WorldWideScience

Sample records for chamber furnaces

  1. Two chamber reaction furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaugher, Richard D.

    1998-05-05

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700.degree. and 800.degree. C.) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800.degree. to 950.degree. C. to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product.

  2. Vertical two chamber reaction furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaugher, Richard D.

    1999-03-16

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700.degree. and 800.degree. C.) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800.degree. to 950.degree. C. to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product.

  3. Design of drying chamber and biomass furnace for sun-biomass hybrid rice-drying machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satria, Dhimas; Haryadi, Austin, Ruben; Kurniawan, Bobby

    2016-03-01

    In most Asian countries, rice drying is carried out manually by exposing rice to sunlight. However, problem occurs when rain season comes. Lack of sunlight deters the drying process. This paper proposes a design of mechanical rice drying machine with hybrid sun-biomass energy source. Pahl & Beitz method, which consists of four steps process: function planning and clarification, design concept, design prototype, and design details; are used as design methodology. Based on design result and calculation, in this paper propose specifications for drying machine and biomass furnace. Drying chamber is a continuous flow system with pneumatic-conveyor as blower. This hybrid utilizes two types of energy sources, sun and biomass. The proposed machine has capacity of 500 kilograms per cycle using 455 Watt of energy, which is more efficient than ordinary heater. Biomass furnace utilizes heat transfer by means of arranging 64 pieces of stainless steel pipes of 0.65 diameters in parallel.

  4. Researching the Performance of Dual-Chamber Fire-Tube Boiler Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaustov Sergei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous heating systems equipped with fire-tube or shell boilers show high effectiveness, consistent performance and great technical parameters. But there is a significant limitation of its thermal productivity due to the complexity of durable large diameter fire-tube bottoms implementation. Optimization of combustion aerodynamics can be the way to expand the fire-tube boilers performance limit. In this case lots of problems connected with reducing emissions of toxic substances, providing of burning stability, local heat stresses and aerodynamic resistances should be solved. To resolve the indicated problems, a modified model of dual-chamber fire-tube boiler furnace is proposed. The performance of suggested flame-tube was simulated using the proven computer-aided engineering software ANSYS Multiphysics. Results display proposed flame tube completely filled with moving medium without stagnant zones. Turbulent vortical combustion is observed even with the straight-through fuel supply. Active flue gas recirculation in suggested dual-chamber furnace reduces emissions of pollutants. Diminution of wall heat fluxes allows boiler operation at lower water treatment costs.

  5. Heat treatment furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

    2014-10-21

    A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

  6. Regularities of heat transfer in the gas layers of a steam boiler furnace flame. Part II. Gas layer radiation laws and the procedure for calculating heat transfer in furnaces, fire boxes, and combustion chambers developed on the basis of these laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, A. N.

    2014-10-01

    The article presents the results stemming from the scientific discovery of laws relating to radiation from the gas layers generated during flame combustion of fuel and when electric arc burns in electric-arc steel-melting furnaces. The procedure for calculating heat transfer in electric-arc and torch furnaces, fire-boxes, and combustion chambers elaborated on the basis of this discovery is described.

  7. Continuous ring furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Stefani, G.; Genevois, J.L.; Paolo, P.

    1981-01-06

    A smoke conducting apparatus for use particularly with continuous ring furnaces (e.g., Hoffman furnaces) wherein each furnace chamber is connected to the smoke channel, the latter being a metal pipe inclined slightly from horizontal and provided with one or more traps along the length of its bottom surface, each trap containing a removable receptacle, and heating means being disposed along the bottom of the channel to fluidize tarry deposits of combustion products so that such deposits will flow by gravity into the removable receptacle.

  8. Chamberless residential warm air furnace design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godfree, J. [Product Design consultant, Pugwash (Canada)

    1996-07-01

    This brief paper is an introduction to the concept of designing residential warm air furnaces without combustion chambers. This is possible since some small burners do not require the thermal support of a combustion chamber to complete the combustion process.

  9. Accident Analysis and Precaution Measures of Zinc Melting Furnace Settling Chamber Explosion%熔锌反射炉沉降室爆炸事故分析与防范措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项洪刚

    2014-01-01

    T he article takes the example of explosion accident of Zinc melting furnace settling chamber in a smelting plant , introduces the material , products , production technique and the conditions that cause the zinc dust explosive accident , applies the fault tree analysis method , comprehensively analyzes the reasons of zinc dust explosion inside zinc melting furnace settling chamber and presents the precaution measures to avoid personal injury accidents .%通过某冶炼厂熔锌反射炉沉降室爆炸事故案例,在介绍生产原料、产品、生产工艺过程及锌粉产生爆炸的条件的基础上,应用事故树分析法,比较全面的分析了熔锌反射炉沉降室锌粉爆炸的原因,并提出了防范措施,避免人身伤亡事故的发生。

  10. Carbon-free induction furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Masters, David R.; Pfeiler, William A.

    1985-01-01

    An induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of carbon free materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloy. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an RF induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650.degree. C. for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

  11. Non-carbon induction furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, C.E.; Masters, D.R.; Pfeiler, W.A.

    1984-01-06

    The present invention is directed to an induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of non-carbon materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloys. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an rf induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650/sup 0/C for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

  12. Application of the Clapboard Settling Chamber in the Metallurgical Furnace Dust Collection System%试论隔板式沉降室在冶金炉窑收尘系统的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱清

    2015-01-01

    当前我国正处于经济发展模式转型的关键时期,节能减排成为经济建设的指导思想,其对现代工业生产技术的影响极为深远,尤其是在能耗和污染较为严重的冶金企业,节能减排技术成为冶金技术研究领域的重要研究方向。冶金企业的冶金炉窑是冶金企业固体废弃物污染和空气污染的主要来源,针对冶金炉窑的收尘系统研究一直是冶金领域关注的重点技术。本文将从隔板式沉降室技术角度出发,结合冶金企业冶金炉窑收尘系统的实际,对隔板式沉降室在冶金炉窑收尘系统的应用进行简要分析。%At present, China is in a critical period of economic development mode transformation. Energy conservation has become the guiding ideology of economic development, and its impact on modern industrial production technology is extremely far-reaching, especially on the metallurgical enterprises with more serious energy consumption and pollution, so the technology of saving energy and reducing energy consumption has become an important research direction in the field of metallurgy technology field. Metallurgical furnace is the main source of solid waste and air pollution of the metallurgical enterprises, so the study of the dust collection system for metallurgical furnaces has been a key technology focused by the field of metallurgy. From the technical view of clapboard settling chamber, combined with the actual situation of metallurgical furnace dust collection system in metallurgical enterprises, this article makes a brief analysis of the application of clapboard settling chamber in metallurgical furnace dust collection system.

  13. Combustion chambers for wood furnaces with low particle emissions; Brennkammern fuer Holzfeuerstaetten mit geringen Partikelemissionen. Erste Messergebnisse zum Stand der Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaegauf, Ch.; Sattler, M.

    2007-12-15

    This interim report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the results of a study made on the particle emissions of wood-burning ovens and furnaces by the Eco-Centre Langenbruck, Switzerland, in co-operation with the North-West Switzerland University of Applied Sciences. The work concentrated on finding innovative ways of reducing the emission of fine dust and aerosols by domestic heating units. Initial analysis has shown that present-day installations exhibit a potential for improvement both when firing-up as well as when in full operation. The measurement and analysis methods used in the tests are described. The results obtained are presented in graphical form and discussed. Measurements made on a storage-oven are presented and the results of extended particle analysis are discussed. Further development of the combustion technologies used in this area is suggested in the report's conclusions.

  14. Tube furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kenneth G.; Frohwein, Eugene J.; Taylor, Robert W.; Bowen, David W.

    1991-01-01

    A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

  15. Furnace assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayotou, Nicholas F.; Green, Donald R.; Price, Larry S.

    1985-01-01

    A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

  16. A heating partition for a coking furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strelov, K.K.; Ivanova, A.V.; Kaufman, A.A.; Kuznetsov, G.I.; Likhogub, Ye.P.; Turman, D.S.; Varshavskiy, T.P.; Volfovskiy, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    A coking furnace heating partition (OPKT) is proposed in order to increase reliability by increasing its strength. The proposal includes equipping with a vertical wall (St) made of Dinas brick and positioning it along the longitudinal axis of the coking furnace heating panel. The dividing walls are made of Dinas brick and their faces are disposed between the bricks of the wall of the coking chamber (KK). The surface of the coking chamber wall is made from magnesite or corundum brick which makes up 70 to 80 percent of the operational surface (Pv) of the wall. The presence of the vertical wall in combination with the

  17. High pressure furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Donald E.

    1993-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  18. High pressure oxygen furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Donald E.

    1992-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  19. Designing modern furnace cooling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, J.; Sarvinis, J.; Voermann, N.

    2000-02-01

    An integrated multidisciplinary approach to furnace design that considers the interdependence between furnace cooling elements and other furnace systems, such as binding, cooling water, and instrumentation, is necessary to achieve maximum furnace production and a long refractory life. The retrofit of the BHP Hartley electric furnace and the Kidd Creek copper converting furnace are successful examples of an integrated approach to furnace cooling design.

  20. Cast construction elements for heat treatment furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Piekarski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The study presents sketches and photos of the cast creep-resistant components used in various types of heat treatment furnaces. The shape of the elements results from the type of the operation carried out in the furnace, while dimensions are adjusted to the size of the furnace working chamber. The castings are mainly made from the high-alloyed, austenitic chromium-nickel or nickel-chromium steel, selecting the grade in accordance with the furnace operating conditions described by the rated temperature, the type and parameters of the applied operating atmosphere, and the charge weight. Typical examples in this family of construction elements are: crucibles, roller tracks, radiant tubes and guides. The majority of castings are produced in sand moulds.

  1. Biomass furnace: projection and construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Fernanda Augusta de Oliveira; Silva, Juarez Sousa e; Silva, Denise de Freitas; Sampaio, Cristiane Pires; Nascimento Junior, Jose Henrique do [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Of all the ways to convert biomass into thermal energy, direct combustion is the oldest. The thermal-chemical technologies of biomass conversion such as pyrolysis and gasification, are currently not the most important alternatives; combustion is responsible for 97% of the bio-energy produced in the world (Demirbas, 2003). For this work, a small furnace was designed and constructed to use biomass as its main source of fuel, and the combustion chamber was coupled with a helical transporter which linked to the secondary fuel reservoir to continually feed the combustion chamber with fine particles of agro-industrial residues. The design of the stove proved to be technically viable beginning with the balance of mass and energy for the air heating system. The proposed heat generator was easily constructed as it made use of simple and easily acquired materials, demanding no specialized labor. (author)

  2. Electromelt furnace evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electromelt furnace was designed, built, and operated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate the suitability of this equipment for large-scale processing of radioactive wastes in iron-enriched basalt. Several typical waste compositions were melted and cast. The furnace was disassembled and the components evaluated. Calcines and fluorides attacked the furnace lining, unoxidized metals accumulated under the slag, and electrode attrition was high

  3. Molten metal holder furnace and casting system incorporating the molten metal holder furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinosz, Michael J.; Meyer, Thomas N.

    2003-02-11

    A bottom heated holder furnace (12) for containing a supply of molten metal includes a storage vessel (30) having sidewalls (32) and a bottom wall (34) defining a molten metal receiving chamber (36). A furnace insulating layer (42) lines the molten metal receiving chamber (36). A thermally conductive heat exchanger block (54) is located at the bottom of the molten metal receiving chamber (36) for heating the supply of molten metal. The heat exchanger block (54) includes a bottom face (65), side faces (66), and a top face (67). The heat exchanger block (54) includes a plurality of electrical heaters (70) extending therein and projecting outward from at least one of the faces of the heat exchanger block (54), and further extending through the furnace insulating layer (42) and one of the sidewalls (32) of the storage vessel (30) for connection to a source of electrical power. A sealing layer (50) covers the bottom face (65) and side faces (66) of the heat exchanger block (54) such that the heat exchanger block (54) is substantially separated from contact with the furnace insulating layer (42).

  4. spark chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    A few cosmic rays pass through your body every second of every day, no matter where you are. Look at the spark chamber to your right – every flash is the track made by a cosmic ray from outer space. The spark chamber is filled with a special gas mixture. Cosmic rays knock electrons out of the atoms in the gas. These electrons accelerate towards high voltage metal strips layered throughout the chamber, creating sparks like little bolts of lightning.

  5. spark chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    A few cosmic rays pass through your body every second of every day, no matter where you are. Look at the spark chamber to your right – every flash is the track made by a cosmic ray from outer space. The spark chamber is filled with a special gas mixture. Cosmic rays knock electrons out of the atoms in the gas. These electrons accelerate towards high voltage metal strips layered throughout the chamber, creating sparks like little bolts of lightning.

  6. Ussing Chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhout, J.; Wortelboer, H.; Verhoeckx, K.

    2015-01-01

    The Ussing chamber system is named after the Danish zoologist Hans Ussing, who invented the device in the 1950s to measure the short-circuit current as an indicator of net ion transport taking place across frog skin (Ussing and Zerahn, Acta Physiol Scand 23:110-127, 1951). Ussing chambers are increa

  7. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Proportional multi-wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle. Proportional wire chambers allow a much quicker reading than the optical or magnetoscriptive readout wire chambers.

  8. Acoustical-Levitation Chamber for Metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Trinh, E.; Wang, T. G.; Elleman, D. D.; Jacobi, N.

    1983-01-01

    Sample moved to different positions for heating and quenching. Acoustical levitation chamber selectively excited in fundamental and second-harmonic longitudinal modes to hold sample at one of three stable postions: A, B, or C. Levitated object quickly moved from one of these positions to another by changing modes. Object rapidly quenched at A or C after heating in furnace region at B.

  9. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1967-01-01

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber.Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  10. Calculations in furnace technology

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Clive; Hopkins, DW; Owen, WS

    2013-01-01

    Calculations in Furnace Technology presents the theoretical and practical aspects of furnace technology. This book provides information pertinent to the development, application, and efficiency of furnace technology. Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the exothermic reactions that occur when carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur are burned to release the energy available in the fuel. This text then evaluates the efficiencies to measure the quantity of fuel used, of flue gases leaving the plant, of air entering, and the heat lost to the surroundings. Other chapters consi

  11. Vacuum chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed description is given of the vacuum chamber of the so-called experimental equipment DEMAS (double-arm-time-of-flight spectrometer) at the heavy ion accelerator U-400 at the JINR-Dubna. (author)

  12. Space station furnace facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Sharon D.; Lehoczky, Sandor L.

    1996-07-01

    The Space Shuttle Furnace Facility (SSFF) is the modular, multi-user scientific instrumentation for conducting materials research in the reduced gravity environment of the International Space Station. The facility is divided into the Core System and two Instrument Racks. The core system provides the common electrical and mechanical support equipment required to operate experiment modules (EMs). The EMs are investigator unique furnaces or apparatus designed to accomplish specific science investigations. Investigations are peer selected every two years from proposals submitted in response to National Aeronautics and Space Administration Research Announcements. The SSFF Core systems are designed to accommodate an envelope of eight types of experiment modules. The first two modules to be developed for the first instrument rack include a high temperature gradient furnace with quench, and a low temperature gradient furnace. A new EM is planned to be developed every two years.

  13. ENERGY STAR Certified Furnaces

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Furnaces that are effective as of February 1,...

  14. Induction Furnace - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek R. Gandhewar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A new generation of industrial induction melting furnaces has been developed during the last 25 years. Present practices followed in Induction Furnaces are discussed in this paper. Through a literature review account of various practices presently being followed in steel industries using Induction Furnaces has been carried out with a view to gather principal of working. Apart from this a pilot studyhas also been carried out in few industries in India. We provide some recommendations for the productivity improvement .Due to non availability of the proper instrumentations the effect of the ill practices can not be precisely judged. If this is properly measured, the percentage of productivity improvement in steel melting Induction Furnace can be calculated.The review is carried out from the literature in the various journals and manuals.

  15. High temperature furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Casimer J.

    1976-08-03

    A high temperature furnace for use above 2000.degree.C is provided that features fast initial heating and low power consumption at the operating temperature. The cathode is initially heated by joule heating followed by electron emission heating at the operating temperature. The cathode is designed for routine large temperature excursions without being subjected to high thermal stresses. A further characteristic of the device is the elimination of any ceramic components from the high temperature zone of the furnace.

  16. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Was used in ISR (Intersecting Storage Ring) split field magnet experiment. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  17. Robert Chambers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Biekart (Kees); D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractProfessor Robert Chambers is a Research Associate at the Institute of Development Studies (IDS), University of Sussex (Brighton, UK), where he has been based for the last 40 years, including as Professorial Research Fellow. He became involved in the field of development management in the

  18. Investigation of the Dimensions Design Components for the Rectangular Indirect Resistance Electrical Furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah K. Jawad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement:The objective of this study was to study the Indirect Resistance Electrical Furnaces (IREF based on analytical and experimental analyses. The analytical analysis focused on a constant set of equations representing the internal and external flow of heat energy in the furnace, which demonstrated, relatively with the surface area of walls, heat transferring inside the furnace chamber to get a creation mathematical model including the joining between the temperature required design components (furnace walls, thickness and electrical power supply.Approach:The experimental analysis has divided in to tow parts; first part based on process number of practice experiments with three prototypes have manufactured in certain engineering dimensions that changed in three different volumes of furnace, which are considered, i.e., chamber volume of furnace is the design dimensions component.Results:The second part of analytical analysis based on use the Simulink program (MATLAB 7.4 compared with experimental results of the manufactured furnaces samples, which showed the direct effect of the design dimensions components on the performance specifications of furnace that involve the required temperature response, temperature stability and the deviation in the setting value of temperature.Conclusion:Although information relating to the design and fabrication of an indirect resistance electrical furnaces of such prototypes as that fabricated through this research was not readily available in the literature.

  19. Vacuum Furnace - Integrated "Sub zero" Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. Zieger; Hubert Schulte

    2004-01-01

    The vacuum heat treatment with overpressure gas quenching is more and more accepted due to considerable advantages compared to the traditional oil and salt bath processes. Continuous further developments and new concepts like multi-directional cooling systems, a separate quenching chamber and "sub zero" systems lead towards an oxidation free and low distortion vacuum heat treatment for a broad range of parts and materials. Short and energy saving processes guarantee a high economic efficiency and environmental compatibility.The "sub zero" system which is integrated into the standard vacuum furnace achieves a heat treatment result with a high conversion of retained austenite in fully automatic hardening and tempering processes.

  20. Trends in furnace control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, T.J.; Keefe, M.D. (Italimpianti of America, Inc., Coraopolis, PA (United States). Instrumentation and Controls Dept.)

    1993-07-01

    This paper relates Italimpianti's experiences over the past few years in the area of control of reheat furnaces for the steel industry. The focus is on the level 1 area; specifically on the use of PLC-based systems to perform both combustion control and mechanical/hydraulic control. Some topics to be discussed are: overview of reheat furnace control system requirements; PLC only control vs separate PLC and DCS systems; PLC hardware requirements; man machine interface (MMI) requirements; purge, light-on and safety logic; implementation of more sophisticated level 1 control algorithms; furnace temperature optimization: look up tables vs full thermal modeling; and recent trends including integrated PLC/DCS system.

  1. Holden gas-fired furnace baseline data. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Holden gas-fired furnace is used in the enriched uranium recovery process to dry and combust small batches of combustibles. The ash is further processed. The furnace operates by allowing a short natural gas flame to burn over the face of a wall of porous fire brick on two sides of the furnace. Each firing wall uses two main burners and a pilot burner to heat the porous fire brick to a luminous glow. Regulators and orifice valves are used to provide a minimum gas pressure of 4 in. water column at a rate of approximately 1,450 scf/h to the burners. The gas flow rate was calculated by determining the gas flow appropriate for the instrumentation in the gas line. Observed flame length and vendor literature were used to calculate pilot burner gas consumption. Air for combustion, purging, and cooling is supplied by a single blower. Rough calculations of the air-flow distribution in piping entering the furnace show that air flow to the burners approximately agrees with the calculated natural gas flow. A simple on/off control loop is used to maintain a temperature of 1,000 F in the furnace chamber. Hoods and glove boxes provide contamination control during furnace loading and unloading and ash handling. Fan EF-120 exhausts the hoods, glove boxes, and furnace through filters to Stack 33. A review of the furnace safety shows that safety is ensured by design, interlocks, procedure, and a safety system. Recommendations for safety improvements include installation of both a timed ignition system and a combustible-gas monitor near the furnace. Contamination control in the area could be improved by redesigning the loading hood face and replacing worn gaskets throughout the system. 33 refs., 16 figs

  2. Reduction of NOx emissions in regenerative fossil fuel fired glass furnaces: a review of literature and experimental studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerkens, R.G.C.; Limpt, J.A.C. van

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism of nitrogen oxide (NOx) formation in combustion chambers of glass furnaces is briefly described. The most important parameters governing the NOx emissions of glass furnaces are discussed. Elimination or minimisation of conditions that cause the formation of nitrogen oxides in regenerat

  3. New possibilities of Consteel furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuluevskii, Yu. N.; Zinurov, I. Yu.; Shver, V. G.

    2012-06-01

    The disadvantages of Consteel electric furnaces, which are mainly caused by the low efficiency of heating of a charged metal scrap by effluent furnace gases, are considered. A new concept of an electric-arc furnace with scrap heating on a conveyer by powerful burners, which provide fast scrap heating to 800°C, is proposed. As follows from calculations, the capacity of such a furnace increases substantially, the specific electric power consumption decreases, and the emission of toxic substances into the atmosphere decreases as compared to the existing Consteel furnaces.

  4. Handling of corn stover bales for combustion in small and large furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morissette, R.; Savoie, P.; Villeneuve, J. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study in which dry corn stover was baled and burned in 2 furnaces in the province of Quebec. Small and large rectangular bale formats were considered for direct combustion. The first combustion unit was a small 500,000 BTU/h dual chamber log wood furnace located at a hay growing farm in Neuville, Quebec. The heat was initially transferred to a hot water pipe system and then transferred to a hot air exchanger to dry hay bales. The small stover bales were placed directly into the combustion furnace. The low density of the bales compared to log wood, required filling up to 8 times more frequently. Stover bales produced an average of 6.4 per cent ash on a DM basis and required an automated system for ash removal. Combustion gas contained levels of particulate matter greater than 1417 mg/m{sup 3}, which is more than the local acceptable maximum of 600 mg/m{sup 3} for combustion furnaces. The second combustion unit was a high capacity 12.5 million BTU/h single chamber furnace located in Saint-Philippe-de-neri, Quebec. It was used to generate steam for a feed pellet mill. Large corn stover bales were broken up and fed on a conveyor and through a screw auger to the furnace. The stover was light compared to the wood chips used in this furnace. For mechanical reasons, the stover could not be fed continuously to the furnace.

  5. HIGH TEMPERATURE MICROSCOPE AND FURNACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D.M.

    1961-01-31

    A high-temperature microscope is offered. It has a reflecting optic situated above a molten specimen in a furnace and reflecting the image of the same downward through an inert optic member in the floor of the furnace, a plurality of spaced reflecting plane mirrors defining a reflecting path around the furnace, a standard microscope supported in the path of and forming the end terminus of the light path.

  6. Low-NOx Burner Technologies for High-Temperature Processes With High Furnace Heating Density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general objective of the presented work is process intensification by means of reduced furnace chamber volumes in combination with the use of low-NOx burner technologies. Fundamental experimental investigations of the reaction zone of different burner types were made. For the development of new burner designs the CFD code FLUENT was used. Throughout the investigations it was possible to increase the furnace heating density from 62 kW/m3 up to 1133 kW/m3. To demonstrate possible technical applications two simulated industrial furnaces designs have been investigated. One main conclusion the work gave is that process intensification without an increase of pollutant emissions is possible by optimizing furnace and burner design and also position and geometry of the furnace load in a combined strategy. (author)

  7. Cupola Furnace Computer Process Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seymour Katz

    2004-12-31

    The cupola furnace generates more than 50% of the liquid iron used to produce the 9+ million tons of castings annually. The cupola converts iron and steel into cast iron. The main advantages of the cupola furnace are lower energy costs than those of competing furnaces (electric) and the ability to melt less expensive metallic scrap than the competing furnaces. However the chemical and physical processes that take place in the cupola furnace are highly complex making it difficult to operate the furnace in optimal fashion. The results are low energy efficiency and poor recovery of important and expensive alloy elements due to oxidation. Between 1990 and 2004 under the auspices of the Department of Energy, the American Foundry Society and General Motors Corp. a computer simulation of the cupola furnace was developed that accurately describes the complex behavior of the furnace. When provided with the furnace input conditions the model provides accurate values of the output conditions in a matter of seconds. It also provides key diagnostics. Using clues from the diagnostics a trained specialist can infer changes in the operation that will move the system toward higher efficiency. Repeating the process in an iterative fashion leads to near optimum operating conditions with just a few iterations. More advanced uses of the program have been examined. The program is currently being combined with an ''Expert System'' to permit optimization in real time. The program has been combined with ''neural network'' programs to affect very easy scanning of a wide range of furnace operation. Rudimentary efforts were successfully made to operate the furnace using a computer. References to these more advanced systems will be found in the ''Cupola Handbook''. Chapter 27, American Foundry Society, Des Plaines, IL (1999).

  8. A numerical investigation of the aerodynamics of a furnace with a movable block burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Fudihara

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work the air flow in a furnace was computationally investigated. The furnace, for which experimental test data are available, is composed of a movable block burner connected to a cylindrical combustion chamber by a conical quarl. The apertures between the movable and the fixed blocks of the burner determine the ratio of the tangential to the radial air streams supplied to the furnace. Three different positions of the movable blocks were studied at this time. A three-dimensional investigation was performed by means of the finite volume method. The numerical grid was developed by the multiblock technique. The turbulence phenomenon was addressed by the RNG k-epsilon model. Profiles of the axial, tangential and radial velocities in the combustion chamber were outlined. The map of the predicted axial velocity in the combustion chamber was compared with a map of the experimental axial velocity. The internal space of the furnace was found to be partially filled with a reverse flow that extended around the longitudinal axis. A swirl number profile along the furnace length is presented and shows an unexpected increase in the swirl in the combustion chamber.

  9. Directed Energy Anechoic Chamber

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Directed Energy Anechoic Chamber comprises a power anechoic chamber and one transverse electromagnetic cell for characterizing radiofrequency (RF) responses of...

  10. Challenges in Melt Furnace Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belt, Cynthia

    2014-09-01

    Measurement is a critical part of running a cast house. Key performance indicators such as energy intensity, production (or melt rate), downtime (or OEE), and melt loss must all be understood and monitored on a weekly or monthly basis. Continuous process variables such as bath temperature, flue temperature, and furnace pressure should be used to control the furnace systems along with storing the values in databases for later analysis. While using measurement to track furnace performance over time is important, there is also a time and place for short-term tests.

  11. New PSA high concentration solar furnace SF40

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jose; Cañadas, Inmaculada; Zarza, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    A new solar furnace has been designed and built at Plataforma Solar de Almería. In this work, its main components such as heliostat, concentrator, attenuator and test table, and the method used to align them are described. Other equipment like the auxiliary systems necessary for the solar operation, vacuum chamber and gas system are outlined too. Finally, the thermal characteristics of the focus were measured during a test campaign, where different planes along the optical axis were scanned with a radiometer, and the peak flux was obtained and is presented in the last section of this report.

  12. Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senk, D.; Babich, A.; Gudenau, H.W. [Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilised e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletising or briquetting) and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverised coal (PC) has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following shaft furnaces have been examined: blast furnace, cupola furnace, OxiCup furnace and imperial-smelting furnace. Investigations have been done at laboratory and industrial scale. Some dusts and wastes under certain conditions can be not only reused but can also improve combustion efficiency at the tuyeres as well as furnace performance and productivity.

  13. High Efficiency Solar Furnace Core Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It is proposed to develop a high efficiency solar furnace core that greatly lessens the heat losses from the furnace core, either greatly reducing the amount of...

  14. Installation and Trial Run of the Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In order to meet the demand of neutron experiment in the future, the neutron lab equips with extreme temperature furnace (Fig. 1), the furnace is designed and produced by the professional producer-Scientific

  15. Electrostatic Levitation Furnace for the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Keiji; Koshikawa, Naokiyo; Shibasaki, Kohichi; Ishikawa, Takehiko; Okada, Junpei; Takada, Tetsuya; Arai, Tatsuya; Fujino, Naoki; Yamaura, Yukiko

    2012-01-01

    JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) has just started the development of Electrostatic Levitation Furnace to be launched in 2014 for the ISS. This furnace can control the sample position with electrostatic force and heat it above 2000 degree Celsius using semiconductor laser from four different directions. The announcement of Opportunity will be issued soon for this furnace. In this paper, we will show the specifications of this furnace and also the development schedule

  16. Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This teacher's guide contains activities to use in conjunction with a site visit to the Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (Elverson, Pennsylvania). The guide provides diagrams of the furnace, a cold-blast smelting operation, and the furnace operation. It presents a timeline of iron production from ancient times through contemporary times.…

  17. Training Guidelines: Glass Furnace Operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceramics, Glass, and Mineral Products Industry Training Board, Harrow (England).

    Technological development in the glass industry is constantly directed towards producing high quality glass at low operating costs. Particularly, changes have taken place in melting methods which mean that the modern furnace operator has greater responsibilities than any of his predecessors. The complexity of control systems, melting rates, tank…

  18. Damage Diagnosis for High Temperature Coke-oven Chamber Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Masato; Sakaida, Michitaka; Fujikake, Yohichi; Irie, Keisuke

    Metallurgical coke is needed as reducing reagent and energy source in blast furnaces. Most of coke ovens in Japan have been working over 30 years and have become gradually decrepit. A coke oven consists of many coking chambers, and each chamber is 6 m high, 16 m long and 0.4m wide. Uneven damage at the chamber-wall surface such as brick erosion and carbon deposition disturbs production because the coke is pushed horizontally when discharged from the chamber. To diagnose the chamber wall which is constantly sustained at a high temperature, we have developed a water-cooling heat-resistance probe. Line scan cameras mounted in the probe obtain thermal images of the entire chamber-wall surfaces with high resolution. In addition, to measure topographical information of the wall, a laser light-section method combined with line-scan-camera imaging has been considered. It is emphasized that the diagnosis probe works under enormously severe conditions, such as at a temperature of over 1000°C and inside a width of only 0.4m. Clarifying the appearance of chamber-wall damages in operating aged coke ovens, we proposed the index relating unevenness of a chamber-wall surface to pushing load. The index is utilized for the guidance enabling effective repairs of damaged oven walls.

  19. Mathematical Determination of Thermal Load for Fluidised Bed Furnaces Using Sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonescu Nicolae

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For technical applications, a physical model capable of predicting the particle evolution in the burning process along its trajectory through the furnace is very useful. There are two major demands: all the thermo-dynamic processes that describe the particle burning process must be accounted and the model must be written in such equation terms to allow the intervention for parameter settings and particle definition. The computations were performed for the following parameters: furnace average temperature between 700 and 1200 °C, size of the sawdust particle from 4 to 6 mm and fix carbon ignition between 500 and 900 °C. The values obtained for the characteristic parameters of the burning process ranged from 30 to 60 [kg/(h·m3] for the gravimetrical burning speed WGh and from 150 to 280 [kW/m3] for the volumetric thermal load of the furnace QV. The main conclusion was that the calculus results are in good agreement with the experimental data from the pilot installations and the real-case measurements in the sawdust working boiler furnaces or pre-burning chambers. Another very important conclusion is that the process speed variation, when the furnace temperature changes, confirms the thermo-kinetic predictions, namely that the burning process speed decreases when the furnace temperature increases.

  20. Alkaline carbonates in blast furnace process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Besta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of iron in blast furnaces is a complex of physical, chemical and mechanical processes. The input raw materials contain not only metallic components, but also a number of negative elements. The most important negative elements include alkaline carbonates. They can significantly affect the course of the blast furnace process and thus the overall performance of the furnace. As a result of that, it is essential to accurately monitor the alkali content in the blast furnace raw materials. The article analyzes the alkali content in input and output raw materials and their impact on the blast furnace process.

  1. Development of gas-fired vacuum furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikirica, S.J. (Gas Research Inst. (United States)); Hemsath, K.H. (Indugas Inc. (United States)); Panahi, S.K. (Southern California Gas Co. (United States))

    1994-01-01

    Vacuum processing in metallurgical heat treating processes is finding widespread acceptance. Gas-fired vacuum furnaces have several features that make them perform differently from electrically heated vacuum furnaces. This paper describes the development and preliminary performance results of a gas-fired vacuum-capable furnace system. A gas-fired vacuum furnace, with a novel high convection heating system, is show to result in lower energy operating cost and improved temperature uniformity in processes such as ion nitriding. Industrial gas-fired furnace designs, capable of operation to 1850 F, are described for horizontal and vertical configurations. (orig.)

  2. Prototype multiwire proportional chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    Chambers of this type were initially developed within the Alpha project (finally not approved). They were designed such to minimize the radiation length with a view to a mass spectrometer of high resolution meant to replace the Omega detector. The chambers were clearly forerunners for the (drift) chambers later built for R606 with the novel technique of crimping the wires. See also photo 7510039X.

  3. A furnace for the incineration of low-humidity fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strelin, D.M.

    1980-09-07

    A furnace unit is presented for the incineration of low humidity fuel in the form of ground materials. For example, wood waste can be used for heating purposes at wood and woodworking sites. The furnace is divided by a cross-wall into two chambers with a tangential slope. In the first chamber designated T, a moble mixer with a spiral rake is found. The mixer is formed from field tubes and is cooled by a flow of steam or cold water to insure its functional reliability. During the mixer rotation, the breaking-up of the humid fuel layer is accomplished and large non-combustible particles are gathered. The construction of T is distinguished by a large intensity in the incineration of low-humidity fuel, a volume 10 to 15 times that of methods presently in use by industry, and which are akward with regard to the T layers. Aside from this, the construction of T allows its layout in a single block with a gas fuel user. An example would be drying units where the application of T would avoid the expense of long-distance gas lines.

  4. Target chambers for gammashpere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, M.P.; Falout, J.W.; Nardi, B.G. [and others

    1995-08-01

    One of our responsibilities for Gammasphere, was designing and constructing two target chambers and associated beamlines to be used with the spectrometer. The first chamber was used with the early implementation phase of Gammasphere, and consisted of two spun-Al hemispheres welded together giving a wall thickness of 0.063 inches and a diameter of 12 inches.

  5. High resolution drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High precision drift chambers capable of achieving less than or equal to 50 μm resolutions are discussed. In particular, we compare so called cool and hot gases, various charge collection geometries, several timing techniques and we also discuss some systematic problems. We also present what we would consider an ''ultimate'' design of the vertex chamber. 50 refs., 36 figs., 6 tabs

  6. CHAMBER OF COMMERCE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Experience Japan The Japanese Chamber of Commerce and Industry will further promote its Japan-experience program and seek cooperation with various Chinese institutions.Between early May and June 2007,the chamber organized a Chinese college student delegation to Japan with the support from its members in China.

  7. BEBC bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    Looking up into the interior of BEBC bubble chamber from the expansion cylinder. At the top of the chamber two fish-eye lenses are installed and three other fish-eye ports are blanked off. In the centre is a heat exchanger.

  8. STUDY ON LOCATION OF HOT SPOT AT TUBE WALL FOR FIRED CYLINDRICAL FURNACE COMBUSTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Taiyong; Lu Shizhong; Xü Zhixue

    2004-01-01

    Based on the analysis of heat radiation intensity from flame,a new mathematical model of the tube-wall temperature of heated tubes is devel-oped by taking down-fired,upright-tube cylindrical furnace for example.The proposed mathematical model can be employed to indicate both the position and size of the hot spot at fire-facing wall of heated tube of combustion chamber,and is characteristic of sim-plicity and efficiency.If coupled with thermoelectric couple or infrared viewer,the presented location method of com-bustion hot spot can offer engineers very valuable proposal to keep furnace running more safely.The same is true for any other type of tubular furnaces.

  9. Detection of Heat-Stressed Furnace Wall’s Areas Based on Results of Numerical Simulations of Thermal Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov V.V

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a numerical study of the formation of nitrogen oxides in the combustion chamber based on the model created by Mitchellom and Terbellom. The distribution of furnace temperature and the concentration of nitrogen oxides, as well as a comparison of numerical results with the data of field experiment.

  10. OPAL Jet Chamber Prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    OPAL was one of the four experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 - 2000. OPAL's central tracking system consists of (in order of increasing radius) a silicon microvertex detector, a vertex detector, a jet chamber, and z-chambers. All the tracking detectors work by observing the ionization of atoms by charged particles passing by: when the atoms are ionized, electrons are knocked out of their atomic orbitals, and are then able to move freely in the detector. These ionization electrons are detected in the dirfferent parts of the tracking system. This piece is a prototype of the jet chambers

  11. Ferrosilicon smelting in a direct current furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosaj, Vishu D.; May, James B.

    1992-12-29

    The present invention is a process for smelting ferrosilicon alloy. The process comprises adding a carbon source and tailings comprising oxides of silicon and iron to a substantially closed furnace. Heat is supplied to the furnace by striking a direct current arc between a cathode electrode and an anode functional hearth. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cathode electrode is hollow and feed to the substantially closed furnace is through the hollow electrode.

  12. Modeling of NOx emissions in turbulent combustion of natural gas fired industrial furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reports the application of three dimensional mathematical model of natural gas combustion in PK-35 steam boiler. Special emphasis is placed on the formation and distribution of the nitric oxide in the combustion chamber. Models for thermal and prompt NO - formation mechanisms are included into the mathematical model. An analysis is made on the bases of comparison between the numerical and experimental data available. Possibilities for reduction of NO - emissions in the furnace are also discussed

  13. Toxic Test Chambers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Hazardous material test facility Both facilities have 16,000 cubic foot chambers, equipped with 5000 CFM CBR filter systems with an air change...

  14. ALICE Time Projection Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Lippmann, C

    2013-01-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main device in the ALICE 'central barrel' for the tracking and identification (PID) of charged particles. It has to cope with unprecedented densities of charges particles.

  15. Calorimetry with flash chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flash chambers used in the Fermilab E594 neutrino experiment are described, and their use in a calorimeter discussed. Resolutions obtained with a calibration beam are presented, and comments made about the pattern recognition capabilities of the calorimeter

  16. Vacuum chamber 'bicone'

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    This chamber is now in the National Museum of History and Technology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA, where it was exposed in an exhibit on the History of High Energy Accelerators (1977).

  17. Bubble chamber: antiproton annihilation

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    These images show real particle tracks from the annihilation of an antiproton in the 80 cm Saclay liquid hydrogen bubble chamber. A negative kaon and a neutral kaon are produced in this process, as well as a positive pion. The invention of bubble chambers in 1952 revolutionized the field of particle physics, allowing real tracks left by particles to be seen and photographed by expanding liquid that had been heated to boiling point.

  18. VAPOR SHIELD FOR INDUCTION FURNACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, S.L.; Samoriga, S.A.

    1958-03-11

    This patent relates to a water-cooled vapor shield for an inductlon furnace that will condense metallic vapors arising from the crucible and thus prevent their condensation on or near the induction coils, thereby eliminating possible corrosion or shorting out of the coils. This is accomplished by placing, about the top, of the crucible a disk, apron, and cooling jacket that separates the area of the coils from the interior of the cruclbIe and provides a cooled surface upon whlch the vapors may condense.

  19. Development of customised environmental chambers for time-resolved in situ diffraction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an effort to mitigate the expense and broaden the applicability of customised environment chambers, researchers at the University of Melbourne and the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) have designed and are currently commissioning a modular reaction chamber, capable of separating the necessities of diffraction methodologies from those of the desired sample environment. The In Situ Reaction Chamber (ISRC) abstracts many of the details intrinsic to the diffractometer, allowing users to design inexpensive environmental inserts that may be readily customised to their individual needs. The first insert to be developed for use with the ISRC is a high temperature furnace capable of providing an oxidising sample environment up to 16000C.

  20. The use of blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Václavík

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental research that dealt with the substitution of finely ground blast furnace slag for Portland cement in the course of simple concrete manufacturing. Physical and mechanical properties of experimental concrete mixtures based on finely ground blast furnace slag were observed.

  1. Furnace for vitrification of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A melting furnace is claimed for patent with a totally new design of the placement of the inner tube and melt discharge. The advantage of the new design is that the discharged glass has higher temperature and thereby lower viscosity than glass melt and that the height of the siphon may be altered in furnace operation. (E.S.). 1 fig

  2. Blast furnace operation analysis by thermic exergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to know the blast furnace thermic state, the thermic exergy can be used, which considers the temperatures level of the process. The magnitude analysis of thermic exergy for blast furnace operation using pulverized coal, natural gas and oxygen injection by tuyeres, shows that natural gas injection is less effective than pulverized coal and enriched blast with oxygen simultaneous injection. (Author) 6 refs

  3. Optical cavity furnace for semiconductor wafer processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    2014-08-05

    An optical cavity furnace 10 having multiple optical energy sources 12 associated with an optical cavity 18 of the furnace. The multiple optical energy sources 12 may be lamps or other devices suitable for producing an appropriate level of optical energy. The optical cavity furnace 10 may also include one or more reflectors 14 and one or more walls 16 associated with the optical energy sources 12 such that the reflectors 14 and walls 16 define the optical cavity 18. The walls 16 may have any desired configuration or shape to enhance operation of the furnace as an optical cavity 18. The optical energy sources 12 may be positioned at any location with respect to the reflectors 14 and walls defining the optical cavity. The optical cavity furnace 10 may further include a semiconductor wafer transport system 22 for transporting one or more semiconductor wafers 20 through the optical cavity.

  4. Automated Electrostatics Environmental Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Carlos; Lewis, Dean C.; Buchanan, Randy K.; Buchanan, Aubri

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Electrostatics Chamber (MEC) is an environmental chamber designed primarily to create atmospheric conditions like those at the surface of Mars to support experiments on electrostatic effects in the Martian environment. The chamber is equipped with a vacuum system, a cryogenic cooling system, an atmospheric-gas replenishing and analysis system, and a computerized control system that can be programmed by the user and that provides both automation and options for manual control. The control system can be set to maintain steady Mars-like conditions or to impose temperature and pressure variations of a Mars diurnal cycle at any given season and latitude. In addition, the MEC can be used in other areas of research because it can create steady or varying atmospheric conditions anywhere within the wide temperature, pressure, and composition ranges between the extremes of Mars-like and Earth-like conditions.

  5. micro strip gas chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    About 16 000 Micro Strip Gas Chambers like this one will be used in the CMS tracking detector. They will measure the tracks of charged particles to a hundredth of a millimetre precision in the region near the collision point where the density of particles is very high. Each chamber is filled with a gas mixture of argon and dimethyl ether. Charged particles passing through ionise the gas, knocking out electrons which are collected on the aluminium strips visible under the microscope. Such detectors are being used in radiography. They give higher resolution imaging and reduce the required dose of radiation.

  6. Acoustic characteristics of electric arc furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherednichenko, V. S.; Bikeev, R. A.; Cherednichenko, A. V.; Ognev, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    A mathematical model is constructed to describe the appearance and development of the noise characteristics of superpower electric arc furnaces. The noise formation is shown to be related to the pulsation of the axial plasma flows in arc discharges because of the electrodynamic pressure oscillations caused by the interaction of the self-magnetic field with the current passing in an arc. The pressure in the arc axis changes at a frequency of 100 Hz at the maximum operating pressure of 66 kPa for an arc current of 80 kA. The main ac arc sound frequencies are multiples of 100 Hz, which is supported in the practice of operation of electric arc furnaces. The sound intensity in the furnace laboratory reaches 160 dB and is decreased to 115-120 dB in the working furnace area due to shielding by the furnace jacket, the molten metal, and the molten slag. The appropriateness of increasing the hermetic sealing of electric furnaces and creating furnaces operating at low currents and high transformer voltages is corroborated.

  7. Heavy liquid bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1965-01-01

    The CERN Heavy liquid bubble chamber being installed in the north experimental hall at the PS. On the left, the 1180 litre body; in the centre the magnet, which can produce a field of 26 800 gauss; on the right the expansion mechanism.

  8. Wire chamber conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet contains program and the abstracts of the papers presented at the conference, most of them dealing with performance testing of various types of wire chambers. The publication of proceedings is planned as a special issue of 'Nuclear instruments and methods' later on. All abstracts are in English. An author index for the book of abstracts is given. (A.N.)

  9. Drift chamber detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers is presented. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysied, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author)

  10. LEP vacuum chamber, prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    Final prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber, see 8305170 for more details. Here we see the strips of the NEG pump, providing "distributed pumping". The strips are made from a Zr-Ti-Fe alloy. By passing an electrical current, they were heated to 700 deg C.

  11. OPAL Muon Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    OPAL was one of the 4 experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 to 2000. This is a slice of the outermost layer of OPAL : the muon chambers. This outside layer detects particles which are not stopped by the previous layers. These are mostly muons.

  12. LEP Vacuum Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This is a cut-out of a LEP vacuum chamber for dipole magnets showing the beam channel and the pumping channel with the getter (NEG) strip and its insulating supports. A water pipe connected to the cooling channel can also be seen at the back.The lead radiation shield lining is also shown. See also 8305563X.

  13. Scanning bubble chamber pictures

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    These were taken at the 2 m hydrogen bubble chamber. The photo shows an early Shiva system where the pre-measurements needed to qualify the event were done manually (cf photo 7408136X). The scanning tables were located in bld. 12. Gilberte Saulmier sits on foreground, Inge Arents at centre.

  14. A cylindrical furnace for absorption spectral studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Venkatasubramanian

    2001-06-01

    A cylindrical furnace with three heating zones, capable of providing a temperature of 1100°C, has been fabricated to enable recording of absorption spectra of high temperature species. The temperature of the furnace can be controlled to ± 1°C of the set temperature. The salient feature of this furnace is that the material being heated can be prevented from depositing on the windows of the absorption cell by maintaining a higher temperature at both the ends of the absorption cell.

  15. Partnering and the WCI blast furnace reline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musolf, D.W. [WCI Steel, Inc., Warren, OH (United States)

    1997-11-01

    In 1993, WCI Steel entered into a partnership agreement to perform a blast furnace reline. The reline included a complete rebrick from the tuyere breast to the furnace top including the tapholes. Also included was the replacement of the Paul Wurth top equipment from the receiving hoppers through the gearbox and distribution chute, a skip incline replacement, and installation of tilting runners and a casthouse roof. The bustle pipe and hot blast main were repaired. One stove was also replaced. The reline was accomplished in 36 days, wind to wind, which allowed for 29 days of construction inside the blast furnace proper.

  16. Graphite electrode DC arc furnace. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Graphite Electrode DC Arc Furnace (DC Arc) is a high-temperature thermal process, which has been adapted from a commercial technology, for the treatment of mixed waste. A DC Arc Furnace heats waste to a temperature such that the waste is converted into a molten form that cools into a stable glassy and/or crystalline waste form. Hazardous organics are destroyed through combustion or pyrolysis during the process and the majority of the hazardous metals and radioactive components are incorporated in the molten phase. The DC Arc Furnace chamber temperature is approximately 593--704 C and melt temperatures are as high as 1,500 C. The DC Arc system has an air pollution control system (APCS) to remove particulate and volatiles from the offgas. The advantage of the DC Arc is that it is a single, high-temperature thermal process that minimizes the need for multiple treatment systems and for extensive sorting/segregating of large volumes of waste. The DC Arc has the potential to treat a wide range of wastes, minimize the need for sorting, reduce the final waste volumes, produce a leach resistant waste form, and destroy organic contaminants. Although the DC arc plasma furnace exhibits great promise for treating the types of mixed waste that are commonly present at many DOE sites, several data and technology deficiencies were identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) regarding this thermal waste processing technique. The technology deficiencies that have been addressed by the current studies include: establishing the partitioning behavior of radionuclides, surrogates, and hazardous metals among the product streams (metal, slag, and offgas) as a function of operating parameters, including melt temperature, plenum atmosphere, organic loading, chloride concentration, and particle size; demonstrating the efficacy of waste product removal systems for slag and metal phases; determining component durability through test runs of extended duration, evaluating the effect of

  17. Thermal Characteristics of Heating-furnace with Regenerative Burner

    OpenAIRE

    HUA, Jianshe; Li, Xiaoming; Kawabata, Nobuyoshi

    2005-01-01

    Thermal characteristics between the heating-furnace with regenerative burner and the classical triple-fired continuous furnace by heat balance testing for two billet steel heating-furnace at the same billet steel heating have been analyzed. In addition, the operating principle, the thermal characteristics and the effect of energy saving for heating-furnace with regenerative burner are introduced.

  18. 46 CFR 164.009-11 - Furnace apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Furnace apparatus. 164.009-11 Section 164.009-11...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Noncombustible Materials for Merchant Vessels § 164.009-11 Furnace apparatus. (a) The test furnace apparatus consists of a furnace tube, stabilizer, draft shield,...

  19. 46 CFR 164.009-13 - Furnace calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Furnace calibration. 164.009-13 Section 164.009-13...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Noncombustible Materials for Merchant Vessels § 164.009-13 Furnace calibration. A calibration is performed on each new furnace and on each existing furnace as often as...

  20. Additional vacuum pump switching system to the ME-11 furnace reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vacuum pump has been installed together with its switching system to increase the safety factor operation of the ME-11 furnace system for reduction process, because reduction process involving hydrogen gas which has potential eruption for a certain composition with air. The vacuum process will be conducted at the beginning of the reduction process. The switching system has been designed with interlock system base to protect any un-procedural action by the furnace's operator during the reduction process. A concept of additional mechanism in case of that powder sample inside the furnace chamber flow out the chamber during the vacuum process is given. The air pressure required for the vacuum activity is 500 mBar as it will be used to prevent the air-hydrogen composition causing eruption not to happen. The vacuum installation including its switching system has been tested, and the result shows that it works properly as what mention in the design document. (author)

  1. New developments in electric arc furnace technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelsson, P. [Danieli Centrome, France (France)

    1997-04-01

    Technologies are described for the flexible operation of electric arc furnaces combining various energy sources and for the improvement of the electrical behaviour of the furnace. The main part of the article deals with the post-combustion process, as a means of reducing the energy consumption and increasing the furnace productivity. The energy yield from post-combustion is evaluated and compared to operational results. Oxidizing reactions as energy source are discussed. The energy yield for post-combustion is evaluated with data from four furnaces in operation. The energy yield from post-combustion ranges from 4 to 2 kWh per Nm{sup 3} of oxygen representing a range of 4 to 18 Nm{sup 3} oxygen injected for post-combustion. (author) 2 refs.

  2. LPCVD Furnace: Tystar Mini Tytan 4600

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: CORAL Names: SiN LPCVD, Poly LPCVD, LTO LPCVD This three stack furnace system is utilized to deposit silicon nitride, polysilicon, and low temperature...

  3. Anhydrous Taphole Mix for Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lingyan

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the term,definition,brand,label,technical requirements,test methods,quality appraisal procedures,packing,marking,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of anhydrous taphole mix for blast furnace.

  4. Kaolinite Refractory Bricks for Blast Furnaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ This standard is suitable to the fireclay bricks for blast furnace. 1 Classification, Shape and Dimension 1 According to physical and chemical indexes, the brick can be divided into two trademarks: ZGN-42 and GN-42.

  5. Multiple hearth furnace for reducing iron oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Mark M.; True, Bradford G.

    2012-03-13

    A multiple moving hearth furnace (10) having a furnace housing (11) with at least two moving hearths (20) positioned laterally within the furnace housing, the hearths moving in opposite directions and each moving hearth (20) capable of being charged with at least one layer of iron oxide and carbon bearing material at one end, and being capable of discharging reduced material at the other end. A heat insulating partition (92) is positioned between adjacent moving hearths of at least portions of the conversion zones (13), and is capable of communicating gases between the atmospheres of the conversion zones of adjacent moving hearths. A drying/preheat zone (12), a conversion zone (13), and optionally a cooling zone (15) are sequentially positioned along each moving hearth (30) in the furnace housing (11).

  6. Modular Distributed Concentrator for Solar Furnace Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research proposes to develop a lightweight approach to achieving the high concentrations of solar energy needed for a solar furnace achieving temperatures of...

  7. BLAST FURNACE GRANULAR COAL INJECTION SYSTEM; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC) requested financial assistance from the Department of Energy (DOE), for the design, construction and operation of a 2,800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. The demonstration project proposal was selected by the DOE and awarded to Bethlehem in November 1990. The design of the project was completed in December 1993 and construction was completed in January 1995. The equipment startup period continued to November 1995 at which time the operating and testing program began. The blast furnace test program with different injected coals was completed in December 1998

  8. Magnesia-Chrome Refractories for Flash Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong; CHEN Kaixian; LU Xinghua; LIU Jianlong; SUN Jialin; HONG Yanruo

    2002-01-01

    The rapid development of our country's heavy nonferrous metallurgical technology and the revolution in new type of heavynon-ferrous metallurgical furnace have imposed more critical demand on the refractory materials ,i. e. high quality and long service life. This paper presents the domestic status of the refractories for flash furnace , briefly describes the wear of the refractory used , and it is considered that the domestic in refractories for flashfurnace can be surely realized.

  9. Regenerative burner use on reheat furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baggley, G.W. [Bloom Engineering Co. Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The environmental advantages of using regenerative burner technology on steel reheat furnaces are explored in this article, in particular improved fuel energy efficiencies and reduced pollution emissions, of nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide. Experience of the use of regenerative burners in the United States and Japan, where they have achieved significant market penetration is also described, including a case history of a top-fired billet reheat furnace installed in the United States. (UK)

  10. Voltage stabilizers for high temperature furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stabilization of furnace temperatures in the range 1500-2500 C has been achieved by controlling the effective (rms) value of the supply voltage of the heating element. Temperature variations are less than, or equal to, one degree C in the whole working range of the furnace. Two types of set-ups have been developed: one is static, the other takes use of a servo-motor. (author)

  11. The use of blast furnace slag

    OpenAIRE

    Václavík, Vojtěch; Dirner, Vojtech; Dvorský, Tomáš; Daxner, J.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results of experimental research that dealt with the substitution of fi nely ground blast furnace slag for Portland cement in the course of simple concrete manufacturing. Physical and mechanical properties of experimental concrete mixtures based on fi nely ground blast furnace slag were observed. Rad predstavlja rezultate eksperimentalnog istraživanja koja se bave mogućnostima primjene fi nozrnate troske iz visoke peći za Portland cement u jednostavnoj proiz...

  12. Coals characterization for blast furnace tuyeres injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of blast furnace operation with pulverized coal injection (PCI) by tuyeres is determined by the composition and properties of the used coals and by the quality of the ferrous burden and coke. A study in thermo balance of coals to be injected by tuyeres is carried out, and the softening and melting temperatures of coals ash are determined. The coal performance and its influence in the blast furnace operation is estimated. (Author) 7 refs

  13. Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces

    OpenAIRE

    Senk, D.; Babich, A.; Gudenau, H. W.

    2005-01-01

    Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilized e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletizing or briquetting) and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverized coal (PC) has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following sha...

  14. Solar Convective Furnace for Metals Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patidar, Deepesh; Tiwari, Sheetanshu; Sharma, Piyush; Pardeshi, Ravindra; Chandra, Laltu; Shekhar, Rajiv

    2015-11-01

    Metals processing operations, primarily soaking, heat treatment, and melting of metals are energy-intensive processes using fossil fuels, either directly or indirectly as electricity, to operate furnaces at high temperatures. Use of concentrated solar energy as a source of heat could be a viable "green" option for industrial heat treatment furnaces. This paper introduces the concept of a solar convective furnace which utilizes hot air generated by an open volumetric air receiver (OVAR)-based solar tower technology. The potential for heating air above 1000°C exists. Air temperatures of 700°C have already been achieved in a 1.5-MWe volumetric air receiver demonstration plant. Efforts to retrofit an industrial aluminium soaking furnace for integration with a solar tower system are briefly described. The design and performance of an OVAR has been discussed. A strategy for designing a 1/15th-scale model of an industrial aluminium soaking furnace has been presented. Preliminary flow and thermal simulation results suggest the presence of recirculating flow in existing furnaces that could possibly result in non-uniform heating of the slabs. The multifarious uses of concentrated solar energy, for example in smelting, metals processing, and even fuel production, should enable it to overcome its cost disadvantage with respect to solar photovoltaics.

  15. Information modeling system for blast furnace control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirin, N. A.; Gileva, L. Y.; Lavrov, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    Modern Iron & Steel Works as a rule are equipped with powerful distributed control systems (DCS) and databases. Implementation of DSC system solves the problem of storage, control, protection, entry, editing and retrieving of information as well as generation of required reporting data. The most advanced and promising approach is to use decision support information technologies based on a complex of mathematical models. The model decision support system for control of blast furnace smelting is designed and operated. The basis of the model system is a complex of mathematical models created using the principle of natural mathematical modeling. This principle provides for construction of mathematical models of two levels. The first level model is a basic state model which makes it possible to assess the vector of system parameters using field data and blast furnace operation results. It is also used to calculate the adjustment (adaptation) coefficients of the predictive block of the system. The second-level model is a predictive model designed to assess the design parameters of the blast furnace process when there are changes in melting conditions relative to its current state. Tasks for which software is developed are described. Characteristics of the main subsystems of the blast furnace process as an object of modeling and control - thermal state of the furnace, blast, gas dynamic and slag conditions of blast furnace smelting - are presented.

  16. Process furnace safety - How Neste could improve the safety of the furnaces in their Porvoo and Naantali refineries

    OpenAIRE

    Sandås, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Process furnaces are some of the main pieces of equipment in the refining industry. However, furnaces have some safety issues: no exact understanding, extreme temperatures and, if they fail, severe consequences. The extreme conditions in furnaces can result in elevated corrosion rate, which is why corrosion is a common reason for furnace failure. This thesis focuses on Neste's furnaces in their Porvoo and Naantali refineries, and how their safety could be improved. One of the biggest prob...

  17. Cyclone furnace for intensive reprocessing or burning of dispersed mineral raw material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, E.; Jankowski, S.; Kurdowski, W.; Parda, A.; Zamojdo, R.

    1982-10-30

    In order to reduce emission of solid (or liquid) microparticles of reprocessed or burned dispersed mineral raw material, a separation furnace is proposed which has the appearance of a horizontally lying drum of a steam boiler. The raw material to be reprocessed is fed into the furnace chamber through two cylindrical pipelines arranged in its upper part in the opposite ends, and in the middle between them in the upper part there is a gas line for removal of exhaust gases arranged at a 55/sup 0/ angle to the horizontal. In the lower part there is a device for discharging the accumulated solid microparticles or fluid arranged at a 30/sup 0/ angle to the base plane.

  18. Experimental studies on radiation heat transfer enhancement on a standard muffle furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minea Alina Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the sources of increased industrial energy consumption is the heating equipment, e.g., furnaces. Their domain of use is very wide and due to its abundance of applications it is key equipment in modern civilization. The present experimental investigations are related to reducing energy consumptions and started from the geometry of a classic manufactured furnace. During this experimental study, different cases have been carefully chosen in order to compare and measure the effects of applying different enhancement methods of the radiation heat transfer processes. The main objective work was to evaluate the behavior of a heated enclosure, when different radiant panels were introduced. The experimental investigation showed that their efficiency was influenced by their position inside the heating area. In conclusion, changing the inner geometry by introducing radiant panels inside the heated chamber leads to important time savings in the heating process.

  19. Conceptual design and simulation analysis of thermal behaviors of TGR blast furnace and oxygen blast furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Extensive use of carbon based fuel is the main inducement for global warming and more extreme weather.Reducing carbon dioxide emission and enhancing energy use is a common subject in steel industry.In the integrated steel plant,decreasing carbon dioxide emission must consider energy balance in the whole iron and steel works,and secondary energy must be actively utilized.As promising blast-furnaces,top gas recovery blast furnace(TGR-BF) and oxygen blast furnace have been investigated.In this paper,conceptual TGR blast furnace and oxygen blast furnace are proposed.Base on the idea of blast furnace gas de-CO2 circulating as reducing agent and the idea of pure oxygen blast decreasing the thermal reserve zone temperature,process modeling is conducted with ASPEN Plus.It is shown that the developed model reasonably describes the energy balance and mass balance feature of the furnace,and provides basic thermodynamic condition for furnaces.The effects of changes in different operation conditions are studied by sensitivity analysis and reference data from simulation.

  20. Multi-anode ionization chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E. (South Setauket, NY); Smith, Graham (Port Jefferson, NY); Mahler, George J. (Rocky Point, NY); Vanier, Peter E. (Setauket, NY)

    2010-12-28

    The present invention includes a high-energy detector having a cathode chamber, a support member, and anode segments. The cathode chamber extends along a longitudinal axis. The support member is fixed within the cathode chamber and extends from the first end of the cathode chamber to the second end of the cathode chamber. The anode segments are supported by the support member and are spaced along the longitudinal surface of the support member. The anode segments are configured to generate at least a first electrical signal in response to electrons impinging thereon.

  1. Vacuum Chambers for LEP sections

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The picture shows sections of the LEP vacuum chambers to be installed in the dipole magnets (left) and in the quadrupoles (right). The dipole chamber has three channels: the beam chamber, the pumping duct where the NEG (non-evaporabe getter) is installed and the water channel for cooling (on top in the picture). The pumping duct is connected to the beam chamber through holes in the separating wall. The thick lead lining to shield radiation can also be seen. These chambers were manufactured as extruded aluminium alloy profiles.

  2. The APS ceramic chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milton, S.; Warner, D.

    1994-07-01

    Ceramics chambers are used in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) machines at the locations of the pulsed kicker and bumper magnets. The ceramic will be coated internally with a resistive paste. The resistance is chosen to allow the low frequency pulsed magnet field to penetrate but not the high frequency components of the circulating beam. Another design goal was to keep the power density experienced by the resistive coating to a minimum. These ceramics, their associated hardware, the coating process, and our recent experiences with them are described.

  3. Review of wire chamber aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper makes an overview of the wire chamber aging problems as a function of various chamber design parameters. It emphasizes the chemistry point of view and many examples are drawn from the plasma chemistry field as a guidance for a possible effort in the wire chamber field. The paper emphasizes the necessity of variable tuning, the importance of purity of the wire chamber environment, as well as it provides a practical list of presently known recommendations. In addition, several models of the wire chamber aging are qualitatively discussed. The paper is based on a summary talk given at the Wire Chamber Aging Workshop held at LBL, Berkeley on January 16-17, 1986. Presented also at Wire Chamber Conference, Vienna, February 25-28, 1986. 74 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs

  4. Control of the Gas Flow in an Industrial Directional Solidification Furnace for Production of High Purity Multicrystalline Silicon Ingots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A crucible cover was designed as gas guidance to control the gas flow in an industrial directional solidification furnace for producing high purity multicrystalline silicon. Three cover designs were compared to investigate their effect on impurity transport in the furnace and contamination of the silicon melt. Global simulations of coupled oxygen (O and carbon (C transport were carried out to predict the SiO and CO gases in the furnace as well as the O and C distributions in the silicon melt. Cases with and without chemical reaction on the cover surfaces were investigated. It was found that the cover design has little effect on the O concentration in the silicon melt; however, it significantly influences CO gas transport in the furnace chamber and C contamination in the melt. For covers made of metal or with a coating on their surfaces, an optimal cover design can produce a silicon melt free of C contamination. Even for a graphite cover without a coating, the carbon concentration in the silicon melt can be reduced by one order of magnitude. The simulation results demonstrate a method to control the contamination of C impurities in an industrial directional solidification furnace by crucible cover design.

  5. Industrial and process furnaces principles, design and operation

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Barrie

    2014-01-01

    Furnaces sit at the core of all branches of manufacture and industry, so it is vital that these are designed and operated safely and effi-ciently. This reference provides all of the furnace theory needed to ensure that this can be executed successfully on an industrial scale. Industrial and Process Furnaces: Principles, 2nd Edition provides comprehensive coverage of all aspects of furnace operation and design, including topics essential for process engineers and operators to better understand furnaces. This includes: the combustion process and its control, furnace fuels, efficiency,

  6. Council Chamber exhibition

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    To complete the revamp of CERN’s Council Chamber, a new exhibition is being installed just in time for the June Council meetings.   Panels will showcase highlights of CERN’s history, using some of the content prepared for the exhibitions marking 50 years of the PS, which were displayed in the main building last November. The previous photo exhibition in the Council Chamber stopped at the 1970s. To avoid the new panels becoming quickly out of date, photos are grouped together around specific infrastructures, rather than following a classic time-line. “We have put the focus on the accelerators – the world-class facilities that CERN has been offering researchers over the years, from the well-known large colliders to the lesser-known smaller facilities,” says Emma Sanders, who worked on the content. The new exhibition will be featured in a future issue of the Bulletin with photos and an interview with Fabienne Marcastel, designer of the exhibit...

  7. Clay-Brick Firing in a High-Temperature Solar Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villeda-Muñoz G.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The firing process for clay-brick production in traditional kilns generates atmospheric pollution when industrial and domestic scrap is used as fuel. An alternative is presented here, using the solar energy for clay-brick firing. We are developing a system for clay-brick firing to reach temperatures between 900°C and 1050°C; these temperatures are sufficiently high to fire bricks or similar ceramic products. The present paper describes the design and characterization of the components of a solar furnace for clay-brick firing with inner chamber dimensions of 0.48 × 0.61 × 0.64 m. To convey the sunlight to the firing chamber, a heliostat with nine 1 × 1 m mirrors is used to send the rays of the sun to an off-axis parabolic concentrator that focuses the light on the entrance of the firing chamber. The heliostat has a solar-tracking system which makes primary and secondary adjustments to assure that the reflected solar radiation always arrives at the concentrator. The firing chamber contains a prismatic cavity that absorbs the solar radiation to generate the heat which is needed for baking the bricks inside the firing chamber.

  8. Software sensor for slab reheating furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhihua Xiong; Guohong Huang; Huihe Shao

    2005-01-01

    It has long been thought that a reheating furnace, with its inherent measurement difficulties and complex dynamics, posed almost insurmountable problems to engineers in steel plants. A novel software sensor is proposed to make more effective use of those measurements that are already available, which has great importance both to slab quality and energy saving. The proposed method is based on the mixtures of Gaussian processes (GP) with the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm employed for parameter estimation of the mixture of models. The mixture model can alleviate the computational complexity of GP and also accords with the changes of operating condition in practical processes. It is demonstrated by on-line estimation of the furnace gas temperature in 1580 reheating furnace in Baosteel Corporation (Group).

  9. Three-dimensional modelling of in-furnace coal/coke combustion in a blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y.S. Shen; B.Y. Guo; A.B. Yu; P.R. Austin; P. Zulli [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Lab for Simulation and Modelling of Particulate Systems

    2011-02-15

    A three-dimensional mathematical model of the combustion of pulverized coal and coke is developed. The model is applied to the region of lance-blowpipe-tuyere-raceway-coke bed to simulate in-furnace phenomena of pulverized coal injection in an ironmaking blast furnace. The model integrates not only pulverized coal combustion model in the blowpipe-tuyere-raceway-coke bed but also coke combustion model in the coke bed. The model is validated against the measurements under different conditions. The comprehensive in-furnace phenomena are investigated in the raceway and coke bed, in terms of flow, temperature, gas composition, and coal burning characteristics. The underlying mechanisms for the in-furnace phenomena are also analysed. The simulation results indicate that it is important to include recirculation region in the raceway and the coke bed reactions for better understanding in-furnace phenomena. The model provides a cost-effective tool for understanding and optimizing the in-furnace flow-thermo-chemical characteristics of the PCI operation in full-scale blast furnaces. 32 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Measure Guideline: High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L.; Rose, W.

    2012-10-01

    This Measure Guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces. Topics covered include when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure, how to identify and address risks, and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  11. Measure Guideline. High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States); Rose, W. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This measure guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces, including: when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure; how to identify and address risks; and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  12. Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senk, D.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilized e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletizing or briquetting and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverized coal (PC has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following shaft furnaces have been examined: blast furnace, cupola furnace, OxiCup furnace and imperial-smelting furnace. Investigations have been done at laboratory and industrial scale. Some dusts and wastes under certain conditions can be not only reused but can also improve combustion efficiency at the tuyeres as well as furnace performance and productivity.

    Los residuos y polvos de filtro provenientes de la industria siderúrgica, de la obtención de metales no ferrosos y de otras industrias, pueden ser utilizados, por ejemplo, en procesos de aglomeración como sintetizado, peletizado o briqueteado. En su caso, estos pueden ser inyectados en los hornos de cuba. Este artículo se enfoca a la inyección de estos materiales en los hornos de cuba. El comportamiento de la combustión y reducción de los polvos ricos en hierro y carbono y también lodos que contienen plomo, zinc y compuestos alcalinos y otros residuos con o sin carbón pulverizado (CP fue examinado, cuando se inyectaron en hornos de cuba. Los siguientes hornos de cuba fueron examinados: Horno alto, cubilote, OxiCup y horno de cuba Imperial Smelting. Las investigaciones se llevaron a cabo a escala de laboratorio e industrial. Algunos residuos y polvos bajo ciertas condiciones, no sólo pueden ser reciclados, sino también mejoran la eficiencia de combustión en las toberas, la operación y productividad del horno.

  13. China International Foundry, Furnace & Castings Expo 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ China International Foundry, Furnace & Castings Expo 2005 was successfully held from August 30 to September 3, 2005 in Shenyang International Exhibition Center, which was sponsored by China InternationalEquipment Manufacturing Exposition (CIEME) and organized by Productivity Promotion Center of Foundry Industry of China and Foundry Institution of Chinese Mechanical Engineering Society (FICMEC). More than 60 domestic enterprises and overseas enterprises from America, Japan participated in the Expo. These enterprises covers foundry materials, foundry equipment,industrial furnaces, instruments and apparatus, castings supplier, specialist media, etc.

  14. Optimization of Temperature Controller for Electric Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are based on the principle of natural selection and the optimization of natural generation. We can select the number of the bit strings and mutation rate reasonably, the global optimal solution can be obtained. GAs adopt the binary code as optimizing parameter and this binary code can be used in computer controller easily. This paper studies the application of the GAs to the electric furnace temperature control. When the electric furnace mathematics model varies with the working condition, the parameter of controller can be optimized on line. So the system performance can be improved effectively.

  15. Mush Column Magma Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, B. D.

    2002-12-01

    Magma chambers are a necessary concept in understanding the chemical and physical evolution of magma. The concept may well be similar to a transfer function in circuit or time series analysis. It does what needs to be done to transform source magma into eruptible magma. In gravity and geodetic interpretations the causative body is (usually of necessity) geometrically simple and of limited vertical extent; it is clearly difficult to `see' through the uppermost manifestation of the concentrated magma. The presence of plutons in the upper crust has reinforced the view that magma chambers are large pots of magma, but as in the physical representation of a transfer function, actual magma chambers are clearly distinct from virtual magma chambers. Two key features to understanding magmatic systems are that they are vertically integrated over large distances (e.g., 30-100 km), and that all local magmatic processes are controlled by solidification fronts. Heat transfer considerations show that any viable volcanic system must be supported by a vertically extensive plumbing system. Field and geophysical studies point to a common theme of an interconnected stack of sill-like structures extending to great depth. This is a magmatic Mush Column. The large-scale (10s of km) structure resembles the vertical structure inferred at large volcanic centers like Hawaii (e.g., Ryan et al.), and the fine scale (10s to 100s of m) structure is exemplified by ophiolites and deeply eroded sill complexes like the Ferrar dolerites of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The local length scales of the sill reservoirs and interconnecting conduits produce a rich spectrum of crystallization environments with distinct solidification time scales. Extensive horizontal and vertical mushy walls provide conditions conducive to specific processes of differentiation from solidification front instability to sidewall porous flow and wall rock slumping. The size, strength, and time series of eruptive behavior

  16. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: RETECH'S PLASMA CENTRIFUGAL FURNACE - VOLUME I

    Science.gov (United States)

    A demonstration of the Retech, Inc. Plasma Centrifugal Furnace (PCF) was conducted under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program at the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana. The furnace uses heat gen...

  17. Multi-chamber ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the detector a single beta ionization source and a double- or three-chamber set-up is used, the chambers being designed in the shape of a truncated cone and facing each other with their bases. The source can be positioned with respect to the common center or modal electrode, the adjustment of the ionization in each chamber this becoming easier. The center or modal electrode also can be adjusted with respect to the source. (DG)

  18. A device for jet processing of surfaces (for deslagging the hatches of furnace chambers)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novikov, B.P.; Guzenko, S.I.; Myagkov, O.A.; Pakhomov, A.I.; Shcheglov, M.K.; Vvedenskiy, V.N.

    1982-01-01

    The device is designed for processing slagged hatches of boilers by a jet of high pressure (VD) water. The device is attached to a hinged support mounted in the wall of the boiler, which provides for oscillating movement of the operational nozzle, and, in order to increase the effectiveness, it is additionally equipped with a pair of pneumatic cylinders which support longitudinal movement of the nozzle.

  19. First d. c. arc furnace for steelmaking in the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-06

    On June 25, 1982, a prototype d.c. arc furnace with a capacity of 12 t started trial operation at the Kreuztal-Buschhuetten steel foundry of Messrs. SMS Schloemann-Siemag AG, after its operating capability had been tested with same test charges. It is the world's first d.c. arc furnace to be operated in a production plant. The furnaces constructed so far were experimental furnaces, operated periodically for research purposes.

  20. Design of advanced industrial furnaces using numerical modeling method

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Wei

    2000-01-01

    This doctoral thesis describes the fundamentals ofmathematical modeling for the industrial furnaces and boilersand presents the results from the numerical simulations of sometypical applications in advanced industrial furnaces andboilers. The main objective of this thesis work is to employcomputational fluid dynamics (CFD) technology as an effectivecomputer simulation tool to study and develop the newcombustion concepts, phenomena and processes in advancedindustrial furnaces and boilers. The ...

  1. Dynamics and control of a gas-fired furnace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roffel, B.; Rijnsdorp, J.E.

    1974-01-01

    A non-linear model has been developed for a gas-fired furnace in which oil is heated. The model is applicable from minimum to maximum heat load of the furnace. The dynamics of the model have been compared to experimental results, which were obtained for a pilot-scale furnace. They are in good agreem

  2. 46 CFR 59.15-1 - Furnace repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Furnace repairs. 59.15-1 Section 59.15-1 Shipping COAST... VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Miscellaneous Boiler Repairs § 59.15-1 Furnace repairs. (a) Where corrugated or plain furnaces or flues are distorted by 11/2 inches or more, they shall be repaired by either of...

  3. Effect of electropolishing on vacuum furnace design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutanwi Lahiri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of thermal shields of materials having low emissivity in vacuum furnaces is well-known. However, the surface condition of the heat shields is one of the most important factors governing their efficiency as radiation resistances. The emissivity of the thermal shields dictates the power rating of the heaters in furnace design. The unpolished materials used in the heater tests showed poor performance leading to loss of a signi­ficant percentage of the input power. The present work deals with the refur­bishment of the radiation heat shields used in a furnace for heating graphite structure. The effect of refurbishment of the heat shields by the buffing and subsequently electro­polishing was found to improve the performance of the shields as heat reflectors. The com­position of the electrolyte was chosen in such a way that the large shields of Mo, Inconel and SS can be polished using the same reagents in different ratios. The present work deals with the development of a standard electropolishing procedure for large metallic sheets and subsequently qualifying them by roughness and emissivity measure­ments. The improvement noted in the shielding efficiency of the furnace in the subsequent runs is also discussed here.

  4. INVESTIGATIONS ON OPERATION OF ROTARY TILTING FURNACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Rovin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rotary tilting furnace (RTF is a new type of fuel furnaces, that provide the most efficient heating and recycling of polydisperse materials. The paper describes results of the investigations on thermal processes in the RTF, movement of materials and non-isothermal gas flow during kiln rotary process. The investigations have been carried out while using physical and computer simulations and under actual operating conditions applying the pilot plant. Results of the research have served as a basis for development of recommendations on the RTF calculations and designing and they have been also used for constructional design of a rotary tilting furnace for heating and melting of cast iron chips, reduction smelting of steel mill scale, melting of aluminum scrap, melting of lead from battery scrap. These furnaces have a high thermal efficiency (~50 %, technological flexibility, high productivity and profitability. Proven technical solutions for recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals develop the use of RTF in the foundry and metallurgical industry as the main technological unit for creation of cost-effective small-tonnage recycling of metal waste generated at the plants. The research results open prospects for organization of its own production for high-quality charging material in Belarus in lieu of imported primary metal. The proposed technology makes it possible to solve environmental challenge pertaining to liquidation of multi-tonnage heaps of metal-containing wastes.

  5. APPLICATION ANALYSIS REPORT: RETECH PLASMA CENTRIFUGAL FURNACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is an evaluation of the performance of the Retech, Inc. Plasma Centrifugal Furnace (PCF) and its applicability as a treatment for soils contaminated with organic and/or inorganic compounds. Both the technical and economic aspectsof the technology were examined. A...

  6. Thermal exposure in fire resistance furnaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leur, P.H.E. van de; Twilt, L.

    1999-01-01

    Over the last six years, CEN TC 127 and more in particular its working groups ad hoc 14 and ad hoc 7 have been active in evaluating and improving the reproducibility of fire resistance testing. Ad hoc 14 developed a draft procedure for the evaluation of the performance of fire resistance furnaces in

  7. Development of Fission Chamber Assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGJinwei; ZHANGWei; SONGXianying; LIXu

    2003-01-01

    The fission chambers which are gas counters with fissile material inside chamber,provide essential information for plasma opcharacteristics. In conjunction with the neutron flux monitor system these provide time-resolved measurements of the global neutron source strength and fusion power from thermal nuclear fusion reactor as ITER for all plasma conditions for which neutrons are produced.

  8. The Big European Bubble Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    1977-01-01

    The 3.70 metre Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC), dismantled on 9 August 1984. During operation it was one of the biggest detectors in the world, producing direct visual recordings of particle tracks. 6.3 million photos of interactions were taken with the chamber in the course of its existence.

  9. Thermal Analysis of an Industrial Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Filipponi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Industries, which are mainly responsible for high energy consumption, need to invest in research projects in order to develop new managing systems for rational energy use, and to tackle the devastating effects of climate change caused by human behavior. The study described in this paper concerns the forging industry, where the production processes generally start with the heating of steel in furnaces, and continue with other processes, such as heat treatments and different forms of machining. One of the most critical operations, in terms of energy loss, is the opening of the furnace doors for insertion and extraction operations. During this time, the temperature of the furnaces decreases by hundreds of degrees in a few minutes. Because the dispersed heat needs to be supplied again through the combustion of fuel, increasing the consumption of energy and the pollutant emissions, the evaluation of the amount of lost energy is crucial for the development of systems which can contain this loss. To perform this study, CFD simulation software was used. Results show that when the door opens, because of temperature and pressure differences between the furnace and the ambient air, turbulence is created. Results also show that the amount of energy lost for an opening of 10 min for radiation, convection and conduction is equal to 5606 MJ where convection is the main contributor, with 5020 MJ. The model created, after being validated, has been applied to perform other simulations, in order to improve the energy performance of the furnace. Results show that reducing the opening time of the door saves energy and limits pollutant emissions.

  10. A method for discharging gas from banks of horizontal coking furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varshavskiy, T.P.; Sukhorukov, V.I.

    1983-01-01

    In the method for discharging gases from a bank of horizontal coking furnaces, which includes discharge of gases from the loading period through a gas collector on the coke side with feeding into it of the coke gas with a reduced NOx content, discharge of the gases of the coking period through the gas collector on the machine side, in order to increase the service life of the furnace lining, 25 to 50 percent of the gases of the coking period are discharged through the gas collector on the coking side. The method provides for smokeless loading of the coking furnaces, a normal NOx content in the coking gas and creates conditions for maintaining the required temperature in the head part of the lining of the coking chambers. The operation of a coking bank based on the proposed method makes it possible to produce conditioned coke gas for nitric acid production. The service life of the heads is increased by 2 times as compared with the prototype.

  11. Investigation of Lignite and Firewood Co-combustion in a Furnace for Tobacco Curing Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakorn Tippayawong

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-combustion of lignite and firewood was investigated for an application in tobacco curing industry in Northern Thailand. Extensive experiments have been carried out in a newly developed furnace suitable for small curing unit, in place of locally made furnace. The aim of this investigation is to evaluate the performance of the combustion chamber in the required thermal output range for tobacco curing and to examine the influence of fuel feed rate, fuel mixture ratio and air staging on the combustion and emission characteristics of the furnace during steady state operation. Their effects are characterized in terms of the observed variations of temperature distributions, emissions of CO, SO2, CO2, O2 and combustion efficiency. Co-firing of firewood and lignite has been found to exhibit acceptable temperature distribution, high combustion efficiency and low emissions over a wide thermal output span. Stable operation at low (50 kW and high (150 kW thermal output was achieved with average CO and SO2 content in flue gas typically below 1400 and 100 ppm, respectively. Under the conditions considered, it was showed that the fuel feed rate had greater influence on combustion and emissions than firewood and lignite mixture ratio and air staging.

  12. National Ignition Facility Target Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wavrik, R W; Cox, J R; Fleming, P J

    2000-10-05

    On June 11, 1999 the Department of Energy dedicated the single largest piece of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. The ten (10) meter diameter aluminum target high vacuum chamber will serve as the working end of the largest laser in the world. The output of 192 laser beams will converge at the precise center of the chamber. The laser beams will enter the chamber in two by two arrays to illuminate 10 millimeter long gold cylinders called hohlraums enclosing 2 millimeter capsule containing deuterium, tritium and isotopes of hydrogen. The two isotopes will fuse, thereby creating temperatures and pressures resembling those found only inside stars and in detonated nuclear weapons, but on a minute scale. The NIF Project will serve as an essential facility to insure safety and reliability of our nation's nuclear arsenal as well as demonstrating inertial fusion's contribution to creating electrical power. The paper will discuss the requirements that had to be addressed during the design, fabrication and testing of the target chamber. A team from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and LLNL with input from industry performed the configuration and basic design of the target chamber. The method of fabrication and construction of the aluminum target chamber was devised by Pitt-Des Moines, Inc. (PDM). PDM also participated in the design of the chamber in areas such as the Target Chamber Realignment and Adjustment System, which would allow realignment of the sphere laser beams in the event of earth settlement or movement from a seismic event. During the fabrication of the target chamber the sphericity tolerances had to be addressed for the individual plates. Procedures were developed for forming, edge preparation and welding of individual plates. Construction plans were developed to allow the field construction of the target chamber to occur parallel to other NIF construction activities. This

  13. Ion chamber based neutron detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derzon, Mark S; Galambos, Paul C; Renzi, Ronald F

    2014-12-16

    A neutron detector with monolithically integrated readout circuitry, including: a bonded semiconductor die; an ion chamber formed in the bonded semiconductor die; a first electrode and a second electrode formed in the ion chamber; a neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber; and the readout circuitry which is electrically coupled to the first and second electrodes. The bonded semiconductor die includes an etched semiconductor substrate bonded to an active semiconductor substrate. The readout circuitry is formed in a portion of the active semiconductor substrate. The ion chamber has a substantially planar first surface on which the first electrode is formed and a substantially planar second surface, parallel to the first surface, on which the second electrode is formed. The distance between the first electrode and the second electrode may be equal to or less than the 50% attenuation length for neutrons in the neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber.

  14. AUTOMATION OF GLASS TEMPERING FURNACE BY USING PLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah BÜYÜKYILDIZ

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a furnace which is used for observation of environments under high temperature, and also used for manufacturing of glasses which are resisted to high temperature has been designed and implemented. Automation of this system has been done by using PLC. Operating parameters of furnace such as materials entering, the furnace, the local temperature control of furnace, cooling control and materials outing have been sensed with Hall Effect Sensor. Furthermore, the observation of parameters of furnace on screen has been provided with SCADA software. Obtained products have been shown the system works successfully.

  15. Advanced control of walking-beam reheating furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhigang Chen; Chao Xu; Bin Zhang; Huihe Shao; Jianmin Zhang

    2003-01-01

    Reheating furnace is an important device with complex dynamic characteristics in steel plants. The temperature tracing control of reheating furnace has great importance both to the quality of slabs and energy saving. A model-based control strategy,multivariable constrained control (MCC) for the reheating furnace control is used. With this control method, the furnace is treated as a six-input-six-output general model with loops coupled in nature. Compared with the traditional control, the proposed control strategy gets better temperature tracing accuracy and exhibits some energy saving feature. The simulation results show that the performance of the furnace is greatly improved.

  16. Danarc technology for electric arc furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelsson, P.; Gensini, G.; Mavridis [Danieli Centro Met, Buttrio (Italy)

    1995-06-01

    Danarc electric arc furnace technology combines high-impedance technology with bottom tuyeres for oxygen and carbon injection. Together with lance injection and wall burners for both conventional operation and post-combustion, the concept provides full flexibility in the choice of energy sources. The basic philosophy of the concept is to have efficient systems for the supply of both electrical and alternative energy. Operational results from a Danarc furnace at Ferriere Nord show that it is possible to inject high specific amounts of oxygen and carbon as a substitute for electrical energy. The electrical power supply with a fixed or saturable reactor is beneficial because of the high voltage and low current operation. High-impedance operation results in low electrode consumption, reduced electrical losses and a reduction of the supply network disturbance, ie, flicker.

  17. FEM Optimisation of Spark Plasma Sintering Furnace

    CERN Document Server

    Kellari, Demetrios Vasili

    2013-01-01

    Coupled electro-thermal FEM analysis has been carried out on a sintering furnace used to produce new materials for LHC collimators. The analysis showed there exist margins for improvement of the current process and equipment through minor changes. To optimise the design of the furnace several design changes have been proposed including: optimization of material selection using copper cooling plates, control of convection in cooling plates by lowering the water flow rate, modifying the electrode shape using unsymmetrical electrodes and upgrading the thermal shielding to make use of multilayer graphite shields. The results show that we have a significant improvement in temperature gradient on the plate, from 453 to 258 °C and a reduction in power requirement from 62 to 44 kW.

  18. FLOX burner technology for wood furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current research at IVD focuses on the development of FLOX burners for small furnaces, with the intention of making problematic biomass available for energetic utilisation. At the same time, soiling and emission problems are to be reduced or avoided by using innovative technologies. One of these is the technology of flameless oxidation, which is already applied successfully in the natural gas industry because of its low NOx emissions. The IVD is working on two different plant concepts. (orig.)

  19. Second generation rotary furnaces, an even more viable alternative to cupola and electric induction furnaces; La seconde generation de fours rotatifs, un appareil qui peut se substituer avantageusement au cubilot et au four electrique a induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lever, D. [Air Liquide 38 - Sassenage (France)

    2001-10-01

    Rotary furnaces are a well established alternative to cupola furnaces. Recent innovations in oxygas furnaces have made them the preferred choice even over medium-frequency electric furnaces in many European foundries. The article explains in what respects the rotary furnace is a new iron smelting concept, as different from the cupola furnace as the medium-frequency electric furnace. (author)

  20. Cyclically controlled welding purge chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Robert L. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An arrangement for butt-welding cylindrical sections of large, thin-wall tanks includes a rotatable mandrel with side-by-side sets of radial position adjusters. Each set of adjusters bears on one of the tank sections adjacent the seam, to prevent the sections from sagging out-of-round. The mandrel rotates relative to the welder, so that a continuous seam is formed. A purge chamber is fixed in position behind the seam at the weld head, and is flushed with inert gas. The purge chamber includes a two-sided structure which is contiguous with the cylindrical sections and a circumferential vane to form an open-ended tube-like structure, through which the radial position adjusters pass as the mandrel and cylindrical workpiece sections rotate. The tube-like structure is formed into a chamber by a plurality of movable gates which are controlled to maintain a seal while allowing adjusters to progress through the purge chamber.

  1. The multigap resistive plate chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeballos, E. Cerron [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Crotty, I. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Hatzifotiadou, D. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Valverde, J. Lamas [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Univ. Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France); Neupane, S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Williams, M. C. S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Zichichi, A. [Univ. of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    2015-02-03

    The paper describes the multigap resistive plate chamber (RPC). This is a variant of the wide gap RPC. However it has much improved time resolution, while keeping all the other advantages of the wide gap RPC design.

  2. The HERMES Back Drift Chambers

    OpenAIRE

    al, S. Bernreuther et

    1998-01-01

    The tracking system of the HERMES spectrometer behind the bending magnet consists of two pairs of large planar 6-plane drift chambers. The design and performance of these chambers is described. This description comprises details on the mechanical and electronical design, information about the gas mixture used and its properties, results on alignment, calibration, resolution, and efficiencies, and a discussion of the experience gained through the first three years of operation.

  3. BEBC Big European Bubble Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    A view of the dismantling of the magnet of BEBC, the 3.7 m European Bubble Chamber : iron magnetic shielding ; lower and upper parts of the vacuum enclosure of the magnet; turbo-molecular vacuum pumps for the "fish-eye" windows; the two superconducting coils; a handling platform; the two cryostats suspended from the bar of the travelling crane which has a 170 ton carrying capacity. The chamber proper, not dismantled, is inside the shielding.

  4. Anterior chamber depth during hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracitelli CPB

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Carolina Pelegrini Barbosa Gracitelli,1 Francisco Rosa Stefanini,1 Fernando Penha,1 Miguel Ângelo Góes,2 Sérgio Antonio Draibe,2 Maria Eugênia Canziani,2 Augusto Paranhos Junior1 1Ophthalmology Department, 2Division of Nephrology, Federal University of São Paulo – UNIFESP, São Paulo, Brazil Background: Exacerbation of chronic glaucoma or acute glaucoma is occasionally observed in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD because of anterior chamber depth changes during this therapy. Purpose: To evaluate anterior chamber depth and axial length in patients during HD sessions. Methods: A total of 67 eyes of 35 patients were prospectively enrolled. Axial length and anterior chamber depth were measured using ultrasonic biometry, and these measures were evaluated at three different times during HD sessions. Body weight and blood pressure pre- and post-HD were also measured. Results: There was no difference in the axial length between the three measurements (P = 0.241. We observed a significantly decreased anterior chamber depth (P = 0.002 during HD sessions. Conclusion: Our results support the idea that there is a change in anterior chamber depth in HD sessions. Keywords: anterior chamber, hemodialysis, axial length, acute angle-closure glaucoma

  5. Mass Balance Modeling for Electric Arc Furnace and Ladle Furnace System in Steelmaking Facility in Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    (I)smail Ekmek(c)i; Ya(s)ar Yetisken; (U)nal (C)amdali

    2007-01-01

    In the electric arc furnace (EAF) steel production processes, scrap steel is principally used as a raw material instead of iron ore. In the steelmaking process with EAF, scrap is first melted in the furnace and then the desired chemical composition of the steel can be obtained in a special furnace such as ladle furnace (LF). This kind of furnace process is used for the secondary refining of alloy steel. LF furnace offers strong heating fluxes and enables precise temperature control, thereby allowing for the addition of desired amounts of various alloying elements. It also provides outstanding desulfurization at high-temperature treatment by reducing molten steel fluxes and removing deoxidation products. Elemental analysis with mass balance modeling is important to know the precise amount of required alloys for the LF input with respect to scrap composition. In present study, chemical reactions with mass conservation law in EAF and LF were modeled altogether as a whole system and chemical compositions of the final steel alloy output can be obtained precisely according to different scrap compositions, alloying elements ratios, and other input amounts. Besides, it was found that the mass efficiency for iron element in the system is 95.93%. These efficiencies are calculated for all input elements as 8.45% for C, 30.31% for Si, 46.36% for Mn, 30.64% for P, 41.96% for S, and 69.79% for Cr, etc. These efficiencies provide valuable ideas about the amount of the input materials that are vanished or combusted for 100 kg of each of the input materials in the EAF and LF system.

  6. Analysis of fluid flow in a stirred reverberatory furnace with different impellers, by physical and numerical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fluid flow analysis and particle trajectory in a 5 t molten capacity scaled 1.2 model of a reverberatory furnace was performed using both physical and numerical simulation. The design of the system allowed studying the behavior of the liquid in a system agitated by impellers. The parameters studied were, rotating shape and height, of the impeller. The physical and numerical simulations were used to determine circulation and mixing times, fluid flow patters and velocity profiles in the agitation and melting chambers. Using experimental data, it was possible to establish the interaction between turbulent flow and circulating solid particles. The original design of the reverberatory furnace was modified based on the physical and numerical simulation analysis. The new design showed an increased magnesium removal rate by means of a more efficient and faster mixing. (Author) 18 refs.

  7. Simulation study of UO2 kernel reduction furnace design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the N-S equations and the k-ε turbulence model, different kinds of UO2 kernel reduction furnace equipment in PBMR, South Africa and INET, China were numerically simulated using computational fluid dynamics method. The simulation results show that these two kinds of furnace designs can not be achieved on the uniform distribution of gas flow in the axial direction, but show large volume at the top and small volume at the bottom of the furnace, and this is one of the reasons of non-uniform particle reduction. Improved design was proposed based on the analysis of changes of axial pressure in the furnace. Simulation results demonstrate that the improved furnace design is suitable for obtaining a more uniform distribution of the gas in the axial direction. It can be concluded that the improved furnace design will improve particle reduction effects. (authors)

  8. Determination of leakage in blast furnaces cooling plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blast furnace walls are cooled by the circulation of water through copper plates inserted into the blast furnace refractory lining. Plates are fed by circular pipelines, called distribution rings, installed at different levels of the reactor. Because of normal corrosion, plates wear away and can eventually perforate, allowing the leakage of cooling water inside the blast furnace. A system has been designed and installed in order to confirm the eventual occurrence of leakages in the cooling plates of a blast furnace refractory lining. The system injects a solution of tritium into the feeding pipeline and determines, by means of liquid scintillation counting, the concentration of tritium in the exhausting gases at the top of the blast furnace. The system was tested under different blast furnace operating conditions, and allowed the detection and determination of leakages greater than 0.5 1/min. Following necessary maintenance, the system also confirmed the satisfactory results of the corrective actions. (author). 48 refs., 13 figs., 29 tabs

  9. Assessment of selected furnace technologies for RWMC waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a description and initial evaluation of five selected thermal treatment (furnace) technologies, in support of earlier thermal technologies scoping work for application to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) buried wastes. The cyclone furnace, molten salt processor, microwave melter, ausmelt (fuel fired lance) furnace, and molten metal processor technologies are evaluated. A system description and brief development history are provided. The state of development of each technology is assessed, relative to treatment of RWMC buried waste

  10. Compacting of fly dusts from cupola and electric arc furnace

    OpenAIRE

    D. Baricová; P. Futáš; A. Pribulová; G. Fedorko; P. Demeter

    2012-01-01

    Recycling and utilization of dust waste is important not only from the point of view of its usage as an alternative source of raw materials, but regarding the environmental problems also. Dust emissions arise from thermal and chemical or physical processes and mechanical actions. Two kinds of fl y dusts from cupola furnaces (hot and cold blast cupola furnace) and fl y dust from electric arc furnace were used by experiments. They were pelletized only with addition of water and briquetted with ...

  11. Effect of coke strength on blast furnace performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyshov, V.N.; Emushintsev, V.V.; Minikes, E.E.; Tsymbal, G.L.; Vakulin, V.N.

    1985-09-01

    The authors report on results of a study, conducted from 1979 to 1982, analyzing the effect of the strength of commercially produced coke on furnace performance, for furnaces of different volumes. The effect of coke strength on blast-furnace performance was analyzed in two directions: determination of the dependence of coke loss from fragmentation on coke strength indices; evaluation of the effect of the coke strength on melting indices. It is found that high-strength coke is needed for large-volume furnaces and that reduction in coke strength helps cause tuyere burning.

  12. Comprehensive Numerical Modeling of the Blast Furnace Ironmaking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chenn; Tang, Guangwu; Wang, Jichao; Fu, Dong; Okosun, Tyamo; Silaen, Armin; Wu, Bin

    2016-05-01

    Blast furnaces are counter-current chemical reactors, widely utilized in the ironmaking industry. Hot reduction gases injected from lower regions of the furnace ascend, reacting with the descending burden. Through this reaction process, iron ore is reduced into liquid iron that is tapped from the furnace hearth. Due to the extremely harsh environment inside the blast furnace, it is difficult to measure or observe internal phenomena during operation. Through the collaboration between steel companies and the Center for Innovation through Visualization and Simulation, multiple computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models have been developed to simulate the complex multiphase reacting flow in the three regions of the furnace, the shaft, the raceway, and the hearth. The models have been used effectively to troubleshoot and optimize blast furnace operations. In addition, the CFD models have been integrated with virtual reality. An interactive virtual blast furnace has been developed for training purpose. This paper summarizes the developments and applications of blast furnace CFD models and the virtual blast furnace.

  13. Plasma chemistry in wire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an 55Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed

  14. Emulsion Chamber Technology Experiment (ECT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, John C.; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    1996-01-01

    The experimental objective of Emulsion Chamber Technology (ECT) was to develop space-borne emulsion chamber technology so that cosmic rays and nuclear interactions may subsequently be studied at extremely high energies with long exposures in space. A small emulsion chamber was built and flown on flight STS-62 of the Columbia in March 1994. Analysis of the several hundred layers of radiation-sensitive material has shown excellent post-flight condition and suitability for cosmic ray physics analysis at much longer exposures. Temperature control of the stack was 20 +/-1 C throughout the active control period and no significant deviations of temperature or pressure in the chamber were observed over the entire mission operations period. The unfortunate flight attitude of the orbiter (almost 90% Earth viewing) prevented any significant number of heavy particles (Z greater than or equal to 10) reaching the stack and the inverted flow of shower particles in the calorimeter has not allowed evaluation of absolute primary cosmic ray-detection efficiency nor of the practical time limits of useful exposure of these calorimeters in space to the level of detail originally planned. Nevertheless, analysis of the observed backgrounds and quality of the processed photographic and plastic materials after the flight show that productive exposures of emulsion chambers are feasible in low orbit for periods of up to one year or longer. The engineering approaches taken in the ECT program were proven effective and no major environmental obstacles to prolonged flight are evident.

  15. The effect of heating power on impurity formation and transport during the holding phase in a Bridgman furnace for directional solidification of multi-crystalline silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingsen, Kjerstin; Lindholm, Dag; M`Hamdi, Mohammed

    2016-06-01

    Oxygen and carbon are the most common impurities in multi-crystalline silicon. The general mechanism for formation and transport of O and C in the solidification furnace is as follows: oxygen from the silica crucible comes into the melt and combines with a silicon atom and evaporates at the gas/melt interface in the form of silicon oxide (SiO). Argon inert gas, injected into the furnace chamber, carries the SiO to the hot graphite fixtures, where it reacts with carbon to form carbon monoxide (CO) and silicon carbide (SiC). CO is carried by the gas to the melt free surface, where it dissociates into carbon and oxygen. Finally, during solidification oxygen and carbon are incorporated into the crystal. A global furnace model accounting for heat transfer, melt flow, gas flow and impurity transport has been applied to investigate the oxygen and carbon formation and transport in a vertical Bridgman furnace during the holding phase when the furnace is at its hottest. A case study is performed to investigate the effect of the applied heating power on the carbon and oxygen concentrations in the melt prior to solidification.

  16. Tohoku one meter bubble chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of Tohoku University and the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, IHI has developed a complete freon bubble chamber system successfully, which is used for photo analysis of elementary particles physics. This system will be delivered to Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) in Illinois (U.S.A.) and will be coupled with the superconducting accelerator (TEVATRON) for the study of elementary particles. The total system of the freon bubble chamber is composed of a stainless steel casting spherical bubble chamber with a diameter of about one meter, an expansion system for freon pressure control, hydraulic system for driving an expansion piston, a freon feed system, a temperature control system, an overall control system as well as camera and flashlight for photograph. (author)

  17. The CLAS drift chamber system

    CERN Document Server

    Mestayer, M D; Asavapibhop, B; Barbosa, F J; Bonneau, P; Christo, S B; Dodge, G E; Dooling, T; Duncan, W S; Dytman, S A; Feuerbach, R; Gilfoyle, G P; Gyurjyan, V; Hicks, K H; Hicks, R S; Hyde-Wright, C E; Jacobs, G; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Kossov, M; Kuhn, S E; Magahiz, R A; Major, R W; Martin, C; McGuckin, T; McNabb, J; Miskimen, R A; Müller, J A; Niczyporuk, B B; O'Meara, J E; Qin, L M; Raue, B A; Robb, J; Roudot, F; Schumacher, R A; Tedeschi, D J; Thompson, R A; Tilles, D; Tuzel, W; Vansyoc, K; Vineyard, M F; Weinstein, L B; Wilkin, G R; Yegneswaran, A; Yun, J

    2000-01-01

    Experimental Hall B at Jefferson Laboratory houses the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer, the magnetic field of which is produced by a superconducting toroid. The six coils of this toroid divide the detector azimuthally into six sectors, each of which contains three large multi-layer drift chambers for tracking charged particles produced from a fixed target on the toroidal axis. Within the 18 drift chambers are a total of 35,148 individually instrumented hexagonal drift cells. The novel geometry of these chambers provides for good tracking resolution and efficiency, along with large acceptance. The design and construction challenges posed by these large-scale detectors are described, and detailed results are presented from in-beam measurements.

  18. The CLAS drift chamber system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestayer, M.D.; Carman, D.S.; Asavaphibhop, B. [and others

    1999-04-01

    Experimental Hall B at Jefferson Laboratory houses the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer, the magnetic field of which is produced by a superconducting toroid. The six coils of this toroid divide the detector azimuthally into six sectors, each of which contains three large multi-layer drift chambers for tracking charged particles produced from a fixed target on a toroidal axis. Within the 18 drift chambers are a total of 35,148 individually instrumented hexagonal drift cells. The novel geometry of these chambers provides for good tracking resolution and efficiency, along with large acceptance. The design and construction challenges posed by these large-scale detectors are described, and detailed results are presented from in-beam measurements.

  19. "Flat-Fish" Vacuum Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    The picture shows a "Flat-Fish" vacuum chamber being prepared in the ISR workshop for testing prior to installation in the Split Field Magnet (SFM) at intersection I4. The two shells of each part were hydroformed from 0.15 mm thick inconel 718 sheet (with end parts in inconel 600 for easier manual welding to the arms) and welded toghether with two strips which were attached by means of thin stainless steel sheets to the Split Field Magnet poles in order to take the vertical component of the atmospheric pressure force. This was the thinnest vacuum chamber ever made for the ISR. Inconel material was chosen for its high elastic modulus and strenght at chamber bake-out temperature. In this picture the thin sheets transferring the vertical component of the atmosferic pressure force are attached to a support frame for testing. See also 7712182, 7712179.

  20. Impedances of Laminated Vacuum Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burov, A.; Lebedev, V.; /Fermilab

    2011-06-22

    First publications on impedance of laminated vacuum chambers are related to early 70s: those are of S. C. Snowdon [1] and of A. G. Ruggiero [2]; fifteen years later, a revision paper of R. Gluckstern appeared [3]. All the publications were presented as Fermilab preprints, and there is no surprise in that: the Fermilab Booster has its laminated magnets open to the beam. Being in a reasonable mutual agreement, these publications were all devoted to the longitudinal impedance of round vacuum chambers. The transverse impedance and the flat geometry case were addressed in more recent paper of K. Y. Ng [4]. The latest calculations of A. Macridin et al. [5] revealed some disagreement with Ref. [4]; this fact stimulated us to get our own results on that matter. Longitudinal and transverse impendances are derived for round and flat laminated vacuum chambers. Results of this paper agree with Ref. [5].

  1. Carbon Tubular Morphologies in Blast Furnace Coke

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav S. Gornostayev; Jouko J. Härkki

    2008-01-01

    The paper reports on the first occurrence of microscale carbon tubular morphologies (CMTs) in a blast furnace (BF) coke. The CMTs were probably formed as a result of the conversion of solid disordered carbon via liquid phase metal particles involving a gas phase containing a substantial amount of N 2 and O 2 . The presence of CMTs may lie behind the generation of the smallest fraction of fines in BF exhaust dust. If the amount of CMTs present in the BF exhausts gases at any particular metallu...

  2. Carbon Tubular Morphologies in Blast Furnace Coke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav S. Gornostayev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on the first occurrence of microscale carbon tubular morphologies (CMTs in a blast furnace (BF coke. The CMTs were probably formed as a result of the conversion of solid disordered carbon via liquid phase metal particles involving a gas phase containing a substantial amount of N2 and O2. The presence of CMTs may lie behind the generation of the smallest fraction of fines in BF exhaust dust. If the amount of CMTs present in the BF exhausts gases at any particular metallurgical site proves to be substantial, it could become a subject of environmental concern.

  3. Intelligent temperature control system of quench furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡燕瑜; 桂卫华; 唐朝晖; 唐玲

    2004-01-01

    A fuzzy-neural networks intelligent temperature control system of quench furnace was presented. Combined genetic algorithm with back-propagation algorithm, the weight values of neural networks, parameters of fuzzy membership functions and inference rules can be adjusted automatically, which realizes the optimal control of temperature. The results show that this control system can run effectively with satisfied temperature precision: in temperature uprising stage, overshot of temperature is under 4 ℃; in stable stage, the scope of temperature change is controlled within ±2 ℃, which meets the need of control veracity of temperature.

  4. PERFORMANCE TESTING AND ANALYSIS OF CUPOLA FURNACE

    OpenAIRE

    PROF.HEMANT R. BHAGAT-PATIL; MEGHA S. LONDHEKAR

    2013-01-01

    In today’s industrial scenario huge losses/wastage occur in the manufacturing shop floor and foundry industries. The efficiency of any foundry largely depends on the efficiency of the melting process amulti-step operation where the metal is heated, treated, alloyed, and transported into die or mold cavities to form a casting. In this paper we represents the performance testing and analysis of Cupola Furnace, and reduces the problems occurs to give the best results. Our main focus in this work...

  5. Optimization and simulation of low-temperature combustion and heat transfer in an Uhde carbonization furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Yongfa; Wang, Ying; Chen, Lei; Liu, Gaihuan

    2016-10-01

    The temperature distribution inside a low-temperature combustion chamber with circuited flame path during the low temperature pyrolysis of lignite was simulated using the computational fluid dynamics software FLUENT. The temperature distribution in the Uhde combustion chamber showed that the temperature is very non-uniform and could therefore not meet the requirements for industrial heat transfer. After optimizing the furnace, by adding a self-made gas-guide structure to the heat transfer section as well as adjusting the gas flow size in the flame path, the temperature distribution became uniform, and the average temperature (550-650 °C) became suitable for industrial low-temperature pyrolysis. The Realizable k-epsilon model, P-1 model, and the Non-premixed model were used to calculate the temperature distribution for the combustion of coke-oven gas and air inside the combustion chamber. Our simulation is consistent with our experimental results within an error range of 40-80 °C. The one-dimensional unsteady state heat conduction differential equation ρ nolimits_{coal} Cnolimits_{coal} partial T/partial t = partial /partial x(λ partial T/partial x) can be used to calculate the heat transfer process. Our results can serve as a first theoretical base and may enable technological advances with regard to lignite pyrolysis.

  6. Optimization and simulation of low-temperature combustion and heat transfer in an Uhde carbonization furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Yongfa; Wang, Ying; Chen, Lei; Liu, Gaihuan

    2015-12-01

    The temperature distribution inside a low-temperature combustion chamber with circuited flame path during the low temperature pyrolysis of lignite was simulated using the computational fluid dynamics software FLUENT. The temperature distribution in the Uhde combustion chamber showed that the temperature is very non-uniform and could therefore not meet the requirements for industrial heat transfer. After optimizing the furnace, by adding a self-made gas-guide structure to the heat transfer section as well as adjusting the gas flow size in the flame path, the temperature distribution became uniform, and the average temperature (550-650 °C) became suitable for industrial low-temperature pyrolysis. The Realizable k-epsilon model, P-1 model, and the Non-premixed model were used to calculate the temperature distribution for the combustion of coke-oven gas and air inside the combustion chamber. Our simulation is consistent with our experimental results within an error range of 40-80 °C. The one-dimensional unsteady state heat conduction differential equation ρ nolimits_{coal} Cnolimits_{coal} partial T/partial t = partial /partial x(λ partial T/partial x) can be used to calculate the heat transfer process. Our results can serve as a first theoretical base and may enable technological advances with regard to lignite pyrolysis.

  7. Test chamber for alpha spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Robert P.

    1977-01-01

    Alpha emitters for low-level radiochemical analysis by measurement of alpha spectra are positioned precisely with respect to the location of a surface-barrier detector by means of a chamber having a removable threaded planchet holder. A pedestal on the planchet holder holds a specimen in fixed engagement close to the detector. Insertion of the planchet holder establishes an O-ring seal that permits the chamber to be pumped to a desired vacuum. The detector is protected against accidental contact and resulting damage.

  8. Electric arc furnace models for flicker study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina González Castaño

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this paper is to evaluate voltage fluctuations or flicker of two electric arc furnace models through comparison with real data.Method: The first proposed model is founded on the energy conservation principle, which generates a non-linear differential equation modelling the electric arc voltage – current characteristics. Voltage fluctuations are generated using a chaotic circuit that modulates the amplitude of arc voltage. The second model is based on the empirical relationship between the arc diameter or length as well as voltage and electrical current on the arc. Voltage fluctuations are considered adding a random signal in the arc length. Both models are implemented in PSCADTM.Results: The results of both models are compared with real data taken at the most critical stage of the operation of the furnace, and they show that the model based on energy conservation has a lower average mean square error in the voltages and currents 5.6 V and 1.7 kA against 27,2 V y 3.38 kA obtained with the second model.Conclusions: Both models consider the nonlinearity and random behavior present in this type of load, validating their inclusion in computer models of electric power systems.

  9. Arsenic immobilization of Teniente furnace dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimura, R. [Japan Oil, Gas, and Metals National Corp., Kawasaki (Japan); Tateiwa, H. [Mitsui Mining and Smelting Co. Ltd., Saitama (Japan); Almendares, C. [Centro de Investigacion Minera y Metalurgica, Santiago (Chile); Sanchez, G. [CODELCO, Santiago (Chile). Division Ventanas

    2007-07-01

    A 5-year joint Japanese-Chilean project to modify the treatment of furnace dust from a converter in Chile producing harmful amounts of arsenic and lead was described. A pilot plant was constructed to evaluate the method's commercialization potential. Flue dust was recovered by a dust collector installed to capture suspended dust generated by the smelting furnace. Arsenic content was approximately 15 per cent. Ninety per cent of the arsenic was then liquidated to lixivia and dissolved by leaching flue dust with sulphuric acid. The leaching rate decreased when flue dust had a high content of residual sulfide ore. A flotation device was then incorporated in the treatment process in order to increase the copper recovery rate. A solvent recovery process was then adopted to recover the copper and zinc contained in the solution after the arsenic recovery. An economic evaluation of the process indicated that efforts should be made to improve the efficiency of the dust treatment method. 5 refs., 6 tabs., 10 figs.

  10. The Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, D. C.; Reeves, F. A.; Jeter, L. B.; Sledd, J. D.; Cole, J. M.; Lehoczky, S. L.

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF) is a five zone tubular furnace designed for Bridgman-Stockbarger, other techniques of crystal growth involving multiple temperature zones such as vapor transport experiments and other materials science experiments. The five zones are primarily designed to produce uniform hot and cold temperature regions separated by an adiabatic region constructed of a heat extraction plate and an insert to reduce radiation from the hot to the cold zone. The hot and cold zone temperatures are designed to reach 1600 C and 1100 C, respectively. AADSF operates on a Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure (MPESS) within the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle on the United States Microgravity Payload (USMP) missions. Two successful flights, both employing the directional solidification or Bridgman Stockbarger technique for crystal growth have been made, and crystals of HgCdTe and PbSnTe grown in microgravity have been produced on USMP-2 and USMP-3, respectively. The addition of a Sample Exchange Mechanism (SEM) will enable three different samples to be processed on future flights including the USMP-4 mission.

  11. Glass Furnace Combustion and Melting Research Facility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connors, John J. (PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA); McConnell, John F. (JFM Consulting, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA); Henry, Vincent I. (Henry Technology Solutions, LLC, Ann Arbor, MI); MacDonald, Blake A.; Gallagher, Robert J.; Field, William B. (Lilja Corp., Livermore, CA); Walsh, Peter M.; Simmons, Michael C. (Lilja Corp., Livermore, CA); Adams, Michael E. (Lilja Corp., Rochester, NY); Leadbetter, James M. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Tomasewski, Jack W. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Operacz, Walter J. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Houf, William G.; Davis, James W. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Marvin, Bart G. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Gunner, Bruce E. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Farrell, Rick G. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Bivins, David P. (PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA); Curtis, Warren (PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA); Harris, James E. (PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA)

    2004-08-01

    The need for a Combustion and Melting Research Facility focused on the solution of glass manufacturing problems common to all segments of the glass industry was given high priority in the earliest version of the Glass Industry Technology Roadmap (Eisenhauer et al., 1997). Visteon Glass Systems and, later, PPG Industries proposed to meet this requirement, in partnership with the DOE/OIT Glass Program and Sandia National Laboratories, by designing and building a research furnace equipped with state-of-the-art diagnostics in the DOE Combustion Research Facility located at the Sandia site in Livermore, CA. Input on the configuration and objectives of the facility was sought from the entire industry by a variety of routes: (1) through a survey distributed to industry leaders by GMIC, (2) by conducting an open workshop following the OIT Glass Industry Project Review in September 1999, (3) from discussions with numerous glass engineers, scientists, and executives, and (4) during visits to glass manufacturing plants and research centers. The recommendations from industry were that the melting tank be made large enough to reproduce the essential processes and features of industrial furnaces yet flexible enough to be operated in as many as possible of the configurations found in industry as well as in ways never before attempted in practice. Realization of these objectives, while still providing access to the glass bath and combustion space for optical diagnostics and measurements using conventional probes, was the principal challenge in the development of the tank furnace design. The present report describes a facility having the requirements identified as important by members of the glass industry and equipped to do the work that the industry recommended should be the focus of research. The intent is that the laboratory would be available to U.S. glass manufacturers for collaboration with Sandia scientists and engineers on both precompetitive basic research and the

  12. Durability of Alkali Activated Blast Furnace Slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, K.; Alharbi, N.; Matheu, P. S.; Varela, B.; Hailstone, R.

    2015-11-01

    The alkali activation of blast furnace slag has the potential to reduce the environmental impact of cementitious materials and to be applied in geographic zones where weather is a factor that negatively affects performance of materials based on Ordinary Portland Cement. The scientific literature provides many examples of alkali activated slag with high compressive strengths; however research into the durability and resistance to aggressive environments is still necessary for applications in harsh weather conditions. In this study two design mixes of blast furnace slag with mine tailings were activated with a potassium based solution. The design mixes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, BET analysis and compressive strength testing. Freeze-thaw testing up to 100 freeze-thaw cycles was performed in 10% road salt solution. Our findings included compressive strength of up to 100 MPa after 28 days of curing and 120 MPa after freeze-thaw testing. The relationship between pore size, compressive strength, and compressive strength after freeze-thaw was explored.

  13. DELPHI's Ring Imaging Cherenkov Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    The hundreds of mirrors around this Ring Imaging Cherenkov Chamber reflect cones of light created by fast moving particles to a detector. The velocity of a particle can be measured by the size of the ring produced on the detector. DELPHI, which ran from 1989 to 2000 on the LEP accelerator, was primarily concerned with particle identification.

  14. Testing an hydrogen streamer chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    A 2x10 cm gap streamer chamber, 35x55 cm2 in surface, was built and tested at CERN. Good tracks of cosmic rays were obtained up to atmospheric pressure, see F. Rohrbach et al, CERN-LAL (Orsay) Collaboration, Nucl. Instr. Methods 141 (1977) 229. Michel Cathenoz stand on the center.

  15. Bubble chamber: colour enhanced tracks

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    This artistically-enhanced image of real particle tracks was produced in the Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC). Liquid hydrogen is used to create bubbles along the paths of the particles as a piston expands the medium. A magnetic field is produced in the detector causing the particles to travel in spirals, allowing charge and momentum to be measured.

  16. The TESLA Time Projection Chamber

    OpenAIRE

    Ghodbane, Nabil

    2002-01-01

    A large Time Projection Chamber is proposed as part of the tracking system for a detector at the TESLA electron positron linear collider. Different ongoing R&D studies are reviewed, stressing progress made on a new type readout technique based on Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors.

  17. Advanced steel reheat furnaces: Research and development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Q.; Koppang, R.; Maly, P.; Moyeda, D. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States); Li, X. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1999-01-14

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of two phases of a three-phase project to develop and evaluate an Advanced Steel Reheat Furnace (SSRF) concept which incorporates two proven and commercialized technologies, oxy-fuel enriched air (OEA) combustion and gas reburning (GR). The combined technologies aim to improve furnace productivity with higher flame radiant heat transfer in the heating zones of a steel reheat furnace while controlling potentially higher NOx emissions from these zones. The project was conducted under a contract sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). Specifically, this report summarizes the results of a modeling study and an experimental study to define and evaluate the issues which affect the integration and performance of the combined technologies. Section 2.0 of the report describes the technical approach uses in the development and evaluation of the advanced steel reheat furnace. Section 3.0 presents results of the modeling study applied to a model steel furnace. Experimental validation of the modeling results obtained from EER`s Fuel Evaluation Facility (FEF) pilot-scale furnace discussed in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 provides an economic evaluation on the cost effectiveness of the advanced reheat furnace concept. Section 6.0 concludes the report with recommendations on the applicability of the combined technologies of steel reheat furnaces.

  18. A New Mathematical Simulation Approach for Thermal Cracking Furnace Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LanXingying; XuChunming; GaoJinsen; ZhangHongmei

    2005-01-01

    Thermal cracking of hydrocarbons for olefin production is normally carried out in long reactor tubes suspended in a large gas fired furnace. In this paper, a coupled furnace-reactor mathematical model based on a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique is developed to simulate the complex fluid dynamics phenomena in the thermal cracking furnace. The model includes mass transfer, momentum transfer, and heat transfer, as well as thermal cracking reactions, fuel combustion and radiative heat transfer. The rationality and reliability of the mathematical model is confirmed by the approximate agreement of predicted data and industrial data. The coupled furnace-reactor simulation revealed the details of both the transfer and reaction processes taking place in the thermal cracking furnace. The results indicate highly nonuniform distribution of the flue-gas velocity, concentration and temperature in the furnace, which cause nonuniform distribution of tube skin temperature and heat flux of the reactor tubes. Profiles of oil-gas velocity,pressure, temperature and product yields in the lengthwise direction of the reactor tube are obtained. Furthermore, in the radial direction steep velocity and temperature gradients and relatively slight gradients of species concentration are found.In conclusion, the model can provide more information on the fluid dynamics and reaction behavior in the thermal cracking furnace, and guidance for the design and improvement of thermal cracking furnaces.

  19. CHARCOAL PACKED FURNACE FOR LOW-TECH CHARRING OF BONE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, P.; Dahi, Elian

    1997-01-01

    A low-tech furnace for charring of raw bone using char coal is developed and tested. The furnace consists of a standard oil drum, fitted with simple materials as available in every market in small towns in developing counties. 80 kg of raw bone and 6 kg of charcoal are used for production of 50 k...

  20. Estimation of slagging in furnaces; Kuonaavuuden ennustaminen kivihiilen poelypoltossa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, T.; Jaeaeskelaeinen, K.; Oeini, J.; Koskiahde, A.; Jokiniemi, J.; Pyykkoenen, J. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    Understanding and estimation of slagging in furnaces is essential in the design of new power plants with high steam values or in modifications like low-NO{sub x} retrofits in existing furnaces. Major slagging yields poor efficiency, difficult operation and high maintenance costs of the plant. The aim of the project is to develop a computational model for slagging in pulverized coal combustion. The model is based on Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) analysis of mineral composition of the coal and physical models for behaviour of minerals inside a furnace. The analyzed mineral particles are classified to five composition classes and distributed to calculational coal particles if internal minerals of coal. The calculational coal particles and the external minerals are traced in the furnace to find out the behaviour of minerals inside the furnace. If the particle tracing indicates that the particle hits the heat transfer surface of the furnace the viscosity of the particle is determined to see if particle is sticky. The model will be implemented to 3D computational fluid dynamics based furnace simulation environment Ardemus which predicts the fluid dynamics, heat transfer and combustion in a furnace. (orig.)

  1. Artificial neural networks in predicting current in electric arc furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panoiu, M.; Panoiu, C.; Iordan, A.; Ghiormez, L.

    2014-03-01

    The paper presents a study of the possibility of using artificial neural networks for the prediction of the current and the voltage of Electric Arc Furnaces. Multi-layer perceptron and radial based functions Artificial Neural Networks implemented in Matlab were used. The study is based on measured data items from an Electric Arc Furnace in an industrial plant in Romania.

  2. Open fireplace furnace as an adequate heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terbrack, E.

    The fireplace furnace is a furnace for the open fireplace. It is connected to the existing fuel-oil or gas central heating and is used for house heating and warm water preparation when the fire in the fireplace is on. It combines the romanticism of the open fireplace with the necessity of saving fuel oil and gas, ensuring heat supply.

  3. Blast furnace lining and cooling technology: experiences at Corus IJmuiden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokman, R.; van Stein Cellenfels, E.; van Laar, R.

    2004-11-01

    This article describes the blast furnace lining and cooling concept as originally developed and applied by Hoogovens (Corus IJmuiden). The technology has also been applied by Danieli Corus in all its blast furnace projects executed in the last 25 years. The technology has helped Corus increase its PCI rate to over 200 kg/thm. 4 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Reduction Mechanism of Chromite Ore in Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yi-wei; DING Wei-zhong; LU Xiong-gang; XU Kuang-di

    2004-01-01

    The structural changes and reduction degree of chromite ore in blast furnace were studied by optical micrograph analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA). The smelting reduction mechanism of chromite in blast furnace was primarily discussed.

  5. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcyn, Adam D.

    2010-12-28

    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  6. Current Trend in Furnace Technology in the Melting Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Ighodalo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to presents some of the current trend in Furnace technology as it pertains to the melting industries. Furnaces are applied in various industries for material processing. Large amounts of energy are usually consumed in the melting industries. The current trend in furnace technology is towards energy conservation, enhanced efficiency and productivity. The reduction of pollutant emissions are also taken into consideration due to their environmental impact. The various materials and processes for furnaces are discussed. The various strategies being employed towards furnace energy conservation, efficiency and productivity, and reduction of pollutant emissions are also discussed. Such strategies include the use of better fuel types such as natural gas; improved insulation and refractory materials; advanced burner designs such as high velocity, regenerative and recuperative burners; new combustion technologies such as air and fuel staging, flue gas recirculation technique. Mathematical modeling is also being employed for analysis and design purpose.

  7. Development and Validation of a 3-Dimensional CFB Furnace Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vepsäläinen, Arl; Myöhänen, Karl; Hyppäneni, Timo; Leino, Timo; Tourunen, Antti

    At Foster Wheeler, a three-dimensional CFB furnace model is essential part of knowledge development of CFB furnace process regarding solid mixing, combustion, emission formation and heat transfer. Results of laboratory and pilot scale phenomenon research are utilized in development of sub-models. Analyses of field-test results in industrial-scale CFB boilers including furnace profile measurements are simultaneously carried out with development of 3-dimensional process modeling, which provides a chain of knowledge that is utilized as feedback for phenomenon research. Knowledge gathered by model validation studies and up-to-date parameter databases are utilized in performance prediction and design development of CFB boiler furnaces. This paper reports recent development steps related to modeling of combustion and formation of char and volatiles of various fuel types in CFB conditions. Also a new model for predicting the formation of nitrogen oxides is presented. Validation of mixing and combustion parameters for solids and gases are based on test balances at several large-scale CFB boilers combusting coal, peat and bio-fuels. Field-tests including lateral and vertical furnace profile measurements and characterization of solid materials provides a window for characterization of fuel specific mixing and combustion behavior in CFB furnace at different loads and operation conditions. Measured horizontal gas profiles are projection of balance between fuel mixing and reactions at lower part of furnace and are used together with both lateral temperature profiles at bed and upper parts of furnace for determination of solid mixing and combustion model parameters. Modeling of char and volatile based formation of NO profiles is followed by analysis of oxidizing and reducing regions formed due lower furnace design and mixing characteristics of fuel and combustion airs effecting to formation ofNO furnace profile by reduction and volatile-nitrogen reactions. This paper presents

  8. Amorphous and crystalline blast furnace slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: One of the by-products of iron production from a blast furnace is the slag, Generally 250-300 kg of slag is produced per ton of iron. Liquid blast furnace slag can either be cooled quickly by quenching in a granulator or more slowly in air. The air-cooled product is crushed and sized for use as an aggregate in concrete. The granulated slag is ground to form ground granulated slag, which is a cost-effective supplementary cementitious material. Blends of ground granulated slag and Portland cement produce a cementitious paste that is more resistant to chloride penetration than pastes made from the Portland cement alone. In this study neutron diffraction techniques were used to examine samples of air-cooled and granulated slags from Australian Steel Mill Services stock piles at Port Kembla. Sourced from the same blast furnace, the materials should be expected to posses similar elemental chemistry. The mineral compositions would be different due to the rate of cooling each slag was subjected to. Samples, 15 grams in mass, were mounted in a vanadium can and diffraction patterns were measured using the SLAD instrument on the Reactor R-2 at the Studvik Neutron Research Laboratory in Sweden. The diffraction patterns were transformed into radial distribution functions using the reverse Monte Carlo program, MCGR. The granulated slag showed no diffraction peaks while the air cooled slag showed a crystalline product that can be identified by x-ray diffraction. The radial distribution functions showed differences that were consistent with the granulated slag being amorphous and the air-cooled slag crystalline. Both slag samples showed peaks in the radial distribution function at 1.8 Angstroms and 2.8 Angstroms. The greatest anomaly was a feature about 2.5 Angstroms found only in the radial distribution function for the granulated slag. This demonstration showed that there are differences in the short range bonding between the two compounds. We are currently

  9. A new plant chamber facility PLUS coupled to the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR

    OpenAIRE

    Hohaus, T.; Kuhn, U.; S. Andres; Kaminski, M.; Rohrer, F.; Tillmann, R.; A. Wahner; R. Wegener; Yu, Z.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.

    2015-01-01

    A new PLant chamber Unit for Simulation (PLUS) for use with the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR (Simulation of Atmospheric PHotochemistry In a large Reaction Chamber) has been build and characterized at the Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Germany. The PLUS chamber is an environmentally controlled flow through plant chamber. Inside PLUS the natural blend of biogenic emissions of trees are mixed with synthetic air and are transferred to the SAPHIR chamber ...

  10. PERFORMANCE TESTING AND ANALYSIS OF CUPOLA FURNACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PROF.HEMANT R. BHAGAT-PATIL

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In today’s industrial scenario huge losses/wastage occur in the manufacturing shop floor and foundry industries. The efficiency of any foundry largely depends on the efficiency of the melting process amulti-step operation where the metal is heated, treated, alloyed, and transported into die or mold cavities to form a casting. In this paper we represents the performance testing and analysis of Cupola Furnace, and reduces the problems occurs to give the best results. Our main focus in this work is to improve continuous working hours,reducing preparation time, reducing losses in melting, reducing slag formation and to increase the combustion efficiency of coke and overall productivity and to improve the quality and Mechanical properties of steel using Cupola.

  11. Recycling of electric arc furnace dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research aims to study the process of incorporation of the metal iron in electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), from a steel mill producing long steel by liquid iron in addition to the changing temperature of 1400 degrees Celsius of EAFD 'as received', the percentage of EAFD to be added (5, 10 and 20% of initial weight of sample pig iron) and the time of withdrawal of the sample of pig iron and slag (30 minutes after the addition of EAFD). Previously, the EAFD will be characterized using the following techniques: chemical analysis, size analysis, specific surface area, Xray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) microanalysis. . After characterization, the EAFD will be added to the bath of liquid pig iron. It is expected that the results obtained at the end of the research allow the evaluation of the iron metal incorporation of EAFD in pig iron bath. (author)

  12. FURNACE calculations for JET neutron diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron transport calculations have been performed for the JET-torus, using the two-dimensional toroidal geometry transport code system FURNACE, to predict the response of the time integrated neutron yield monitors on the variation of the plasma conditions. Calculations have been performed for the full aperture D-shaped and circular plasmas, for DD-operation and for DT-operation. For the neutron source distribution a simple model was used based on plasma-plasma interaction. For the torus rotation symmetry around the main torus axis was assumed. Curves have been produced that give the radial plasma shift as function of the ratio of the foil activations measured. It is shown that these curves are sufficiently accurate for application in the DT-phase. For application in the DD-phase, however, the flux of neutrons backscattered from the massive torus needs to be calculated more accurately. (Auth.)

  13. Hydrothermal treatment of electric arc furnace dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bing-Sheng; Wang, Yuh-Ruey; Chang, Tien-Chin

    2011-06-15

    In this study, ZnO crystals were fabricated from electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) after alkaline leaching, purification and hydrothermal treatment. The effects of temperature, duration, pH, and solid/liquid ratio on ZnO crystal morphology and size were investigated. Results show a high reaction temperature capable of accelerating the dissolution of ZnO precursor, expediting the growth of 1D ZnO, and increasing the L/D ratio in the temperature range of 100-200°C. ZnO crystals with high purity can also be obtained, using the one-step hydrothermal treatment with a baffle that depends on the different solubility of zincite and franklinite in the hydrothermal conditions.

  14. Thermodynamic modeling of lead blast furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Peng-fu

    2005-01-01

    A thermodynamic model was developed to predict the distribution behavior of Cu,Fe,S,O,Pb,Zn,As,and the heat balance in a lead blast furnace.The modeling results are validated by the plant data of a lead smelter in Kazakhstan.The model can be used to predict any set of controllable process parameters such as feed composition,smelting temperature,degree of oxygen enrichment and volume of oxygen-enriched air.The effects of the blast air,industrial oxygen,and coke charge on the distribution of Cu,Fe,S,O,Pb,Zn,As,the heat balance,and the lead loss in slag,were presented and discussed.

  15. FAILURES AND THE LIFE OF FURNACE TUBES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.Z.Shen; Y.Ding; D.M.Hou; Z.P.Ning; Y.Lü; T.B.Dong; A.R.Tuohuti

    2004-01-01

    It is showed after the furnace tubes serviced for 8-10 years that the density of damage in the HAZ (heat affected zone) of the weld has higher than in parent metals, though the depth of damage is not equal to. By the test of creep crack growth, it is also acquired that under same mechanic parameter C* (t), the rate of creep crack growth in the HAZ is more than twice as fast as in parent metals. Two mechanisms (overheating and thermal shock) of failure occurred in an accident are presented. The stress of thermal shock is analyzed, in which the change of the elasticity modulus with the radius ET = f(r) is considered. Based on it, the safety region of the thermal shock is obtained. Finally, two sets of curves for the safe life are suggested which can facilitate to estimate the remaining life of HK-40 or HP-Nb tubes by their creep rupture data.

  16. CFD Simulation on Ethylene Furnace Reactor Tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Different mathematical models for ethylene furnace reactor tubes were reviewed. On the basis of these models a new mathematical simulation approach for reactor tubes based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique was presented. This approach took the flow, heat transfer, mass transfer and thermal cracking reactions in the reactor tubes into consideration. The coupled reactor model was solved with the SIMPLE algorithm. Some detailed information about the flow field, temperature field and concentration distribution in the reactor tubes was obtained, revealing the basic characteristics of the hydrodynamic phenomena and reaction behavior in the reactor tubes. The CFD approach provides the necessary information for conclusive decisions regarding the production optimization, the design and improvement of reactor tubes, and the new techniques implementation.

  17. Torrefied biomasses in a drop tube furnace to evaluate their utility in blast furnaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Du, Shan-Wen; Tsai, Chien-Hsiung; Wang, Zhen-Yu

    2012-05-01

    Torrefaction and burning characteristics of bamboo, oil palm, rice husk, bagasse, and Madagascar almond were studied and compared with a high-volatile bituminous coal using a drop tube furnace to evaluate the potential of biomass consumed in blast furnaces. Torrefaction at 250 and 300°C for 1h duration was carried out. Analysis using the ash tracer method indicated that the extent of atomic carbon reduction in the biomasses was less than that of atomic hydrogen and oxygen. Torrefaction also lowered the sulfur content in bamboo and oil palm over 33%. An examination of the R-factor and burnout of the samples suggests that more volatiles were released and a higher burnout was achieved with raw and torrefied biomasses at 250°C than at 300°C; however, torrefaction at 300°C is a feasible operating condition to transform biomass into a solid fuel resembling a high-volatile bituminous coal used for blast furnaces.

  18. Formation of the ZnFe2O4 phase in an electric arc furnace off-gas treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetens, T; Guo, M; Van Acker, K; Blanpain, B

    2015-04-28

    To better understand the phenomena of ZnFe2O4 spinel formation in electric arc furnace dust, the dust was characterized with particle size analysis, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA). Different ZnFe2O4 formation reaction extents were observed for iron oxide particles with different particle sizes. ZnO particles were present as both individual particles and aggregated on the surface of larger particles. Also, the slag particles found in the off-gas were shown not to react with the zinc vapor. After confirming the presence of a ZnFe2O4 formation reaction, the thermodynamic feasibility of in-process separation - a new electric arc furnace dust treatment technology - was reevaluated. The large air intake and the presence of iron oxide particles in the off-gas were included into the thermodynamic calculations. The formation of the stable ZnFe2O4 spinel phase was shown to be thermodynamically favorable in current electric arc furnace off-gas ducts conditions even before reaching the post combustion chamber.

  19. Development of multiwire proportional chambers

    CERN Multimedia

    Charpak, G

    1969-01-01

    It has happened quite often in the history of science that theoreticians, confronted with some major difficulty, have successfully gone back thirty years to look at ideas that had then been thrown overboard. But it is rare that experimentalists go back thirty years to look again at equipment which had become out-dated. This is what Charpak and his colleagues did to emerge with the 'multiwire proportional chamber' which has several new features making it a very useful addition to the armoury of particle detectors. In the 1930s, ion-chambers, Geiger- Muller counters and proportional counters, were vital pieces of equipment in nuclear physics research. Other types of detectors have since largely replaced them but now the proportional counter, in new array, is making a comeback.

  20. LEP vacuum chamber, early prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    The structure of LEP, with long bending magnets and little access to the vacuum chamber between them, required distributed pumping. This is an early prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber, made from extruded aluminium. The main opening is for the beam. The small channel to the right is for cooling water, to carry away the heat deposited by the synchroton radiation from the beam. The 4 slots in the channel to the left house the strip-shaped ion-getter pumps (see 7810255). The ion-getter pumps depended on the magnetic field of the bending magnets, too low at injection energy for the pumps to function well. Also, a different design was required outside the bending magnets. This design was therefore abandoned, in favour of a thermal getter pump (see 8301153 and 8305170).

  1. Actuator System with Dual Chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    (8), the lid having a shaft opening (17) for a shaft (6) coupled to the magnetic rotor (5), wherein the magnetic rotor (5), when inserted in the translator cylinder (2), is arranged to translate a linear movement of the translator cylinder (2) into a rotational movement of the magnetic rotor by using...... magnetic flux (82) interacting between the magnetic stator and the magnetic rotor, said rotational movements is being transferred through a shaft (6), the lid (8) with a shaft opening (17) arranged for receiving the shaft (6), wherein the shaft is arranged to make both the linear and the rotational...... movement in the shaft opening (17), the lid (8) being arranged for confining the second end (15) of the translator cylinder (2), the translator cylinder confined by the lid (8) forms,when divided by the magnetic rotor (5), a first chamber (TC) with a first volume and a second chamber(BC) with a second...

  2. MPS II drift chamber system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platner, E.D.

    1982-01-01

    The MPS II detectors are narrow drift space chambers designed for high position resolution in a magnetic field and in a very high particle flux environment. Central to this implementation was the development of 3 multi-channel custom IC's and one multi-channel hybrid. The system is deadtimeless and requires no corrections on an anode-to-anode basis. Operational experience and relevance to ISABELLE detectors is discussed.

  3. Feasibility Study of Regenerative Burners in Aluminum Holding Furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohamed I.; Al Kindi, Rashid

    2014-09-01

    Gas-fired aluminum holding reverberatory furnaces are currently considered to be the lowest efficiency fossil fuel system. A considerable volume of gas is consumed to hold the molten metal at temperature that is much lower than the flame temperature. This will lead to more effort and energy consumption to capture the excessive production of the CO2. The concern of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the regenerative-burners' furnaces to increase the furnace efficiency to reduce gas consumption per production and hence result in less CO2 production. Energy assessments for metal holding furnaces are considered at different operation conditions. Onsite measurements, supervisory control and data acquisition data, and thermodynamics analysis are performed to provide feasible information about the gas consumption and CO2 production as well as area of improvements. In this study, onsite measurements are used with thermodynamics modeling to assess a 130 MT rectangular furnace with two regenerative burners and one cold-air holding burner. The assessment showed that the regenerative burner furnaces are not profitable in saving energy, in addition to the negative impact on the furnace life. However, reducing the holding and door opening time would significantly increase the operation efficiency and hence gain the benefit of the regenerative technology.

  4. An update on blast furnace granular coal injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D.G. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., Burns Harbor, IN (United States); Strayer, T.J.; Bouman, R.W. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A blast furnace coal injection system has been constructed and is being used on the furnace at the Burns Harbor Division of Bethlehem Steel. The injection system was designed to deliver both granular (coarse) and pulverized (fine) coal. Construction was completed on schedule in early 1995. Coal injection rates on the two Burns Harbor furnaces were increased throughout 1995 and was over 200 lbs/ton on C furnace in September. The injection rate on C furnace reached 270 lbs/ton by mid-1996. A comparison of high volatile and low volatile coals as injectants shows that low volatile coal replaces more coke and results in a better blast furnace operation. The replacement ratio with low volatile coal is 0.96 lbs coke per pound of coal. A major conclusion of the work to date is that granular coal injection performs very well in large blast furnaces. Future testing will include a processed sub-bituminous coal, a high ash coal and a direct comparison of granular versus pulverized coal injection.

  5. The KEK 1 m hydrogen bubble chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A medium size hydrogen bubble chamber has been constructed at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, KEK. The bubble chamber has been designed to be operated with a maximum rate of three times per half a second in every two second repetition time of the accelerator, by utilizing a hydraulic expansion system. The bubble chamber has a one meter diameter and a visible volume of about 280 l. A three-view stereo camera system is used for taking photographic pictures of the chamber. A 2 MW bubble chamber magnet is constructed. The main part of the bubble chamber vessel is supported by the magnet yoke. The magnet gives a maximum field of 18.4 kG at the centre of the fiducial volume of the chamber. The overall system of the KEK 1 m hydrogen bubble chamber facility is described in some detail. Some operational characteristics of the facility are also reported. (auth.)

  6. NRAO RF Anechoic Chamber & Antenna Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A shielded anechoic chamber measuring 15 by 15 by 37 feet is located in the Jansky Laboratory at Green Bank. This chamber has been outfitted as a far-field antenna...

  7. Modelling of mineral matter transformation and deposition in furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magda, Adrian

    2012-07-01

    analyses and visualisation. The basis of Lagrangian approach to two-phase flows is the simulation of particles trajectory by tracking the representative parcels of particles. The particles are initialised from a finite number of starting locations and each individual particle taken into consideration is tracked throughout the computational domain. The model is presented in details in Chapter 6. The novelty of this approach consists in dealing with the chemical aspects of mineral species in the particles. Each particle is considered a small chemical reactor, with the included mineral matter grains interacting with the surrounding gases. The chemical aspects of mineral transformation are modelled either by chemical equilibrium or kinetic models respectively, as presented in Chapter 4. The last chapter is dedicated to CFD code validation against practical findings (Chapter 7). For the validation two cases were considered. A relatively small test scale combustion chamber was fired with Hambach coal and ash deposition rate and analyses are compared with the CFD findings. The second case refers to a real size coal fired power plant. The CFD deposit predictions were compared with furnace wall thermal imaging instances. Good agreement exists between the experimental and modelled data in both cases. Finally a detailed parametric study is conducted to determine the effect of slagging and fouling deposit properties (thickness, porosity) on the boiler operation (heat flux to the walls and pollutants formation) and vice versa.

  8. Growing and analyzing biofilms in flow chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Sternberg, Claus

    2011-01-01

    This unit describes the setup of flow chamber systems for the study of microbial biofilms, and methods for the analysis of structural biofilm formation. Use of flow chambers allows direct microscopic investigation of biofilm formation. The biofilms in flow chambers develop under hydrodynamic......, and disassembly and cleaning of the system. In addition, embedding and fluorescent in situ hybridization of flow chamber-grown biofilms are addressed....

  9. Design and Performance Evaluation of a Solar Assisted Heat Pump Dryer Integrated with Biomass Furnace for Red Chilli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yahya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a solar assisted heat pump dryer integrated with biomass furnace has been designed and evaluated for drying red chillies, and drying kinetics of red chillies were evaluated. The red chillies were dried from 22 kg with moisture content of 4.26 db to moisture content of 0.08 db which needed 11 hours, with the average drying chamber temperature, drying chamber relative humidity, and an air mass flow rate of 70.5°C, 10.1%, and 0.124 kg/s, respectively, while the open sun drying needed 62 hours. Compared to open sun drying, this dryer yielded 82% saving in drying time. The drying rate, the specific moisture extraction rate, and thermal efficiency of the dryer were estimated in average to be about 1.57 kg/h, 0.14 kg/kWh, and 9.03%, respectively. Three mathematical models, the Newton, Henderson-Pabis, and Page models, were fitted to the experimental data on red chillies dried by solar assisted heat pump dryer integrated with biomass furnace and open sun drying. The performance of these models was evaluated by comparing the coefficient of determination (R2, mean bias error (MBE, and root mean-square error (RMSE. The Page model gave the best results for representing drying kinetics of red chillies.

  10. A Possible Macroscopic-Photo-Catalysis Mechanism in Solar Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HO Tsohsiu; QING Cheng-Rui; CHEN Ying-Tian

    2011-01-01

    Based on the experimental results of Chen et al.to use the solar furnace and medium frequency induction furnace to extract boron impurity from metallurgical silicon, we propose a strong radiation catalysis mechanism to explain the difference of reaction rates in these two furnaces.The postulate assuming the photons striking on the material not only increase the thermal energy of the molecules of reactants but also lower down the energy barrier of the reaction to speed up the chemical reaction.It is believed the photon catalysis mechanism is universall in most of high temperature chemical reactions and looking forward to more evidences for the postulate proposed in this article.

  11. Electric arc in three-phase metallurgical furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorob'ev, V. P.

    2013-12-01

    The theoretical and practical assumptions relative to the studies of electric arcs in steel-melting furnaces presented in journal Electrometallurgiya in 2011-2012 are subjected to a critical analysis. Based on classical concepts and the author experiments, the concept is presented regarding to the phases of the state and parameters of arc discharge in the ac electromagnetic field of a three-phase system. Industrial methods of eliminating the injurious effect of flash arc on furnace lining and the furnace efficiency are considered.

  12. Application study of complex control algorithm for regenerative furnace temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lusheng GE

    2004-01-01

    Altemative switch combustion mode of air and gas is adopted on the two sides of the regenerative furnace, its temperature is in uncontrolled state in the switching process and the switch period is generally 3 ~ 5 min. Thus, the conventional bi-cross limited combustion control method is no longer applicable to the object. This paper makes use of neutral network algorithm to adjust the static operating point. On this basis, fuzzy control strategy is used for the furnace temperature control. The actual application result shows that the control strategy is effective to solve the problem of the combustion control for regenerative furnace.

  13. RESEARCH ON THE DYNAMIC MATHEMATICAL MODELOF REHEATING FURNACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐立云; 张斌; 王景成; 邵惠鹤

    2001-01-01

    This paper presented a dynamical mathematical model for reheating furnace based on energy balance, which consists of three submodels. With the inputting parameters, adopting the finite difference technique, not only the combustion gas temperature but also the temperature distribution of slabs in the furnace can be predicated. The dynamical mathematical model is the base for the further control and it also can be treated as a simulator of a reheating furnace, optimal and advanced controlling strategies can be applied based on the dynamical model.

  14. LEP vacuum chamber cross-section

    CERN Multimedia

    1987-01-01

    This diagram shows the layout of the vacuum chambers used at LEP, which was in operation at CERN between 1989 and 2000. Vacuum chambers are necessary in accelerators to prevent unwanted interactions that can destabilise the beam. The pump on the right sucks air out of the chamber allowing the beam to progress with minimal interactions.

  15. A cryogenic chamber for scattering measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, M. I.; Chepel, V.; Kuchenkov, A.; Gonçalves, O. D.; Schechter, H.

    1999-01-01

    We have constructed a cryogenic chamber to measure scattering cross sections of photons in liquids of low-boiling point. The chamber was tested with liquid xenon using a 137Cs radioactive source emitting 662 keV photons. The spectra obtained are presented and analyzed, attesting the good performance of the chamber for the desired purposes.

  16. Subminiature fission chamber with gas tight penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fission chambers suffer from gas leaks at electric feed-trough. This micro chamber suppresses that defect thanks to an alumina plug and welded seal of the chamber sleeve. This device is easy to produce at industrial scale with reduced dimensions (1,5 mm diameter, 25 mm length). It can work with 30 m long feeding cables. (D.L.). 3 figs

  17. Vacuum chamber at intersection I-6

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    The vacuum chamber at intersection region I-6, one of these where experiments in colliding-beam physics will be taking place. The "wheels" prevent the thin wall (1.5 mm) of the chamber from collapsing. The chamber is equipped with heating tapes and its wrapped in thermal insulation. Residual gas pressure at this and other similar regions is around 10_11.

  18. A Sensitive Cloud Chamber without Radioactive Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeze, Syoji; Itoh, Akio; Oyama, Ayu; Takahashi, Haruka

    2012-01-01

    We present a sensitive diffusion cloud chamber which does not require any radioactive sources. A major difference from commonly used chambers is the use of a heat sink as its bottom plate. The result of a performance test of the chamber is given. (Contains 8 figures.)

  19. Simple Cloud Chambers Using Gel Ice Packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Masahiro; Kubota, Miki

    2012-01-01

    Although cloud chambers are highly regarded as teaching aids for radiation education, school teachers have difficulty in using cloud chambers because they have to prepare dry ice or liquid nitrogen before the experiment. We developed a very simple and inexpensive cloud chamber that uses the contents of gel ice packs which can substitute for dry…

  20. An induction heating furnace for radioactive waste fixation in glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The furnace is designed for the processing of liquid or loose solid, medium- or high-level radioactive wastes. The furnace lid is firmly attached to the frame. The furnace vessel is made of a refractory, corrosion resistant alloy, and it is attached to the bottom side of the lid using mechanisms remotely controlled with compressed air. The components connected to the lid and protruding into the melt, such as the tapping bar, are adapted to being remotely disassembled into two parts. The design enables the vessel to be lowered away. Remote dismantling of the furnace comprises three operations: disassembling the components connected to the lid and protruding into the melt, uncoupling the vessel from the lid, and lowering the vessel with the vitreous material into a shielded shipping container. (J.B.). 4 figs

  1. Radial furnace shows promise for growing straight boron carbide whiskers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, E.

    1967-01-01

    Radial furnace, with a long graphite vaporization tube, maintains a uniform thermal gradient, favoring the growth of straight boron carbide whiskers. This concept seems to offer potential for both the quality and yield of whiskers.

  2. Innovation in electric arc furnaces scientific basis for selection

    CERN Document Server

    Toulouevski, Yuri N

    2013-01-01

    This book equips a reader with knowledge necessary for critical analysis of  innovations in electric arc furnaces and helps to select the most effective ones and for their successful implementation. The book also covers general issues related to history of development, current state and prospects of steelmaking in Electric Arc Furnaces. Therefore, it can be useful for everybody who studies metallurgy, including students of colleges and universities. The modern concepts of mechanisms of Arc Furnace processes are are discussed in the book at the level sufficient to solve practical problems: To help readers lacking knowledge required in the field of heat transfer as well as hydro-gas dynamics, it contains several chapters which provide the required minimum of information in these fields of science. In order to better assess different innovations, the book describes experience of the application of similar innovations in open-hearth furnaces and oxygen converters. Some promising ideas on key issues regarding int...

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF A FURNACE TO FABRICATE SILICON SOLAR CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Boscato Garcia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar cell world market had an exponential growth in the last decade and nowadays it continues in expansion. To produce solar cells, dopants need to be introduced into the crystalline silicon wafer in order to form the pn junction. This process is carried out in diffusion furnaces. The aim of this paper is to present the development of a compact diffusion furnace to process up to 156 mm × 156 mm silicon wafers and to operate at temperature up to 1100°C. The furnace is automated and it is constituted by a heating system with three zones and systems to introduce the wafers inside the furnace as well as to control of gas flows. This equipment is the first one developed in Brazil to promote impurity diffusions in order to produce silicon solar cells and it was manufactured jointly with a Brazilian company.

  4. High Alumina Refractory Bricks for Electric Arc Furnace Roofs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the sort, technical requirement, test method, inspection rules, marking, packing, transportation, storage and quality certification of high alumina refractory bricks for electric arc furnace roofs.

  5. Alloying and Casting Furnace for Shape Memory Alloys Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The concept in the proposed project is to create a melting, alloying and casting furnace for the processing titanium based SMA using cold crucible techniques. The...

  6. Hopewell Furnace NHS Small Scale Features (Linear Features)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile represents the linear small scale features found at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site based on the Cultural Landscape Report completed in...

  7. SITE - DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN - MINERGY GLASS FURNACE TECHNOLOGY - MINERGY CORPORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Glass Furnace Technology (GFT) was developed by Minergy Corporation (Minergy), of Waukesha, Wisconsin. Minergy originally developed vitrification technologies to process wastewater sludge into glass aggregate that could be sold as a commercial product. Minergy modified a st...

  8. MINERGY CORPORATION GLASS FURNACE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION: INNOVATION TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents performance and economic data for a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program demonstration of the Minergy Corporation (Minergy) Glass Furnace Technology (GFT). The demonstration evaluated the techno...

  9. Moving behavior of pellets in a pellet shaft furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁儒全; 赫冀成

    2008-01-01

    The downward moving behavior of pellets in a 8 m2 pellet shaft furnace with an internal vertical air channel and a drying bed was studied by means of a visualized model(1-15) and a top model(1-1).The visualized model experiment shows that the downward movement of pellets can be regarded as plug flow approximately inside the furnace except for the lower region of cooling zone due to the influence of the drained hopper.The top model experiment reveals that the pellet sizes increase along the moving direction because of the percolation phenomenon,which results in a decrease of the resistance coefficient and an increase of the gas flow rate from the furnace wall toward the furnace center.

  10. Refractory Gunning Material for Inner Lining Maintenance of Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lingyan; Peng Xigao

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the term and definition,classification, technical requirements, test methods,quality appraisal procedures, packing, marking, transportation, storage, and quality certificate of refractory gunning material for inner lining maintenance of blast furnace .

  11. Optimization of the melting process of electrical furnaces in drenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Haxhiaj

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The weight, composition and loads are the main parameters of the melting process in electrical furnace. The charge is roasted in rotary furnace. Roasting of charge which consists of Drenas and Albanians ore is done at about 950°C. Also, article has the experimental analyses that modify some parameters of the production which are the reduction of quantity of limestone and the increase of quantity of quartz in the charge. The paper analysis the possibility of mixing the ore from Kosova with lateritic ore from Albania with the aim of reducing the acidity of weight which is loaded in the electrical furnace. The composition of the furnace must satisfy the ratio 1:10 of ore from Kosova and Albania.

  12. Experimental work on drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental work made on drift chambers is described in two chapters. In the firt chapter we present the description of the experimental installation used, as well as some details on the data adquisition systems and the characteristics on three ways used for calibration proposes (cosmic muons, β radiation and test beam using SPS at CERN facilities). The second chapter describes the defferent prototypes studied. The experimental set up and the analysis are given. Some results are discussed. The magnetic field effect is also studied. (Author)

  13. Pupillary block glaucoma following implantation of a posterior chamber pseudophakos in the anterior chamber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Anil

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Pupillary block glaucoma is a common complication of cataract surgery, especially following anterior chamber intraocular lens implantation. We report a case of pupillary block glaucoma with a posterior chamber IOL that was implanted in the anterior chamber following a complicated extracapsular cataract extraction. The case was successfully managed by explantation of the posterior chamber lens, anterior vitrectomy, peripheral iridectomy and secondary anterior chamber intraocular lens implantation. The intraocular pressure was controlled with a single topical antiglaucoma medication.

  14. Modelling the CANMET and Marchwood furnaces using the PCOC code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stopford, P.J.; Marriott, N. (AEA Decommissioning and Radioactive Waste, Harwell (UK). Theoretical Studies Dept.)

    1990-01-01

    Pulverised coal combustion models are validated by detailed comparison with in-flame measurements of velocity, temperatures and species concentrations on two axisymmetric tunnel furnaces. Nitric oxide formation by the thermal and fuel nitrogen mechanisms is also calculated and compared with experiment. The sensitivity of the predictions to the various aspects of the model and the potential for modelling full-scale, power-generating furnaces are discussed. 18 refs., 13 figs.

  15. Development Of A Magnetic Directional-Solidification Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Bill R.; Lehoczky, Sandor L.

    1996-01-01

    Report describes development of directional-solidification furnace in which axial magnetic field is imposed by surrounding ring permanent magnets and/or electromagnets and pole pieces. Furnace provides controlled axial temperature gradients in multiple zones, through which ampoule containing sample of material to be solidified is translated at controlled speed by low-vibration, lead-screw, stepping-motor-driven mechanism. Intended for use in low-gravity (spaceflight) experiments on melt growth of high-purity semiconductor crystals.

  16. Qut-of-furnace steel treatment in machine-building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The examples of out-of-furnace steel melt treatment at domestic and foreign power machine-building plants are given. The main parameters and equipment design are noted to have no principal distinctions from those applied in metallurgy. The more usable equipment for out-of-furnace melt treatment is shown to be the following: one-or multistand ladle vacuum unit with facilities for heating, desulfurization and decarbonization of steel in combination with a casting machine

  17. Transient Temperature Analysis for Industrial AC Arc Furnace Bottom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    (U)nal (C)amdal1; Murat Tun(c)

    2004-01-01

    Heat losses from the furnaces depend on the design and size. The surface heat loss from the bottom of an industrial AC electric arc furnace (EAF) possesses an important fraction of overall losses. So in this study the transient temperature variation at the bottom of the EAF was investigated. The transient temperature analysis was carried out using MATLAB computer program. T=T(r, t) for different bottom lining layers was depicted.

  18. Electromagnetic processes in the laboratory of superpower electric arc furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherednichenko, V. S.; Bikeev, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    The electromagnetic processes in the laboratory of three-phase arc furnaces is simulated with allowance for the spatial energy release in electrodes and a charge. Main laws are established for the electric currents and the thermal energy released in the charge during the passage of conduction currents and heating due to the effects of proximity of the melted well walls and the electrodes. The magnetic field distribution over the furnace radius is found.

  19. MUZO flight experience with the programmable multizone furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockowandt, Christian; Loth, Kenneth

    1993-01-01

    The Multi-Zone (MUZO) furnace has been developed for growing germanium (Ge) crystals under microgravity in a Get Away Special (GAS) payload. The MUZO furnace was launched with STS-47 Endeavour in September 1992. The payload worked as planned during the flight and a Ge sample was successfully processed. The experiment has given valuable scientific information. The design and functionality of the payload together with flight experience is reported.

  20. Investigation of radiative heat transfer in fixed bed biomass furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Klason; X.S. Bai; M. Bahador; T.K. Nilsson; B. Sunden [Lund Institute of Technology, Lund (Sweden). Division of Fluid Mechanics

    2008-08-15

    This paper presents an investigation of the radiative heat transfer process in two fixed bed furnaces firing biomass fuels and the performance of several widely used models for calculation of radiative heat transfer in the free-room of fixed bed furnaces. The effective mean grey gas absorption coefficients are calculated using an optimised version of the exponential wide band model (EWBM) based on an optical mean beam length. Fly-ash and char particles are taken into account using Mie scattering. In the investigated updraft small-scale fixed bed furnace radiative transfer carries heat from the bed to the free-room, whereas in the cross-current bed large-scale industry furnace, radiative transfer brings heat from the hot zones in the free-room to the drying zone of the bed. Not all the investigated models can predict these heat transfer trends, and the sensitivity of results to model parameters is fairly different in the two furnaces. In the small-scale furnace, the gas absorption coefficient predicted by using different optical lengths has great impact on the predicted temperature field. In the large-scale furnaces, the predicted temperature field is less sensitive to the optical length. In both furnaces, with the same radiative properties, the low-computational-cost P1 model predicts a temperature field in the free-room similar to that by the more time consuming SLW model. In general, the radiative heat transfer rates to the fuel bed are not very sensitive to the radiative properties, but they are sensitive to the different radiative heat transfer models. For a realistic prediction of the radiative heat transfer rate to the fuel bed or to the walls, more computationally demanding models such as the FGG or SLW models should be used. 37 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Review and evaluation of alternative processes to the blast furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical review on the alternative processes to the blast furnace, involving both solid and liquid state reduction is presented. Process comparison allows to identify advantages and disadvantages of each type of processes as well as to highlight the major challenges faced in order to compete with the traditional iron making route: the blast furnace, which today rules the production of iron units worldwide. (Author) 31 refs

  2. Investigation on the Potentials of Cupola Furnace Slag in Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Adeyemi Alabi; Joseph O. Afolayan

    2013-01-01

    The compressive strength of the concrete designed using blast cupola furnace slag and granulated cupola slag as a coarse aggregate and partial replacement for cement was investigated. A series of experimental studies were conducted involve concrete production in two stages. The first stage comprised of normal aggregate concrete (NAC) produced with normal aggregates and 100% ordinary Portland cement (OPC). Meanwhile, the second stage involved production of concrete comprising of cupola furnace...

  3. Methods for monitoring heat flow intensity in the blast furnace wall

    OpenAIRE

    Dorčák, L'.; J. Terpák; I. Podlubný; L. Pivka

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the main features of an online system for real-time monitoring of the bottom part of the blast furnace. Firstly, monitoring concerns the furnace walls and furnace bottom temperatures measurement and their visualization. Secondly, monitored are the heat flows of the furnace walls and furnace bottom. In the case of two measured temperatures, the heat flow is calculated using multi-layer implicit difference scheme and in the case of only one measured temperature, the hea...

  4. Methods of mathematical modeling for evaluation of energy management of blast-furnace plant

    OpenAIRE

    M. Szega; Blacha, L.; W. Stanek

    2015-01-01

    The reduction of energy consumption in the blast furnace is still the subject of investigations using mathematical modelling of a blast furnace plant. Theoretical-empirical hybrid models of a blast furnace and its equipment have been presented. This model is built based on the mass and energy balances of furnace zones and empirical data from the measurement of a blast furnace. The results of a numerical simulation of the injection of auxiliary fuels and the top-gas recirculation after the rem...

  5. Mathematical Modeling of Pottery Production in Different Industrial Furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Argáez, Marco Aurelio; Huacúz, Salvador Lucas; Trápaga, Gerardo

    2008-10-01

    The traditional process for pottery production was analyzed in this work by developing a fundamental mathematical model that simulates the operation of rustic pottery furnaces as employed by natives of villages in Michoacán, Mexico. The model describes radiative heat transfer and fluid flow promoted by natural convection, phenomena that determine the operation of these furnaces. An advanced radiation model called the “Discrete Ordinates Model” was implemented within a commercial computational fluid dynamics software. Process analysis was performed to determine the effect of the design variables on the quality of the pottery pieces and on energy efficiency. The variables explored were: (a) Geometric aspect ratio between diameter and height of the furnace ( D/H) and (b) Refractory thickness ( L). The model was validated using experimental temperature measurements from furnaces located in Santa Fe and Capula, Mexico. Good agreement was obtained between experimental and numerically calculated thermal histories. It was found that furnaces with high aspect ratio D/H and with thick refractory bricks promote thermal uniformity and energy savings. In general, any parameter that increases the conductive thermal resistance of the wall furnace isolates better, and helps energy savings. Operating conditions that provide the smallest thermal gradients and lowest energy consumption are given.

  6. Mathematical model and software for control of commissioning blast furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirin, N. A.; Onorin, O. P.; Shchipanov, K. A.; Lavrov, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    Blowing-in is a starting period of blast furnace operation after construction or major repair. The current approximation methods of blowing-in burden analysis are based on blowing-in practice of previously commissioned blast furnaces. This area is theoretically underexplored; there are no common scientifically based methods for selection of the burden composition and blast parameters. The purpose of this paper is development and scientific substantiation of the methods for selection of the burden composition and blast parameters in the blast furnace during the blowing-in period. Research methods are based on physical regularities of main processes running in the blast furnace, system analysis, and application of modern principles for development and construction of mathematical models, algorithms and software designed for automated control of complex production processes in metallurgy. As consequence of the research made by the authors the following results have been achieved: 1. A set of mathematical models for analysis of burden arrangement throughout the height of the blast furnace and for selection of optimal blast and gas dynamic parameters has been developed. 2. General principles for selection of the blowing-in burden composition and blast and gas dynamic parameters have been set up. 3. The software for the engineering and process staff of the blast furnace has been developed and introduced in the industry.

  7. Monitoring Method for Blast Furnace Wall With Copper Staves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Su-sen; QIAN Liang; ZHAO Hong-bo

    2007-01-01

    A monitoring method that has been designed for the first time for blast furnace wall with copper staves manufactured in China was introduced. Combining the method of "inverse problem" and the concept "non-inverse problem", the monitoring program for blast furnace wall with copper staves has been realized, which can be used to calculate online the accretion thickness and temperature of hot surface of copper staves after obtaining the values of thermocouples of copper staves. The accretion state obtained in the actual investigation has proved that the result of the program is correct. The monitoring program shows that the accretion would easily fluctuate when the accretion layer is extremely thick or thin, thereby the stable and smooth operation of the blast furnace is hindered. By maintaining appropriate accretion thickness, both long campaigns and high productivity of the blast furnace can be achieved; furthermore, it can also optimize the operation of blast furnace and maximize its production. Approximately 30-50 mm in thickness of accretion layer is maintained on the wall of Shougang blast furnace 2, which can meet the requirement for obtaining both long campaign and high productivity.

  8. A pressurized drop-tube furnace for coal reactivity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Shan; Yeasmin, Hasina; Mathews, Joseph

    1998-08-01

    The design and characterization of a pressurized drop-tube furnace for investigation of coal devolatilization, gasification, and combustion are presented. The furnace is designed for high-temperature, isothermal operation in a developing laminar flow regime. It can be operated at pressures up to 1600 kPa, and temperatures up to 1673 K, with variable reaction time, particle feeding rate, and with inert and various oxidizing atmospheres. Particle residence times can be varied between ˜0.02 and ˜10 s depending upon operating conditions and positions of injection and sampling probes. Observations ports are available for sample collections and for optical investigation of the reactions or temperature measurements. Characterization of gas temperature in the furnace shows that, although the gas temperature profile in the furnace is affected by the water-cooled injection probe, the furnace is able to achieve isothermal operation in a developing laminar flow regime. Results from a series of brown coal devolatilization tests demonstrated the suitability of the furnace for experiments in coal research.

  9. Gas Flow Distribution in Pelletizing Shaft Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Jiu-ju; DONG Hui; WANG Guo-sheng; YANG Jun

    2006-01-01

    Through thermal test, cold state experiment, analysis and simulation of thermal process, the gas flow distribution in pelletizing shaft furnace (PSF) was discussed. The results show that there are five flowing trends; among them, the downward roasting gas and the upward cooling gas are the most unsteady, which influence flow distribution greatly. Among the operating parameters, the ratio of inflow is a key factor affecting the flow distribution. The roasting and cooling gases will entirely flow into the roasting zone and internal vertical air channels (IVAC), respectively, if the ratio of inflow is critical. From such a critical operating condition increasing roasting gas flow or decreasing cooling gas flow, the roasting gas starts flowing downwards so as to enter the inside of IVAC; the greater the ratio of inflow, the larger the downward flowrate. Among constructional parameters, the width of roasting zone b1, width of IVAC b2 and width of cooling zone b3, and the height of roasting zone h1, height of soaking zone h2 and height of cooling zone h3 are the main factors affecting flow distribution. In case the ratio of b2/b1, or h3/h2, or h1/h2 is increased, the upward cooling gas tends to decrease while the downward roasting gas tends to increase with a gradual decrease in the ratio of inflow.

  10. Carburization of stainless steel furnace tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stainless steel containing molybdenum are usually recommended to resist naphtenic acid corrosion in vacuum heaters. In 1993 the original 5Cr-1/2Mo roof tubes of the furnace in a vacuum unit were replaced by stainless steel 316 Ti to minimize tube replacement and increase heater reliability. Unexpectedly, some of the new tubes failed after only three years of service and just one year after undergoing the last inspection. The damage occurred in the form of deep holes and perforations, starting from the outside tube surface on the fireside. Coke build-up occurred due to severe operating conditions, overheating the tubes on the fireside, above 675 Centigrade. Metallographic and Scanning Electron Microscopy (Sem) examination revealed internal and external carburization of the material due to the presence of coke and combustion ashes, respectively. The increase in the skin metal temperature facilitated the diffusion of carbon from these carbon-rich deposits into the low carbon content material (0.023%). Depletion of chromium at the grain boundaries due to the massive formation of chromium carbides, resulted in a severe intergranular corrosion attack by molten salts rich in vanadium and sulfur produced by asphalt burning. Normal operating practice demands the use of steam for the heater tubes to control coke build-up. This practice had been first reduced and then eliminated, during the past two years prior to the failure, because of economic incentives. This paper describes the root cause analysis conducted to account for these premature tube failures. (Author)

  11. Vitrification of electric arc furnace dusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelino, M; Karamanov, A; Pisciella, P; Crisucci, S; Zonetti, D

    2002-01-01

    Electric arc furnace baghouse dust (EAFD), a waste by-product of the steelmaking process, contains the elements that are volatilized from the charge during the melting (Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd). The results of leaching tests show that the concentration of these elements exceeds the regulatory limits. Consequently, EAFD cannot be disposed of in ordinary landfill sites without stabilization of the heavy metals. In this work, the vitrification of EAFD, from both carbon and stainless steel productions, were studied. The vitrification process was selected as the inertizing process because it permits the immobilization of the hazardous elements in the glass network and represents an environmentally acceptable method for the stabilization of this waste. Classes of various compositions were obtained by mixing EAFD with glass cullet and sand. The EAFD and the glass products were characterized by DTA, TG, X-ray analysis and by the TCLP test. The results show that the stability of the product is influenced by the glass structure, which mainly depends on the Si/O ratio. Secondary crystallization heat-treatment were carried out on some samples. The results highlighted the formation of spinel phases, which reduced the chemical durability in acid media. The possibility to recover Zn from carbon steel production EAFD was investigated and about 60-70% of metal recovery was obtained. The resulting glass show higher chemical stability than glasses obtained without metal recovery.

  12. Boundary Identification for a Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the authors discuss an inverse boundary problem for the axisymmetric steady-state heat equation, which arises in monitoring the boundary corrosion for the blast-furnace. Measure temperature at some locations are used to identify the shape of the corrosion boundary.The numerical inversion is complicated and consuming since the wear-line varies during the process and the boundary in the heat problem is not fixed. The authors suggest a method that the unknown boundary can be represented by a given curve plus a small perturbation, then the equation can be solved with fixed boundary, and a lot of computing time will be saved.A method is given to solve the inverse problem by minimizing the sum of the squared residual at the measuring locations, in which the direct problems are solved by axisymmetric fundamental solution method.The numerical results are in good agreement with test model data as well as industrial data, even in severe corrosion case.

  13. Metallic Glass Cooling Inside The TEMPUS Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    A sample of advanced metallic glass alloy cools down during an experiment with the TEMPUS furnace on STS-94, July 7, 1997, MET:5/23:35 (approximate). The sequence shows the sample glowing, then fading to black as scientists began the process of preserving the liquid state, but lowering the temperature below the normal solidification temperature of the alloy. This process is known as undercooling. (10 second clip covering approximately 50 seconds.) TEMPUS (stands for Tiegelfreies Elektromagnetisches Prozessiere unter Schwerelosigkeit (containerless electromagnetic processing under weightlessness). It was developed by the German Space Agency (DARA) for flight aboard Spacelab. The DARA project scientist was Igon Egry. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). DARA and NASA are exploring the possibility of flying an advanced version of TEMPUS on the International Space Station. (1.1MB, 9-second MPEG, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300188.html.

  14. Physicist makes muon chamber sing

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    This Monitored Drift Tube detector, consisting of argon-CO2-filled aluminium tubes with a wire down the centre of each, will track muons in ATLAS; Tiecke used a single tube from one of these detectors to create the pipes in his organ. Particle physicists can make good musicians; but did you know particle detectors can make good music? That's what NIKHEF physicist Henk Tiecke learned when he used pipes cut from the ATLAS Monitored Drift Tube detector (MDT) to build his own working Dutch-style barrel organ in the autumn of 2005. 'I like to work with my hands,' said Tiecke, who worked as a senior physicist at NIKHEF, Amsterdam, on ZEUS until his retirement last summer. Tiecke had already constructed his barrel organ when he visited some colleagues in the ATLAS muon chambers production area at Nikhef in 2005. He noticed that the aluminium tubes they were using to build the chambers were about three centimetres in diameter-just the right size for a pipe in a barrel organ. 'The sound is not as nice as from wooden...

  15. Limits to Drift Chamber Resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Riegler, Werner

    1998-01-01

    ATLAS (A Large Toroidal LHC Apparatus) will be a general-purpose experiment at the Large Hadron Collider that will be operational at CERN in the year 2004. The ATLAS muon spectrometer aims for a momentum resolution of 10% for a transverse momentum of pT=1TeV. The precision tracking devices in the muon system will be high pressure drift tubes (MDTs) with a single wire resolution of 1100 chambers covering an area of ≈ 2500m2. The high counting rates in the spectrometer as well as the aim for excellent spatial resolution and high efficiency put severe constraints on the MDT operating parameters. This work describes a detailed study of all the resolution limiting factors in the ATLAS environment. A ’full chain’ simulation of the MDT response to photons and charged particles as well as quantitative comparisons with measurements was performed. The good agreement between simulation and measurements resulted in a profound understanding of the drift chamber processes and the individual contributions to the spat...

  16. Development of new burner systems for glass melting furnaces with regenerative air preheating in order to reduce NO{sub x} emissions and energy consumption; Entwicklung neuer Brennersysteme fuer Glasschmelzwannen mit regenerativer Luftvorwaermung zur NO{sub x}-Minderung und Energieeinsparung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherello, A.; Giese, A.; Koesters, M. [Gaswaerme-Institut e.V., Essen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    In several GWI R + D projects, burner systems for glass melting furnaces were investigated with a view to enhancing power supply to the glass melt and reduction of NOx emissions. Based on measurements in a semi-industrial experimental combustion chamber and on numeric simulations, modifications of common burner systems were made, and the effects of the burner system variations on energy release and pollutant formation in the flames were also analyzed exlperimentally and numerically. In a further step, CFD calculations were made of the effects of such burner system variations on the combustion process in glass melting furnaces during production. This contribution presents the findings of experimental investigations and numeric simulations of the combustion processes both in an experimental furnace and in a glass melting furnace during production. The methods applied are presented as well. (orig.)

  17. Pulverized coal burnout in blast furnace simulated by a drop tube furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Shan-Wen [Steel and Aluminum Research and Development Department, China Steel Corporation, Kaohsiung 812 (China); Chen, Wei-Hsin [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan 700 (China); Lucas, John A. [School of Engineering of the University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    Reactions of pulverized coal injection (PCI) in a blast furnace were simulated using a drop tube furnace (DTF) to investigate the burnout behavior of a number of coals and coal blends. For the coals with the fuel ratio ranging from 1.36 to 6.22, the experimental results indicated that the burnout increased with decreasing the fuel ratio, except for certain coals departing from the general trend. One of the coals with the fuel ratio of 6.22 has shown its merit in combustion, implying that the blending ratio of the coal in PCI operation can be raised for a higher coke replacement ratio. The experiments also suggested that increasing blast temperature was an efficient countermeasure for promoting the combustibility of the injected coals. Higher fuel burnout could be achieved when the particle size of coal was reduced from 60-100 to 100-200 mesh. However, once the size of the tested coals was in the range of 200 and 325 mesh, the burnout could not be improved further, resulting from the agglomeration of fine particles. Considering coal blend reactions, the blending ratio of coals in PCI may be adjusted by the individual coal burnout rather than by the fuel ratio. (author)

  18. Mechanisms of phosphate removal from aqueous solution by blast furnace slag and steel furnace slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We report the adsorption of phosphate and discuss the mechanisms of phosphate removal from aqueous solution by burst furnace slag (BFS) and steel furnace slag (SFS). The results show that the adsorption of phosphate on the slag was rapid and the majority of adsorption was completed in 5~10 min. The adsorption capacity of phosphate by the slag was reduced dramatically by acid treatment. The relative contribution of adsorption to the total removal of phosphate was 26%~28%. Phosphate adsorption on BFS and SFS follows the Freundlich isotherm, with the related constants ofk 6.372 and 1/n 1.739 for BFS, and ofk 1.705 and 1/n 1.718 for SFS. The pH and Ca2+ concentration were decreased with the addition of phosphate, suggesting the formation of calcium phosphate precipitation. At pH 2.93 and 6.93, phosphate was desorbed by about 36%~43% and 9%~11%, respectively.These results indicate that the P adsorption on the slag is not completely reversible and that the bond between the slag particles and adsorbed phosphate is strong. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of BFS and SFS before and after phosphate adsorption verify SFS is related to the formation of phosphate calcium precipitation and the adsorption on hydroxylated oxides. The results show that BFS and SFS removed phosphate nearly 100%, indicating they are promising adsorbents for the phosphate removal in wastewater treatment and pollution control.

  19. Clay-brick firing in a high-temperature solar furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeda-Munoz, G. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Unidad Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)]. E-mail: gvilledam@ipn.mx; Castaneda-Miranda, A. [Computation & amp; Mechatronic Studies Division, Universidad Politecnica de Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)]. E-mail: acastaneda@upq.edu.mx; Pless, R.C. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Unidad Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)]. E-mail: rpless@ipn.mx; Vega-Duran, J.T. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Unidad Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico); Pineda-Pinon, J. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Unidad Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)]. E-mail: jpinedap@ipn.mx

    2011-10-15

    The firing process for clay-brick production in traditional kilns generates atmospheric pollution when industrial and domestic scrap is used as fuel. An alternative is presented here, using the solar energy for clay-brick firing. We are developing a system for clay-brick firing to reach temperatures between 900 degrees Celsius and 1050 degrees Celsius; these temperatures are sufficiently high to fire bricks or similar ceramic products. The present paper describes the design and characterization of the components of a solar furnace for clay-brick firing with inner chamber dimensions of 0.48 * 0.61 * 0.64 m. To convey the sunlight to the firing chamber, a heliostat with nine 1 * 1 m mirrors is used to send the rays of the sun to an off-axis parabolic concentrator that focuses the light on the entrance of the firing chamber. The heliostat has a solar-tracking system which makes primary and secondary adjustments to assure that the reflected solar radiation always arrives at the concentrator. The firing chamber contains a prismatic cavity that absorbs the solar radiation to generate the heat which is needed for baking the bricks inside the firing chamber. [Spanish] El proceso de coccion para la produccion de tabiques de arcilla en hornos tradicionales genera contaminacion atmosferica cuando los desechos industriales y domesticos se usan como combustibles. Aqui se presenta una alternativa, utilizando la energia solar para la coccion de tabiques de arcilla. Estamos desarrollando un sistema para la coccion de tabiques de arcilla para alcanzar temperaturas entre 900 grados centigradosy 1050 grados centigrados; estas temperaturas son suficientemente altas para cocer tabiques o productos ceramicos similares. El presente articulo describe el diseno y caracterizacion de los componentes de un horno solar para la coccion de tabiques de arcilla con una camara con dimensiones internas de 0.48 * 0.61 *× 0.64 m. Para dirigir los rayos solares a la camara de coccion, un heliostato

  20. Neutron-chamber detectors and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detector applications in Nuclear Safeguards and Waste Management have included measuring neutrons from fission and (alpha,n) reactions with well-moderated neutron proportional counters, often embedded in a slab of polyethylene. Other less-moderated geometries are useful for detecting both bare and moderated fission-source neutrons with good efficiency. The neutron chamber is an undermoderated detector design comprising a large, hollow, polyethylene-walled chamber containing one or more proportional counters. Neutron-chamber detectors are relatively inexpensive; can have large apertures, usually through a thin chamber wall; and offer very good detection efficiency per dollar. Neutron-chamber detectors have also been used for monitoring vehicles and for assaying large crates of transuranic waste. Our Monte Carlo calculations for a new application (monitoring low-density waste for concealed plutonium) illustrate the advantages of the hollow-chamber design for detecting moderated fission sources. 9 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  1. A mathematical model of aerosol holding chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zak, M; Madsen, J; Berg, E;

    1999-01-01

    A mathematical model of aerosol delivery from holding chambers (spacers) was developed incorporating tidal volume (VT), chamber volume (Vch), apparatus dead space (VD), effect of valve insufficiency and other leaks, loss of aerosol by immediate impact on the chamber wall, and fallout of aerosol...... in the chamber with time. Four different spacers were connected via filters to a mechanical lung model, and aerosol delivery during "breathing" was determined from drug recovery from the filters. The formula correctly predicted the delivery of budesonide aerosol from the AeroChamber (Trudell Medical, London......, Ontario, Canada), NebuChamber (Astra, Södirtälje, Sweden) and Nebuhaler (Astra) adapted for babies. The dose of fluticasone proportionate delivered by the Babyhaler (Glaxco Wellcome, Oxbridge, Middlesex, UK) was 80% of that predicted, probably because of incomplete priming of this spacer. Of the above...

  2. Repatriation of Gamma Chambers Exported by India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT) is engaged in the production and supply of laboratory gamma chambers. The gamma chambers are self-shielded devices in which a number of 60Co source pencils placed in a cylindrical cage. The gamma chambers are type approved as a device and a transportation package separately by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board. BRIT has exported number of such gamma chambers. For some of the gamma chambers, the type approval validity period is over and can no longer be transported. Hence, the radiation sources need to be transferred to a type approved package before transportation. BRIT has decommissioned five such gamma chambers so far and sources have been repatriated back to India. (author)

  3. Legacies of the bubble chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legacies are what we pass on to those who follow us, the foundations on which the next advances in our science are being made; the things by which we shall be remembered, recorded in learned journals, written in the text books -food for the historians of science. This is not a summary, and it will draw no conclusions. It is a personal view which will look a little wider than the main physics results to include a mention of one or two of the technologies and methods handed on to both particle physics and other branches of sciences, a brief reference to bubble chamber pictures as aids in teaching, and a comment on the challenge now increasingly applied in the UK - and perhaps elsewhere -as a criterion for funding research: will it contribute to ''wealth creation''? (orig.)

  4. Structural ceramics containing electric arc furnace dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulos, V N; Papandreou, A; Kanellopoulou, D; Stournaras, C J

    2013-11-15

    In the present work the stabilization of electric arc furnace dust EAFD waste in structural clay ceramics was investigated. EAFD was collected over eleven production days. The collected waste was characterized for its chemical composition by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. By powder XRD the crystal structure was studied while the fineness of the material was determined by a laser particle size analyzer. The environmental characterization was carried out by testing the dust according to EN12457 standard. Zn, Pb and Cd were leaching from the sample in significant amounts. The objective of this study is to investigate the stabilization properties of EAFD/clay ceramic structures and the potential of EAFD utilization into structural ceramics production (blocks). Mixtures of clay with 2.5% and 5% EAFD content were studied by TG/DTA, XRD, SEM, EN12457 standard leaching and mechanical properties as a function of firing temperature at 850, 900 and 950 °C. All laboratory facilities maintained 20 ± 1 °C. Consequently, a pilot-scale experiment was conducted with an addition of 2.5% and 5% EAFD to the extrusion mixture for the production of blocks. During blocks manufacturing, the firing step reached 950 °C in a tunnel kiln. Laboratory heating/cooling gradients were similar to pilot scale production firing. The as produced blocks were then subjected to quality control tests, i.e. dimensions according to EN772-17, water absorbance according to EN772-6, and compressive strength according to EN772-1 standard, in laboratory facilities certified under EN17025. The data obtained showed that the incorporation of EAFD resulted in an increase of mechanical strength. Moreover, leaching tests performed according to the Europeans standards on the EAFD-block samples showed that the quantities of heavy metals leached from crushed blocks were within the regulatory limits. Thus the EAFD-blocks can be regarded as material of no environmental concern.

  5. Drift chamber tracking with neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss drift chamber tracking with a commercial log VLSI neural network chip. Voltages proportional to the drift times in a 4-layer drift chamber were presented to the Intel ETANN chip. The network was trained to provide the intercept and slope of straight tracks traversing the chamber. The outputs were recorded and later compared off line to conventional track fits. Two types of network architectures were studied. Applications of neural network tracking to high energy physics detector triggers is discussed

  6. Vacuum Chamber for the Booster Bending Magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    To minimize eddy currents, induced by the rising magnetic field, the chamber was made from thin stainless steel of high specific electric resistance. For mechanical stength, it was corrugated in a hydro-forming process. The chamber is curved, to follow the beam's orbital path. Under vacuum, the chamber tends to staighten, the ceramic spacer along half of its length keeps it in place (see also 7402458).

  7. Vapor wall deposition in Teflon chambers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, X; R. H. Schwantes; R. C. McVay; H Lignell; M. M. Coggon; Flagan, R C; Seinfeld, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Teflon chambers are ubiquitous in studies of atmospheric chemistry. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation can be substantially underestimated owing to deposition of SOA-forming compounds to chamber walls. We present here an experimental protocol to constrain the nature of wall deposition of organic vapors in Teflon chambers. We measured the wall deposition rates of 25 oxidized organic compounds generated from the photooxidation of isoprene, toluene, α-pinene, and dodecan...

  8. Bubble chamber: Omega production and decay

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    This image is taken from one of CERN's bubble chambers and shows the decay of a positive kaon in flight. The decay products of this kaon can be seen spiraling in the magnetic field of the chamber. The invention of bubble chambers in 1952 revolutionized the field of particle physics, allowing real tracks left by particles to be seen and photographed by expanding liquid that has been heated to boiling point.

  9. Drift chamber tracking with neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, C.S.; Denby, B.; Haggerty, H.

    1992-10-01

    We discuss drift chamber tracking with a commercial log VLSI neural network chip. Voltages proportional to the drift times in a 4-layer drift chamber were presented to the Intel ETANN chip. The network was trained to provide the intercept and slope of straight tracks traversing the chamber. The outputs were recorded and later compared off line to conventional track fits. Two types of network architectures were studied. Applications of neural network tracking to high energy physics detector triggers is discussed.

  10. D0 central tracking chamber performance studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzuto, D.

    1991-12-01

    The performance of the completed DO central tracking chamber was studied using cosmic rays at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. Also studied was a prototype tracking chamber identical in design to the completed DO tracking chamber. The prototype chamber was exposed to a collimated beam of 150 GeV pions at the Fermilab NWA test facility. Results indicate an R{Phi} tracking resolution compatible with the limitations imposed by physical considerations, excellent 2 track resolution, and a high track reconstruction efficiency along with a good rejection power against {gamma} {yields} e {sup +} e{sup {minus}} events.

  11. D0 central tracking chamber performance studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of the completed DO central tracking chamber was studied using cosmic rays at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. Also studied was a prototype tracking chamber identical in design to the completed DO tracking chamber. The prototype chamber was exposed to a collimated beam of 150 GeV pions at the Fermilab NWA test facility. Results indicate an RΦ tracking resolution compatible with the limitations imposed by physical considerations, excellent 2 track resolution, and a high track reconstruction efficiency along with a good rejection power against γ → e + e- events

  12. Bicone vacuum chamber for ISR intersection

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    This is one of the bicone chambers made of titanium for experiment R 702. The central corrugated part had a very thin titanium wall (0.28 mm). The first of these chambers collapsed in its central part when baked at 300 C (August 1975). After an intensive effort to develop better quality and reproducible welds for this special material, the ISR workshop was able to build two new chambers of this type. One of them was installed at I 7 for R 702 in 1976 and worked perfectly. It was at that time the most "transparent" intersection vacuum chamber. See also 7609219, 7609221.

  13. Precision Radio Frequency Anechoic Chamber Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Performs measurements and calibration of antennas for satellites and aircraft or groundbased systems. The chamber is primarily used for optimizing antenna...

  14. Recent developments in blast furnace process control within British Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, P.W. [British Steel Technical, Middlesbrough (United Kingdom). Teesside Labs.

    1995-12-01

    British Steel generally operates seven blast furnaces on four integrated works. All furnaces have been equipped with comprehensive instrumentation and data logging computers over the past eight years. The four Scunthorpe furnaces practice coal injection up to 170 kg/tHM (340 lb/THM), the remainder injecting oil at up to 100 kg/tHM (200 lb/THM). Distribution control is effected by Paul Wurth Bell-Less Tops on six of the seven furnaces, and Movable Throat Armour with bells on the remaining one. All have at least one sub burden probe. The blast furnace operator has a vast quantity of data and signals to consider and evaluate when attempting to achieve the objective of providing a consistent supply of hot metal. Techniques have been, and are being, developed to assist the operator to interpret large numbers of signals. A simple operator guidance system has been developed to provide advice, based on current operating procedures and interpreted data. Further development will involve the use of a sophisticated Expert System software shell.

  15. Modernization of USS/KOBE No. 3 blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diederich, D.J.; VanderSluis, F.H.; Yukubo, Y.; Bernarding, T.F.; Emoto, E. (Kobe Steel Co., Lorain, OH (United States). USS)

    1993-01-01

    The USS/KOBE Steel Company was formed on July 1, 1989 as a joint venture between USS and KOBE Steel of Japan. A major premise of the joint venture was to use generated capital for the modernization of the plant's facilities. The first major project of the new company was the total renovation of No. 3 Blast Furnace. This furnace is to be the mainstay of quality hot metal production for the future of the new company. No. 3 Blast Furnace was last operated in 1982. An original reline was planned in 1981, but was deferred due to economic conditions. Subsequent dismantling and engineering were performed in 1985 but the facility basically laid dormant for ten years until 1991. This paper discusses the various systems installed during the furnace rebuild along with some of the construction aspects of the rebuild along with some of the construction aspects of the rebuild. Modernized USS/KOBE No. 3 Blast Furnace (Blow-in: May 4, 1992) introduced various improvements of equipment and technology, such as a Paul Wurth Top, coke screening, casthouse, gas cleaning, stoves, and automatic stockhouse in order to make it a world class competitor.

  16. Evaluation on chemical stability of lead blast furnace (LBF) and imperial smelting furnace (ISF) slags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Nang-Htay; Sivry, Yann; Guyot, François; Lens, Piet N L; van Hullebusch, Eric D

    2016-09-15

    The leaching behavior of Pb and Zn from lead blast furnace (LBF) and imperial smelting furnace (ISF) slags sampled in the North of France was studied as a function of pHs and under two atmospheres (open air and nitrogen). The leaching of major elements from the slags was monitored as a function of pH (4, 5.5, 7, 8.5 and 10) under both atmospheres for different slag-water interaction times (1 day and 9 days). The leaching results were coupled with a geochemical model; Visual MINTEQ version 3.0, and a detailed morphological and mineralogical analysis was performed on the leached slags by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). Significant amounts of Ca, Fe and Zn were released under acidic conditions (pH 4) with a decrease towards the neutral to alkaline conditions (pH 7 and 10) for both LBF and ISF slags. On the other hand, Fe leachability was limited at neutral to alkaline pH for both slags. The concentrations of all elements increased gradually after 216 h compared to initial 24 h of leaching period. The presence of oxygen under open-air atmosphere not only enhanced oxidative weathering but also encouraged formation of secondary oxide and carbonate phases. Formation of carbonates and clay minerals was suggested by Visual MINTEQ which was further confirmed by SEM & TEM. The hydration and partial dissolution of hardystonite, as well as the destabilization of amorphous glassy matrix mainly contributed to the release of major elements, whereas the spinel related oxides were resistant against pH changes and atmospheres within the time frame concerned for both LBF and ISF slags. The total amount of Pb leached out at pH 7 under both atmospheres suggested that both LBF and ISF slags are prone to weathering even at neutral environmental conditions. PMID:27240207

  17. Investigation on the Potentials of Cupola Furnace Slag in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Adeyemi Alabi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The compressive strength of the concrete designed using blast cupola furnace slag and granulated cupola slag as a coarse aggregate and partial replacement for cement was investigated. A series of experimental studies were conducted involve concrete production in two stages. The first stage comprised of normal aggregate concrete (NAC produced with normal aggregates and 100% ordinary Portland cement (OPC. Meanwhile, the second stage involved production of concrete comprising of cupola furnace slag an aggregates with 100% ordinary Portland cement (OPC and subsequently with 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% cementitious replacement with granulated cupola furnace slag that had been grounded and milled to less than 75 µm diameter. The outcomes of compressive strength test conducted on the slag aggregate concrete (SAC with and without granulated slag cementitious replacement were satisfactory compared to normal aggregate concretes (NAC.

  18. Compacting of fly dusts from cupola and electric arc furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Baricová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recycling and utilization of dust waste is important not only from the point of view of its usage as an alternative source of raw materials, but regarding the environmental problems also. Dust emissions arise from thermal and chemical or physical processes and mechanical actions. Two kinds of fl y dusts from cupola furnaces (hot and cold blast cupola furnace and fl y dust from electric arc furnace were used by experiments. They were pelletized only with addition of water and briquetted with diff erent addition of water glass, bentonite and cement. Quality of briquettes was tested by compression – strength test and by break down test in green state, after drying and afterstoring (1 month.

  19. CHARACTERIZATION AND ANALISYS OF A FURNACE TO FABRICATE SOLAR CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Boscato Garcia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The solar cell industry has presented high growth rates and dealt with a large portfolio of suppliers for specific equipments like diffusion furnaces needed to produce the pn junction in the fabrication of silicon devices. The aim of this paper is to present the thermal analysis and the characterization of diffusions carried out in the first diffusion furnace developed and fabricated in Brazil. Longitudinal and radial temperature profiles were measured and analyzed. Results of the characterization defined a processing zone of 200 mm with temperature variation lower than 6°C for the temperatures up to 965°C. In the processing zone, 40 silicon wafers can be processed. Diffusion processes were performed in monocrystalline silicon wafers and n+ regions doped with phosphorus presented standard deviation of sheet resistance slightly higher than that obtained in imported commercial furnaces. Wafer contamination was not observed during diffusion processes and the minority carrier lifetime was improved.

  20. Role of mini-blast furnaces in South East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmanan, V.K.; Pfeifer, H.C. [Tata Korf Engineering Services, Calcutta (India)

    1997-12-31

    Mini blast furnaces (MBFs) are a small, economic, proven iron production technology. They are widely used in mini integrated steel plants and are likely to be yet more widely used. MBFs are described, contrasting them with direct reduction technology and with conventional blast furnaces. Besides their economic advantages they also cause few adverse environmental effects. These features have made MBF plant popular in Brazil and India in recent years, and plants are also planned in Indonesia. MBF-EOF (Energy optimising furnace) plants are also gaining popularity. They are useful where power is scarce and expensive. MBF-EOF plants are under construction in India and Indonesia. The future use of MBF plants in Asia is discussed. 9 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. A static approach towards coke collapse modelling in blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nag, S.; Basu, S. Yu, A.B.

    2009-10-15

    Burden distribution control in a blast furnace has a close relationship with wind acceptance and gas utilisation. Quantification of radial distribution of ore and coke is important for proper control of blast furnace operation. Charging of metallic burden over a layer of coke causes a portion of the coke layer to get dislodged from its original position, similar to the situation observed when a heavy material is dropped on a bed of lighter particles. This phenomenon, designated 'coke collapse', significantly changes the ore/coke distribution in the radial direction and thus affects the permeability of the furnace shaft. In the present work a mathematical model for quantifying the amount of coke collapse has been proposed on the basis of 'stability of slope theory'. The calculation from this model has been compared with the results from experiments in simplified physical models. Predictions of the mathematical model are in good agreement with experimental results.

  2. A Composite Model Predictive Control Strategy for Furnaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Zang; Hongguang Li; Jingwen Huang; Jia Wang

    2014-01-01

    Tube furnaces are essential and primary energy intensive facilities in petrochemical plants. Operational optimi-zation of furnaces could not only help to improve product quality but also benefit to reduce energy consumption and exhaust emission. Inspired by this idea, this paper presents a composite model predictive control (CMPC) strategy, which, taking advantage of distributed model predictive control architectures, combines tracking nonlinear model predictive control and economic nonlinear model predictive control metrics to keep process running smoothly and optimize operational conditions. The control ers connected with two kinds of communi-cation networks are easy to organize and maintain, and stable to process interferences. A fast solution algorithm combining interior point solvers and Newton's method is accommodated to the CMPC realization, with reason-able CPU computing time and suitable online applications. Simulation for industrial case demonstrates that the proposed approach can ensure stable operations of furnaces, improve heat efficiency, and reduce the emission effectively.

  3. Direct Current Electric Arc-Electroslag Ladle Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to solve the high consumption problem of small capacity ladle furnace (LF), the operation principle and control method of the DC arc and electroslag heating ladle furnace are introduced. With only one arcing electrode, the distance between the arc and the wall of ladle is enlarged, and consequently the consumption of the ladle refractory is decreased. In the invention, a signal electrode is embedded in the refractory lining of the ladle, which contacts directly with the liquid steel and the ladle shell. Two graphite anode ends are submerged in the slag layer. The signal electrode is used as voltage reference during refining process. The electroslag voltage between anode end and liquid steel is applied to control the depth of anode end in the slag layer during the refining process with this ladle furnace.

  4. DC Arc Plasma Furnace Melting of Waste Incinerator Fly Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Mingzhou; MENG Yuedong; SHI Jiabiao; KUANG Jingan; NI Guohua; LIU Wei; JIANG Yiman

    2009-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash was melted using a set of direct current (DC) arc plasma furnace system for the first time in China.At a feed-rate of flying ash of 80 kg/h,the temperature at the gas outlet was above 1300℃.Dioxins in the off-gas were recorded as 0.029 ng I-TEQ/Nm3 (international toxic equivalent,I-TEQ),well below 0.5 ng TEQ/Nm3 (toxic equivalent,TEQ),while those in the melted product(slag)were 0.00035 ng/g I-TEQ.Molten slag from the furnace showed excellent resistance against the leaching of heavy metals.These results prove that the plasma furnace is effective for the detoxification and stabilization of MSWI fly ash.

  5. Radiometric report for a blast furnace tracing with radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the methods to monitor refractory wall of blast furnace is its tracing with radioactive isotopes. The tracer isotope can be detected by two ways: the external dosimetric measurement at the armour of the blast furnace and/or the radiometric measurement of the iron sample charge by charge. Any change in radiometric situation of tracer radioisotope is recorded in a radiometric report. This paper presents an original concept of radiometric report based upon PARADOX and CORELDRAW soft kits. Their advantage are: quick and easy changes, easy recording of current radioactivity of tracer isotope, short history of changes, visual mapping of the tracer isotope and others. In this way we monitored 6 blast furnaces and more than 180 radioactive sources

  6. Space Power Facility Reverberation Chamber Calibration Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Catherine C.; Dolesh, Robert J.; Garrett, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the process and results of calibrating the Space Environmental Test EMI Test facility at NASA Plum Brook Space Power Facility according to the specifications of IEC61000-4-21 for susceptibility testing from 100 MHz to 40 GHz. The chamber passed the field uniformity test, in both the empty and loaded conditions, making it the world's largest Reverberation Chamber.

  7. An ionization chamber with magnetic levitated electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Kawaguchi, T

    1999-01-01

    A new type of ionization chamber which has magnetically levitated electrodes has been developed. The electrodes are supplied voltages for the repelling of ions by a battery which is also levitated with the electrodes. The characteristics of this ionization chamber are investigated in this paper.

  8. Supersonic Jet Interactions in a Plenum Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Venugopal

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding thè supersonic jet interactions in a plenum chamber is essential for thè design of hot launch systems. Static tests were conducted in a small-scale rocket motor ioaded with a typical nitramine propellaiit to produce a nozzle exit Mach number of 3. This supersonic jet is made to interact with plenum chambers having both open and closed sides. The distance between thè nozzle exit and thè back piate of plenum chamber are varied from 2. 5 to 7. 0 times thè nozzle exit diameter. The pressure rise in thè plenum chamber was measured using pressure transducers mounted at different locatìons. The pressure-time data were analysed to obtain an insight into thè flow field in thè plenum chamber. The maximum pressure exerted on thè back piate of plenum chamber is about 25-35 per cent. of thè maximum stagnation pressure developed in thè rocket motor. Ten static tests were carried out to obtain thè effect of axial distance between thè nozzle exit and thè plenum chamber back piate, and stagnation pressure in thè rocket motoron thè flow field in thè open-sided and closed-sided plenum chambers configurations.

  9. Chamber Music's Lesson in Performing Confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Darrel W.

    1983-01-01

    Chamber music has the advantage of offering the student maximum exposure as an individual performer. The absence of a conductor means that the student assumes the role of interpreter, thereby gaining musical maturity. For these reasons, curriculum hours should be more evenly divided between chamber music and larger ensembles. (CS)

  10. Results from the MAC Vertex chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, H.N.

    1987-05-01

    The design, construction, and performance characteristics of a high precision gaseous drift chamber made of thin walled proportional tubes are described. The device achieved an average spatial resolution of 45 ..mu..m in use for physics analysis with the MAC detector. The B-lifetime result obtained with this chamber is discussed.

  11. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anaerobic chamber. 866.2120 Section 866.2120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber....

  12. Loss on Ignition Furnace Acceptance and Operability Test Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON, D.C.

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this Acceptance Test Procedure and Operability Test Procedure (ATP/OTP)is to verify the operability of newly installed LOI equipment, including a model 1608FL CM{trademark} Furnace, a dessicator, and balance. The operability of the furnace will be verified. The arrangement of the equipment placed in Glovebox 157-3/4 to perform Loss on Ignition (LOI) testing on samples supplied from the Thermal Stabilization line will be verified. In addition to verifying proper operation of the furnace, this ATP/OTP will also verify the air flow through the filters, verify a damper setting to establish and maintain the required differential pressure between the glovebox and the room pressure, and test the integrity of the newly installed HEPA filter. In order to provide objective evidence of proper performance of the furnace, the furnace must heat 15 crucibles, mounted on a crucible rack, to 1000 C, according to a program entered into the furnace controller located outside the glovebox. The glovebox differential pressure will be set to provide the 0.5 to 2.0 inches of water (gauge) negative pressure inside the glovebox with an airflow of 100 to 125 cubic feet per minute (cfm) through the inlet filter. The glovebox inlet Glfilter will he flow tested to ensure the integrity of the filter connections and the efficiency of the filter medium. The newly installed windows and glovebox extension, as well as all disturbed joints, will be sonically tested via ultra probe to verify no leaks are present. The procedure for DOS testing of the filter is found in Appendix A.

  13. Compact ion chamber based neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derzon, Mark S.; Galambos, Paul C.; Renzi, Ronald F.

    2015-10-27

    A directional neutron detector has an ion chamber formed in a dielectric material; a signal electrode and a ground electrode formed in the ion chamber; a neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber; readout circuitry which is electrically coupled to the signal and ground electrodes; and a signal processor electrically coupled to the readout circuitry. The ion chamber has a pair of substantially planar electrode surfaces. The chamber pressure of the neutron absorbing material is selected such that the reaction particle ion trail length for neutrons absorbed by the neutron absorbing material is equal to or less than the distance between the electrode surfaces. The signal processor is adapted to determine a path angle for each absorbed neutron based on the rise time of the corresponding pulse in a time-varying detector signal.

  14. Ionization-chamber smoke detector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Robert F.

    1976-10-19

    This invention relates to an improved smoke-detection system of the ionization-chamber type. In the preferred embodiment, the system utilizes a conventional detector head comprising a measuring ionization chamber, a reference ionization chamber, and a normally non-conductive gas triode for discharging when a threshold concentration of airborne particulates is present in the measuring chamber. The improved system is designed to reduce false alarms caused by fluctuations in ambient temperature. Means are provided for periodically firing the gas discharge triode and each time recording the triggering voltage required. A computer compares each triggering voltage with its predecessor. The computer is programmed to energize an alarm if the difference between the two compared voltages is a relatively large value indicative of particulates in the measuring chamber and to disregard smaller differences typically resulting from changes in ambient temperature.

  15. Wet drift chambers for precise luminosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of high-precision compact drift chambers has been a vital component of the OPAL luminosity monitor since the start of data-taking at LEP. They were augmented in 1992 by the addition of Small Angle Reference Chambers with a very similar design to the original chamber. The performance of the chambers is reviewed, highlighting both the importance of using polyalkylene glycol (Breox) to maintain a uniform and parallel electric field and the construction techniques used to sustain the required field strength. We describe some of the operating problems, with their solutions, and show how the chambers have been used in achieving a systematic error of 0.41% on the luminosity measurement. ((orig.))

  16. Use of coal-water mixtures in blast furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malgarini, G.; Giuli, M.; Davide, A.; Carlesi, C. (Centro Sviluppo Materiali, Rome (Italy); Italsider, Genoa (Italy); Deltasider, Piombino (Italy))

    1989-03-01

    At the present time, an ironworks blast furnace employing a pulverized coal injection (PCI) system is in operation at the Piombino Works (Italy). A wide development, within this industry, of PCI techniques is expected in the near future to limit, as much as possible, the rebuilding of coke ovens. Research activities and industrial trials aimed at maximizing the use of coal injection into blast furnaces are in course of development. This paper uses flowsheets to illustrate such a system and provides graphs to indicate the economic convenience of PCI systems as compared with systems using naphtha as an injected fuel.

  17. Computer simulation of processes in the dead-end furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavorin, A. S.; Khaustov, S. A.; Zaharushkin, Russia N. A.

    2014-10-01

    We study turbulent combustion of natural gas in the reverse flame of fire-tube boiler simulated with the ANSYS Fluent 12.1.4 engineering simulation software. Aerodynamic structure and volumetric pressure fields of the flame were calculated. The results are presented in graphical form. The effect of the twist parameter for a drag coefficient of dead-end furnace was estimated. Finite element method was used for simulating the following processes: the combustion of methane in air oxygen, radiant and convective heat transfer, turbulence. Complete geometric model of the dead-end furnace based on boiler drawings was considered.

  18. A new sulphur furnace in the ``Cagny`` sugar plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, P.; Aznarez, X.; Koscielniak, J.; Michel, J.; Rousseau, G.

    1996-07-01

    It would be very difficult not to use SO{sub 2} in sugar factories because it is a very useful additive. The reglementary restraints have obliged us to stop using SO{sub 2} liquid. So, the Generale Sucriere with the help of the Choquenet Company have developed a sulphur furnace. It is robust, reliable and in agreement with the safety requirements for the environment. The process consists of producing SO{sub 2} by natural combustion of sulphur granules in a low - pressure furnace. A well adjusted sulphite appliance completes the installation and guaranties the difficulty in detecting the sulphur rejects into the atmosphere. (author). 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Prediction of heater power distribution in radiative cylindrical furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravichandran, M.; Dilber, I.; Torok, D.

    1999-07-01

    In the design of long radiative cylindrical furnaces, it is important to control the temperature variation along the furnace walls and consequently the temperature distribution in the processed material by selectively adjusting the power input to heater rods located circumferentially around the furnace walls. The heaters are grouped in zones located at different axial locations. By adjusting the power to each zone a specified temperature distribution along the furnace can be attained. The radiative interchange between different axial zones of the furnace affects the temperature distribution; this interchange is also impacted by the shadowing caused by the presence of the load, i.e. the processed material. A desired temperature distribution can only be achieved by selectively changing the power input to the heaters. For an a priori assessment of the commercial viability of using process friendly temperature distributions, it is necessary to determine: (a) the maximum power demand from each zone; (b) if active cooling is inevitable and (c) the bounds on temperature distribution that can be achieved without active cooling. It is therefore extremely useful to be able to predict the input power distribution for achieving desired furnace temperature profiles. For a given power input, the temperature distribution inside the furnace could be obtained by using a general purpose Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software, such as FIDAP. A new methodology is developed within the framework of FIDAP software to eliminate the manual trial and error method. The method is based on obtaining the sensitivity of the temperature at the desired locations of the furnace as a function of the power input to the heating elements. Using these sensitivity coefficients, an iterative scheme is designed to adjust the boundary conditions (power to the heating elements in this case) based on the discrepancy of the solution temperatures from the desired temperature distribution. For each of these

  20. Energy Balance in DC Arc Plasma Melting Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peng; Meng, Yuedong; Yu, Xinyao; Chen, Longwei; Jiang, Yiman; Ni, Guohua; Chen, Mingzhou

    2009-04-01

    In order to treat hazardous municipal solid waste incinerator's (MSWI) fly ash, a new DC arc plasma furnace was developed. Taking an arc of 100 V/1000 A DC as an example, the heat transfer characteristics of the DC arc plasma, ablation of electrodes, heat properties of the fly ash during melting, heat transfer characteristics of the flue gas, and heat loss of the furnace were analyzed based on the energy conservation law, so as to achieve the total heat information and energy balance during plasma processing, and to provide a theoretical basis for an optimized design of the structure and to improve energy efficiency.

  1. DUCT RETROFIT STRATEGY TO COMPLEMENT A MODULATING FURNACE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    2002-10-02

    Some recent work (Walker 2001, Andrews 2002) has indicated that installing a modulating furnace in a conventional duct system may, in many cases, result in a significant degradation in thermal distribution efficiency. The fundamental mechanism was pointed out nearly two decades ago (Andrews and Krajewski 1985). The problem occurs in duct systems that are less-than-perfectly insulated (e.g., R-4 duct wrap) and are located outside the conditioned space. It stems from the fact that when the airflow rate is reduced, as it will be when the modulating furnace reduces its heat output rate, the supply air will have a longer residence time in the ducts and will therefore lose a greater percentage of its heat by conduction than it did at the higher airflow rate. The impact of duct leakage, on the other hand, is not expected to change very much under furnace modulation. The pressures in the duct system will be reduced when the airflow rate is reduced, thus reducing the leakage per unit time. This is balanced by the fact that the operating time will increase in order to meet the same heating load as with the conventional furnace operating at higher output and airflow rates. The balance would be exact if the exponent in the pressure vs. airflow equation were the same as that in the pressure vs. duct leakage equation. Since the pressure-airflow exponent is usually {approx}0.5 and the pressure-leakage exponent is usually {approx}0.6, the leakage loss as a fraction of the load should be slightly lower for the modulating furnace. The difference, however, is expected to be small, determined as it is by a function with an exponent equal to the difference between the above two exponents, or {approx}0.1. The negative impact of increased thermal conduction losses from the duct system may be partially offset by improved efficiency of the modulating furnace itself. Also, the modulating furnace will cycle on and off less often than a single-capacity model, and this may add a small amount

  2. Energy Balance in DC Arc Plasma Melting Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Peng; MENG Yuedong; YU Xinyao; CHEN Longwei; JIANG Yiman; NI Guohua; CHEN Mingzhou

    2009-01-01

    In order to treat hazardous municipal solid waste incinerator's (MSWI) fly ash, a new DC arc plasma furnace was developed. Taking an arc of 100 V/1000 A DC as an example,the heat transfer characteristics of the DC arc plasma, ablation of electrodes, heat properties of the fly ash during melting, heat transfer characteristics of the flue gas, and heat loss of the furnace were analyzed based on the energy conservation law, so as to achieve the total heat information and energy balance during plasma processing, and to provide a theoretical basis for an optimized design of the structure and to improve energy efficiency.

  3. Numerical Simulation of Fluid Flow in Blast Furnace Hearth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Min-ge; SUN Tian-liang; CHENG Su-sen; GAO Zheng-kai

    2005-01-01

    The liquid flow in blast furnace hearth can result in the erosion of hearth. To prolong the campaign life of blast furnace, the effects of coke bed structure, coke porosity and deepness of taphole on liquid flow in hearth were studied by κ-ε model under different conditions. The results show that with the decrease of coke porosity, the peripheral flow is enhanced. Moreover, the existence of narrow coke free zone and the deepness reduction of taphole can increase the flowability on the bottom of hearth.

  4. Regulation of the Heating Furnace in Tube Rolling Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostúr, K.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The rolling of tube requires homogeneous heating along the tube. In steel work the difference along tube was sometimes 80 °C. The reasons for bad homogeneousness of heating were analyzed by a simulation model of heating furnace. Then the proposal was made for a new control system and also the proposal for reconstruction of furnace. In this contribution also a description of some ways for improvement of heating was made. The main contribution is the proposal of an adaptive system

  5. Simulation study on radiative imaging of combustion flame in furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Radiative imaging of combustion flame in furnace of power plant plays an increasingly important role in combustion diagnosis. This paper presents a new method for calculating the radiative imaging of three-dimensional (3D) combustion flame based on Monte Carlo method and optical lens imaging. Numerical simulation case was used in this study. Radiative images were calculated and images obtained can not only present the energy distribution on the charge-coupled device (CCD) camera target plane but also reflect the energy distribution condition in the simulation furnace. Finally the relationships between volume elements and energy shares were also discussed.

  6. Nodal wear model: corrosion in carbon blast furnace hearths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criteria developed for the Nodal Wear Model (NWM) were applied to estimate the shape of the corrosion profiles that a blast furnace hearth may acquire during its campaign. Taking into account design of the hearth, the boundary conditions, the characteristics of the refractory materials used and the operation conditions of the blast furnace, simulation of wear profiles with central well, mushroom and elephant foot shape were accomplished. The foundations of the NWM are constructed considering that the corrosion of the refractory is a function of the temperature present at each point (node) of the liquid metal-refractory interface and the corresponding physical and chemical characteristics of the corrosive fluid. (Author) 31 refs

  7. Simulation of heat transfer in combustion chamber waterwall tubes of supercritical steam boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grądziel Sławomir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of numerical computations performed for the furnace chamber waterwalls of a supercritical boiler with a steam output of 2400 × 103 kg/h. A model of distributed parameters is proposed for the waterwall operation simulation. It is based on the solution of equations describing the mass, momentum and energy conservation laws. The aim of the calculations was to determine the distribution of enthalpy, mass flow and fluid pressure in tubes. The balance equations can be brought to a form where on the left-hand side space derivatives, and on the right-hand side – time derivatives are obtained. The time derivatives on the right-hand side were replaced with backward difference quotients. This system of ordinary differential equations was solved using the Runge-Kutta method. The calculation also takes account of the variable thermal load of the chamber along its height. This thermal load distribution is known from the calculations of the heat exchange in the combustion chamber. The calculations were carried out with the zone method.

  8. Prospects for energy saving in the Italian iron and steel industry using electric furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scotti, G. (Italimpianti S.p.A., Genoa (IT))

    1990-01-01

    The energy consumption of the Italian iron and steel industry is examined with particular attention to the electricity used. Topics covered include scrap melting in electric furnaces, reheating furnaces and new productive methods. Opportunities for energy savings are highlighted. (UK).

  9. Formation of the ZnFe2O4 phase in an electric arc furnace off-gas treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • EAF dust was characterized with particle size analysis, XRF, and EPMA. • Slag particles showed no sign of reaction with Zn vapor. • Fe2O3 particles showed different degrees of reaction based on their size. • The thermodynamic stability of Zn vapor in EAF off-gas ducts was reevaluated. • In presence of Fe2O3, Zn vapor reacts to form ZnFe2O4 and ZnO. - Abstract: To better understand the phenomena of ZnFe2O4 spinel formation in electric arc furnace dust, the dust was characterized with particle size analysis, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA). Different ZnFe2O4 formation reaction extents were observed for iron oxide particles with different particle sizes. ZnO particles were present as both individual particles and aggregated on the surface of larger particles. Also, the slag particles found in the off-gas were shown not to react with the zinc vapor. After confirming the presence of a ZnFe2O4 formation reaction, the thermodynamic feasibility of in-process separation – a new electric arc furnace dust treatment technology – was reevaluated. The large air intake and the presence of iron oxide particles in the off-gas were included into the thermodynamic calculations. The formation of the stable ZnFe2O4 spinel phase was shown to be thermodynamically favorable in current electric arc furnace off-gas ducts conditions even before reaching the post combustion chamber

  10. The effect of blast furnace coke quality on the possibility of its use

    OpenAIRE

    Konstanciak, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the paper behavior of the blast-furnace coke in the high temperature was presented. Comparative analysis of the chemical composition of the blast-furnace coke and the heat treatment of it were done. Coefficients M10 and M40 with the thermo-abrasiveness for chosen cokes were compared. The influence of ash content of the coke on the blast-furnace bed permeability was defined. Usefulness of the coke to blast-furnace process was also defined.

  11. Numerical Study of the Reduction Process in an Oxygen Blast Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zongliang; Meng, Jiale; Guo, Lei; Guo, Zhancheng

    2016-02-01

    Based on computational fluid dynamics, chemical reaction kinetics, principles of transfer in metallurgy, and other principles, a multi-fluid model for a traditional blast furnace was established. The furnace conditions were simulated with this multi-fluid mathematical model, and the model was verified with the comparison of calculation and measurement. Then a multi-fluid model for an oxygen blast furnace in the gasifier-full oxygen blast furnace process was established based on this traditional blast furnace model. With the established multi-fluid model for an oxygen blast furnace, the basic characteristics of iron ore reduction process in the oxygen blast furnace were summarized, including the changing process of the iron ore reduction degree and the compositions of the burden, etc. The study found that compared to the traditional blast furnace, the magnetite reserve zone in the furnace shaft under oxygen blast furnace condition was significantly reduced, which is conducive to the efficient operation of blast furnace. In order to optimize the oxygen blast furnace design and operating parameters, the iron ore reduction process in the oxygen blast furnace was researched under different shaft tuyere positions, different recycling gas temperatures, and different allocation ratios of recycling gas between the hearth tuyere and the shaft tuyere. The results indicate that these three factors all have a substantial impact on the ore reduction process in the oxygen blast furnace. Moderate shaft tuyere position, high recycling gas temperature, and high recycling gas allocation ratio between hearth and shaft could significantly promote the reduction of iron ore, reduce the scope of the magnetite reserve zone, and improve the performance of oxygen blast furnace. Based on the above findings, the recommendations for improvement of the oxygen blast furnace design and operation were proposed.

  12. Industrial hazardous waste treatment featuring a rotary kiln and grate furnace incinerator: a case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Pan; Ma, Zengyi; Yan, Jianhua; Chi, Yong; Ni, Mingjiang; Cen, Kefa

    2011-10-01

    As one of the fastest developing countries, China is facing severe problems concerning hazardous waste treatment and disposal. This paper presents a new incineration technology and demonstration project in eastern China. The incineration system includes a rotary kiln, a grate furnace for burning out the kiln residue and a flue gas post-combustion chamber. Flue gas treatment and emission control is based on: a quench tower, followed by dry hydrated lime and activated carbon injection, a dual bag filter system, and a wet scrubber. It demonstrated that this incineration technology can effectively dispose of industrial hazardous waste with variable and complex characteristics. Gas emissions meet the demands of the Chinese Environmental Protection Association standard. PMID:21746756

  13. Monitored Drift Chambers in the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Herten, G

    Monitored Drift Chambers (MDT) are used in the ATLAS Detector to measure the momentum of high energy muons. They consist of drift tubes, which are filled with an Ar-CO2 gas mixture at 3 bar gas pressure. About 1200 drift chambers are required for ATLAS. They are up to 6 m long. Nevertheless the position of every wire needs to be known with a precision of 20 µm within a chamber. In addition, optical alignment sensors are required to measure the relative position of adjacent chambers with a precision of 30µm. This gigantic task seems impossible at first instance. Indeed it took many years of R&D to invent the right tools and methods before the first chamber could be built according to specifications. Today, at the time when 50% of the chambers have been produced, we are confident that the goal for ATLAS can be reached. The mechanical precision of the chambers could be verified with the x-ray tomograph at CERN. This ingenious device, developed for the MDT system, is able to measure the wire position insid...

  14. Brayton-Cycle Heat Recovery System Characterization Program. Glass-furnace facility test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-29

    The test plan for development of a system to recover waste heat and produce electricity and preheated combustion air from the exhaust gases of an industrial glass furnace is described. The approach is to use a subatmospheric turbocompressor in a Brayton-cycle system. The operational furnace test requirements, the operational furnace environment, and the facility design approach are discussed. (MCW)

  15. Radiation from Large Gas Volumes and Heat Exchange in Steam Boiler Furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation from large cylindrical gas volumes is studied as a means of simulating the flare in steam boiler furnaces. Calculations of heat exchange in a furnace by the zonal method and by simulation of the flare with cylindrical gas volumes are described. The latter method is more accurate and yields more reliable information on heat transfer processes taking place in furnaces

  16. Hopewell Furnace: A Pennsylvania Iron-Making Plantation. Teaching with Historic Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koman, Rita G.

    The rhythmic noises of the turning water wheel and the roar of the furnace blast never stopped at Hopewell Furnace (Pennsylvania) during its years of operation (1771-1883). As long as the furnace was in blast, the ironworkers' jobs were safe. In case of trouble, they could escape to the woods, fields, and creeks of rural Pennsylvania. Now a…

  17. 78 FR 19606 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnace Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... the test procedure rulemaking for furnace fans. 77 FR 28674. In the NOPR, DOE proposed a rating metric... furnace fans energy conservation standard rulemaking on July 10, 2012. 77 FR 40530. For the preliminary... language in the proposed regulatory text that specified that furnace fans be tested in-situ. 77 FR at...

  18. 40 CFR 458.10 - Applicability; description of the carbon black furnace process subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... carbon black furnace process subcategory. 458.10 Section 458.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Carbon Black Furnace Process Subcategory § 458.10 Applicability; description of the carbon black furnace process subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting...

  19. Radiation from Large Gas Volumes and Heat Exchange in Steam Boiler Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, A. N., E-mail: tgtu-kafedra-ese@mail.ru [Tver State Technical University (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    Radiation from large cylindrical gas volumes is studied as a means of simulating the flare in steam boiler furnaces. Calculations of heat exchange in a furnace by the zonal method and by simulation of the flare with cylindrical gas volumes are described. The latter method is more accurate and yields more reliable information on heat transfer processes taking place in furnaces.

  20. 40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424.50 Section 424.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  1. Making MUSIC: A multiple sampling ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multiple sampling ionization chamber (MUSIC) was developed for use in conjunction with the Atlas scattering chamber (ATSCAT). This chamber was developed to study the (α, p) reaction in stable and radioactive beams. The gas filled ionization chamber is used as a target and detector for both particles in the outgoing channel (p + beam particles for elastic scattering or p + residual nucleus for (α, p) reactions). The MUSIC detector is followed by a Si array to provide a trigger for anode events. The anode events are gated by a gating grid so that only (α, p) reactions where the proton reaches the Si detector result in an anode event. The MUSIC detector is a segmented ionization chamber. The active length of the chamber is 11.95 in. and is divided into 16 equal anode segments (3.5 in. x 0.70 in. with 0.3 in. spacing between pads). The dead area of the chamber was reduced by the addition of a Delrin snout that extends 0.875 in. into the chamber from the front face, to which a mylar window is affixed. 0.5 in. above the anode is a Frisch grid that is held at ground potential. 0.5 in. above the Frisch grid is a gating grid. The gating grid functions as a drift electron barrier, effectively halting the gathering of signals. Setting two sets of alternating wires at differing potentials creates a lateral electric field which traps the drift electrons, stopping the collection of anode signals. The chamber also has a reinforced mylar exit window separating the Si array from the target gas. This allows protons from the (α, p) reaction to be detected. The detection of these protons opens the gating grid to allow the drift electrons released from the ionizing gas during the (α, p) reaction to reach the anode segment below the reaction

  2. Making MUSIC: A multiple sampling ionization chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumard, B. [Argonne National Laboratory, Building 203 H-113, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)]. E-mail: shumard@phy.anl.gov; Henderson, D.J. [Argonne National Laboratory, Building 203 H-113, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Rehm, K.E. [Argonne National Laboratory, Building 203 H-113, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Tang, X.D. [Argonne National Laboratory, Building 203 H-113, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    A multiple sampling ionization chamber (MUSIC) was developed for use in conjunction with the Atlas scattering chamber (ATSCAT). This chamber was developed to study the ({alpha}, p) reaction in stable and radioactive beams. The gas filled ionization chamber is used as a target and detector for both particles in the outgoing channel (p + beam particles for elastic scattering or p + residual nucleus for ({alpha}, p) reactions). The MUSIC detector is followed by a Si array to provide a trigger for anode events. The anode events are gated by a gating grid so that only ({alpha}, p) reactions where the proton reaches the Si detector result in an anode event. The MUSIC detector is a segmented ionization chamber. The active length of the chamber is 11.95 in. and is divided into 16 equal anode segments (3.5 in. x 0.70 in. with 0.3 in. spacing between pads). The dead area of the chamber was reduced by the addition of a Delrin snout that extends 0.875 in. into the chamber from the front face, to which a mylar window is affixed. 0.5 in. above the anode is a Frisch grid that is held at ground potential. 0.5 in. above the Frisch grid is a gating grid. The gating grid functions as a drift electron barrier, effectively halting the gathering of signals. Setting two sets of alternating wires at differing potentials creates a lateral electric field which traps the drift electrons, stopping the collection of anode signals. The chamber also has a reinforced mylar exit window separating the Si array from the target gas. This allows protons from the ({alpha}, p) reaction to be detected. The detection of these protons opens the gating grid to allow the drift electrons released from the ionizing gas during the ({alpha}, p) reaction to reach the anode segment below the reaction.

  3. APS Storage Ring vacuum chamber fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1104-m circumference Advanced Photon Source Storage Ring Vacuum System is composed of 240 individual sections, which are fabricated from a combination of aluminum extrusions and machined components. The vacuum chambers will have 3800 weld joints, each subject to strict vacuum requirements, as well as a variety of related design criteria. The vacuum criteria and chamber design are reviewed, including a discussion of the weld joint geometries. The critical fabrication process parameters for meeting the design requirements are discussed. The experiences of the prototype chamber fabrication program are presented. Finally, the required facilities preparation for construction activity is briefly described. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  4. Growing and Analyzing Biofilms in Flow Chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Sternberg, Claus

    2011-01-01

    This unit describes the setup of flow chamber systems for the study of microbial biofilms, and methods for the analysis of structural biofilm formation. Use of flow chambers allows direct microscopic investigation of biofilm formation. The biofilms in flow chambers develop under hydrodynamic......, and disassembly and cleaning of the system. In addition, embedding and fluorescent in situ hybridization of flow chamber–grown biofilms are addressed. Curr. Protoc. Microbiol. 21:1B.2.1-1B.2.17. © 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc....

  5. Cloud chamber photographs of the cosmic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Rochester, George Dixon

    1952-01-01

    Cloud Chamber Photographs of the Cosmic Radiation focuses on cloud chamber and photographic emulsion wherein the tracks of individual subatomic particles of high energy are studied. The publication first offers information on the technical features of operation and electrons and cascade showers. Discussions focus on the relationship in time and space of counter-controlled tracks; techniques of internal control of the cloud chamber; cascade processes with artificially-produced electrons and photons; and nuclear interaction associated with an extensive shower. The manuscript then elaborates on

  6. Bubble chamber: Omega production and decay

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    This image is of real particle tracks taken from the CERN 2 m liquid hydrogen bubble chamber and shows the production and decay of a negative omega particle. A negative kaon enters the chamber which decays into many particles, including a negative omega that travels a short distance before decaying into more particles. The invention of bubble chambers in 1952 revolutionized the field of particle physics, allowing real tracks left by particles to be seen and photographed by expanding liquid that had been heated to boiling point.

  7. LEP vacuum chamber, cross-section

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    Cross-section of the final prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber. The elliptic main-opening is for the beam. The small channel to the left is for the cooling water, to carry away the heat deposited by the synchrotron radiation. The square channel to the right houses the Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) pump. The chamber is made from extruded aluminium. Its outside is clad with lead, to stop the synchrotron radiation emitted by the beam. For good adherence between Pb and Al, the Al chamber was coated with a thin layer of Ni. Ni being slightly magnetic, some resulting problems had to be overcome. See also 8301153.

  8. Analysis of a furnace for heat generation using polydisperse biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Edney Alves; Silva, Juarez de Sousa e; Silva, Jadir Nogueira da; Oliveira Filho, Delly [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola; Donzeles, Sergio Mauricio Lopes [Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria de Minas Gerais (EPAMIG), Vicosa, MG (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In many agro-industrial activities, the processing of raw material generates a substantial amount of fine materials. Examples include the production of soluble coffee, processing of rice, and wood processing, among others. In many regions, these by-products keep piling up on the courtyard of companies or become an environmental problem for land dumps. However, detailed tests of these byproducts indicate that they are excellent sources of energy. With this in mind, a furnace was developed to generate clean and hot air, using the alimentation system for pneumatic transport. Wood sawdust was used as fuel for analysis. The obtained results were considered satisfactory, proven by the small heat losses, primarily by the non-burned carbon monoxide (less than 0.2%) and the cooling of the furnace (less than 2.5%) whereas the losses by the exhaust gases were a little more than 23%. The thermal efficiency of the furnace was considered high when compared to others with an indirect heating system, obtaining an average value of 73%. The developed furnace, beyond being efficient, allows the use of the waste from the wood industry, which is important in the reduction of environmental impacts and minimizing production costs associated with the acquisition of conventional energy. (author)

  9. The Change in Surface Area Properties of Blast Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović, A.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Blast furnace sludge-BFS is a by-product and waste material of the iron and steel industry. Recently, the adsorption capabilities of blast furnace sludge have been attracting great interest. It is known that materials with modified surface properties can be obtained by different chemical and thermal treatments.The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of chemical treatment by acetic acid and thermal treatment by heating at 700 °C, on the surface properties of blast furnace sludge. Chemical treatment was performed by acetic acid adsorption on BFS.Microscopic observation was conducted using scanning electron microscopy (SEM method. Changes in examined surface area properties were analyzed by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH methods.Increasing of specific surface area, decreasing of pore size and better pore size distribution in BFS samples were registered after the applied experimental procedure. The obtained results revealed that the performed chemical and heat treatment presented the activation of blast furnace sludge.

  10. TPV Tube Generators for Apartment Building and Industrial Furnace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraas, Lewis M.; Avery, James E.; Daniels, Wilbert E.; Huang, Huang X.; Malfa, Enrico; Venturino, Matteo; Testi, Giandomenico; Mascalzi, Gianni; Wuenning, Joachim G.

    2003-01-01

    Major changes in the regulation of electric and natural gas industries during recent years have forced energy companies to explore opportunities in small-size Combined Heat and Power systems. These differ fundamentally from the traditional model of central generation and delivery since small, modular electric generators can be located very close to end-users inside a building or a single house within an industrial area, combined with the production of heat and cold. In particular, interest is growing in the new technologies for sub-100kWe units, including systems based on thermophotovoltaic (TPV) technology. TPV generator tubes can be inserted into hot furnaces to generate electricity and low-grade heat. In this generator tube, a water-cooled GaSb photovoltaic converter array inside the tube faces outward toward an infrared emitter liner mounted on the inside surface of the closed-end tube. Each tube can be sized to generate several kW and a given furnace can heat several tubes. We have conducted pilot experiments on key components in order to develop the concept just described. This includes a pilot scale array tested in an electrical furnace that heat a 3″ diameter alumina tube with an infrared emitting liner. Also, a silicon carbide tube with a water-cooling system was tested in a ceramic fiber lined furnace equipped with a commercial 200 kW flameless regenerative burner, simulating a TPV generator tube in such a system.

  11. REACTIVATION OF GRANULAR CARBON IN AN INFRARED TRAVELING BELT FURNACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    An all-electrical Shirco carbon regeneration furnace and its air pollution control system have been evaluated for cost and process effectiveness in carbon reactivation at the Pomona Advanced Wastewater Treatment Research Facility. The granular activated carbon used for the Shirco...

  12. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: THE PLASMA CENTRIFUGAL FURNACE RETECH, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The plasma centrifugal furnace is a thermal technology which uses the heat generated from a plasma torch to decontaminate metal and organic contaminated waste. This is accomplished by melting metal-bearing solids and, in the process, thermally destroying organic contaminants. The...

  13. Heat Transfer Analysis for Industrial AC Electric Arc Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    (U)nal (C)amdali; Murat Tun(c)

    2005-01-01

    The heat transfer analysis was performed for an AC electric arc furnace (EAF). Heat losses by conduction, convection and radiation from outer surface, roof, bottom and electrodes of EAF were determined in detail. Some suggestions about decreasing heat losses were presented.

  14. The Iron Blast Furnace: A Study in Chemical Thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treptow, Richard S.; Jean, Luckner

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the furnace from a chemical thermodynamics perspective. Examines the enthalpy, entropy, and free energy change for each reaction of importance. These properties are interpreted on the molecular level then used to deduce the conditions necessary for each reaction to occur in its intended direction. Chemical kinetics is also discussed.…

  15. Research on Microwave Heating-Direct Steelmaking in Electric Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jin; LIU Liu; ZENG Jia-qing; REN Rui-gang; LIU Jin-ying

    2005-01-01

    Self-fluxing iron ore concentrates containing coal have good microwave absorbability.With the voluminal heating property of microwave,the concentrates can be reduced uniformly and swiftly.The metallized semi-product can be directly charged into electric furnace for making clean steel.The total consumed energy of overall route is about 20.98 GJ.

  16. The influence of furnace wall emissivity on steel charge heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švantner, Michal; Honnerová, Petra; Veselý, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    Radiation heat transfer is one of the most important heat transfer modes in high-temperature applications. It is a strongly non-linear process, which depends on the temperature and emissivity of heat exchange surfaces, their geometrical configuration and properties of the surrounding atmosphere. Heat exchange intensity between the surfaces depends mainly on their temperature differences. However, their emissivities influence significantly the radiation heat transfer process as well. Emissivity is a function of surface state or atmospheric chemical reactions, temperature and wavelengths. Because of these non-linearities, it is very complicated to evaluate such a real problem by numerical simulation, and experimental work seems to be the most reliable evaluation procedure. We applied special high-temperature coatings of different emissivities on furnace walls to evaluate the dependence between the furnace wall emissivity and steel charge heating. The emissivity analyses of the coatings used and emissivity measurement results in dependence on wavelength are presented in this paper. The dependence of the charge heating on the furnace wall emissivity, the importance of emissivity wavelength dependence and significant differences of the emissivity effect in electrical and gas heated furnaces are shown. The possible consequences and practical benefits are also discussed in this paper.

  17. OPERATION OF THE ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE WITH LIQUID RESIDUES METAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Steblov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations have shown a positive impact of increasing the mass of the liquid residue (swamps in an electric arc furnace EAF-160, from 10 to 20–30 tonnes on increasing of usable output and reducing the specific energy consumption per ton of liquid metal.

  18. MULTISTAGED BURNER DESIGN FOR IN-FURNACE NOX CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of a multistage combustion modification design, combining two advanced NOx control technologies, on a pilot-scale (0.9 MW) package boiler simulator for in-furnace NOx control of high nitrogen fuel combustion applications. A low NOx precomb...

  19. Fuzzy diagnosis of float-glass production furnace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaanenburg, L; TerHaseborg, H; Nijhuis, JAG; Reusch, B

    1997-01-01

    The industrial production of high-quality float-glass is usually supervised by the single human expert. It is of interest to formalize his empirical knowledge to support the furnace operator at all times during the day. The paper describes the systematic development of a fuzzy expert with 6 blocks o

  20. Electrode immersion depth determination and control in electroslag remelting furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgaard, David K.; Beaman, Joseph J.; Shelmidine, Gregory J.

    2007-02-20

    An apparatus and method for controlling an electroslag remelting furnace comprising adjusting electrode drive speed by an amount proportional to a difference between a metric of electrode immersion and a set point, monitoring impedance or voltage, and calculating the metric of electrode immersion depth based upon a predetermined characterization of electrode immersion depth as a function of impedance or voltage.

  1. Gunning Mix or Converter and Electric Arc Furnace in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUJie-hua; ZHANGYong-fang

    1996-01-01

    The increase of steel output by converter and electric are furnace has imposed a critical demand in quality and quantity on gunning mix in functioning a longer life of those de-vices linings.The paoer describes the consump-tion of gunning mix for converter and EAF and its recent development in variety and quality in China.

  2. Energy balance analysis for Erdemir blast furnace number one

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Emre Ertem; Sabit Gurgen [Eregli Iron and Steel Works Inc., Zonguldak (Turkey). Energy Management Department

    2006-08-15

    There are two blast furnaces in Erdemir. The blast furnace No. 1, Ayse, started operations in 1965. Having been modernized three times in the years 1971, 1977, and 1986, it has been re-lined (the renewal of refractory bricks) in the year 1998. The diameter of its reservoir is 8.99 m with a working volume of 1505.0 m{sup 3}. The daily production capacity is 3000 tons amounting to 1,065,000 tons annually tons. The blast furnace No. 2, Zubeyde, started its operations in 1978. It has been modernized twice in the years 1987 and 1995 and has been re-lined in October 2000. It is of top pressure type and has oxygen injection. The diameter of its reservoir is 9.70 m with the working volume being 1707.7 m{sup 3}. The daily production capacity is 4000 tons with the annual being 1,420,000 tons. The iron production process consumes 50% of the total energy and comprises a significant portion of total costs in the integrated steel works. Iron (Fe) production is made by the reduction of hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) with coke in the blast furnace. This can be analyzed as two separate areas, namely the furnace and stoves. The necessary carbon and high temperature required by the reduction process makes the furnaces an energy balance center. In this study, the limits of the Blast Furnace No. 1 in Erdemir have been chosen as the control volume in which the stoves have not been included. By the identification of the energy sources that move in and out of the control volume, the energy output sources have been fractioned and categorized. For the implementation of the method, also known as the balance analysis has been chosen and the model presented in the 'Japanese Steel Making Handbook' has been taken as a reference.

  3. Energy balance analysis for Erdemir blast furnace number one

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emre Ertem, M. [Eregli Iron and Steel Works Inc., Energy Management Department, 67330 Kdz. Eregli, Zonguldak (Turkey); Guergen, Sabit [Dokuz Eyluel University, Department of Mining Engineering, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey)

    2006-08-15

    Eregli Iron and Steel Works (Erdemir) began its activities on May 15, 1965 with an annual production capacity of 450,000 tons and has made important contributions to the Turkish economy ever since. Today, with a total amount of crude steel production exceeding three million tons, it is the largest integrated iron and steel factory and the sole producer of flat steel in the country. Erdemir produces hot and cold rolled coils, zinc, tin, and chromium plated steel. There are two blast furnaces in Erdemir. The blast furnace No. 1, Ayse, started operations in 1965. Having been modernized three times in the years 1971, 1977, and 1986, it has been re-lined (the renewal of refractory bricks) in the year 1998. The diameter of its reservoir is 8.99m with a working volume of 1505.0m{sup 3}. The daily production capacity is 3000 tons amounting to 1,065,000 tons annually tons. The blast furnace No. 2, Zubeyde, started its operations in 1978. It has been modernized twice in the years 1987 and 1995 and has been re-lined in October 2000. It is of top pressure type and has oxygen injection. The diameter of its reservoir is 9.70m with the working volume being 1707.7m{sup 3}. The daily production capacity is 4000 tons with the annual being 1,420,000 tons. The iron production process consumes 50% of the total energy and comprises a significant portion of total costs in the integrated steel works. Iron (Fe) production is made by the reduction of hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) with coke in the blast furnace. This can be analyzed as two separate areas, namely the furnace and stoves. The necessary carbon and high temperature required by the reduction process makes the furnaces an energy balance center. In this study, the limits of the Blast Furnace No. 1 in Erdemir have been chosen as the control volume in which the stoves have not been included. By the identification of the energy sources that move in and out of the control volume, the energy output

  4. Developing cloud chambers with high school students

    CERN Document Server

    Ishizuka, Ryo; Sato, Shoma; Zeze, Syoji

    2013-01-01

    The result and outcome of the cloud chamber project, which aims to develop a cloud chamber useful for science education is reported in detail. A project includes both three high school students and a teacher as a part of Super Science High School (SSH) program in our school. We develop a dry ice free cloud chamber using salt and ice (or snow). Technical detail of the chamber is presented. We also argue how the project affects student's cognition, motivation, academic skills and behavior. The research project had been done in very similar way to those of professional researchers, i.e., planning research, applying fund, writing a paper and giving a talk in conferences. From interviews with students, we learn that such style of scientific activity is very effective in promoting student's motivation for learning science.

  5. Developing Cloud Chambers with High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Ryo; Tan, Nobuaki; Sato, Shoma; Zeze, Syoji

    The result and outcome of the cloud chamber project, which aims to develop a cloud chamber useful for science education is reported in detail. A project includes both three high school students and a teacher as a part of Super Science High School (SSH) program in our school. We develop a dry-ice-free cloud chamber using salt and ice (or snow). Technical details of the chamber are described. We also argue how the project have affected student's cognition, motivation, academic skills and behavior. The research project has taken steps of professional researchers, i.e., in planning research, applying fund, writing a paper and giving a talk in conferences. From interviews with students, we have learnt that such style of scientific activity is very effective in promoting student's motivation for learning science.

  6. RADAR Anechoic Chamber/RCS Measurements Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The RF Anechoic Chamber is 56 feet long by 12 feet high by 13.5 feet wide, with an adjoining electronic computer control room. A double door entrance at one end of...

  7. High Performance Methane Thrust Chamber (HPMTC) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop a High-Performance Methane Thrust Chamber (HPMRE) to meet the demands of advanced chemical propulsion systems for deep-space mission...

  8. MAN-IN-SIMULANT TEST (MIST) CHAMBER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The MIST chamber uses methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen) vapor as a simulant for HD agent to conduct system level evaluations of chemical protective ensembles....

  9. Using a ceramic chamber in kicker magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurennoy, S.

    1993-05-01

    A ceramic chamber inside kicker magnets can provide the relevant field risetime. On the other hand, some metallic coating inside has to prevent static charge buildup and shield the beam from ceramic and ferrite at high frequencies to avoid possible resonances. The issues concerning the metallized ceramic chamber, such as coupling impedances and requirements on the coating, are studied to find a compromise solution for kickers of the Medium Energy Booster at the Superconducting Super Collider.

  10. A very large multigap resistive plate chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Cerron-Zeballos, E; Hatzifotiadou, D; Kim, D W; Lamas-Valverde, J; Lee, S C; Platner, E D; Roberts, J; Williams, M C S; Zichichi, A

    1999-01-01

    We have built and tested a very large multigap resistive plate chamber (MRPC). We discuss the suitability of the multigap RPC for the construction of large area modules. We give details of the construction technique and results from a scan across the surface of the chamber. We also report on the implementation of `half-strip resolution', where we improve the spatial resolution by a factor 2 without increasing the number of read-out channels. (9 refs).

  11. Impact excited strain gage for multiwire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for measuring multiwire chamber tension by impact excitation of mechanical oscillations and measuring their periods is described. A flowsheet of an automated electron gaugeis presented; the gauge provides high efficiency and possibility for measurements under conditions of difficult availability of the multiwire chamber system. The range of tension measurements is 0.5-70 g for gilded tugsten wires of 20 μm in diameter and 60 cm length

  12. The world's largest time projection chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Peter Glassel, the technical coordinator for the ALICE time projection chamber, is seen sitting inside the detector; the largest in the world at nearly 100 cubic metres. Thousands of wires are connected to read out electronic data produced as particles are created in lead-lead collisions at the centre of the detector. These particles will cause the medium within the time projection chamber to ionise along their tracks allowing the particle paths to be recreated.

  13. Georges Charpak and his multiwire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    In 1968, Georges Charpak developed the 'multiwire proportional chamber', a gas-filled box with a large number of parallel detector wires, each connected to individual amplifiers. Linked to a computer, it could achieve a counting rate a thousand times better than existing techniques - without a camera in sight. From left to right, Georges Charpak, Fabio Sauli and Jean-Claude Santiard working on a multiwire chamber in 1970.

  14. Tracking with wire chambers at high luminosities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, G.G. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (USA) Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Radiation damage and rate limitations impose severe constraints on wire chambers at the SSC. Possible conceptual designs for wire chamber tracking systems that satisfy these constraints are discussed. Computer simulation studies of tracking in such systems are presented. Simulations of events from interesting physics at the SSC, including hits from minimum bias background events, are examined. Results of some preliminary pattern recognition studies are given. 11 refs., 10 figs.

  15. Virtual Calibration Chamber CPT on Ticino sand

    OpenAIRE

    Butlanska, Joanna; Arroyo Alvarez de Toledo, Marcos; Gens Solé, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The following paper surnmarizes results of CPT's performed in virtual calibration chamber (VCC) built with a 3D model based on the distinct element method (DEM). A discrete material tailored to mimic Ticino sand is tested at different densities, stress and stress history. The limit cone tip resistance from the numerical experiments shows quantitative agreement with different empirical curves summarizing previous tests on Ticino sand in physical calibration chambers (ENEL and ISMES).

  16. The CDF vertex time projection chamber system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vertex time projection chamber (VTPC) system is one of the major components of the charged particle tracking system for the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). The chambers cover about seven units of pseudorapidity (η) and must be capable of handling substantially more than the 30-35 charged particle tracks produced by typical anti pp collisions at center-of-mass energies of 1.8 TeV. The chambers are optimized to provide the good pattern recognition in the r-z view required to locate the event vertex, measure the overall event topology, and to complement the r-φ tracking in the large axial wire drift chamber that surrounds them. The chambers provide r-z information using TDC data from sense wire signals. Information on the φ of tracks is obtained from cathode pad signals on a subset of chambers read out by a FADC system. A similar system measures dE/dx of tracks in the forward cones surrounding the exiting beams. Because of the large number of photons that pass through the detector during each collision, novel techniques are required to reduce the amount of material in the chamber. These techniques include a custom surface mount integrated circuit preamplifier, epoxy-graphite and Kapton covered foam structural members, and miniature coaxial signal cables. The mechanical construction of the chamber, radiation length vs angle, and details of the electronics are described. The event reconstruction, corrections, and preliminary performance results for 1.8 TeV anti pp collisions are also discussed. (orig.)

  17. The Gargamelle heavy liquid bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    This image shows the Gargamelle heavy liquid bubble chamber. It was used to detect particles in experiments at the PS between 1970 and 1976 before being moved to the SPS. In 1973, while working on the PS, it detected the first neutral current, an interaction vital to the electroweak theory. In 1978 a large fissure appeared in the body of the chamber and Gargamelle was stopped in 1979.

  18. Characteristic parameters of drift chambers calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present here the methods we used to analyse the characteristic parameters of drift chambers. The algorithms to calculate the electric potential in any point for any drift chamber geometry are presented. We include the description of the programs used to calculate the electric field, the drift paths, the drift velocity and the drift time. The results and the errors are discussed. (Author) 7 refs

  19. A model to forecast magma chamber rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, John; Drymoni, Kyriaki; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2016-04-01

    An understanding of the amount of magma available to supply any given eruption is useful for determining the potential eruption magnitude and duration. Geodetic measurements and inversion techniques are often used to constrain volume changes within magma chambers, as well as constrain location and depth, but such models are incapable of calculating total magma storage. For example, during the 2012 unrest period at Santorini volcano, approximately 0.021 km3 of new magma entered a shallow chamber residing at around 4 km below the surface. This type of event is not unusual, and is in fact a necessary condition for the formation of a long-lived shallow chamber. The period of unrest ended without culminating in eruption, i.e the amount of magma which entered the chamber was insufficient to break the chamber and force magma further towards the surface. Using continuum-mechanics and fracture-mechanics principles, we present a model to calculate the amount of magma contained at shallow depth beneath active volcanoes. Here we discuss our model in the context of Santorini volcano, Greece. We demonstrate through structural analysis of dykes exposed within the Santorini caldera, previously published data on the volume of recent eruptions, and geodetic measurements of the 2011-2012 unrest period, that the measured 0.02% increase in volume of Santorini's shallow magma chamber was associated with magmatic excess pressure increase of around 1.1 MPa. This excess pressure was high enough to bring the chamber roof close to rupture and dyke injection. For volcanoes with known typical extrusion and intrusion (dyke) volumes, the new methodology presented here makes it possible to forecast the conditions for magma-chamber failure and dyke injection at any geodetically well-monitored volcano.

  20. Numerical simulation of magma chamber dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Antonella; Papale, Paolo; Montagna, Chiara Paola; Vassalli, Melissa; Giudice, Salvatore; Cassioli, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    Magma chambers are characterized by periodic arrivals of deep magma batches that give origin to complex patterns of magma convection and mixing, and modify the distribution of physical quantities inside the chamber. We simulate the transient, 2D, multi-component homogeneous dynamics in geometrically complex dyke+chamber systems, by means of GALES, a finite element parallel C++ code solving mass, momentum and energy equations for multi-component homogeneous gas-liquid (± crystals) mixtures in compressible-to-incompressible flow conditions. Code validation analysis includes several cases from the classical engineering literature, corresponding to a variety of subsonic to supersonic gas-liquid flow regimes (see http://www.pi.ingv.it/~longo/gales/gales.html). The model allows specification of the composition of the different magmas in the domain, in terms of ten major oxides plus the two volatile species H2O and CO2. Gas-liquid thermodynamics are modeled by using the compositional dependent, non-ideal model in Papale et al. (Chem.. Geol., 2006). Magma properties are defined in terms of local pressure, temperature, and composition including volatiles. Several applications are performed within domains characterized by the presence of one or more magma chambers and one or more dykes, with different geometries and characteristic size from hundreds of m to several km. In most simulations an initial compositional interface is placed at the top of a feeding dyke, or at larger depth, with the deeper magma having a lower density as a consequence of larger volatile content. The numerical results show complex patterns of magma refilling in the chamber, with alternating phases of magma ingression and magma sinking from the chamber into the feeding dyke. Intense mixing takes place in feeding dykes, so that the new magma entering the chamber is always a mixture of the deep and the initially resident magma. Buoyant plume rise occurs through the formation of complex convective

  1. Design and Fabrication of a Stir Casting Furnace Set-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabhanjan Sahoo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Now-a-days a large variety of heating techniques/furnaces are available. There may be many method for supplying heat to the work but heat is produced either by combustion of fuel or electric resistance heating. Taking into consideration the effect of cost, safety, simplicity and ease of construction we are going for an electrical resistance heating furnace with indirect heating provisions. The stir casting furnace has two main parts that enable to perform all its operations, they are: Furnace Elements and Control Panel. This paper shows the design and fabrication of stir-casting furnace and aluminium melted and casted to form.

  2. Cost cutting/energy saving revamp for steel mill reheat furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzi, A.

    1981-10-01

    Modifications to a 385-ton/h walking beam slab reheating furnace and a 100-ton/h pusher furnace provide estimated energy savings of 14 and 37% respectively with payback periods of approximately 9 and 21 months. Changes in furnace operation and equipment discussed include an automatic control system to improve the distribution of heat to the different furnace zones, burner design, improved design of discharge doors and recuperator operation. Cost savings for five years of operation are in excess of $12 million and $3.5 million for the walking beam and pusher furnace.

  3. Status and Evaluation of Microwave Furnace Capabilities at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizcano, Maricela; Mackey, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    The microwave (MW) furnace is a HY-Tech Microwave Systems, 2 kW 2.45 GHz Single Mode Microwave Applicator operating in continuous wave (CW) with variable power. It is located in Cleveland, Ohio at NASA Glenn Research Center. Until recently, the furnace capabilities had not been fully realized due to unknown failure that subsequently damaged critical furnace components. Although the causes of the problems were unknown, an assessment of the furnace itself indicated operational failure may have been partially caused by power quality. This report summarizes the status of the MW furnace and evaluates its capabilities in materials processing.

  4. Numerical Computation of Net Radiative Heat Transfer within a Non Absorbing Furnace Enclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaibu Ndache MOHAMMED

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The numerical evaluation of the net radiative heat transfer rate in a single zone, non absorbing furnace enclosure is reported. In this analysis, simplified mathematical furnace model namely, the long furnace model is used to determine furnace performance. The formulation assumes some known temperature values. Thus, heat transfer equations were set up and solved numerically. A FORTRAN computer program was developed and debugged. Results obtained from this study compare favourably well with the results from the traditional graphical method. Also, the computer program developed can handle variations in furnace operating conditions, temperatures, thermal properties and dimensions.

  5. Metallurgy of mercury in Almaden: from aludel furnaces until Pacific furnaces; La metalurgia del mercurio en Almaden: desde los hornos de aludeles a los hornos Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejero-Manzanares, J.; Garrido Saenz, I.; Mata Cabrera, F.; Rubio Mesas, M. L.

    2014-07-01

    This paper shows the different types of furnaces for roasting cinnabar, used in the metallurgy of quicksilver over the centuries of exploitation of the Almaden Mines (Spain). Some of these techniques are part of our industrial heritage. They have contributed to name UNESCO World Heritage Site the vast technological legacy of these mines recently. This research contributes to close the long way of metallurgical activity from aludel furnaces until Pacif furnaces, first and lasted technology to produce on an industrial scale. It is delved into the most relevant aspects having to do with the type, evolution and number of furnaces existing on each of the periods. (Author)

  6. The GODDESS ionization chamber: developing robust windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Rose; Baugher, Travis; Cizewski, Jolie; Pain, Steven; Ratkiewicz, Andrew; Goddess Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Reaction studies of nuclei far from stability require high-efficiency arrays of detectors and the ability to identify beam-like particles, especially when the beam is a cocktail beam. The Gammasphere ORRUBA Dual Detectors for Experimental Structure Studies (GODDESS) is made up of the Oak Ridge-Rutgers University Barrel Array (ORRUBA) of silicon detectors for charged particles inside of the gamma-ray detector array Gammasphere. A high-rate ionization chamber is being developed to identify beam-like particles. Consisting of twenty-one alternating anode and cathode grids, the ionization chamber sits downstream of the target chamber and is used to measure the energy loss of recoiling ions. A critical component of the system is a thin and robust mylar window which serves to separate the gas-filled ionization chamber from the vacuum of the target chamber with minimal energy loss. After construction, windows were tested to assure that they would not break below the required pressure, causing harm to the wire grids. This presentation will summarize the status of the ionization chamber and the results of the first tests with beams. This work is supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy and National Science Foundation.

  7. Quality control of ATLAS muon chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Fabich, Adrian

    ATLAS is a general-purpose experiment for the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Its Muon Spectrometer will require ∼ 5500m2 of precision tracking chambers to measure the muon tracks along a spectrometer arm of 5m to 15m length, embedded in a magnetic field of ∼ 0.5T. The precision tracking devices in the Muon System will be high pressure drift tubes (MDTs). Approximately 370,000 MDTs will be assembled into ∼ 1200 drift chambers. The performance of the MDT chambers is very much dependent on the mechanical quality of the chambers. The uniformity and stability of the performance can only be assured providing very high quality control during production. Gas tightness, high-voltage behaviour and dark currents are global parameters which are common to gas detectors. For all chambers, they will be tested immediately after the chamber assembly at every production site. Functional tests, for example radioactive source scans and cosmic-ray runs, will be performed in order to establish detailed performan...

  8. In vitro penetration of bleaching agents into the pulp chamber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Valera, M C; Mancini, M N G;

    2004-01-01

    To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures.......To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures....

  9. Bulkhead chamber ignition for internal combustion engines. Schottkammerzuendung fuer Verbrennungsmotore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, G.

    1990-12-06

    Bulkhead chamber ignition makes for reliable ignition of different fuels (e.g. petrol or diesel) in internal combustion engines (multifuel engine) that can be operated with an extremely lean fuel-air mixture. This is realized by an open chamber (referred to as bulkhead chamber in the following) inside the combustion chamber which diverts a fraction of the compressed fuel-air mixture from the combustion chamber. After this the pressure in the bulkhead chamber is increased until the mixture ignites spontaneously. The combustion pressure drives back the piston and opens the bulkhead chamber. Then the compressed fuel-air mixture in the combustion chamber is ignited by the released combustion gas.

  10. Investigation of Furnace Uniformity and its Effect on High-Temperature Fixed-Point Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlevnoy, B.; Sakharov, M.; Ogarev, S.; Sapritsky, V.; Yamada, Y.; Anhalt, K.

    2008-02-01

    A large-area furnace BB3500YY was designed and built at the VNIIOFI as a furnace for high-temperature metal (carbide)-carbon (M(C)-C) eutectic fixed points and was then investigated at the NMIJ. The dependence of the temperature uniformity of the furnace on various heater and cell holder arrangements was investigated. After making some improvements, the temperature of the central part of the furnace was uniform to within 2K over a length of 40 mm—the length of the fixed-point cell—at a temperature of 2,500°C. With this furnace, the melting plateaux of Re-C and TiC-C were shown to be better than those observed in other furnaces. For instance, a Re-C cell showed melting plateaux with a 0.1K melting range and a duration of about 40 min. Furthermore, to verify the capability of the furnace to fill cells, one Re-C and one TiC-C cell were made using the BB3500YY. The cells were then compared to a Re-C cell made in a Nagano furnace and a TiC-C cell filled in a BB3200pg furnace. The agreement in plateau shapes demonstrates the capability of the BB3500YY furnace to also function as a filling furnace.

  11. Fabrication and performance evaluation of oil –fired crucible furnace using locally sourced materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.O Osarenmwinda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The technological advancement of any nation have been influenced and uplifted by the extent to which it can usefully harness and convert its mineral resources.The production of metal in foundries and in all human lives have become a general practice.This paper deals with the design, fabrication and performance evaluation of an oil-fired crucible furnace using locally sourced materials . The components of oil fired crucible furnace were furnace casing, crucible,furnace cover,burner housing,furnace cover stand,base stand and burner, Design drawings were produced and mild steel sheet was used for the fabrication of the furnace, while the other components needed for the design were selected based on functionality, durability, cost and local availability.. Experimental tests were performed to evaluate the performance of the furnace. The results showed that the furnace has a heating rate of 43.9°C/min and attained a temperature as high as 1386 °C . The furnace also had a melting rate of 333.3g/min for Aluminum and 115.8 g/min for Copper. The efficiency of the furnace was determined to be 10.34%.The low value was as result of the large energy wastage due to the open nature of the furnace.

  12. Feasibility study of utilizing solar furnace technology in steel making industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbaspoursani, K. [The Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Takestan Islamic Azad University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], Email: a.abbaspour@tiau.ac.ir; Tofigh, A.A.; Nahang Toudeshki, S.; Hadadian, A. [Department of Energy, Materials and Energy Research Center (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], Email: Ali.A.Tofigh@gmail.com, email: toudeshki@hotmail.com, email: Arash.Hadadian@gmail.com; Farahmandpour, B. [Iranian Fuel Conservation company (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], Email: farahmandpour@gmail.com

    2011-07-01

    In Iran, the casting industry consumes 33.6% of electricity production, and most of this electricity is used in the melting process. Currently, scrap preheating is done using electric arc furnaces and the aim of this study is to assess the feasibility of replacing electric arc furnaces with solar furnaces. The performance of solar furnaces in the Iran Alloy Steel Company under Yazd climate conditions was studied. It was found that the solar irradiation time and solar insulation are sufficient to operate a solar furnace with the capacity to preheat 250 thousand tons per year of scrap to 500 degrees celsius. Results showed that such a furnace would decrease energy consumption by 40 GWh per year and that it would take 5 years to return the investment. This study demonstrated that operating a solar furnace in the Iran Alloy Steel Company under Yazd climate conditions is feasible and would result in economic and environmental benefits.

  13. Measurement method and experimental research on flame emissivity in Coal-fired furnaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chao; LOU Chun; JIANG Zhi-wei; ZHOU Huai-chun

    2007-01-01

    The combustion condition in coal-fired furnaces of the large power station boiler is very complex and the flame emissivity is one of the important combustion parameters.A measurement method of the flame emissivity based on the blackbody furnace calibration of CCD(Charge Coupled Device)cameras and the color image processing techniques of computer was introduced.The experimentaI research on the flame emissivity in a 200 MW boiler furnace and a 300 MW boiler furnace was conducted respectively through the several CCD cameras installed at different height in furnace.The measurement results show:the flame emissivity increases with the increase of the unit load.the flame emissivity of the burner areas in furnace is the highest and the flame emissivity decrease with the increase of height of furnace above the burners area.

  14. Conservação de energia em fornos de cozimento de anodo Energy saving in anode baking furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. T. Tiba

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A tendência por unidades de produção mais sustentáveis vem obrigando a indústria de alumínio a adotar estratégias para reduzir o consumo de energia e minimizar a geração de resíduos. Procedimentos nesta direção têm sido implementados em fornos de cozimento de anodo, onde alguns aprimoramentos têm permitido a redução no consumo de energia. Entretanto, sabe-se que durante a etapa de queima do anodo, elevada quantidade de calor é ainda dissipada para o ambiente, aumentando os custos com energia. Desta forma, o presente trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar alternativas de redução do consumo de combustível do forno de cozimento de anodo considerando, para isto, o transporte de calor das câmaras de combustão desde as paredes refratárias até o bloco de carbono, passando pelo coque fluido. Os resultados aqui obtidos indicam que uma possível mudança da distribuição do tamanho de partículas do coque, bem como, a adição de uma manta isolante no topo do forno pode aperfeiçoar o desempenho do sistema quando o foco é sustentabilidade e otimização do processo.The trend for sustainable production units induced the aluminum industry to adopt strategies of reducing the energy consumption and waste generation. In this sense, several procedures have been carried out in the anode baking furnace, reducing its energy consumption. However, during the carbon block thermal treatment, a great amount of heat is still released to the environment, increasing the energy cost. Therefore, the present work aims to show alternatives of reducing the anode furnace energy consumption considering the heat flow from the combustion chamber, via the flue wall and the fluid coke, till the anode. The results point out that a change in the fluid coke particle size distribution as well as placing an insulating blanket on the top of the furnace can optimize the anode furnace performance when the focus is sustainability and the process optimization.

  15. CFD simulation of gas and particles combustion in biomass furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griselin, Nicolas

    2000-11-01

    In this thesis, gas and particle combustion in biomass furnaces is investigated numerically. The aim of this thesis is to use Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technology as an effective computer based simulation tool to study and develop the combustion processes in biomass furnaces. A detailed model for the numerical simulation of biomass combustion in a furnace, including fixed-bed modeling, gas-phase calculation (species distribution, temperature field, flow field) and gas-solid two-phase interaction for flying burning particles is presented. This model is used to understand the mechanisms of combustion and pollutant emissions under different conditions in small scale and large scale furnaces. The code used in the computations was developed at the Division of Fluid Mechanics, LTH. The flow field in the combustion enclosure is calculated by solving the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, with standard {kappa} - {epsilon} turbulence closure, together with the energy conservation equation and species transport equations. Discrete transfer method is used for calculating the radiation source term in the energy conservation equation. Finite difference is used to solve the general form of the equation yielding solutions for gas-phase temperatures, velocities, turbulence intensities and species concentrations. The code has been extended through this work in order to include two-phase flow simulation of particles and gas combustion. The Favre-averaged gas equations are solved in a Eulerian framework while the submodels for particle motion and combustion are used in the framework of a Lagrangian approach. Numerical simulations and measurement data of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), CO, H{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and temperature on the top of the fixed bed are used to model the amount of tar and char formed during pyrolysis and combustion of biomass fuel in the bed. Different operating conditions are examined. Numerical calculations are compared with the measured data. It is

  16. Biomass for the turbulence chamber reactor. Results of a research project for the thermal utilization of rape extraction shot; Biomasse fuer die Wirbelkammerfeuerung. Ergebnisse eines Forschungsprojektes zur thermischen Nutzung von Rapsextraktionsschrot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barz, M. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Energietechnik; Heinisch, R. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Reaktionstechnik

    1999-03-01

    Rape extraction shot is a by-product of the oil seed processing industry. This paper presents results of a research project investigating possibilities of rape extraction shot as an alternative fuel. As a result the combustion in a turbulence chamber furnace is considered advantageous. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur Verbrennung von Rapsextraktionsschrot, einem Nebenprodukt aus der industriellen Oelsaatverarbeitung, bietet sich die Wirbelkammerfeuerung an. Dies ist das Ergebnis eines Forschungsprojektes, das die Moeglichkeiten zur energetischen Nutzung dieses Brennstoffes untersucht. (orig.)

  17. Thermal Spray Coatings for Blast Furnace Tuyere Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, A.; Sivakumar, G.; Prusty, D.; Shalini, J.; Dutta, M.; Joshi, S. V.

    2015-12-01

    The components in an integrated steel plant are invariably exposed to harsh working environments involving exposure to high temperatures, corrosive gases, and erosion/wear conditions. One such critical component in the blast furnace is the tuyere, which is prone to thermal damage by splashing of molten metal/slag, erosive damage by falling burden material, and corrosion from the ensuing gases. All the above, collectively or independently, accelerate tuyere failure, which presents a potential explosion hazard in a blast furnace. Recently, thermal spray coatings have emerged as an effective solution to mitigate such severe operational challenges. In the present work, five different coatings deposited using detonation spray and air plasma spray techniques were comprehensively characterized. Performance evaluation involving thermal cycling, hot corrosion, and erosion tests was also carried out. Based on the studies, a coating system was suggested for possible tuyere applications and found to yield substantial improvement in service life during actual field trials.

  18. Combustion and emissions of pulverized olive cake in tube furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Widyan, Mohamad I. [Department of Biosystems Engineering, Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST), P.O. Box 3030, Irbid 22110 (Jordan); Tashtoush, Ghassan; Hamasha, Abdelslam M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST), P.O. Box 3030, Irbid 22110 (Jordan)

    2006-07-15

    In Jordan, energy resources are almost nonexistent, and the country imports most of its energy. The unstable imported supply consumes a significant proportion of the GNP. Consequently, research in the renewable energy sector has emerged. Jordan produces a large volume of olive cake (OC) annually, which has a high potential as an energy source. This study involves burning OC in pulverized form in a vertical tube furnace with equivalence ratios from 0.8 to 1.4. The furnace design proved acceptable, and the pulverized OC burned efficiently. The maximum thermal and combustion efficiencies were 69% and 82%, respectively. The maximum flame temperature reached 980{sup o}C, and the cooling water temperature gradient was about 20{sup o}C. Exhaust gas analyses showed that the concentration of CO was below 1.6%, while the NO{sub x} emission was within 550ppm and the SO{sub x} maximum concentration was 30ppm. (author)

  19. Recycling MgO-C refractory in electric arc furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conejo, A.N. [Metallurgy Department, Morelia Technological Institute, Morelia (Mexico); Lule, R.G.; Lopez, F. [Process Engineering Department-Steelmaking Shop, Lazaro Cardenas City (Mexico); Rodriguez, R. [Refractories Department, Lazaro Cardenas City (Mexico)

    2006-11-15

    MgO-C refractory recycling from electric arc furnaces and ladle furnaces has been carried out during the melting of direct reduced iron (DRI). Metallurgical trials to define the effects of refractory recycling on energy consumption, melting time, flux consumption and refractory consumption are reported in this work. The method of preparation as well as the method of injection is also included in this study. Based on current results, the practice of recycling spent refractory is highly recommended. Visual inspection indicates the potential benefits in slag foaming which starts to form at the beginning of the heat thus allowing the use of full power transformer and in turn results in faster melting rates. (author)

  20. Production Scheduling for the Furnace - Casting Line System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stawowy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem considered in the paper is motivated by production planning in a foundry equipped with the furnace and casting line, which provides a variety of castings in various grades of cast iron/steel for a large number of customers. The quantity of molten metal does not exceed the capacity of the furnace, the load is a particular type of metal from which the products are made in the automatic casting lines. The goal is to create the order of the melted metal loads to prevent delays in delivery of goods to customers. This problem is generally considered as a lot-sizing and scheduling problem. The paper describes two computational intelligence algorithms for simultaneous grouping and scheduling tasks and presents the results achieved by these algorithms for example test problems.

  1. Simulation, optimization and control of a thermal cracking furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masoumi, M.E.; Sadrameli, S.M.; Towfighi, J. [Chemical Engineering Department, Tarbiat Modarres University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran, Iran (Iran); Niaei, A. [Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Tabriz, 51666-14766 Tabriz, Iran (Iran)

    2006-03-01

    The ethylene production process is one of the most important aspect of a petrochemical plant and the cracking furnace is the heart of the process. Since, ethylene is one of the raw materials in the chemical industry and the market situation of not only the feed and the product, but also the utility is rapidly changing, the optimal operation and control of the plant is important. A mathematical model, which describes the static and dynamic operations of a pilot plant furnace, was developed. The static simulation was used to predict the steady-state profiles of temperature, pressure and products yield. The dynamic simulation of the process was used to predict the transient behavior of thermal cracking reactor. Using a dynamic programming technique, an optimal temperature profile was developed along the reactor. Performances of temperature control loop were tested for different controller parameters and disturbances. The results of the simulation were tested experimentally in a computer control pilot plant. (author)

  2. Simulating the heat transfer process of horizontal anode baking furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.Q. Zhang; C.G. Zheng; M.H. Xu [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion

    2005-07-01

    A transient two-dimensional mathematical model of a horizontal baking furnace is presented. The model combines complex thermal phenomena in a baking process such as air infiltration, evolution and combustion of volatile matters, combustion of packing coke, and heat losses. The predicted results are in good agreement with measured data. Furthermore, the process is simulated under different operating conditions such as firing cycle time, airflow and air infiltration. The simulated results indicate that the fuel consumption decreases as the firing cycle time decreases. It is also found that reducing the airflow and air infiltration will help to save fuel. The model is proved to be a useful tool for the process optimisation of the baking furnace in the aluminum industry.

  3. Glass-ceramic materials from electric arc furnace dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavouras, P; Kehagias, T; Tsilika, I; Kaimakamis, G; Chrissafis, K; Kokkou, S; Papadopoulos, D; Karakostas, Th

    2007-01-31

    Electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) was vitrified with SiO2, Na2CO3 and CaCO3 powders in an electric furnace at ambient atmosphere. Vitreous products were transformed into glass-ceramic materials by two-stage heat treatment, at temperatures determined by differential thermal analysis. Both vitreous and glass-ceramic materials were chemically stable. Wollastonite (CaSiO3) was separated from the parent matrix as the dominant crystalline phase, verified by X-ray diffraction analysis and energy dispersive spectrometry. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that wollastonite crystallizes mainly in its monoclinic form. Knoop microhardness was measured with the static indentation test method in all initial vitreous products and the microhardness values were in the region of 5.0-5.5 GPa. Devitrification resulted in glass-ceramic materials with microhardness values strongly dependent on the morphology and orientation of the separated crystal phase.

  4. System design description for the whole element furnace testing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, G.A. [Fluor Daniel Northwest (United States); Marschman, S.C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); MacFarlan, P.J. [Duke Engineering and Services Hanford, WA (United States); King, D.A. [SGN Eurisys Services Corp. (United States)

    1998-05-01

    This document provides a detailed description of the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Whole Element Furnace Testing System located in the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory G-Cell (327 Building). Equipment specifications, system schematics, general operating modes, maintenance and calibration requirements, and other supporting information are provided in this document. This system was developed for performing cold vacuum drying and hot vacuum drying testing of whole N-Reactor fuel elements, which were sampled from the 105-K East and K West Basins. The proposed drying processes are intended to allow dry storage of the SNF for long periods of time. The furnace testing system is used to evaluate these processes by simulating drying sequences with a single fuel element and measuring key system parameters such as internal pressures, temperatures, moisture levels, and off-gas composition.

  5. Water cooling system for sintering furnaces of nuclear fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work has as a main objective to develop a continuous cooling water system, which is necessary for the cooling of the sintering furnaces. This system is used to protect them as well as for reducing the water consumption, ejecting the heat generated into this furnaces and scattering it into the atmosphere in a fast and continuous way. The problem was defined and the reference parameters established, making the adequate research. The materials were selected as well as the length of the pipeline which will carry the secondary refrigerant fluid (water). Three possible solutions were tried,and evaluated, and from these, the thermal and economically most efficient option was selected. The layout of the solution was established and the theoretical construction of a cooling system for liquids using dichlorofluoromethane (R-22), as a refrigerant and a air cooled condenser, was accomplished. (Author)

  6. Design of a High Thermal Gradient Bridgman Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCroy, J. E.; Popok, D. P.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF) is a Bridgman-Stockbarger microgravity processing facility, designed and manifested to first fly aboard the second United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-2) Space Shuttle mission. The AADSF was principally designed to produce high axial thermal gradients, and is particularly suitable for metals solidification experiments, including non-dilute alloys. To accommodate a wider range of experimental conditions, the AADSF is equipped with a reconfigurable gradient zone. The overall design of the AADSF and the relationship between gradient zone design and furnace performance are described. Parametric thermal analysis was performed and used to select gradient zone design features that fulfill the high thermal gradient requirements of the USMP-2 experiment. The thermal model and analytical procedure, and parametric results leading to the first flight gradient zone configuration, are presented. Performance for the USMP-2 flight experiment is also predicted, and analysis results are compared to test data.

  7. Low NOx nozzle tip for a pulverized solid fuel furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donais, Richard E; Hellewell, Todd D; Lewis, Robert D; Richards, Galen H; Towle, David P

    2014-04-22

    A nozzle tip [100] for a pulverized solid fuel pipe nozzle [200] of a pulverized solid fuel-fired furnace includes: a primary air shroud [120] having an inlet [102] and an outlet [104], wherein the inlet [102] receives a fuel flow [230]; and a flow splitter [180] disposed within the primary air shroud [120], wherein the flow splitter disperses particles in the fuel flow [230] to the outlet [104] to provide a fuel flow jet which reduces NOx in the pulverized solid fuel-fired furnace. In alternative embodiments, the flow splitter [180] may be wedge shaped and extend partially or entirely across the outlet [104]. In another alternative embodiment, flow splitter [180] may be moved forward toward the inlet [102] to create a recessed design.

  8. Advanced wood burning furnaces. 2. rev. ed.; Moderne Holzfeuerungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, W. (comp.)

    2001-07-01

    New and environment-friendly technologies meet high requirements in terms of emission reduction and comfort of operation. In the field of wood burning furnaces, there is still a lack of knowledge which results in excessive cost, environmental pollution and loss of image. This brochure shows how wood furnaces should be operated correctly and also reviews the state of the art. [German] Durch die technische Entwicklung neuer, wirkungsvoller und vor allem umweltfreundlicher Heiztechniken wird zudem den in den letzten Jahren gestiegenen Anforderungen an den Emissionsschutz und den Bedienungskomfort Rechnung getragen. Mit Holz wird jedoch z. T. nicht immer richtig geheizt. Das kostet Geld und fuehrt zu vermeidbaren Umweltbelastungen und Imageschaeden. Ziel dieser Broschuere ist es daher, mit den Techniken des Heizens mit Holz vertraut zu machen und einen Ueberblick ueber den heutigen Stand zu geben. (orig.)

  9. Are magma chamber boundaries brittle or ductile? Rheological insights from thermal stressing experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, John; Meredith, Philip G.; Gudmundsson, Agust; Lavallée, Yan; Drymoni, Kyriaki

    2015-04-01

    Rheological conditions at magma chamber boundaries remain poorly understood. Many field observations of deeply-eroded and well-exposed plutons, for example Slaufrudalur and Geitafell in SE Iceland, exhibit a sharp transition between what may have been a partially or fully molten magma chamber and its surrounding brittle host rock. Some studies have suggested a more gradual change in the rheological properties of chamber boundaries, marked by a ductile halo, which is likely to exert a significant impact on their rheological response. Understanding the state and rheological conditions of magma-rock interface and interaction is essential for constraining chamber-boundary failure conditions leading to dyke propagation, onset of volcanic eruption as well as caldera fault formation. We present results from a series of thermal stressing experiments in which we attempt to recreate the likely conditions at magma-chamber boundaries. Cores of volcanic material (25 mm diameter x 65 mm long) were heated to magmatic temperatures under controlled conditions in a horizontal tube furnace (at atmospheric pressure) and then held at those temperatures over variable dwell times. At the maximum temperatures reached, the inner part of the samples undergoes partial melting whilst the outer part remains solid. After cooling the brittle shells commonly exhibit axial, fissure-like fractures with protruded blobs of solidified melt. This phenomenon is interpreted as being the result of volume expansion during partial melting. The internal melt overpressure generates fluid-driven fractures analogous to filter-pressing textures or on a large scale, dykes. We complement our observations with acoustic emission and seismic velocity data obtained from measurements throughout the experiments. These complementary data are used to infer the style and timescale of fracture formation. Our results pinpoint the temperature ranges over which brittle fractures form as a result of internal melt overpressure

  10. Investigation of Swirling Flows in Mixing Chambers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh Jian Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation analyzed the three-dimensional momentum and mass transfer characteristics arising from multiple inlets and a single outlet in micromixing chamber. The chamber consists of a right square prism, an octagonal prism, or a cylinder. Numerical results which were presented in terms of velocity vector plots and concentration distributions indicated that the swirling flows inside the chamber dominate the mixing index. Particle trajectories were utilized to demonstrate the rotational and extensional local flows which produce steady stirring, and the configuration of colored particles at the outlet section expressed at different Re represented the mixing performance qualitatively. The combination of the Taylor dispersion and the vorticity was first introduced and made the mixing successful. The effects of various geometric parameters and Reynolds numbers on the mixing characteristics were investigated. An optimal design of the cylindrical chamber with 4 inlets can be found. At larger Reynolds number, Re>15, more inertia caused the powerful swirling flows in the chamber, and more damping effect on diffusion was diminished, which then increased the mixing performance.

  11. Study and analysis of drift chamber parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work deals mainly with drift chambers. In the first chapter a summary of drift chamber properties is presented. The information has been collected from the extensive bibliography available in this field. A very simple calculation procedure of drift chamber parameters has been developed and is presented in detail in the second chapter. Some prototypes have been made following two geometries (multidrift chamber and Z-chambers). Several installations have been used for test and calibration of these prototypes. A complete description of these installations is given in the third chapter. Cosmic rays, beta particles from a Ru106 radiactive source and a test beam in the WA (West Area) of SPS at CERN have been used for experimental purposes. The analysis and the results are described for the different setups. The experimental measurements have been used to produce a complete cell parametrization (position as function of drift time) and to obtain spatial resolution values (in the range of 200-250 um). Experimental results are in good agreement with numerical calculations. (Author)

  12. Proportional chambers for the Σ installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two types of proportional chambers used in experiments with SIGMA set are considered. The main parameters of detecting electronics, high-voltage, low-voltage and gas supplies are presented. The first type chambers consist of the round or square frames of sheet foiled glass-cloth-base laminate, on which surface electrode lands and joints between them are applied by photographic printing. The second type chamber electrodes are also made of the sheet foiled glass-cloth-base laminate as strips arranged at the ends of two rectangular metallic profiles. The chamber sensitive regions vary from 64x64 mm to 768x2500 mm. The chambers are used for more than 15 years in different experiments, such as determination of elastic scattering, study of J/ψ and ψ' particle production, search for charm particles in hadron interactions, measuring the change of π--meson polarizability, study of μ+μ-π- system production. The experience of past years manifested their high efficiency and reliability

  13. Tuned Chamber Core Panel Acoustic Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Noah H.; Allen, Albert R.

    2016-01-01

    This report documents acoustic testing of tuned chamber core panels, which can be used to supplement the low-frequency performance of conventional acoustic treatment. The tuned chamber core concept incorporates low-frequency noise control directly within the primary structure and is applicable to sandwich constructions with a directional core, including corrugated-, truss-, and fluted-core designs. These types of sandwich structures have long, hollow channels (or chambers) in the core. By adding small holes through one of the facesheets, the hollow chambers can be utilized as an array of low-frequency acoustic resonators. These resonators can then be used to attenuate low-frequency noise (below 400 Hz) inside a vehicle compartment without increasing the weight or size of the structure. The results of this test program demonstrate that the tuned chamber core concept is effective when used in isolation or combined with acoustic foam treatments. Specifically, an array of acoustic resonators integrated within the core of the panels was shown to improve both the low-frequency absorption and transmission loss of the structure in targeted one-third octave bands.

  14. Characterization of calcium carbonate sorbent particle in furnace environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Soo [Aerosol and Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jae Hee [Environment Sensor System Research Center, KIST 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Keel, Sang In; Yun, Jin Han; Min, Tai Jin [Environmental Systems Research Division, KIMM 104 Sinseongno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Soo, E-mail: sskim@kaist.ac.kr [Aerosol and Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    The oxy-fuel combustion system is a promising technology to control CO{sub 2} and NO{sub X} emissions. Furthermore, sulfation reaction mechanism under CO{sub 2}-rich atmospheric condition in a furnace may lead to in-furnace desulfurization. In the present study, we evaluated characteristics of calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) sorbent particles under different atmospheric conditions. To examine the physical/chemical characteristics of CaCO{sub 3}, which is used as a sorbent particle for in-furnace desulfurization in the oxy-fuel combustion system, they were injected into high temperature drop tube furnace (DTF). Experiments were conducted at varying temperatures, residence times, and atmospheric conditions in a reactor. To evaluate the aerosolizing characteristics of the CaCO{sub 3} sorbent particle, changes in the size distribution and total particle concentration between the DTF inlet and outlet were measured. Structural changes (e.g., porosity, grain size, and morphology) of the calcined sorbent particles were estimated by BET/BJH, XRD, and SEM analyses. It was shown that sorbent particles rapidly calcined and sintered in the air atmosphere, whereas calcination was delayed in the CO{sub 2} atmosphere due to the higher CO{sub 2} partial pressure. Instead, the sintering effect was dominant in the CO{sub 2} atmosphere early in the reaction. Based on the SEM images, it was shown that the reactions of sorbent particles could be explained as a grain-subgrain structure model in both the air and CO{sub 2} atmospheres.

  15. Injection of pulverised coal into the Sidmar blast furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilius, A. (and others)

    1989-05-01

    The coal preparation equipment supplied by Heurbel and the injection equipment provided by Paul Wurth for two furnaces are described and operating results are reported. An injection rate of 120 kg/t iron has been used so far, with a coke rate of 365 kg/t and an increase in output from 53 to 60 t/m{sup 2}d; production cost savings have meant a payback period of only 1.7 years.

  16. Moving-Temperature-Gradient Heat-Pipe Furnace Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Donald C.; Lehoczky, Sandor L.; Gernert, Nelson J.

    1993-01-01

    In improved apparatus, ampoule of material directionally solidified mounted in central hole of annular heat pipe, at suitable axial position between heated and cooled ends. Heated end held in fixed position in single-element furnace; other end left in ambient air or else actively cooled. Gradient of temperature made to move along heat pipe by changing pressure of noncondensable gas. In comparison with prior crystal-growing apparatuses, this one simpler, smaller, and more efficient.

  17. Soil Stabilisation Using Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Kumar Pathak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Stabilisation is a broad sense for the various methods employed and modifying the properties of a soil to improve its engineering performance and used for a variety of engineering works. In today‟s day soil stabilisation is the major problem for civil engineers, either for construction of road and also for increasing the strength or stability of soil and reduces the construction cost. In this thesis the soil are stabilised by ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS and this material is obtained from the blast furnace of cement plant, which is the byproduct of iron (from ACC plant, sindri. It is generally obtained in three shaped one is air cooled, foamed shaped and another is in granulated shaped. The use of by-product materials for stabilisation has environmental and economic benefits. Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS material is used in the current work to stabilise soil (clay. The main objectives of this research were to investigate the effect of GGBS on the engineering property (optimum moisture content and maximum dry density, plastic limit, liquid limit, compaction, unconfined compressive strength, triaxial and California bearing ratio test of the soil and determine the engineering properties of the stabilised.

  18. Analysis of thermal radiation in coal-fired furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Jonathan J.; Hammaker, Robert G.; Madding, Robert P.; Sunderland, J. E.

    1997-04-01

    Many utilities throughout the United States have added infrared scanning to their arsenal of techniques for inspection and predictive maintenance programs. Commercial infrared scanners are not designed, however, to withstand the searing interiors of boilers, which can exceed 2500 degrees Fahrenheit. Two high-temperature lenses designed to withstand the hostile environment inside a boiler for extended periods of time were developed by the EPRI M&D Center, thus permitting real-time measurement of steam tube temperatures and subsequent analysis of tube condition, inspection of burners, and identification of hot spots. A study was conducted by Sunderland Engineering, Inc. and EPRI M&D in order to characterize the radiative interactions that affect infrared measurements made inside a commercial, coal- fired, water-tube boiler. A comprehensive literature search exploring the existing record of results pertaining to analytical and experimental determination of radiative properties of coal-combustion byproducts was performed. An experimental component intended to provide data for characterization of the optical properties of hot combustion byproducts inside a coal-fired furnace was carried out. The results of the study indicate that hot gases, carbon particles, and fly ash, which together compose the medium inside a boiler, affect to varying degrees the transport of infrared radiation across a furnace. Techniques for improved infrared measurement across a coal-fired furnace are under development.

  19. Adapting TPV for Use in a Standard Home Heating Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Randolph S.; Fraas, Lewis M.

    2007-02-01

    A novel TPV configuration will be presented that can fit into a standard home furnace cabinet. This system incorporates an externally faceted glass cylinder with a dichroic filter deposited on its outer surface and a GaSb IR cell array bonded to the outer surface on top of the filter. This cylindrical array is then surrounded with an envelope containing a low boiling point liquid for evaporative cooling. The liquid is in direct contact with the backside of the cell array. An air-cooled condenser is then mounted above the photovoltaic converter array. Evaporative cooling potentially allows a heat removal rate of 20 W/cm2. Additional novel features of this design are described. The goal is to design a cost-effective retrofit forced-air warm air furnace that can work either as a self-powered furnace or as a Combined Heat and Power appliance. In order to achieve low cost, the design point for the GaSb cell electric power density is 2.5 W/cm2.

  20. ADDITION OF ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE DUST IN HOT METAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Fardin Grillo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the process of incorporation of the mass in final hot metal and volatilization mass contained in the electric arc furnace dust (EAFD, by addition in hot metal at a temperature of 1,400°C; 1,450°C and 1,500°C altering experimental conditions such as the percentage of EAFD to be added and the percentage of silicon in hot metal. Previously, the EAFD was characterized using techniques of chemical analysis and size analysis. After characterization, the EAFD to be added to the hot metal was agglomerated in the form of briquettes. The achievement of fusion experiments in laboratory scale was placed in a vertical tubular furnace with temperature control. A flow of inert gas (argon was maintained inside the furnace during the experiments. The result of the sample EAFD volatilized shows that there is an increase in the zinc concentration when compared with the concentration of zinc present in EAFD “as received”.

  1. Detailed model for practical pulverized coal furnaces and gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.J.; Smoot, L.D.

    1989-08-01

    This study has been supported by a consortium of nine industrial and governmental sponsors. Work was initiated on May 1, 1985 and completed August 31, 1989. The central objective of this work was to develop, evaluate and apply a practical combustion model for utility boilers, industrial furnaces and gasifiers. Key accomplishments have included: Development of an advanced first-generation, computer model for combustion in three dimensional furnaces; development of a new first generation fouling and slagging submodel; detailed evaluation of an existing NO{sub x} submodel; development and evaluation of an improved radiation submodel; preparation and distribution of a three-volume final report: (a) Volume 1: General Technical Report; (b) Volume 2: PCGC-3 User's Manual; (c) Volume 3: Data Book for Evaluation of Three-Dimensional Combustion Models; and organization of a user's workshop on the three-dimensional code. The furnace computer model developed under this study requires further development before it can be applied generally to all applications; however, it can be used now by specialists for many specific applications, including non-combusting systems and combusting geseous systems. A new combustion center was organized and work was initiated to continue the important research effort initiated by this study. 212 refs., 72 figs., 38 tabs.

  2. Coke Reactivity in Simulated Blast Furnace Shaft Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapakangas, Juho; Suopajärvi, Hannu; Iljana, Mikko; Kemppainen, Antti; Mattila, Olli; Heikkinen, Eetu-Pekka; Samuelsson, Caisa; Fabritius, Timo

    2016-08-01

    Despite the fact that H2 and H2O are always present in the gas atmosphere of a blast furnace shaft, their role in the solution-loss reactions of coke has not been thoroughly examined. This study focuses on how H2 and H2O affect the reaction behavior and whether a strong correlation can be found between reactivity in the conditions of the CRI test (Coke Reactivity Index) and various simulated blast furnace shaft gas atmospheres. Partial replacement of CO/CO2 with H2/H2O was found to significantly increase the reactivity of all seven coke grades at 1373 K (1100 °C). H2 and H2O, however, did not have a significant effect on the threshold temperature of gasification. The reactivity increasing effect was found to be temperature dependent and clearly at its highest at 1373 K (1100 °C). Mathematical models were used to calculate activation energies for the gasification, which were notably lower for H2O gasification compared to CO2 indicating the higher reactivity of H2O. The reactivity results in gas atmospheres with CO2 as the sole gasifying component did not directly correlate with reactivity results in gases also including H2O, which suggests that the widely used CRI test is not entirely accurate for estimating coke reactivity in the blast furnace.

  3. Silica crown refractory corrosion in glass melting furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balandis A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The critical parameters of silica refractories, such as compressive strength, bulk, density, quantity of silica, microstructure and porosity were evaluated of unused and used bricks to line the crowns of glass furnaces, when the rate of corrosion of crowns were about 2 times greater. The change of these parameters, the chemical composition and formation of the microcracks in the used silica refractories material were studied. It was established that the short time at service of container glass furnace crown can be related to low quality of silica brick: high quantity of CaO and impurities, low quantity of silica, low quantity of silica, transferred to tridymite and cristobalite and formation of 5-10 μm and more than 100 μm cracks in the crown material. The main reason of corrosion high quality silica bricks used to line the crown of electrovacuum glass furnace is the multiple cyclic change of crown temperature at 1405 - 1430°C range in the initial zone of crown and at 1575 - 1605°C range in the zone of highest temperatures.

  4. Comparison of possibilities the blast furnace and cupola slag utilization by concrete production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Baricová

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In process of pig iron and cast iron production secondary raw materials and industrial wastes are formed The most abundant secondaryproduct originating in these processes are furnace slag. Blast furnace slag and cupola furnace slag originates from melting of gangue parts of metal bearing materials, slag forming additions and coke ash. In general, slag are compounds of oxides of metallic and non-metallic elements, which form chemical compounds and solutions with each other and also contain small volume of metals, sulfides of metals and gases. Chemical, mineralogical and physical properties of slag determinate their utilisation in different fields of industry.The paper presents results from the research of the blast furnace and cupola furnace slag utilization in the concrete production. Pilotexperiments of the concrete production were performed, by that the blast furnace and cupola furnace slag with a fractions of 0–4mm;4–8mm; 8–16mm were used as a natural substitute. A cupola furnace slag and combination of the blast furnace and cupola furnace slagwere used in the experiments. The analysis results show that such concretes are suitable for less demanding applications.

  5. Change of Pressing Chamber Conicalness at Briquetting Process in Briquetting Machine Pressing Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Križan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will present the impact of the conical shape of a pressing chamber, an important structural parameter. Besides the known impact of the technological parameters of pressing chambers, it is also very important to pay attention to their structural parameters. In the introduction, we present a theoretical analysis of pressing chamber conicalness. An experiment aimed at detecting this impact was performed at our institute, and it showed that increasing the conicalness of a pressing chamber improves the quality of the final briquettes. The conicalness of the pressing chamber has a significanteffect on the final briquette quality and on the construction of briquetting machines. The experimental findings presented here show the importance of this parameter in the briquetting process.

  6. Drift chamber tracking with neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the very high event rates projected for experiments at the SSC and LHC, it is important to investigate new approaches to on line pattern recognition. The use of neural networks for pattern recognition. The use of neural networks for pattern recognition in high energy physics detectors has been an area of very active research. The authors discuss drift chamber tracking with a commercial analog VLSI neural network chip. Voltages proportional to the drift times in a 4-layer drift chamber were presented to the Intel ETANN chip. The network was trained to provide the intercept and slope of straight tracks traversing the chamber. The outputs were recorded and later compared off line to conventional track fits. Two types of network architectures were studied. Applications of neural network tracking to high energy physics detector triggers is discussed

  7. Classification of the LHC BLM Ionization Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Stockner, M; Fabjan, Christian Wolfgang; Holzer, E B; Kramer, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The LHC beam loss monitoring (BLM) system must prevent the super conducting magnets from quenching and protect the machine components from damage. The main monitor type is an ionization chamber. About 4000 of them will be installed around the ring. The lost beam particles initiate hadronic showers through the magnets and other machine components. These shower particles are measured by the monitors installed on the outside of the accelerator equipment. For the calibration of the BLM system the signal response of the ionization chamber is simulated in GEANT4 for all relevant particle types and energies (keV to TeV range). For validation, the simulations are compared to measurements using protons, neutrons, photons and mixed radiation fields at various energies and intensities. This paper will focus on the signal response of the ionization chamber to various particle types and energies including space charge effects at high ionization densities.

  8. Posing the first LEAR vacuum chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1982-01-01

    The photo shows one of the four bending magnets of LEAR. They were of C-type with the opening ('mouth') to the outside of the ring (yoke to the inside). Last preparations are made before the vacuum chamber is slid through the mouth into the magnet. Stochastic cooling pickups/kickers were installed inside the chamber. One can distinguish a large number of feed-throughs on the chamber (leading to the pickup/kicker gaps). The free space in the middle of the block was left to offer room for an internal target in the magnet. This possibility was never exploited. Instead it is used here, to accommodate a pumping port for the high vacuum system. Michel Chanel (left) and Pierre Lefevre admire the mechanics at work.

  9. Rapid-Cycling Bubble-Chamber, details

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Parts of the hydraulic expansion system of the Rapid-Cycling Bubble-Chamber (RCBC). RCBC was the largest of 3 rapid-cycling bubble-chambers (the others were LEBC and HOLEBC), used as target- and vertex-detectors within the European Hybrid Spectrometer (EHS) in the SPS North Area (EHN1). RCBC contained 250 l of liquid hydrogen and was located inside a 3 T superconducting magnet. It was designed for 30 expansions/s (100 times faster than BEBC), the system shown here allowed 50 expansions/s. RCBC operated from 1981 to 1983 for experiments NA21, NA22 and NA23 at a rate of 15 expansions/s, clocking up a total of over 4 million. In the rear, at left, is bearded Lucien Veillet; Augustin Didona is at the right. See also 8001009. The installation of the piston assembly in the RCBC chamber body is shown in the Annual Report 1980, p.65.

  10. Thermal Vacuum Chamber Repressurization with Instrument Purging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woronowicz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    At the end of James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) OTIS (Optical Telescope Element-OTE-Integrated Science Instrument Module-ISIM) cryogenic vacuum testing in NASA Johnson Space Centers (JSCs) thermal vacuum (TV) Chamber A, contamination control (CC) engineers are mooting the idea that chamber particulate material stirred up by the repressurization process may be kept from falling into the ISIM interior to some degree by activating instrument purge flows over some initial period before opening the chamber valves. This memo describes development of a series of models designed to describe this process. These are strung together in tandem to estimate overpressure evolution from which net outflow velocity behavior may be obtained. Creeping flow assumptions are then used to determine the maximum particle size that may be kept suspended above the ISIM aperture, keeping smaller particles from settling within the instrument module.

  11. Design of the CLIC Quadrupole Vacuum Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Garion, C

    2010-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider, under study, requires vacuum chambers with a very small aperture, of the order of 8 mm in diameter, and with a length up to around 2 m for the main beam quadrupoles. To keep the very tight geometrical tolerances on the quadrupoles, no bake out is allowed. The main issue is to reach UHV conditions (typically 10-9 mbar static pressure) in a system where the vacuum performance is driven by water outgassing. For this application, a thinwalled stainless steel vacuum chamber with two ante chambers equipped with NEG strips, is proposed. The mechanical design, especially the stability analysis, is shown. The key technologies of the prototype fabrication are given. Vacuum tests are carried out on the prototypes. The test set-up as well as the pumping system conditions are presented.

  12. Modelling of carry-over in recovery furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhrai, Reza [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Metallurgy

    2000-04-01

    Development of mathematical modelling of the combustion process in the furnace of recovery boilers is the subject of this work. This work as a continuation of many years of modelling efforts carried out at KTH/Vaerme- och Ugnsteknik focussed particularly on: char bed modelling; droplets-wall interaction modelling; and carry-over modelling. The char bed model has been studied. Droplets/parcels were considered as a single reactor working independently of the other droplets. The mass of the droplets was not distributed uniformly but induced in the landing place. The droplets hitting the char bed will stick to it and they are alive and part of the calculation. In this way the distribution of the mass on the char bed is only dependent on the parameters which effect flight history such as droplet/parcel diameter, boilers flow field, etc. The droplet- wall interaction model has been studied and found to be very important for obtaining the correct temperature distribution in the recovery furnace. The new approach is based on removal of droplets which hits the wall in the upper part of the recovery boiler from carryover calculation. This model has been proposed and implemented into the GRFM (General Recovery Furnace Model). The carryover modelling effort was based on mass balance in which the number and physical statistics of the droplets/parcel were estimated and the amount of unburned mass was calculated. All of the above listed models were tested together with all other models of heat and mass transfer processes in recovery furnaces using a GRFM. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of the industrial recovery boiler (63 kg/s, 82 bar, 480 deg C) were performed. The number of grid was 232,000 and the number of air ports in this simulation was 178. The air entering the furnace by these ports has different flow rates. Flow and temperature fields as well as species distributions were calculated. The results show good agreement with previously published data and modelling

  13. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2001-11-06

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. During the current period, American Electric Power (AEP) joined the project as an additional co-funder and as a provider of a host site for testing. This is the fourth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Station. These tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Station), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Station and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Station, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO

  14. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2002-04-29

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2001 through March 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub X} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the fifth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During the previous (fourth) period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (at both Gavin and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub X} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented

  15. Flow Patterns in a Continuous Glass-Making Furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations have been made with 51Cr on the flow patterns in a glass-making furnace containing 720 tons of melt and operating continuously with six sheet-glass drawing machines. The radioactive tracer was injected rapidly through the left-side feeder-pocket of the furnace in the form of chromium oxide. The tracer was dissolved in the glass-melt and the path of this labelled melt was detected by sampling and subsequently measuring the activity of the samples. Sampling was performed on three opposite points of the left and right sides of the furnace respectively, partly from the melt, and partly from the edge of the product sheet every two hours throughout 24 days. However, samples were also taken at the left-side sampling points every quarter of an hour of the first three days. During the entire investigation, 2500 samples were tested. The specific activities of the samples in terms of time, i.e. the distribution of the residence-time of the isotope 51Cr, well represent the flow of the melt for different sampling positions. From these functions an average flow rate of 0.16-0.19 m/h can be calculated for the different parts of the furnace. The areas between the curves and the abscissa which are proportional to the quantity of the tracer passing through the sampling points are not equal. Comparing these areas one can see that at 10 m from the feeder-pocket the flow rate is highest in the centre of the tank. Fifty-six per cent of the melt flowing along the sides of the tank is from the material fed in on the same side whereas the other 44% is from that on the opposite side. At 24 m from the feeder-pocket the flow is uniform over the whole cross-section of the furnace and in the forked part (so-called forehearth) the flow rate depends on the ratio between the glass production of the left and right side machines. The descending and ascending branches of the curves of the distribution functions are described by equations which hold for backmix flow-type reactors with

  16. A view inside the Gargamelle bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    Gargamelle was the name given to a big bubble chamber built at the Saclay Laboratory in France during the late 1960s. It was designed principally for the detection at CERN of the elusive particles called neutrinos. A bubble chamber contains a liquid under pressure, which reveals the tracks of electrically charged particles as trails of tiny bubbles when the pressure is reduced. Neutrinos have no charge, and so leave no tracks, but the aim with Gargamelle was "see neutrinos" by making visible any charged particles set in motion by the interaction of neutrinos in the liquid

  17. Cosmic Muon Detector Using Proportional Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Varga, Dezső; Hamar, Gergő; Molnár, Janka Sára; Oláh, Éva; Pázmándi, Péter

    2015-01-01

    A set of classical multi-wire proportional chambers were designed and constructed with the main purpose of efficient cosmic muon detection. These detectors are relatively simple to construct, and at the same time are low cost, making them ideal for educational purposes. The detector layers have efficiencies above 99% for minimum ionizing cosmic muons, and their position resolution is about 1 cm, that is, particle trajectories are clearly observable. Visualization of straight tracks is possible using an LED array, with the discriminated and latched signal driving the display. Due to the exceptional operating stability of the chambers, the design can also be used for cosmic muon telescopes.

  18. Quasi-Porous Plug With Vortex Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J. V.

    1985-01-01

    Pressure-letdown valve combines quasi-porous-plug and vortex-chamber in one controllable unit. Valve useful in fossil-energy plants for reducing pressures in such erosive two-phase process streams as steam/water, coal slurries, or combustion gases with entrained particles. Quasi-Porous Plug consists of plenums separated by perforated plates. Number or size of perforations increases with each succeeding stage to compensate for expansion. In Vortex Chamber, control flow varies to control swirl and therefore difference between inlet and outlet pressures.

  19. Calibration of a pencil ionization chamber with and without preamplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, Ana Figueiredo

    2004-01-01

    The pencil ionization chamber is a cylindrical dosimeter developed for computed tomography beams. Many kinds of ionization chambers have a preamplifier connected to the chamber to make it electrically more stable, specially for field instruments. In this study, the performance of a Victoreen pencil ionization chamber with the original preamplifier and after its removal was compared. The objective of the preamplifier removal was to enable connecting the chamber to other kinds of electromete...

  20. 30 CFR 77.305 - Access to drying chambers, hot gas inlet chambers and ductwork; installation and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Access to drying chambers, hot gas inlet... drying chambers, hot gas inlet chambers and ductwork; installation and maintenance. Drying chambers, hot... dust and the loss of fluidizing air....

  1. Air cushion furnace technology for heat treatment of high quality aluminum alloy auto body sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yong; Wang Zhaodong; Ma Mingtu; Wang Guodong; Fu Tianliang; Li Jiadong; Liang Xiong

    2014-01-01

    The process characteristics of heat treatment of aluminum alloy auto body sheet and the working prin-ciple of air cushion furnace were introduced. The process position and irreplaceable role of air cushion furnace in the aluminum alloy auto body sheet production was pointed out after the difficulty and key points in the whole production process of auto body sheet were studied. Then the development process of air cushion furnace line of aluminum alloy sheet was reviewed,summarized and divided to two stages. Based on the research of air cushion furnace,the key technology of it was analyzed,then the key points on process,equipment and control models of air cushion furnace for aluminum alloy auto body sheet in future were put forward. With the rapid de-velopment of automotive industry,there will be certainly a new upsurge of research and application of air cush-ion furnace for heat treatment of aluminum alloy auto body sheet.

  2. INFLUENCE OF LINING THERMAL PERFORMANCE IN ELECTRIC-ARC FURNACES ON POWER CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.. V. Korneev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of specific features of lining thermal performance in electric-arc furnaces at various technological periods. It has been  shown that on the basis of mathematical modeling methods for thermal processes it is possible to predict power consumption of furnaces at the operational split schedule with due account of such furnace characteristics as capacity, lining materials, furnace idle times under closed and open conditions etc. The paper shows distinctions in thermal performance of acid and the basic linings in the electric-arc furnaces. The proposed approach allows to analyze thermal losses by heat conductivity and on accumulation by a refractory lining and rather accurately to determine the required balance sheet items while calculating power consumption during various periods of scrap melting for furnaces of various capacity.

  3. Methods for monitoring heat flow intensity in the blast furnace wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L'. Dorčák

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the main features of an online system for real-time monitoring of the bottom part of the blast furnace. Firstly, monitoring concerns the furnace walls and furnace bottom temperatures measurement and their visualization. Secondly, monitored are the heat flows of the furnace walls and furnace bottom. In the case of two measured temperatures, the heat flow is calculated using multi-layer implicit difference scheme and in the case of only one measured temperature, the heat flow is calculated using a method based on application of fractional-order derivatives. Thirdly, monitored is the theoretical temperature of the blast furnace combustion process in the area of tuyeres.

  4. Pressurized ionization chamber detectors for industrial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of the thickness of the sheets made of different materials, e.g. metal, plastic, paper, cellulose, rubber, etc., is one of many industrial applications of nuclear techniques. The ionizing radiation detectors of ionization chamber type are based on measuring the variations in either exposure rate (for gamma radiation) or absorbed dose rate (for beta radiation) occurring in materials of different thickness, placed between the radiation source and the detector. The variations in exposure rate and absorbed dose rate can be traced by using radiation detectors of the ionization chamber type, which convert the exposure rate, X point, or the absorbed dose rate, D point, into a proportional electric current. The more stable the ionization current of the chambers (keeping a constant exposure rate or absorbed dose rate), the slighter the variations that can be detected in either exposure rate or absorbed dose rate, hence in the absorbing material placed between the radiation source and the detector. Based on these facts, several variants of such detectors, including the ionization chamber CIS-P5M-100Kr, CIS-P2M-1000Kr and CIS-P8M-70Kr, have been made. (author)

  5. The arrival of the CLOUD chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN AVC

    2009-01-01

    The team from the CLOUD experiment - the world’s first experiment using a high-energy particle accelerator to study the climate - were on cloud nine after the arrival of their new three-metre diameter cloud chamber. This marks the end of three years’ R&D; and design, and the start of preparations for data taking later this year.

  6. Vacuum chamber for intersection I-4

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    Vacuum chamber for intersection I-4 of the ISR being assembled inside a wooden mock-up of the gap of the split-field magnet. The central round-cylinder section is provisional and is to be replaced by an elliptic-cylinder section to give more space vertically for installation of detectors. Supports for the central section are of carbon fibre composite.

  7. IKAR, a ionization chamber for WA9

    CERN Document Server

    1976-01-01

    This ionization chamber arrived at CERN from Leningrad for a high precision study of hadron elastic scattering by a CERN-Clermont-Ferrand-Leningrad-Lyon-Uppsala Collaboration in the H3 beam (WA9). G.A. Korolev (third from right) looks at the drawings.

  8. Chamber transport for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review is given of research on chamber transport for HIF (heavy ion fusion) dating from the first HIF Workshop in 1976 to the present. Chamber transport modes are categorized into ballistic transport modes and channel-like modes. Four major HIF reactor studies are summarized (HIBALL-II, HYLIFE-II, Prometheus-H, OSIRIS), with emphasis on the chamber transport environment. In general, many beams are used to provide the required symmetry and to permit focusing to the required small spots. Target parameters are then discussed, with a summary of the individual heavy ion beam parameters required for HIF. The beam parameters are then classified as to their line charge density and perveance, with special emphasis on the perveance limits for radial space charge spreading, for the space charge limiting current, and for the magnetic (Alfven) limiting current. The major experiments on ballistic transport (SFFE, Sabre beamlets, GAMBLE II, NTX, NDCX) are summarized, with specific reference to the axial electron trapping limit for charge neutralization. The major experiments on channel-like transport (GAMBLE II channel, GAMBLE II self-pinch, LBNL channels, GSI channels) are discussed. The status of current research on HIF chamber transport is summarized, and the value of future NDCX-II transport experiments for the future of HIF is noted

  9. Prototype vacuum chamber for ISR intersection region

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The vacuum chambers at the ISR interaction regions had to be as transparent as possible to the secondary particles emerging from the collision points. Made from stainless steel or titanium, only a fraction of a millimeter thick, they were most delicate to handle.

  10. Prototype Vacuum Chamber for ISR Intersection Region

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The vacuum chambers at the ISR interaction region had to be as transparent as possible to the secondary particles emerging from the collision points. Made from stainless steel or titanium, only a fraction of a millimeter thick, they were most delicate to handle.

  11. Chamber transport for heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Craig L., E-mail: clolson66@msn.com

    2014-01-01

    A brief review is given of research on chamber transport for HIF (heavy ion fusion) dating from the first HIF Workshop in 1976 to the present. Chamber transport modes are categorized into ballistic transport modes and channel-like modes. Four major HIF reactor studies are summarized (HIBALL-II, HYLIFE-II, Prometheus-H, OSIRIS), with emphasis on the chamber transport environment. In general, many beams are used to provide the required symmetry and to permit focusing to the required small spots. Target parameters are then discussed, with a summary of the individual heavy ion beam parameters required for HIF. The beam parameters are then classified as to their line charge density and perveance, with special emphasis on the perveance limits for radial space charge spreading, for the space charge limiting current, and for the magnetic (Alfven) limiting current. The major experiments on ballistic transport (SFFE, Sabre beamlets, GAMBLE II, NTX, NDCX) are summarized, with specific reference to the axial electron trapping limit for charge neutralization. The major experiments on channel-like transport (GAMBLE II channel, GAMBLE II self-pinch, LBNL channels, GSI channels) are discussed. The status of current research on HIF chamber transport is summarized, and the value of future NDCX-II transport experiments for the future of HIF is noted.

  12. Anterior Chamber Live Loa loa: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagmeni, G; Cheuteu, R; Bilong, Y; Wiedemann, P

    2016-01-01

    We reported a case of unusual intraocular Loa loa in a 27-year-old patient who presented with painful red eye. Biomicroscopy revealed a living and active adult worm in the anterior chamber of the right eye. After surgical extraction under local anesthesia, parasitological identification confirmed L. loa filariasis. PMID:27441005

  13. A mathematical model of aerosol holding chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zak, M; Madsen, J; Berg, E;

    1999-01-01

    , Ontario, Canada), NebuChamber (Astra, Södirtälje, Sweden) and Nebuhaler (Astra) adapted for babies. The dose of fluticasone proportionate delivered by the Babyhaler (Glaxco Wellcome, Oxbridge, Middlesex, UK) was 80% of that predicted, probably because of incomplete priming of this spacer. Of the above...

  14. Anterior Chamber Live Loa loa: Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagmeni, G.; Cheuteu, R.; Bilong, Y.; Wiedemann, P.

    2016-01-01

    We reported a case of unusual intraocular Loa loa in a 27-year-old patient who presented with painful red eye. Biomicroscopy revealed a living and active adult worm in the anterior chamber of the right eye. After surgical extraction under local anesthesia, parasitological identification confirmed L. loa filariasis. PMID:27441005

  15. Drift Chambers detectors; Detectores de deriva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, I.; Martinez laso, L.

    1989-07-01

    We present here a review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysed, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author) 115 refs.

  16. Wave Phenomena in an Acoustic Resonant Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mary E.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the design and operation of a high Q acoustical resonant chamber which can be used to demonstrate wave phenomena such as three-dimensional normal modes, Q values, densities of states, changes in the speed of sound, Fourier decomposition, damped harmonic oscillations, sound-absorbing properties, and perturbation and scattering problems.…

  17. SEPAC system test in NASDA space chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obayashi, T.; Kuriki, K.; Kawashima, N.; Nagatomo, M.; Kudo, I.; Ninomiya, K.; Ushirokawa, A.; Ejiri, M.; Sasaki, S.

    1980-01-01

    Test results of the second NASDA space chamber test using SEPAC (Space Experiment with Particle Acceleration) prototype models are reviewed. A safety level of electrical charge is determined, the electromagnetic interference effect caused by an electron beam and MPD arcjet firing is evaluated, and beam spread for EBA software mask design is measured.

  18. Liquid ionization chambers for LET determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Franz-Joachim; Bassler, Niels; Tölli, Heikki;

    Liquid ionization chambers [1] (LICs) have have been used in the last decades as background dosemeters. Since a few years LICs are also commercially available for dosimetry and are used for measurements of dose distributions where a high spatial distribution is necessary. Also in the last decades...

  19. Evaluation of efficiency of working time of equipment in blast furnace department

    OpenAIRE

    E. Kardas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of the paper is the evaluation of efficiency of working time of equipment in blast furnace department with the use of Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) and PAMCO method.Design/methodology/approach: The investigation was made for blast furnace department in Polish steel plant. Two methods: OEE and PAMCO was used. The analysis covers the period of 7 years. The analysis was made based on different data: different types of time connected whit work of blast furnaces, inte...

  20. Effect of the chemical composition of slag on its foamability in an electric arc furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhukhov, A. A.

    2015-06-01

    The problems of foaming electric furnace slags are considered. The role of the physicochemical properties of slag during its foaming in electric arc furnaces is studied. The regions of slag foaming in an electric arc furnace are determined. Based on the derived relations between the chemical composition of slag and its foamability, one can choose a rational path of slag formation to ensure good slag foaming in the course of electrosmelting of steel.

  1. Mathematical simulation of working processes in the furnace of a circulating fluidized bed boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.A. Dvoinishnikov; A.V. Larkov [Moscow Power Engineering Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-01-15

    A software system developed for simulating and calculating boiler furnaces with circulating fluidized beds is described. The main principles on which the system is constructed are outlined, and the physical and mathematical models of processes in circulating fluidized bed furnaces are described together with the calculation algorithm. Results from a study of analyzing the effect the grinding fineness of initial fuel particles has on the processes in a circulating fluidized bed furnace are presented.

  2. Thermal Oxidation of Tail Gases from the Production of Oil-furnace Carbon Black

    OpenAIRE

    Bosak, Z.; Barta, D; Zečević, N.; Šiklušić, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the production technology of oil-furnace carbon black, as well as the selected solution for preventing the emissions of this process from contaminating the environment.The products of industrial oil-furnace carbon black production are different grades of carbon black and process tail gases. The qualitative composition of these tail gases during the production of oil-furnace carbon black are: carbon(IV) oxide, carbon(II) oxide, hydrogen, methane, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen...

  3. Automatic Method for Controlling the Iodine Adsorption Number in Carbon Black Oil Furnaces

    OpenAIRE

    Zečević, N.

    2008-01-01

    There are numerous of different inlet process factors in carbon black oil furnaces which must be continuously and automatically adjusted, due to stable quality of final product. The most important six inlet process factors in carbon black oil-furnaces are:1. volume flow of process air for combustion2. temperature of process air for combustion3. volume flow of natural gas for insurance the necessary heat for thermal reaction of conversionthe hydrocarbon oil feedstock in oil-furnace carbon blac...

  4. An experimental-numerical method for estimating heat transfer in a Bridgman furnace

    OpenAIRE

    Mooney, Robin; MCFADDEN, SHAUN

    2014-01-01

    PUBLISHED Direct measurement of heat flux and heat transfer coefficients in a Bridgman furnace is not always possible using traditional methods. This study characterised a vertical tubular Bridgman furnace using experimental data so that the estimated heat flux and heat transfer coefficients may be used in simulations of future experiments using the same furnace. An experimental–numerical method is presented where a discrete proportional integral derivative controller manipulates the radia...

  5. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ll of... - Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission... Reduction Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. LL, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart LL of Part 63—Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging Number of furnaces Emission limit (lb/ton of anode) TF POM 2 0.11 0.17 3 0.090 0.17 4...

  6. Comparison of possibilities the blast furnace and cupola slag utilization by concrete production

    OpenAIRE

    D. Baricová; A. Pribulová; P. Demeter

    2010-01-01

    In process of pig iron and cast iron production secondary raw materials and industrial wastes are formed The most abundant secondaryproduct originating in these processes are furnace slag. Blast furnace slag and cupola furnace slag originates from melting of gangue parts of metal bearing materials, slag forming additions and coke ash. In general, slag are compounds of oxides of metallic and non-metallic elements, which form chemical compounds and solutions with each other and also contain sma...

  7. Development of Master Chamber Software for Data Acquisition of Ionization Chamber for Indus 2 RRCAT

    OpenAIRE

    Priyesh Soni; Mrs. B. Harita; Nawaz Ali Sayed

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this paper was to Develop Master control software for DAQ of ionization chamber for INDUS-2 beam lines for detection of X-ray flux by an Ionization chamber that will remotely control and monitor the ultra low current signal detection analog module precisely. This application will be useful to measure the intensity of X-ray flux through ionization chamber in a beam line of synchrotron radiation source which is mounted in INDUS-2. It is one of new technique of detection. Beam l...

  8. Up the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) Scale to Demonstrate a Robust, Long Life, Liquid Rocket Engine Combustion Chamber, or...Up the Downstairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Richard; Elam, Sandra; McKechnie, Timothy; Power, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Advanced vacuum plasma spray (VPS) technology, utilized to successfully apply thermal barrier coatings to space shuttle main engine turbine blades, was further refined as a functional gradient material (FGM) process for space furnace cartridge experiments at 1600 C and for robust, long life combustion chambers for liquid rocket engines. A VPS/FGM 5K (5,000 lb. thrust) thruster has undergone 220 hot firing tests, in pristine condition, showing no wear, blanching or cooling channel cracks. Most recently, this technology has been applied to a 40K thruster, with scale up planned for a 194K Ares I, J-2X engine.

  9. Methods for Increasing Power Efficiency of Heating Furnaces Applied in Metallurgical and Mechanical Engineering Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. German

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available  The paper analyzes experimental data and results of balance tests of two continuous heating furnaces applied in mechanical engineering and metallurgical industries. Furnace power technological characteristics  and dependences of these characteristics on equipment productivity have been determined in the paper. The analysis has made it possible to reveal reasons of higher efficiency of a heating furnace used at BSW Rolling Mill-320 and formulate recommendations on reduction of fuel consumption in operating and designed combustion furnaces applied in mechanical engineering and metallurgical industries.

  10. Reduction of costs of iron production by changing parameters of the mixed blast-furnace wind

    OpenAIRE

    J. Terpák; Dorčák, L'.; I. Koštial; L. Pivka

    2010-01-01

    The blast-furnace wind from hot-blast stoves is a significant factor of the blast furnace functioning. The technology was analyzed in which the hot wind from hot-blast stoves is not mixed with the cool wind to a constant wind temperature, but is blown directly into the blast furnace. However, it is necessary to compensate for the changes of the theoretical temperature of burning in blast furnace as a consequence of non-stabilized wind temperature, by changing composition of the wind. This can...

  11. The effect of blast furnace coke quality on the possibility of its use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Konstanciak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the paper behavior of the blast-furnace coke in the high temperature was presented. Comparative analysis of the chemical composition of the blast-furnace coke and the heat treatment of it were done. Coefficients M10 and M40 with the thermo-abrasiveness for chosen cokes were compared. The influence of ash content of the coke on the blast-furnace bed permeability was defined. Usefulness of the coke to blast-furnace process was also defined.

  12. Furnace bottom rise mechanism in preparation of Al-Si alloys by electrothermal process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The experiments of preparation of Al-Si alloys by electrothermal process were carried out respectively in 20 kW, 100 kW and 1 800 kW DC arc furnaces. The mechanism of furnace bottom rise was studied.It was found that the bottom rise can be divided into three types, including the low bottom temperature, abnormal reducing reaction and carbide deposition. The furnace bottom rise is related to the carbon ratio of the briquet, the heating speed of the briquet and the parameters and operation of furnace.

  13. A Furnace for Diffraction Studies using Synchrotron X-Ray Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buras, B.; Lebech, Bente; Kofoed, W.

    1984-01-01

    A furnace for diffraction studies using synchrotron X-ray radiation is described. The furnace can be operated between ambient temperature and 1 800 °C with a temperature stability better than 5 °C for temperatures above 300 °C. Kapton windows allow almost 360° access for the X-ray beam...... in the horizontal scattering plane and the furnace may be used in both conventional monochromatic beam angle-dispersive and white-beam energy-dispersive diffraction experiments. Details of the furnace windows, heating element, thermometry and sample mount are given....

  14. Refractory Corrosion Mechanisms in a Novel High Carbon Ferromanganese Production Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregurek, D.; Wenzl, C.; Kreuzer, D.; Spanring, A.; Kirschen, M.; Zeelie, D.; Groenewald, J.

    2016-09-01

    The present paper presents the refractory design for a novel HCFeMn smelting furnace that, other than standard submerged arc furnaces, allows the processing of fine ores. A combination of basic and non-basic materials, comprising bricks, castables and ramming was chosen, under consideration of the unique furnace design and process conditions. Post-mortem investigations on refractory samples from the different furnace zones were carried out and provided information about the main wear mechanism. Additionally, investigations of the process slag and metal were carried out both practically and theoretically using thermodynamic calculations, to better understand the corrosion phenomena observed in the post mortem samples.

  15. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this project has been to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corporation, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Carmeuse North America. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increased interest for coal-fired power generating units for a number of reasons. In particular, sulfuric acid can cause plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOX control, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different magnesium-based or dolomitic alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry byproduct from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercially available magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners. The other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm sorbent effectiveness over extended operation on two

  16. Quality criteria for blast-furnace injection coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lherbier, L.W.Jr.; Serrano, E.J. [United States Steel Corp., Munhall, PA (United States). Research and Technology Center

    2008-07-01

    This paper reviewed the history of coal injection at United States Steel Corporation. Currently, pulverized coal (PC) is injected on 10 blast furnaces at the company's facilities at 5 different plants in the United States, Canada and Slovakia. Although low-volatile bituminous coal was used extensively at several sites in the past, all the furnaces now inject high-volatile bituminous coal. The choice of coal injection depends on cost, physical and chemical properties an intended application. Any type of coal can be used for low injection levels. As injection rates increase however, the choice of coal or coal blends depend on more complex characteristics such as combustibility, char reactivity and flow characteristics. Although low-volatile, higher rank bituminous coals usually provide higher coke replacement ratios, they can be more difficult to convey and burn. In contrast, high-volatile, lower rank coals are typically more reactive and easier to convey, but offer lower coke replacement ratios and could even contribute to furnace instability. This paper presented lessons learned with various types of injection coal. It also reviewed existing and emerging standards for choosing injection coals. The parameters that must be considered when choosing from a set of coals include moisture and hardness; carbon and hydrogen content; oxygen content; impurities; coal value; coal rank; conveying properties; reactivity; and coal type and injection rate. Coals with less ash, sulphur and alkali are usually preferred. For ironmaking, coals ranging in rank from anthracite to high-volatile bituminous coal are suitable for low to moderate injection rates. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Combustion of biodiesel in a large-scale laboratory furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combustion tests in a large-scale laboratory furnace were carried out to assess the feasibility of using biodiesel as a fuel in industrial furnaces. For comparison purposes, petroleum-based diesel was also used as a fuel. Initially, the performance of the commercial air-assisted atomizer used in the combustion tests was scrutinized under non-reacting conditions. Subsequently, flue gas data, including PM (particulate matter), were obtained for various flame conditions to quantify the effects of the atomization quality and excess air on combustion performance. The combustion data was complemented with in-flame temperature measurements for two representative furnace operating conditions. The results reveal that (i) CO emissions from biodiesel and diesel combustion are rather similar and not affected by the atomization quality; (ii) NOx emissions increase slightly as spray quality improves for both liquid fuels, but NOx emissions from biodiesel combustion are always lower than those from diesel combustion; (iii) CO emissions decrease rapidly for both liquid fuels as the excess air level increases up to an O2 concentration in the flue gas of 2%, beyond which they remain unchanged; (iv) NOx emissions increase with an increase in the excess air level for both liquid fuels; (v) the quality of the atomization has a significant impact on PM emissions, with the diesel combustion yielding significantly higher PM emissions than biodiesel combustion; and (vi) diesel combustion originates PM with elements such as Cr, Na, Ni and Pb, while biodiesel combustion produces PM with elements such as Ca, Mg and Fe. - Highlights: • CO emissions from biodiesel and diesel tested are similar. • NOx emissions from biodiesel tested are lower than those from diesel tested. • Diesel tested yields significantly higher PM (particulate matter) emissions than biodiesel tested. • Diesel tested originates PM with Cr, Na, Ni and Pb, while biodiesel tested produces PM with Ca, Mg and Fe

  18. Acid slag injection into the blast furnace tuyere zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerkki, J.; Tervola, K. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Process Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The possibility of acid slag injection and its effect on the slag formation and on the melting behaviour of the charge materials are studied in the present work. The work is partly based on the literature evaluating the slag formation, slag properties and the basic slag injection. The possibility of acid slag injection is first examined by studying changes in the composition of the primary slag if the share of the acid slag component (Kostamus pellet/RR) of the charge material is lowered. Phase diagrams and viscosity charts are used to evaluate the viscosity, and solidus/liquidus temperature in the slag phase. The share of the slag phase of the pellet is evaluated by calculating the amount of the acid slag injection. The injection rate of some injectants is also examined. The primary slag formed of the sinter and the coke ash is in liquid form and its viscosity is close to the viscosity of the blast furnace slag. It is possible that the liquid slag phase can be formed in the blast furnace without the presence of the acid pellet because the melting point and the viscosity of the slag is lowered by alkalies, sulfur and the dissolved ironoxide of the slag. If high SiO{sub 2} content materials alone are used for injection there is a risk that the slag phase of the tuyere zone becomes too viscous. Olivine and some iron containing components such as fayalite are possible injection material. More information is needed to evaluate the effect of acid slag injection on the operation of the blast furnace. (orig.) SULA 2 Research Programme; 2 refs.

  19. Anterior chamber fixation of a posterior chamber intraocular lens: A novel technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sahap Kükner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the implantation of a posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL in the anterior chamber (AC with the haptics passing through two iridectomies to the posterior chamber. A total of 33 eyes of 33 patients with inadequate posterior capsular support due to either previous aphakia or posterior capsular rupture during cataract extraction were included in the study. A double iridectomy was performed on all patients using a vitrectomy probe on the midperiphery of the iris. IOLs were implanted in the AC, and the haptics were passed through the iridectomies to the posterior chamber. The mean follow-up time was 25.3 months. AC hemorrhage occurred in five patients during the iridectomy procedure. Corneal edema was detected in eight of 14 patients with primary IOL insertions. Haptic dislocation was detected in only one patient. This technique may be a good alternative to scleral-fixated IOL implantation in eyes with aphakia.

  20. Achievable field strength in reverberation chambers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Eulig

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Feldvariable Kammern (FVK, engl.: modestirred- chamber werden unter anderem für EMV-Störfestigkeitsprüfungen verwendet. Ein häufig genanntes Argument, das die Einführung dieser Kammern als normgerechte Prüfumgebung vorantreiben soll, ist eine hohe Feldstärke, die im Vergleich zu anderen Testumgebungen mit relativ moderaten HF-Leistungen erreicht werden kann. Besonders für sicherheitskritische Geräte, wie Komponenten aus der Avionik- oder KFZ-Industrie, sind heutzutage Testfeldstärken von mehreren 100 V/m notwendig. Derart hohe Feldstärken können in Umgebungen, die ein ebenes Wellenfeld erzeugen oder nachbilden, nur mit großen HFLeistungen generiert werden. Durch die Resonanzeigenschaften einer FVK können demgegenüber mit sehr viel weniger Leistung und damit Verstärkeraufwand vergleichbare Werte der Feldstärke erzeugt werden. Allerdings sinkt mit zunehmendem Volumen die erreichbare Feldstärke bei gleicher Speiseleistung. Idealerweise sollen Feldvariable Kammern bei möglichst niedrigen Frequenzen für EMVTests nutzbar sein, was jedoch ein großes Kammervolumen erfordert. Das Problem, bei niedrigen Frequenzen hohe Feldstärken erzeugen zu können, relativiert deshalb den Vorteil von FVKn gegenüber bekannten Testumgebungen bei niedrigen Testfrequenzen. Der Posterbeitrag erläutert, welche Feldstärken in verschieden großen Feldvariablen Kammern beim Einspeisen einer bestimmten hochfrequenten Leistung erreicht werden können. Anhand dieser Ergebnisse wird aufgezeigt, oberhalb welcher Grenzfrequenz eine Anwendung von FVKn nur sinnvoll erscheint. Mode-stirred chambers (MSCs can be used for radiated immunity tests in EMC testing. Advantageous compared to conventional test methods is the high field strength which can here be generated with less RF-Power. This point is often the main argument for pushing the standardization of MSCs as an other EMC testing environment. Especially for safety-critical electronic equipment like avionic or

  1. Methodology for full comparative assessment of direct gross glycerin combustion in a flame tube furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maturana, Aymer Yeferson; Pagliuso, Josmar D. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Sao Carlos School of Engineering. University of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], e-mails: aymermat@sc.usp.br, josmar@sc.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    This study is to develop a methodology to identify and evaluate the emissions and heat transfer associated to combustion of gross glycerin a by-product of the Brazilian biodiesel manufacture process as alternative energy source. It aims to increase the present knowledge on the matter and to contribute to the improvement of the economic and environmental perspective of biodiesel industry. This methodology was considered to be used for assessment of gross glycerin combustion from three different types of biodiesel (bovine tallow, palm and soy). The procedures for evaluation and quantification of emissions of sulphur and nitrogen oxides, total hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and acrolein were analyzed, described and standardized. Experimental techniques for mutagenic and toxic effects assessment of gases similarly were analyzed and standardized, as well as the calorific power, the associate heat transfer and fundamentals operational parameters. The methodology was developed, using a full-instrumented flame tube furnace, continuous gas analyzers, a chromatograph, automatic data acquisition systems and other auxiliary equipment. The mutagenic and toxic effects of the study was based on Tradescantia clone KU-20, using chambers of intoxication and biological analytical techniques previously developed and others were specially adapted. The benchmark for the initial set up was based on the performance evaluation of the previous equipment tested with diesel considering its behavior during direct combustion. Finally, the following factors were defined for the combustion of crude glycerin, configurations of equipment types, operational parameters such as air fuel ratio adiabatic temperature and other necessary aspect for successful application of the methodology. The developed and integrated methodology was made available to the concern industry, environmental authorities and researchers as procedures to access the viability of gross glycerin or similar fuels as

  2. Crew Member Interface with Space Station Furnace Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Martha B.

    1997-01-01

    The Space Station Furnace Facility (SSFF) is a facility located in the International Space Station United States Laboratory (ISS US Lab) for materials research in the microgravity environment. The SSFF will accommodate basic research, commercial applications, and studies of phenomena of metals and alloys, electronic and photonic materials, and glasses and ceramics. To support this broad base of research requirements, the SSFF will operate, regulate, and support a variety of Experiment Modules (EMs). To meet station requirements concerning the microgravity level needed for experiments, station is providing an active vibration isolation system, and SSFF provides the interface. SSFF physically consists of a Core Rack and two instrument racks (IRs) that occupy three adjacent ISS US Lab rack locations within the International Space Station (ISS). All SSFF racks are modified International Standard Payload Racks (ISPR). SSFF racks will have a 50% larger pass through area on the lower sides than ISPRs to accommodate the many rack to rack interconnections. The Instrument Racks are further modified with lowered floors and an additional removable panel (15" x 22") on top of the rack for access if needed. The Core Rack shall contain all centralized Core subsystems and ISS subsystem equipment. The two Instrument Racks shall contain the distributed Core subsystem equipment, ISS subsystem equipment, and the EMs. The Core System, which includes the Core Rack, the IR structures, and subsystem components located in the IRs serves as the central control and management for the IRs and the EMs. The Core System receives the resources provided by the International Space Station (ISS) and modifies, allocates, and distributes these resources to meet the operational requirements of the furnace. The Core System is able to support a total of four EMs and can control, support, and activate/deactivate the operations of two EMs, simultaneously. The IRs can be configured to house two small EMs or

  3. Modeling and simulation of an anode carbon baking furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ø. Gundersen

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The anode temperature profile in a Hydro Aluminium baking furnace is obtained by solving the three dimensional heat equation. The main heat transfer and chemical processes are taken into account. Due to symmetry, one half of a pit is modeled. Along the gas path, submodels are derived for the under-pit area, pit area and under-lid area. For the gas flow, a stationary model is derived, whereas the heat equations are dynamically solved. The numerical model is derived from the control volume formulation.

  4. Improving the Quality of Electric Energy to Electric Arc Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian-Ioan Toma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of power quality problems created by an electric arc furnace (EAF with eccentric bottom tap (EBT at power system. The analysis have been done to EAF of 100 t capacity used for steel melting. Experimental results show this EAF is substantial source of electric disturbances, such as voltage fluctuations, flicker, harmonics, and unbalance between phases. Improvement of the quality of electric energy at EAF imposes a careful technical and economical analysis. Of all possible solutions for improvement of the power quality for an EAF (passive filter, STATCOM or SVC, SVC is the ideal solution.

  5. Intelligent predictive model of ventilating capacity of imperial smelt furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐朝晖; 胡燕瑜; 桂卫华; 吴敏

    2003-01-01

    In order to know the ventilating capacity of imperial smelt furnace (ISF), and increase the output of plumbum, an intelligent modeling method based on gray theory and artificial neural networks(ANN) is proposed, in which the weight values in the integrated model can be adjusted automatically. An intelligent predictive model of the ventilating capacity of the ISF is established and analyzed by the method. The simulation results and industrial applications demonstrate that the predictive model is close to the real plant, the relative predictive error is 0.72%, which is 50% less than the single model, leading to a notable increase of the output of plumbum.

  6. A Blended Cement Containing Blast Furnace Slag and Phosphorous Slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Blended cement containing blast furnace slag(BFS) and phosphorous slag(PS) is a new kind of cement.The total content of blended materials could increase if two additives were used. Using the same admixtures, the properties of the blended cement with 70% additives could reach the standard of 525-grade slag cement according to GB.The strength of cement with 80% additives could reach the standard of 425-grade slag cement.The tests of strength, pore structure,hydration products,inhibiting alkali-aggregate reaction, resistance to sulfate corrosion of BFS-PSC were performed.

  7. Refractories Usage in Nickel Smelting—furnaces in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIYong; QIGuo-yong

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes the reaction between car-bon-containing refractories,magnesia-chrome re-fractories and matte,converter slag.The results show that carbon-containing refrctories have good resistance to matte and converter slag in nitrogen atmosphere,The practical results are unsuitable for nickel converter ,high performance magnesia chrome refractories are promising materials.Newly developed high quality direct bonding magnesia chrome,rebonded co-clinker magnesia chrome,fused cast magnesia chrome used in nickel flash smelting furnaces are introduced briefly.

  8. The Advancement in Intensified Smelting Technology of Baosteel Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LinChengcheng; ZhangLonglai

    2005-01-01

    Baosteel always aims at becoming one of the most profitable enterprises in the world, enjoying international competence,benchmarking with the world advanced level, pursuing innovation sustainable development. Recent years, Baosteel Iron-making Department has caught the opportunity of increasing steel demand; conquering disadvantages such as changeable up-stream market, fuel and raw material's fight supplies and lower quality, etc. In our department, Major technical problems have been overcome, blast furnace intensified smelting technology improved, the cost of molten iron under control, blast fttmace long-life span control technology made breakthrough, and Baosteel's ironmaking capacity improved further.

  9. Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Elemental Analysis of Ecstasy Tablets

    OpenAIRE

    French, Holly E.; Michael J. Went; Gibson, Stuart J

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Six metals (Cu, Mg, Ba, Ni, Cr, Pb) were determined in two separate batches of seized ecstasy tablets by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS) following digestion with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. Large intra-batch variations were found as expected for tablets produced in clandestine laboratories. For example, nickel in batch 1 was present in the range 0.47-13.1 ppm and in batch 2 in the range 0.35-9.06 ppm. Although batch 1 had significantly high...

  10. A new plant chamber facility PLUS coupled to the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hohaus

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A new PLant chamber Unit for Simulation (PLUS for use with the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR (Simulation of Atmospheric PHotochemistry In a large Reaction Chamber has been build and characterized at the Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Germany. The PLUS chamber is an environmentally controlled flow through plant chamber. Inside PLUS the natural blend of biogenic emissions of trees are mixed with synthetic air and are transferred to the SAPHIR chamber where the atmospheric chemistry and the impact of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC can be studied in detail. In PLUS all important enviromental parameters (e.g. temperature, PAR, soil RH etc. are well-controlled. The gas exchange volume of 9.32 m3 which encloses the stem and the leafes of the plants is constructed such that gases are exposed to FEP Teflon film and other Teflon surfaces only to minimize any potential losses of BVOCs in the chamber. Solar radiation is simulated using 15 LED panels which have an emission strength up to 800 μmol m−2 s−1. Results of the initial characterization experiments are presented in detail. Background concentrations, mixing inside the gas exchange volume, and transfer rate of volatile organic compounds (VOC through PLUS under different humidity conditions are explored. Typical plant characteristics such as light and temperature dependent BVOC emissions are studied using six Quercus Ilex trees and compared to previous studies. Results of an initial ozonolysis experiment of BVOC emissions from Quercus Ilex at typical atmospheric concentrations inside SAPHIR are presented to demonstrate a typical experimental set up and the utility of the newly added plant chamber.

  11. A new plant chamber facility PLUS coupled to the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohaus, T.; Kuhn, U.; Andres, S.; Kaminski, M.; Rohrer, F.; Tillmann, R.; Wahner, A.; Wegener, R.; Yu, Z.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.

    2015-11-01

    A new PLant chamber Unit for Simulation (PLUS) for use with the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR (Simulation of Atmospheric PHotochemistry In a large Reaction Chamber) has been build and characterized at the Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Germany. The PLUS chamber is an environmentally controlled flow through plant chamber. Inside PLUS the natural blend of biogenic emissions of trees are mixed with synthetic air and are transferred to the SAPHIR chamber where the atmospheric chemistry and the impact of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) can be studied in detail. In PLUS all important enviromental parameters (e.g. temperature, PAR, soil RH etc.) are well-controlled. The gas exchange volume of 9.32 m3 which encloses the stem and the leafes of the plants is constructed such that gases are exposed to FEP Teflon film and other Teflon surfaces only to minimize any potential losses of BVOCs in the chamber. Solar radiation is simulated using 15 LED panels which have an emission strength up to 800 μmol m-2 s-1. Results of the initial characterization experiments are presented in detail. Background concentrations, mixing inside the gas exchange volume, and transfer rate of volatile organic compounds (VOC) through PLUS under different humidity conditions are explored. Typical plant characteristics such as light and temperature dependent BVOC emissions are studied using six Quercus Ilex trees and compared to previous studies. Results of an initial ozonolysis experiment of BVOC emissions from Quercus Ilex at typical atmospheric concentrations inside SAPHIR are presented to demonstrate a typical experimental set up and the utility of the newly added plant chamber.

  12. Combustion and regulations. Impacts of new regulations on medium-power thermal equipment (boilers, engines, turbines, dryers and furnaces); Combustion et reglementation. Incidences des nouvelles reglementations sur les equipements thermiques de moyenne puissance (chaudieres, moteurs, turbines, secheurs et fours)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This conference is composed of 20 papers on the influence of French and European new pollution regulations on medium size thermal equipment such as boilers, engines, turbines, dryers and furnaces. It is discussed what is going to change with new regulations, how they will apply to existing plants, what will be the impact on future equipment costs. The evolution of energy suppliers and equipment manufacturers facing these new regulations is also examined: fuel substitution, improvements in turbines and engines with water injection and special chambers, diesel engine control, lean mixtures and electronic control for gas engines... Means for reducing SOx, NOx and ash emission levels in boilers are also examined

  13. The physics of Resistive Plate Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Riegler, Werner

    2004-01-01

    Over the last 3 years we investigated theoretical aspects of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) in order to clarify some of the outstanding questions on space charge effects, high efficiency of small gap RPCs, charge spectra, signal shape and time resolution. In a series of reports we analyzed RPC performance including all detector aspects covering primary ionization, avalanche multiplication, space charge effects, signal induction in presence of resistive materials, crosstalk along detectors with long strips and front-end electronics. Using detector gas parameters entirely based on theoretical predictions and physical models for avalanche development and space charge effects we are able to reproduce measurements for 2 and 0.3 mm RPCs to very high accuracy without any additional assumptions. This fact gives a profound insight into the workings of RPCs and also underlines the striking difference in operation regime when compared to wire chambers. A summary of this work as well as recent results on three-dimensiona...

  14. Tailored vacuum chambers for ac magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed LAMPF-II accelerator has a 60-Hz booster synchrotron and a 3-Hz main ring. To provide a vacuum enclosure inside the magnets with low eddy-current losses and minimal field distortion, yet capable of carrying rf image currents and providing beam stabilization, we propose an innovative combination pipe. Structurally, the enclosure is high-purity alumina ceramic, which is strong, radiation resistant, and has good vacuum properties. Applied to the chamber are thin, spaced, silver conductors using adapted thick-film technology. The conductor design can be tailored to the stabilization requirements, for example, longitudinal conductors for image currents, circumferential for transverse stabilization. The inside of the chamber has a thin, resistive coating to avoid charge build-up. The overall 60-Hz power loss is less than 100 W/m

  15. HYLIFE-II reactor chamber mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical design features of the reactor chamber for the HYLIFE-II inertial confinement fusion power plant are presented. A combination of oscillating and steady, molten salt streams are used for shielding and blast protection. The system is designed for an 8 Hz repetition rate. Beam path clearing, between shots, is accomplished with the oscillating flow. The mechanism for generating the oscillating streams is described. A design configuration of the vessel wall allows adequate cooling and provides extra shielding to reduce thermal stresses to tolerable levels. The bottom portion of the reactor chamber is designed to minimize splash back of the high velocity (20 m/s) salt streams and also recover up to half of the dynamic head

  16. Reproducibility of the chamber scarification test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1996-01-01

    The chamber scarification test is a predictive human skin irritation test developed to rank the irritation potential of products and ingredients meant for repeated use on normal and diseased skin. 12 products or ingredients can be tested simultaneously on the forearm skin of each volunteer....... The test combines with the procedure scratching of the skin at each test site and subsequent closed patch tests with the products, repeated daily for 3 days. The test is performed on groups of human volunteers: a skin irritant substance or products is included in each test as a positive control......, and a compound with low irritant potential as a negative control, to obtain relative characterization of the irritant potential of the unknown products. The outcome of tests with a positive and negative control product used repeatedly in 13 chamber scarification tests over a 7-year period is reported, and shows...

  17. The fast Ice Nucleus chamber FINCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundke, U.; Nillius, B.; Jaenicke, R.; Wetter, T.; Klein, H.; Bingemer, H.

    2008-11-01

    We present first results of our new developed Ice Nucleus (IN) counter FINCH from the sixth Cloud and Aerosol Characterization Experiment (CLACE 6) campaign at Jungfraujoch station, 3571 m asl. Measurements were made at the total and the ICE CVI inlet. Laboratory measurements of ice onset temperatures by FINCH are compared to those of the static diffusion chamber FRIDGE (FRankfurt Ice Deposition Freezing Experiment). Within the errors of both new instruments the results compare well to published data.

  18. The Bern Infinitesimal Bubble Chamber (BIBC)

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    The chamber body was machined from a block of aluminium. The visible volume was cylindrical with 65 mm diameter and 35 mm depth. It was filled with propane or freon. It was meant as vertex detector in the search of short-lived particles. It was also used with in-line holography resulting in 8 µm bubble size and 9 cm depth of the field. See E. Ramseyer, B. Hahn and E. Hugentobler, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 201 (1982) 335.

  19. Comment on 'Proton beam monitor chamber calibration'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmans, Hugo; Vatnitsky, Stanislav M

    2016-09-01

    We comment on a recent article (Gomà et al 2014 Phys. Med. Biol. 59 4961-71) which compares different routes of reference dosimetry for the energy dependent beam monitor calibration in scanned proton beams. In this article, a 3% discrepancy is reported between a Faraday cup and a plane-parallel ionization chamber in the experimental determination of the number of protons per monitor unit. It is further claimed that similar discrepancies between calorimetry and ionization chamber based dosimetry indicate that [Formula: see text]-values tabulated for proton beams in IAEA TRS-398 might be overestimated. In this commentary we show, however, that this supporting argument misrepresents the evidence in the literature and that the results presented, together with published data, rather confirm that there exist unresolved problems with Faraday cup dosimetry. We also show that the comparison in terms of the number of protons gives a biased view on the uncertainty estimates for both detectors while the quantity of interest is absorbed dose to water or dose-area-product to water, even if a beam monitor is calibrated in terms of the number of protons. Gomà et al (2014 Phys. Med. Biol. 59 4961-71) also report on the discrepancy between cylindrical and plane-parallel ionization chambers and confirm experimentally that in the presence of a depth dose gradient, theoretical values of the effective point of measurement, or alternatively a gradient correction factor, account for the discrepancy. We believe this does not point to an error or shortcoming of IAEA TRS-398, which prescribes taking the centre of cylindrical ionization chambers as reference point, since it recommends reference dosimetry to be performed in the absence of a depth dose gradient. But these observations reveal that important aspects of beam monitor calibration in scanned proton beams are not addressed in IAEA TRS-398 given that those types of beams were not widely implemented at the time of its publication

  20. High pressure hydrogen time projection chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a high pressure hydrogen gas time projection chamber which consists of two cylindrical drift regions each 45 cm in diameter and 75 cm long. Typically, at 15 atm of H2 with 2 kV/cm drift field and 7 kV on the 35μ sense wires, the drift velocity is about 0.5 cm/μsec and the spatial resolution +-200μ