachar district and its degradation during Jan-Dec 2014. The existing water bodies are contaminated with different compounds and continuous siltation from the brick kilns. The research focuses on the variation of various physico-chemical parameters such as water temperature, pH, conductivity, Total alkalinity, Dissolved oxygen, Carbondioxide, Nitrate, Phosphate, Transparency in the selected water bodies. The studied ponds were found to be in degrading state with less productivity. Moreover, the result obtained showed the need and urgency to restore the physical, chemical and biological management tactics to conserve and preserve the ecological imbalance and disturbance in the hydro-geo-chemical and hydro-biological cycles that adversely affect the food chain and food web in the brick kiln affected aquatic bodies.

  16. Secular variation between 5 and 10c CE in Japan: remeasurements of 2000 samples collected between 1960-70's from Sueki earthenware kilns in Osaka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, H.; Mochizuki, N.; Hatakeyama, T.

    2015-12-01

    In Japan, archeomagnetic measurements are vigorously developed for years, though it is not well known to paleomagnetism community in english. One of the works is massive archeomagnetic study of Suemura kiln group carried out in Osaka University in 1960's to early 70's. More than 500 kilns were excavated in Sakai city and vicinities, Osaka Prefecture, Japan. The kiln group is called as Suemura Kilns, and are for Sueki earthenware of 5c to 10c CE. About 300 kilns were sampled and most of the samples were measured at the time, and the results are reported in e.g. Hirooka (1971) and Shibuya (1980). However, the results have significant scatter in direction, which may be due to the limitation of old astatic magnetometer measurements and handwriting graphic determination of magnetic direction, and/or the lack of demagnetization. We recently inherited many of those samples and remeasured them with spinner magnetometer applying alternation field demagnetization (afd). The magnetizations are generally very stable, as usual as other archeomagnetic samples, and afd does not change the magnetic direction mostly. However, significant number of sites show large scatter in magnetic directions, which might be due to the wrong identification of kiln floor or disturbance at the time of collapsing or excavation. Taking kilns of α95<4o, we recovered 131 paleomagnetic directions. Although third of them are dated by pottery shape chronology, the range of each pottery style is not precisely known and the relation of the baked floor and the potteries excavated around kilns are not always clear. The carbon dating of those kilns are very scares. Thus we first try to draw secular variation curve in declination-inclination plot. With the rough ages of those kilns, it is pretty easy to draw the SVC. It is also numerically determined taking the distance of each direction from nearest point in SVC and the velocity change of the SVC as penalty function, within a couple of degrees in the error

  17. Technical Note: Historic gypsum-kilns (Morata de Tajuña, Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llamas Borrajo, J. F.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In the locality of Morata de Tajuña and surroundings there was an important settlement of gypsum pits and limekilns, together with other historical industries, now disappear. These activities were developed mainly during the 1960´s and 70´s, but its production decreased because of changes in the productive processes (substitution of discontinuous processes by continuous ones, higher kilns, etc. (1. Nevertheless, some of these furnaces still remain, as well as ancient workers who have provided important information. Within the research project funded by the Madrid´s Government, entitled: Industrial archaeology: Conservation of the mining and metallurgical heritage of Madrid (IV, ancient gypsum pits have been identified and inventoried. The ancient gypsiferous extraction history was recovered and the productive processes fluxes were reconstructed. The state of the heritage is evaluated and the conservation of some of the elements is recommended. Likewise, the intangible heritage was also investigated, being able to show a legend related with these kilns.En Morata de Tajuña y pueblos limítrofes hay una importante tradición yesera y calera, así como de otras industrias de materiales de la construcción ya desaparecidas, sobre todo en los años 60-70 del pasado siglo, debido a cambios en los sistemas productivos (paso de sistemas discontinuos a continuos, hornos mayores, etc. (1. Por eso aún se conservan algunos hornos y también viven antiguos productores, a los que hemos podido preguntar sobre los procesos productivos. En el marco de un proyecto de investigación de la Consejería de Educación de la Comunidad de Madrid titulado “Arqueología Industrial: conservación del patrimonio minero-metalúrgico madrileño (IV” se están identificando e inventariando viejas yeserías, recuperando la historia yesera local, reconstruyendo los flujos productivos y entrevistando a antiguos operarios. De esta manera, se pretende evaluar

  18. Plasma chemistry in wire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an 55Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed

  19. Emulsion Chamber Technology Experiment (ECT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, John C.; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    1996-01-01

    The experimental objective of Emulsion Chamber Technology (ECT) was to develop space-borne emulsion chamber technology so that cosmic rays and nuclear interactions may subsequently be studied at extremely high energies with long exposures in space. A small emulsion chamber was built and flown on flight STS-62 of the Columbia in March 1994. Analysis of the several hundred layers of radiation-sensitive material has shown excellent post-flight condition and suitability for cosmic ray physics analysis at much longer exposures. Temperature control of the stack was 20 +/-1 C throughout the active control period and no significant deviations of temperature or pressure in the chamber were observed over the entire mission operations period. The unfortunate flight attitude of the orbiter (almost 90% Earth viewing) prevented any significant number of heavy particles (Z greater than or equal to 10) reaching the stack and the inverted flow of shower particles in the calorimeter has not allowed evaluation of absolute primary cosmic ray-detection efficiency nor of the practical time limits of useful exposure of these calorimeters in space to the level of detail originally planned. Nevertheless, analysis of the observed backgrounds and quality of the processed photographic and plastic materials after the flight show that productive exposures of emulsion chambers are feasible in low orbit for periods of up to one year or longer. The engineering approaches taken in the ECT program were proven effective and no major environmental obstacles to prolonged flight are evident.

  20. Comparative performance of cement kiln dust and activated carbon in removal of cadmium from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Refaey, Ahmed A

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the performance of cement kiln dust (CKD) as industrial byproduct and commercially activated carbon (AC) as adsorbent derived from agricultural waste for the removal of cadmium (Cd(2+)) from aqueous solutions. CKD and AC were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and surface areas demonstrate the differences of physicochemical properties. Batch equilibrium experiments were conducted for various intervals extended to 96 h at 20, 25 and 30°C to investigate the efficiency of the sorbents in the removal of Cd(2+). CKD expressed high affinity for removal of Cd(2+) and was not affected by temperature, while AC was significantly affected, which reflects dissimilarity in the retention mechanisms defendant in CKD and those pursued by AC. The results were explained by changes of FTIR and SEM images before and after sorption experiments. The suggestion is that electrostatic ion exchange and complex reactions are the main mechanisms for Cd(2+) removal. The kinetic data were evaluated by fractional power, Elovich, pseudo-first order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model was found to correlate with the experimental data well. These results revealed that CKD can be used as a cost-effective and efficient sorbent for Cd(2+) removal in comparison with AC. PMID:27054742

  1. Action-Dependent Adaptive Critic Design Based Neurocontroller for Cement Precalciner Kiln

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baosheng Yang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many factors that can affect the calciner process of cement production, such as highly nonlinearity and time-lag, making it very difficult to establish an accurate model of the cement precalciner kiln (PCK system. In order to reduce transport energy consumption and to ensure the quality of cement clinker burning, one needs to explore different control methods from the traditional way. Adaptive Critic Design (ACD integrated neural network, reinforcement learning and dynamic programming techniques, is a new optimal method. As the PCK system parameters change frequently with high real-time property, ADACD (Action-Dependant ACD algorithm is used in PCK system to control the temperature of furnace export and oxygen content of exhaust. ADACD does not depend on the system model, it may use historical data to train a controller offline, and then adapt online. Also the BP network of artificial neural network is used to accomplish the network modeling, and action and critic modules of the algorithm. The results of simulation show that, after the fluctuations in the early control period, the controlled parameters tend to be stabilized guaranteeing the quality of cement clinker calcining.

  2. Method for determining effective flame emissivity in a rotary kiln incinerator burning solid waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-cai DU; Qun-xing HUANG; Jian-hua YAN

    2012-01-01

    Temperature is the most important parameter for the improvement of combustion efficiency and the control of pollutants.In order to obtain accurate flame temperatures in a rotary kiln incinerator using non-intrusive thermographic method,the effective flame emissivity was studied.A combined narrow- and wide-band model and Mie scattering method were used to calculate the radiative properties for gases and fly-ash particles under different combustion conditions.The effects of the air/waste ratio and fly-ash particles on the effective flame emissivity were discussed.The results of numerical calculations showed that the effective emissivity decreased from 0.90 to 0.80 when the air/waste ratio increased from 1.0 to 1.8,and the effect of the fly-ash particles was ignorable under the conditions discussed in this paper.Experimental measurement results indicated that the accuracy of the thermographic temperature measurements improved significantly if the setting of the flame emissivity was adjusted according to the air/waste ratio.

  3. Stabilization/solidification of selenium-impacted soils using Portland cement and cement kiln dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Grubb, Dennis G; Reilly, Trevor L

    2009-09-15

    Stabilization/solidification (S/S) processes were utilized to immobilize selenium (Se) as selenite (SeO(3)(2-)) and selenate (SeO(4)(2-)). Artificially contaminated soils were prepared by individually spiking kaolinite, montmorillonite and dredged material (DM; an organic silt) with 1000 mg/kg of each selenium compound. After mellowing for 7 days, the Se-impacted soils were each stabilized with 5, 10 and 15% Type I/II Portland cement (P) and cement kiln dust (C) and then were cured for 7 and 28 days. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the S/S treatments. At 28 days curing, P doses of 10 and 15% produced five out of six TCLP-Se(IV) concentrations below 10mg/L, whereas only the 15% C in DM had a TCLP-Se(IV) concentration ettringite (Ca(6)Al(2)(SeO(4))(3)(OH)(12).26H(2)O), respectively. PMID:19339110

  4. Thermal Treatment of Mercury Mine Wastes Using a Rotary Solar Kiln

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Navarro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal desorption, by a rotary kiln of mercury contaminated soil and mine wastes, has been used in order to volatilize mercury from the contaminated medium. Solar thermal desorption is an innovative treatment that uses solar energy to increase the volatility of contaminants, which are removed from a solid matrix by a controlled air flow system. Samples of soils and mine wastes used in the experiments were collected in the abandoned Valle del Azogue mine (SE, Spain, where a complex ore, composed mainly of cinnabar, arsenic minerals (realgar and orpiment and stibnite, was mined. The results showed that thermal treatment at temperatures >400 °C successfully lowered the Hg content (2070–116 ppm to <15 mg kg−1. The lowest values of mercury in treated samples were obtained at a higher temperature and exposition time. The samples that showed a high removal efficiency (>99% were associated with the presence of significant contents of cinnabar and an equivalent diameter above 0.8 mm.

  5. Processing of maize plants by rotary kiln pyrolysis; Veredlung von Maispflanzen durch Pyrolyse im Drehrohrreaktor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klose, W.; Wiest, W. [Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Energietechnik

    1996-12-31

    The fuel quality of maize plants is to be characterized by short, elementary and thermonalysis. The plants will be pyrolyzed in order to facilitate transport and storage. The formal kinetic parameters of three parallel reactions describing solid matter decomposition are defined by means of TG-DSC, and the reaction enthalpy is measured. Pyrolysis experiments in a rotary kiln converter in the kg range show a strong dependence of the product spectrum on process temperature. In particular, the pyrolysis gas yield increases with temperature at the expense of pyrolysis oil and water. (orig) [Deutsch] Zur energetischen Nutzung von Kulturpflanzen wird die brennstofftechnische Charakterisierung von Maispflanzen durch Kurz-, Elementar- und Thermoanalyse durchgefuehrt. Zur Reduzierung des Aufwands fuer Transport und Lagerung sollen die Pflanzen pyrolysiert weren. Mit Hilfe der TG-DSC werden formalkinetische Parameter von drei Parallelreaktionen zur Beschreibung der Feststoffzersetzung bestimmt und die Reaktionsenthalpie gemessen. Pyrolyseversuche in einem Drehrohrreaktor im Kilogramm-Massstab ergeben eine starke Abhaengigkeit des Produktspektrums von der Prozesstemperatur. Insbesondere steigt die Pyrolysegasausbeute auf Kosten der Bildung von Pyrolyseoel und Wasser mit der Temperatur stark an. (orig)

  6. FTIR spectroscopic features of γ-ray influence on new cement kiln dust based glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddeek, Yasser B.; Mohamed, Gehan Y.; Shokry Hassan, H.; Mostafa, A. M. A.; Abd elfadeel, G.

    2015-08-01

    A harmful environmental problem such as cement kiln dust (CKD) was considered as a source of CaO and SiO2, which are useful oxides for the glass industry. So, Na2O, B2O3, Bi2O3, PbO and CKD were used to fabricate new borate based glasses. The structure of the prepared glasses was studied by FTIR before and after gamma irradiation at doses up to 120 kGy. Analysis of FTIR before irradiation revealed that CKD split the characteristic broad band of the vibrations of BO3 structural units into two bands and created two effective ranges of concentrations which were confirmed by N4 calculations. After gamma irradiation, the intensity of the FTIR bands decreased and the structure of glass was weakened when 0 ≤ CKD ≤ 23.5 mol% as a result of energy transferred by gamma rays. Increasing CKD beyond this limit created bridging oxygens, more covalent bonds and interlinked the structural groups of the glass network which may resist the irradiation effects. The glass containing 32 mol% of CKD showed higher resistance for radiation effects which was attributed to its strong covalent bonds and to [BiO6] and [PbO6] structural units.

  7. The CLAS drift chamber system

    CERN Document Server

    Mestayer, M D; Asavapibhop, B; Barbosa, F J; Bonneau, P; Christo, S B; Dodge, G E; Dooling, T; Duncan, W S; Dytman, S A; Feuerbach, R; Gilfoyle, G P; Gyurjyan, V; Hicks, K H; Hicks, R S; Hyde-Wright, C E; Jacobs, G; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Kossov, M; Kuhn, S E; Magahiz, R A; Major, R W; Martin, C; McGuckin, T; McNabb, J; Miskimen, R A; Müller, J A; Niczyporuk, B B; O'Meara, J E; Qin, L M; Raue, B A; Robb, J; Roudot, F; Schumacher, R A; Tedeschi, D J; Thompson, R A; Tilles, D; Tuzel, W; Vansyoc, K; Vineyard, M F; Weinstein, L B; Wilkin, G R; Yegneswaran, A; Yun, J

    2000-01-01

    Experimental Hall B at Jefferson Laboratory houses the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer, the magnetic field of which is produced by a superconducting toroid. The six coils of this toroid divide the detector azimuthally into six sectors, each of which contains three large multi-layer drift chambers for tracking charged particles produced from a fixed target on the toroidal axis. Within the 18 drift chambers are a total of 35,148 individually instrumented hexagonal drift cells. The novel geometry of these chambers provides for good tracking resolution and efficiency, along with large acceptance. The design and construction challenges posed by these large-scale detectors are described, and detailed results are presented from in-beam measurements.

  8. "Flat-Fish" Vacuum Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    The picture shows a "Flat-Fish" vacuum chamber being prepared in the ISR workshop for testing prior to installation in the Split Field Magnet (SFM) at intersection I4. The two shells of each part were hydroformed from 0.15 mm thick inconel 718 sheet (with end parts in inconel 600 for easier manual welding to the arms) and welded toghether with two strips which were attached by means of thin stainless steel sheets to the Split Field Magnet poles in order to take the vertical component of the atmospheric pressure force. This was the thinnest vacuum chamber ever made for the ISR. Inconel material was chosen for its high elastic modulus and strenght at chamber bake-out temperature. In this picture the thin sheets transferring the vertical component of the atmosferic pressure force are attached to a support frame for testing. See also 7712182, 7712179.

  9. Particle detection with drift chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, Walter; Rolandi, Luigi

    2008-01-01

    This volume presents a thorough introduction to the theory and operation of drift chambers, one of the most important modern methods of elementary particle detection. The topics, presented in a text-book style with many illustrations, include the basics of gas ionization, by particles and by lasers, drift of electrons and ions in gases and signal creation and discuss in depth the fundamental limits of accuracy and the issue of particle identification. The book also surveys all types of drift chambers and the various drift-chamber gases in use. The calculation of the device parameters and physical processes are presented in some detail, as is all necessary background material. Thus the treatment, well beyond addressing the specialist in the field, is well suited to graduate physics students and nuclear engineers seeking a both thorough and pedagogical introduction to the field. The second edition presents a completely revised, updated and expanded version of this classic text. In particular, significantly more...

  10. Tohoku one meter bubble chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of Tohoku University and the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, IHI has developed a complete freon bubble chamber system successfully, which is used for photo analysis of elementary particles physics. This system will be delivered to Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) in Illinois (U.S.A.) and will be coupled with the superconducting accelerator (TEVATRON) for the study of elementary particles. The total system of the freon bubble chamber is composed of a stainless steel casting spherical bubble chamber with a diameter of about one meter, an expansion system for freon pressure control, hydraulic system for driving an expansion piston, a freon feed system, a temperature control system, an overall control system as well as camera and flashlight for photograph. (author)

  11. The CLAS drift chamber system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestayer, M.D.; Carman, D.S.; Asavaphibhop, B. [and others

    1999-04-01

    Experimental Hall B at Jefferson Laboratory houses the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer, the magnetic field of which is produced by a superconducting toroid. The six coils of this toroid divide the detector azimuthally into six sectors, each of which contains three large multi-layer drift chambers for tracking charged particles produced from a fixed target on a toroidal axis. Within the 18 drift chambers are a total of 35,148 individually instrumented hexagonal drift cells. The novel geometry of these chambers provides for good tracking resolution and efficiency, along with large acceptance. The design and construction challenges posed by these large-scale detectors are described, and detailed results are presented from in-beam measurements.

  12. Impedances of Laminated Vacuum Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burov, A.; Lebedev, V.; /Fermilab

    2011-06-22

    First publications on impedance of laminated vacuum chambers are related to early 70s: those are of S. C. Snowdon [1] and of A. G. Ruggiero [2]; fifteen years later, a revision paper of R. Gluckstern appeared [3]. All the publications were presented as Fermilab preprints, and there is no surprise in that: the Fermilab Booster has its laminated magnets open to the beam. Being in a reasonable mutual agreement, these publications were all devoted to the longitudinal impedance of round vacuum chambers. The transverse impedance and the flat geometry case were addressed in more recent paper of K. Y. Ng [4]. The latest calculations of A. Macridin et al. [5] revealed some disagreement with Ref. [4]; this fact stimulated us to get our own results on that matter. Longitudinal and transverse impendances are derived for round and flat laminated vacuum chambers. Results of this paper agree with Ref. [5].

  13. General purpose nuclear irradiation chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear technology has found a great need for use in medicine, industry, and research. Smoke detectors in our homes, medical treatments and new varieties of plants by irradiating its seeds are just a few examples of the benefits of nuclear technology. Portable neutron source such as Californium-252, available at Industrial Technology Division (BTI/ PAT), Malaysian Nuclear Agency, has a 2.645 year half-life. However, 252Cf is known to emit gamma radiation from the source. Thus, this chamber aims to provide a proper gamma shielding for samples to distinguish the use of mixed neutron with gamma-rays or pure neutron radiation. The chamber is compatible to be used with other portable neutron sources such as 241Am-Be as well as the reactor TRIGA PUSPATI for higher neutron dose. This chamber was designed through a collaborative effort of Kulliyyah Engineering, IIUM with the Industrial Technology Division (BTI) team, Malaysian Nuclear Agency. (Author)

  14. The CLAS drift chamber system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental Hall B at Jefferson Laboratory houses the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer, the magnetic field of which is produced by a superconducting toroid. The six coils of this toroid divide the detector azimuthally into six sectors, each of which contains three large multi-layer drift chambers for tracking charged particles produced from a fixed target on the toroidal axis. Within the 18 drift chambers are a total of 35,148 individually instrumented hexagonal drift cells. The novel geometry of these chambers provides for good tracking resolution and efficiency, along with large acceptance. The design and construction challenges posed by these large-scale detectors are described, and detailed results are presented from in-beam measurements

  15. The knife-edge chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the design for a new technology for particle track detectors is described. Using standard IC fabrication techniques, a pattern of microscopic knife edges and field-shaping electrodes can be fabricated on a silicon substrate. The knife-edge chamber uniquely offers attractive performance for the track chambers required for SSC detectors, for which no present technology is yet satisfactory. Its features include: excellent radiation hardness (10 Mrad), excellent spatial resolution (∼20 μm), short drift time (20 ns), and large pulse height (1 mV)

  16. Test chamber for alpha spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Robert P.

    1977-01-01

    Alpha emitters for low-level radiochemical analysis by measurement of alpha spectra are positioned precisely with respect to the location of a surface-barrier detector by means of a chamber having a removable threaded planchet holder. A pedestal on the planchet holder holds a specimen in fixed engagement close to the detector. Insertion of the planchet holder establishes an O-ring seal that permits the chamber to be pumped to a desired vacuum. The detector is protected against accidental contact and resulting damage.

  17. Drift and proportional tracking chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many techniques have been exploited in constructing tracking chambers, particle detectors which measure the trajectories and momenta of charged particles. The particular features of high-energy interactions - charged particle multiplicities, angular correlations and complex vertex topologies, to name a few - and the experimental environment of the accelerator - event rates, background rates, and so on - accent the importance of certain detector characteristics. In high energy e+e-, anti pp and pp interactions the final states are dominated by closely collimated jets of high multiplicity, requiring good track-pair resolution in the tracking chamber. High energy particles deflect very little in limited magnetic field volumes, necessitating good spatial resolution for accurate momentum measurements. The colliding beam technique generally requires a device easily adapted to full solid-angle coverage, and the high event rates expected in some of these machines put a premium on good time resolution. Finally, the production and subsequent decays of the tau, charmed and beautiful mesons will provide multiple vertex topologies. To reconstruct these vertices reliably will require considerable improvements in spatial resolution and track-pair resolution. This lecture considers the proportional counter and its descendant, the drift chamber, as tracking chambers. Its goal is to review the physics of this device in order to understand its performance limitations and promises

  18. DELPHI's Ring Imaging Cherenkov Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    The hundreds of mirrors around this Ring Imaging Cherenkov Chamber reflect cones of light created by fast moving particles to a detector. The velocity of a particle can be measured by the size of the ring produced on the detector. DELPHI, which ran from 1989 to 2000 on the LEP accelerator, was primarily concerned with particle identification.

  19. The TESLA Time Projection Chamber

    OpenAIRE

    Ghodbane, Nabil

    2002-01-01

    A large Time Projection Chamber is proposed as part of the tracking system for a detector at the TESLA electron positron linear collider. Different ongoing R&D studies are reviewed, stressing progress made on a new type readout technique based on Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors.

  20. Bubble chamber: colour enhanced tracks

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    This artistically-enhanced image of real particle tracks was produced in the Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC). Liquid hydrogen is used to create bubbles along the paths of the particles as a piston expands the medium. A magnetic field is produced in the detector causing the particles to travel in spirals, allowing charge and momentum to be measured.

  1. Characterization and utilization of cement kiln dusts (CKDs) as partial replacements of Portland cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Om Shervan

    The characteristics of cement kiln dusts (CKDs) and their effects as partial replacement of Portland Cement (PC) were studied in this research program. The cement industry is currently under pressure to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and solid by-products in the form of CKDs. The use of CKDs in concrete has the potential to substantially reduce the environmental impact of their disposal and create significant cost and energy savings to the cement industry. Studies have shown that CKDs can be used as a partial substitute of PC in a range of 5--15%, by mass. Although the use of CKDs is promising, there is very little understanding of their effects in CKD-PC blends. Previous studies provide variable and often conflicting results. The reasons for the inconsistent results are not obvious due to a lack of material characterization data. The characteristics of a CKD must be well-defined in order to understand its potential impact in concrete. The materials used in this study were two different types of PC (normal and moderate sulfate resistant) and seven CKDs. The CKDs used in this study were selected to provide a representation of those available in North America from the three major types of cement manufacturing processes: wet, long-dry, and preheater/precalciner. The CKDs have a wide range of chemical and physical composition based on different raw material sources and technologies. Two fillers (limestone powder and quartz powder) were also used to compare their effects to that of CKDs at an equivalent replacement of PC. The first objective of this study was to conduct a comprehensive composition analysis of CKDs and compare their characteristics to PC. CKDs are unique materials that must be analyzed differently from PC for accurate chemical and physical analysis. The present study identifies the chemical and physical analytical methods that should be used for CKDs. The study also introduced a method to quantify the relative abundance of the different

  2. Assessment of environmental pollution from brick kilns and their impacts on human health in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricks are the most essential component for expanding urbanization in Bangladesh. Brick kilns situated all over the country meet the demand of these bricks. But brick fields are causing some environmental problems too. The objective of this study is to identify the pattern of energy consumption in brick fields as well as their impacts on the environment. An attempt has been made to estimate the emission of pollutants (Green house gases and non- green house gases) from brick fields to assess the impacts of the pollutants on human health of the surrounding areas. In Bangladesh, the total number of brick fields is around 6000. Brick fields use coal, wood fuel and crude a mainly for burning bricks in the kiln. Estimation reveals that in Bangladesh for the years 2003-2004, the coal required was 1800 kton while the wood fuel required was 1260 kton. Estimation also reveals that for Bangladesh the annual emission of the pollutants are 7505931.01 tons CO/sub 2/, 943.93 tons CH/sub 4/, 128.40 tons N/sub 2/O, 21763.49 tons NO/sub x/, 40777.21 tons CO, 1698.48 tons NMVOC and 176223.04 tons SO/sub 2/. CO/sub 2/ emission is the most prominent from brick burning. Estimation shows that, for the present level of CO/sub 2/ emission in Bangladesh yearly afforestation required is about 1.4 x 10/sup 9/9 m/sup 2/ area. The emission causes some health problems among both the workers and local inhabitants. The concentration persist around brick fields (200 m) is very high and is 3000 micro g/m/sup 3/ for SO/sub 2/ and 300 micro g/m/sup 3/ for NO/sub x/ and PM-10 during winter, while for summer the concentration is 1000 micro g/m/sup 3/ and 125 micro g/m/sup 3/ respectively. From the high concentration of these pollutants people face some of the health problems. About 30% of the workers suffer from dizziness while 60% feel fatigue. The headache is the most common problem of all the workers and 75% suffer from it. Those working for many years feel fatigue more than the new comers, 55% and 3

  3. Phytoextraction of chloride from a cement kiln dust (CKD) contaminated landfill with Phragmites australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSorley, Kaitlin; Rutter, Allison; Cumming, Robert; Zeeb, Barbara A

    2016-05-01

    Cement kiln dust (CKD) is a globally produced by-product from cement manufacturing that is stockpiled or landfilled. Elevated concentrations of chloride pose toxic threats to plants and aquatic communities, as the anion is highly mobile in water and can leach into surrounding water sources. Re-vegetation and in situ phytoextraction of chloride from a CKD landfill in Bath, ON, Canada, was investigated with the resident invasive species Phragmites australis (haplotype M). Existing stands of P. australis were transplanted from the perimeter of the site into the highest areas of contamination (5.9×10(3)μg/g). Accumulation in the shoots of P. australis was quantified over one growing season by collecting samples from the site on a bi-weekly basis and analyzing for chloride. Concentrations decreased significantly from early May (24±2.2×10(3)μg/g) until mid-June (15±2.5×10(3)μg/g), and then remained stable from June to August. Shoot chloride accumulation was not significantly affected by water level fluctuations at the site, however elevated potassium concentrations in the soil may have contributed to uptake. Based on shoot chloride accumulation and total biomass, it was determined that phytoextraction from the CKD landfill can remove 65±4kg/km(2) of chloride per season. Based on this extraction rate, removal of chloride present in the highly contaminated top 10cm of soil can be achieved in 3-9years. This is the first study to apply phytotechnologies at a CKD landfill, and to successfully demonstrate in situ phytoextraction of chloride. PMID:26597371

  4. Establishment of a radon test chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A walk-in type radon test chamber of 23 m3 has been built for testing and calibration of radon measurement instruments. The environmental conditions of the test chamber can be varied within a wide range of values. The design objectives specification, monitoring instruments and testing results of this chamber are discussed. This test chamber is available for domestic radon researchers and its accuracy can be traced to the international standard. A routine intercomparison study will be held annually by using this chamber. Other tests like radon progeny and thoron standard may also be performed in this chamber. (1 fig.)

  5. A mathematical model of aerosol holding chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zak, M; Madsen, J; Berg, E;

    1999-01-01

    A mathematical model of aerosol delivery from holding chambers (spacers) was developed incorporating tidal volume (VT), chamber volume (Vch), apparatus dead space (VD), effect of valve insufficiency and other leaks, loss of aerosol by immediate impact on the chamber wall, and fallout of aerosol......-mentioned factors, initial loss of aerosol by impact on the chamber wall is most important for the efficiency of a spacer. With a VT of 195 mL, the AeroChamber and Babyhaler were emptied in two breaths, the NebuChamber in four breaths, and the Nebuhaler in six breaths. Insufficiencies of the expiratory valves were...

  6. Chamber dynamic research with pulsed power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSON,ROBERT R.; OLSON,CRAIG L.; RENK,TIMOTHY J.; ROCHAU,GARY E.; SWEENEY,MARY ANN

    2000-05-15

    In Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE), Target Chamber Dynamics (TCD) is an integral part of the target chamber design and performance. TCD includes target output deposition of target x-rays, ions and neutrons in target chamber gases and structures, vaporization and melting of target chamber materials, radiation-hydrodynamics in target chamber vapors and gases, and chamber conditions at the time of target and beam injections. Pulsed power provides a unique environment for IFE-TCD validation experiments in two important ways: they do not require the very clean conditions which lasers need and they currently provide large x-ray and ion energies.

  7. Emissions behavior and distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) from cement kilns in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tong; Guo, Ying; Li, Xiaodong; Lu, Shengyong; Yan, Jianhua

    2014-03-01

    The production of cement in China is accompanied by various emissions, such as fine particulate matter, heavy metals, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon dioxide…. Moreover, cement kiln presents a potential health risk to its surroundings, linking to emissions of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), in brief dioxins. Flue gas samples were collected from five typical cement kilns during twelve runs and were used to evaluate the levels and distribution of PCDD/Fs in the emissions from cement kilns. The PCDD/Fs concentrations (136 congeners) and I-TEQ values ranged from 2.3 to >40 ng/m(3) and 9.3~90.8 × 10(-3) ng I-TEQ/m(3), respectively, which were lower than the emission standard in China (0.1 ng I-TEQ/m(3)). In weight units, the dominant congeners were OCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, and OCDF; 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF is the largest contributor (36-66 %) to the total I-TEQ value of twelve runs. HxCDF and TCDF were the first two most abundant homologue groups (12-85 and 4-52 %), and the homologue concentration decreased with rising chlorine number for PCDDs. In addition, there was no marked difference in homologue profiles when solid wastes (refuse-derived fuel and municipal solid waste) and hazardous wastes (DDT and POPs) were combusted as supplemental fuels. The use of various supplemental fuels had no obvious effect on the fingerprint of PCDD/F homologues. Moreover, there was no significant difference in levels of PCDD/Fs emission due to the diversity of production capacity, which were consistent with reported previously. Air pollution control device had effect on the homologue profiles, and cement system with electrostatic precipitators (ESP) had more fractions of octachloro congeners to the total. PMID:24306724

  8. PIXE analysis of proto-porcelain excavated from the Huoshaoshan kiln site in Deqing County, Zhejiang Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Zhejiang Province is an important producing area of proto-porcelain. Huoshaoshan kiln site in Deqing County is the only kiln known currently for firing proto-porcelain from the late Western Zhou Dynasty to the late Spring and Autumn Period. Also it is the earliest kiln site unearthed for only firing proto-porcelain so far. It is of great significance for the exploration of Chinese early celadon firing technology. Purpose: The aim is to disclose the elemental characteristics of these proto-porcelains and study the sources of the raw materials and relationship between these proto-porcelains. Methods: We selected 18 samples made at the early period (from the late Western Zhou Dynasty to the early Spring and Autumn Period), 15 samples made at the middle and last period (the last period of the middle Spring and Autumn Period), and 17 samples made at the last period (the last period of the late Spring and Autumn Period). Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was used to analyze these samples and measure the chemical compositions of these proto-porcelains. The factor analysis is used to study the sources of the raw materials and relationship between these proto-porcelains made in the different periods. Results: The results show that for the raw materials of body and glaze, the proto-porcelains at the last period are different from those at the early period, while the same as those at the middle and last period. Conclusion: PIXE combining with factor analysis can be used to study effectively the sources of the raw materials and relationship between these proto-porcelains. (authors)

  9. A new plant chamber facility PLUS coupled to the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR

    OpenAIRE

    Hohaus, T.; Kuhn, U.; S. Andres; Kaminski, M.; Rohrer, F.; Tillmann, R.; A. Wahner; R. Wegener; Yu, Z.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.

    2015-01-01

    A new PLant chamber Unit for Simulation (PLUS) for use with the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR (Simulation of Atmospheric PHotochemistry In a large Reaction Chamber) has been build and characterized at the Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Germany. The PLUS chamber is an environmentally controlled flow through plant chamber. Inside PLUS the natural blend of biogenic emissions of trees are mixed with synthetic air and are transferred to the SAPHIR chamber ...

  10. Increasing Energy Efficiency and Reducing Emissions from China's Cement Kilns. Audit Report of Two Cement Plants in Shandong Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Thekdi, Arvind [E3M, Inc., St. Paul, MN (United States); Lan, Wang [China Building Materials Academy, Beijing (China)

    2011-07-01

    The study documented in this report was initiated in order to conduct an energy assessment and to identify the relationship between combustion issues and emissions from cement kilns. A new suspension preheater/precalciner (NSP) rotary cement kiln at one cement manufacturing facility (referred to as Shui Ni 1 in this report) and a vertical shaft kiln (VSK) at another cement manufacturing facility (referred to as Shui Ni 2 in this report), which are both in Shandong Province, were selected to conduct the energy and emission assessments through collection of data. Based on analysis of the data collected during this assessment, several actions are suggested that could lead to reduction in coal use and reduction in emission of gaseous pollutants from the system.

  11. THE ARTISTIC STYLE OF GUAN KILN CELADON DURING THE SOUTHERN SONG DYNASTY%南宋官窑青瓷的艺术风格

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余卫华

    2011-01-01

    Song dynasty is the peak period of Chinese ceramic art, among which, Southern Song dynasty Guan Kiln celadon is the most graceful bearing. Based on documents and archaeological materials, the paper expounds the genesis of Song dynasty Guan Kiln, explores the artistic style, and analyses the formation causes of the artistic style of southern Song dynasty Guan Kiln.%宋代是中国陶瓷艺术的巅峰期,其中又以南宋官窑青瓷最具风神.文章以出土实物、传世品和文献资料为基础,论述了官窑的缘起,探讨了南宋官窑青瓷的艺术风格,分析了南宋官窑青瓷艺术风格的成因.

  12. Comparison of medieval decorated floor-tiles with clay and tile fragments from the kilns at Bistrup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1976 two tile kilns with numerous wasters of ornamented tiles were excavated at Bistrup near Roskilde. Identical ornaments had earlier been found on floor-tiles from seven sites, mainly churches, in north and east Zealand. The question arose whether some of these tiles were made locally or whether all tiles carrying this particular ornamentation were made at Bistrup. Preliminary results obtained from a comparison of the tiles with material from Bistrup means of neutron activation analysis indicate that not all tiles were made at Bistrup. (author)

  13. The economic benefits of sorting SPF lumber to be kiln-dried on the basis of initial moisture content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluates the economic benefits of sorting green lumber into moisture content classes before kiln-drying. Laser moisture sensing technology was implemented in the sawmill for sorting purposes. The grade outturn and energy savings resulting from shortened drying times were examined. The final moisture content distribution resulting from moisture sorting did not show overdrying or underdrying. Based on grade outturn, the benefits were as much as $15.94 per thousand board feet (MBF) for 2 by 4 by 16 lumber and $19.66 per MBF for 2 by 6 by 16 lumber; energy savings were $1.88 per thousand board feet

  14. Development of multiwire proportional chambers

    CERN Multimedia

    Charpak, G

    1969-01-01

    It has happened quite often in the history of science that theoreticians, confronted with some major difficulty, have successfully gone back thirty years to look at ideas that had then been thrown overboard. But it is rare that experimentalists go back thirty years to look again at equipment which had become out-dated. This is what Charpak and his colleagues did to emerge with the 'multiwire proportional chamber' which has several new features making it a very useful addition to the armoury of particle detectors. In the 1930s, ion-chambers, Geiger- Muller counters and proportional counters, were vital pieces of equipment in nuclear physics research. Other types of detectors have since largely replaced them but now the proportional counter, in new array, is making a comeback.

  15. LEP vacuum chamber, early prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    The structure of LEP, with long bending magnets and little access to the vacuum chamber between them, required distributed pumping. This is an early prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber, made from extruded aluminium. The main opening is for the beam. The small channel to the right is for cooling water, to carry away the heat deposited by the synchroton radiation from the beam. The 4 slots in the channel to the left house the strip-shaped ion-getter pumps (see 7810255). The ion-getter pumps depended on the magnetic field of the bending magnets, too low at injection energy for the pumps to function well. Also, a different design was required outside the bending magnets. This design was therefore abandoned, in favour of a thermal getter pump (see 8301153 and 8305170).

  16. Actuator System with Dual Chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    (8), the lid having a shaft opening (17) for a shaft (6) coupled to the magnetic rotor (5), wherein the magnetic rotor (5), when inserted in the translator cylinder (2), is arranged to translate a linear movement of the translator cylinder (2) into a rotational movement of the magnetic rotor by using...... magnetic flux (82) interacting between the magnetic stator and the magnetic rotor, said rotational movements is being transferred through a shaft (6), the lid (8) with a shaft opening (17) arranged for receiving the shaft (6), wherein the shaft is arranged to make both the linear and the rotational...... movement in the shaft opening (17), the lid (8) being arranged for confining the second end (15) of the translator cylinder (2), the translator cylinder confined by the lid (8) forms,when divided by the magnetic rotor (5), a first chamber (TC) with a first volume and a second chamber(BC) with a second...

  17. MPS II drift chamber system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MPS II detectors are narrow drift space chambers designed for high position resolution in a magnetic field and in a very high particle flux environment. Central to this implementation was the development of 3 multi-channel custom IC's and one multi-channel hybrid. The system is deadtimeless and requires no corrections on an anode-to-anode basis. Operational experience and relevance to ISABELLE detectors is discussed

  18. SMOG CHAMBER VALIDATION USING LAGRANGIAN ATMOSPHERIC DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method was developed for validating outdoor smog chamber experiments as a means of determining the relationships between oxidant concentrations and its precursors - hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides. When chamber experiments were performed in a manner that simulated relevant met...

  19. The KEK 1 m hydrogen bubble chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A medium size hydrogen bubble chamber has been constructed at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, KEK. The bubble chamber has been designed to be operated with a maximum rate of three times per half a second in every two second repetition time of the accelerator, by utilizing a hydraulic expansion system. The bubble chamber has a one meter diameter and a visible volume of about 280 l. A three-view stereo camera system is used for taking photographic pictures of the chamber. A 2 MW bubble chamber magnet is constructed. The main part of the bubble chamber vessel is supported by the magnet yoke. The magnet gives a maximum field of 18.4 kG at the centre of the fiducial volume of the chamber. The overall system of the KEK 1 m hydrogen bubble chamber facility is described in some detail. Some operational characteristics of the facility are also reported. (auth.)

  20. A mathematical model of aerosol holding chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zak, M; Madsen, J; Berg, E;

    1999-01-01

    A mathematical model of aerosol delivery from holding chambers (spacers) was developed incorporating tidal volume (VT), chamber volume (Vch), apparatus dead space (VD), effect of valve insufficiency and other leaks, loss of aerosol by immediate impact on the chamber wall, and fallout of aerosol...... in the chamber with time. Four different spacers were connected via filters to a mechanical lung model, and aerosol delivery during "breathing" was determined from drug recovery from the filters. The formula correctly predicted the delivery of budesonide aerosol from the AeroChamber (Trudell Medical, London......-mentioned factors, initial loss of aerosol by impact on the chamber wall is most important for the efficiency of a spacer. With a VT of 195 mL, the AeroChamber and Babyhaler were emptied in two breaths, the NebuChamber in four breaths, and the Nebuhaler in six breaths. Insufficiencies of the expiratory valves were...

  1. NRAO RF Anechoic Chamber & Antenna Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A shielded anechoic chamber measuring 15 by 15 by 37 feet is located in the Jansky Laboratory at Green Bank. This chamber has been outfitted as a far-field antenna...

  2. Growing and analyzing biofilms in flow chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Sternberg, Claus

    2011-01-01

    This unit describes the setup of flow chamber systems for the study of microbial biofilms, and methods for the analysis of structural biofilm formation. Use of flow chambers allows direct microscopic investigation of biofilm formation. The biofilms in flow chambers develop under hydrodynamic......, and disassembly and cleaning of the system. In addition, embedding and fluorescent in situ hybridization of flow chamber-grown biofilms are addressed....

  3. Ionization chamber kit for in core dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensitivity of a set of ionization walled precise chambers, including chambers with a wall made of a material with different atomic number Z (from 6 to 92), is investigated. It is noted that the considered chambers differ by high radiation stability at slight leakage current on isolators. Using the chambers for determining effective energy of gamma-radiation of the stopped IRT-2000 reactor has shown a good agreement of measuring results with the calculation

  4. Design of a Fully Anechoic Chamber

    OpenAIRE

    Rusz, Roman

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with fully anechoic chamber design. The main aim of this thesis is to design fully anechoic chamber according to acoustics laws and customers (Honeywell’s) requirements. The fully anechoic chamber will be used for measuring sound and vibration quantities. This work is divided into two main parts. The first part deals with the general anechoic chamber theory and all its related design aspects. The second part, practical part, focus on specific design according to requirements...

  5. LEP vacuum chamber cross-section

    CERN Multimedia

    1987-01-01

    This diagram shows the layout of the vacuum chambers used at LEP, which was in operation at CERN between 1989 and 2000. Vacuum chambers are necessary in accelerators to prevent unwanted interactions that can destabilise the beam. The pump on the right sucks air out of the chamber allowing the beam to progress with minimal interactions.

  6. Wire chamber degradation at the Argonne ZGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experience with multiwire proportional chambers at high rates at the Argonne Zero Gradient Synchrotron is described. A buildup of silicon on the sense wires was observed where the beam passed through the chamber. Analysis of the chamber gas indicated that the density of silicon was probably less than 10 ppM

  7. A cryogenic chamber for scattering measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, M. I.; Chepel, V.; Kuchenkov, A.; Gonçalves, O. D.; Schechter, H.

    1999-01-01

    We have constructed a cryogenic chamber to measure scattering cross sections of photons in liquids of low-boiling point. The chamber was tested with liquid xenon using a 137Cs radioactive source emitting 662 keV photons. The spectra obtained are presented and analyzed, attesting the good performance of the chamber for the desired purposes.

  8. Sensitivity of gaseous xenon ionisation chambers (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It seems advantageous to fill an ionization chamber with xenon gas when this chamber is used for measuring a low intensity and high energy electron or positron beam, or monitoring a gamma beam. In the study of 5 to 50 MeV electrons, xenon allows for the ionization chamber yield, an improvement of a factor 4,5. (author)

  9. Cosmic test of honeycomb drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of the test of pokalon-C honeycomb drift chambers by cosmic rays is presented. We discuss the cosmic track reconstruction, autocalibration of drift chambers and identification of cross-talk hits. Preliminary results of the test performed for drift chambers with 5 mm cells are given

  10. Subminiature fission chamber with gas tight penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fission chambers suffer from gas leaks at electric feed-trough. This micro chamber suppresses that defect thanks to an alumina plug and welded seal of the chamber sleeve. This device is easy to produce at industrial scale with reduced dimensions (1,5 mm diameter, 25 mm length). It can work with 30 m long feeding cables. (D.L.). 3 figs

  11. A Sensitive Cloud Chamber without Radioactive Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeze, Syoji; Itoh, Akio; Oyama, Ayu; Takahashi, Haruka

    2012-01-01

    We present a sensitive diffusion cloud chamber which does not require any radioactive sources. A major difference from commonly used chambers is the use of a heat sink as its bottom plate. The result of a performance test of the chamber is given. (Contains 8 figures.)

  12. Simple Cloud Chambers Using Gel Ice Packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Masahiro; Kubota, Miki

    2012-01-01

    Although cloud chambers are highly regarded as teaching aids for radiation education, school teachers have difficulty in using cloud chambers because they have to prepare dry ice or liquid nitrogen before the experiment. We developed a very simple and inexpensive cloud chamber that uses the contents of gel ice packs which can substitute for dry…

  13. Vacuum chamber at intersection I-6

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    The vacuum chamber at intersection region I-6, one of these where experiments in colliding-beam physics will be taking place. The "wheels" prevent the thin wall (1.5 mm) of the chamber from collapsing. The chamber is equipped with heating tapes and its wrapped in thermal insulation. Residual gas pressure at this and other similar regions is around 10_11.

  14. Removal of lead by using Raschig rings manufactured with mixture of cement kiln dust, zeolite and bentonite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, A; Afshin, H; Behsaz, H

    2012-07-15

    The present investigation is a follow-up of study on manufacturing Raschig ring for removal of lead from aqueous solution. The mixtures were formulated using cement kiln dust, zeolite, and bentonite, normally used as natural adsorbents in the industrial scale, according to mixture design algorithm and response surface method. The pastes were prepared by addition of 28.0wt.% de-ionized water, containing 0.1wt.% carboxymethyl cellulose, with mixed powders. The adsorbents were fabricated by extrusion of the pastes in Raschig ring form and calcination at 500°C after drying in oven. The effects of starting materials on the mechanical behavior of rings were studied from view point of mixture design algorithm to optimize the adsorbent composition. This method demonstrated to yield valuable information on the effects of used materials on mechanical characteristics. The study concluded that the strength, reliability and sorption capacity of ring can be simultaneously optimized by the addition of 47.5wt.% cement kiln dust, 32.5wt.% zeolite, and 20.0wt.% bentonite. In the next part of work, the sorption kinetics was investigated. The kinetic study indicated that the modified model can successfully correlate the sorption data. The equilibrium result showed the possibility of lead immobilization by fabricated rings. PMID:22608209

  15. Former charcoal kiln sites where forest was cleared for cultivation: a case study of old biochar in cropland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Brieuc; Dufey, Joseph E.; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The use of biochar as a soil amendment is being increasingly investigated as a win-win solution for mitigating the anthropic CO2 emissions and improving soil fertility. However, data on the long term impact of chars on soil properties are scarce, although they are crucial for better understanding the implications of large scale application of highly persistent biochars to soil. In Wallonia (Belgium), old charcoal kilns are found in most of the area that was forested in the late 18th century. Since then, a non-negligible part of the forest has been cleared for cultivation. Today, old charcoal-making platforms can be seen on bare soils as circular or elliptic black spots due to charcoal enrichment. In order to assess the long-term (>200 years) effects of biochar on soil chemical properties, seventeen kiln sites were chosen in several cropland areas of Wallonia on loessic luvisols (14) and loamy cambisols (3). Composite samples were taken in the ploughing layer (0 - 25 cm) and the underlying horizon (35 - 50 cm) in and out the kiln sites. The pH, total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents, oxidizable carbon (CW&B), available phosphorus (Pav), cation exchange capacity at pH 7 (CEC), exchangeable cations content (Ca++, Mg++, K+, Na+) and loss on ignition at 550°C (LI550) were measured. In order to assess the impact of cultivation on charcoal aging, we also sampled four kiln sites on loessic luvisols under forest. Here, we show that charcoal, diluted laterally by successive tillage, acts as a carbon surplus in the topsoil layer of the black spots. The charcoal-enriched horizon is characterized by higher CEC, C/N and C/LI550 ratio compared to the reference soil. Cultivation of former forest soils accelerates charcoal aging, likely due to a combined effect of mechanical (tillage splits charcoal fragments in smaller pieces and increases soil aeration) and biological actions (promoted by improved trophic conditions due to application of amendments and fertilizers over many

  16. Cylindrical ionization chamber on compressed krypton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cylindrical ionization chamber with a grid is described. The chamber is used in experiments to search for double positron decay and conversion of atom electron into positron in Kr78. The working substance of the chamber is krypton. The spectrometric characteristics of the chamber filled with krypton and xenon are presented. Energy resolution is 2.1% for 1.84 MeV energy (the gamma quantum source is 88Y) when using the chamber filled with Kr+0.2%H2 mixture at pressure of 25 atm

  17. Ionization chambers for LET determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Franz-Joachim; Bassler, Niels; Tölli, Heikki;

    2010-01-01

    Modern radiotherapy facilities for cancer treatment such as the Heavy Ion Therapy Centre (HIT) in Heidelberg (Germany) enable sub millimetre precision in dose deposition. For the measurement of such dose distributions and  characterization of the particle beams, detectors with high spatial...... of columnar recombination was designed to model the detector efficiency of an ionization chamber. Here, we have shown that despite the approximations and simplification made, the theory is correct for the LETs typically found in clinical radiotherapy employing particles from protons to carbon ions...

  18. TRU waste characterization chamber gloveboxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) is participating in the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Transuranic Waste Program in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Laboratory's support currently consists of intrusive characterization of a selected population of drums containing transuranic waste. This characterization is performed in a complex of alpha containment gloveboxes termed the Waste Characterization Gloveboxes. Made up of the Waste Characterization Chamber, Sample Preparation Glovebox, and the Equipment Repair Glovebox, they were designed as a small production characterization facility for support of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). This paper presents salient features of these gloveboxes

  19. Nova target chamber decontamination study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An engineering study was performed to determine the most effective method for decontamination of the Nova target chamber. Manual and remote decontamination methods currently being used were surveyed. In addition, a concept that may not require in-situ decontamination was investigated. Based on the presently available information concerning material and system compatibility and particle penetration, it is recommended that a system of removable aluminum shields be considered. It is also recommended that a series of tests be performed to more precisely determine the vacuum compatibility and penetrability of other materials discussed in this report

  20. Experimental work on drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental work made on drift chambers is described in two chapters. In the firt chapter we present the description of the experimental installation used, as well as some details on the data adquisition systems and the characteristics on three ways used for calibration proposes (cosmic muons, β radiation and test beam using SPS at CERN facilities). The second chapter describes the defferent prototypes studied. The experimental set up and the analysis are given. Some results are discussed. The magnetic field effect is also studied. (Author)

  1. Pupillary block glaucoma following implantation of a posterior chamber pseudophakos in the anterior chamber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Anil

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Pupillary block glaucoma is a common complication of cataract surgery, especially following anterior chamber intraocular lens implantation. We report a case of pupillary block glaucoma with a posterior chamber IOL that was implanted in the anterior chamber following a complicated extracapsular cataract extraction. The case was successfully managed by explantation of the posterior chamber lens, anterior vitrectomy, peripheral iridectomy and secondary anterior chamber intraocular lens implantation. The intraocular pressure was controlled with a single topical antiglaucoma medication.

  2. First evidence of lime burning in southern Scandinavia: lime kilns found at the royal residence on the west bank of Lake Tissø

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Peter Steen; Holst, Sandie

    corresponds well with the dating of the erection of the hall in the third construction phase at Fugledegård. Finds of mud-and-wattle with whitewashing show that the lime was used to whitewash the halls at Tissø in both the Germanic Iron Age and the Viking Age. Analyses of lime from the lime kilns and the...

  3. [Chemical composition analysis of bluish-white porcelain unearthed from Fanchang kiln, Anhui province by wave disperse X-ray fluorescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-zhang; Zhang, Ju-zhong; Zan, Yi

    2010-08-01

    Fanchang kiln was the earliest Chinese bluish-white porcelain kiln which first fired this special porcelain class as early as in Five Dynasties (AD 907-960). However, this important kiln declined rapidly in the middle North Song dynasty (AD 1023-1085). As to the decline reason, it is still not clearly identified till now. In order to find the truth, wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) was used to determine the elemental abundance patterns of its porcelain bodies in Five Dynasties, the early North Song dynasty and the middle North Song dynasty. The analytical results indicate that the chemical compositions of major, minor and trace elements in porcelain bodies changed greatly in the middle North Song dynasty. Combined with the results of INAA and glaze study, this change in elemental composition should be caused by the change in porcelain raw materials or body-making crafts. Meanwhile, it was just this change that led to the quality decline of raw material and rapid collapse of Fan-chang kiln in the middle North Song dynasty shortly after its establishment. PMID:20939361

  4. Physicist makes muon chamber sing

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    This Monitored Drift Tube detector, consisting of argon-CO2-filled aluminium tubes with a wire down the centre of each, will track muons in ATLAS; Tiecke used a single tube from one of these detectors to create the pipes in his organ. Particle physicists can make good musicians; but did you know particle detectors can make good music? That's what NIKHEF physicist Henk Tiecke learned when he used pipes cut from the ATLAS Monitored Drift Tube detector (MDT) to build his own working Dutch-style barrel organ in the autumn of 2005. 'I like to work with my hands,' said Tiecke, who worked as a senior physicist at NIKHEF, Amsterdam, on ZEUS until his retirement last summer. Tiecke had already constructed his barrel organ when he visited some colleagues in the ATLAS muon chambers production area at Nikhef in 2005. He noticed that the aluminium tubes they were using to build the chambers were about three centimetres in diameter-just the right size for a pipe in a barrel organ. 'The sound is not as nice as from wooden...

  5. Testing of a Continuous Sampling Mercury CEM at the EPA-Rotary Kiln Incinerator Simulator Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.P. Baldwin; S.J. Bajic; D.E. Eckels; D.S. Zamzow

    2002-04-12

    This report has been prepared to document the performance of the continuous sampling mercury monitoring system developed by Ames Laboratory for use as a continuous emission monitor (CEM). This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology, through the Mixed Waste Focus Area. The purpose of the project is to develop instrumentation and methods for spectroscopic field-monitoring applications. During FY01 this included continued development and testing of an echelle spectrometer system for the detection of mercury (Hg) by atomic absorption. Due to the relatively poor limits of detection for Hg by optical emission techniques, the CEM has been designed for the detection of elemental Hg by optical absorption. The sampling system allows continuous introduction of stack gas into the CEM for analysis of elemental and total Hg in the gas stream. A heated pyrolysis tube is used in this system to convert oxidized Hg compounds to elemental Hg prior to analysis for total Hg. The pyrolysis tube is bypassed to measure elemental Hg. The CEM is designed to measure the elemental Hg concentration of the gas sample, measure the total Hg concentration, perform a zero check (analysis of room air), and then re-zero the system (to correct for any instrumental drift that occurs over time). This is done in an automated, sequential measurement cycle to provide continuous monitoring of Hg concentrations in the stack gas. The continuous sampling Hg CEM was tested at the EPA-Rotary Kiln in Durham, NC at the beginning of FY02. This report describes the characteristics and performance of the system and the results of the field tests performed at EPA. The Hg CEM system was developed in response to the need of DOE and other organizations to monitor Hg that may be released during the processing or combustion of hazardous or mixed-waste materials. The promulgation of regulations limiting the release of Hg and requiring continuous

  6. Picture chamber for radiographic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The picture chamber for a radiographic system is characterised by a base, a first electrode carried in the base, an X-ray irradiation window provided with an outer plate and an inner plate and a conducting surface which serves as a second electrode, which has a plate gripping it at each adjacent edge and which has at the sides a space which is occupied by a filling material, maintained at a steady pressure, by means of the mounting against the base and wherein the inner plate lies against the first electrode and which is provided with a split, and with means for the separation of the split in the area of the inner plate so that a fluid may be retained in the split. (G.C.)

  7. Legacies of the bubble chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legacies are what we pass on to those who follow us, the foundations on which the next advances in our science are being made; the things by which we shall be remembered, recorded in learned journals, written in the text books -food for the historians of science. This is not a summary, and it will draw no conclusions. It is a personal view which will look a little wider than the main physics results to include a mention of one or two of the technologies and methods handed on to both particle physics and other branches of sciences, a brief reference to bubble chamber pictures as aids in teaching, and a comment on the challenge now increasingly applied in the UK - and perhaps elsewhere -as a criterion for funding research: will it contribute to ''wealth creation''? (orig.)

  8. Repatriation of Gamma Chambers Exported by India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT) is engaged in the production and supply of laboratory gamma chambers. The gamma chambers are self-shielded devices in which a number of 60Co source pencils placed in a cylindrical cage. The gamma chambers are type approved as a device and a transportation package separately by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board. BRIT has exported number of such gamma chambers. For some of the gamma chambers, the type approval validity period is over and can no longer be transported. Hence, the radiation sources need to be transferred to a type approved package before transportation. BRIT has decommissioned five such gamma chambers so far and sources have been repatriated back to India. (author)

  9. Neutron-chamber detectors and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detector applications in Nuclear Safeguards and Waste Management have included measuring neutrons from fission and (alpha,n) reactions with well-moderated neutron proportional counters, often embedded in a slab of polyethylene. Other less-moderated geometries are useful for detecting both bare and moderated fission-source neutrons with good efficiency. The neutron chamber is an undermoderated detector design comprising a large, hollow, polyethylene-walled chamber containing one or more proportional counters. Neutron-chamber detectors are relatively inexpensive; can have large apertures, usually through a thin chamber wall; and offer very good detection efficiency per dollar. Neutron-chamber detectors have also been used for monitoring vehicles and for assaying large crates of transuranic waste. Our Monte Carlo calculations for a new application (monitoring low-density waste for concealed plutonium) illustrate the advantages of the hollow-chamber design for detecting moderated fission sources. 9 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Bubble chamber: Omega production and decay

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    This image is taken from one of CERN's bubble chambers and shows the decay of a positive kaon in flight. The decay products of this kaon can be seen spiraling in the magnetic field of the chamber. The invention of bubble chambers in 1952 revolutionized the field of particle physics, allowing real tracks left by particles to be seen and photographed by expanding liquid that has been heated to boiling point.

  11. Vacuum Chamber for the Booster Bending Magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    To minimize eddy currents, induced by the rising magnetic field, the chamber was made from thin stainless steel of high specific electric resistance. For mechanical stength, it was corrugated in a hydro-forming process. The chamber is curved, to follow the beam's orbital path. Under vacuum, the chamber tends to staighten, the ceramic spacer along half of its length keeps it in place (see also 7402458).

  12. IFE Chamber Technology - Status and Future Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant progress has been made on addressing critical issues for inertial fusion energy (IFE) chambers for heavy-ion, laser and Z-pinch drivers. A variety of chamber concepts are being investigated including drywall (currently favored for laser IFE), wetted-wall (applicable to both laser and ion drivers), and thick-liquid-wall (favored by heavy ion and z-pinch drivers). Recent progress and remaining challenges in developing IFE chambers are reviewed

  13. Construction and performance of large flash chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction and performance of 12' x 12' flash chambers used in a 340 ton neutrino detector under construction at Fermilab is described. The flash chambers supply digital information with a spatial resolution of 0.2'', and are used to finely sample the shower development of the reaction products of neutrino interactions. The flash chambers are easy and inexpensive to build and are electronically read out

  14. Drift chamber tracking with neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, C.S.; Denby, B.; Haggerty, H.

    1992-10-01

    We discuss drift chamber tracking with a commercial log VLSI neural network chip. Voltages proportional to the drift times in a 4-layer drift chamber were presented to the Intel ETANN chip. The network was trained to provide the intercept and slope of straight tracks traversing the chamber. The outputs were recorded and later compared off line to conventional track fits. Two types of network architectures were studied. Applications of neural network tracking to high energy physics detector triggers is discussed.

  15. Vapor wall deposition in Teflon chambers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, X; R. H. Schwantes; R. C. McVay; H Lignell; M. M. Coggon; Flagan, R C; Seinfeld, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Teflon chambers are ubiquitous in studies of atmospheric chemistry. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation can be substantially underestimated owing to deposition of SOA-forming compounds to chamber walls. We present here an experimental protocol to constrain the nature of wall deposition of organic vapors in Teflon chambers. We measured the wall deposition rates of 25 oxidized organic compounds generated from the photooxidation of isoprene, toluene, α-pinene, and dodecan...

  16. Drift chamber tracking with neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss drift chamber tracking with a commercial log VLSI neural network chip. Voltages proportional to the drift times in a 4-layer drift chamber were presented to the Intel ETANN chip. The network was trained to provide the intercept and slope of straight tracks traversing the chamber. The outputs were recorded and later compared off line to conventional track fits. Two types of network architectures were studied. Applications of neural network tracking to high energy physics detector triggers is discussed

  17. First industrial scale pre combustion chamber at the Wildegg cement plant; Premiere chambre de precombustion industrielle pour pneux usages a la cimenterie de Wildegg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertschinger, P. [Jura-Cement-Fabriken, Wildegg (Switzerland)

    2001-10-01

    This article presents the main components of the Wildegg cement plant of Jura-Cement-Fabriken company (Switzerland): a roller mill for the production of raw meal, a four-stage cyclone preheater, a staggered combustion calciner, a rotary kiln, and a reciprocating grate cooler. The article stresses on the design and test-phase of the pre-calciner and of the pre-combustion chamber for the use of used tyres as fuel substitutes with the goals of reaching up to 60-80% of tyres in the total pre-calciner fuel and without residues. The use of tyres has had no negative effect on the pollutant emissions with unchanged CO and VOC emissions and NO{sub x} emissions actually reduced by up to 40%. (J.S.)

  18. Qualitative Study on Clinico-Social Problems of Brick-Kiln Workers: A Study from Anand-Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kumar Sharma, Arun Varun, Mansi Patel

    2013-01-01

    Results: In the current study it was found that the condition of these migrant brick kiln workers is very pathetic on account of number of conditions. All the workers were migrant and marginal workers with migration duration of 8 months every year and then they are going back to the native place. These workers were mostly illiterate or had primary education. Females were unedu-cated. These workers are getting daily wages and there is no holi-day as such. The days these workers don’t work are non-paid days. Almost all these workers complained of bodily pains. Children in these families are usually suffering from respiratory tract infections, diarrhea and intestinal infections. Conclusions: Irrespective of the migration status, local gover-nance should do something for their benefit and health so that some decent work can be ensured.

  19. Modelling of carbonisation of renewable fuels in a rotary kiln reactor; Modellierung der Karbonisierung nachwachsender Rohstoffe im Drehrohrreaktor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klose, W.; Schinkel, A.P. [Univ. Kassel (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Energietechnik

    1998-09-01

    The contribution models the pyrolysis of corn in a rotary kiln reactor. The model comprises a solution of the two-dimensional energy and mass balances for the solid phase. The movement of the solid matter inside the reactor is described by model equations. The influence of various operating parameters on the pyrolysis process is discussed, i.e. temperature, rotational speed, length and angle of inclination of the tube. (orig.) [Deutsch] In diesem Beitrag wird die Pyrolyse von Mais im Drehrohrreaktor modelliert. Das Modell beinhaltet die Loesung der 2dimensionalen Energie- und Stoffbilanzen fuer die feste Phase. Die Gutbewegung im Drehrohr wird mit Hilfe von Modellansaetzen beschrieben. Es wird der Einfluss der Betriebsparameter Temperatur, Drehzahl, Laenge und Neigungswinkel des Rohres auf die Pyrolyse diskutiert. (orig.)

  20. 回转窑焚烧处理有机废液%Discussion Rotary Kiln Incineration of Organic Waste Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗劲松; 何睿; 杨兆标

    2015-01-01

    The technical points of kiln treatment of organic waste was analyzed,Effect of the pre treat-ment,choice of feeding equipment,atomization effect,calorific value of the waste feed rate on incineration system were explored,the influence of the organic waste calorific value on the burning operating parameters and fuel consumption were studied.%分析了回转窑处理有机废液的技术要点,探究预处理方式、进料设备的选择、雾化效果、热值及废液进料量对焚烧系统的影响,着重研究了有机废液热值对焚烧运行参数和油耗的影响。

  1. Bicone vacuum chamber for ISR intersection

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    This is one of the bicone chambers made of titanium for experiment R 702. The central corrugated part had a very thin titanium wall (0.28 mm). The first of these chambers collapsed in its central part when baked at 300 C (August 1975). After an intensive effort to develop better quality and reproducible welds for this special material, the ISR workshop was able to build two new chambers of this type. One of them was installed at I 7 for R 702 in 1976 and worked perfectly. It was at that time the most "transparent" intersection vacuum chamber. See also 7609219, 7609221.

  2. The Mark II Vertex Drift Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have completed constructing and begun operating the Mark II Drift Chamber Vertex Detector. The chamber, based on a modified jet cell design, achieves 30 μm spatial resolution and 2 gas mixtures. Special emphasis has been placed on controlling systematic errors including the use of novel construction techniques which permit accurate wire placement. Chamber performance has been studied with cosmic ray tracks collected with the chamber located both inside and outside the Mark II. Results on spatial resolution, average pulse shape, and some properties of CO2 mixtures are presented. 10 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  3. Cylindrical ionization chamber with compressed krypton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cylindrical ionization chamber with a grid is used to search for double positron decay and atomic electron conversion to a positron in 78Kr. Krypton is the working gas material of the chamber. The spectrometric characteristics of the chamber filled with krypton and xenon are presented. The energy resolution is 2.1% for an energy of 1.84 MeV (the source of γ-quanta is 88Y) when the chamber is filled with a mixture of Kr+0.2% H2 under a pressure of 25 atm

  4. Engineering verification of the biomass production chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, R. P.; Knott, W. M., III; Sager, J. C.; Jones, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    The requirements for life support systems, both biological and physical-chemical, for long-term human attended space missions are under serious study throughout NASA. The KSC 'breadboard' project has focused on biomass production using higher plants for atmospheric regeneration and food production in a special biomass production chamber. This chamber is designed to provide information on food crop growth rate, contaminants in the chamber that alter plant growth requirements for atmospheric regeneration, carbon dioxide consumption, oxygen production, and water utilization. The shape and size, mass, and energy requirements in relation to the overall integrity of the biomass production chamber are under constant study.

  5. D0 central tracking chamber performance studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of the completed DO central tracking chamber was studied using cosmic rays at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. Also studied was a prototype tracking chamber identical in design to the completed DO tracking chamber. The prototype chamber was exposed to a collimated beam of 150 GeV pions at the Fermilab NWA test facility. Results indicate an RΦ tracking resolution compatible with the limitations imposed by physical considerations, excellent 2 track resolution, and a high track reconstruction efficiency along with a good rejection power against γ → e + e- events

  6. Precision Radio Frequency Anechoic Chamber Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Performs measurements and calibration of antennas for satellites and aircraft or groundbased systems. The chamber is primarily used for optimizing antenna...

  7. D0 central tracking chamber performance studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzuto, D.

    1991-12-01

    The performance of the completed DO central tracking chamber was studied using cosmic rays at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. Also studied was a prototype tracking chamber identical in design to the completed DO tracking chamber. The prototype chamber was exposed to a collimated beam of 150 GeV pions at the Fermilab NWA test facility. Results indicate an R{Phi} tracking resolution compatible with the limitations imposed by physical considerations, excellent 2 track resolution, and a high track reconstruction efficiency along with a good rejection power against {gamma} {yields} e {sup +} e{sup {minus}} events.

  8. Evaluation of near-infrared tunable diode lasers for detection of transient emissions from a rotary kiln.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaddix, Christopher R.; Ottesen, David K.; Allendorf, Sarah W.; Miller, C. Andy (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC); Lemieux, Paul M. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC)

    2003-12-01

    Near-infrared tunable diode lasers (TDLs) were evaluated for their suitability as fast-response combustion performance indicators during tests at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's pilot-scale Rotary Kiln Incinerator Simulator (RKIS) facility. Transient emissions (i.e., 'puffs') of various magnitudes and duration were generated by injecting a mixture of toluene and methylene chloride into the rotary kiln, through use of a computer-controlled liquid gun or by ram-loading containers of the waste surrogate adsorbed onto corncob. Two wavelength-modulated TDLs that span carbon monoxide (CO) and methane absorption lines at 1.57 and 1.65 pm, respectively, provided information on these species as well as total laser transmittance (an indicator of soot loading). Fiber-optic cables transmitted the laser light from the remotely situated TDLs to two line-of-sight measurement locations. In addition, the TDLs were used with a multi-pass optical cell to perform more sensitive extractive measurements. Over the optical pathlength available in this facility, in situ measurements of methane down to a concentration of {approx} 100 ppm were demonstrated during non-sooty conditions. CO could not be reliably quantified in situ, even at concentrations as high as 0.7%, due to the combination of weak absorption line strength and interfering water and carbon-dioxide hot-bands. The soot produced during the toluene/methylene chloride puffs typically attenuated over 90% of the TDL laser beam, preventing effective in situ TDL measurements during the puffs. In contrast, the extractive TDL measurements demonstrated good accuracy and sensitivity for both methane and CO under all reactor conditions. Furthermore, the in situ laser transmittance profiles during the puffs provided new insights into the composition of the puffs as a function of puff magnitude and residence time.

  9. Quantitative estimation of crystalline phases of cordierite-mullite based kiln furniture by X-ray diffraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal endurance of ceramics as refractory support is closely related to the crystalline phases present. In the alumino-silicate refractory family, cordierite-mullite system, produced by using commercially available raw materials, offers an attractive proposition up to a temperature range of 1280 deg C. Cordierite body formed in situ with high expansion grog as additives contains the following crystalline phases : (i) cordierite; (ii)mullite; (iii)α-Al2O3; (iv)cristobalite and (v) quartz. Of these, only the first three phases are relevant in enhancing the life cycle of kiln furniture vis-a-vis their thermal endurance. Hence a quantitative phase analysis is necessary to predict the life of kiln furniture and improve upon their performance. The present method of quantitative phase analysis is applicable where the crystal structure of the component phase whose proportionate analysis in a phase mixture is required, is known. Simulated intensity patterns based on the crystallographic data, viz. space group symmetry, lattice parameters, positional coordinates of various atoms and their occupancy factors, crystal density etc. were prepared for each reflection zone. Relevant computer programmes also were developed. The intensity data collected in different 2θ zones were used for finding the volume concentrations of different phases. The error in quantitative estimation of phases was nearly 6% when the diffraction data were taken using monochromatic X-radiation. The chemical analysis corroborates this result. The materials contained a certain amount of glassy phase. Assuming that the glassy phase was composed mainly of silica glass along with other impurities, the result showed that only 85% of the total phase was crystalline and the remaining part was amorphous. (author). 10 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  10. Instrumentation and measurements of temperatures of a load of bricks in a tunnel kiln using natural gas; Instrumentacao e medicao de temperaturas em uma carga de tijolos no interior de um forno tunel a gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahn, T.G.; Lehmkuhl, W.A.; Hartke, Rafael Fernando; Dadam, A.P.; Nicolau, V.P. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The analysis of the thermal efficiency of ceramics kilns, a big difficulty is the experimental determination of the temperature distribution inside the kiln load. The biggest challenge is the instrumentation, since the sensors should accompany the brick load through out the kiln, which may reach a length greater than 100 m, with their connection cables exposed to temperature greater than 300 deg C. These results are important to identify under what conditions are submitted internal layers of the brick load, to determine the best brick arrangements in cart load. This work permits a best understanding of firing cycles used in the tunnels kilns. The mathematical treatment and understanding of the data will permit to create experimental analysis tools, which should be useful in other problems. (author)

  11. Dosimetry by paired chambers (TEP-TEG and C-CO2 chamber)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paired chambers are defined as the combination of a neutron and γ sensitive detector and a γ sensitive one, such as the combination of a tissue equivalent ionization chamber (TEP-TEG chamber) and a carbon ionization chamber (C-CO2 chamber). The paired chambers have a feature to be capable of measuring the dose in an irradiation field directly by absorbed dose unit. The authors performed dosimetry by using the paired chambers to investigate the possibility of medical and biological researches by means of the fast neutron beam obtained in the reactor ''Yayoi''. First, the specifications for the paired chambers used, and next, the dose evaluation method are described. The result of dose calibration for the paired chambers shows that the carbon chamber has the reproducibility within 3% deviation and the TEP chamber system has that of 2%. As the examples of measurement, the dosimetry for a living body radiation field by fast neutron beam and that for epithermal neutron irradiation system are reported. The comparison of these dosimetrical results with the other paired chambers seems to show that the satisfactory dosimeter has been produced. The parameters employed for dose conversion are considered to be applicable to the measurement of the epithermal neutron irradiation system. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  12. Chamber Music's Lesson in Performing Confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Darrel W.

    1983-01-01

    Chamber music has the advantage of offering the student maximum exposure as an individual performer. The absence of a conductor means that the student assumes the role of interpreter, thereby gaining musical maturity. For these reasons, curriculum hours should be more evenly divided between chamber music and larger ensembles. (CS)

  13. The Drift Chambers Of The Nomad Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Anfreville, M G; Authier, M; Baldisseri, Alberto; Banner, M; Besson, N; Bouchez, J; Castera, A; Cloué, O; Dumarchez, J; Dumps, Ludwig; Gangler, E; Gosset, J; Hagner, C; Jollec, C; Lachaud, C; Letessier-Selvon, A A; Lévy, J M; Linssen, Lucie; Meyer, J P; Ouriet, J P; Passerieux, J P; Pédrol, T; Placci, Alfredo; Poinsignon, J; Popov, B; Rathouit, P; Schahmaneche, K; Stolarczyk, T; Urós, V; Vannucci, François; Vo, M K; Zaccone, Henri

    2002-01-01

    We present a detailed description of the drift chambers used as an active target and a tracking device in the NOMAD experiment at CERN. The main characteristics of these chambers are a large area, a self supporting structure made of light composite materials and a low cost. A spatial resolution of 150 microns has been achieved with a single hit efficiency of 97%.

  14. Supersonic Jet Interactions in a Plenum Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Venugopal

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding thè supersonic jet interactions in a plenum chamber is essential for thè design of hot launch systems. Static tests were conducted in a small-scale rocket motor ioaded with a typical nitramine propellaiit to produce a nozzle exit Mach number of 3. This supersonic jet is made to interact with plenum chambers having both open and closed sides. The distance between thè nozzle exit and thè back piate of plenum chamber are varied from 2. 5 to 7. 0 times thè nozzle exit diameter. The pressure rise in thè plenum chamber was measured using pressure transducers mounted at different locatìons. The pressure-time data were analysed to obtain an insight into thè flow field in thè plenum chamber. The maximum pressure exerted on thè back piate of plenum chamber is about 25-35 per cent. of thè maximum stagnation pressure developed in thè rocket motor. Ten static tests were carried out to obtain thè effect of axial distance between thè nozzle exit and thè plenum chamber back piate, and stagnation pressure in thè rocket motoron thè flow field in thè open-sided and closed-sided plenum chambers configurations.

  15. Space Power Facility Reverberation Chamber Calibration Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Catherine C.; Dolesh, Robert J.; Garrett, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the process and results of calibrating the Space Environmental Test EMI Test facility at NASA Plum Brook Space Power Facility according to the specifications of IEC61000-4-21 for susceptibility testing from 100 MHz to 40 GHz. The chamber passed the field uniformity test, in both the empty and loaded conditions, making it the world's largest Reverberation Chamber.

  16. Wet drift chambers for precise luminosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of high-precision compact drift chambers has been a vital component of the OPAL luminosity monitor since the start of data-taking at LEP. They were augmented in 1992 by the addition of Small Angle Reference Chambers with a very similar design to the original chamber. The performance of the chambers is reviewed, highlighting both the importance of using polyalkylene glycol (Breox) to maintain a uniform and parallel electric field and the construction techniques used to sustain the required field strength. We describe some of the operating problems, with their solutions, and show how the chambers have been used in achieving a systematic error of 0.41% on the luminosity measurement. ((orig.))

  17. Ionization-chamber smoke detector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Robert F.

    1976-10-19

    This invention relates to an improved smoke-detection system of the ionization-chamber type. In the preferred embodiment, the system utilizes a conventional detector head comprising a measuring ionization chamber, a reference ionization chamber, and a normally non-conductive gas triode for discharging when a threshold concentration of airborne particulates is present in the measuring chamber. The improved system is designed to reduce false alarms caused by fluctuations in ambient temperature. Means are provided for periodically firing the gas discharge triode and each time recording the triggering voltage required. A computer compares each triggering voltage with its predecessor. The computer is programmed to energize an alarm if the difference between the two compared voltages is a relatively large value indicative of particulates in the measuring chamber and to disregard smaller differences typically resulting from changes in ambient temperature.

  18. Compact ion chamber based neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derzon, Mark S.; Galambos, Paul C.; Renzi, Ronald F.

    2015-10-27

    A directional neutron detector has an ion chamber formed in a dielectric material; a signal electrode and a ground electrode formed in the ion chamber; a neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber; readout circuitry which is electrically coupled to the signal and ground electrodes; and a signal processor electrically coupled to the readout circuitry. The ion chamber has a pair of substantially planar electrode surfaces. The chamber pressure of the neutron absorbing material is selected such that the reaction particle ion trail length for neutrons absorbed by the neutron absorbing material is equal to or less than the distance between the electrode surfaces. The signal processor is adapted to determine a path angle for each absorbed neutron based on the rise time of the corresponding pulse in a time-varying detector signal.

  19. NO{sub x} formation in cement industry clinker kilns; Formacao de NO{sub x} em fornos rotativos de producao de clinquer da industria do cimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Signoretti, Valdir Tesche; Silva, Rogerio Jose da [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)], e-mail: valdirsg@unifei.edu.br, e-mail: rogeriojs@unifei.edu.br

    2006-07-01

    This work estimates the concentration of pollutant Nox generated in the process of combustion of petroleum coke and tires in rotary kiln for clinker production in the cement industry. Using a mixture of petroleum coke and tires in the burning process, the No{sub x} and CO emissions will be evaluated in kilns with precalciner with tertiary air. The emissions will be analyzed in this installation type still considering the staging combustion as a form of reduction of the Nox emissions. The proposed model is based on the knowledge of the chemical species concentrations involved in the chemical equilibrium and also in the knowledge of the reaction kinetics of Nox and CO formation in the combustion process. It is also done in this work a revision on No{sub x}, So{sub x} and CO concerning issues related to their formation and presenting the main controlling technologies of these pollutants used in the cement industry. (author)

  20. Physico-mechanical Properties of Electron Beam Irradiated Particle boards Based on Wood flour/ Polyethylene/Cement Kiln Dust Impregnated with Unsaturated Polyester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle boards were fabricated by mixing wood flour (WF), low density polyethylene (LDPE) and cement kiln dust (CKD) under hot pressure; and then impregnated in unsaturated polyester resin. These impregnated particle boards were subjected to various doses of electron beam irradiation up to 50 kGy. The physico-mechanical properties were characterized in terms of flexural strength, impact strength, water absorption, thickness swelling, and the thermal stability. The results showed that the partial replacement of wood flour with cement kiln dust up to 20% by weight improved the values of flexural strength, and impact strength. However, the water absorption percentage and thickness swelling values decreased with increasing the CKD ratio up to 40%. Furthermore, the treatment with electron beam irradiation doses improved the physico-mechanical properties of the impregnated particle boards up to 50 kGy. The improved results were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)

  1. MEASUREMENT OF SECOND AIR TEMPERATURE OF CLINKER ROTOR KILN%水泥回转窑的二次风温测量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简淼夫; 张薇; 李昌勇

    2001-01-01

    对水泥回转窑二次风温的测量误差来源进行了分析,指出了现行二次风温定义的测量点不便进行实测,造成实际选择的测量点不满足定义要求是测量误差的主要来源,并提出了新的理论二次风温的定义和测量方法。%The error sources of measuring the second air temperature of the clinker rotor, kiln were studied. It indicated that main error is difference between the measurement position of definition of the second air temperature used in the kiln and the real position of the measurement. Based on this results, a new definition and measurement method of the second air temperature was offered.

  2. The emulsion chamber technology experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Photographic emulsion has the unique property of recording tracks of ionizing particles with a spatial precision of 1 micron, while also being capable of deployment over detector areas of square meters or 10's of square meters. Detectors are passive, their cost to fly in Space is a fraction of that of instruments of similar collecting. A major problem in their continued use has been the labor intensiveness of data retrieval by traditional microscope methods. Two factors changing the acceptability of emulsion technology in space are the astronomical costs of flying large electronic instruments such as ionization calorimeters in Space, and the power and low cost of computers, a small revolution in the laboratory microscope data-taking. Our group at UAH made measurements of the high energy composition and spectra of cosmic rays. The Marshall group has also specialized in space radiation dosimetry. Ionization calorimeters, using alternating layers of lead and photographic emulsion, to measure particle energies up to 10(exp 15) eV were developed. Ten balloon flights were performed with them. No such calorimeters have ever flown in orbit. In the ECT program, a small emulsion chamber was developed and will be flown on the Shuttle mission OAST-2 to resolve the principal technological questions concerning space exposures. These include assessments of: (1) pre-flight and orbital exposure to background radiation, including both self-shielding and secondary particle generation; the practical limit to exposure time in space can then be determined; (2) dynamics of stack to optimize design for launch and weightlessness; and (3) thermal and vacuum constraints on emulsion performance. All these effects are cumulative and affect our ability to perform scientific measurements but cannot be adequately predicted by available methods.

  3. The Baking Process of 46.8m2 Glass Melting Kiln%46.8 m2玻璃熔炉的烘炉

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文昌

    2000-01-01

    本文针对46.8m2玻璃熔窑烘炉的全过程-烘炉曲线的制定、烘炉准备和烘炉三方面的工作作了介绍。%This paper introduces the whole process of the baking of 46.8m2 glass kiln. Theprocess includes :laying out baking curve, baking preparation and whole baking process.

  4. Archaeological, archaeomagnetic and thermoluminescence investigation of a baked clay kiln excavated at Chieri, northern Italy: contribution to the rescue of our cultural heritage

    OpenAIRE

    Evdokia Tema; Fulvio Fantino; Enzo Ferrara; Silvia Allegretti; Alessandro Lo Giudice; Alessandro Re; Federico Barello; Silvia Vella; Luigi Cirillo; Monica Gulmini

    2014-01-01

    Combining different dating techniques is fundamental to constrain the ages of archaeological findings, mainly when direct evidences for their chronological context are not available. This paper presents the results of a combined archaeological, archaeomagnetic and thermoluminescence study of a kiln discovered during a rescue excavation at Chieri, northern Italy. The archaeological site is quite complex mainly due to the interposition of different stratigraphic levels that span from Roman time...

  5. Multiwire proportional chamber with a dielectric film. Numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrostatical properties of multiwire proportional chambers with a dielectric film of low conductivity are considered. Distribution of the electric field in the chamber was obtained using numerical methods. This allowed investigating the influence of various parameters (chamber geometry, voltage at the electrodes) on the chamber working characteristics. Dependence of the chamber amplitude characteristics on the counting rate was also obtained

  6. Monitored Drift Chambers in the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Herten, G

    Monitored Drift Chambers (MDT) are used in the ATLAS Detector to measure the momentum of high energy muons. They consist of drift tubes, which are filled with an Ar-CO2 gas mixture at 3 bar gas pressure. About 1200 drift chambers are required for ATLAS. They are up to 6 m long. Nevertheless the position of every wire needs to be known with a precision of 20 µm within a chamber. In addition, optical alignment sensors are required to measure the relative position of adjacent chambers with a precision of 30µm. This gigantic task seems impossible at first instance. Indeed it took many years of R&D to invent the right tools and methods before the first chamber could be built according to specifications. Today, at the time when 50% of the chambers have been produced, we are confident that the goal for ATLAS can be reached. The mechanical precision of the chambers could be verified with the x-ray tomograph at CERN. This ingenious device, developed for the MDT system, is able to measure the wire position insid...

  7. Comparison among different CT ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dosimetry in computed tomography (CT) is carried out by the use of a pencil type ionization-chamber, because it has a uniform response at all angles relative to the incident beam of radiation, which is essential for CT equipment since the X-ray tube executes a circular movement around the table during irradiation. The commercial ionization chamber used to perform quality control procedures of this kind of equipment has a length of the sensitive volume of 10 cm. In the Calibration Laboratory of Instruments (LCI) of the IPEN there were already developed some prototypes with small differences in construction, when compared to commercially available ionization chambers. They have been used in previous studies and showed results within internationally acceptable limits. The ionization chambers tested in this study present the sensitive volume lengths of 1 cm, 3 cm and 10 cm. The objective of this study was to present results on the stability test of the three homemade ionization chambers and a commercial chamber, as well to obtain the calibration coefficients for each of them in CT standard X radiation beams. The obtained results for both characterization tests are within the recommended limits, except for the homemade ionization chambers with sensitive volume lengths of 3 cm and 1 cm in the case of the stability test. (author)

  8. Making MUSIC: A multiple sampling ionization chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumard, B. [Argonne National Laboratory, Building 203 H-113, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)]. E-mail: shumard@phy.anl.gov; Henderson, D.J. [Argonne National Laboratory, Building 203 H-113, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Rehm, K.E. [Argonne National Laboratory, Building 203 H-113, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Tang, X.D. [Argonne National Laboratory, Building 203 H-113, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    A multiple sampling ionization chamber (MUSIC) was developed for use in conjunction with the Atlas scattering chamber (ATSCAT). This chamber was developed to study the ({alpha}, p) reaction in stable and radioactive beams. The gas filled ionization chamber is used as a target and detector for both particles in the outgoing channel (p + beam particles for elastic scattering or p + residual nucleus for ({alpha}, p) reactions). The MUSIC detector is followed by a Si array to provide a trigger for anode events. The anode events are gated by a gating grid so that only ({alpha}, p) reactions where the proton reaches the Si detector result in an anode event. The MUSIC detector is a segmented ionization chamber. The active length of the chamber is 11.95 in. and is divided into 16 equal anode segments (3.5 in. x 0.70 in. with 0.3 in. spacing between pads). The dead area of the chamber was reduced by the addition of a Delrin snout that extends 0.875 in. into the chamber from the front face, to which a mylar window is affixed. 0.5 in. above the anode is a Frisch grid that is held at ground potential. 0.5 in. above the Frisch grid is a gating grid. The gating grid functions as a drift electron barrier, effectively halting the gathering of signals. Setting two sets of alternating wires at differing potentials creates a lateral electric field which traps the drift electrons, stopping the collection of anode signals. The chamber also has a reinforced mylar exit window separating the Si array from the target gas. This allows protons from the ({alpha}, p) reaction to be detected. The detection of these protons opens the gating grid to allow the drift electrons released from the ionizing gas during the ({alpha}, p) reaction to reach the anode segment below the reaction.

  9. Making MUSIC: A multiple sampling ionization chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumard, B.; Henderson, D. J.; Rehm, K. E.; Tang, X. D.

    2007-08-01

    A multiple sampling ionization chamber (MUSIC) was developed for use in conjunction with the Atlas scattering chamber (ATSCAT). This chamber was developed to study the (α, p) reaction in stable and radioactive beams. The gas filled ionization chamber is used as a target and detector for both particles in the outgoing channel (p + beam particles for elastic scattering or p + residual nucleus for (α, p) reactions). The MUSIC detector is followed by a Si array to provide a trigger for anode events. The anode events are gated by a gating grid so that only (α, p) reactions where the proton reaches the Si detector result in an anode event. The MUSIC detector is a segmented ionization chamber. The active length of the chamber is 11.95 in. and is divided into 16 equal anode segments (3.5 in. × 0.70 in. with 0.3 in. spacing between pads). The dead area of the chamber was reduced by the addition of a Delrin snout that extends 0.875 in. into the chamber from the front face, to which a mylar window is affixed. 0.5 in. above the anode is a Frisch grid that is held at ground potential. 0.5 in. above the Frisch grid is a gating grid. The gating grid functions as a drift electron barrier, effectively halting the gathering of signals. Setting two sets of alternating wires at differing potentials creates a lateral electric field which traps the drift electrons, stopping the collection of anode signals. The chamber also has a reinforced mylar exit window separating the Si array from the target gas. This allows protons from the (α, p) reaction to be detected. The detection of these protons opens the gating grid to allow the drift electrons released from the ionizing gas during the (α, p) reaction to reach the anode segment below the reaction.

  10. Liquid-argon cylindrical pulsed ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A liquid-argon cylindrical ionization chamber with a working volume of 200 cm2 is described. The chamber anode is made of stainless steel in the form of a hollow cylinder 30 mm in diameter and 140 mm in length. A beryllium bronze wire in diameter of 0.1 mm and at a spacing of 1 mm is used for winding the chamber screen grid. The chamber cathode is a brass thin-walled cylinder having an internal diameter of 56 mm and a height of 156 mm. The cathode-grid gap is 10 mm, the cathode-case gap is 2 mm. A 0.5 l cooling bath filled with liquid nitrogen is used to refrigirate the chamber. The chamber is evacuated to about 10-5 mm Hg. The total concentration of electronegative impurities in argon does not exceed 6x10-9. Dependences of the chamber counting and amplitude responses, on the cathode voltage under irradiation with γ-quanta at energies of 0.898 MeV and 1.836 MeV are given. The value of the energy resolution was evaluated by differentiating the high-energy edge of the Compton spectrum. The total width at a peak half-height constitutes 5% for an electron energy of 1.612 MeV. To achieve better resolution of the chamber it is necessary to reduce preamplifier noises by three times, to increase the working gap of the chamber and decrease the grid-anode gap

  11. Making MUSIC: A multiple sampling ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multiple sampling ionization chamber (MUSIC) was developed for use in conjunction with the Atlas scattering chamber (ATSCAT). This chamber was developed to study the (α, p) reaction in stable and radioactive beams. The gas filled ionization chamber is used as a target and detector for both particles in the outgoing channel (p + beam particles for elastic scattering or p + residual nucleus for (α, p) reactions). The MUSIC detector is followed by a Si array to provide a trigger for anode events. The anode events are gated by a gating grid so that only (α, p) reactions where the proton reaches the Si detector result in an anode event. The MUSIC detector is a segmented ionization chamber. The active length of the chamber is 11.95 in. and is divided into 16 equal anode segments (3.5 in. x 0.70 in. with 0.3 in. spacing between pads). The dead area of the chamber was reduced by the addition of a Delrin snout that extends 0.875 in. into the chamber from the front face, to which a mylar window is affixed. 0.5 in. above the anode is a Frisch grid that is held at ground potential. 0.5 in. above the Frisch grid is a gating grid. The gating grid functions as a drift electron barrier, effectively halting the gathering of signals. Setting two sets of alternating wires at differing potentials creates a lateral electric field which traps the drift electrons, stopping the collection of anode signals. The chamber also has a reinforced mylar exit window separating the Si array from the target gas. This allows protons from the (α, p) reaction to be detected. The detection of these protons opens the gating grid to allow the drift electrons released from the ionizing gas during the (α, p) reaction to reach the anode segment below the reaction

  12. Case study of an MBT plant producing SRF for cement kiln co-combustion, coupled with a bioreactor landfill for process residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Mario; Dellavedova, Stefano; Rigamonti, Lucia; Scotti, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes the performances of the energy recovery pathway from the residual waste based on the production of a Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF) to be exploited via co-combustion in a cement kiln. The SRF is produced in a single stream Mechanical-Biological Treatment plant, where bio-drying of the waste is followed by mechanical refining in order to fulfil the quality requirements by the cement kilns. Peculiar of this MBT is the fact that sorting residues are disposed in a nearby landfill, managed according to a bioreactor approach, where landfill gas is collected for electric energy recovery. A detailed mass and energy balance of the system is presented based on one year operational data, followed by its Life Cycle Assessment. Results show that the system is energetically and environmentally effective, with most of the impacts being more than compensated by the savings of materials and energy. Major role in determining such outcome is the displacement of petcoke in the cement kiln, both in terms of its fossil CO2 emissions and of its life cycle impacts, including the trans-oceanic transport. To check the robustness of the results, two sensitivity analyses are performed on the landfill gas collection efficiency and on the avoided electric energy mix. PMID:26601731

  13. 传统钧瓷窑炉结构及装烧工艺%THE TRADITIONAL KILN STRUCTURE AND FIRE TECHNOLOGY FOR JUN PORCELAIN WARES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎飞; 王双华

    2009-01-01

    通过对传统钧瓷窑炉中比较有代表性的馒头窑和风箱炉钧窑的基本结构和装烧工艺的研究,分析了窑炉的不同结构和不同的装烧方式对烧成效果的影响.结果表明密封性能好的窑炉以及相应的保温烧成制度与钧瓷釉面呈色、纹路和釉画的形成有重要的关系.%This paper researched the basic structure and fire technology of traditional Jun wares such as dome kiln and air box kiln. The different structure and fire technology was described. The results show that the kiln with good airtight coating and according heat holding system affected the color of Jun ware's glaze, glaze line and painting made by the fire.

  14. Archaeological, archaeomagnetic and thermoluminescence investigation of a baked clay kiln excavated at Chieri, northern Italy: contribution to the rescue of our cultural heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evdokia Tema

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Combining different dating techniques is fundamental to constrain the ages of archaeological findings, mainly when direct evidences for their chronological context are not available. This paper presents the results of a combined archaeological, archaeomagnetic and thermoluminescence study of a kiln discovered during a rescue excavation at Chieri, northern Italy. The archaeological site is quite complex mainly due to the interposition of different stratigraphic levels that span from Roman times to present day. The studied kiln belongs to the post-medieval stratigraphic level but the lack of datable diagnostic objects strongly limits the possibility of its accurate dating only by means of archaeological evidences. Archaeomagnetic study was performed on 26 baked clay samples, isolating stable characteristic remanent magnetizations. The statistic comparison of the averaged direction with reference secular variation curves suggests two possible dating intervals. Independent dating from thermoluminescence study of 2 samples is consistent with the second time interval proposed by archaeomagnetism, suggesting that the kiln was abandoned at the beginning of the 17th century. The successful combination of the two independent laboratory techniques provides accurate dating of archaeological baked clays and can be used as routine for future archaeological investigations of rescue excavations.

  15. Bubble chamber: Omega production and decay

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    This image is of real particle tracks taken from the CERN 2 m liquid hydrogen bubble chamber and shows the production and decay of a negative omega particle. A negative kaon enters the chamber which decays into many particles, including a negative omega that travels a short distance before decaying into more particles. The invention of bubble chambers in 1952 revolutionized the field of particle physics, allowing real tracks left by particles to be seen and photographed by expanding liquid that had been heated to boiling point.

  16. Growing and Analyzing Biofilms in Flow Chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Sternberg, Claus

    2011-01-01

    This unit describes the setup of flow chamber systems for the study of microbial biofilms, and methods for the analysis of structural biofilm formation. Use of flow chambers allows direct microscopic investigation of biofilm formation. The biofilms in flow chambers develop under hydrodynamic......, and disassembly and cleaning of the system. In addition, embedding and fluorescent in situ hybridization of flow chamber–grown biofilms are addressed. Curr. Protoc. Microbiol. 21:1B.2.1-1B.2.17. © 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc....

  17. Development of an α grid ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article introduces the parallel grid ionization chamber used to measure the α radioactivity, which has a independent vacuum system. The system is composed of main body of the chamber, gas-filled and electronics system. Energy resolution is 25 keV for 239Pu, background is 4 counts for one hour from 4 MeV to 6 MeV energy range, detect efficiency approach to 50%. The chamber can measure the energy of nuclide, analyze the structure, moreover authenticate both the nuclide and the relative and absolute content. (authors)

  18. APS Storage Ring vacuum chamber fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1104-m circumference Advanced Photon Source Storage Ring Vacuum System is composed of 240 individual sections, which are fabricated from a combination of aluminum extrusions and machined components. The vacuum chambers will have 3800 weld joints, each subject to strict vacuum requirements, as well as a variety of related design criteria. The vacuum criteria and chamber design are reviewed, including a discussion of the weld joint geometries. The critical fabrication process parameters for meeting the design requirements are discussed. The experiences of the prototype chamber fabrication program are presented. Finally, the required facilities preparation for construction activity is briefly described. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  19. LEP vacuum chamber, cross-section

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    Cross-section of the final prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber. The elliptic main-opening is for the beam. The small channel to the left is for the cooling water, to carry away the heat deposited by the synchrotron radiation. The square channel to the right houses the Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) pump. The chamber is made from extruded aluminium. Its outside is clad with lead, to stop the synchrotron radiation emitted by the beam. For good adherence between Pb and Al, the Al chamber was coated with a thin layer of Ni. Ni being slightly magnetic, some resulting problems had to be overcome. See also 8301153.

  20. Cloud chamber photographs of the cosmic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Rochester, George Dixon

    1952-01-01

    Cloud Chamber Photographs of the Cosmic Radiation focuses on cloud chamber and photographic emulsion wherein the tracks of individual subatomic particles of high energy are studied. The publication first offers information on the technical features of operation and electrons and cascade showers. Discussions focus on the relationship in time and space of counter-controlled tracks; techniques of internal control of the cloud chamber; cascade processes with artificially-produced electrons and photons; and nuclear interaction associated with an extensive shower. The manuscript then elaborates on

  1. Residence-Time Distributions in Laminar Flows and During the Passage of Granular Solids Through Rotary Kilns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on residence-time distributions are important in the design of apparatus for the chemical industry. Radioactive tracers can be useful in many cases, e.g. where a pulse technique is desired. Two examples are given in which a pulse of radioactive tracer is used. The first example deals with the residence-time distribution of a laminar, Newtonian flow in an annulus. This problem arises especially in the extrusion and injection moulding of polymers and in the coating of wires with plastics. In these cases the fractions of polymer with long residence times may have other properties than the polymer that flows fastest, because the polymerization reaction or the degradation reactions go on during the process. Two difficulties are to be considered: (a) the tracer pulse (a radioactive Au-sol suspended in the liquid used) cannot be distributed over the cross-section in proportion to the local flow velocity, and (b) the outflowing liquid must be sampled discontinuously. Both effects have been studied and corrections are indicated. When these corrections are applied to the measured distribution curve, the result is in fair agreement with the calculated residence-time distribution. The second example considers the residence-time distribution in a granular solid (sand) passing through a rotary kiln. The response was measured at the outlet to a pulse at the inlet of radioactive material (sand impregnated with a solution of radioactive AuCl3). When calculating the residence-time distribution from the experimental data, difficulties were encountered because the duration of the pulse was of the same order of magnitude as the average residence time. Considering this, it was found that the axial dispersion of the flow of sand could be described by an effective dispersion coefficient. This dispersion coefficient proved to be very low (order of magnitude 10-5 m2/s); hence, in practical situations, the flow of granular material through a rotary kiln may often be considered as a plug

  2. One meter holographic bubble chamber for TEVATRON neutrino experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A one meter holographic bubble chamber was constructed for Fermilab TEVATRON neutrino experiments. Bubble chamber and optics are briefly outlined. Developments in holography for this bubble chamber and two types of reconstruction projectors are reported. (orig.)

  3. Developing cloud chambers with high school students

    CERN Document Server

    Ishizuka, Ryo; Sato, Shoma; Zeze, Syoji

    2013-01-01

    The result and outcome of the cloud chamber project, which aims to develop a cloud chamber useful for science education is reported in detail. A project includes both three high school students and a teacher as a part of Super Science High School (SSH) program in our school. We develop a dry ice free cloud chamber using salt and ice (or snow). Technical detail of the chamber is presented. We also argue how the project affects student's cognition, motivation, academic skills and behavior. The research project had been done in very similar way to those of professional researchers, i.e., planning research, applying fund, writing a paper and giving a talk in conferences. From interviews with students, we learn that such style of scientific activity is very effective in promoting student's motivation for learning science.

  4. Proportional chamber application to ionization measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility is investigated to use a proportional chamber measuring ionization particle losses in developing a detector capable of tracking the simultaneous passage of several particles against the background of a large number of single particles. The chamber used, with a 100x100 mm2 working plane, has three high-voltage electrodes and two signal planes spaced at 6 mm. The operating gas is argon + methylal (C3H8O2) at atmospheric pressure. The calculations made with consideration for the resolution obtained in the chamber, i.e., approximately 20% (5.9 keV) indicate that by using four chamber clearances it is possible to obtain the tracking efficiency of three particles over 99%

  5. Room temperature liquid ionization chambers using tetramethylsilane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionization pulse signals due to 207Bi conversion electrons were observed in ionization chambers filled with tetramethylsilane which was purified by a simple method. Pulse height spectra and its variation with the electric field were measured. (orig.)

  6. MAN-IN-SIMULANT TEST (MIST) CHAMBER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The MIST chamber uses methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen) vapor as a simulant for HD agent to conduct system level evaluations of chemical protective ensembles....

  7. Developing Cloud Chambers with High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Ryo; Tan, Nobuaki; Sato, Shoma; Zeze, Syoji

    The result and outcome of the cloud chamber project, which aims to develop a cloud chamber useful for science education is reported in detail. A project includes both three high school students and a teacher as a part of Super Science High School (SSH) program in our school. We develop a dry-ice-free cloud chamber using salt and ice (or snow). Technical details of the chamber are described. We also argue how the project have affected student's cognition, motivation, academic skills and behavior. The research project has taken steps of professional researchers, i.e., in planning research, applying fund, writing a paper and giving a talk in conferences. From interviews with students, we have learnt that such style of scientific activity is very effective in promoting student's motivation for learning science.

  8. RADAR Anechoic Chamber/RCS Measurements Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The RF Anechoic Chamber is 56 feet long by 12 feet high by 13.5 feet wide, with an adjoining electronic computer control room. A double door entrance at one end of...

  9. High Performance Methane Thrust Chamber (HPMTC) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop a High-Performance Methane Thrust Chamber (HPMRE) to meet the demands of advanced chemical propulsion systems for deep-space mission...

  10. Utilizing TEMPO surface estimates to determine changes in emissions, community exposure and environmental impacts from cement kilns across North America using alternative fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegg, M. J.; Gibson, M. D.; Asamany, E.

    2015-12-01

    A major problem faced by all North American (NA) Governments is managing solid waste from residential and non-residential sources. One way to mitigate the need to expand landfill sites across NA is waste diversion for use as alternative fuel in industries such as cement manufacture. Currently, waste plastic, tires, waste shingles and other high carbon content waste destined for landfill are being explored, or currently used, as an alternative supplemental fuels for use in cement kilns across NA. While this is an attractive, environmentally sustainable solution, significant knowledge gaps remain in our fundamental understanding of whether these alternative fuels may lead to increased air pollution emissions from cement kilns across NA. The long-term objective of using TEMPO is to advance fundamental understanding of uncharacterized air pollution emissions and to assess the actual or potential environmental and health impacts of these emissions from cement kilns across NA. TEMPO measurements will be made in concert with in-situ observations augmented by air dispersion, land-use regression and receptor modelling. This application of TEMPO follows on from current research on a series of bench scale and pilot studies for Lafarge Canada Inc., that investigated the change in combustion emissions from various mixtures of coal (C), petroleum coke (PC) and non-recyclable alternative fuels. From our work we demonstrated that using an alternative fuel mixture in a cement kiln has potential to reduce emissions of CO2 by 34%; reduce NOx by 80%, and reduce fuel SO2 emissions by 98%. We also provided evidence that there would be a significant reduction in the formation of secondary ground-level ozone (O3) and secondary PM2.5 in downwind stack plumes if alternative waste derived fuels are used. The application of air dispersion, source apportionment, land use regression; together with remote sensing offers a powerful set of tools with the potential to improve air pollution

  11. Georges Charpak and his multiwire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    In 1968, Georges Charpak developed the 'multiwire proportional chamber', a gas-filled box with a large number of parallel detector wires, each connected to individual amplifiers. Linked to a computer, it could achieve a counting rate a thousand times better than existing techniques - without a camera in sight. From left to right, Georges Charpak, Fabio Sauli and Jean-Claude Santiard working on a multiwire chamber in 1970.

  12. The world's largest time projection chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Peter Glassel, the technical coordinator for the ALICE time projection chamber, is seen sitting inside the detector; the largest in the world at nearly 100 cubic metres. Thousands of wires are connected to read out electronic data produced as particles are created in lead-lead collisions at the centre of the detector. These particles will cause the medium within the time projection chamber to ionise along their tracks allowing the particle paths to be recreated.

  13. Electrostatic problems in multiwire proportional chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Erskine, George A

    1972-01-01

    Starting from the known complex potential of an infinite grid of thin wires lying between parallel grounded electrodes, the following problems are discussed: 1) the electrostatic coupling between wires, 2) the effect of varying the diameter of a single wire, 3) the effect of displacing a single wire. Figures are given which show the magnitude of these effects for a symmetric chamber of arbitrary dimensions. The computer generation of field plots for proportional chambers is briefly discussed. (5 refs).

  14. The CDF vertex time projection chamber system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vertex time projection chamber (VTPC) system is one of the major components of the charged particle tracking system for the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). The chambers cover about seven units of pseudorapidity (η) and must be capable of handling substantially more than the 30-35 charged particle tracks produced by typical anti pp collisions at center-of-mass energies of 1.8 TeV. The chambers are optimized to provide the good pattern recognition in the r-z view required to locate the event vertex, measure the overall event topology, and to complement the r-φ tracking in the large axial wire drift chamber that surrounds them. The chambers provide r-z information using TDC data from sense wire signals. Information on the φ of tracks is obtained from cathode pad signals on a subset of chambers read out by a FADC system. A similar system measures dE/dx of tracks in the forward cones surrounding the exiting beams. Because of the large number of photons that pass through the detector during each collision, novel techniques are required to reduce the amount of material in the chamber. These techniques include a custom surface mount integrated circuit preamplifier, epoxy-graphite and Kapton covered foam structural members, and miniature coaxial signal cables. The mechanical construction of the chamber, radiation length vs angle, and details of the electronics are described. The event reconstruction, corrections, and preliminary performance results for 1.8 TeV anti pp collisions are also discussed. (orig.)

  15. Impact excited strain gage for multiwire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for measuring multiwire chamber tension by impact excitation of mechanical oscillations and measuring their periods is described. A flowsheet of an automated electron gaugeis presented; the gauge provides high efficiency and possibility for measurements under conditions of difficult availability of the multiwire chamber system. The range of tension measurements is 0.5-70 g for gilded tugsten wires of 20 μm in diameter and 60 cm length

  16. Virtual Calibration Chamber CPT on Ticino sand

    OpenAIRE

    Butlanska, Joanna; Arroyo Alvarez de Toledo, Marcos; Gens Solé, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The following paper surnmarizes results of CPT's performed in virtual calibration chamber (VCC) built with a 3D model based on the distinct element method (DEM). A discrete material tailored to mimic Ticino sand is tested at different densities, stress and stress history. The limit cone tip resistance from the numerical experiments shows quantitative agreement with different empirical curves summarizing previous tests on Ticino sand in physical calibration chambers (ENEL and ISMES).

  17. Numerical simulation of magma chamber dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Antonella; Papale, Paolo; Montagna, Chiara Paola; Vassalli, Melissa; Giudice, Salvatore; Cassioli, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    Magma chambers are characterized by periodic arrivals of deep magma batches that give origin to complex patterns of magma convection and mixing, and modify the distribution of physical quantities inside the chamber. We simulate the transient, 2D, multi-component homogeneous dynamics in geometrically complex dyke+chamber systems, by means of GALES, a finite element parallel C++ code solving mass, momentum and energy equations for multi-component homogeneous gas-liquid (± crystals) mixtures in compressible-to-incompressible flow conditions. Code validation analysis includes several cases from the classical engineering literature, corresponding to a variety of subsonic to supersonic gas-liquid flow regimes (see http://www.pi.ingv.it/~longo/gales/gales.html). The model allows specification of the composition of the different magmas in the domain, in terms of ten major oxides plus the two volatile species H2O and CO2. Gas-liquid thermodynamics are modeled by using the compositional dependent, non-ideal model in Papale et al. (Chem.. Geol., 2006). Magma properties are defined in terms of local pressure, temperature, and composition including volatiles. Several applications are performed within domains characterized by the presence of one or more magma chambers and one or more dykes, with different geometries and characteristic size from hundreds of m to several km. In most simulations an initial compositional interface is placed at the top of a feeding dyke, or at larger depth, with the deeper magma having a lower density as a consequence of larger volatile content. The numerical results show complex patterns of magma refilling in the chamber, with alternating phases of magma ingression and magma sinking from the chamber into the feeding dyke. Intense mixing takes place in feeding dykes, so that the new magma entering the chamber is always a mixture of the deep and the initially resident magma. Buoyant plume rise occurs through the formation of complex convective

  18. A very large multigap resistive plate chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Cerron-Zeballos, E; Hatzifotiadou, D; Kim, D W; Lamas-Valverde, J; Lee, S C; Platner, E D; Roberts, J; Williams, M C S; Zichichi, A

    1999-01-01

    We have built and tested a very large multigap resistive plate chamber (MRPC). We discuss the suitability of the multigap RPC for the construction of large area modules. We give details of the construction technique and results from a scan across the surface of the chamber. We also report on the implementation of `half-strip resolution', where we improve the spatial resolution by a factor 2 without increasing the number of read-out channels. (9 refs).

  19. Characteristic parameters of drift chambers calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present here the methods we used to analyse the characteristic parameters of drift chambers. The algorithms to calculate the electric potential in any point for any drift chamber geometry are presented. We include the description of the programs used to calculate the electric field, the drift paths, the drift velocity and the drift time. The results and the errors are discussed. (Author) 7 refs

  20. The OPAL jet chamber full scale prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of a jet chamber for the central detector of OPAL has been tested with a full scale prototype. The design of this prototype, its mechanical and electrical structure and its support system for high voltage, gas, laser calibration and readout are described. Operating experience has been gathered since summer 1984. The chamber performance in terms of spatial resolution and particle identification capability is given. (orig.)

  1. High intensity electromagnetic field gerenation using a transportable reverberation chamber

    OpenAIRE

    Leferink, F.B.J.

    2008-01-01

    A reverberation chamber can create very high field strength with moderate input power. Existing chambers are making use of a paddle wheel to change the resonant modes in the chamber. A transportable reverberation chamber with vibrating walls will be presented. Inside this Vibrating Intrinsic Reverberation Chamber (VIRC) a diffuse, statistically uniform electromagnetic field is created, without the use of a mechanical, rotating, mode stirrer. This chamber results in a better homogeneity and in...

  2. Close cathode chamber: Low material budget MWPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance of asymmetric-type MWPC-s are presented. In this structure, referred to as Close Cathode Chamber in an earlier study, the material budget is significantly reduced on one hand by the elimination of external support frame, on the other hand by thin detector walls. In this paper it is demonstrated that the outline is compatible with large size detectors (1 m wire length), maintaining mechanical and operation stability, with total weight of 3 kg (including support structure) for a half square meter surface. The detection efficiency and response time is shown to be sufficient for L0 triggering in the ALICE VHMPID layout. Reduced sensitivity to cathode deformations (due to internal overpressure as mechanical strain) is directly demonstrated. On small sized chambers, improvement of position resolution with analog readout is evaluated, reaching 0.09 mm RMS with 2 mm wide cathode segments. Simulation results on signal time evolutions are presented. With the above studies, comparison of classical MWPC-s and the Close Cathode Chamber design is performed in all major aspects. -- Highlights: ► Asymmetric multi-wire proportional chamber, called the Close Cathode Chamber, is studied. ► Large size construction feasibility up to 1 m wire length is demonstrated in test beam and cosmic rays. ► Reduction of dependence of gas gain on chamber internal pressure is directly demonstrated. ► Position resolution and signal formation is shown to be compatible with classical MWPC.

  3. The GODDESS ionization chamber: developing robust windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Rose; Baugher, Travis; Cizewski, Jolie; Pain, Steven; Ratkiewicz, Andrew; Goddess Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Reaction studies of nuclei far from stability require high-efficiency arrays of detectors and the ability to identify beam-like particles, especially when the beam is a cocktail beam. The Gammasphere ORRUBA Dual Detectors for Experimental Structure Studies (GODDESS) is made up of the Oak Ridge-Rutgers University Barrel Array (ORRUBA) of silicon detectors for charged particles inside of the gamma-ray detector array Gammasphere. A high-rate ionization chamber is being developed to identify beam-like particles. Consisting of twenty-one alternating anode and cathode grids, the ionization chamber sits downstream of the target chamber and is used to measure the energy loss of recoiling ions. A critical component of the system is a thin and robust mylar window which serves to separate the gas-filled ionization chamber from the vacuum of the target chamber with minimal energy loss. After construction, windows were tested to assure that they would not break below the required pressure, causing harm to the wire grids. This presentation will summarize the status of the ionization chamber and the results of the first tests with beams. This work is supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy and National Science Foundation.

  4. Quality control of ATLAS muon chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Fabich, Adrian

    ATLAS is a general-purpose experiment for the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Its Muon Spectrometer will require ∼ 5500m2 of precision tracking chambers to measure the muon tracks along a spectrometer arm of 5m to 15m length, embedded in a magnetic field of ∼ 0.5T. The precision tracking devices in the Muon System will be high pressure drift tubes (MDTs). Approximately 370,000 MDTs will be assembled into ∼ 1200 drift chambers. The performance of the MDT chambers is very much dependent on the mechanical quality of the chambers. The uniformity and stability of the performance can only be assured providing very high quality control during production. Gas tightness, high-voltage behaviour and dark currents are global parameters which are common to gas detectors. For all chambers, they will be tested immediately after the chamber assembly at every production site. Functional tests, for example radioactive source scans and cosmic-ray runs, will be performed in order to establish detailed performan...

  5. A large scale knife-edge chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To date, three different tracking detectors, Straw Tube Chamber, Silicon Strip Detector and Scintillation Fiber Detector, as well as their combinations, have been proposed for the SSC experiments. However all of them have their own problems as tracking detectors for use in very high luminosity experiment at the SSC. Scintillation fiber detector is excellent in its speed, spatial resolution and low occupancy. However the fatal problem is the readout devices. Questions on its radiation hardness have not yet been totally solved. As a solution to this challenge, a knife-edge chamber was proposed. The knife-edge chamber is essentially a multi-wire proportional chamber. This chamber has, however, a drawback which is shared with the silicon strip detector, i.e., the size of a single chamber is limited by that of the silicon wafer. Recently at KEK, a program has been started to overcome this problem. The KEK method is to make v-shape grooves on a metal plate, such as a nickel-plated steel, and to use the metal plate as a negative to make sharp-edged electrodes. After this process, there are two possibilities, which are under consideration at the moment. The first possibility is to use the electroforming technique. The second possibility is to use the plastic molding technique by using the machined metal plate as a negative. The KEK machine shop has recently built a high precision shaper machine to produce gratings for synchrotron radiation research. (N.K.)

  6. Chamber for Growing and Observing Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Molina, Thomas C.

    2005-01-01

    A chamber has been designed to enable growth and observation of microcolonies of fungi in isolation from the external environment. Unlike prior fungus-growing apparatuses, this chamber makes it possible to examine a fungus culture without disrupting it. Partly resembling a small picture frame, the chamber includes a metal plate having a rectangular through-thethickness opening with recesses for a top and a bottom cover glass, an inlet for air, and an inlet for water. The bottom cover glass is put in place and held there by clips, then a block of nutrient medium and a moisture pad are placed in the opening. The block is inoculated, then the top cover glass is put in place and held there by clips. Once growth is evident, the chamber can be sealed with tape. Little (if any) water evaporates past the edges of the cover glasses, and, hence there is little (if any) need to add water. A microscope can be used to observe the culture through either cover glass. Because the culture is sealed in the chamber, it is safe to examine the culture without risking contamination. The chamber can be sterilized and reused.

  7. Framework for the Energetic Assessment of South and South-East Asia Fixed Chimney Bull’s Trench Kiln

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brun Niccolò Le

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major sources of fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emission in South and South-East Asia is brick manufacturing. One of the most commonly implemented technologies for brick manufacturing in this region is the fixed chimney Bull’s trench kiln (FCBTK. This type of technology largely depends on manual labour and is very inefficient when compared to more modern technologies. Because the adoption of more advanced technologies is hindered by the socio-economical background, the much needed innovations in the brick sector are necessarily related to improving/modifying the FCBTK already operational. However, few scientific studies have been conducted on FCBTK probably due to the basic level of technological development. Such studies are however important to systematically and methodologically assess the challenges and solutions in FCBTK. In this study we develop a thermo-energetic model to evaluate the importance of the parameters pertained to FCBTK construction and operation. The prospective of this study is to build an initial thermo-energetic framework that will serve as a basis to investigate possible energetic improvements.

  8. Effect of coal levels during direct reduction roasting of high phosphorus oolitic hematite ore in a tunnel kiln

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yongli; Sun Tichang; Zou Anhua; Xu Chengyan

    2012-01-01

    The effect of coal levels on phosphorus removal from a high phosphorus oolitic hematite ore after direct reduction roasting have been investigated.Raw ore,coal,and a dephosphorization agent were mixed and the mixture was then roasted in a tunnel kiln.The roasted products were treated by two stages of grinding followed by magnetic separation.XRD and SEM-EDS examination of the products was used to analyze differences in the roasted products.The results show that coal is one of the most important factors affecting the direct reduction roasting process.When the inner coal levels increased from 0% to 15% the iron grade decreased linearly from 94.94% to 88.81% and the iron recovery increased from 55.94% to 92.94%.At the same time the phosphorus content increased from 0.045% to 0.231%.Increasing the inner coal levels also caused more hematite to be reduced to metallic iron but the oolitic structure of the roasted product was preserved in the presence of high coal loading.The phase of the phosphorus in raw ore was not changed after direct reduction roasting.The effect of coal on the phosphorus content in the H-concentrate arises from changes in the difficulty of mechanically liberating the metallic iron from the phosphorus bearing minerals.

  9. Study on elemental features of Longquan celadon at Fengdongyan kiln site in Yuan and Ming Dynasties by EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) is used to determine the chemical compositions of Longquan celadon body and glaze at Fengdongyan kiln in Yuan and Ming Dynasties. In order to analyze the elemental features in different cultural periods, 196 typical Longquan celadon shards are selected including the Early Yuan (EY), the Middle and Late Yuan (MLY), the Early Ming (EM) and the Middle Ming (MM) periods. The results indicate that the contents of K2O, CaO, TiO2 and Fe2O3 for celadon body and glaze are various in different cultural periods. The b values b=RO/(RO+R2O), RO represents for alkali-earth metal elements and R2O stands for alkali metal elements) show that the glazes of Longquan celadon in Yuan and Ming Dynasties belong to the category of calcium-alkali glaze. The principal component analysis (PCA) exhibits that the raw materials used for body and glaze in four periods have the inheritance relation. The only difference is that the raw materials for glaze in MM period were similar to those in EM period. The producing and firing technology of Longquan celadon had reached a higher level in the Early Ming Dynasty.

  10. Study on elemental features of Longquan celadon at Fengdongyan kiln site in Yuan and Ming Dynasties by EDXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, L. [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analysis Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yu Quan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China); Feng, S.L., E-mail: fengsl@ihep.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analysis Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yu Quan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China); Feng, X.Q.; Xu, Q.; Yan, L.T.; Ma, B.; Liu, L. [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analysis Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yu Quan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2012-12-01

    The energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) is used to determine the chemical compositions of Longquan celadon body and glaze at Fengdongyan kiln in Yuan and Ming Dynasties. In order to analyze the elemental features in different cultural periods, 196 typical Longquan celadon shards are selected including the Early Yuan (EY), the Middle and Late Yuan (MLY), the Early Ming (EM) and the Middle Ming (MM) periods. The results indicate that the contents of K{sub 2}O, CaO, TiO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} for celadon body and glaze are various in different cultural periods. The b values b=RO/(RO+R{sub 2}O), RO represents for alkali-earth metal elements and R{sub 2}O stands for alkali metal elements) show that the glazes of Longquan celadon in Yuan and Ming Dynasties belong to the category of calcium-alkali glaze. The principal component analysis (PCA) exhibits that the raw materials used for body and glaze in four periods have the inheritance relation. The only difference is that the raw materials for glaze in MM period were similar to those in EM period. The producing and firing technology of Longquan celadon had reached a higher level in the Early Ming Dynasty.

  11. Quantification of the Reduced Environmental Impacts with Use of Co-Processing in Cement Kilns in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Tiwary

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Coupled with resource conservation and reduced carbon emissions, co-processing technology is a preferable alternative for sound and environmental friendly waste disposal over incinerators & non-scientific methods. It is not only solution to the waste disposal menace, but also reduces burden on secured landfills & TSDFs. Apart from using energy and material value of wastes, co-processing not only fixes the inorganic content of the wastes within the clinker, but also, it destroys the wastes completely due to high temperature and long residence time, avoiding need of further processing as in case of incineration. Trial run identifies wastes suitable for co-processing, source emission monitoring assesses environmental impacts and the quantification of reduced environmental impacts gives a clear picture of actual benefits of co-processing. The results show that the suggested process is efficient, economized and environmental friendly, particularly for a populated country, such as India, as there was no adverse effect on quality of cement, stack emission and air quality of environment due to co-processing of variety of identified wastes in cement kiln. Also, the quantified data of coal saved, CO2 emissions reduced & landfill volume avoided by the waste utilization will help in convincing all the stakeholders that co-processing of waste is the best environmentally sound technology for waste disposal. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.69.3.6736

  12. Bulkhead chamber ignition for internal combustion engines. Schottkammerzuendung fuer Verbrennungsmotore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, G.

    1990-12-06

    Bulkhead chamber ignition makes for reliable ignition of different fuels (e.g. petrol or diesel) in internal combustion engines (multifuel engine) that can be operated with an extremely lean fuel-air mixture. This is realized by an open chamber (referred to as bulkhead chamber in the following) inside the combustion chamber which diverts a fraction of the compressed fuel-air mixture from the combustion chamber. After this the pressure in the bulkhead chamber is increased until the mixture ignites spontaneously. The combustion pressure drives back the piston and opens the bulkhead chamber. Then the compressed fuel-air mixture in the combustion chamber is ignited by the released combustion gas.

  13. In vitro penetration of bleaching agents into the pulp chamber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Valera, M C; Mancini, M N G;

    2004-01-01

    To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures.......To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures....

  14. Change of Pressing Chamber Conicalness at Briquetting Process in Briquetting Machine Pressing Chamber

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Križan; Miloš Matúš; Jaan Kers; Djordje Vukelić

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we will present the impact of the conical shape of a pressing chamber, an important structural parameter. Besides the known impact of the technological parameters of pressing chambers, it is also very important to pay attention to their structural parameters. In the introduction, we present a theoretical analysis of pressing chamber conicalness. An experiment aimed at detecting this impact was performed at our institute, and it showed that increasing the conicalness of a pressi...

  15. Conversion of lime kilns from oil firing to biofuel firing: Operating experience and modelling; Konvertering av mesaugnar fraan olje- till biobraensleeldning: Drifterfarenheter och modellering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadsborn, Rickard; Berglin, Niklas; Richards, Tobias

    2007-12-15

    Alternative fuels and techniques affect the operation of the lime kiln and the recausticizing plant, as well as the liquor cycle. An important effect is due to the introduction of non-process elements (NPEs), e.g. potassium, phosphorus and magnesium that accumulate in the liquor and lime cycles, respectively. Temperature profile and flame stability in the kiln also tend to change, which may have effects on ring formation. Availability and maintenance requirements for different technical solutions are important for the real saving of fossil fuel that can be reached over a longer period. The project has aimed to compile experience of the type indicated above, and to develop tools that may facilitate conversion to biofuel firing. The objective has been to gain comprehensive knowledge of the biofuels that can be used for lime kiln firing and compare them, focusing on practical experience from the plants that use or have used biofuels. One goal has been to develop validated models that can be used to describe changes that occur in the lime kiln and the chemical recovery cycle when changing fuels. The primary target group for the report is people working with energy and process related tasks in the pulp industry, and those delivering fuels or system solutions to the industry. The project has comprised data collection and modelling, as well as interviews with operations managers and visits to the mills that have several years of experience with firing of biofuels to replace oil in the lime kiln. A compilation of operating experience shows that conversion to biofuel firing is fully possible with both bark and wood powder, or with fuel gas from gasification of bark or wood shavings, and that the biofuel can replace the main part of the fuel oil in the lime kiln. However, the possibility to introduce biofuels into the lime kiln varies from mill to mill, as the mill have different possibilities to handle variations in availability of the kiln and mass flows of lime. In

  16. Innovations in gas filled ionisation chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gas filled parallel plate ion chamber and coaxial cylindrical ion chambers are widely used for detection of nuclear radiations for more than hundred years. Thin Metal electrodes or metal coated planes are used as cathode and anodes in both parallel plate and cylindrical ionization chambers since its invention. For neutral particle detection, either the ionising medium or a coated electrode surface is used as a converter material for producing secondary charged particles which are detected in these ionisation chambers. Boron, and 235U are coated as thin layer on the cathode surface with optimum thickness to give maximum neutron detection sensitivity. The neutron sensitivity mostly depends upon the coated surface area and to enhance the neutron sensitivity diameter and the length/ diameter of the coated electrodes have to be increased which also results in an increase in the volume of the counter. For many applications, it is necessary to reduce the size of the counter by a factor of 2 to 5 but having the same efficiency. Recently this has been achieved by designing a non planar electrode surface/ s which has surface area larger by a factor or up to five keeping the external dimensions the same. By using this new technique, it is possible to increase the coated area up to 5 times, without changing the overall dimensions of the counter both for proportional counters and ion chambers. The three methods have been developed to enhance the neutron sensitivity the use of: additional coated wires, coated baffles, coated fins: in sensitive volume of gas detectors. The introduction of these three-dimensional boron coated structures into the sensitive volume without enlarging the outer detector dimensions increases the Boron/Uranium content in the sensitive region without any significant change in the nature of the pulses from these counters. In the newly developed Wire Plane Chambers both in the DC mode and pulse mode, wire planes have been used as anode and cathodes with

  17. Organization of inspection of bubble chamber photographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program for inspection of bubble chamber photographs is described. The program was developed for a DEC-10 computer and is designed for PUOS-2M and PUOS-4 semiautomatic inspection and measuring projectors. Formalization of the inspection procedure allows it to be used for various physics experiments. As an example the authors consider the problem of the physical inspection in an experiment on scattering of kaons plus with momenta of 70 GeV/c by protons performed in a BEBC chamber. Primary vertices were analyzed in the following cases: low quality of reconstruction of parameters in the geometric program; lack of agreement of the number of reconstructed tracks with that indicated by inspection; and unmeasured events and events with candidate tracks for identification of proton tracks by degree of ionization. The performance of the program in these cases is evaluated. The program has been used to process 50,000 events recorded with a BEBC chamber as well as experiments recorded with the SCAT chamber and the European Hybrid Spectrometer using the RCBC, LEBC and HOLEBC chambers

  18. Investigation of Swirling Flows in Mixing Chambers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh Jian Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation analyzed the three-dimensional momentum and mass transfer characteristics arising from multiple inlets and a single outlet in micromixing chamber. The chamber consists of a right square prism, an octagonal prism, or a cylinder. Numerical results which were presented in terms of velocity vector plots and concentration distributions indicated that the swirling flows inside the chamber dominate the mixing index. Particle trajectories were utilized to demonstrate the rotational and extensional local flows which produce steady stirring, and the configuration of colored particles at the outlet section expressed at different Re represented the mixing performance qualitatively. The combination of the Taylor dispersion and the vorticity was first introduced and made the mixing successful. The effects of various geometric parameters and Reynolds numbers on the mixing characteristics were investigated. An optimal design of the cylindrical chamber with 4 inlets can be found. At larger Reynolds number, Re>15, more inertia caused the powerful swirling flows in the chamber, and more damping effect on diffusion was diminished, which then increased the mixing performance.

  19. Proportional chambers for the Σ installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two types of proportional chambers used in experiments with SIGMA set are considered. The main parameters of detecting electronics, high-voltage, low-voltage and gas supplies are presented. The first type chambers consist of the round or square frames of sheet foiled glass-cloth-base laminate, on which surface electrode lands and joints between them are applied by photographic printing. The second type chamber electrodes are also made of the sheet foiled glass-cloth-base laminate as strips arranged at the ends of two rectangular metallic profiles. The chamber sensitive regions vary from 64x64 mm to 768x2500 mm. The chambers are used for more than 15 years in different experiments, such as determination of elastic scattering, study of J/ψ and ψ' particle production, search for charm particles in hadron interactions, measuring the change of π--meson polarizability, study of μ+μ-π- system production. The experience of past years manifested their high efficiency and reliability

  20. Chamber, Target and Final Focus Integrated Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid wall protection, which challenges chamber clearing, has such advantages it's Heavy Ion Fusion's (HIF) main line chamber design. Thin liquid protection from x rays is necessary to avoid erosion of structural surfaces and thick liquid makes structures behind 0.5 m of Flibe (7 mean free paths for 14 MeV neutrons), last the life of the plant. Liquid wall protection holds the promise of greatly increased economic competitiveness. Driver designers require ∼200 beams to illuminate recent target designs from two sides. The illumination must be compatible with liquid wall protection. The ''best'' values for driver energy, gain, yield and pulse rate comes out of well-known trade-off studies. The chamber design is based on several key assumptions, which are to be proven before HIF can be shown to be feasible. The chamber R and D needed to reduce the unknowns and risks depend on resolving a few technical issues such as jet surface smoothness and rapid chamber clearing

  1. Chamber, Target and Final Focus Integrated Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid wall protection, which challenges chamber clearing, has such advantages it's Heavy Ion Fusion's (HIF) main line chamber design. Thin liquid protection from x rays is necessary to avoid erosion of structural surfaces and thick liquid makes structures behind 0.5 m of Flibe (7 mean free paths for 14 MeV neutrons), last the life of the plant. Liquid wall protection holds the promise of greatly increased economic competitiveness. Driver designers require ∼200 beams to illuminate recent target designs from two sides. The illumination must be compatible with liquid wall protection. The ''best'' values for driver energy, gain, yield and pulse rate comes out of well-known trade-off studies. An integrated chamber design, yet to be made, depends on several key assumptions, which are to be proven before HIF can be shown to be feasible. The chamber R and D needed to reduce the unknowns and risks depend on resolving a few technical issues such as jet surface smoothness and rapid chamber clearing

  2. Study and analysis of drift chamber parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work deals mainly with drift chambers. In the first chapter a summary of drift chamber properties is presented. The information has been collected from the extensive bibliography available in this field. A very simple calculation procedure of drift chamber parameters has been developed and is presented in detail in the second chapter. Some prototypes have been made following two geometries (multidrift chamber and Z-chambers). Several installations have been used for test and calibration of these prototypes. A complete description of these installations is given in the third chapter. Cosmic rays, beta particles from a Ru106 radiactive source and a test beam in the WA (West Area) of SPS at CERN have been used for experimental purposes. The analysis and the results are described for the different setups. The experimental measurements have been used to produce a complete cell parametrization (position as function of drift time) and to obtain spatial resolution values (in the range of 200-250 um). Experimental results are in good agreement with numerical calculations. (Author)

  3. 21 CFR 884.5225 - Abdominal decompression chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abdominal decompression chamber. 884.5225 Section... Devices § 884.5225 Abdominal decompression chamber. (a) Identification. An abdominal decompression chamber... decompression chamber that was in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976, or that has, on or...

  4. Change of Pressing Chamber Conicalness at Briquetting Process in Briquetting Machine Pressing Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Križan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will present the impact of the conical shape of a pressing chamber, an important structural parameter. Besides the known impact of the technological parameters of pressing chambers, it is also very important to pay attention to their structural parameters. In the introduction, we present a theoretical analysis of pressing chamber conicalness. An experiment aimed at detecting this impact was performed at our institute, and it showed that increasing the conicalness of a pressing chamber improves the quality of the final briquettes. The conicalness of the pressing chamber has a significanteffect on the final briquette quality and on the construction of briquetting machines. The experimental findings presented here show the importance of this parameter in the briquetting process.

  5. Design of the CLIC Quadrupole Vacuum Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Garion, C

    2010-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider, under study, requires vacuum chambers with a very small aperture, of the order of 8 mm in diameter, and with a length up to around 2 m for the main beam quadrupoles. To keep the very tight geometrical tolerances on the quadrupoles, no bake out is allowed. The main issue is to reach UHV conditions (typically 10-9 mbar static pressure) in a system where the vacuum performance is driven by water outgassing. For this application, a thinwalled stainless steel vacuum chamber with two ante chambers equipped with NEG strips, is proposed. The mechanical design, especially the stability analysis, is shown. The key technologies of the prototype fabrication are given. Vacuum tests are carried out on the prototypes. The test set-up as well as the pumping system conditions are presented.

  6. ON THE ANALYSIS OF BUBBLE CHAMBER TRACKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since its invention by Glaser in 1953, the bubble chamber has become a most valuable tool in high-energy physics. It combines a number of advantages of various older methods of particle detection: it offers high spatial resolution, rapid accumulation of data, some time resolution, and some choice of the nucleus whose interaction one wants to study (bubble chambers have been made to operate with a large number of different liquids, including H2, D2, He, Xe, and several hydrocarbons). In order to exploit the advantages of spatial resolution and rapid data accumulation, high-speed high-precision analysis procedures must be developed. In this article they discuss some of the problems posed by such analysis. The discussion is based largely on experience gained in performing hydrogen bubble chamber experiments with the University of California's Bevatron (6-Bev proton synchrotron)

  7. Rapid-Cycling Bubble-Chamber, details

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Parts of the hydraulic expansion system of the Rapid-Cycling Bubble-Chamber (RCBC). RCBC was the largest of 3 rapid-cycling bubble-chambers (the others were LEBC and HOLEBC), used as target- and vertex-detectors within the European Hybrid Spectrometer (EHS) in the SPS North Area (EHN1). RCBC contained 250 l of liquid hydrogen and was located inside a 3 T superconducting magnet. It was designed for 30 expansions/s (100 times faster than BEBC), the system shown here allowed 50 expansions/s. RCBC operated from 1981 to 1983 for experiments NA21, NA22 and NA23 at a rate of 15 expansions/s, clocking up a total of over 4 million. In the rear, at left, is bearded Lucien Veillet; Augustin Didona is at the right. See also 8001009. The installation of the piston assembly in the RCBC chamber body is shown in the Annual Report 1980, p.65.

  8. Drift chamber tracking with neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the very high event rates projected for experiments at the SSC and LHC, it is important to investigate new approaches to on line pattern recognition. The use of neural networks for pattern recognition. The use of neural networks for pattern recognition in high energy physics detectors has been an area of very active research. The authors discuss drift chamber tracking with a commercial analog VLSI neural network chip. Voltages proportional to the drift times in a 4-layer drift chamber were presented to the Intel ETANN chip. The network was trained to provide the intercept and slope of straight tracks traversing the chamber. The outputs were recorded and later compared off line to conventional track fits. Two types of network architectures were studied. Applications of neural network tracking to high energy physics detector triggers is discussed

  9. Posing the first LEAR vacuum chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1982-01-01

    The photo shows one of the four bending magnets of LEAR. They were of C-type with the opening ('mouth') to the outside of the ring (yoke to the inside). Last preparations are made before the vacuum chamber is slid through the mouth into the magnet. Stochastic cooling pickups/kickers were installed inside the chamber. One can distinguish a large number of feed-throughs on the chamber (leading to the pickup/kicker gaps). The free space in the middle of the block was left to offer room for an internal target in the magnet. This possibility was never exploited. Instead it is used here, to accommodate a pumping port for the high vacuum system. Michel Chanel (left) and Pierre Lefevre admire the mechanics at work.

  10. Failure to phytosanitize ash firewood infested with emerald ash borer in a small dry kiln using ISPM-15 standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, P Charles; Bumgardner, Matthew S; Herms, Daniel A; Sabula, Andrew

    2010-06-01

    Although current USDA-APHIS standards suggest that a core temperature of 71.1 degrees C (160 degrees F) for 75 min is needed to adequately sanitize emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire-infested firewood, it is unclear whether more moderate (and economical) treatment regimes will adequately eradicate emerald ash borer larvae and prepupae from ash firewood. We constructed a small dry kiln in an effort to emulate the type of technology a small- to medium-sized firewood producer might use to examine whether treatments with lower temperature and time regimes successfully eliminate emerald ash borer from both spilt and roundwood firewood. Using white ash (Fraxinus americana L.) firewood collected from a stand with a heavy infestation of emerald ash borer in Delaware, OH, we treated the firewood using the following temperature and time regime: 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) for 30 min, 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) for 60 min, 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) for 30 min, and 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) for 60 min. Temperatures were recorded for the outer 2.54-cm (1-in.) of firewood. After treatment, all firewood was placed under mesh netting and emerald ash borer were allowed to develop and emerge under natural conditions. No treatments seemed to be successful at eliminating emerald ash borer larvae and perpupae as all treatments (including two nontreated controls) experienced some emerald ash borer emergence. However, the 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) treatments did result in considerably less emerald ash borer emergence than the 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) treatments. Further investigation is needed to determine whether longer exposure to the higher temperature (56 degrees C) will successfully sanitize emerald ash borer-infested firewood. PMID:20568603

  11. Almond test body. [for microwave anechoic chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominek, Allen K. (Inventor); Wood, Richard M. (Inventor); Gilreath, Melvin C. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The invention is an almond shaped test body for use in measuring the performance characteristics of microwave anechoic chambers and for use as a support for components undergoing radar cross-section measurements. The novel aspect of this invention is its shape, which produces a large dynamic scattered field over large angular regions making the almond valuable for verifying the performance of microwave anechoic chambers. As a component mount, the almond exhibits a low return that does not perturb the measurement of the component and it simulates the backscatter characteristics of the component as if over an infinite ground plane.

  12. Oil shale generators with circular retorting chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of semi-coking oil shale in the circular retorting chamber makes it possible to ensure a more uniform distribution of the heat carriers gas across the shale bed, than in the vertically placed retorting chambers with cross-current heat carrier flow, and in the generators using the counter-current method of heat exchange. This also ensures the most favourable conditions for effective heat transfer in the retorting chamber from the gas flow to the shale bed due to the following factors: absence of the lateral outer walls in the retorting chamber; the concentrical arrangement of the retorting chamber and the passage of the gaseous heat carrier through the shale bed from the periphery of the retort to its center; the bulk of the oil shale charged passes through the hot part of the retorting chamber (i.e. on the side of inlet of the gaseous heat carrier into the shale bed). As a result, processing the oil shale in the generators with circular retorting chambers leads to a decrease in the temperature of oil vapours at the gas outlet on an average from 220 to 150o C and the reduction of the specific air consumption for the process - from 360 to 250 m3/t. According to the calculated data, it ensures an increase in oil yield from 78 to 84% of the Fischer assay oil. The application of the circular retorting chamber in the generators, creates conditions for increased unit throughput rates of the retorts 1.5-2.0 times with a simultaneous increase in the oil yield. For processing oil shales rich in organic material, which readily bitumenize, retorts for a throughput of 1500 tonnes per day have been developed and are already under construction at the P O 'Slantsekhim'. Project designs for the leaner shales can be developed for throughput rates in excess of 5000-6000 tonnes per day. The retorts will have a comparatively small diameter and a simpler design than the 1000 t/day generators being now in operation. (author). 14 refs., 2 tabs., fig

  13. A view inside the Gargamelle bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    Gargamelle was the name given to a big bubble chamber built at the Saclay Laboratory in France during the late 1960s. It was designed principally for the detection at CERN of the elusive particles called neutrinos. A bubble chamber contains a liquid under pressure, which reveals the tracks of electrically charged particles as trails of tiny bubbles when the pressure is reduced. Neutrinos have no charge, and so leave no tracks, but the aim with Gargamelle was "see neutrinos" by making visible any charged particles set in motion by the interaction of neutrinos in the liquid

  14. Quasi-Porous Plug With Vortex Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J. V.

    1985-01-01

    Pressure-letdown valve combines quasi-porous-plug and vortex-chamber in one controllable unit. Valve useful in fossil-energy plants for reducing pressures in such erosive two-phase process streams as steam/water, coal slurries, or combustion gases with entrained particles. Quasi-Porous Plug consists of plenums separated by perforated plates. Number or size of perforations increases with each succeeding stage to compensate for expansion. In Vortex Chamber, control flow varies to control swirl and therefore difference between inlet and outlet pressures.

  15. Brookhaven National Laboratory's multiparticle spectrometer drift chamber system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system of drift chambers is being built to replace the present spark chambers in the Brookhaven National Laboratory's Multiparticle Spectrometer. This system will handle a beam of approx. 3 million particles per second and have a resolution of 200 μm. A summary of the status of the chambers and the custom integrated circuits is presented. The data acquisition system is described. Prototype chambers have been built and tested with results that are consistent with the expected chamber properties

  16. The study of ancient porcelain of Hutian kiln site from Five dynasty (902-979) to Ming dynasty (1368-1644) by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minor and trace elements of 398 pieces of ancient porcelain of Hutian kiln site from Five dynasty (AD 902-979) to Ming dynasty (AD 1368-1644) were determined by instrumental neutron activate analysis (INAA). The data of INAA and PCA show the ages of all the porcelain can be divided into Five dynasty, Northern Song dynasty, Southern Song dynasty, Early Yuan dynasty, Later Yuan dynasty and Ming dynasty according to their chemical compositions. Moreover, some archaeological questions about the ancient porcelain are discussion also. (author)

  17. The cloud chamber and its metamorphoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stunning invention of the Wilson chamber in 1911 stayed almost ignored by the physicist community for more than a decade although it permitted the visualization of the track of an alpha particle as soon as 1911. The detection principle is based on the expansion of a saturated vapor that allows the visualization of a ionizing particle motion through the formation of droplets around the ions created all along the particle path. The original device was too slow (only one expansion per minute) to be used for the detection of rare events unless to operate it for months or years. A decisive step was made in the beginning of the twenties by the Japanese physicist Takeo Shimizu, working at the Cavendish Laboratory. He managed to automate the Wilson chamber and to equip it with 2 mirrors and a camera. This new generation allowed 5 expansion per second and the knowledge of the particle track orientation in space thanks to a simultaneous photography following 2 perpendicular directions. A rate of 4 shots a minute was achieved. The Wilson chamber was constantly improved during its 30 years long career and was only supplanted by the bubble chamber in the fifties. (A.C.)

  18. Progress in timing Resistive Plate Chambers

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, A.; Carolino, N.; Correia, C. M. B. A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; P. Fonte(LIP-Laboratório de Instrumentação e Física Experimental de Partículas, Portugal); Gobbi, A.; González-Díaz, D.; Lopes, M.I.; Lopes, L.; Macedo, M. P.; Mangiarotti, A.; V. Peskov; Policarpo, A.

    2004-01-01

    Timing RPCs are Resistive Plate Chambers made with glass and metal electrodes separated by precision spacers. Typical gas gaps are a few hundred micrometers wide. Such counters were introduced in 1999 and have since reached timing accuracies below 50 ps [sigma] with efficiencies above 99% for MIPs. Applications in high-energy physics have already taken place with several more under study.

  19. Anterior Chamber Live Loa loa: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagmeni, G; Cheuteu, R; Bilong, Y; Wiedemann, P

    2016-01-01

    We reported a case of unusual intraocular Loa loa in a 27-year-old patient who presented with painful red eye. Biomicroscopy revealed a living and active adult worm in the anterior chamber of the right eye. After surgical extraction under local anesthesia, parasitological identification confirmed L. loa filariasis. PMID:27441005

  20. Detecting dark matter with scintillating bubble chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianjie; Dahl, C. Eric; Jin, Miaotianzi; Baxter, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Threshold based direct WIMP dark matter detectors such as the superheated bubble chambers developed by the PICO experiment have demonstrated excellent electron-recoil and alpha discrimination, excellent scalability, ease of change of target fluid, and low cost. However, the nuclear-recoil like backgrounds have been a limiting factor in their dark matter sensitivity. We present a new type of detector, the scintillating bubble chamber, which reads out the scintillation pulse of the scattering events as well as the pressure, temperature, acoustic traces, and bubble images as a conventional bubble chamber does. The event energy provides additional handle to discriminate against the nuclear-recoil like backgrounds. Liquid xenon is chosen as the target fluid in our prototyping detector for its high scintillation yield and suitable vapor pressure which simplifies detector complexity. The detector can be used as an R&D tool to study the backgrounds present in the current PICO bubble chambers or as a prototype for standalone dark matter detectors in the future. Supported by DOE Grant DE-SC0012161.

  1. Anterior Chamber Live Loa loa: Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagmeni, G.; Cheuteu, R.; Bilong, Y.; Wiedemann, P.

    2016-01-01

    We reported a case of unusual intraocular Loa loa in a 27-year-old patient who presented with painful red eye. Biomicroscopy revealed a living and active adult worm in the anterior chamber of the right eye. After surgical extraction under local anesthesia, parasitological identification confirmed L. loa filariasis. PMID:27441005

  2. Opposite expansion system of fast bubble chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pneumatic opposite expansion system, operating on frequency up to 100 Hz and minimal cycle duration up to 3 ms, is created for accomplishingh expansion working cycle of a precision liquid-hydrogen fast bubble chamber. Fast-action hydraulic servo slide valves with electric control are used as command and control elements

  3. Vacuum chamber for intersection I-4

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    Vacuum chamber for intersection I-4 of the ISR being assembled inside a wooden mock-up of the gap of the split-field magnet. The central round-cylinder section is provisional and is to be replaced by an elliptic-cylinder section to give more space vertically for installation of detectors. Supports for the central section are of carbon fibre composite.

  4. Pressurized ionization chamber detectors for industrial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of the thickness of the sheets made of different materials, e.g. metal, plastic, paper, cellulose, rubber, etc., is one of many industrial applications of nuclear techniques. The ionizing radiation detectors of ionization chamber type are based on measuring the variations in either exposure rate (for gamma radiation) or absorbed dose rate (for beta radiation) occurring in materials of different thickness, placed between the radiation source and the detector. The variations in exposure rate and absorbed dose rate can be traced by using radiation detectors of the ionization chamber type, which convert the exposure rate, X point, or the absorbed dose rate, D point, into a proportional electric current. The more stable the ionization current of the chambers (keeping a constant exposure rate or absorbed dose rate), the slighter the variations that can be detected in either exposure rate or absorbed dose rate, hence in the absorbing material placed between the radiation source and the detector. Based on these facts, several variants of such detectors, including the ionization chamber CIS-P5M-100Kr, CIS-P2M-1000Kr and CIS-P8M-70Kr, have been made. (author)

  5. A double grid position sensitive avalanche chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A double grid position sensitive avalanche chamber (DGAC) has been developed. Its sensitive area is 250 x 200 mm2. The properties of the DGAC were tested in flowing isobutylene gas at a pressure of 360 Pa. The position resolution of 4 mm in both x and y coordinates and the time resolution of 290 ps are obtained for 252Cf fission fragment source

  6. The arrival of the CLOUD chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN AVC

    2009-01-01

    The team from the CLOUD experiment - the world’s first experiment using a high-energy particle accelerator to study the climate - were on cloud nine after the arrival of their new three-metre diameter cloud chamber. This marks the end of three years’ R&D; and design, and the start of preparations for data taking later this year.

  7. The FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade) vacuum chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FTU vacuum vassel has been designed to withstand high electromagnetic and thermal loads and to reach high vacuum conditions which are essential to obtain clean, impurity free plasma. After a survey of the vacuum chamber requirements and of the design development, the paper reports the main manufactoring process such as welding, stress relieving, machining, nondestructive testing, outgassing and preassembly

  8. Chamber transport for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review is given of research on chamber transport for HIF (heavy ion fusion) dating from the first HIF Workshop in 1976 to the present. Chamber transport modes are categorized into ballistic transport modes and channel-like modes. Four major HIF reactor studies are summarized (HIBALL-II, HYLIFE-II, Prometheus-H, OSIRIS), with emphasis on the chamber transport environment. In general, many beams are used to provide the required symmetry and to permit focusing to the required small spots. Target parameters are then discussed, with a summary of the individual heavy ion beam parameters required for HIF. The beam parameters are then classified as to their line charge density and perveance, with special emphasis on the perveance limits for radial space charge spreading, for the space charge limiting current, and for the magnetic (Alfven) limiting current. The major experiments on ballistic transport (SFFE, Sabre beamlets, GAMBLE II, NTX, NDCX) are summarized, with specific reference to the axial electron trapping limit for charge neutralization. The major experiments on channel-like transport (GAMBLE II channel, GAMBLE II self-pinch, LBNL channels, GSI channels) are discussed. The status of current research on HIF chamber transport is summarized, and the value of future NDCX-II transport experiments for the future of HIF is noted

  9. Acoustical-Levitation Chamber for Metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Trinh, E.; Wang, T. G.; Elleman, D. D.; Jacobi, N.

    1983-01-01

    Sample moved to different positions for heating and quenching. Acoustical levitation chamber selectively excited in fundamental and second-harmonic longitudinal modes to hold sample at one of three stable postions: A, B, or C. Levitated object quickly moved from one of these positions to another by changing modes. Object rapidly quenched at A or C after heating in furnace region at B.

  10. Wave Phenomena in an Acoustic Resonant Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mary E.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the design and operation of a high Q acoustical resonant chamber which can be used to demonstrate wave phenomena such as three-dimensional normal modes, Q values, densities of states, changes in the speed of sound, Fourier decomposition, damped harmonic oscillations, sound-absorbing properties, and perturbation and scattering problems.…

  11. Prototype Vacuum Chamber for ISR Intersection Region

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The vacuum chambers at the ISR interaction region had to be as transparent as possible to the secondary particles emerging from the collision points. Made from stainless steel or titanium, only a fraction of a millimeter thick, they were most delicate to handle.

  12. Prototype vacuum chamber for ISR intersection region

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The vacuum chambers at the ISR interaction regions had to be as transparent as possible to the secondary particles emerging from the collision points. Made from stainless steel or titanium, only a fraction of a millimeter thick, they were most delicate to handle.

  13. IKAR, a ionization chamber for WA9

    CERN Multimedia

    1976-01-01

    This ionization chamber arrived at CERN from Leningrad for a high precision study of hadron elastic scattering by a CERN-Clermont-Ferrand-Leningrad-Lyon-Uppsala Collaboration in the H3 beam (WA9). G.A. Korolev (third from right) looks at the drawings.

  14. Drift Chambers detectors; Detectores de deriva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, I.; Martinez laso, L.

    1989-07-01

    We present here a review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysed, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author) 115 refs.

  15. Baking and Adjustment of 66 m Natural Gas Tunnel Kiln Produced by Swindell Dressier International Company%66m美国SD天然气隧道窑的烘烤与调试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏兴; 刘剑

    2011-01-01

    Reasonable baking system was propitious to extending the life of tunnel kiln.Checking and preparation before baking, method and notice for baking was introduced into the baking and adjustment of 66 m natural gas tunnel kiln produced.%合理的烘调制度,有利于延长隧道窑的使用寿命。笔者主要从烘调前的检查准备工作、烘调方法及烘调注意事项等几个方面对66m美国SD天然气隧道窑的烘调过程进行综述。

  16. Pressure vessel rupture within a chamber: the pressure history on the chamber wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generally there is a large number of pressure vessels containing high pressure gas on power stations and chemical plant. In many instances, particularly on power plant, these vessels are within the main building. If a pressure vessel were to fail, the surrounding structures would be exposed to blast loads and the forces resulting from jets of fluid issuing from the breached vessel. In the case where the vessel is in a relatively closed chamber there would also be a general overpressurisation of the chamber. At the design stage it is therefore essential to demonstrate that the plant could be safely shut down in the event of a pressure vessel failure, that is, it must be shown that the chamber will not collapse thus putting the building at risk or hazarding equipment essential for a safe shut down. Such an assessment requires the loads applied to the chamber walls, roof, etc. to be known. (author)

  17. Anterior chamber fixation of a posterior chamber intraocular lens: A novel technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sahap Kükner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the implantation of a posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL in the anterior chamber (AC with the haptics passing through two iridectomies to the posterior chamber. A total of 33 eyes of 33 patients with inadequate posterior capsular support due to either previous aphakia or posterior capsular rupture during cataract extraction were included in the study. A double iridectomy was performed on all patients using a vitrectomy probe on the midperiphery of the iris. IOLs were implanted in the AC, and the haptics were passed through the iridectomies to the posterior chamber. The mean follow-up time was 25.3 months. AC hemorrhage occurred in five patients during the iridectomy procedure. Corneal edema was detected in eight of 14 patients with primary IOL insertions. Haptic dislocation was detected in only one patient. This technique may be a good alternative to scleral-fixated IOL implantation in eyes with aphakia.

  18. Achievable field strength in reverberation chambers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Eulig

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Feldvariable Kammern (FVK, engl.: modestirred- chamber werden unter anderem für EMV-Störfestigkeitsprüfungen verwendet. Ein häufig genanntes Argument, das die Einführung dieser Kammern als normgerechte Prüfumgebung vorantreiben soll, ist eine hohe Feldstärke, die im Vergleich zu anderen Testumgebungen mit relativ moderaten HF-Leistungen erreicht werden kann. Besonders für sicherheitskritische Geräte, wie Komponenten aus der Avionik- oder KFZ-Industrie, sind heutzutage Testfeldstärken von mehreren 100 V/m notwendig. Derart hohe Feldstärken können in Umgebungen, die ein ebenes Wellenfeld erzeugen oder nachbilden, nur mit großen HFLeistungen generiert werden. Durch die Resonanzeigenschaften einer FVK können demgegenüber mit sehr viel weniger Leistung und damit Verstärkeraufwand vergleichbare Werte der Feldstärke erzeugt werden. Allerdings sinkt mit zunehmendem Volumen die erreichbare Feldstärke bei gleicher Speiseleistung. Idealerweise sollen Feldvariable Kammern bei möglichst niedrigen Frequenzen für EMVTests nutzbar sein, was jedoch ein großes Kammervolumen erfordert. Das Problem, bei niedrigen Frequenzen hohe Feldstärken erzeugen zu können, relativiert deshalb den Vorteil von FVKn gegenüber bekannten Testumgebungen bei niedrigen Testfrequenzen. Der Posterbeitrag erläutert, welche Feldstärken in verschieden großen Feldvariablen Kammern beim Einspeisen einer bestimmten hochfrequenten Leistung erreicht werden können. Anhand dieser Ergebnisse wird aufgezeigt, oberhalb welcher Grenzfrequenz eine Anwendung von FVKn nur sinnvoll erscheint. Mode-stirred chambers (MSCs can be used for radiated immunity tests in EMC testing. Advantageous compared to conventional test methods is the high field strength which can here be generated with less RF-Power. This point is often the main argument for pushing the standardization of MSCs as an other EMC testing environment. Especially for safety-critical electronic equipment like avionic or

  19. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): Emissions of particulate matter from wood and dung cooking fires, brick kilns, generators, trash and crop residue burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Elizabeth; Jayarathne, Thilina; Stockwell, Chelsea; Christian, Ted; Bhave, Prakash; Siva Praveen, Puppala; Panday, Arnico; Adhikari, Sagar; Maharjan, Rashmi; Goetz, Doug; DeCarlo, Peter; Saikawa, Eri; Yokelson, Robert

    2016-04-01

    The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMASTE) field campaign targeted the in situ characterization of widespread and under-sampled combustion sources. In Kathmandu and the Terai, southern Nepal's flat plains, samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were collected from wood and dung cooking fires (n = 22), generators (n = 2), groundwater pumps (n = 2), clamp kilns (n = 3), zig-zag kilns (n = 3), trash burning (n = 4), one heating fire, and one crop residue fire. Co-located measurements of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds allowed for the application of the carbon mass balance approach to estimate emission factors for PM2.5, elemental carbon, organic carbon, and water-soluble inorganic ions. Organic matter was chemically speciated using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, sterols, n-alkanes, hopanes, steranes, and levoglucosan, which accounted for 2-8% of the measured organic carbon. These data were used to develop molecular-marker based profiles for use in source apportionment modeling. This study provides quantitative emission factors for particulate matter and its constituents for many important combustion sources in Nepal and South Asia.

  20. A new plant chamber facility PLUS coupled to the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hohaus

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A new PLant chamber Unit for Simulation (PLUS for use with the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR (Simulation of Atmospheric PHotochemistry In a large Reaction Chamber has been build and characterized at the Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Germany. The PLUS chamber is an environmentally controlled flow through plant chamber. Inside PLUS the natural blend of biogenic emissions of trees are mixed with synthetic air and are transferred to the SAPHIR chamber where the atmospheric chemistry and the impact of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC can be studied in detail. In PLUS all important enviromental parameters (e.g. temperature, PAR, soil RH etc. are well-controlled. The gas exchange volume of 9.32 m3 which encloses the stem and the leafes of the plants is constructed such that gases are exposed to FEP Teflon film and other Teflon surfaces only to minimize any potential losses of BVOCs in the chamber. Solar radiation is simulated using 15 LED panels which have an emission strength up to 800 μmol m−2 s−1. Results of the initial characterization experiments are presented in detail. Background concentrations, mixing inside the gas exchange volume, and transfer rate of volatile organic compounds (VOC through PLUS under different humidity conditions are explored. Typical plant characteristics such as light and temperature dependent BVOC emissions are studied using six Quercus Ilex trees and compared to previous studies. Results of an initial ozonolysis experiment of BVOC emissions from Quercus Ilex at typical atmospheric concentrations inside SAPHIR are presented to demonstrate a typical experimental set up and the utility of the newly added plant chamber.

  1. A new plant chamber facility PLUS coupled to the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohaus, T.; Kuhn, U.; Andres, S.; Kaminski, M.; Rohrer, F.; Tillmann, R.; Wahner, A.; Wegener, R.; Yu, Z.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.

    2015-11-01

    A new PLant chamber Unit for Simulation (PLUS) for use with the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR (Simulation of Atmospheric PHotochemistry In a large Reaction Chamber) has been build and characterized at the Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Germany. The PLUS chamber is an environmentally controlled flow through plant chamber. Inside PLUS the natural blend of biogenic emissions of trees are mixed with synthetic air and are transferred to the SAPHIR chamber where the atmospheric chemistry and the impact of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) can be studied in detail. In PLUS all important enviromental parameters (e.g. temperature, PAR, soil RH etc.) are well-controlled. The gas exchange volume of 9.32 m3 which encloses the stem and the leafes of the plants is constructed such that gases are exposed to FEP Teflon film and other Teflon surfaces only to minimize any potential losses of BVOCs in the chamber. Solar radiation is simulated using 15 LED panels which have an emission strength up to 800 μmol m-2 s-1. Results of the initial characterization experiments are presented in detail. Background concentrations, mixing inside the gas exchange volume, and transfer rate of volatile organic compounds (VOC) through PLUS under different humidity conditions are explored. Typical plant characteristics such as light and temperature dependent BVOC emissions are studied using six Quercus Ilex trees and compared to previous studies. Results of an initial ozonolysis experiment of BVOC emissions from Quercus Ilex at typical atmospheric concentrations inside SAPHIR are presented to demonstrate a typical experimental set up and the utility of the newly added plant chamber.

  2. A new plant chamber facility, PLUS, coupled to the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohaus, T.; Kuhn, U.; Andres, S.; Kaminski, M.; Rohrer, F.; Tillmann, R.; Wahner, A.; Wegener, R.; Yu, Z.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.

    2016-03-01

    A new PLant chamber Unit for Simulation (PLUS) for use with the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR (Simulation of Atmospheric PHotochemistry In a large Reaction Chamber) has been built and characterized at the Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Germany. The PLUS chamber is an environmentally controlled flow-through plant chamber. Inside PLUS the natural blend of biogenic emissions of trees is mixed with synthetic air and transferred to the SAPHIR chamber, where the atmospheric chemistry and the impact of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) can be studied in detail. In PLUS all important environmental parameters (e.g., temperature, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), soil relative humidity (RH)) are well controlled. The gas exchange volume of 9.32 m3 which encloses the stem and the leaves of the plants is constructed such that gases are exposed to only fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) Teflon film and other Teflon surfaces to minimize any potential losses of BVOCs in the chamber. Solar radiation is simulated using 15 light-emitting diode (LED) panels, which have an emission strength up to 800 µmol m-2 s-1. Results of the initial characterization experiments are presented in detail. Background concentrations, mixing inside the gas exchange volume, and transfer rate of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) through PLUS under different humidity conditions are explored. Typical plant characteristics such as light- and temperature- dependent BVOC emissions are studied using six Quercus ilex trees and compared to previous studies. Results of an initial ozonolysis experiment of BVOC emissions from Quercus ilex at typical atmospheric concentrations inside SAPHIR are presented to demonstrate a typical experimental setup and the utility of the newly added plant chamber.

  3. High efficiency ionization chamber for fission experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The width of fission fragment mass distribution indicates the number of di rent fragments which are produced during the fission process from a given excited state. Smaller width means more limited variety of fission fragments which can indicate clusterization effect in hyperdeformed states before fission and also means less amount of nuclear waste. A new gridded ionization chamber was constructed at Atomki to examine the mass distribution of the fission fragments from neutron induced fission of some U and Th isotopes. The design is based on a twin ionization chamber developed by C. Budtz-Jorgensen et al. Our aim was to increase the efficiency of the measurements by applying multiple detector units. This compound detector permits simultaneous measurement of the total kinetic energy and fission fragment emission angle with respect to the detector symmetry axis. The chamber consists of five twin parallel plate ionization chambers with Frisch grids. Assuming that at low counting rates only one target emits fission fragments in one event, the an- odes and the grids were interconnected form- ing two groups (A1-G1, A2-G2). In order to identify which target emitted the fission fragments the signals from each cathodes are also processed. The energy of the fission fragments is determined from the anode pulse heights, while the sum of the grid and anode signals is used to deduce the fragment emission angle θ with respect to the symmetry axis of the chamber: Qsum = -n0e[1 - (X/D)cosθ). The angle dependent energy losses in the tar get can be determined using this angular information. In order to minimize the distance between the targets and the neutron source, smaller distance between the plates and a smaller diameter had to be chosen as in Ref. This arrangement required higher gas pressure, which is necessary to stop the fission fragments before reaching the electrodes. A gas mixture of 90% Ar + 10% CH4 at 2 atm pressure was used. With a

  4. Investigation into the use of cement kiln dust in high density sludge (HDS) treatment of acid mine water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Allison L; Walsh, Margaret E

    2015-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential to replace lime with cement kiln dust (CKD) in high density sludge (HDS) treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD). The bench-scale study used two water samples: AMD sampled from a lead-zinc mine with high concentrations of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and arsenic (As) (Fe/Zn-AMD) and a synthetic AMD solution (Syn-AMD) spiked with ferric sulfate (Fe2(SO4)3). Arsenic was found to be significantly reduced with CKD-HDS treatment of Fe/Zn-AMD compared to lime-HDS treatment, to concentrations below the stringent mine effluent discharge regulation of 0.10 mg As/L (i.e., 0.04 ± 0.02 mg/L). Both CKD- and lime-HDS treatment of the two AMD samples resulted in settled water Fe concentrations above the stringent discharge guideline of 0.3 mg Fe/L. CKD addition in the HDS process also resulted in high settled water turbidity, above typical discharge guidelines of 15 mg TSS/L. CKD-HDS treatment was found to result in significantly improved settled solids (i.e., sludge) quality compared to that generated in the lime-HDS process. HDS treatment with CKD resulted in 25-88% lower sludge volume indices, 2 to 9 times higher % wet solids, and 10 to 20 times higher % dry solids compared to lime addition. XRD and XPS testing indicated that CKD-HDS sludge consisted of mainly CaCO3 and SiO2 with Fe(3+) precipitates attached at particle surfaces. XRD and XPS testing of the lime-HDS generated sludge showed that it consisted of non-crystalline Fe oxides typical of sludge formed from precipitates with a high water concentration. Increased sedimentation rates were also found for CKD (1.3 cm/s) compared to lime (0.3 cm/s). The increased solids loading with CKD addition compared to lime addition in the HDS process was suggested to both promote surface complexation of metal precipitates with insoluble CKD particles and increase compression effects during Type IV sedimentation. These mechanisms collectively contributed to the reduced water content of

  5. Spatial analysis of charcoal kiln remains in the former royal forest district Tauer (Lower Lusatia, North German Lowlands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Alexandra; Schneider, Anna; Bonhage, Alexander; Takla, Melanie; Hirsch, Florian; Müller, Frank; Rösler, Horst; Heußner, Karl-Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Archaeological excavations have revealed more than thousand charcoal kiln remains (CKRs) in the prefield of the active opencast lignite mine Jänschwalde, situated about 150 km SE of Berlin (SE Brandenburg, Germany). The charcoal was mainly produced for the ironwork Peitz nearby, which operated from the 16th to the mid-19th centuries. In a first approach, to estimate the dimension of the charcoal production, CKRs were mapped on shaded-relief maps (SRMs) derived from high-resolution LiDAR data (Raab et al. 2015). Subsequently, for a selected test area, identified CKRs on the SRMs were compared with archaeologically excavated CKRs in the field. This survey showed a considerably number of falsely detected sites. Therefore, the data was critically re-evaluated using additional relief visualisations. Further, we extended the CKR mapping to areas which are not archaeologically investigated. The study area, the former royal forest district Tauer, consists of two separate areas: the Tauersche Heide (c. 96 km2 area) N of Peitz and the area Jänschwalde (c. 32 km2 area) NE of Peitz. The study area is characterized by a flat topography. Different former and current anthropogenic uses (e.g., military training, solar power plant, forestry measures) have affected the study area, resulting in extensive disturbances of the terrain surface. The revised CKR abundance in the study area Jänschwalde was considerably smaller than the numbers produced by our first approach. Further, the CKR mapping revealed, that a total record of the CKRs is not possible for various reasons. Despite these limitations, a solid database can be provided for a much larger area than before. Basic statistic parameters of the CKR diameters and all comparative statistical tests were calculated using SPSS. To detect underlying spatial relationships in the CKR site distribution, we applied the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic, a method to test for local spatial autocorrelation between neighbouring sites. The test is

  6. Chamber Structure of Double Hurwitz numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Cavalieri, Renzo; Markwig, Hannah

    2010-01-01

    Double Hurwitz numbers count covers of the projective line by genus g curves with assigned ramification profiles over 0 and infinity, and simple ramification over a fixed branch divisor. Goulden, Jackson and Vakil have shown double Hurwitz numbers are piecewise polynomial in the orders of ramification, and Shadrin, Shapiro and Vainshtein have determined the chamber structure and wall crossing formulas for g=0. This paper gives a unified approach to these results and strengthens them in several ways -- the most important being the extension of the results of Shapiro, Shadrin and Vainshtein to arbitrary genus. The main tool is the authors' previous work expressing double Hurwitz number as a sum over certain labeled graphs. We identify the labels of the graphs with lattice points in the chambers of certain hyperplane arrangements, which are well known to give rise to piecewise polynomial functions. Our understanding of the wall crossing for these functions builds on the work of Varchenko, and could have broader ...

  7. HYLIFE-II reactor chamber mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical design features of the reactor chamber for the HYLIFE-II inertial confinement fusion power plant are presented. A combination of oscillating and steady, molten salt streams are used for shielding and blast protection. The system is designed for an 8 Hz repetition rate. Beam path clearing, between shots, is accomplished with the oscillating flow. The mechanism for generating the oscillating streams is described. A design configuration of the vessel wall allows adequate cooling and provides extra shielding to reduce thermal stresses to tolerable levels. The bottom portion of the reactor chamber is designed to minimize splash back of the high velocity (20 m/s) salt streams and also recover up to half of the dynamic head

  8. Tailored vacuum chambers for ac magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed LAMPF-II accelerator has a 60-Hz booster synchrotron and a 3-Hz main ring. To provide a vacuum enclosure inside the magnets with low eddy-current losses and minimal field distortion, yet capable of carrying rf image currents and providing beam stabilization, we propose an innovative combination pipe. Structurally, the enclosure is high-purity alumina ceramic, which is strong, radiation resistant, and has good vacuum properties. Applied to the chamber are thin, spaced, silver conductors using adapted thick-film technology. The conductor design can be tailored to the stabilization requirements, for example, longitudinal conductors for image currents, circumferential for transverse stabilization. The inside of the chamber has a thin, resistive coating to avoid charge build-up. The overall 60-Hz power loss is less than 100 W/m

  9. Liquid scintillator time projection chamber concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented from a small-scale experiment to investigate the use of room temperature organic liquid scintillators as the active medium for a time projection chamber (TPC). The optical properties of liquid scintillators have long been known, but their ability to transport charge has remained, until now, largely untested. The idea of using room temperature liquids as an active medium for an ionisation chamber was first presented in [1]. Since then the range of liquid scintillators available has been greatly developed. We present successful transport of ionization charges in a selection of both, pure organic liquid solvents and liquid scintillator cocktails over 20 mm using a variety of electric drift field strengths. The target of this research is to offer a cost effective alternative to liquid noble gas detectors in neutrino physics

  10. The physics of Resistive Plate Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Riegler, Werner

    2004-01-01

    Over the last 3 years we investigated theoretical aspects of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) in order to clarify some of the outstanding questions on space charge effects, high efficiency of small gap RPCs, charge spectra, signal shape and time resolution. In a series of reports we analyzed RPC performance including all detector aspects covering primary ionization, avalanche multiplication, space charge effects, signal induction in presence of resistive materials, crosstalk along detectors with long strips and front-end electronics. Using detector gas parameters entirely based on theoretical predictions and physical models for avalanche development and space charge effects we are able to reproduce measurements for 2 and 0.3 mm RPCs to very high accuracy without any additional assumptions. This fact gives a profound insight into the workings of RPCs and also underlines the striking difference in operation regime when compared to wire chambers. A summary of this work as well as recent results on three-dimensiona...

  11. The KLOE drift chamber VCI 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adinolfi, M.; Aloisio, A.; Ambrosino, F.; Andryakov, A.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Anulli, F.; Bacci, C.; Bankamp, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Bellini, F.; Bencivenni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Bocci, V.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Bulychjov, S.A.; Cabibbo, G.; Calcaterra, A.; Caloi, R.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Carboni, G.; Cardini, A.; Casarsa, M.; Cataldi, G.; Ceradini, F.; Cervell, F.; Cevenini, F.; Chiefari, G.; Ciambrone, P.; Conetti, S.; Conticelli, S.; De Lucia, E. E-mail: erika.delucia@roma1.infn.it; De Robertis, G.; De Sangro, R.; De Simone, P.; De Zorzi, G.; Dell' Agnello, S.; Denig, A.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Falco, S.; Doria, A.; Drago, E.; Elia, V.; Erriquez, O.; Farilla, A.; Felici, G.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Finocchiaro, G.; Forti, C.; Franceschi, A.; Franzini, P.; Gao, M.L.; Gatti, C.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Golovatyuk, V.; Gorini, E.; Grancagnolo, F.; Grandegger, W.; Graziani, E.; Guarnaccia, P.; Hagel, U. von.; Han, H.G.; Han, S.W.; Huang, X.; Incagli, M.; Ingrosso, L.; Jang, Y.Y.; Kim, W.; Kluge, W.; Kulikov, V.; Lacava, F.; Lanfranchi, G.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Lomtadze, F.; Luisi, C.; Mao, C.S.; Martemianov, M.; Matsyuk, M.; Mei, W.; Merola, L.; Messi, R.; Miscetti, S.; Moalem, A.; Moccia, S.; Moulson, M.; Mueller, S.; Murtas, F.; Napolitano, M.; Nedosekin, A.; Panareo, M.; Pacciani, L.; Pages, P.; Palutan, M.; Paoluzi, L.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passalacqua, L.; Passaseo, M.; Passeri, A.; Patera, V.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, G.; Picca, D.; Pirozzi, G.; Pistillo, C.; Pollack, M.; Pontecorvo, L.; Primavera, M.; Ruggieri, F.; Santangelo, P.; Santovetti, E.; Saracino, G.; Schamberger, R.D.; Schwick, C.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Scuri, F.; Sfiligoi, I.; Shan, J.; Silano, P.; Spadaro, T.; Spagnolo, S.; Spiriti, E.; Stanescu, C.; Tong, G.L.; Tortora, L.; Valente, E.; Valente, P.; Valeriani, B.; Venanzoni, G.; Veneziano, S.; Wu, Y.; Xie, Y.G.; Zhao, P.P.; Zhou, Y

    2002-02-01

    The main goal of the KLOE experiment at the Frascati DAPHINE phi-factory is the study CP violation in kaon decays. The tracking device of the experiment is a drift chamber whose dimensions, 4 m of diameter and 3.3 m length, provide a large acceptance volume for the decay products of low momentum K{sub L} ({lambda}{sub L}=3.4 m). A complete stereo geometry with 12.582 cells arranged in 58 layers guarantees a high and uniform efficiency in the reconstruction of the charged K{sub L} decays. Very light materials have been chosen both for the drift medium, a helium-based gas mixture, and for the mechanical structure, made of carbon fiber, to minimize multiple scattering and conversion of low-energy photons. The design requirements, the adopted solutions together with the calibration procedure and the tracking performances of the drift chamber are discussed.

  12. The KLOE drift chamber VCI 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main goal of the KLOE experiment at the Frascati DAPHINE phi-factory is the study CP violation in kaon decays. The tracking device of the experiment is a drift chamber whose dimensions, 4 m of diameter and 3.3 m length, provide a large acceptance volume for the decay products of low momentum KL (λL=3.4 m). A complete stereo geometry with 12.582 cells arranged in 58 layers guarantees a high and uniform efficiency in the reconstruction of the charged KL decays. Very light materials have been chosen both for the drift medium, a helium-based gas mixture, and for the mechanical structure, made of carbon fiber, to minimize multiple scattering and conversion of low-energy photons. The design requirements, the adopted solutions together with the calibration procedure and the tracking performances of the drift chamber are discussed

  13. Reproducibility of the chamber scarification test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1996-01-01

    The chamber scarification test is a predictive human skin irritation test developed to rank the irritation potential of products and ingredients meant for repeated use on normal and diseased skin. 12 products or ingredients can be tested simultaneously on the forearm skin of each volunteer....... The test combines with the procedure scratching of the skin at each test site and subsequent closed patch tests with the products, repeated daily for 3 days. The test is performed on groups of human volunteers: a skin irritant substance or products is included in each test as a positive control......, and a compound with low irritant potential as a negative control, to obtain relative characterization of the irritant potential of the unknown products. The outcome of tests with a positive and negative control product used repeatedly in 13 chamber scarification tests over a 7-year period is reported, and shows...

  14. The fast Ice Nucleus chamber FINCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundke, U.; Nillius, B.; Jaenicke, R.; Wetter, T.; Klein, H.; Bingemer, H.

    2008-11-01

    We present first results of our new developed Ice Nucleus (IN) counter FINCH from the sixth Cloud and Aerosol Characterization Experiment (CLACE 6) campaign at Jungfraujoch station, 3571 m asl. Measurements were made at the total and the ICE CVI inlet. Laboratory measurements of ice onset temperatures by FINCH are compared to those of the static diffusion chamber FRIDGE (FRankfurt Ice Deposition Freezing Experiment). Within the errors of both new instruments the results compare well to published data.

  15. The 'Diogene' detector, 4π drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Diogene' is a detector with a solid angle near the steradian 4π, mainly comprising a drift chamber and capable of detecting in coincidence several tens of charged particles. Built by several laboratories (Dph-N/Saclay, CRN/Strasbourg and LPC/Clermont-Ferrand) it should be ready round about June 1980 to use the heavy ion beams of Saturne II for studying the multiple production of pions and protons in central collisions of relativistic heavy ions

  16. Alpha particle spectroscopy by gridded ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gridded ionization chamber has been constructed with the aim of determining its ultimate energy resolution in alpha spectroscopy, utilizing a cooled FET pre-amplifier of the type normally employed with semiconductor detectors. With suitable mechanical collimation of the alpha particles, their fine structure has been measured with an energy resolution of -11.5 keV (fwhm), achieved using an Ar + 0.75% C2H2 mixture as the filling gas. (orig.)

  17. Foreign Body Embedded in Anterior Chamber Angle

    OpenAIRE

    Shmuel Graffi; Beatrice Tiosano; Ran Ben Cnaan; Jonathan Bahir; Modi Naftali

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. We present a case of a metallic foreign body embedded in the anterior chamber angle. After standing in close proximity to a construction worker breaking a tile, a 26-year-old woman using soft contact lens for the correction of mild myopia presented to emergency department for evaluation of a foreign body sensation of her right eye. Methods and Results. Diagnosis was confirmed by gonioscopic examination and a noncontrast CT scan of head and orbits. The foreign body was removed by...

  18. Design of an ionization diffusion chamber detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prototype of an Ionization Diffusion Chamber detector has been made. It is a silindrical glass, 20 cm in diameter, 13,5 cm in height, air gas filled, operated at room pressure and room temperature at the top of this instrument while for the box temperature dry ice (CO2 solid) temperature is used. This detector is ready for seeing alpha and beta particle tracks. (author)

  19. Update on Scroll Compressor Chamber Geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Ian; Groll, Eckhard; Braun, James; King, Galen

    2010-01-01

    The geometry of the scroll compressor determines the efficiency of the scroll compressor and controls all elements of its operation. It is therefore critical to be able to accurately model the volumes of the compressor over the course of a revolution. This paper proposes a novel quasi-analytic formulation of the suction, compression and discharge chambers based on a change of variables from involute angle to polar integration angle. This solution has been compared against a reference polyg...

  20. Development and progress in resistive plate chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hong-Fang; WU Jian

    2004-01-01

    Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) is a robust and low cost gas detector, which is extensively used in high-energy physics, cosmic and astroparticle physics experiments. Over the past twenty years, as a particle detector,RPC has made remarkable progress. The main achievements, features and results of experiemantal tests including R&D and production of the RPCs by several Chinese groups in recent years are reported in this article.

  1. Angular resolution of stacked resistive plate chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Samuel, Deepak; Murgod, Lakshmi P

    2016-01-01

    We present here detailed derivations of mathematical expressions for the angular resolution of a set of stacked resistive plate chambers (RPCs). The expressions are validated against experimental results using data collected from the prototype detectors (without magnet) of the upcoming India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO). In principle, these expressions can be used for any other detector with an architecture similar to that of RPCs.

  2. Neutron measurements performed with miniature fission chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research aims at proposing solutions regarding instruments to perform neutron flow measurements in nuclear power reactors and to perform measurements of the reaction rates of highly radioactive transuranic fissile elements in experimental reactors. This research is also part of a program aimed at the adjustment of the Cadarache cross section set. The report defines the instrumentation, recalls the operation of fission chambers, discusses the implemented instrumentation, and discusses the obtained measurements

  3. Vacuum Chamber for the Booster Bending Magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    To minimise eddy currents, induced by the rising magnetic field, the chamber was made from thin stainless steel of high specific electric resistance. For mechanical strength, it was corrugated in a hydro-forming process. The cross-section was designed for maximum strength and maximum aperture. To accept particles with simultaneous large amplitudes in both planes, the cross-section approaches a rectangular shape (see also 7402463).

  4. The Bern Infinitesimal Bubble Chamber (BIBC)

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    The chamber body was machined from a block of aluminium. The visible volume was cylindrical with 65 mm diameter and 35 mm depth. It was filled with propane or freon. It was meant as vertex detector in the search of short-lived particles. It was also used with in-line holography resulting in 8 µm bubble size and 9 cm depth of the field. See E. Ramseyer, B. Hahn and E. Hugentobler, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 201 (1982) 335.

  5. Calorimeter tests with liquid ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Configurations of sampling calorimeters with iron, lead and uranium as absorbers have been investigated using liquid ionization chambers as active elements. As liquid tetramethylsilane has been used. Results of beam tests with electrons, pions and muons in the energy range of 2 to 6 GeV are presented and compared with Monte Carlo simulations. In particular the questions regarding which configuration can compensate and the separation of sampling from intrinsic fluctuations have been studied. (orig.)

  6. Performance of a proton irradiation chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Proton Irradiation Chamber aiming to perform radiation tests of electronic components was developed. The precision on the measurement of the ion currents was pushed beyond the resolution of the picoammeter by means of a series of collimators on the beam showing a linear correlation among the currents measured on them and the smaller, not measurable, current on the target. As an example of the obtained results the tests done on a Si microdosimeter and a power p-MOS are reported.

  7. Bubble Chambers for Experiments in Nuclear Astrophysics

    OpenAIRE

    DiGiovine, B.; Henderson, D.; Holt, R. J.; Rehm, K. E.; Raut, R.; Robinson, A.; Sonnenschein, A.; Rusev, G.; A.P. Tonchev; Ugalde, C.

    2015-01-01

    A bubble chamber has been developed to be used as an active target system for low energy nuclear astrophysics experiments. Adopting ideas from dark matter detection with superheated liquids, a detector system compatible with gamma-ray beams has been developed. This detector alleviates some of the limitations encountered in standard measurements of the minute cross sections of interest to stellar environments. While the astrophysically relevant nuclear reaction processes at hydrostatic burning...

  8. Bubble chamber: D meson production and decay

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    This event shows real particle tracks from the Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC), which was used to observe neutrino and hadron beams between 1973 and 1984 from the PS and SPS accelerators. In this event a neutrino interacts with a proton producing an excited D meson. A labeled diagram is seen on the right as the particles spiral in the magnetic field of the detector.

  9. Comment on 'Proton beam monitor chamber calibration'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmans, Hugo; Vatnitsky, Stanislav M

    2016-09-01

    We comment on a recent article (Gomà et al 2014 Phys. Med. Biol. 59 4961-71) which compares different routes of reference dosimetry for the energy dependent beam monitor calibration in scanned proton beams. In this article, a 3% discrepancy is reported between a Faraday cup and a plane-parallel ionization chamber in the experimental determination of the number of protons per monitor unit. It is further claimed that similar discrepancies between calorimetry and ionization chamber based dosimetry indicate that [Formula: see text]-values tabulated for proton beams in IAEA TRS-398 might be overestimated. In this commentary we show, however, that this supporting argument misrepresents the evidence in the literature and that the results presented, together with published data, rather confirm that there exist unresolved problems with Faraday cup dosimetry. We also show that the comparison in terms of the number of protons gives a biased view on the uncertainty estimates for both detectors while the quantity of interest is absorbed dose to water or dose-area-product to water, even if a beam monitor is calibrated in terms of the number of protons. Gomà et al (2014 Phys. Med. Biol. 59 4961-71) also report on the discrepancy between cylindrical and plane-parallel ionization chambers and confirm experimentally that in the presence of a depth dose gradient, theoretical values of the effective point of measurement, or alternatively a gradient correction factor, account for the discrepancy. We believe this does not point to an error or shortcoming of IAEA TRS-398, which prescribes taking the centre of cylindrical ionization chambers as reference point, since it recommends reference dosimetry to be performed in the absence of a depth dose gradient. But these observations reveal that important aspects of beam monitor calibration in scanned proton beams are not addressed in IAEA TRS-398 given that those types of beams were not widely implemented at the time of its publication

  10. Liquid rocket combustion chamber acoustic characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Cândido Magno de Souza; Luiz Carlos Sandoval Góes; Dimas Donizeti da Silveira; Rogério Pirk; Carlos d’Andrade Souto

    2010-01-01

    Over the last 40 years, many solid and liquid rocket motors have experienced combustion instabilities. Among other causes, there is the interaction of acoustic modes with the combustion and/or fluid dynamic processes inside the combustion chamber. Studies have been showing that, even if less than 1% of the available energy is diverted to an acoustic mode, combustion instability can be generated. On one hand, this instability can lead to ballistic pressure changes, couple with other propulsion...

  11. High pressure hydrogen time projection chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a high pressure hydrogen gas time projection chamber which consists of two cylindrical drift regions each 45 cm in diameter and 75 cm long. Typically, at 15 atm of H2 with 2 kV/cm drift field and 7 kV on the 35μ sense wires, the drift velocity is about 0.5 cm/μsec and the spatial resolution +-200μ

  12. Timing Resistive Plate Chambers with Ceramic Electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Laso Garcia, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is the development of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) with ceramic electrodes. The use of ceramic composites, Si3N4/SiC, opens the way for the application of RPCs in harsh radiation environments. Future Experiments like the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt will need new RPCs with high rate capabilities and high radiation tolerance. Ceramic composites are specially suited for this purpose due to th...

  13. Wire chambers with their magnetostrictive readout

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    This set of wire chamber planes shaped as a cylinder sector was installed inside the magnet of a polarized spin target modified to allow as well momentum analysis of the produced particles. The experiment (S126) was set up by the CERN-Trieste Collaboration in the PS beam m9 to measure spin effects in the associated production of of a positive kaon and a positive Sigma by interaction of a positive pion with polarized protons.

  14. SONTRAC: A solar neutron track chamber detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, T. L.; Frye, G. M., Jr.; Owens, A.

    1985-01-01

    The recent detection on the solar maximum mission (SMM) satellite of high energy neutrons emitted during large solar flares has provided renewed incentive to design a neutron detector which has the sensitivity, energy resolution, and time resolution to measure the neutron time and energy spectra with sufficient precision to improve our understanding of the basic flare processes. Over the past two decades a variety of neutron detectors has been flown to measure the atmospheric neutron intensity above 10 MeV and to search for solar neutrons. The SONTRAC (Solar Neutron Track Chamber) detector, a new type of neutron detector which utilizes n-p scattering and has a sensitivity 1-3 orders of magnitude greater than previous instruments in the 20-200 MeV range is described. The energy resolution is 1% for neutron kinetic energy, T sub n 50 MeV. When used with a coded aperture mask at 50 m (as would be possible on the space station) an angular resolution of approx. 4 arc sec could be achieved, thereby locating the sites of high energy nuclear interactions with an angular precision comparable to the existing x-ray experiments on SMM. The scintillation chamber is investigated as a track chamber for high energy physics, either by using arrays of scintillating optical fibers or by optical imaging of particle trajectories in a block of scintillator.

  15. Suppressing drift chamber diffusion without magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martoff, C.J. E-mail: cmartoff@nimbus.temple.edu; Snowden-Ifft, D.P.; Ohnuki, T.; Spooner, N.; Lehner, M

    2000-02-01

    The spatial resolution in drift chamber detectors for ionizing radiation is limited by diffusion of the primary electrons. A strong magnetic field along the drift direction is often applied (Fancher et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 161 (1979) 383) because it suppresses the transverse diffusion, improving the resolution but at considerable increase in cost and complexity. Here we show that transverse track diffusion can be strongly suppressed without any magnetic field. This is achieved by using a gas additive which reversibly captures primary ionization electrons, forming negative ions. The ions drift with thermal energies even at very high drift fields and low pressures (E/P=28.5 V/cm torr), and the diffusion decreases with increasing drift field. Upon arrival at the avalanche region of the chamber the negative ions are efficiently stripped and ordinary avalanche gain is obtained. Using this technique, r.m.s. transverse diffusion less than 200 {mu}m has been achieved over a 15 cm drift path at 40 torr with zero magnetic field. The method can provide high spatial resolution in detectors with long drift distances and zero magnetic field. Negative ion drift chambers would be particularly useful at low pressures and in situations such as space-based or underground experiments where detector size scaleability is important and cost, space, or power constraints preclude the use of a magnetic field.

  16. RF Anechoic Chambers, Tri-Service Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In collaboration with the Navy, there are 12 RF Anechoic and static free exposure chambers located at TSRL. These chambers cover the majority of the RF spectrum and...

  17. Chamber Design For Slow Nucleation Protein Crystal Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusey, Marc Lee

    1995-01-01

    Multiple-chamber dialysis apparatus grows protein crystals on Earth or in microgravity with minimum of intervention by technician. Use of multiple chambers provides gradation of nucleation and growth rates.

  18. Introduction to the Workshop "30 years of bubble chamber physics"

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgio GiacomelliUniversity of Bologna and INFN, Bologna, Italy

    2014-01-01

    After some recollections of the early bubble chamber times, a brief overview of the golden age of the field is made, including its legacy and the use of bubble chamber events for the popularization of science.

  19. Cone penetration tests in a virtual calibration chamber

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo Alvarez de Toledo, Marcos; Butlanska, Joanna; Gens Solé, Antonio; Calvetti, Francesco; Jamiolkowski, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A virtual calibration chamber was built using a threedimensional model based on the discrete-element method. The chamber was then filled with a scaled granular equivalent of Ticino sand, the material properties of which were selected by curve-fitting triaxial tests. Cone penetration tests were then performed under different initial densities and isotropic stresses. Penetration resistance in the virtual calibration chamber was affected by the same cone/chamber size effect that affects ph...

  20. The Impedance of the Ceramic Chamber in J-PARC

    CERN Document Server

    Shobuda, Yoshihiro; Ohmi, Kazuhito; Toyama, Takeshi

    2005-01-01

    The ceramic chamber is adopted at the RCS (rapid cycling synchrotron) in J-PARC. The copper stripes are on the outer surface of the chamber in order to shield the electro-magnetic field produced by the beam. The inner surface of the chamber is coated by TiN to suppress the secondary electron emission. In this paper, we calculate the strength of electro-magnetic field produced by the beam and evaluate the impedance of this ceramic chamber.

  1. Ionization chamber for high dose measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial gamma irradiators facilities are designed for processing large amounts of products, which are exposed to large doses of gamma radiation. The irradiation, in industrial scale, is usually carried out in a dynamic form, where the products go through a 60Co gamma source with activity of TBq to P Bq (k Ci to MCi). The dose is estimated as being directly proportional to the time that the products spend to go through the source. However, in some situations, mainly for research purposes or for validation of customer process following the ISO 11137 requirements, it is required to irradiate small samples in a static position with fractional deliver doses. The samples are put inside the irradiation room at a fixed distance from the source and the dose is usually determined using dosimeters. The dose is only known after the irradiation, by reading the dosimeter. Nevertheless, in the industrial irradiators, usually different kinds of products with different densities go through between the source and the static position samples. So, the dose rate varies in function of the product density. A suitable methodology would be to monitor the samples dose in real time, measuring the dose on line with a radiation detector, which would improve the dose accuracy and avoid the overdose. A cylindrical ionization chamber of 0.9 cm3 has been developed for high-doses real-time monitoring, during the sample irradiation at a static position in a 60Co gamma industrial plant. Nitrogen and argon gas at pressure of 10 exp 5 Pa (1 bar) was utilized to fill the ionization chamber, for which an appropriate configuration was determined to be used as a detector for high-dose measurements. To transmit the signal generated in the ionization chamber to the associated electronic and processing unit, a 20 m mineral insulated cable was welded to the ionization chamber. The signal to noise ratio produced by the detector was about 100. The dosimeter system was tested at a category I gamma irradiator

  2. Herds of methane chambers grazing bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinham, Alistair; Dunbabin, Matthew

    2014-05-01

    Water to air methane emissions from freshwater reservoirs can be dominated by sediment bubbling (ebullitive) events. Previous work to quantify methane bubbling from a number of Australian sub-tropical reservoirs has shown that this can contribute as much as 95% of total emissions. These bubbling events are controlled by a variety of different factors including water depth, surface and internal waves, wind seiching, atmospheric pressure changes and water levels changes. Key to quantifying the magnitude of this emission pathway is estimating both the bubbling rate as well as the areal extent of bubbling. Both bubbling rate and areal extent are seldom constant and require persistent monitoring over extended time periods before true estimates can be generated. In this paper we present a novel system for persistent monitoring of both bubbling rate and areal extent using multiple robotic surface chambers and adaptive sampling (grazing) algorithms to automate the quantification process. Individual chambers are self-propelled and guided and communicate between each other without the need for supervised control. They can maintain station at a sampling site for a desired incubation period and continuously monitor, record and report fluxes during the incubation. To exploit the methane sensor detection capabilities, the chamber can be automatically lowered to decrease the head-space and increase concentration. The grazing algorithms assign a hierarchical order to chambers within a preselected zone. Chambers then converge on the individual recording the highest 15 minute bubbling rate. Individuals maintain a specified distance apart from each other during each sampling period before all individuals are then required to move to different locations based on a sampling algorithm (systematic or adaptive) exploiting prior measurements. This system has been field tested on a large-scale subtropical reservoir, Little Nerang Dam, and over monthly timescales. Using this technique

  3. Test of an undulated vacuum chamber for the ISR

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    This picture shows mechanical tests of an undulated vacuum chamber for downstream arms of ISR intersections. This chamber, made of 0.3 mm thick inconel, had inner dimensions of 150 mm by 50 mm. The deflection under vacuum is measured by dial gauges. On the left one sees the large vessel where vacuum chambers were tested at pressures above atmospheric pressure.

  4. 21 CFR 878.5650 - Topical oxygen chamber for extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Topical oxygen chamber for extremities. 878.5650... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 878.5650 Topical oxygen chamber for extremities. (a) Identification. A topical oxygen chamber for extremities is a device...

  5. A time expansion chamber as a vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high-resolution drift chamber based on the time expansion principle has been built as a vertex detector for the Mark J experiment at DESY. The chamber design and the associated control and readout system are described. Results on chamber performance obtained from test beam measurements and first results from running at PETRA are reported. (orig.)

  6. Characterization of a homemade ionization chamber for radiotherapy beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Lucio P; Perini, Ana P; dos Santos, Gelson P; Xavier, Marcos; Khoury, Helen J; Caldas, Linda V E

    2012-07-01

    A homemade cylindrical ionization chamber was studied for routine use in therapy beams of (60)Co and X-rays. Several characterization tests were performed: leakage current, saturation, ion collection efficiency, polarity effect, stability, stabilization time, chamber orientation and energy dependence. All results obtained were within international recommendations. Therefore the homemade ionization chamber presents usefulness for routine dosimetric procedures in radiotherapy beams. PMID:22153889

  7. 30 CFR 57.11054 - Communication with refuge chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communication with refuge chambers. 57.11054... and Escapeways Escapeways-Underground Only § 57.11054 Communication with refuge chambers. Telephone or other voice communication shall be provided between the surface and refuge chambers and such...

  8. Bi-cone vacuum chamber in the ISR

    CERN Multimedia

    1976-01-01

    The "bi-cone" vacuum chamber in ISR intersection I-7, for experiment R702. Made from 0.28 mm thick titanium, it was at its time the most transparent chamber ever built. Ian Wilson is standing next to the chamber. See also 7609219.

  9. Central Drift Chamber for rare kaon decay spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design of the Central Drift Chamber for BNL experiment 787 and measurement of a rare kaon decay are discussed. A jet chamber type cell with 6 sense wires and no interspersed field wires has been designed to achieve good spatial resolution and efficiency in a 1 T magnetic field. Results of the testing of a prototype chamber are presented

  10. 46 CFR 197.332 - PVHO-Decompression chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false PVHO-Decompression chambers. 197.332 Section 197.332... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.332 PVHO—Decompression chambers. Each decompression chamber must— (a) Meet the requirements of § 197.328; (b) Have internal...

  11. Engineering analyses of large precision cathode strip chambers for GEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvath, J.A.; Belser, F.C.; Pratuch, S.M.; Wuest, C.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Mitselmakher, G. [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States); Gordeev, A. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Johnson, C.V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)]|[Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States); Polychronakos, V.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Golutvin, I.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    1993-10-21

    Structural analyses of large precision cathode strip chambers performed up to the date of this publication are documented. Mechanical property data for typical chamber materials are included. This information, originally intended to be an appendix to the {open_quotes}CSC Structural Design Bible,{close_quotes} is presented as a guide for future designers of large chambers.

  12. Installation and Commissioning of the new GLM Implantation Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Pohl, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Summer student report about the work with the new implantation chamber for the GLM branch of ISOLDE. In the context of this project an API for the vacuum system of the new chamber was developed and implemented in web application that will be used to control the new implantation chamber at some point.

  13. 浙江永嘉龙下唐代青瓷窑址发掘简报%The Excavation of the Celadon Kiln of the Tang Dynasty at Longxia in Yongjia County, Zhejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    为配合温州市绕城高速公路的建设,2005年12月-2006年1月,浙江省文物考古研究所与温州市文物保护考古所、永嘉县文化馆联合对永嘉县龙下窑址进行了抢救性发掘。窑址位于温州市永嘉县瓯北镇龙下村北的山坡上,西距楠溪江约两公里,西北、西南分别距上塘镇与温州市区约10公里(图一)。%In December 2005 through January 2006, Zhejiang Provincial Institute of Cuhural Relics and Ar- chaeology, Wenzhou Municipal Institute of Cultural Relics Conservation and Archaeology and Cultural Center of Yongjia County made cooperative rescue excavation to the Longxia kiln site in Yongjia Coun- ty. The kiln site was located on the hillside to the north of Longxia Village in Oubei Town, Yongjia County, Wenzhou City; this excavation uncovered areas of about 100 sq m, from which one kiln was recovered and large amounts of celadon shards were unearthed, the original categories of which were pots, bowls, teacups, jars, plates, basins, cosmetic cases, dishes, grinding rollers, washers, palm bowls, lamps, etc. The typological characteristics and the styles of the incised decorative designs showed that the date of Longxia kiln site was roughly corresponding to that of I-Iehuaxin kiln site at Shanglinhu in Yuyao County, both of which were in the late Tang Dynasty

  14. A novel non invasive measurement of hemodynamic parameters: Comparison of single-chamber ventricular and dual-chamber pacemaker

    OpenAIRE

    Ingrid M. Pardede; Yoga Yuniadi

    2008-01-01

    We carried out a cross sectional study to analyze hemodynamic parameters of single-chamber ventricular pacemaker compared with dual-chamber pacemaker by using thoracic electrical bioimpedance monitoring method (Physio Flow™) - a novel simple non-invasive measurement. A total of 48 consecutive outpatients comprised of 27 single chamber pacemaker and 21 dual chamber were analyzed. We measured cardiac parameters: heart rate, stroke volume index, cardiac output index, estimated ejection fraction,...

  15. A novel non invasive measurement of hemodynamic parameters: Comparison of single-chamber ventricular and dual-chamber pacemaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid M. Pardede

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We carried out a cross sectional study to analyze hemodynamic parameters of single-chamber ventricular pacemaker compared with dual-chamber pacemaker by using thoracic electrical bioimpedance monitoring method (Physio Flow™ - a novel simple non-invasive measurement. A total of 48 consecutive outpatients comprised of 27 single chamber pacemaker and 21 dual chamber were analyzed. We measured cardiac parameters: heart rate, stroke volume index, cardiac output index, estimated ejection fraction, end diastolic volume, early diastolic function ratio, thoracic fluid index, and systemic parameters: left cardiac work index and systemic vascular resistance index. Baseline characteristic and pacemaker indication were similar in both groups. Cardiac parameters assessment revealed no significant difference between single-chamber pacemaker and dual-chamber pacemaker in heart rate, stroke volume index, cardiac index, estimated ejection fraction, end-diastolic volume, thoracic fluid index. There was significantly higher early diastolic function ratio in single-chamber pacemaker compared to dual-chamber pacemaker: 92% (10.2-187.7% vs. 100.6% (48.7-403.2%; p=0.006. Systemic parameters assessment revealed significantly higher left cardiac work index in single-chamber group than dual-chamber group 4.9 kg.m/m² (2.8-7.6 kg.m/m² vs. 4.3 kg.m/m² (2.9-7.2 kg.m/m²; p=0.004. There was no significant difference on systemic vascular resistance in single-chamber compared to dual-chamber pacemaker. Single-chamber ventricular pacemaker provides similar stroke volume, cardiac output and left cardiac work, compared to dual-chamber pacemaker. A non-invasive hemodynamic measurement using thoracic electrical bioimpedance is feasible for permanent pacemaker outpatients. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 25-32Keywords: Permanent pacemaker, single chamber, dual chamber, thoracic electrical bioimpedance, hemodynamic parameter

  16. SHAPE OF PRESSING CHAMBER FOR WOOD BIOMASS COMPACTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Krizan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this contribution is to present results of analyse of mathematical models of wood biomass compacting. Doesn't exist a lot of models which describes real state in pressing chamber and amount of factors impact at compacting process and thereby on briquette quality. According to our suggestion have also constructional parameters of pressing chamber (pressing spout and pressing ram expressive impact on result briquette quality. We did theoretical analyses which showed us that impact on briquette quality have also change of pressing chamber length, change of friction coefficient, change of pressing chamber conicalness and also change of pressing chamber diameter.

  17. Advanced photon source experience with vacuum chambers for insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last five years, a new approach to the design and fabrication of extruded aluminum vacuum chambers for insertion devices was developed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). With this approach, three different versions of the vacuum chamber, with vertical apertures of 12 mm, 8 mm, and 5 mm, were manufactured and tested. Twenty chambers were installed into the APS vacuum system. All have operated with beam, and 16 have been coupled with insertion devices. Two different vacuum chambers with vertical apertures of 16 mm and 11 mm were developed for the BESSY-II storage ring and 3 of 16 mm chambers were manufactured

  18. Measuring the sensitivity of a boron-lined ion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron-lined ion chambers are used to monitor external neutron flux from fissionable materials assembled at the Los Alamos Critical Assembly Experiment Facility. The sensitivity of these chambers must be measured periodically in order to detect changes in filling gas and to evaluate other factors that may affect chamber performance. We delineate a procedure to measure ion chamber response using a particular neutron source (239PuBe) in a particular moderating geometry of polyethylene. We also discuss use of the amplifier, high-voltage power supply, recorders, and scram circuits that comprise the complete ion chamber monitoring system

  19. Testing of a Continuous Sampling Mercury CEM at the EPA-Rotary Kiln Incinerator Simulator Facility; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report has been prepared to document the performance of the continuous sampling mercury monitoring system developed by Ames Laboratory for use as a continuous emission monitor (CEM). This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology, through the Mixed Waste Focus Area. The purpose of the project is to develop instrumentation and methods for spectroscopic field-monitoring applications. During FY01 this included continued development and testing of an echelle spectrometer system for the detection of mercury (Hg) by atomic absorption. Due to the relatively poor limits of detection for Hg by optical emission techniques, the CEM has been designed for the detection of elemental Hg by optical absorption. The sampling system allows continuous introduction of stack gas into the CEM for analysis of elemental and total Hg in the gas stream. A heated pyrolysis tube is used in this system to convert oxidized Hg compounds to elemental Hg prior to analysis for total Hg. The pyrolysis tube is bypassed to measure elemental Hg. The CEM is designed to measure the elemental Hg concentration of the gas sample, measure the total Hg concentration, perform a zero check (analysis of room air), and then re-zero the system (to correct for any instrumental drift that occurs over time). This is done in an automated, sequential measurement cycle to provide continuous monitoring of Hg concentrations in the stack gas. The continuous sampling Hg CEM was tested at the EPA-Rotary Kiln in Durham, NC at the beginning of FY02. This report describes the characteristics and performance of the system and the results of the field tests performed at EPA. The Hg CEM system was developed in response to the need of DOE and other organizations to monitor Hg that may be released during the processing or combustion of hazardous or mixed-waste materials. The promulgation of regulations limiting the release of Hg and requiring continuous

  20. Liquid rocket combustion chamber acoustic characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândido Magno de Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 40 years, many solid and liquid rocket motors have experienced combustion instabilities. Among other causes, there is the interaction of acoustic modes with the combustion and/or fluid dynamic processes inside the combustion chamber. Studies have been showing that, even if less than 1% of the available energy is diverted to an acoustic mode, combustion instability can be generated. On one hand, this instability can lead to ballistic pressure changes, couple with other propulsion systems such as guidance or thrust vector control, and in the worst case, cause motor structural failure. In this case, measures, applying acoustic techniques, must be taken to correct/minimize these influences on the combustion. The combustion chamber acoustic behavior in operating conditions can be estimated by considering its behavior in room conditions. In this way, acoustic tests can be easily performed, thus identifying the cavity modes. This paper describes the procedures to characterize the acoustic behavior in the inner cavity of four different configurations of a combustion chamber. Simple analytical models are used to calculate the acoustic resonance frequencies and these results are compared with acoustic natural frequencies measured at room conditions. Some comments about the measurement procedures are done, as well as the next steps for the continuity of this research. The analytical and experimental procedures results showed good agreement. However, limitations on high frequency band as well as in the identification of specific kinds of modes indicate that numerical methods able to model the real cavity geometry and an acoustic experimental modal analysis may be necessary for a more complete analysis. Future works shall also consider the presence of passive acoustic devices such as baffles and resonators capable of introducing damping and avoiding or limiting acoustic instabilities.

  1. Data readout system for multiwire proportional chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electronic system for data readout from multiwire proportional chambers is described. The system will be used in a magnetic spectrometer for investigation into rare processes in an ITEP accelerating complex. Schematic solutions, used in the system allow one to maximally use the 'VECTOR' standard interface fast operation. The system assembly is completely made of domestic parts. The readout system structure developed allows one to easily reduce or increase the number of MPC channels questioned. The mean time, required for preparing data on cluster, does not exceed 1.5 μs

  2. Optimization studies on pulse ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are presented of optimization studies on two models of an air-filled, pulse, ionization chamber intended for detecting air impurities. Studies were conducted on the effect of dosage grids, procedure of controlling them, field configuration, type of radioactive source, surface of collecting electrode, and length of dosage pulse. The most critical parameters that have an effect upon the pulse shape, i.t. upon the pulse-amplitude and -length are: procedure of controlling the dosage grid, dosage dosage-pulse length and electric-field intensity. (author)

  3. Ion feedback suppression in Time Projection Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Sauli, Fabio; Everaerts, P

    2006-01-01

    A controlled-voltage Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) can be used to block the re-injection of positive ions in large volume Time Projection Chambers. With proper choice of geometry, gas filling and external fields, good electron transmission can be obtained at very low GEM voltages; pulsed ion gating is then much easier than with conventional wire grids, requiring hundreds of volts. Gating schemes suited for the TPC detector planned for the International Linear Collider detector are described. The possibility of GEM-based DC-operated ion filters, exploiting the difference in diffusion properties of ions and electrons, is also discussed.

  4. Bubble Chamber Research Group Microcomputer Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A distributed data acquisition system has been developed by the Bubble Chamber Research Group at the Rutherford Appleton laboratory for use with their film measuring machines. The system is based upon a set of microcomputers linked together with a VAX 11/780 computer, in a local area computer network. This network is of the star type and uses a packet switching technique. Each film measuring machine is equipped with a microcomputer which controls the function of the table, buffers data and enhances the interface between operators and machines. This paper provides a detailed description of each microcomputer and can be used as a reference manual for these computers. (author)

  5. Observation of light from resistive plate chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrically induced signals and light emissions from restrictive plate chamber (RPC) are simultaneously measured using a glass RPC with transparent high-voltage planes, operating in the streamer mode. With one exception, good correspondence is seen in between the electrical and optical signals in every aspect: signal shapes, pulse heights, timing and afterpulses. The one exception is a possible limiting effect observed on the optical signal pulse height for a given pulse height of electrically induced signal. Shapes of the signal visually observed by eye are also described. (orig.)

  6. Frederic Chopin's Chamber Music and Polish Songs

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaei, Ramin

    2010-01-01

    My purpose in writing this thesis is to represent Chopin and his music in a different light than usual. Most people are only familiar with Chopin’s works for piano solo and the few works for piano and orchestra. I know many music students and even some professional musicians and teachers who consider Chopin only as a piano composer. Chopin’s chamber works and Polish songs are seldom performed, though in my opinion they are extremely beautiful and deserve much more attention. Through writing t...

  7. Performance of large area Micro Pixel Chamber

    OpenAIRE

    Nagayoshi, T.; Kubo, H.; Miuchi, K; Ochi, A.; Orito, R.; Takada, A; Tanimori, T.; Ueno, M

    2003-01-01

    A novel gaseous two-dimensional imaging detector "Micro Pixel Chamber (micro-PIC)" has been developed. This detector is based on double sided printed circuit board (PCB). We have developed large area (10cm x 10cm) micro-PICs with 65536 pixel anodes of 400um pitch on a 100um thick insulating substrate. Achieved energy resolution was 30% (FWHM) at 5.9keV, and a gas gain of 7000 was obtained with argon ethane (8:2) gas mixture. This gain is high enough to detect minimum ionizing particles with s...

  8. Holography in a freon bubble chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After some tests in a PS beam in the summer of 1981, the run took place in October 1981 in the H2 beam of the SPS. Although some problems of heat dissipation in freon limited the expansion rate of the bubble chamber, more than 11000 holograms were taken, showing 10 μm bubble tracks, with very good image quality and contrast. More than 100 tracks can be stored on a hologram without affecting the quality if all the bubbles are small. In addition, the analysis of the holograms does not look more complex than the exploitation of conventional high-resolution pictures. (orig./HSI)

  9. Liquid Engine Design: Effect of Chamber Dimensions on Specific Impulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggard, Lindsay; Leahy, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Which assumption of combustion chemistry - frozen or equilibrium - should be used in the prediction of liquid rocket engine performance calculations? Can a correlation be developed for this? A literature search using the LaSSe tool, an online repository of old rocket data and reports, was completed. Test results of NTO/Aerozine-50 and Lox/LH2 subscale and full-scale injector and combustion chamber test results were found and studied for this task. NASA code, Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA) was used to predict engine performance using both chemistry assumptions, defined here. Frozen- composition remains frozen during expansion through the nozzle. Equilibrium- instantaneous chemical equilibrium during nozzle expansion. Chamber parameters were varied to understand what dimensions drive chamber C* and Isp. Contraction Ratio is the ratio of the nozzle throat area to the area of the chamber. L is the length of the chamber. Characteristic chamber length, L*, is the length that the chamber would be if it were a straight tube and had no converging nozzle. Goal: Develop a qualitative and quantitative correlation for performance parameters - Specific Impulse (Isp) and Characteristic Velocity (C*) - as a function of one or more chamber dimensions - Contraction Ratio (CR), Chamber Length (L ) and/or Characteristic Chamber Length (L*). Determine if chamber dimensions can be correlated to frozen or equilibrium chemistry.

  10. New development of holography in particle detectors: application to bubble chambers and streamer chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes the contribution of holography in two particle detectors well used in high energy physics. A first part presents the possibilities of a double beam holographic set up with diffuse illumination in the case of large scale bubble chamber (more than 1000 litres). The second part introduces the results obtained by the use of an in-line holographic recording in a streamer chamber (a streamer is the electroluminescent state of an electronic avalanche). In both cases, the new possibilities offered by these developments are discussed (resolution and depth of field of holographic images)

  11. Golden Jubilee photos: The first CERN bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    In the 1950s and 1960s, bubble and spark chambers were the dominant experimental tools in high-energy physics. While spark chambers were usually built and fitted to specific experiments, bubble chambers were constructed as general purpose devices that could be used for a variety of experiments. At CERN, the bubble chamber programme started under Charles Peyrou in the late 1950s. The first of CERN's bubble chambers, a 30 cm hydrogen chamber, is seen here being inserted into its vacuum tank. The HBC30, as it was called, took its first beam from the SC in 1959. One of the first pictures taken, of a positive pion-proton interaction, began a long series of pretty images for which bubble chambers would become famous. When it stopped operating in spring 1962, the HBC30 had consumed 150 km of film in its 3 years of operation.

  12. Design and commissioning of a semi-confined blast chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.M. SNYMAN; F.J. MOSTERT; W. GRUNDLING

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design, test and analysis of a scaled cylindrical blast chamber. The blast chamber is a one-fifth dimensional size replica of the full-scale blast chamber (Emily). The blast chamber is semi-confined as one end is open. The scaled blast chamber is used to test concepts for closing the open end and allows the gas to vent at the same time. ANSYS AUTODYN calculated the pressure time histories for different closure scenarios. Comparing the results suggested a viable scenario, namely a structure consisting of a circular disc and a frame positioned at the open end of the blast chamber. The structure and cylindrical blast chamber were subjected to scaled blast tests and the pressure results are presented and discussed.

  13. Contamination of ionization chamber due to tritium exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contamination of three ionization chambers (Cu, Ni-plated, and Au-plated chambers) due to exposure to HT or HTO was measured. Considerable contamination took place for all of the chambers due to exposure to HTO. This is caused by the physical adsorption of HTO. The extent of the contamination differed from each other (Ni > Au > Cu), being considered due to difference in their surface roughness. In case of the exposure to HT, the Cu-chamber was contaminated in room air, whereas the Ni-chamber did in dry air atmosphere. This is considered due to the adsorption of HTO (being formed with catalytic exchange reaction between HT and H2O) on the Cuchamber and that of HT on the Ni-chamber. The Au-chamber was not contaminated with the exposure to HT. This is because neither the adsorption of HT nor the catalytic exchange reaction takes place on this surface

  14. Elemental composition of cement Kiln dust, raw material and cement from a coal-fired cement factory using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cement Kiln dust raw material, and cement samples collected from the coal-fired cement factory of Askale at Erzurum in Turkey were characterized with the standard addition method using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence techniques. An annular 100 mCi 241Am radioactive source emitting 59.5 keV photon and annular 50 mCi 55Fe radioactive source emitting 5.96 keV photon were used for excitation. Samples are prepared from powder sifted by a 300-mesh sieve. The characteristic K X-rays of the different elements were detected with a Si (Li) detector. The results are presented and discussed in this paper

  15. Wood replacing by liquefied petroleum gas in red ceramics reversible flame kilns; Substituicao de lenha por gas liquefeito de petroleo em fornos intermitentes de ceramica vermelha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, Judas Tadeu da Costa Ferreira; Silva, Wellington Penetra da [Centro de Tecnologia do Gas (CTGAS), Natal, RN (Brazil)]. E-mail: tadeu@ctgas.com.br

    2001-07-01

    The red ceramic is produced now in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, using traditional processes, which have in wood burning its main source of heat. As there are not reforestation programs, the indiscriminate cut of woods in vital areas has been contributing, in an effective way, for the process of dead lands of the area. The substitution of the wood for an alternative, clean fuel and of low environmental impact, as energy source in the industry of structural ceramic comes to the encounter of that problem environmental impact. In more distant areas, where it is not viable the use of the natural gas, it is possible to use of LPG as fuel. In that work, the results of the experience of conversion of a ceramic kiln are presented, being made a previous experimental study initially, starting from observations during you burn serial using wood and, then, with the employment of atmospheric burners being used LPG. (author)

  16. 水泥窑处理工业废物的工厂实验研究%Plant Test of Industrial Waste Disposal in a Cement Kiln

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘阳生; 韩杰; 白庆中

    2003-01-01

    Destruction of industrial waste in cement rotary kilns (CRKs) is an alternative technology for thetreatment of certain types of industrial waste (IW). In this paper, three typical types of industrial wastes wereco-incinerated in the CRK at Beijing Cement Plant to determine the effects of waste disposal (especially solid wastedisposal) on the quality of clinker and the concentration of pollutants in air emission. Experimental results showthat (1) waste disposal does not affect the quality of clinker and fly ash, and fly ash after the IW disposal can still beused in the cement production, (2) heavy metals from IW are immobilized and stabilized in the clinker and cement,and (3) concentration of pollutants in air emission is far below than the permitted values in the China NationalStandard-Air Pollutants Emission Standard (GB 16297-1996).

  17. Analysis and solution on the lower combustion chamber collapse of annular shaft kilns%石灰套筒窑下燃烧室坍塌分析及解决方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晓锋

    2010-01-01

    该文的研究不仅对环形套筒窑的成功改造,保证连续稳定生产有借鉴意义,同时也为低热值燃气的高效利用提出了新的思路和方向,为减少工业窑炉燃烧过程的污染物排放提供了一个很好的研究实例.

  18. SOBRE LA EDAD DE LOS HORNOS DE CAL EN EL ÁREA MAYA (About the age of the lime kilns in the Maya area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Ortiz Ruiz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La investigación que presentamos es sobre el hallazgo y la datación arqueomagnética de hornos de cal en el área maya, México. La relevancia de la datación arqueomagnética consiste en localizar las construcciones arquitectónicas y dilucidar el periodo de utilización por las sociedades que habitaron la zona de ubicación de dichas construcciones. Asumimos que se trataba de hornos prehispánicos por su asociación con el contexto de la excavación. Sin embargo, los resultados de la combinación de dataciones y métodos arqueométricos permitieron ubicar estas estructuras en distintos periodos de utilización y, por tanto, asumir la continuidad de esta tecnología productiva más allá del periodo prehispánico. Asimismo los trabajos de datación nos permiten clarificar la utilización de esta tecnología y práctica productiva en dicha zona cultural. ENGLISH: The investigation presented here is related to the discovery and archaeomagnetic dating of lime kilns in the Maya area, Mexico. The relevance of such dating is to locate architectural constructions and elucidate the period of use by societies that are responsible for their construction. We assume a prehispanic period for the kilns because of their context within the excavation. The combination of dating methods and archaeometric experiments allowed the identification of different periods of use and, therefore, suggests the persistence of this production technology beyond the prehispanic period. Dating work also allows us to clarify the use of this technology and productive practices in this cultural area.

  19. Performance of the SLD Central Drift Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report for the first time on the performance of the SLD Central Drift Chamber (CDC) at SLC, which has been recording data since 1992. The low mass of the chamber and the use of a gas characterized by both a low drift velocity and low diffusion constant help to minimize the drift-distance measurement errors. We describe some of the calibrations and corrections applied to the data, and report on the resolutions achieved thus far. We measure an intrinsic drift resolution of 55-110 μm in the region of uniform field. Analysis of the full drift-pulse waveform allows for efficient double-hit resolution of about 1 mm. Momentum resolution is characterized by the formula (dpt/pt2)2 = 0.00502 + (0.010/pt)2. Used in conjunction with the SLD vertex detector, the CDC permits measurements of impact parameters of high-momentum tracks to the level of 10 μm in the r-φ plane and 36 μm the r-z plane. A resolution of 6.4% is achieved in the measurement of dE/dx for the electrons in Bhabha scattering events

  20. Liquid xenon multiwire chamber for positron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The liquid xenon multiwire chamber has been proposed as a detector of 511 keV gamma-photons for positron emission tomography (PET). Both the scintillation and the ionization signal, read from the anode wires, are used. A test chamber of about 300 cm3 and containing six multiwire ionization cells has been built. The cell is formed by two plane cathodes, 10 mm apart, and 20 anode wires spaced by 2.5 mm tied to pairs resulting in 10 channels, read out independently. The first experiments were performed for a single cell. The number of the anode wire on which the signal is induced gives the depth of interaction in the detector with a precision of 5 mm. This is important information allowing one to reduce the parallax error and, therefore, to decrease the tomograph size and improve the solid angle. The position sensitivity across the cell (or along the tomograph ring) is achieved by measurement of the drift time of the electrons from the point of primary ionization to the anode, triggered by the scintillation detected with a photomultiplier tube. The scintillation also supplies a fast trigger for the coincidence analysis. (orig.)